WorldWideScience

Sample records for science scale score

  1. Construct Validity and Reliability Measures of Scores from the Science Teachers' Pedagogical Discontentment (STPD) Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahveci, Murat; Kahveci, Ajda; Mansour, Nasser; Mohammed, Maher

    2016-01-01

    The Science Teachers' Pedagogical Discontentment (STPD) scale has formerly been developed in the United States and used since 2006. Based on the perceptions of selected teachers, the scale is deeply rooted in the cultural and national standards. Given these limitations, the measurement integrity of its scores has not yet been conclusively…

  2. Performance on large-scale science tests: Item attributes that may impact achievement scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Janet Victoria

    Significant differences in achievement among ethnic groups persist on the eighth-grade science Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). The WASL measures academic performance in science using both scenario and stand-alone question types. Previous research suggests that presenting target items connected to an authentic context, like scenario question types, can increase science achievement scores especially in underrepresented groups and thus help to close the achievement gap. The purpose of this study was to identify significant differences in performance between gender and ethnic subgroups by question type on the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL. MANOVA and ANOVA were used to examine relationships between gender and ethnic subgroups as independent variables with achievement scores on scenario and stand-alone question types as dependent variables. MANOVA revealed no significant effects for gender, suggesting that the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL was gender neutral. However, there were significant effects for ethnicity. ANOVA revealed significant effects for ethnicity and ethnicity by gender interaction in both question types. Effect sizes were negligible for the ethnicity by gender interaction. Large effect sizes between ethnicities on scenario question types became moderate to small effect sizes on stand-alone question types. This indicates the score advantage the higher performing subgroups had over the lower performing subgroups was not as large on stand-alone question types compared to scenario question types. A further comparison examined performance on multiple-choice items only within both question types. Similar achievement patterns between ethnicities emerged; however, achievement patterns between genders changed in boys' favor. Scenario question types appeared to register differences between ethnic groups to a greater degree than stand-alone question types. These differences may be attributable to individual differences in cognition

  3. Conditional Standard Errors of Measurement for Scale Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolen, Michael J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A procedure is described for estimating the reliability and conditional standard errors of measurement of scale scores incorporating the discrete transformation of raw scores to scale scores. The method is illustrated using a strong true score model, and practical applications are described. (SLD)

  4. Clinical scoring scales in thyroidology: A compendium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This compendium brings together traditional as well as contemporary scoring and grading systems used for the screening and diagnosis of various thyroid diseases, dysfunctions, and complications. The article discusses scores used to help diagnose hypo-and hyperthyroidism, to grade and manage goiter and ophthalmopathy, and to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy.

  5. Facilitating the Interpretation of English Language Proficiency Scores: Combining Scale Anchoring and Test Score Mapping Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald; Schedl, Mary; Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, for the benefit of both test takers and test score users, enhanced "TOEFL ITP"® test score reports that go beyond the simple numerical scores that are currently reported. To do so, we applied traditional scale anchoring (proficiency scaling) to item difficulty data in order to develop performance…

  6. Validation of Automated Scoring of Science Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Rios, Joseph A.; Heilman, Michael; Gerard, Libby; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    Constructed response items can both measure the coherence of student ideas and serve as reflective experiences to strengthen instruction. We report on new automated scoring technologies that can reduce the cost and complexity of scoring constructed-response items. This study explored the accuracy of c-rater-ML, an automated scoring engine…

  7. Factor Structure of Child Behavior Scale Scores in Peruvian Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Erin L.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Soto, Cesar Merino; Simmons, Crystal S.; Anguiano, Rebecca; Brett, Jeremy; Holman, Alea; Martin, Justin F.; Hata, Heidi K.; Roberts, Kimberly J.; Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior rating scales aid in the identification of problem behaviors, as well as the development of interventions to reduce such behavior. Although scores on many behavior rating scales have been validated in the United States, there have been few such studies in other cultural contexts. In this study, the structural validity of scores on a…

  8. Comparison of Sports Sciences and Education Faculty Students' Aggression Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atan, Tülin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the aggression scores of Sports Sciences Faculty and Education Faculty students and also to examine the effects of some demographic variables on aggression. Two hundred Sports Sciences Faculty students (who engage in sporting activities four days a week for two hours) and 200 Education Faculty students (who do…

  9. Automatic scoring of the severity of psoriasis scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez, David Delgado; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this work, a combined statistical and image analysis method to automatically evaluate the severity of scaling in psoriasis lesions is proposed. The method separates the different regions of the disease in the image and scores the degree of scaling based on the properties of these areas. The pr...... with scores made by doctors. This and the fact that the obtained measures are continuous indicate the proposed method is a suitable tool to evaluate the lesion and to track the evolution of dermatological diseases....

  10. The Impact of Emotional Priming on MMPI-2 Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tayla T. C.; Forbey, Johnathan D.; Ritchey, Kristin A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated potential emotional priming effects on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scale scores. Participants included 98 college students who completed a personal narrative intended to induce temporary mood states, the MMPI-2, and a mood rating inventory. Results of the mood manipulation indicated that…

  11. Characterizing Sources of Uncertainty in Item Response Theory Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Seung; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2012-01-01

    Traditional estimators of item response theory scale scores ignore uncertainty carried over from the item calibration process, which can lead to incorrect estimates of the standard errors of measurement (SEMs). Here, the authors review a variety of approaches that have been applied to this problem and compare them on the basis of their statistical…

  12. Stroke scale score and early prediction of outcome after stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R.; Zuberi, F.Z.; Afsar, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score as a predictor of functional outcome after ischemic stroke. Subjects and Methods: The study included 50 patients who presented to Civil Hospital, Karachi, during the study period with acute stroke and were evaluated with CT scan of brain. Only those patients were enrolled in the study that had acute ischemic stroke. The enrolled subjects were then evaluated for the neurological impairment using National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The subjects were followed-up and their functional outcome was assessed using Barthel index (BI) on the 7th day of their admission. Results: Of the fifty patients enrolled in the study, 31 (62%) were males and 19 (38%) were females, with age ranging from 45 years to 95 years and a mean age of 59.9 years. Neurological impairment at presentation was assessed by NIHSS. The score ranged between 2 and 28. The functional outcome was evaluated on the 7th day using Barthel index (BI), which ranged from 0 to 80. NIHSS score was found to be a good predictor of functional outcome in patients with ischemic stroke (p<0.001). Other factors like gender, hypertension and heart disease did not affect the functional recovery in such patients. Various factors were found to be significant for early prediction of stroke recovery. The NIHSS score was the strongest predictor of outcome after ischemic stroke. Age at the time of the event was also found to be an important predictor for stroke recovery. Conclusion: The NIHSS score is a good predictor of patient's recovery after stroke. Assessing the patient's neurological impairment at first presentation of ischemic stroke can guide the physician regarding the prognosis and management plan. (author)

  13. [Circadian rhythm : Influence on Epworth Sleepiness Scale score].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, M; Bedorf, A; Rohrmeier, C; Kühnel, T; Herzog, B; Bremert, T; Plontke, S; Plößl, S

    2017-02-01

    The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) is frequently used to determine daytime sleepiness in patients with sleep-disordered breathing. It is still unclear whether different levels of alertness induced by the circadian rhythm influence ESS score. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of circadian rhythm-dependent alertness on ESS performance. In a monocentric prospective noninterventional observation study, 97 patients with suspected sleep-disordered breathing were investigated with respect to daytime sleepiness in temporal relationship to polysomnographic examination and treatment. The Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) served as references for the detection of present sleepiness at three different measurement times (morning, noon, evening), prior to and following a diagnostic polysomnography night as well as after a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration night (9 measurements in total). The KSS, SSS, and ESS were performed at these times in a randomized order. The KSS and SSS scores revealed a circadian rhythm-dependent curve with increased sleepiness at noon and in the evening. Following a diagnostic polysomnography night, the scores were increased compared to the measurements prior to the night. After the CPAP titration night, sleepiness in the morning was reduced. KSS and SSS reflect the changes in alertness induced by the circadian rhythm. The ESS score war neither altered by the intra-daily nor by the inter-daily changes in the level of alertness. According to the present data, the ESS serves as a reliable instrument to detect the level of daytime sleepiness independently of the circadian rhythm-dependent level of alertness.

  14. Impact of Science Tutoring on African Americans' Science Scores on the High School Students' Graduation Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Edward

    This study investigated the relationship between an after-school tutorial program for African American high school students at a Title I school and scores on the science portion of the High School Graduation Examination (HSGE). Passing the examination was required for graduation. The target high school is 99% African American and the passing rate of the target high school was 42%---lower than the state average of 76%. The purpose of the study was to identify (a) the relationship between a science tutorial program and scores on the science portion of the HSGE, (b) the predictors of tutoring need by analyzing the relationship between biology grades and scores on the science portion of the HSGE, and (c) the findings between biology grades and scores on the science portion of the HSGE by analyzing the relationship between tutorial attendance and HSGE scores. The study was based on Piaget's cognitive constructivism, which implied the potential benefits of tutorials on high-stakes testing. This study used a 1-group pretest-posttest, quantitative methodology. Results showed a significant relationship between tutoring and scores on the biology portion of the HSGE. Results found no significant relationship between the tutorial attendance and the scores on the biology portion of the HSGE or between the biology grades and scores on the biology portion of the HSGE before tutoring. It has implications for positive social change by providing educational stakeholders with empirically-based guidance in determining the potential benefit of tutorial intervention strategies on high school graduation examination scores.

  15. River Discharge and Local Scale Habitat Influence LIFE Score Macroinvertebrate LIFE Scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunbar, Michael J.; Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Cadman, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Midlands of the U.K., we describe how local-scale habitat features (indexed through River Habitat Survey or Danish Habitat Quality Survey) and changing river flow (discharge) influence the response of a macroinvertebrate community index. The approach has broad applicability in developing regional flow...... Invertebrate index for Flow Evaluation (LIFE), an average of abundance-weighted flow groups which indicate the microhabitat preferences of each taxon for higher velocities and clean gravel/cobble substrata or slow/still velocities and finer substrata. 3. For the Danish fauna, the LIFE score responded to three...... of the channel (negative). In both cases, LIFE responded negatively to features associated with historical channel modification. We suggest that there are several mechanisms for these relationships, including the narrower tolerances of taxa preferring high velocity habitat; these taxa are also continually...

  16. Automated Scoring of Constructed-Response Science Items: Prospects and Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Brew, Chris; Blackmore, John; Gerard, Libby; Madhok, Jacquie; Linn, Marcia C.

    2014-01-01

    Content-based automated scoring has been applied in a variety of science domains. However, many prior applications involved simplified scoring rubrics without considering rubrics representing multiple levels of understanding. This study tested a concept-based scoring tool for content-based scoring, c-rater™, for four science items with rubrics…

  17. Reliability Generalization: Exploring Variation of Reliability Coefficients of MMPI Clinical Scales Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacha-Haase, Tammi; Kogan, Lori R.; Tani, Crystal R.; Woodall, Renee A.

    2001-01-01

    Used reliability generalization to explore the variance of scores on 10 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) clinical scales drawing on 1,972 articles in the literature on the MMPI. Results highlight the premise that scores, not tests, are reliable or unreliable, and they show that study characteristics do influence scores on the…

  18. Multiple scaling behaviour and nonlinear traits in music scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Espinoza, Alfredo; Larralde, Hernán; Martínez-Mekler, Gustavo; Müller, Markus

    2017-12-01

    We present a statistical analysis of music scores from different composers using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). We find different fluctuation profiles that correspond to distinct autocorrelation structures of the musical pieces. Further, we reveal evidence for the presence of nonlinear autocorrelations by estimating the DFA of the magnitude series, a result validated by a corresponding study of appropriate surrogate data. The amount and the character of nonlinear correlations vary from one composer to another. Finally, we performed a simple experiment in order to evaluate the pleasantness of the musical surrogate pieces in comparison with the original music and find that nonlinear correlations could play an important role in the aesthetic perception of a musical piece.

  19. Heritability Analyses of IQ Scores: Science or Numerology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layzer, David

    1974-01-01

    Examines limitations of the heritability concept and heritability analysis, and discusses a conventional application of heritability analysis, IQ scores as measurements of a phenotypic character, the heritability of IQ, and the relationship of IQ and race. (JR)

  20. Normal variability of children's scaled scores on subtests of the Dutch Wechsler Preschool and Primary scale of Intelligence - third edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurks, P P M; Hendriksen, J G M; Dek, J E; Kooij, A P

    2013-01-01

    Intelligence tests are included in millions of assessments of children and adults each year (Watkins, Glutting, & Lei, 2007a , Applied Neuropsychology, 14, 13). Clinicians often interpret large amounts of subtest scatter, or large differences between the highest and lowest scaled subtest scores, on an intelligence test battery as an index for abnormality or cognitive impairment. The purpose of the present study is to characterize "normal" patterns of variability among subtests of the Dutch Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Third Edition (WPPSI-III-NL; Wechsler, 2010 ). Therefore, the frequencies of WPPSI-III-NL scaled subtest scatter were reported for 1039 healthy children aged 4:0-7:11 years. Results indicated that large differences between highest and lowest scaled subtest scores (or subtest scatter) were common in this sample. Furthermore, degree of subtest scatter was related to: (a) the magnitude of the highest scaled subtest score, i.e., more scatter was seen in children with the highest WPPSI-III-NL scaled subtest scores, (b) Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores, i.e., higher FSIQ scores were associated with an increase in subtest scatter, and (c) sex differences, with boys showing a tendency to display more scatter than girls. In conclusion, viewing subtest scatter as an index for abnormality in WPPSI-III-NL scores is an oversimplification as this fails to recognize disparate subtest heterogeneity that occurs within a population of healthy children aged 4:0-7:11 years.

  1. Sequence analysis of annually normalized citation counts: an empirical analysis based on the characteristic scores and scales (CSS) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornmann, Lutz; Ye, Adam Y; Ye, Fred Y

    2017-01-01

    In bibliometrics, only a few publications have focused on the citation histories of publications, where the citations for each citing year are assessed. In this study, therefore, annual categories of field- and time-normalized citation scores (based on the characteristic scores and scales method: 0 = poorly cited, 1 = fairly cited, 2 = remarkably cited, and 3 = outstandingly cited) are used to study the citation histories of papers. As our dataset, we used all articles published in 2000 and their annual citation scores until 2015. We generated annual sequences of citation scores (e.g., [Formula: see text]) and compared the sequences of annual citation scores of six broader fields (natural sciences, engineering and technology, medical and health sciences, agricultural sciences, social sciences, and humanities). In agreement with previous studies, our results demonstrate that sequences with poorly cited (0) and fairly cited (1) elements dominate the publication set; sequences with remarkably cited (3) and outstandingly cited (4) periods are rare. The highest percentages of constantly poorly cited papers can be found in the social sciences; the lowest percentages are in the agricultural sciences and humanities. The largest group of papers with remarkably cited (3) and/or outstandingly cited (4) periods shows an increasing impact over the citing years with the following orders of sequences: [Formula: see text] (6.01%), which is followed by [Formula: see text] (1.62%). Only 0.11% of the papers ( n  = 909) are constantly on the outstandingly cited level.

  2. A Reliability Generalization Study of Scores on Rotter's and Nowicki-Strickland's Locus of Control Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretvas, S. Natasha; Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Durham, Jennifer A.; Yarnell, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    The most commonly used measures of locus of control are Rotter's Internality-Externality Scale (I-E) and Nowicki and Strickland's Internality-Externality Scale (NSIE). A reliability generalization study is conducted to explore variability in I-E and NSIE score reliability. Studies are coded for aspects of the scales used (number of response…

  3. Psychometric Properties of Raw and Scale Scores on Mixed-Format Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolen, Michael J.; Lee, Won-Chan

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates that the psychometric properties of scores and scales that are used with mixed-format educational tests can impact the use and interpretation of the scores that are reported to examinees. Psychometric properties that include reliability and conditional standard errors of measurement are considered in this paper. The focus is…

  4. Comparing the MMPI-2 Scale Scores of Parents Involved in Parental Competency and Child Custody Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendes, John; Lecci, Len

    2012-01-01

    MMPI-2 scores from a parent competency sample (N = 136 parents) are compared with a previously published data set of MMPI-2 scores for child custody litigants (N = 508 parents; Bathurst et al., 1997). Independent samples t tests yielded significant and in some cases substantial differences on the standard MMPI-2 clinical scales (especially Scales…

  5. A comparative study on assessment procedures and metric properties of two scoring systems of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised items: standard and modified scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattin, Davide; Lovaglio, Piergiorgio; Brenna, Greta; Covelli, Venusia; Rossi Sebastiano, Davide; Duran, Dunja; Minati, Ludovico; Giovannetti, Ambra Mara; Rosazza, Cristina; Bersano, Anna; Nigri, Anna; Ferraro, Stefania; Leonardi, Matilde

    2017-09-01

    The study compared the metric characteristics (discriminant capacity and factorial structure) of two different methods for scoring the items of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised and it analysed scale scores collected using the standard assessment procedure and a new proposed method. Cross sectional design/methodological study. Inpatient, neurological unit. A total of 153 patients with disorders of consciousness were consecutively enrolled between 2011 and 2013. All patients were assessed with the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised using standard (rater 1) and inverted (rater 2) procedures. Coma Recovery Scale-Revised score, number of cognitive and reflex behaviours and diagnosis. Regarding patient assessment, rater 1 using standard and rater 2 using inverted procedures obtained the same best scores for each subscale of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised for all patients, so no clinical (and statistical) difference was found between the two procedures. In 11 patients (7.7%), rater 2 noted that some Coma Recovery Scale-Revised codified behavioural responses were not found during assessment, although higher response categories were present. A total of 51 (36%) patients presented the same Coma Recovery Scale-Revised scores of 7 or 8 using a standard score, whereas no overlap was found using the modified score. Unidimensionality was confirmed for both score systems. The Coma Recovery Scale Modified Score showed a higher discriminant capacity than the standard score and a monofactorial structure was also supported. The inverted assessment procedure could be a useful evaluation method for the assessment of patients with disorder of consciousness diagnosis.

  6. Which clinical variable influences health-related quality of life the most after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage? Hunt and Hess scale, Fisher score, World Federation of Neurosurgeons score, Brussels coma score, and Glasgow coma score compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapapa, Thomas; Tjahjadi, Martin; König, Ralph; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Woischneck, Dieter

    2013-12-01

    To determine the strength of the correlation between the Hunt and Hess scale, Fisher score, Brussels coma score, World Federation of Neurosurgeons score, and Glasgow coma score and health-related quality of life. Evaluable questionnaires from 236 patients (5.6 years [± standard deviation, 2.854 years] on average after hemorrhage) were included in the analysis. Quality of life was documented using the MOS-36 item short form health survey. Because of the ordinal nature of the variables, Kendall tau was used for calculation. Significance was established as P ≤ 0.05. Weak and very weak correlations were found in general (r ≤ 0.28). The strongest correlations were found between the Glasgow coma score and quality of life (r = 0.236, P = 0.0001). In particular, the "best verbal response" achieved the strongest correlations in the comparison, at r = 0.28/P = 0.0001. The Fisher score showed very weak correlations (r = -0.148/P = 0.012). The Brussels coma score (r = -0.216/P = 0.0001), Hunt and Hess scale (r = -0.197/P = 0.0001), and the World Federation of Neurosurgeons score (r = -0.185/P = 0.0001) revealed stronger correlations, especially in terms of the physical aspects of quality of life. The Glasgow coma scale revealed the strongest, and the Fisher score showed the weakest correlations. Thus the Fisher score, as an indicator of the severity of a hemorrhage, has little significance in terms of health-related quality of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Interpreting the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) achievement scales using scale anchoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Dana L.

    1999-11-01

    The scale anchoring method was used to analyze and describe the TIMSS primary and middle school (Populations 1 and 2) mathematics and science achievement scales. Scale anchoring is a way of attaching meaning to a scale by describing what students know and can do at specific points on the scale. Student achievement was scrutinized at four points on the TIMSS primary and middle school achievement scales---the 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th international percentiles for fourth and eighth grades. The scale anchoring method was adapted for the TIMSS data and items that students scoring at each of the four scale points were likely to answer correctly (with a 65 percent probability) were identified. The items were assembled in binders organized by anchor level and content area. Two ten-member panels of subject-matter specialists were convened to scrutinize the items, draft descriptions of student proficiency at the four scale points, and identify example TIMSS items to illustrate performance at each level. Following the panel meetings, the descriptions were refined through an iterative review process. The result is a content-referenced interpretation of the TIMSS scales through which TIMSS achievement results can be better communicated and understood.

  8. Validation of patient determined disease steps (PDDS) scale scores in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmonth, Yvonne C; Motl, Robert W; Sandroff, Brian M; Pula, John H; Cadavid, Diego

    2013-04-25

    The Patient Determined Disease Steps (PDDS) is a promising patient-reported outcome (PRO) of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). To date, there is limited evidence regarding the validity of PDDS scores, despite its sound conceptual development and broad inclusion in MS research. This study examined the validity of the PDDS based on (1) the association with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores and (2) the pattern of associations between PDDS and EDSS scores with Functional System (FS) scores as well as ambulatory and other outcomes. 96 persons with MS provided demographic/clinical information, completed the PDDS and other PROs including the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12), and underwent a neurological examination for generating FS and EDSS scores. Participants completed assessments of cognition, ambulation including the 6-minute walk (6 MW), and wore an accelerometer during waking hours over seven days. There was a strong correlation between EDSS and PDDS scores (ρ = .783). PDDS and EDSS scores were strongly correlated with Pyramidal (ρ = .578 &ρ = .647, respectively) and Cerebellar (ρ = .501 &ρ = .528, respectively) FS scores as well as 6 MW distance (ρ = .704 &ρ = .805, respectively), MSWS-12 scores (ρ = .801 &ρ = .729, respectively), and accelerometer steps/day (ρ = -.740 &ρ = -.717, respectively). This study provides novel evidence supporting the PDDS as valid PRO of disability in MS.

  9. Exploring Shared Measurement Properties and Score Comparability between Two Versions of the "Supports Intensity Scale"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyojeong; Shogren, Karrie A.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Hughes, Carolyn; Thompson, James R.; Little, Todd D.; Palmer, Susan B.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined similarities and differences in measurement properties and score comparability of the "Supports Intensity Scale-Adult Version" (16-64 years) and the "Supports Intensity Scale-Children's Version" (5-16 years). Data were collected from 142 adolescents with intellectual disability with both versions of the…

  10. Decreasing scoring errors on Wechsler Scale Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Similarities subtests: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Michele L; Ray, Glen E; Zachar, Peter; Underhill, Andrea T; LoBello, Steven G

    2007-10-01

    Studies of graduate students learning to administer the Wechsler scales have generally shown that training is not associated with the development of scoring proficiency. Many studies report on the reduction of aggregated administration and scoring errors, a strategy that does not highlight the reduction of errors on subtests identified as most prone to error. This study evaluated the development of scoring proficiency specifically on the Wechsler (WISC-IV and WAIS-III) Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Similarities subtests during training by comparing a set of 'early test administrations' to 'later test administrations.' Twelve graduate students enrolled in an intelligence-testing course participated in the study. Scoring errors (e.g., incorrect point assignment) were evaluated on the students' actual practice administration test protocols. Errors on all three subtests declined significantly when scoring errors on 'early' sets of Wechsler scales were compared to those made on 'later' sets. However, correcting these subtest scoring errors did not cause significant changes in subtest scaled scores. Implications for clinical instruction and future research are discussed.

  11. An Analysis of Cross Racial Identity Scale Scores Using Classical Test Theory and Rasch Item Response Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Joshua; Beaujean, A. Alexander; Worrell, Frank C.; Watson, Stevie

    2013-01-01

    Item response models (IRMs) were used to analyze Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores. Rasch analysis scores were compared with classical test theory (CTT) scores. The partial credit model demonstrated a high goodness of fit and correlations between Rasch and CTT scores ranged from 0.91 to 0.99. CRIS scores are supported by both methods.…

  12. Principle of Parsimony, Fake Science, and Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, T. C. J.; Wan, L.; Wang, X. S.

    2017-12-01

    Considering difficulties in predicting exact motions of water molecules, and the scale of our interests (bulk behaviors of many molecules), Fick's law (diffusion concept) has been created to predict solute diffusion process in space and time. G.I. Taylor (1921) demonstrated that random motion of the molecules reach the Fickian regime in less a second if our sampling scale is large enough to reach ergodic condition. Fick's law is widely accepted for describing molecular diffusion as such. This fits the definition of the parsimony principle at the scale of our concern. Similarly, advection-dispersion or convection-dispersion equation (ADE or CDE) has been found quite satisfactory for analysis of concentration breakthroughs of solute transport in uniformly packed soil columns. This is attributed to the solute is often released over the entire cross-section of the column, which has sampled many pore-scale heterogeneities and met the ergodicity assumption. Further, the uniformly packed column contains a large number of stationary pore-size heterogeneity. The solute thus reaches the Fickian regime after traveling a short distance along the column. Moreover, breakthrough curves are concentrations integrated over the column cross-section (the scale of our interest), and they meet the ergodicity assumption embedded in the ADE and CDE. To the contrary, scales of heterogeneity in most groundwater pollution problems evolve as contaminants travel. They are much larger than the scale of our observations and our interests so that the ergodic and the Fickian conditions are difficult. Upscaling the Fick's law for solution dispersion, and deriving universal rules of the dispersion to the field- or basin-scale pollution migrations are merely misuse of the parsimony principle and lead to a fake science ( i.e., the development of theories for predicting processes that can not be observed.) The appropriate principle of parsimony for these situations dictates mapping of large-scale

  13. Reassessing the "traditional background hypothesis" for elevated MMPI and MMPI-2 Lie-scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Gerald M; Baldwin, Scott A; Smith, Ronald E

    2016-10-01

    The Lie (L) scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is widely regarded as a measure of conscious attempts to deny common human foibles and to present oneself in an unrealistically positive light. At the same time, the current MMPI-2 manual states that "traditional" and religious backgrounds can account for elevated L scale scores as high as 65T-79T, thereby tempering impression management interpretations for faith-based individuals. To assess the validity of the traditional background hypothesis, we reviewed 11 published studies that employed the original MMPI with religious samples and found that only 1 obtained an elevated mean L score. We then conducted a meta-analysis of 12 published MMPI-2 studies in which we compared L scores of religious samples to the test normative group. The meta-analysis revealed large between-study heterogeneity (I2 = 87.1), L scale scores for religious samples that were somewhat higher but did not approach the upper limits specified in the MMPI-2 manual, and an overall moderate effect size (d¯ = 0.54, p < .001; 95% confidence interval [0.37, 0.70]). Our analyses indicated that religious-group membership accounts, on average, for elevations on L of about 5 t-score points. Whether these scores reflect conscious "fake good" impression management or religious-based virtuousness remains unanswered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Science Scores in Title I Elementary Schools in North Georgia: A Project Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Ramon

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)'s emphasis of reading, language arts, and mathematics (RLA&M) and its de-emphasis of science has been a source of great concern among educators. Through an objectivist and constructionist framework, this study explored the unforeseen effects of the NCLB on public science education among Title I (TI) and non-Title I (NTI) students. The research questions focused on the effects of NCLB on Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) scores in the high-stakes subjects of reading, language arts, mathematics and the low stakes subject of science among TI and NTI 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade students in a north Georgia County during the 2010/2011 school year. This study also compared instructional time TI and NTI teachers dedicated to science. A causal-comparative quantitative methodology was used to analyze Georgia's public domain CRCT scores. Three independent-samples t tests showed that TI schools exhibited significantly lower Science CRCT scores than did NTI students at all grade levels (p need students with strong science foundations. Further study is recommended to analyze the factors associated with this science gap between TI and NTI students.

  15. Scale and scaling in agronomy and environmental sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scale is of paramount importance in environmental studies, engineering, and design. The unique course covers the following topics: scale and scaling, methods and theories, scaling in soils and other porous media, scaling in plants and crops; scaling in landscapes and watersheds, and scaling in agro...

  16. The Impact of Overreporting on MMPI-2-RF Substantive Scale Score Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchett, Danielle L.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of overreporting on the validity of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) substantive scale scores by comparing correlations with relevant external criteria (i.e., validity coefficients) of individuals who completed the instrument under instructions to (a) feign psychopathology…

  17. Technical Analysis of Scores on the "Self-Efficacy Self-Report Scale"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erford, Bradley T.; Schein, Hallie; Duncan, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary analysis of reliability and validity of scores on the "Self-Efficacy Self-Report Scale", which was designed to assess general self-efficacy in students aged 10 to 17 years. Confirmatory factor analysis on cross-validated samples was conducted revealing a marginal fit of the data to the…

  18. A Note on the Score Reliability for the Satisfaction with Life Scale: An RG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassar, Matt

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to meta-analytically investigate the score reliability for the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Four-hundred and sixteen articles using the measure were located through electronic database searches and then separated to identify studies which had calculated reliability estimates from their own data. Sixty-two…

  19. Comparison of WAIS-III Short Forms for Measuring Index and Full-Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Todd A.; Axelrod, Bradley N.; Wilkins, Leanne K.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation assessed the ability of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) short forms to estimate both index and IQ scores in a large, mixed clinical sample (N = 809). More specifically, a commonly used modification of Ward's seven-subtest short form (SF7-A), a recently proposed index-based SF7-C and eight-subtest…

  20. [The Collage Impression Scoring Scale (CIISS) may help predict sobriety for alcoholics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Mitsuru; Ishii, Takayoshi

    2009-08-01

    The Collage Impression Scoring Scale (CISS; Imamura, 2004) was used by 54 raters to score collages made by 24 alcoholics on admission to the hospital and at discharge. The CISS contains three factors: stability, expression and creativity. Comparisons using paired t-tests showed that the collages made at discharge had lower scores on the three CISS factors than the collages made on admission. The results for 11 alcoholics, who were followed for six months after discharge, showed that the scores for CISS factors for the abstinent group were lower than those for the relapsed drinking group. The abstinent group showed more anxiety than the relapsed drinking group. This result suggests that the abstinent alcoholics'anxieties were projected onto the collages because they were facing their internal problems more seriously. Thus the CISS was effective as a predictive index for alcoholics who maintain sobriety.

  1. Impact of SCALE-UP on science teaching self-efficacy of students in general education science courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassani, Mary Kay Kuhr

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two pedagogical models used in general education science on non-majors' science teaching self-efficacy. Science teaching self-efficacy can be influenced by inquiry and cooperative learning, through cognitive mechanisms described by Bandura (1997). The Student Centered Activities for Large Enrollment Undergraduate Programs (SCALE-UP) model of inquiry and cooperative learning incorporates cooperative learning and inquiry-guided learning in large enrollment combined lecture-laboratory classes (Oliver-Hoyo & Beichner, 2004). SCALE-UP was adopted by a small but rapidly growing public university in the southeastern United States in three undergraduate, general education science courses for non-science majors in the Fall 2006 and Spring 2007 semesters. Students in these courses were compared with students in three other general education science courses for non-science majors taught with the standard teaching model at the host university. The standard model combines lecture and laboratory in the same course, with smaller enrollments and utilizes cooperative learning. Science teaching self-efficacy was measured using the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument - B (STEBI-B; Bleicher, 2004). A science teaching self-efficacy score was computed from the Personal Science Teaching Efficacy (PTSE) factor of the instrument. Using non-parametric statistics, no significant difference was found between teaching models, between genders, within models, among instructors, or among courses. The number of previous science courses was significantly correlated with PTSE score. Student responses to open-ended questions indicated that students felt the larger enrollment in the SCALE-UP room reduced individual teacher attention but that the large round SCALE-UP tables promoted group interaction. Students responded positively to cooperative and hands-on activities, and would encourage inclusion of more such activities in all of the

  2. Fall risk assessment: retrospective analysis of Morse Fall Scale scores in Portuguese hospitalized adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardo, Pedro Miguel Garcez; Simões, Cláudia Sofia Oliveira; Alvarelhão, José Joaquim Marques; Simões, João Filipe Fernandes Lindo; Melo, Elsa Maria de Oliveira Pinheiro de

    2016-08-01

    The Morse Fall Scale is used in several care settings for fall risk assessment and supports the implementation of preventive nursing interventions. Our work aims to analyze the Morse Fall Scale scores of Portuguese hospitalized adult patients in association with their characteristics, diagnoses and length of stay. Retrospective cohort analysis of Morse Fall Scale scores of 8356 patients hospitalized during 2012. Data were associated to age, gender, type of admission, specialty units, length of stay, patient discharge, and ICD-9 diagnosis. Elderly patients, female, with emergency service admission, at medical units and/or with longer length of stays were more frequently included in the risk group for falls. ICD-9 diagnosis may also be an important risk factor. More than a half of hospitalized patients had "medium" to "high" risk of falling during the length of stay, which determines the implementation and maintenance of protocoled preventive nursing interventions throughout hospitalization. There are several fall risk factors not assessed by Morse Fall Scale. There were no statistical differences in Morse Fall Scale score between the first and the last assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic parameter estimates among scale activity score and farrowing disposition with reproductive traits in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J F; Rempel, L A; Rohrer, G A; Brown-Brandl, T M

    2011-11-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine if certain behavior traits were genetically correlated with reproduction. If 1 or both of the behavior traits were found to be correlated, a secondary objective was to determine if the behavior traits could be useful in selecting for more productive females. A scale activity score taken at 5 mo of age and a farrowing disposition score taken at farrowing were selected as the behavioral traits. Scale activity score ranged from 1 to 5 and farrowing disposition ranged from 1 to 3. Reproductive traits included age at puberty, number born alive, number born dead, litter birth weight, average piglet birth weight, number weaned, litter weaning weight, average weaning weight, wean-to-estrus interval, ovulation rate including gilts, and postweaning ovulation rate. Genetic correlations between scale activity score and reproduction ranged from -0.79 to 0.61. Three of the correlations, number born alive (P < 0.01), average piglet birth weight (P < 0.001), and wean-to-estrus interval (P = 0.014), were statistically significant but included both favorable and antagonistic correlations. In contrast, all but 1 of the farrowing disposition correlations was favorable and ranged from -0.66 to 0.67. Although only the correlation with litter birth weight was significant (P = 0.018), the consistent favorable direction of all farrowing disposition correlations, except average weaning weight, shows a potential for inclusion of farrowing disposition into a selection program.

  4. Graduate Student WAIS-III Scoring Accuracy Is a Function of Full Scale IQ and Complexity of Examiner Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Richard, David C. S.

    2005-01-01

    Research on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) suggests that practicing clinical psychologists and graduate students make item-level scoring errors that affect IQ, index, and subtest scores. Studies have been limited in that Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) and examiner administration,…

  5. Severity score system for progressive myelopathy: development and validation of a new clinical scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Castilhos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive myelopathies can be secondary to inborn errors of metabolism (IEM such as mucopolysaccharidosis, mucolipidosis, and adrenomyeloneuropathy. The available scale, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA score, was validated only for degenerative vertebral diseases. Our objective is to propose and validate a new scale addressing progressive myelopathies and to present validating data for JOA in these diseases. A new scale, Severity Score System for Progressive Myelopathy (SSPROM, covering motor disability, sphincter dysfunction, spasticity, and sensory losses. Inter- and intra-rater reliabilities were measured. External validation was tested by applying JOA, the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS, the Barthel index, and the Osame Motor Disability Score. Thirty-eight patients, 17 with adrenomyeloneuropathy, 3 with mucopolysaccharidosis I, 3 with mucopolysaccharidosis IV, 2 with mucopolysaccharidosis VI, 2 with mucolipidosis, and 11 with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1-associated myelopathy participated in the study. The mean ± SD SSPROM and JOA scores were 74.6 ± 11.4 and 12.4 ± 2.3, respectively. Construct validity for SSPROM (JOA: r = 0.84, P < 0.0001; EDSS: r = -0.83, P < 0.0001; Barthel: r = 0.56, P < 0.002; Osame: r = -0.94, P < 0.0001 and reliability (intra-rater: r = 0.83, P < 0.0001; inter-rater: r = 0.94, P < 0.0001 were demonstrated. The metric properties of JOA were similar to those found in SSPROM. Several clinimetric requirements were met for both SSPROM and JOA scales. Since SSPROM has a wider range, it should be useful for follow-up studies on IEM myelopathies.

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis Score and the Myasthenia Gravis Composite Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Carolina; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Katzberg, Hans; Bril, Vera

    2015-09-02

    The Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis Score and the Myasthenia Gravis Composite are two commonly used outcome measures in Myasthenia Gravis. So far, their measurement properties have not been compared, so we aimed to study their psychometric properties using the Rasch model. 251 patients with stable myasthenia gravis were assessed with both scales, and 211 patients returned for a second assessment. We studied fit to the Rasch model at the first visit, and compared item fit, thresholds, differential item functioning, local dependence, person separation index, and tests for unidimensionality. We also assessed test-retest reliability and estimated the Minimal Detectable Change. Neither scale fit the Rasch model (X2p Myasthenia Gravis Composite had lower discrimination properties than the Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis Scale (Person Separation Index: 0.14 and 0.7). There was local dependence in both scales, as well as differential item functioning for ocular and generalized disease. Disordered thresholds were found in 6(60%) items of the Myasthenia Gravis Composite and in 4(31%) of the Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis Score. Both tools had adequate test-retest reliability (ICCs >0.8). The minimally detectable change was 4.9 points for the Myasthenia Gravis Composite and 4.3 points for the Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis Score. Neither scale fulfilled Rasch model expectations. The Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis Score has higher discrimination than the Myasthenia Gravis Composite. Both tools have items with disordered thresholds, differential item functioning and local dependency. There was evidence of multidimensionality in the QMGS. The minimal detectable change values are higher than previous studies on the minimal significant change. These findings might inform future modifications of these tools.

  7. Method of administration of PROMIS scales did not significantly impact score level, reliability, or validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorner, Jakob B; Rose, Matthias; Gandek, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test the impact of the method of administration (MOA) on score level, reliability, and validity of scales developed in the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Two nonoverlapping parallel forms each containing eight items from......, no significant mode differences were found and all confidence intervals were within the prespecified minimal important difference of 0.2 standard deviation. Parallel-forms reliabilities were very high (ICC = 0.85-0.93). Only one across-mode ICC was significantly lower than the same-mode ICC. Tests of validity...... questionnaire (PQ), personal digital assistant (PDA), or personal computer (PC) and a second form by PC, in the same administration. Method equivalence was evaluated through analyses of difference scores, intraclass correlations (ICCs), and convergent/discriminant validity. RESULTS: In difference score analyses...

  8. A pediatric FOUR score coma scale: interrater reliability and predictive validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaikowski, Brianna L; Liang, Hong; Stewart, C Todd

    2014-04-01

    The Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) Score is a coma scale that consists of four components (eye and motor response, brainstem reflexes, and respiration). It was originally validated among the adult population and recently in a pediatric population. To enhance clinical assessment of pediatric intensive care unit patients, including those intubated and/or sedated, at our children's hospital, we modified the FOUR Score Scale for this population. This modified scale would provide many of the same advantages as the original, such as interrater reliability, simplicity, and elimination of the verbal component that is not compatible with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), creating a more valuable neurological assessment tool for the nursing community. Our goal was to potentially provide greater information than the formally used GCS when assessing critically ill, neurologically impaired patients, including those sedated and/or intubated. Experienced pediatric intensive care unit nurses were trained as "expert raters." Two different nurses assessed each subject using the Pediatric FOUR Score Scale (PFSS), GCS, and Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale at three different time points. Data were compared with the Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (PCPC) assessed by another nurse. Our hypothesis was that the PFSS and PCPC should highly correlate and the GCS and PCPC should correlate lower. Study results show that the PFSS is excellent for interrater reliability for trained nurse-rater pairs and prediction of poor outcome and in-hospital mortality, under various situations, but there were no statistically significant differences between the PFSS and the GCS. However, the PFSS does have the potential to provide greater neurological assessment in the intubated and/or sedated patient based on the outcomes of our study.

  9. Relationship between family history of alcohol addiction, parents' education level, and smartphone problem use scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beison, Ashley; Rademacher, David J

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims Smartphones are ubiquitous. As smartphones increased in popularity, researchers realized that people were becoming dependent on their smartphones. The purpose here was to provide a better understanding of the factors related to problematic smartphone use (PSPU). Methods The participants were 100 undergraduates (25 males, 75 females) whose ages ranged from 18 to 23 (mean age = 20 years). The participants completed questionnaires to assess gender, ethnicity, year in college, father's education level, mother's education level, family income, age, family history of alcoholism, and PSPU. The Family Tree Questionnaire assessed family history of alcoholism. The Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS) and the Adapted Cell Phone Addiction Test (ACPAT) were used to determine the degree of PSPU. Whereas the MPPUS measures tolerance, escape from other problems, withdrawal, craving, and negative life consequences, the ACPAT measures preoccupation (salience), excessive use, neglecting work, anticipation, lack of control, and neglecting social life. Results Family history of alcoholism and father's education level together explained 26% of the variance in the MPPUS scores and 25% of the variance in the ACPAT scores. The inclusion of mother's education level, ethnicity, family income, age, year in college, and gender did not significantly increase the proportion of variance explained for either MPPUS or ACPAT scores. Discussion and conclusions Family history of alcoholism and father's education level are good predictors of PSPU. As 74%-75% of the variance in PSPU scale scores was not explained, future studies should aim to explain this variance.

  10. Apparently abnormal Wechsler Memory Scale index score patterns in the normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Roman Marcus; Grups, Josefine; Evans, Brittney; Simco, Edward; Mittenberg, Wiley

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition may involve examination of multiple memory index score contrasts and similar comparisons with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition ability indexes. Standardization sample data suggest that 15-point differences between any specific pair of index scores are relatively uncommon in normal individuals, but these base rates refer to a comparison between a single pair of indexes rather than multiple simultaneous comparisons among indexes. This study provides normative data for the occurrence of multiple index score differences calculated by using Monte Carlo simulations and validated against standardization data. Differences of 15 points between any two memory indexes or between memory and ability indexes occurred in 60% and 48% of the normative sample, respectively. Wechsler index score discrepancies are normally common and therefore not clinically meaningful when numerous such comparisons are made. Explicit prior interpretive hypotheses are necessary to reduce the number of index comparisons and associated false-positive conclusions. Monte Carlo simulation accurately predicts these false-positive rates.

  11. Predictive validity of the comprehensive basic science examination mean score for assessment of medical students' performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouz Behboudi

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Medical education curriculum improvements can be achieved bye valuating students performance. Medical students have to pass two undergraduate comprehensive examinations, basic science and preinternship, in Iran. Purpose To measure validity of the students' mean score in comprehensive basic science exam (CBSE for predicting their performance in later curriculum phases. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 95 (38 women and 55 men Guilan medical university students. Their admission to the university was 81% by regional quota and 12% by shaheed and other organizations' share. They first enrolled in 1994 and were able to pass CBS£ at first try. Data on gender, regional quota, and average grades of CBS£, PC, and CPIE were collected by a questionnaire. The calculations were done by SPSS package. Results The correlation coefficient between CBS£ and CPIE mean scores (0.65 was higher than correlation coefficient between CBS£ and PC mean scores (0.49. The predictive validity of CBS£ average grade was significant for students' performance in CPIE; however, the predictive validity of CBSE mean scores for students I pe1jormance in PC was lower. Conclusion he students' mean score in CBSE can be a good denominator for their further admission. We recommend further research to assess the predictive validity for each one of the basic courses. Keywords predictive validity, comprehensive basic exam

  12. Spacecraft COst REduction Team (SCORE): TQM/CI on a massive scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Jerry D.

    1992-01-01

    The business of building satellites and space systems has matured. Few missions require, or can afford, excellent performance at any price. The new paradigm is doing more with less, providing quality systems at lower cost--in other words, doing our job 'Faster-Better-Cheaper.' The TRW Spacecraft COst REduction (SCORE) initiative was launched in 1990 by Daniel S. Goldin, then general manager of TRW's Space & Technology Group. The SCORE mission is to apply continuous improvement (CI) techniques to effect major reductions in the cost (our primary goal) and span time (as a corollary) required for the production of spacecraft. SCORE is a multi-year initiative that is having a profound effect on both the procedural and the cultural aspects of how we do business. The objectives of this initiative are being realized. The focus of this paper is not on the results of SCORE per se, but rather on the things we have leaned about how to do continuous improvement on a massive scale, with multilevel (hierarchical) CI teams. The following sections summarize the chronology of the SCORE initiative, from team formation to development of the year-end report for 1991. Lessons learned, the core of this presentation, are discussed--with particular focus on the unique aspects of SCORE. The SCORE initiative is continuing and, as a part of our evolving culture, will never end. It has resulted in profound insights into the way we do work and (the topic at hand) how to do CI for large and complex multidisciplinary development activities.

  13. Assessing coral reefs on a Pacific-wide scale using the microbialization score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey McDole

    Full Text Available The majority of the world's coral reefs are in various stages of decline. While a suite of disturbances (overfishing, eutrophication, and global climate change have been identified, the mechanism(s of reef system decline remain elusive. Increased microbial and viral loading with higher percentages of opportunistic and specific microbial pathogens have been identified as potentially unifying features of coral reefs in decline. Due to their relative size and high per cell activity, a small change in microbial biomass may signal a large reallocation of available energy in an ecosystem; that is the microbialization of the coral reef. Our hypothesis was that human activities alter the energy budget of the reef system, specifically by altering the allocation of metabolic energy between microbes and macrobes. To determine if this is occurring on a regional scale, we calculated the basal metabolic rates for the fish and microbial communities at 99 sites on twenty-nine coral islands throughout the Pacific Ocean using previously established scaling relationships. From these metabolic rate predictions, we derived a new metric for assessing and comparing reef health called the microbialization score. The microbialization score represents the percentage of the combined fish and microbial predicted metabolic rate that is microbial. Our results demonstrate a strong positive correlation between reef microbialization scores and human impact. In contrast, microbialization scores did not significantly correlate with ocean net primary production, local chla concentrations, or the combined metabolic rate of the fish and microbial communities. These findings support the hypothesis that human activities are shifting energy to the microbes, at the expense of the macrobes. Regardless of oceanographic context, the microbialization score is a powerful metric for assessing the level of human impact a reef system is experiencing.

  14. Assessing coral reefs on a Pacific-wide scale using the microbialization score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDole, Tracey; Nulton, James; Barott, Katie L; Felts, Ben; Hand, Carol; Hatay, Mark; Lee, Hochul; Nadon, Marc O; Nosrat, Bahador; Salamon, Peter; Bailey, Barbara; Sandin, Stuart A; Vargas-Angel, Bernardo; Youle, Merry; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Brainard, Russell E; Rohwer, Forest

    2012-01-01

    The majority of the world's coral reefs are in various stages of decline. While a suite of disturbances (overfishing, eutrophication, and global climate change) have been identified, the mechanism(s) of reef system decline remain elusive. Increased microbial and viral loading with higher percentages of opportunistic and specific microbial pathogens have been identified as potentially unifying features of coral reefs in decline. Due to their relative size and high per cell activity, a small change in microbial biomass may signal a large reallocation of available energy in an ecosystem; that is the microbialization of the coral reef. Our hypothesis was that human activities alter the energy budget of the reef system, specifically by altering the allocation of metabolic energy between microbes and macrobes. To determine if this is occurring on a regional scale, we calculated the basal metabolic rates for the fish and microbial communities at 99 sites on twenty-nine coral islands throughout the Pacific Ocean using previously established scaling relationships. From these metabolic rate predictions, we derived a new metric for assessing and comparing reef health called the microbialization score. The microbialization score represents the percentage of the combined fish and microbial predicted metabolic rate that is microbial. Our results demonstrate a strong positive correlation between reef microbialization scores and human impact. In contrast, microbialization scores did not significantly correlate with ocean net primary production, local chla concentrations, or the combined metabolic rate of the fish and microbial communities. These findings support the hypothesis that human activities are shifting energy to the microbes, at the expense of the macrobes. Regardless of oceanographic context, the microbialization score is a powerful metric for assessing the level of human impact a reef system is experiencing.

  15. Defining the minimal detectable change in scores on the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntner, Paul; Joyce, Cara; Holt, Elizabeth; He, Jiang; Morisky, Donald; Webber, Larry S; Krousel-Wood, Marie

    2011-05-01

    Self-report scales are used to assess medication adherence. Data on how to discriminate change in self-reported adherence over time from random variability are limited. To determine the minimal detectable change for scores on the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). The MMAS-8 was administered twice, using a standard telephone script, with administration separated by 14-22 days, to 210 participants taking antihypertensive medication in the CoSMO (Cohort Study of Medication Adherence among Older Adults). MMAS-8 scores were calculated and participants were grouped into previously defined categories (<6, 6 to <8, and 8 for low, medium, and high adherence). The mean (SD) age of participants was 78.1 (5.8) years, 43.8% were black, and 68.1% were women. Overall, 8.1% (17/210), 16.2% (34/210), and 51.0% (107/210) of participants had low, medium, and high MMAS-8 scores, respectively, at both survey administrations (overall agreement 75.2%; 158/210). The weighted κ statistic was 0.63 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.72). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.78. The within-person standard error of the mean for change in MMAS-8 scores was 0.81, which equated to a minimal detectable change of 1.98 points. Only 4.3% (9/210) of the participants had a change in MMAS-8 of 2 or more points between survey administrations. Within-person changes in MMAS-8 scores of 2 or more points over time may represent a real change in antihypertensive medication adherence.

  16. Development of Teachers' Attitude Scale towards Science Fair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortop, Hasan Said

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a new scale for measuring teachers' attitude towards science fair. Teacher Attitude Scale towards Science Fair (TASSF) is an inventory made up of 19 items and five dimensions. The study included such stages as literature review, the preparation of the item pool and the reliability and validity analysis. First of…

  17. Association of metabolic syndrome and change in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leehey, Maureen; Luo, Sheng; Sharma, Saloni; Wills, Anne-Marie A; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn L; Wong, Pei Shieen; Simon, David K; Schneider, Jay; Zhang, Yunxi; Pérez, Adriana; Dhall, Rohit; Christine, Chadwick W; Singer, Carlos; Cambi, Franca; Boyd, James T

    2017-10-24

    To explore the association between metabolic syndrome and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores and, secondarily, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). This is a secondary analysis of data from 1,022 of 1,741 participants of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Exploratory Clinical Trials in Parkinson Disease Long-Term Study 1, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of creatine. Participants were categorized as having or not having metabolic syndrome on the basis of modified criteria from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Those who had the same metabolic syndrome status at consecutive annual visits were included. The change in UPDRS and SDMT scores from randomization to 3 years was compared in participants with and without metabolic syndrome. Participants with metabolic syndrome (n = 396) compared to those without (n = 626) were older (mean [SD] 63.9 [8.1] vs 59.9 [9.4] years; p metabolic syndrome experienced an additional 0.6- (0.2) unit annual increase in total UPDRS ( p = 0.02) and 0.5- (0.2) unit increase in motor UPDRS ( p = 0.01) scores compared with participants without metabolic syndrome. There was no difference in the change in SDMT scores. Persons with Parkinson disease meeting modified criteria for metabolic syndrome experienced a greater increase in total UPDRS scores over time, mainly as a result of increases in motor scores, compared to those who did not. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding. NCT00449865. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. Modified Ashworth scale and spasm frequency score in spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baunsgaard, C. B.; Nissen, U. V.; Christensen, K. B.

    2016-01-01

    .94 and inter-rater κweighted=0.93. Correlation between MAS and SFS showed non-significant correlation coefficients from-0.11 to 0.90. CONCLUSION: Reliability of MAS is highly affected by the weighting scheme. With a weighted-κ it was overall reliable and simple-κ overall unreliability. Repeated tests should......STUDY DESIGN: Intra- and inter-rater reliability study. OBJECTIVES: To assess intra- and inter-rater reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) and Spasm Frequency Score (SFS) in lower extremities in a population of spinal cord-injured persons, as well as correlations between the two scales....... SETTING: Clinic for Spinal Cord Injuries, Rigshospitalet, Hornbaek, Denmark. METHODS: Thirty-one persons participated in the study and were tested four times in total with MAS and SFS by three experienced raters. Cohen's kappa (κ), simple and quadratic weighted (nominal and ordinal scale level...

  19. Association of Health Sciences Reasoning Test scores with academic and experiential performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Wendy C; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E

    2014-05-15

    To assess the association of scores on the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) with academic and experiential performance in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. The HSRT was administered to 329 first-year (P1) PharmD students. Performance on the HSRT and its subscales was compared with academic performance in 29 courses throughout the curriculum and with performance in advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Significant positive correlations were found between course grades in 8 courses and HSRT overall scores. All significant correlations were accounted for by pharmaceutical care laboratory courses, therapeutics courses, and a law and ethics course. There was a lack of moderate to strong correlation between HSRT scores and academic and experiential performance. The usefulness of the HSRT as a tool for predicting student success may be limited.

  20. Reliability and validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale scores: a group intelligence test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yota Uno

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale, which is an intelligence test that can be administered on groups within a short period of time. METHODS: The new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition were administered to 81 subjects (mean age ± SD 15.2 ± 0.7 years residing in a juvenile detention home; reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and concurrent validity was assessed using the one-way analysis of variance intraclass correlation coefficient. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic analysis for screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function (an FIQ<70 was performed. In addition, stratum-specific likelihood ratios for detection of intellectual disability were calculated. RESULTS: The Cronbach's alpha for the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale IQ (BIQ was 0.86, and the intraclass correlation coefficient with FIQ was 0.83. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.96. In addition, the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≤65 stratum was 13.8 (95% CI: 3.9-48.9, and the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≥76 stratum was 0.1 (95% CI: 0.03-0.4. Thus, intellectual disability could be ruled out or determined. CONCLUSION: The present results demonstrated that the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale score had high reliability and concurrent validity with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition score. Moreover, the post-test probability for the BIQ could be calculated when screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Test is convenient and can be administered within a variety of settings. This enables evaluation of intellectual development even in settings where performing intelligence tests have previously been difficult.

  1. Reliability and validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale scores: a group intelligence test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yota; Mizukami, Hitomi; Ando, Masahiko; Yukihiro, Ryoji; Iwasaki, Yoko; Ozaki, Norio

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale, which is an intelligence test that can be administered on groups within a short period of time. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition were administered to 81 subjects (mean age ± SD 15.2 ± 0.7 years) residing in a juvenile detention home; reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and concurrent validity was assessed using the one-way analysis of variance intraclass correlation coefficient. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic analysis for screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function (an FIQIntelligence Scale IQ (BIQ) was 0.86, and the intraclass correlation coefficient with FIQ was 0.83. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.96). In addition, the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≤65 stratum was 13.8 (95% CI: 3.9-48.9), and the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≥76 stratum was 0.1 (95% CI: 0.03-0.4). Thus, intellectual disability could be ruled out or determined. The present results demonstrated that the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale score had high reliability and concurrent validity with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition score. Moreover, the post-test probability for the BIQ could be calculated when screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Test is convenient and can be administered within a variety of settings. This enables evaluation of intellectual development even in settings where performing intelligence tests have previously been difficult.

  2. Gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can predict functional recovery in patients with traumatic brain injury☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Sevil; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Oruckaptan, Hakan; Kose, Nezire; Celik, Bülent

    2012-01-01

    Fifty-one patients with mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 10) and severe traumatic brain injury (n = 27) received early rehabilitation. Level of consciousness was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Score. Functional level was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Score, whilst mobility was evaluated using the Mobility Scale for Acute Stroke. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Barthel Index. Following Bobath neurodevelopmental therapy, the level of consciousness was significantly improved in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, but was not greatly influenced in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Mobility and functional level were significantly improved in patients with mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Gait recovery was more obvious in patients with mild traumatic brain injury than in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Activities of daily living showed an improvement but this was insignificant except for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Nevertheless, complete recovery was not acquired at discharge. Multiple regression analysis showed that gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can be considered predictors of functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury. PMID:25624828

  3. The effect of instructional methodology on high school students natural sciences standardized tests scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, P. E.

    Educators have recently come to consider inquiry based instruction as a more effective method of instruction than didactic instruction. Experience based learning theory suggests that student performance is linked to teaching method. However, research is limited on inquiry teaching and its effectiveness on preparing students to perform well on standardized tests. The purpose of the study to investigate whether one of these two teaching methodologies was more effective in increasing student performance on standardized science tests. The quasi experimental quantitative study was comprised of two stages. Stage 1 used a survey to identify teaching methods of a convenience sample of 57 teacher participants and determined level of inquiry used in instruction to place participants into instructional groups (the independent variable). Stage 2 used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare posttest scores on a standardized exam by teaching method. Additional analyses were conducted to examine the differences in science achievement by ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status by teaching methodology. Results demonstrated a statistically significant gain in test scores when taught using inquiry based instruction. Subpopulation analyses indicated all groups showed improved mean standardized test scores except African American students. The findings benefit teachers and students by presenting data supporting a method of content delivery that increases teacher efficacy and produces students with a greater cognition of science content that meets the school's mission and goals.

  4. Substantial improvements in large-scale redocking and screening using the novel HYDE scoring function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nadine; Hindle, Sally; Lange, Gudrun; Klein, Robert; Albrecht, Jürgen; Briem, Hans; Beyer, Kristin; Claußen, Holger; Gastreich, Marcus; Lemmen, Christian; Rarey, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    The HYDE scoring function consistently describes hydrogen bonding, the hydrophobic effect and desolvation. It relies on HYdration and DEsolvation terms which are calibrated using octanol/water partition coefficients of small molecules. We do not use affinity data for calibration, therefore HYDE is generally applicable to all protein targets. HYDE reflects the Gibbs free energy of binding while only considering the essential interactions of protein-ligand complexes. The greatest benefit of HYDE is that it yields a very intuitive atom-based score, which can be mapped onto the ligand and protein atoms. This allows the direct visualization of the score and consequently facilitates analysis of protein-ligand complexes during the lead optimization process. In this study, we validated our new scoring function by applying it in large-scale docking experiments. We could successfully predict the correct binding mode in 93% of complexes in redocking calculations on the Astex diverse set, while our performance in virtual screening experiments using the DUD dataset showed significant enrichment values with a mean AUC of 0.77 across all protein targets with little or no structural defects. As part of these studies, we also carried out a very detailed analysis of the data that revealed interesting pitfalls, which we highlight here and which should be addressed in future benchmark datasets.

  5. Empirical Correlates of Low Scores on MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical Scales in a Sample of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Tellegen, Auke; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the authors explored the meaning of low scores on the MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical (RC) scales. Using responses of a sample of university students (N = 811), the authors examined whether low (T less than 39), within-normal-limits (T = 39-64), and high (T greater than 65) score levels on the RC scales are…

  6. European Space Science Scales New Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    been approved by all ESA's Member States. Outside Europe, the stability and solidity of Horizon 2000 have made ESA an extremely credible and reliable partner, arousing ever greater interest in international - including transatlantic - co-operation. Given that the first results look positive, it makes sense to think about continuing the work done to date. Which is why this year, half-way through Horizon 2000, it is time to look ahead to the next twenty-year period and embark on the follow-up programme which will lead to further missions being carried out between 2006 and 2016. At ESA Council meeting to be held in October in Toulouse, European ministers responsible for space will therefore have to take a decision on a "Horizon 2000 PLUS " programme designed to ensure successful European space science over a further ten-year period. The proposal being put forward by ESA's directorate of scientific programmes involves setting up three large-scale missions: * a mission to explore Mercury, the least known of the inner solar planets, 60iln of whose surface has yet to be mapped * an interferometry observatory designed to map the sky a hundred times more accurately than the Hipparcos satellite * a gravitational observatory able to pick up the space time waves emitted by the universe at the precise moment of the Big Bang. In parallel four medium-size missions - their content still to be defined - would be carried out. As with its forerunner, Horizon 2000 PLUS has been defined on the basis of proposals submitted by the scientific community following open competition. In all, I10 mission concepts were proposed by a total of 2500 scientists. These were then examined by peer-review groups, involving 75 scientists in all who announced their final choice on I October 1994. The agency is proposing to start preparing for Horizon 2000 PLUS on the basis of level funding up to the year 2000. This means that ESA would undertake to conduct preliminary Horizon 2000 PLUS technological studies

  7. Does Wechsler Intelligence Scale administration and scoring proficiency improve during assessment training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Tyson L; Zachar, Peter; Ray, Glen E; Lobello, Steven G; Underhill, Andrea T

    2007-04-01

    Studies have found that Wechsler scale administration and scoring proficiency is not easily attained during graduate training. These findings may be related to methodological issues. Using a single-group repeated measures design, this study documents statistically significant, though modest, error reduction on the WAIS-III and WISC-III during a graduate course in assessment. The study design does not permit the isolation of training factors related to error reduction, or assessment of whether error reduction is a function of mere practice. However, the results do indicate that previous study findings of no or inconsistent improvement in scoring proficiency may have been the result of methodological factors. Implications for teaching individual intelligence testing and further research are discussed.

  8. The effects of blogs versus dialogue journals on open-response writing scores and attitudes of grade eight science students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Diane K.

    Today's students have grown up surrounded by technology. They use cell phones, word processors, and the Internet with ease, talking with peers in their community and around the world through e-mails, chatrooms, instant messaging, online discussions, and weblogs ("blogs"). In the midst of this technological explosion, adolescents face a growing need for strong literacy skills in all subject areas for achievement in school and on mandated state and national high stakes tests. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of blogs as a tool for improving open-response writing in the secondary science classroom in comparison to the use of handwritten dialogue journals. The study used a mixed-method approach, gathering both quantitative and qualitative data from 94 students in four eighth-grade science classes. Two classes participated in online class blogs where they posted ideas about science and responded to the ideas of other classmates. Two classes participated in handwritten dialogue journals, writing ideas about science and exchanging journals to respond to the ideas of classmates. The study explored these research questions: Does the use of blogs, as compared to the use of handwritten dialogue journals, improve the open-response writing scores of eighth grade science students? How do students describe their experience using blogs to study science as compared to students using handwritten dialogue journals? and How do motivation, self-efficacy, and community manifest themselves in students who use blogs as compared to students who use handwritten dialogue journals? The quantitative aspect of the study used data from pre- and post-tests and from a Likert-scale post-survey. The pre- and post-writing on open-response science questions were scored using the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) open-response scoring rubric. The study found no statistically significant difference in the writing scores between the blog group and the dialogue journal

  9. Relationship between family history of alcohol addiction, parents’ education level, and smartphone problem use scale scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beison, Ashley; Rademacher, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Smartphones are ubiquitous. As smartphones increased in popularity, researchers realized that people were becoming dependent on their smartphones. The purpose here was to provide a better understanding of the factors related to problematic smartphone use (PSPU). Methods The participants were 100 undergraduates (25 males, 75 females) whose ages ranged from 18 to 23 (mean age = 20 years). The participants completed questionnaires to assess gender, ethnicity, year in college, father’s education level, mother’s education level, family income, age, family history of alcoholism, and PSPU. The Family Tree Questionnaire assessed family history of alcoholism. The Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS) and the Adapted Cell Phone Addiction Test (ACPAT) were used to determine the degree of PSPU. Whereas the MPPUS measures tolerance, escape from other problems, withdrawal, craving, and negative life consequences, the ACPAT measures preoccupation (salience), excessive use, neglecting work, anticipation, lack of control, and neglecting social life. Results Family history of alcoholism and father’s education level together explained 26% of the variance in the MPPUS scores and 25% of the variance in the ACPAT scores. The inclusion of mother’s education level, ethnicity, family income, age, year in college, and gender did not significantly increase the proportion of variance explained for either MPPUS or ACPAT scores. Discussion and conclusions Family history of alcoholism and father’s education level are good predictors of PSPU. As 74%–75% of the variance in PSPU scale scores was not explained, future studies should aim to explain this variance. PMID:28316252

  10. Outcome After Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases in Patients With Low Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) Scores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernov, Mikhail F.; Nakaya, Kotaro; Izawa, Masahiro; Hayashi, Motohiro; Usuba, Yuki; Kato, Koichi; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Iseki, Hiroshi; Hori, Tomokatsu; Takakura, Kintomo

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this retrospective study was evaluation of the outcome after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in patients with intracranial metastases and poor performance status. Methods and Materials: Forty consecutive patients with metastatic brain tumors and Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) scores ≤50 (mean, 43 ± 8; median, 40) treated with SRS were analyzed. Poor performance status was caused by presence of intracranial metastases in 28 cases (70%) and resulted from uncontrolled extracerebral disease in 12 (30%). Results: Survival after SRS varied from 3 days to 11.5 months (mean, 3.8 ± 2.9 months; median, 3.3 months). Survival probability constituted 0.50 ± 0.07 at 3 months and 0.20 ± 0.05 at 6 months posttreatment. Cause of low KPS score (p = 0.0173) and presence of distant metastases beside the brain (p = 0.0308) showed statistically significant associations with overall survival in multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Median survival was 6.0 months if low KPS score was caused by cerebral disease and distant metastases in regions beyond the brain were absent, 3.3 months if low KPS score was caused by cerebral disease and distant metastases in regions beyond the brain were present, and 1.0 month if poor performance status resulted from extracerebral disease. Conclusions: Identification of the cause of low KPS score (cerebral vs. extracerebral) in patients with metastatic brain tumor(s) may be important for prediction of the outcome after radiosurgical treatment. If poor patient performance status without surgical indications is caused by intracranial tumor(s), SRS may be a reasonable treatment option

  11. Collaborating for Multi-Scale Chemical Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William H. Green

    2006-07-14

    Advanced model reduction methods were developed and integrated into the CMCS multiscale chemical science simulation software. The new technologies were used to simulate HCCI engines and burner flames with exceptional fidelity.

  12. High Agreement was Obtained Across Scores from Multiple Equated Scales for Social Anxiety Disorder using Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Matthew; Batterham, Philip; Calear, Alison; Carragher, Natacha; Baillie, Andrew; Slade, Tim

    2018-04-10

    There is no standardized approach to the measurement of social anxiety. Researchers and clinicians are faced with numerous self-report scales with varying strengths, weaknesses, and psychometric properties. The lack of standardization makes it difficult to compare scores across populations that utilise different scales. Item response theory offers one solution to this problem via equating different scales using an anchor scale to set a standardized metric. This study is the first to equate several scales for social anxiety disorder. Data from two samples (n=3,175 and n=1,052), recruited from the Australian community using online advertisements, were utilised to equate a network of 11 self-report social anxiety scales via a fixed parameter item calibration method. Comparisons between actual and equated scores for most of the scales indicted a high level of agreement with mean differences <0.10 (equivalent to a mean difference of less than one point on the standardized metric). This study demonstrates that scores from multiple scales that measure social anxiety can be converted to a common scale. Re-scoring observed scores to a common scale provides opportunities to combine research from multiple studies and ultimately better assess social anxiety in treatment and research settings. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Hematoma shape, hematoma size, Glasgow coma scale score and ICH score: which predicts the 30-day mortality better for intracerebral hematoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Wang

    Full Text Available To investigate the performance of hematoma shape, hematoma size, Glasgow coma scale (GCS score, and intracerebral hematoma (ICH score in predicting the 30-day mortality for ICH patients. To examine the influence of the estimation error of hematoma size on the prediction of 30-day mortality.This retrospective study, approved by a local institutional review board with written informed consent waived, recruited 106 patients diagnosed as ICH by non-enhanced computed tomography study. The hemorrhagic shape, hematoma size measured by computer-assisted volumetric analysis (CAVA and estimated by ABC/2 formula, ICH score and GCS score was examined. The predicting performance of 30-day mortality of the aforementioned variables was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, paired t test, nonparametric test, linear regression analysis, and binary logistic regression. The receiver operating characteristics curves were plotted and areas under curve (AUC were calculated for 30-day mortality. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.The overall 30-day mortality rate was 15.1% of ICH patients. The hematoma shape, hematoma size, ICH score, and GCS score all significantly predict the 30-day mortality for ICH patients, with an AUC of 0.692 (P = 0.0018, 0.715 (P = 0.0008 (by ABC/2 to 0.738 (P = 0.0002 (by CAVA, 0.877 (P<0.0001 (by ABC/2 to 0.882 (P<0.0001 (by CAVA, and 0.912 (P<0.0001, respectively.Our study shows that hematoma shape, hematoma size, ICH scores and GCS score all significantly predict the 30-day mortality in an increasing order of AUC. The effect of overestimation of hematoma size by ABC/2 formula in predicting the 30-day mortality could be remedied by using ICH score.

  14. Hematoma Shape, Hematoma Size, Glasgow Coma Scale Score and ICH Score: Which Predicts the 30-Day Mortality Better for Intracerebral Hematoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Wei; Liu, Yi-Jui; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan; Fan, Hueng-Chuen; Yang, Fu-Chi; Hsueh, Chun-Jen; Kao, Hung-Wen; Juan, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Hsian-He

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the performance of hematoma shape, hematoma size, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score, and intracerebral hematoma (ICH) score in predicting the 30-day mortality for ICH patients. To examine the influence of the estimation error of hematoma size on the prediction of 30-day mortality. Materials and Methods This retrospective study, approved by a local institutional review board with written informed consent waived, recruited 106 patients diagnosed as ICH by non-enhanced computed tomography study. The hemorrhagic shape, hematoma size measured by computer-assisted volumetric analysis (CAVA) and estimated by ABC/2 formula, ICH score and GCS score was examined. The predicting performance of 30-day mortality of the aforementioned variables was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, paired t test, nonparametric test, linear regression analysis, and binary logistic regression. The receiver operating characteristics curves were plotted and areas under curve (AUC) were calculated for 30-day mortality. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results The overall 30-day mortality rate was 15.1% of ICH patients. The hematoma shape, hematoma size, ICH score, and GCS score all significantly predict the 30-day mortality for ICH patients, with an AUC of 0.692 (P = 0.0018), 0.715 (P = 0.0008) (by ABC/2) to 0.738 (P = 0.0002) (by CAVA), 0.877 (Phematoma shape, hematoma size, ICH scores and GCS score all significantly predict the 30-day mortality in an increasing order of AUC. The effect of overestimation of hematoma size by ABC/2 formula in predicting the 30-day mortality could be remedied by using ICH score. PMID:25029592

  15. Longitudinal analysis of standardized test scores of students in the Science Writing Heuristic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanlen, Niphon

    The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal impacts of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach on student science achievement measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS). A number of studies have reported positive impact of an inquiry-based instruction on student achievement, critical thinking skills, reasoning skills, attitude toward science, etc. So far, studies have focused on exploring how an intervention affects student achievement using teacher/researcher-generated measurement. Only a few studies have attempted to explore the long-term impacts of an intervention on student science achievement measured by standardized tests. The students' science and reading ITBS data was collected from 2000 to 2011 from a school district which had adopted the SWH approach as the main approach in science classrooms since 2002. The data consisted of 12,350 data points from 3,039 students. The multilevel model for change with discontinuity in elevation and slope technique was used to analyze changes in student science achievement growth trajectories prior and after adopting the SWH approach. The results showed that the SWH approach positively impacted students by initially raising science achievement scores. The initial impact was maintained and gradually increased when students were continuously exposed to the SWH approach. Disadvantaged students who were at risk of having low science achievement had bigger benefits from experience with the SWH approach. As a result, existing problematic achievement gaps were narrowed down. Moreover, students who started experience with the SWH approach as early as elementary school seemed to have better science achievement growth compared to students who started experiencing with the SWH approach only in high school. The results found in this study not only confirmed the positive impacts of the SWH approach on student achievement, but also demonstrated additive impacts found when students had longitudinal experiences

  16. Image subsampling and point scoring approaches for large-scale marine benthic monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Nicholas R.; Foster, Scott D.; Hill, Nicole A.; Barrett, Neville S.

    2016-07-01

    Benthic imagery is an effective tool for quantitative description of ecologically and economically important benthic habitats and biota. The recent development of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) allows surveying of spatial scales that were previously unfeasible. However, an AUV collects a large number of images, the scoring of which is time and labour intensive. There is a need to optimise the way that subsamples of imagery are chosen and scored to gain meaningful inferences for ecological monitoring studies. We examine the trade-off between the number of images selected within transects and the number of random points scored within images on the percent cover of target biota, the typical output of such monitoring programs. We also investigate the efficacy of various image selection approaches, such as systematic or random, on the bias and precision of cover estimates. We use simulated biotas that have varying size, abundance and distributional patterns. We find that a relatively small sampling effort is required to minimise bias. An increased precision for groups that are likely to be the focus of monitoring programs is best gained through increasing the number of images sampled rather than the number of points scored within images. For rare species, sampling using point count approaches is unlikely to provide sufficient precision, and alternative sampling approaches may need to be employed. The approach by which images are selected (simple random sampling, regularly spaced etc.) had no discernible effect on mean and variance estimates, regardless of the distributional pattern of biota. Field validation of our findings is provided through Monte Carlo resampling analysis of a previously scored benthic survey from temperate waters. We show that point count sampling approaches are capable of providing relatively precise cover estimates for candidate groups that are not overly rare. The amount of sampling required, in terms of both the number of images and

  17. The use of test scores from large-scale assessment surveys: psychometric and statistical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Braun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economists are making increasing use of measures of student achievement obtained through large-scale survey assessments such as NAEP, TIMSS, and PISA. The construction of these measures, employing plausible value (PV methodology, is quite different from that of the more familiar test scores associated with assessments such as the SAT or ACT. These differences have important implications both for utilization and interpretation. Although much has been written about PVs, it appears that there are still misconceptions about whether and how to employ them in secondary analyses. Methods We address a range of technical issues, including those raised in a recent article that was written to inform economists using these databases. First, an extensive review of the relevant literature was conducted, with particular attention to key publications that describe the derivation and psychometric characteristics of such achievement measures. Second, a simulation study was carried out to compare the statistical properties of estimates based on the use of PVs with those based on other, commonly used methods. Results It is shown, through both theoretical analysis and simulation, that under fairly general conditions appropriate use of PV yields approximately unbiased estimates of model parameters in regression analyses of large scale survey data. The superiority of the PV methodology is particularly evident when measures of student achievement are employed as explanatory variables. Conclusions The PV methodology used to report student test performance in large scale surveys remains the state-of-the-art for secondary analyses of these databases.

  18. Comparability of scores on the MMPI-2-RF scales generated with the MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF booklets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heijden, P T; Egger, J I M; Derksen, J J L

    2010-05-01

    In most validity studies on the recently released 338-item MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008; Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008), scale scores were derived from the 567-item MMPI-2 booklet. In this study, we evaluated the comparability of the MMPI-2-RF scale scores derived from the original 567-item MMPI-2 booklet with MMPI-2-RF scale scores derived from the 338-item MMPI-2-RF booklet in a Dutch student sample (N = 107). We used a counterbalanced (ABBA) design. We compared results with those previously reported by Tellegen and Ben-Porath (2008). Our findings support the comparability of the scores of the 338-item version and the 567-item version of the 50 MMPI-2-RF scales. We discuss clinical implications and directions for further research.

  19. Recall of false memories in individuals scoring high in schizotypy: memory distortions are scale specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Jo; Randell, Jordan; Reed, Phil

    2012-06-01

    Previous research has indicated abnormal semantic activation in individuals scoring higher in schizotypy. In the current experiment, semantic activation was examined by using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm of false memories. Participants were assessed for schizotypy using the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings (OLIFE). Participants studied lists of semantically related words in which a critical and highly associated word was absent. Participants then recalled the list. Participants high in Unusual Experiences and Cognitive Disorganization recalled more critical non-presented words, weakly related studied words, and fewer studied words than participants who scored low on these measures. Previous research using the cognitive-perceptual factor of the Schizotypy Personality Questionnaire found reduced false memories, while the Unusual Experiences subscale of the OLIFE was associated with more false memories. Both scales cover similar unusual perceptual experiences and it is unclear why they led to divergent results. The findings suggest that subtypes of schizotypy are associated with abnormal semantic activation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Late effects of normal tissues (lent) scoring system: the soma scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mornex, F.; Pavy, J.J.; Denekamp, J.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation tolerance of normal tissues remains the limiting factor for delivering tumoricidal dose. The late toxicity of normal tissues is the most critical element of an irradiation: somatic, functional and structural alterations occur during the actual treatment itself, but late effects manifest months to years after acute effects heal, and may progress with time. The optimal therapeutic ratio ultimately requires not only complete tumor clearance, but also minimal residual injury to surrounding vital normal tissues. The disparity between the intensity of acute and late effects and the inability to predict the eventual manifestation of late normal tissue injury has made radiation oncologists recognize the importance of careful patient follow-up. There is so far no uniform toxicity scoring system to compare several clinical studies in the absence of a 'common toxicity language'. This justifies the need to establish a precise evaluation system for the analysis of late effects of radiation on normal tissues. The SOMA/LENT scoring system results from an international collaboration. European Organization Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) have created subcommittees with the aim of addressing the question of standardized toxic effects criteria. This effort appeared as a necessity to standardize and improve the data recording, to then describe and evaluate uniform toxicity at regular time intervals. The current proposed scale is not yet validated, and should be used cautiously. (authors)

  1. Comparing Canadian and American normative scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Allyson G; Armstrong, Irene T; Harrison, Laura E; Lange, Rael T; Iverson, Grant L

    2014-12-01

    Psychologists practicing in Canada must decide which set of normative data to use for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). The purpose of this study was to compare the interpretive effects of applying American versus Canadian normative systems in a sample of 432 Canadian postsecondary-level students who were administered the WAIS-IV as part of an evaluation for a learning disability, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, or other mental health problems. Employing the Canadian normative system yielded IQ, Index, and subtest scores that were systematically lower than those obtained using the American norms. Furthermore, the percentage agreement in normative classifications, defined as American and Canadian index scores within five points or within the same classification range, was between 49% and 76%. Substantial differences are present between the American and Canadian WAIS-IV norms. Clinicians should consider carefully the implications regarding which normative system is most appropriate for specific types of evaluations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. CORRELATION OF MOBILE PHONE ADDICTION SCALE (MPAS SCORE WITH CRANIOVERTEBRAL ANGLE, SCAPULAR INDEX AND BECKS DEPRESSION INVENTORY SCORE IN YOUNG ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali Salvi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mobile phone usage has become increasingly common in today’s youth. Its heavy use often leads to an addiction. Dependency on these devices could lead to postural dysfunctions as well as produce an adverse effect on psychology. Hence, this study is done to correlate mobile addiction with the craniovertebral angle, scapular index and Beck’s depression inventory score in young adults. Methods: An observational study was performed on 100 subjects out of which 51 were males and 49 were females in the age group of 18- 25 years who were pursuing their graduation and post-graduation courses. Mobile Phone Addiction Scale was used to determine the level of addiction. Craniovertebral angle, Scapular Index, and Beck’s Depression Inventory score were measured. Correlation of Mobile Phone Addiction Scale score with the above-mentioned parameters was done using GraphPad Instat Version 3.10 (Pearson correlation coefficient and Spearman correlation coefficient. Results: Mobile phone addiction was found low in 27%, moderate in 30% and high in 43% participants. There is significant correlation of mobile phone addiction scale score with Craniovertebral angle (r = -0.6470, p = <0.0001, Scapular Index (r = -0.4370, p = < 0.001 and Beck’s depression Inventory score (r = 0.3172, p = 0.0013. Conclusion: This study shows that mobile phone addiction is common amongst the youth and it contributes to considerable stresses on neck and shoulder. It could even cause unfavorable repercussion on an individual’s psychological status, such as depression. Hence, it is important to create awareness amongst the youth and take preventive measures for the same.

  3. Using Score Equating and Measurement Invariance to Examine the Flynn Effect in the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Nicholas; Beaujean, A Alexander; Taub, Gordon E

    2015-01-01

    The Flynn effect (FE; i.e., increase in mean IQ scores over time) is commonly viewed as reflecting population shifts in intelligence, despite the fact that most FE studies have not investigated the assumption of score comparability. Consequently, the extent to which these mean differences in IQ scores reflect population shifts in cognitive abilities versus changes in the instruments used to measure these abilities is unclear. In this study, we used modern psychometric tools to examine the FE. First, we equated raw scores for each common subtest to be on the same scale across instruments. This enabled the combination of scores from all three instruments into one of 13 age groups before converting raw scores into Z scores. Second, using age-based standardized scores for standardization samples, we examined measurement invariance across the second (revised), third, and fourth editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Results indicate that while scores were equivalent across the third and fourth editions, they were not equivalent across the second and third editions. Results suggest that there is some evidence for an increase in intelligence, but also call into question many published FE findings as presuming the instruments' scores are invariant when this assumption is not warranted.

  4. An image based system to automatically and objectivelly score the degreeof redness and scaling in psoriasi lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez, David Delgado; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this work, a combined statistical and image analysis method to automatically evaluate the severity of scaling in psoriasis lesions is proposed. The method separates the different regions of the disease in the image and scores the degree of scaling based on the properties of these areas. The pr...... that the obtained scores are highly correlated with scores made by doctors. This and the fact that the obtained measures are continuous indicate the proposed method is a suitable tool to evaluate the lesion and to track the evolution of dermatological diseases....

  5. Correlation between Manchester Grading Scale and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Score in Patients with Hallux Valgus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliou, Kalliopi; Paraskevas, George; Kanavaros, Panagiotis; Barbouti, Alexandra; Vrettakos, Aristidis; Gekas, Christos; Kitsoulis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the correlation between the Manchester Grading Scale and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score in patients with a hallux valgus deformity. Subjects and Methods The study sample included 181 feet of 122 patients with hallux valgus and 424 feet of 212 individuals without hallux valgus deformity as the control group. The severity of hallux valgus, utilizing a relative nonmetric scale, the Manchester Grading Scale, and the metric AOFAS score, was determined for all individuals in the hallux valgus and control groups. SPSS version 18 (Chicago, Ill., USA) was used for data analysis. Results According to the Manchester Grading Scale, the 424 feet of the normal group were classified as ‘no deformity−. In the hallux valgus group, 85 feet were classified as ‘mild deformity−, 67 as ‘moderate deformity' and 29 as ‘severe deformity−. The AOFAS total score in the control group was 99.14. In the hallux valgus group, patients with mild or moderate deformity had total scores of 86.20 and 68.19, respectively. For those with severe hallux valgus, the total score was 44.69 and the differences were statistically significant (p = 0.000). Using the Pearson correlation, strong negative correlations were found between the AOFAS score and the hallux valgus angle (HVA; r = −0.899, p = 0.000). Strong negative correlations were demonstrated between the AOFAS score and the first intermetatarsal angle (IMA) as well (r = −0.748, p = 0.000). Conclusions The AOFAS score was negatively associated with the Manchester Grading Scale, HVA and first IMA. As the severity of hallux valgus increased, the AOFAS score seemed to decrease. PMID:26335050

  6. Validation of Scores on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Walter L.; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2005-01-01

    The Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS), the most commonly used social desirability bias (SDB) assessment, conceptualizes SDB as an individual's need for approval. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) measures SDB as two separate constructs: impression management and self-deception. Scores on SDB scales are commonly…

  7. Applying Computational Scoring Functions to Assess Biomolecular Interactions in Food Science: Applications to the Estrogen Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Spyrakis

    2016-10-01

    Thus, key computational medicinal chemistry methods like molecular dynamics can be used to decipher protein flexibility and to obtain stable models for docking and scoring in food-related studies, and virtual screening is increasingly being applied to identify molecules with potential to act as endocrine disruptors, food mycotoxins, and new nutraceuticals [3,4,5]. All of these methods and simulations are based on protein-ligand interaction phenomena, and represent the basis for any subsequent modification of the targeted receptor's or enzyme's physiological activity. We describe here the energetics of binding of biological complexes, providing a survey of the most common and successful algorithms used in evaluating these energetics, and we report case studies in which computational techniques have been applied to food science issues. In particular, we explore a handful of studies involving the estrogen receptors for which we have a long-term interest.

  8. Dementia knowledge assessment scale (DKAS): confirmatory factor analysis and comparative subscale scores among an international cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annear, Michael J; Toye, Chris; Elliott, Kate-Ellen J; McInerney, Frances; Eccleston, Claire; Robinson, Andrew

    2017-07-31

    Dementia is a life-limiting condition that is increasing in global prevalence in line with population ageing. In this context, it is necessary to accurately measure dementia knowledge across a spectrum of health professional and lay populations with the aim of informing targeted educational interventions and improving literacy, care, and support. Building on prior exploratory analysis, which informed the development of the preliminarily valid and reliable version of the Dementia Knowledge Assessment Scale (DKAS), a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was performed to affirm construct validity and proposed subscales to further increase the measure's utility for academics and educators. A large, de novo sample of 3649 volunteer respondents to a dementia-related online course was recruited to evaluate the performance of the DKAS and its proposed subscales. Respondents represented diverse cohorts, including health professionals, students, and members of the general public. Analyses included CFA (using structural equation modelling), measures of internal consistency (α), and non-parametric tests of subscale correlation (Spearman Correlation) and score differences between cohorts (Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance). Findings of the CFA supported a 25-item, four-factor model for the DKAS with two items removed due to poor performance and one item moved between factors. The resultant model exhibited good reliability (α = .85; ω h  = .87; overall scale), with acceptable subscale internal consistency (α ≥ .65; subscales). Subscales showed acceptable correlation without any indication of redundancy. Finally, total and DKAS subscale scores showed good discrimination between cohorts of respondents who would be anticipated to hold different levels of knowledge on the basis of education or experience related to dementia. The DKAS has been confirmed as a reliable and valid measure of dementia knowledge for diverse populations that is capable of elucidating

  9. Plasma Science Contribution to the SCaLeS Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, S.C.

    2003-01-01

    In June of 2003, about 250 computational scientists and mathematicians being funded by the DOE Office of Science met in Arlington, VA, to attend a 2-day workshop on the Science Case for Large-scale Simulation (SCaLeS). This document was the output of the Plasma Science Section of that workshop. The conclusion is that exciting and important progress can be made in the field of Plasma Science if computer power continues to grow and algorithmic development continues to occur at the rate that it has in the past. Full simulations of burning plasma experiments could be possible in the 5-10 year time frame if an aggressive growth program is launched in this area

  10. The Effect of Serious Video Game Play on Science Inquiry Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilosky, Alexandra Borzillo

    American students are not developing the science inquiry skills needed to solve complex 21st century problems, thus impacting the workforce. In 2009, American high school students ranked 21 out of 26 in the category of problem-solving according to the Program for International Student Assessment. Serious video games have powerful epistemic value and are beneficial with respect to enhancing inquiry, effective problem-solving. The purpose of this correlational, quantitative study was to test Gee's assumption regarding the cycle of thinking (routinization, automatization, and deroutinization) by determining whether players status was a significant predictor of science inquiry scores, controlling for age, gender, and major. The 156 non-random volunteers who participated in this study were enrolled in a 2-year college in the northeastern U.S. Multiple regression analyses revealed that major was the strongest overall (significant) predictor, b = -.84, t(149) = -3.70, p video game play. Recommendations include using serious games as instructional tools and to assess student learning (formative and summative), especially among non-traditional learners.

  11. Correlation of Social Network Attributes with Individuals’ Score on Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Momeni Boroujeni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bipolar Spectrum Disorders include a variety of mood disorders from bipolar II disorder to conditions characterized by hyperthymic mood states. It has been suggested that psychosocial factors also play an important role in bipolar disorders, in this study we have used social network analysis in order to better understand the social positions of those affected by bipolar spectrum disorders. Methods: In this cross sectional study 90 individuals within a bounded network were included and studied by using a standard questionnaire for bipolar spectrum disorder scale (BSDS and a sociometric questionnaire for analyzing the social network of those individuals.Results: This study showed that BSDS score is signi.cantly correlated with the Bonacich power of the participants (P= 0.009 as well as with their Outdegree Strength (P= 0.013.Discussion: The results of this study show that there is interplay between social attributes and Bipolar Spectrum Disorders. This emphasizes the need for understanding the role of social networks and performing further research into quantifying social aspects of psychiatric disorders.

  12. Correlation of Social Network Attributes with Individuals’ Score on Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Momeni Boroujeni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar Spectrum Disorders include a variety of mood disorders from bipolar II disorder to conditions characterized by hyperthymic mood states. It has been suggested that psychosocial factors also play an important role in bipolar disorders, in this study we have used social network analysis in order to better understand the social positions of those affected by bipolar spectrum disorders.Methods and Materials: In this cross sectional study 90 individuals within a bounded network were included and studied by using a standard questionnaire for bipolar spectrum disorder scale (BSDS and a sociometric questionnaire for analyzing the social network of those individuals.Results: This study showed that BSDS score is significantly correlated with the Bonacich power of the participants (P= 0.009 as well as with their Outdegree Strength (P= 0.013.Discussion:The results of this study show that there is interplay between social attributes and Bipolar Spectrum Disorders. This emphasizes the need for understanding the role of social networks and performing further research into quantifying social aspects of psychiatric disorders.

  13. Conditional standard errors of measurement for composite scores on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Larry R; Raju, Nambury; Lurie, Anna; Wilkins, Charles; Zhu, Jianjun

    2006-02-01

    A specific recommendation of the 1999 Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing by the American Educational Research Association, the American Psychological Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education is that test publishers report estimates of the conditional standard error of measurement (SEM). Procedures for calculating the conditional (score-level) SEM based on raw scores are well documented; however, few procedures have been developed for estimating the conditional SEM of subtest or composite scale scores resulting from a nonlinear transformation. Item response theory provided the psychometric foundation to derive the conditional standard errors of measurement and confidence intervals for composite scores on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition.

  14. Scales and scaling in turbulent ocean sciences; physics-biology coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Francois

    2015-04-01

    Geophysical fields possess huge fluctuations over many spatial and temporal scales. In the ocean, such property at smaller scales is closely linked to marine turbulence. The velocity field is varying from large scales to the Kolmogorov scale (mm) and scalar fields from large scales to the Batchelor scale, which is often much smaller. As a consequence, it is not always simple to determine at which scale a process should be considered. The scale question is hence fundamental in marine sciences, especially when dealing with physics-biology coupling. For example, marine dynamical models have typically a grid size of hundred meters or more, which is more than 105 times larger than the smallest turbulence scales (Kolmogorov scale). Such scale is fine for the dynamics of a whale (around 100 m) but for a fish larvae (1 cm) or a copepod (1 mm) a description at smaller scales is needed, due to the nonlinear nature of turbulence. The same is verified also for biogeochemical fields such as passive and actives tracers (oxygen, fluorescence, nutrients, pH, turbidity, temperature, salinity...) In this framework, we will discuss the scale problem in turbulence modeling in the ocean, and the relation of Kolmogorov's and Batchelor's scales of turbulence in the ocean, with the size of marine animals. We will also consider scaling laws for organism-particle Reynolds numbers (from whales to bacteria), and possible scaling laws for organism's accelerations.

  15. Conservative treatment of soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities. Functional evaluation with LENT-SOMA scales and the Enneking score

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfiq, N.; Lagarde, P.; Thomas, L.; Kantor, G.; Stockle, E.; Bui, B.N.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. - The aim of this prospective study is the feasibility of late effects assessment by LENT-SOMA scales after conservative treatment of soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities and a comparison with the functional evaluation by the Enneking score. Patients and methods. - During the systematic follow-up consultations, a series of 32 consecutive patients was evaluated in terms of late effects by LENT SOMA scales and functional results by the Enneking score. The median time after treatment was 65 months. The treatment consisted of conservative surgery (all cases) followed by radiation therapy (29 cases), often combined with adjuvant therapy (12 concomitant radio-chemotherapy association cases out of 14). The assessment of the toxicity was retrospective for acute effects and prospective for the following late tissue damage: skin/subcutaneous tissues, muscles/soft tissues and peripheral nerves. Results. -According to the Enneking score, the global score for the overall series was high (24/30) despite four the scores zero for the psychological acceptance. According to LENT SOMA scales, a low rate of severe sequelae (grade 3-4) was observed. The occurrence of high-grade sequelae and their functional consequences were not correlated with quality of exeresis, dose of radiotherapy or use of concomitant chemotherapy. A complementarity was observed between certain factors of the Enneking score and some criteria of the LENTSOMA scales, especially of muscles/soft tissues. Conclusion. -The good quality of functional results was confirmed by the two mean scoring systems for late normal tissue damage. The routine use of LENT-SOMA seems to be more time consuming than the Enneking score (mean time of scoring: 1 3 versus five minutes). The LENT-SOMA scales are aimed at a detailed description of late toxicity and sequelae while the Enneking score provides a more global evaluation, including the psychological acceptance of treatment. The late effects assessment by the LENT

  16. Science and art of setting performance standards and cutoff scores in kinesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weimo

    2013-12-01

    Setting standards and cutoff scores is essential to any measurement and evaluation practice. Two evaluation frameworks, norm-referenced (NR) and criterion-referenced (CR), have often been used for setting standards. Although setting fitness standards based on the NR evaluation is relatively easy as long as a nationally representative sample can be obtained and regularly updated, it has several limitations-namely, time dependency, population dependence, discouraging low-level performers, and favoring advantaged or punishing disadvantaged individuals. Fortunately, these limitations can be significantly eliminated by employing the CR evaluation, which was introduced to kinesiology by Safrit and colleagues in the 1980s and has been successfully applied to some practical problems (e.g., set health-related fitness standards for FITNESSGRAM). Yet, the CR evaluation has its own challenges, e.g., selecting an appropriate measure for a criterion behavior, when the expected relationship between the criterion behavior and a predictive measure is not clear, and when standards are not consistent among multiple field measures. Some of these challenges can be addressed by employing the latest statistical methods (e.g., test equating). This article provides a comprehensive review of the science and art of setting standards and cutoff scores in kinesiology. After a brief historical overview of the standard-setting practice in kinesiology is presented, a case analysis of a successful CR evaluation, along with related challenges, is described. Lessons learned from past and current practice as well as how to develop a defendable standard are described. Finally, future research needs and directions are outlined.

  17. A comparison of low IQ scores from the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umphress, Thomas B

    2008-06-01

    Twenty people with suspected intellectual disability took the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS; C. R. Reynolds & R. W. Kamphaus, 1998) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997) to see if the 2 IQ tests produced comparable results. A t test showed that the RIAS Composite Intelligence Index scores were significantly higher than WAIS-III Full Scale IQ scores at the alpha level of .01. There was a significant difference between the RIAS Nonverbal Intelligence and WAIS-III Performance Scale, but there was no significant difference between the RIAS Verbal Intelligence Index and the WAIS-III Verbal Scale IQ. The results raise questions concerning test selection for diagnosing intellectual disability and the use of the correlation statistic for comparing intelligence tests.

  18. Identifying Relevant Anti-Science Perceptions to Improve Science-Based Communication: The Negative Perceptions of Science Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Morgan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Science communicators and scholars have struggled to understand what appears to be increasingly frequent endorsement of a wide range of anti-science beliefs and a corresponding reduction of trust in science. A common explanation for this issue is a lack of science literacy/knowledge among the general public (Funk et al. 2015. However, other possible explanations have been advanced, including conflict with alternative belief systems and other contextual factors, and even cultural factors (Gauchat 2008; Kahan 2015 that are not necessarily due to knowledge deficits. One of the challenges is that there are limited tools available to measure a range of possible underlying negative perceptions of science that could provide a more nuanced framework within which to improve communication around important scientific topics. This project describes two studies detailing the development and validation of the Negative Perceptions of Science Scale (NPSS, a multi-dimensional instrument that taps into several distinct sets of negative science perceptions: Science as Corrupt, Science as Complex, Science as Heretical, and Science as Limited. Evidence for the reliability and validity of the NPSS is described. The sub-dimensions of the NPSS are associated with a range of specific anti-science beliefs across a broad set of topic areas above and beyond that explained by demographics (including education, sex, age, and income, political, and religious ideology. Implications for these findings for improving science communication and science-related message tailoring are discussed.

  19. Circadian variability of the initial Glasgow Coma Scale score in traumatic brain injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K. Yue

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Nighttime TBI patients present with decreased GCS scores and are admitted to ICU at higher rates, yet have fewer prior comorbidities and similar systemic injuries. The interaction between nighttime hours and decreased GCS score on ICU admissions has important implications for clinical assessment/triage.

  20. Robust Scale Transformation Methods in IRT True Score Equating under Common-Item Nonequivalent Groups Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Common test items play an important role in equating multiple test forms under the common-item nonequivalent groups design. Inconsistent item parameter estimates among common items can lead to large bias in equated scores for IRT true score equating. Current methods extensively focus on detection and elimination of outlying common items, which…

  1. Using Raters from India to Score a Large-Scale Speaking Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoming; Mollaun, Pam

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the scoring of the Speaking section of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based (TOEFL iBT[R]) test by speakers of English and one or more Indian languages. We explored the extent to which raters from India, after being trained and certified, were able to score the TOEFL examinees with mixed first languages…

  2. Malingering in Toxic Exposure. Classification Accuracy of Reliable Digit Span and WAIS-III Digit Span Scaled Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Kevin W.; Springer, Steven; Bianchini, Kevin J.; Black, F. William; Heinly, Matthew T.; Love, Jeffrey M.; Swift, Douglas A.; Ciota, Megan A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the sensitivity and false-positive error rate of reliable digit span (RDS) and the WAIS-III Digit Span (DS) scaled score in persons alleging toxic exposure and determined whether error rates differed from published rates in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and chronic pain (CP). Data were obtained from the files of 123 persons…

  3. Optimizing cutoff scores for the Barthel Index and the modified Rankin Scale for defining outcome in acute stroke trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Stewart, Roy E; Vroomen, Patrick C A J; De Keyser, Jacques; Luijckx, Gert-Jan

    Background and Purpose - There is little agreement on how to assess outcome in acute stroke trials. Cutoff scores for the Barthel Index (BI) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) are frequently arbitrarily chosen to dichotomize favorable and unfavorable outcome. We investigated sensitivity and specificity

  4. Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores and profiles in African American adolescents involved with the juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrell, Frank C; Andretta, James R; Woodland, Malcolm H

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we examined the internal consistency and structural validity of Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores in a sample of 477 African American adolescents who had been arrested in a city in the mid-Atlantic. Using cluster analysis, we also identified profiles of CRIS scores and compared adolescents with different profiles on Major Depressive Episode, Manic Episode, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder scores. Results indicated that CRIS subscale scores were reliable, and the 6-factor structure of the CRIS was supported. Five nigrescence profiles were identified: Miseducation-Pro-Black, Conflicted-Self-Hatred, Multiculturalist, Low Race Salience, and Conflicted-Anti-White. Individuals with Conflicted-Self-Hatred profiles reported significantly and meaningfully higher scores on the 4 syndromes than did their peers, and individuals with the Multiculturalist and Low Race Salience profiles reported the lowest scores. A greater percentage of individuals with Conflicted racial identity profiles had syndrome scores in the clinically significant range. The results of this study demonstrate that some of the nigrescence profiles found in college-age students generalize to adolescents. The implications of the findings for theory, research, and practice are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of novel scoring system named 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale for allergic conjunctivitis disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Jun; Inada, Noriko; Sawa, Mitsuru

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the practical usefulness of a scoring system using the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale for allergic conjunctivitis disease (ACD). Subjects were 103 patients with ACD including 40 patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), 20 patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), and 43 patients with allergic conjunctivitis (AC). The 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale consists of the following 3 graded groups of clinical observations: the 100-point-grade group (100 points for each observation) includes active giant papillae, gelatinous infiltrates of the limbus, exfoliative epithelial keratopathy, shield ulcer and papillary proliferation at lower palpebral conjunctiva; the 10-point-grade group (10 points for each observation) includes blepharitis, papillary proliferation with velvety appearance, Horner-Trantas spots, edema of bulbal conjunctiva, and superficial punctate keratopathy; and the 1-point-grade group (1 point for each observation) includes papillae at upper palpebral conjunctiva, follicular lesion at lower palpebral conjunctiva, hyperemia of palpebral conjunctiva, hyperemia of bulbal conjunctiva, and lacrimal effusion. The total points in each grade group were determined as the severity score of the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale. The median severity scores of the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale in VKC, AKC and AC were 243 (range: 12-444), 32.5 (11-344), and 13 (2-33), respectively. The severity score of each ACD disease type was significantly different (P Kruskal-Wallis test). The severity of each type of ACD was classified as severe, moderate, or mild according to the severity score. The 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale is a useful clinical tool for grading the severity of each type of ACD.

  6. Scale of Academic Emotion in Science Education: Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wen-Wei; Liu, Chia-Ju

    2014-04-01

    Contemporary research into science education has generally been conducted from the perspective of 'conceptual change' in learning. This study sought to extend previous work by recognizing that human rationality can be influenced by the emotions generated by the learning environment and specific actions related to learning. Methods used in educational psychology were adopted to investigate the emotional experience of science students as affected by gender, teaching methods, feedback, and learning tasks. A multidisciplinary research approach combining brain activation measurement with multivariate psychological data theory was employed in the development of a questionnaire intended to reveal the academic emotions of university students in three situations: attending science class, learning scientific subjects, and problem solving. The reliability and validity of the scale was evaluated using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Results revealed differences between the genders in positive-activating and positive-deactivating academic emotions in all three situations; however, these differences manifested primarily during preparation for Science tests. In addition, the emotions experienced by male students were more intense than those of female students. Finally, the negative-deactivating emotions associated with participation in Science tests were more intense than those experienced by simply studying science. This study provides a valuable tool with which to evaluate the emotional response of students to a range of educational situations.

  7. Predicting Pre-Service Classroom Teachers' Civil Servant Recruitment Examination's Educational Sciences Test Scores Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Metin

    2015-01-01

    This study predicts the number of correct answers given by pre-service classroom teachers in Civil Servant Recruitment Examination's (CSRE) educational sciences test based on their high school grade point averages, university entrance scores, and grades (mid-term and final exams) from their undergraduate educational courses. This study was…

  8. Establishing the cut-off score for remission and severity-ranges on the Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren D; Rothschild, Anthony J; Flint, Alastair J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS) is a rating scale dedicated to the measurement of severity in psychotic depression (PD). The aim of this study was to establish the PDAS cut-off for remission of PD as well as PDAS score-ranges for mild, moderate, and severe PD...... on the PDAS and the severity-ranges for mild, moderate, and severe PD were defined using the Clinical Global Impression - Severity scale (CGI-S) as reference by means of pair-wise receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Subsequently, it was tested whether remission on the PDAS could separate...... the effects of Olanzapine+Sertraline vs. Olanzapine+Placebo through an intention-to-treat, mixed-effects logistic regression of the data from STOP-PD. RESULTS: According to the ROC analyses, the ideal cut-off for remission of PD was a PDAS total score moderate...

  9. Reliability and Validity of the New Tanaka B Intelligence Scale Scores: A Group Intelligence Test

    OpenAIRE

    Uno, Yota; Mizukami, Hitomi; Ando, Masahiko; Yukihiro, Ryoji; Iwasaki, Yoko; Ozaki, Norio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale, which is an intelligence test that can be administered on groups within a short period of time. METHODS: The new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition were administered to 81 subjects (mean age ± SD 15.2 ± 0.7 years) residing in a juvenile detention home; reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and concurre...

  10. Determining the Correlation Between Language Scores Obtained by Medical Students in their University Entrance and Comprehensive Medical Basic Sciences Exams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ahmadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Some professors and educators in the field of English language believe that the high grades attained by medical students in their Comprehensive Medical Basic Sciences Exam (CMBSE are mainly a result of the students prior fluency in the language before entering medical colleges; they are of the opinion that these grades are not necessarily a result of the combined effort of the English teachers and students in language courses at the university. This research aimsat determining the correlation between the level of fluency in English of medical students prior to university entrance and the grades obtained by them in their CMBSE after 3 terms of language courses at the university.Methods: Seven of the major and smaller universities of medical sciences were selected. The language scores of 2426 students admitted to these universities during the three academic years of 1999 to 2002 in both the National University Entrance Examination (NUEE and the Comprehensive Medical Basic Sciences Exam (CMBSE were obtained from their related universities and from the secretariat of the Council of Medical Basic Sciences Education respectively. The language scores of each studentobtained in both NUEE and CMBSE were then matched. The related SPSS software was used to assess the level of correlation between these two groups of language scores for the students of each university, for each academic year and semester and also the overall score for the three years.Results: Overall a positive and moderately significant correlation was found between the NUEE language scores and those of the CMBSE of the students of the universities studied (P<0/001; R=443%. The level of correlation for the various universities studied differed (Max. 69%, min.27%.A comparison of the means of these two groups of scores also confirmed this correlation.Conclusion: students’ grades The NUEE language score was not the only factor affecting the student’s CMBSE score

  11. Sensitivity and Specificity of the Coma Recovery Scale--Revised Total Score in Detection of Conscious Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodien, Yelena G; Carlowicz, Cecilia A; Chatelle, Camille; Giacino, Joseph T

    2016-03-01

    To describe the sensitivity and specificity of Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) total scores in detecting conscious awareness. Data were retrospectively extracted from the medical records of patients enrolled in a specialized disorders of consciousness (DOC) program. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were completed using CRS-R-derived diagnoses of minimally conscious state (MCS) or emerged from minimally conscious state (EMCS) as the reference standard for conscious awareness and the total CRS-R score as the test criterion. A receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed to demonstrate the optimal CRS-R total cutoff score for maximizing sensitivity and specificity. Specialized DOC program. Patients enrolled in the DOC program (N=252, 157 men; mean age, 49y; mean time from injury, 48d; traumatic etiology, n=127; nontraumatic etiology, n=125; diagnosis of coma or vegetative state, n=70; diagnosis of MCS or EMCS, n=182). Not applicable. Sensitivity and specificity of CRS-R total scores in detecting conscious awareness. A CRS-R total score of 10 or higher yielded a sensitivity of .78 for correct identification of patients in MCS or EMCS, and a specificity of 1.00 for correct identification of patients who did not meet criteria for either of these diagnoses (ie, were diagnosed with vegetative state or coma). The area under the curve in the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis is .98. A total CRS-R score of 10 or higher provides strong evidence of conscious awareness but resulted in a false-negative diagnostic error in 22% of patients who demonstrated conscious awareness based on CRS-R diagnostic criteria. A cutoff score of 8 provides the best balance between sensitivity and specificity, accurately classifying 93% of cases. The optimal total score cutoff will vary depending on the user's objective. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Web-based Visual Analytics for Extreme Scale Climate Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Evans, Katherine J [ORNL; Harney, John F [ORNL; Jewell, Brian C [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Smith, Brian E [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a Web-based visual analytics framework for democratizing advanced visualization and analysis capabilities pertinent to large-scale earth system simulations. We address significant limitations of present climate data analysis tools such as tightly coupled dependencies, ineffi- cient data movements, complex user interfaces, and static visualizations. Our Web-based visual analytics framework removes critical barriers to the widespread accessibility and adoption of advanced scientific techniques. Using distributed connections to back-end diagnostics, we minimize data movements and leverage HPC platforms. We also mitigate system dependency issues by employing a RESTful interface. Our framework embraces the visual analytics paradigm via new visual navigation techniques for hierarchical parameter spaces, multi-scale representations, and interactive spatio-temporal data mining methods that retain details. Although generalizable to other science domains, the current work focuses on improving exploratory analysis of large-scale Community Land Model (CLM) and Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) simulations.

  13. Large-scale networks in engineering and life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Findeisen, Rolf; Flockerzi, Dietrich; Reichl, Udo; Sundmacher, Kai

    2014-01-01

    This edited volume provides insights into and tools for the modeling, analysis, optimization, and control of large-scale networks in the life sciences and in engineering. Large-scale systems are often the result of networked interactions between a large number of subsystems, and their analysis and control are becoming increasingly important. The chapters of this book present the basic concepts and theoretical foundations of network theory and discuss its applications in different scientific areas such as biochemical reactions, chemical production processes, systems biology, electrical circuits, and mobile agents. The aim is to identify common concepts, to understand the underlying mathematical ideas, and to inspire discussions across the borders of the various disciplines.  The book originates from the interdisciplinary summer school “Large Scale Networks in Engineering and Life Sciences” hosted by the International Max Planck Research School Magdeburg, September 26-30, 2011, and will therefore be of int...

  14. Higher stress scores for female medical students measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10 in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Qamar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the stress level of medical students and the relationship between stress and academic year. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at an undergraduate medical school with a five-year curriculum, in Pakistan, from January 2014 to April 2014. Medical students in the first four years were included in the study. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10, a self-administered questionnaire, was distributed to the students. A total of 445 medical students completed the questionnaire. The average stress score was 19.61 (SD = 6.76 with a range from 10 to 43. Stress was experienced by 169 students (41.7%. The scores of female students were higher than scores of males, indicating a higher stress level (P = 0.011. The relationship between stress and academic year was insignificant (P = 0.392.

  15. [Golf handicap score is a suitable scale for monitoring rehabilitation after apoplexia cerebri].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Per; Meden, Per; Knudsen, Lars V; Knudsen, G M; Thomsen, Carsten; Feng, Ling; Pinborg, Lars H

    2015-12-21

    A 67-year-old male was examined nine, 35 and 135 days after stroke using conventional stroke scales, 18 holes of golf, functional MRI (fist closures) and translocator protein imaging of microglial function in the brain using single photon emission computed tomography. The data showed that the over 100-year-old golf handicap scale is better suited for quantifying recovery after stroke than conventional stroke assessment scales, which are prone to ceiling effect. We suggest that rating with golf handicap should be used more widely in stroke research, and we find it tremendously important that these new findings are published before Christmas.

  16. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition short form for index and IQ scores in a psychiatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Bruce K; Girard, Todd A; Bagby, R Michael

    2007-06-01

    An eight-subtest short form (SF8) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III), maintaining equal representation of each index factor, was developed for use with psychiatric populations. Data were collected from a mixed inpatient/outpatient sample (99 men and 101 women) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Psychometric analyses revealed an optimal SF8 comprising Vocabulary, Similarities, Arithmetic, Digit Span, Picture Completion, Matrix Reasoning, Digit Symbol Coding, and Symbol Search, scored by linear scaling. Expanding on previous short forms, the current SF8 maximizes the breadth of information and reduces administration time while maintaining the original WAIS-III factor structure. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  17. The London handicap scale: a re-evaluation of its validity using standard scoring and simple summation

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkinson, C.; Mant, J.; Carter, J.; Wade, D.; Winner, S.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the validity of the London handicap scale (LHS) using a simple unweighted scoring system compared with traditional weighted scoring
METHODS—323 patients admitted to hospital with acute stroke were followed up by interview 6 months after their stroke as part of a trial looking at the impact of a family support organiser. Outcome measures included the six item LHS, the Dartmouth COOP charts, the Frenchay activities index, the Barthel index, and the hospital...

  18. Conversion between mini-mental state examination, montreal cognitive assessment, and dementia rating scale-2 scores in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steenoven, Inger; Aarsland, Dag; Hurtig, Howard; Chen-Plotkin, Alice; Duda, John E; Rick, Jacqueline; Chahine, Lama M; Dahodwala, Nabila; Trojanowski, John Q; Roalf, David R; Moberg, Paul J; Weintraub, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive impairment is one of the earliest, most common, and most disabling non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). Thus, routine screening of global cognitive abilities is important for the optimal management of PD patients. Few global cognitive screening instruments have been developed for or validated in PD patients. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and Dementia Rating Scale-2 (DRS-2) have been used extensively for cognitive screening in both clinical and research settings. Determining how to convert the scores between instruments would facilitate the longitudinal assessment of cognition in clinical settings and the comparison and synthesis of cognitive data in multicenter and longitudinal cohort studies. The primary aim of this study was to apply a simple and reliable algorithm for the conversion of MoCA to MMSE scores in PD patients. A secondary aim was to apply this algorithm for the conversion of DRS-2 to both MMSE and MoCA scores. The cognitive performance of a convenience sample of 360 patients with idiopathic PD was assessed by at least two of these cognitive screening instruments. We then developed conversion scores between the MMSE, MoCA, and DRS-2 using equipercentile equating and log-linear smoothing. The conversion score tables reported here enable direct and easy comparison of three routinely used cognitive screening assessments in PD patients. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  19. Evaluation of stratification factors and score-scales in clinical trials of treatment of clinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hektoen, L; Ødegaard, S A; Løken, T; Larsen, S

    2004-05-01

    There is often a need to reduce sample size in clinical trials due to practical limitations and ethical considerations. Better comparability between treatment groups by use of stratification in the design, and use of continuous outcome variables in the evaluation of treatment results, are two methods that can be used in order to achieve this. In this paper the choice of stratification factors in trials of clinical mastitis in dairy cows is investigated, and two score-scales for evaluation of clinical mastitis are introduced. The outcome in 57 dairy cows suffering from clinical mastitis and included in a clinical trial comparing homeopathic treatment, placebo and a standard antibiotic treatment is investigated. The strata of various stratification factors are compared across treatments to determine which other factors influence outcome. The two score scales, measuring acute and chronic mastitis symptoms, respectively, are evaluated on their ability to differentiate between patients classified from clinical criteria as responders or non-responders to treatment. Differences were found between the strata of the factors severity of mastitis, lactation number, previous mastitis this lactation and bacteriological findings. These factors influence outcome of treatment and appear relevant as stratification factors in mastitis trials. Both score scales differentiated between responders and non-responders to treatment and were found useful for evaluation of mastitis and mastitis treatment.

  20. Inclusion of Highest Glasgow Coma Scale Motor Component Score in Mortality Risk Adjustment for Benchmarking of Trauma Center Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, David; Byrne, James P; Alali, Aziz S; Xiong, Wei; Hoeft, Chris; Neal, Melanie; Subacius, Harris; Nathens, Avery B

    2017-12-01

    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the most widely used measure of traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity. Currently, the arrival GCS motor component (mGCS) score is used in risk-adjustment models for external benchmarking of mortality. However, there is evidence that the highest mGCS score in the first 24 hours after injury might be a better predictor of death. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of including the highest mGCS score on the performance of risk-adjustment models and subsequent external benchmarking results. Data were derived from the Trauma Quality Improvement Program analytic dataset (January 2014 through March 2015) and were limited to the severe TBI cohort (16 years or older, isolated head injury, GCS ≤8). Risk-adjustment models were created that varied in the mGCS covariates only (initial score, highest score, or both initial and highest mGCS scores). Model performance and fit, as well as external benchmarking results, were compared. There were 6,553 patients with severe TBI across 231 trauma centers included. Initial and highest mGCS scores were different in 47% of patients (n = 3,097). Model performance and fit improved when both initial and highest mGCS scores were included, as evidenced by improved C-statistic, Akaike Information Criterion, and adjusted R-squared values. Three-quarters of centers changed their adjusted odds ratio decile, 2.6% of centers changed outlier status, and 45% of centers exhibited a ≥0.5-SD change in the odds ratio of death after including highest mGCS score in the model. This study supports the concept that additional clinical information has the potential to not only improve the performance of current risk-adjustment models, but can also have a meaningful impact on external benchmarking strategies. Highest mGCS score is a good potential candidate for inclusion in additional models. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Predicting SF-6D utility scores from the Oswestry disability index and numeric rating scales for back and leg pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, Leah Y; Glassman, Steven D; McDonough, Christine M; Rampersaud, Raja; Berven, Sigurd; Shainline, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Cross-sectional cohort. The purpose of this study is to provide a model to allow estimation of utility from the Short Form (SF)-6D using data from the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Back Pain Numeric Rating Scale (BPNRS), and the Leg Pain Numeric Rating Scale (LPNRS). Cost-utility analysis provides important information about the relative value of interventions and requires a measure of utility not often available from clinical trial data. The ODI and numeric rating scales for back (BPNRS) and leg pain (LPNRS), are widely used disease-specific measures for health-related quality of life in patients with lumbar degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study is to provide a model to allow estimation of utility from the SF-6D using data from the ODI, BPNRS, and the LPNRS. SF-36, ODI, BPNRS, and LPNRS were prospectively collected before surgery, at 12 and 24 months after surgery in 2640 patients undergoing lumbar fusion for degenerative disorders. Spearman correlation coefficients for paired observations from multiple time points between ODI, BPNRS, and LPNRS, and SF-6D utility scores were determined. Regression modeling was done to compute the SF-6D score from the ODI, BPNRS, and LPNRS. Using a separate, independent dataset of 2174 patients in which actual SF-6D and ODI scores were available, the SF-6D was estimated for each subject and compared to their actual SF-6D. In the development sample, the mean age was 52.5 +/- 15 years and 34% were male. In the validation sample, the mean age was 52.9 +/- 14.2 years and 44% were male. Correlations between the SF-6D and the ODI, BPNRS, and LPNRS were statistically significant (P < 0.0001) with correlation coefficients of 0.82, 0.78, and 0.72, respectively. The regression equation using ODI, BPNRS,and LPNRS to predict SF-6D had an R of 0.69 and a root mean square error of 0.076. The model using ODI alone had an R of 0.67 and a root mean square error of 0.078. The correlation coefficient between the observed and estimated

  2. Improving Science Scores of Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities through Engineering Problem Solving Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, A. Leyf Peirce; Lo, Ya-Yu; Rivera, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the differential effects of three different science teaching methods, namely engineering teaching kit (ETK), explicit instruction (EI), and a combination of the two methods (ETK+EI), in two sixth-grade science classrooms. Twelve students with learning disabilities (LD) and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

  3. An automated four-point scale scoring of segmental wall motion in echocardiography using quantified parametric images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachenoura, N; Delouche, A; Ruiz Dominguez, C; Frouin, F; Diebold, B; Nardi, O

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop an automated method which operates on echocardiographic dynamic loops for classifying the left ventricular regional wall motion (RWM) in a four-point scale. A non-selected group of 37 patients (2 and 4 chamber views) was studied. Each view was segmented according to the standardized segmentation using three manually positioned anatomical landmarks (the apex and the angles of the mitral annulus). The segmented data were analyzed by two independent experienced echocardiographists and the consensual RWM scores were used as a reference for comparisons. A fast and automatic parametric imaging method was used to compute and display as static color-coded parametric images both temporal and motion information contained in left ventricular dynamic echocardiograms. The amplitude and time parametric images were provided to a cardiologist for visual analysis of RWM and used for RWM quantification. A cross-validation method was applied to the segmental quantitative indices for classifying RWM in a four-point scale. A total of 518 segments were analyzed. Comparison between visual interpretation of parametric images and the reference reading resulted in an absolute agreement (Aa) of 66% and a relative agreement (Ra) of 96% and kappa (κ) coefficient of 0.61. Comparison of the automated RWM scoring against the same reference provided Aa = 64%, Ra = 96% and κ = 0.64 on the validation subset. Finally, linear regression analysis between the global quantitative index and global reference scores as well as ejection fraction resulted in correlations of 0.85 and 0.79. A new automated four-point scale scoring of RWM was developed and tested in a non-selected database. Its comparison against a consensual visual reading of dynamic echocardiograms showed its ability to classify RWM abnormalities.

  4. RSE-40: An Alternate Scoring System for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gaylen R.

    The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (RSE) is a 10-item scale purporting to measure self-esteem using self-acceptance and self-worth statements. This analysis covers concerns about the degree to which the RSE items represent a particular content universe, the RSE's applicability, factor analytic methods used, and the RSE's reliability and validity.…

  5. The Factor Structure of Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale Scores in Peruvian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Kathryn R.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Merino, Cesar; Worrell, Frank C.

    2009-01-01

    The factor structure of the Escala de Conductas de Aprendizaje Preescolar (ECAP), a Spanish translation of the Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS), was examined in this study. Children aged 2 to 6 years (N = 328) enrolled in public and private preschools in the Republic of Peru were rated by classroom teachers on the frequency of observable,…

  6. The Development and Validation of Scores on the Mathematics Information Processing Scale (MIPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessant, Kenneth C.

    1997-01-01

    This study reports on the development and psychometric properties of a new 87-item Mathematics Information Processing Scale that explores learning strategies, metacognitive problem-solving skills, and attentional deployment. Results with 340 college students support the use of the instrument, for which factor analysis identified five theoretically…

  7. Determining minimally important score differences in scales of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Hasle, Peter

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To determine minimally important differences (MIDs) for scales in the first version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). METHODS: Data were taken from two separate studies: a national population survey (N = 1062), and an intervention study at 14 workplaces (N = 1505). On th...

  8. Validity Evidence for the Interpretation and Use of Essential Elements of Communication Global Rating Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nancy Rhoda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Clinical communication influences health outcomes, so medical schools are charged to prepare future physicians with the skills they need to interact effectively with patients. Communication leaders at The University of New Mexico School of Medicine (UNMSOM) developed The Essential Elements of Communication-Global Rating Scale (EEC-GRS) to…

  9. Associations between MMPI-2-RF validity scale scores and extra-test measures of personality and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbey, Johnathan D; Lee, Tayla T C; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Arbisi, Paul A; Gartland, Diane

    2013-08-01

    The current study explored associations between two potentially invalidating self-report styles detected by the Validity scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), over-reporting and under-reporting, and scores on the MMPI-2-RF substantive, as well as eight collateral self-report measures administered either at the same time or within 1 to 10 days of MMPI-2-RF administration. Analyses were conducted with data provided by college students, male prisoners, and male psychiatric outpatients from a Veterans Administration facility. Results indicated that if either an over- or under-reporting response style was suggested by the MMPI-2-RF Validity scales, scores on the majority of the MMPI-2-RF substantive scales, as well as a number of collateral measures, were significantly affected in all three groups in the expected directions. Test takers who were identified as potentially engaging in an over- or under-reporting response style by the MMPI-2-RF Validity scales appeared to approach extra-test measures similarly regardless of when these measures were administered in relation to the MMPI-2-RF. Limitations and suggestions for future study are discussed.

  10. [Correlation between dental pulp demyelination degree and pain visual analogue scale scores data under acute and chronic pulpitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsantiia, N B; Davarashvili, X T; Gogiashvili, L E; Mamaladze, M T; Tsagareli, Z G; Melikadze, E B

    2013-05-01

    The aim of study is the analysis of pulp nerve fibers demyelination degree and its relationship with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score that may be measured as objective criteria. Material and methods of study. Step I: electron micrografs of dental pulp simples with special interest of myelin structural changes detected in 3 scores system, obtained from 80 patients, displays in 4 groups: 1) acute and 2) chronic pulpitis without and with accompined systemic deseases, 20 patients in each group. Dental care was realized in Kutaisi N1 Dental clinic. Step II - self-reported VAS used for describing dental pain. All data were performed by SPSS 10,0 version statistics including Spearmen-rank and Mann-Whitny coefficients for examine the validity between pulp demyelination degree and pain intensity in verbal, numbered and box scales. Researched Data were shown that damaged myelin as focal decomposition of membranes and Schwann cells hyperthrophia correspond with acute dental pain intensity as Spearman index reported in VAS numbered Scales, myelin and axoplasm degeneration as part of chronic gangrenous pulpitis disorders are in direct correlation with VAS in verbal, numbered and behavioral Rating Scales. In fact, all morphological and subjective data, including psychomotoric assessment of dental painin pulpitis may be used in dental practice for evaluation of pain syndrome considered personal story.

  11. Normative scores on the Berg Balance Scale decline after age 70 years in healthy community-dwelling people: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Stephen; Marquez, Jodie; Chiarelli, Pauline

    2014-06-01

    What is the mean Berg Balance Scale score of healthy elderly people living in the community and how does it vary with age? How much variability in Berg Balance Scale scores is present in groups of healthy elderly people and how does this vary with age? Systematic review with meta-analysis. Any group of healthy community-dwelling people with a mean age of 70 years or greater that has undergone assessment using the Berg Balance Scale. Mean and standard deviations of Berg Balance Scale scores within cohorts of elderly people of known mean age. The search yielded 17 relevant studies contributing data from a total of 1363 participants. The mean Berg Balance Scale scores ranged from 37 to 55 out of a possible maximum score of 56. The standard deviation of Berg Balance Scale scores varied from 1.0 to 9.2. Although participants aged around 70 years had very close to normal Berg Balance Scale scores, there was a significant decline in balance with age at a rate of 0.7 points on the 56-point Berg Balance Scale per year. There was also a strong association between increasing age and increasing variability in balance (R(2) = 0.56, p balance deficits, as measured by the Berg Balance Scale, although balance scores deteriorate and become more variable with age. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. A Scale to Assess Science Activity Videos (SASAV): The Study of Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Yilmaz; Bakirci, Hasan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop an assessment scale for science activity videos that can be used to determine qualified science activity videos that can fulfill the objectives of activity based science education, help teachers to evaluate any science activity videos and decide whether to include into science learning process. The subjects…

  13. A comparison of intraoperative morphine sulfate and methadone hydrochloride on postoperative visual analogue scale pain scores and narcotic requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laur, D F; Sinkovich, J; Betley, K

    1995-02-01

    Morphine sulfate and methadone hydrochloride exhibit very different half-lives but are described as having an analgesic potency of one. The use of a drug like methadone may provide prolonged and constant analgesia in the perioperative setting. This double-blinded investigation used methadone and morphine intraoperatively and measured pain scores and narcotic requirements in the first 24 hours postoperatively. Thirty American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) patients, physical status I through III, between the ages of 18 to 65 years were scheduled for orthopedic surgery and randomly assigned to receive morphine or methadone at 0.30 mg/kg. Fifteen patients received morphine and fifteen patients received methadone. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, height, weight, and ASA status. No statistically significant difference was observed among the two groups between the amount of analgesic requirements postoperatively or in the visual analogue scale pain score.

  14. Croatian Medical Journal citation score in Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sember, Marijan; Utrobicić, Ana; Petrak, Jelka

    2010-04-01

    To analyze the 2007 citation count of articles published by the Croatian Medical Journal in 2005-2006 based on data from the Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Web of Science and Scopus were searched for the articles published in 2005-2006. As all articles returned by Scopus were included in Web of Science, the latter list was the sample for further analysis. Total citation counts for each article on the list were retrieved from Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar. The overlap and unique citations were compared and analyzed. Proportions were compared using chi(2)-test. Google Scholar returned the greatest proportion of articles with citations (45%), followed by Scopus (42%), and Web of Science (38%). Almost a half (49%) of articles had no citations and 11% had an equal number of identical citations in all 3 databases. The greatest overlap was found between Web of Science and Scopus (54%), followed by Scopus and Google Scholar (51%), and Web of Science and Google Scholar (44%). The greatest number of unique citations was found by Google Scholar (n=86). The majority of these citations (64%) came from journals, followed by books and PhD theses. Approximately 55% of all citing documents were full-text resources in open access. The language of citing documents was mostly English, but as many as 25 citing documents (29%) were in Chinese. Google Scholar shares a total of 42% citations returned by two others, more influential, bibliographic resources. The list of unique citations in Google Scholar is predominantly journal based, but these journals are mainly of local character. Citations received by internationally recognized medical journals are crucial for increasing the visibility of small medical journals but Google Scholar may serve as an alternative bibliometric tool for an orientational citation insight.

  15. Summary scores captured changes in subjects' QoL as measured by the multiple scales of the EORTC QLQ-C30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Rachel; Gandhi, Mihir; Cheung, Yin Bun; Findlay, Michael P; Win, Khin Maung; Hai, Hoang Hoa; Yang, Jin Mo; Lobo, Rolley Rey; Soo, Khee Chee; Chow, Pierce K H

    2015-08-01

    To examine the performance of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) global health status/quality of life (QoL) scale and two summary scores to detect changes in the QoL profile over time, according to changes in the individual scales. Data came from 167 clinical trial patients with unresectable (advanced) hepatocellular carcinoma. The global health status/QoL scale of the questionnaire contained two items: overall health and overall QoL. Nordin and Hinz proposed summary scores for the questionnaire. A mixed-effect model was fitted to estimate trends in scores over time. Predominantly the individual scale scores declined over time; however, the global health status/QoL score was stable [rate of change = -0.3 per month; 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.2, 0.6]. Nordin's summary score, which gave equal weight to the 15 questionnaire scales, and Hinz's summary score, which gave equal weight to the 30 questionnaire items, showed a statistically significant decline over time, 3.4 (95% CI: -4.5, -2.4) and 4.2 (95% CI: -5.3, -3.0) points per month, respectively. In contrast to the global health status/QoL scale, the summary scores proposed by Nordin and Hinz detected changes in subjects' QoL profile described by the EORTC QLQ-C30 individual scales. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. PISA and TIMSS Science Score, Which Clock Is More Accurate to Indicate National Science and Technology Competitiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei-Zhao; He, Xiqin; Wang, Yan; Fan, Zeng-Guang; Guo, Liangdong

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, PISA and TIMSS are coming up to us together. In this study, the data from PISA and TIMSS are used to investigate that which one is a better indicator of national science and technology (S&T) competitiveness? Number of S & T journal articles (per million people) is used as a measure to represent the national S&T…

  17. [Interpreting change scores of the Behavioural Rating Scale for Geriatric Inpatients (GIP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2013-09-01

    The Behavioural Rating Scale for Geriatric Inpatients (GIP) consists of fourteen, Rasch modelled subscales, each measuring different aspects of behavioural, cognitive and affective disturbances in elderly patients. Four additional measures are derived from the GIP: care dependency, apathy, cognition and affect. The objective of the study was to determine the reproducibility of the 18 measures. A convenience sample of 56 patients in psychogeriatric day care was assessed twice by the same observer (a professional caregiver). The median time interval between rating occasions was 45 days (interquartile range 34-58 days). Reproducibility was determined by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC agreement) for test-retest reliability. The minimal detectable difference (MDD) was calculated based on the standard error of measurement (SEM agreement). Test-retest reliability expressed by the ICCs varied from 0.57 (incoherent behaviour) to 0.93 (anxious behaviour). Standard errors of measurement varied from 0.28 (anxious behaviour) to 1.63 (care dependency). The results show how the GIP can be applied when interpreting individual change in psychogeriatric day care participants.

  18. The efficiency of parameter estimation of latent path analysis using summated rating scale (SRS) and method of successive interval (MSI) for transformation of score to scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimun, Fernandes, Adji Achmad Rinaldo; Arisoesilaningsih, Endang

    2017-12-01

    Research in various fields generally investigates systems and involves latent variables. One method to analyze the model representing the system is path analysis. The data of latent variables measured using questionnaires by applying attitude scale model yields data in the form of score, before analyzed should be transformation so that it becomes data of scale. Path coefficient, is parameter estimator, calculated from scale data using method of successive interval (MSI) and summated rating scale (SRS). In this research will be identifying which data transformation method is better. Path coefficients have smaller varieties are said to be more efficient. The transformation method that produces scaled data and used in path analysis capable of producing path coefficients (parameter estimators) with smaller varieties is said to be better. The result of analysis using real data shows that on the influence of Attitude variable to Intention Entrepreneurship, has relative efficiency (ER) = 1, where it shows that the result of analysis using data transformation of MSI and SRS as efficient. On the other hand, for simulation data, at high correlation between items (0.7-0.9), MSI method is more efficient 1.3 times better than SRS method.

  19. Architectural Strategies for Enabling Data-Driven Science at Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, D. J.; Law, E. S.; Doyle, R. J.; Little, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    The analysis of large data collections from NASA or other agencies is often executed through traditional computational and data analysis approaches, which require users to bring data to their desktops and perform local data analysis. Alternatively, data are hauled to large computational environments that provide centralized data analysis via traditional High Performance Computing (HPC). Scientific data archives, however, are not only growing massive, but are also becoming highly distributed. Neither traditional approach provides a good solution for optimizing analysis into the future. Assumptions across the NASA mission and science data lifecycle, which historically assume that all data can be collected, transmitted, processed, and archived, will not scale as more capable instruments stress legacy-based systems. New paradigms are needed to increase the productivity and effectiveness of scientific data analysis. This paradigm must recognize that architectural and analytical choices are interrelated, and must be carefully coordinated in any system that aims to allow efficient, interactive scientific exploration and discovery to exploit massive data collections, from point of collection (e.g., onboard) to analysis and decision support. The most effective approach to analyzing a distributed set of massive data may involve some exploration and iteration, putting a premium on the flexibility afforded by the architectural framework. The framework should enable scientist users to assemble workflows efficiently, manage the uncertainties related to data analysis and inference, and optimize deep-dive analytics to enhance scalability. In many cases, this "data ecosystem" needs to be able to integrate multiple observing assets, ground environments, archives, and analytics, evolving from stewardship of measurements of data to using computational methodologies to better derive insight from the data that may be fused with other sets of data. This presentation will discuss

  20. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale-Time Score Predicts Outcome after Endovascular Therapy in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Retrospective Single-Center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todo, Kenichi; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Kono, Tomoyuki; Hoshi, Taku; Imamura, Hirotoshi; Adachi, Hidemitsu; Kohara, Nobuo

    2016-05-01

    Outcomes after successful endovascular therapy in acute ischemic stroke are associated with onset-to-reperfusion time (ORT) and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. In intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator therapy, the NIHSS-time score, calculated by multiplying onset-to-treatment time with the NIHSS score, has been shown to predict clinical outcomes. In this study, we assessed whether a similar combination of the ORT and the NIHSS score can be applied to predict the outcomes after endovascular therapy. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 128 consecutive ischemic stroke patients with successful reperfusion after endovascular therapy. We analyzed the association of the ORT, the NIHSS score, and the NIHSS-time score with good outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 2 at 3 months). Good outcome rates for patients with NIHSS-time scores of 84.7 or lower, scores higher than 84.7 up to 127.5 or lower, and scores higher than 127.5 were 72.1%, 44.2%, and 14.3%, respectively (P < .01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the NIHSS-time score was an independent predictor of good outcomes (odds ratio, .372; 95% confidence interval, .175-.789) after adjusting for age, sex, internal carotid artery occlusion, plasma glucose level, ORT, and NIHSS score. The NIHSS-time score can predict good clinical outcomes after endovascular treatment. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Comparative Study of Glasgow Coma Scale and Full Outline of Unresponsiveness Scores for Predicting Long-Term Outcome After Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNett, Molly M; Amato, Shelly; Philippbar, Sue Ann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare predictive ability of hospital Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores and scores obtained using a novel coma scoring tool (the Full Outline of Unresponsiveness [FOUR] scale) on long-term outcomes among patients with traumatic brain injury. Preliminary research of the FOUR scale suggests that it is comparable with GCS for predicting mortality and functional outcome at hospital discharge. No research has investigated relationships between coma scores and outcome 12 months postinjury. This is a prospective cohort study. Data were gathered on adult patients with traumatic brain injury admitted to urban level I trauma center. GCS and FOUR scores were assigned at 24 and 72 hours and at hospital discharge. Glasgow Outcome Scale scores were assigned at 6 and 12 months. The sample size was n = 107. Mean age was 53.5 (SD = ±21, range = 18-91) years. Spearman correlations were comparable and strongest among discharge GCS and FOUR scores and 12-month outcome (r = .73, p coma scores performed best for both tools, with GCS discharge scores predictive in multivariate models.

  2. Personal Professional Development Efforts Scale for Science and Technology Teachers Regarding Their Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Aysegül; Balbag, Mustafa Zafer

    2016-01-01

    This study has developed "Personal Professional Development Efforts Scale for Science and Technology Teachers Regarding Their Fields". Exploratory factor analysis of the scale has been conducted based on the data collected from 200 science and technology teachers across Turkey. The scale has been observed through varimax rotation method,…

  3. Proportional Reasoning Ability and Concepts of Scale: Surface Area to Volume Relationships in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amy; Jones, Gail

    2009-01-01

    The "National Science Education Standards" emphasise teaching unifying concepts and processes such as basic functions of living organisms, the living environment, and scale. Scale influences science processes and phenomena across the domains. One of the big ideas of scale is that of surface area to volume. This study explored whether or not there…

  4. Raising test scores vs. teaching higher order thinking (HOT): senior science teachers' views on how several concurrent policies affect classroom practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Anat; Alboher Agmon, Vered

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates how senior science teachers viewed the effects of a Raising Test Scores policy and its implementation on instruction of higher order thinking (HOT), and on teaching thinking to students with low academic achievements.

  5. 2000-2010 Annual State-Scale Service and Domain Scores for Forecasting Well-Being from Service-Based Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — 2000-2010 Annual State-Scale Service and Domain scores used to support the approach for forecasting EPA's Human Well-Being Index. A modeling approach was developed...

  6. Zooniverse - Web scale citizen science with people and machines. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.; Lynn, S.; Lintott, C.; Simpson, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Zooniverse (zooniverse.org) began in 2007 with the launch of Galaxy Zoo, a project in which more than 175,000 people provided shape analyses of more than 1 million galaxy images sourced from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These galaxy 'classifications', some 60 million in total, have since been used to produce more than 50 peer-reviewed publications based not only on the original research goals of the project but also because of serendipitous discoveries made by the volunteer community. Based upon the success of Galaxy Zoo the team have gone on to develop more than 25 web-based citizen science projects, all with a strong research focus in a range of subjects from astronomy to zoology where human-based analysis still exceeds that of machine intelligence. Over the past 6 years Zooniverse projects have collected more than 300 million data analyses from over 1 million volunteers providing fantastically rich datasets for not only the individuals working to produce research from their project but also the machine learning and computer vision research communities. The Zooniverse platform has always been developed to be the 'simplest thing that works' implementing only the most rudimentary algorithms for functionality such as task allocation and user-performance metrics - simplifications necessary to scale the Zooniverse such that the core team of developers and data scientists can remain small and the cost of running the computing infrastructure relatively modest. To date these simplifications have been appropriate for the data volumes and analysis tasks being addressed. This situation however is changing: next generation telescopes such as the Large Synoptic Sky Telescope (LSST) will produce data volumes dwarfing those previously analyzed. If citizen science is to have a part to play in analyzing these next-generation datasets then the Zooniverse will need to evolve into a smarter system capable for example of modeling the abilities of users and the complexities of

  7. Seeing the Forest for the Trees: Prevalence of Low Scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Brian L.

    2010-01-01

    Low scores across a battery of tests are common in healthy people and vary by demographic characteristics. The purpose of the present article was to present the base rates of low scores for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV; D. Wechsler, 2003). Participants included 2,200 children and adolescents between 6 and…

  8. Challenges in Managing Trustworthy Large-scale Digital Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, B. J. K.

    2017-12-01

    The increased use of large-scale international digital science has opened a number of challenges for managing, handling, using and preserving scientific information. The large volumes of information are driven by three main categories - model outputs including coupled models and ensembles, data products that have been processing to a level of usability, and increasingly heuristically driven data analysis. These data products are increasingly the ones that are usable by the broad communities, and far in excess of the raw instruments data outputs. The data, software and workflows are then shared and replicated to allow broad use at an international scale, which places further demands of infrastructure to support how the information is managed reliably across distributed resources. Users necessarily rely on these underlying "black boxes" so that they are productive to produce new scientific outcomes. The software for these systems depend on computational infrastructure, software interconnected systems, and information capture systems. This ranges from the fundamentals of the reliability of the compute hardware, system software stacks and libraries, and the model software. Due to these complexities and capacity of the infrastructure, there is an increased emphasis of transparency of the approach and robustness of the methods over the full reproducibility. Furthermore, with large volume data management, it is increasingly difficult to store the historical versions of all model and derived data. Instead, the emphasis is on the ability to access the updated products and the reliability by which both previous outcomes are still relevant and can be updated for the new information. We will discuss these challenges and some of the approaches underway that are being used to address these issues.

  9. Do Multidimensional Pain Inventory scale score changes indicate risk of receiving sick leave benefits 1 year after a pain rehabilitation programme?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Vanja E; Novo, Mehmed; Sjölund, Bengt H

    2011-01-01

    To study whether scale score changes in the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) can predict which persons disabled by pain will receive sick leave benefits 1 year after completing a pain rehabilitation programme.......To study whether scale score changes in the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) can predict which persons disabled by pain will receive sick leave benefits 1 year after completing a pain rehabilitation programme....

  10. CORRELATION OF MOBILE PHONE ADDICTION SCALE (MPAS) SCORE WITH CRANIOVERTEBRAL ANGLE, SCAPULAR INDEX AND BECKS DEPRESSION INVENTORY SCORE IN YOUNG ADULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Rupali Salvi; Sneha Battin

    2018-01-01

    Background: Mobile phone usage has become increasingly common in today’s youth. Its heavy use often leads to an addiction. Dependency on these devices could lead to postural dysfunctions as well as produce an adverse effect on psychology. Hence, this study is done to correlate mobile addiction with the craniovertebral angle, scapular index and Beck’s depression inventory score in young adults. Methods: An observational study was performed on 100 subjects out of which 51 were males and 49 w...

  11. Comparison of the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score and the Glasgow Coma Scale in predicting mortality in critically ill patients*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M; Kramer, Andrew A; Rohs, Thomas; Hanna, Susan; Sadaka, Farid; O'Brien, Jacklyn; Bible, Shonna; Dickess, Stacy M; Foss, Michelle

    2015-02-01

    Impaired consciousness has been incorporated in prediction models that are used in the ICU. The Glasgow Coma Scale has value but is incomplete and cannot be assessed in intubated patients accurately. The Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score may be a better predictor of mortality in critically ill patients. Thirteen ICUs at five U.S. hospitals. One thousand six hundred ninety-five consecutive unselected ICU admissions during a six-month period in 2012. Glasgow Coma Scale and Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score were recorded within 1 hour of admission. Baseline characteristics and physiologic components of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation system, as well as mortality were linked to Glasgow Coma Scale/Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score information. None. We recruited 1,695 critically ill patients, of which 1,645 with complete data could be linked to data in the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation system. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of predicting ICU mortality using the Glasgow Coma Scale was 0.715 (95% CI, 0.663-0.768) and using the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score was 0.742 (95% CI, 0.694-0.790), statistically different (p = 0.001). A similar but nonsignificant difference was found for predicting hospital mortality (p = 0.078). The respiratory and brainstem reflex components of the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score showed a much wider range of mortality than the verbal component of Glasgow Coma Scale. In multivariable models, the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score was more useful than the Glasgow Coma Scale for predicting mortality. The Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score might be a better prognostic tool of ICU mortality than the Glasgow Coma Scale in critically ill patients, most likely a result of incorporating brainstem reflexes and respiration into the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score.

  12. The Use of Quality Control and Data Mining Techniques for Monitoring Scaled Scores: An Overview. Research Report. ETS RR-12-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Davier, Alina A.

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining comparability of test scores is a major challenge faced by testing programs that have almost continuous administrations. Among the potential problems are scale drift and rapid accumulation of errors. Many standard quality control techniques for testing programs, which can effectively detect and address scale drift for small numbers of…

  13. The relationships between integration strategies and student achievement scores in science among the non-college bound in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John Curtis

    1997-09-01

    To assume that students, or anyone for that matter, can recall bits of information when they have never been shown any practical application for that information is ludicrous. This study focuses on a variety of integration strategies that exist between vocational and academic subjects in Pennsylvania through an initiative called High Schools That Work. The data utilized was collected by the Educational Testing Service in 1994 and included information from 385 graduating seniors. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the perceived level of integration between science and vocational subject areas and scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The study utilized frequency distributions, descriptive statistics, correlation techniques, and regression analysis. Differences in the type of vocational program that students were enrolled in were examined as well as their gender. It is evident from this study that the use of vocational methodologies, particularly those involving student assignments on workplace problems in their classrooms, helps students consistently score higher on the NAEP. Findings also indicated that females performed better in areas which required higher level thinking skills when these methods were utilized. The usefulness of this study is broad and it has implications for those teaching, those designing curricula, those determining policy, as well as those in higher education.

  14. Self-Efficacy for Science Teaching Scale Development: Construct Validation with Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangin, Selami; Sidekli, Sabri

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of teacher self-efficacy has a history of more than 30 years. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the development and validation of a new scale to measure the science teaching self-efficacy of elementary school teachers. Therefore, a scale has been created to measure elementary teachers' science teaching self-efficacy and…

  15. Association between scores in high school, aptitude and achievement exams and early performance in health science college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Alwan Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study was carried out to assess the correlation between admi-ssion criteria to health science colleges, namely, final high school grade and Saudi National Apti-tude and Achievement exams, and early academic performance in these colleges. The study inclu-ded 91 male students studying in the two-year pre-professional program at the King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Records of these students were used to extract relevant information and their academic performance (based on the grade point average achieved at the end of the first semester of the pre-professional program, which were analytically studied. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the associa-tions between the different scores. SPSS statistical program (version 12.0 was used for data ana-lyses. We found a strong correlation between the academic performance and the Achievement Exam, Aptitude Exam and high school final grade, with Pearson Correlation Coefficients of 0.96, 0.93, 0.87, respectively. The Saudi National Achievement Exam showed the most significant correla-tion. Our results indicate that academic performance showed good correlation with the admission criteria used, namely final high school grade, Saudi National Aptitude and Achievement Exams.

  16. The use of the SF-36 questionnaire in adult survivors of childhood cancer: evaluation of data quality, score reliability, and scaling assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winter David L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SF-36 has been used in a number of previous studies that have investigated the health status of childhood cancer survivors, but it never has been evaluated regarding data quality, scaling assumptions, and reliability in this population. As health status among childhood cancer survivors is being increasingly investigated, it is important that the measurement instruments are reliable, validated and appropriate for use in this population. The aim of this paper was to determine whether the SF-36 questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument in assessing self-perceived health status of adult survivors of childhood cancer. Methods We examined the SF-36 to see how it performed with respect to (1 data completeness, (2 distribution of the scale scores, (3 item-internal consistency, (4 item-discriminant validity, (5 internal consistency, and (6 scaling assumptions. For this investigation we used SF-36 data from a population-based study of 10,189 adult survivors of childhood cancer. Results Overall, missing values ranged per item from 0.5 to 2.9 percent. Ceiling effects were found to be highest in the role limitation-physical (76.7% and role limitation-emotional (76.5% scales. All correlations between items and their hypothesised scales exceeded the suggested standard of 0.40 for satisfactory item-consistency. Across all scales, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient of reliability was found to be higher than the suggested value of 0.70. Consistent across all cancer groups, the physical health related scale scores correlated strongly with the Physical Component Summary (PCS scale scores and weakly with the Mental Component Summary (MCS scale scores. Also, the mental health and role limitation-emotional scales correlated strongly with the MCS scale score and weakly with the PCS scale score. Moderate to strong correlations with both summary scores were found for the general health perception, energy/vitality, and social functioning

  17. Network science of biological systems at different scales: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosak, Marko; Markovič, Rene; Dolenšek, Jurij; Slak Rupnik, Marjan; Marhl, Marko; Stožer, Andraž; Perc, Matjaž

    2018-03-01

    Network science is today established as a backbone for description of structure and function of various physical, chemical, biological, technological, and social systems. Here we review recent advances in the study of complex biological systems that were inspired and enabled by methods of network science. First, we present

  18. Scoring correction for MMPI-2 Hs scale with patients experiencing a traumatic brain injury: a test of measurement invariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkemade, Nathan; Bowden, Stephen C; Salzman, Louis

    2015-02-01

    It has been suggested that MMPI-2 scoring requires removal of some items when assessing patients after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Gass (1991. MMPI-2 interpretation and closed head injury: A correction factor. Psychological assessment, 3, 27-31) proposed a correction procedure in line with the hypothesis that MMPI-2 endorsement may be affected by symptoms of TBI. This study assessed the validity of the Gass correction procedure. A sample of patients with a TBI (n = 242), and a random subset of the MMPI-2 normative sample (n = 1,786). The correction procedure implies a failure of measurement invariance across populations. This study examined measurement invariance of one of the MMPI-2 scales (Hs) that includes TBI correction items. A four-factor model of the MMPI-2 Hs items was defined. The factor model was found to meet the criteria for partial measurement invariance. Analysis of the change in sensitivity and specificity values implied by partial measurement invariance failed to indicate significant practical impact of partial invariance. Overall, the results support continued use of all Hs items to assess psychological well-being in patients with TBI. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Catalytic activity of autoantibodies toward myelin basic protein correlates with the scores on the multiple sclerosis expanded disability status scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarenko, Natalia A; Durova, Oxana M; Vorobiev, Ivan I; Belogurov, Alexey A; Telegin, Georgy B; Suchkov, Sergey V; Misikov, Victor K; Morse, Herbert C; Gabibov, Alexander G

    2006-02-28

    Autoantibodies toward myelin basic protein (MBP) evidently emerge in sera and cerebrospinal fluid of the patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as in a MS rodent model, i.e., experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The studies of the last two decades have unveiled somewhat controversial data on the diagnostic applicability of anti-MBP autoantibodies as a disease' marker. Here, we present the results of new functional analysis of the anti-MBP autoantibodies isolated from MS (in patients) and EAE (in mice) sera, based on their proteolytic activity against the targeted autoantigen. The activity was shown to be the intrinsic property of the IgG molecule. No activity was found in the sera-derived antibody fraction of healthy donors and control mice. Sera of 24 patients with clinically proven MS at different stages of the disease, and 20 healthy controls were screened for the anti-MBP antibody-mediated proteolytic activity. The activity correlated with the scores on the MS expanded disability status scale (EDSS) (r(2)=0.85, P<0.001). Thus, the anti-MBP autoantibody-mediated proteolysis may be regarded as an additional marker of the disease progression.

  20. Quantifying Risk of Financial Incapacity and Financial Exploitation in Community-dwelling Older Adults: Utility of a Scoring System for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision-making Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Peter A; Gross, Evan; Ficker, Lisa J

    2018-06-08

    This work examines the clinical utility of the scoring system for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision-making Rating Scale (LFDRS) and its usefulness for decision making capacity and financial exploitation. Objective 1 was to examine the clinical utility of a person centered, empirically supported, financial decision making scale. Objective 2 was to determine whether the risk-scoring system created for this rating scale is sufficiently accurate for the use of cutoff scores in cases of decisional capacity and cases of suspected financial exploitation. Objective 3 was to examine whether cognitive decline and decisional impairment predicted suspected financial exploitation. Two hundred independently living, non-demented community-dwelling older adults comprised the sample. Participants completed the rating scale and other cognitive measures. Receiver operating characteristic curves were in the good to excellent range for decisional capacity scoring, and in the fair to good range for financial exploitation. Analyses supported the conceptual link between decision making deficits and risk for exploitation, and supported the use of the risk-scoring system in a community-based population. This study adds to the empirical evidence supporting the use of the rating scale as a clinical tool assessing risk for financial decisional impairment and/or financial exploitation.

  1. Differences in pain measures by mini-mental state examination scores of residents in aged care facilities: examining the usability of the Abbey pain scale-Japanese version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Yukari; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko; Ko, Ayako; Heilemann, Marysue V

    2014-03-01

    The validity and reliability of the Abbey Pain Scale-Japanese version (APS-J) have been examined. However, the range of cognitive levels for which the APS-J can be accurately used in older adults has not been investigated. This study aimed to examine the differences between total/item scores of the APS-J and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores of residents in aged care facilities who self-reported the presence or absence of pain. This descriptive study included 252 residents in aged care facilities. Self-reported pain, MMSE scores, and item/total APS-J scores for pain intensity were collected. The MMSE scores were used to create four groups on the basis of the cognitive impairment level. Self-reports of pain and the APS-J scores were compared with different MMSE score groups. The total APS-J score for pain intensity as well as scores for individual items such as "vocalization" and "facial expression" were significantly higher in those who reported pain than in those reporting no pain across all MMSE groups. The total APS-J score and item scores for "vocalization," "change in body language," and "behavioral changes" showed significant differences in the four MMSE groups. Pain intensity tended to be overestimated by the APS-J, especially among those with low MMSE scores. The APS-J can be used to assess pain intensity in residents despite their cognitive levels. However, caution is required when using it to compare scores among older adults with different cognitive capacity because of the possibility of overestimation of pain among residents with low cognitive capacity. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of rater training on scoring performance and scale-specific expertise amongst occupational therapists participating in a multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina; Elholm Madsen, Esben; Sørensen, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Gill Ingestive Skills Assessment (MISA) they observe, interpret and record occupational performance of dysphagic clients participating in a meal. This is a highly complex task, which might introduce unwanted variability in measurement scores. A 2-day rater training programme was developed and this builds...... of the training on scoring performance and scale-specific expertise amongst raters. METHOD: During 2 days of rater training, 81 occupational therapists (OTs) were qualified to observe and score dysphagic clients' mealtime performance according to the criteria of 36 MISA-items. The training effects were evaluated...... deficient mealtime performance appeared most difficult to score. The OTs scale-specific expertise improved significantly (knowledge: Z = -7.857, p performance when using the Danish MISA as well as their perceived...

  3. Evidence for the Psychometric Validity, Internal Consistency and Measurement Invariance of Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale Scores in Scottish and Irish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael T; Andretta, James R

    2017-09-01

    Mental well-being is an important indicator of current, but also the future health of adolescents. The 14-item Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) has been well validated in adults world-wide, but less work has been undertaken to examine the psychometric validity and internal consistency of WEMWBS scores in adolescents. In particular, little research has examined scores on the short 7-item version of the WEMWBS. The present study used two large samples of school children in Scotland and Northern Ireland and found that for both forms of the WEMWBS, scores were psychometrically valid, internally consistent, factor saturated, and measurement invariant by country. Using the WEMWBS full form, males reported significantly higher scores than females, and Northern Irish adolescents reported significantly higher scores than their Scottish counterparts. Last, the lowest overall levels of well-being were observed among Scottish females. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. AN OBSERVATIONAL CLINICAL STUDY OF ASSESSING THE UTILITY OF PSS (POISON SEVERITY SCORE AND GCS (GLASGOW COMA SCALE SCORING SYSTEMS IN PREDICTING SEVERITY AND CLINICAL OUTCOMES IN OP POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chandrasekhar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Organophosphorus compound poisoning is the most common poisonings in India because of easy availability often requiring ICU care and ventilator support. Clinical research has indicated that respiratory failure is the most important cause of death due to organophosphorus poisoning. It results in respiratory muscle weakness, pulmonary oedema, respiratory depression, increased secretions and bronchospasm. These complications and death can be prevented with timely institution of ventilator support. MATERIALS AND METHODS Hundred consecutive patients admitted with a history of organophosphorus poisoning at Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, were taken for study after considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Detailed history, confirmation of poisoning, examination and other than routine investigations, serum pseudocholinesterase and arterial blood gas analysis was done. The severity and clinical outcomes in OP poisoning is graded by PSS (poison severity score and GCS (Glasgow coma scale scoring systems. RESULTS This study was conducted in 100 patients with male preponderance. Majority of poisoning occurred in 21-30 age group (n=5. Most common compound consumed in our study was methyl parathion and least common was phosphoran. Slightly more than half of the patients consumed less than 50 mL of poison. 21 patients consumed between 50 to 100 mL. Distribution of poison severity score of patients studied showed 45 cases of grade 1 poisoning. 26 cases of grade 2 poisoning, 23 cases of grade 3 poisoning and 6 cases of grade 4 poisoning (death within first 24 hours. Distribution of GCS score of patients studied GCS scores were <10 in 25 patients at admission and 24 patients after 24 hours. GCS scores were ≥10 in 75 patients at admission and 76 patients after 24 hours. Poison severity score is not prognostic, but merely defines severity of OP poisoning at a given time. CONCLUSION Both Glasgow coma scale and poison severity scoring systems

  5. Molecular Science Computing Facility Scientific Challenges: Linking Across Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, Wibe A.; Windus, Theresa L.

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to define the evolving science drivers for performing environmental molecular research at the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) and to provide guidance associated with the next-generation high-performance computing center that must be developed at EMSL's Molecular Science Computing Facility (MSCF) in order to address this critical research. The MSCF is the pre-eminent computing facility?supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER)?tailored to provide the fastest time-to-solution for current computational challenges in chemistry and biology, as well as providing the means for broad research in the molecular and environmental sciences. The MSCF provides integral resources and expertise to emerging EMSL Scientific Grand Challenges and Collaborative Access Teams that are designed to leverage the multiple integrated research capabilities of EMSL, thereby creating a synergy between computation and experiment to address environmental molecular science challenges critical to DOE and the nation.

  6. Eleven Years of Data on the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Medical Student Version (JSE-S): Proxy Norm Data and Tentative Cutoff Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Gonnella, Joseph S

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to provide typical descriptive statistics, score distributions and percentile ranks of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Medical Student version (JSE-S) of male and female medical school matriculants to serve as proxy norm data and tentative cutoff scores. The participants were 2,637 students (1,336 women and 1,301 men) who matriculated at Sidney Kimmel (formerly Jefferson) Medical College between 2002 and 2012, and completed the JSE at the beginning of medical school. Information extracted from descriptive statistics, score distributions and percentile ranks for male and female matriculants were used to develop proxy norm data and tentative cutoff scores. The score distributions of the JSE tended to be moderately skewed and platykurtic. Women obtained a significantly higher mean score (116.2 ± 9.7) than men (112.3 ± 10.8) on the JSE-S (t2,635 = 9.9, p norm data. The tentative cutoff score to identify low scorers was ≤ 95 for men and ≤ 100 for women. Our findings provide norm data and cutoff scores for admission decisions under certain conditions and for identifying students in need of enhancing their empathy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Large-Scale Sequencing: The Future of Genomic Sciences Colloquium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaret Riley; Merry Buckley

    2009-01-01

    Genetic sequencing and the various molecular techniques it has enabled have revolutionized the field of microbiology. Examining and comparing the genetic sequences borne by microbes - including bacteria, archaea, viruses, and microbial eukaryotes - provides researchers insights into the processes microbes carry out, their pathogenic traits, and new ways to use microorganisms in medicine and manufacturing. Until recently, sequencing entire microbial genomes has been laborious and expensive, and the decision to sequence the genome of an organism was made on a case-by-case basis by individual researchers and funding agencies. Now, thanks to new technologies, the cost and effort of sequencing is within reach for even the smallest facilities, and the ability to sequence the genomes of a significant fraction of microbial life may be possible. The availability of numerous microbial genomes will enable unprecedented insights into microbial evolution, function, and physiology. However, the current ad hoc approach to gathering sequence data has resulted in an unbalanced and highly biased sampling of microbial diversity. A well-coordinated, large-scale effort to target the breadth and depth of microbial diversity would result in the greatest impact. The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium to discuss the scientific benefits of engaging in a large-scale, taxonomically-based sequencing project. A group of individuals with expertise in microbiology, genomics, informatics, ecology, and evolution deliberated on the issues inherent in such an effort and generated a set of specific recommendations for how best to proceed. The vast majority of microbes are presently uncultured and, thus, pose significant challenges to such a taxonomically-based approach to sampling genome diversity. However, we have yet to even scratch the surface of the genomic diversity among cultured microbes. A coordinated sequencing effort of cultured organisms is an appropriate place to begin

  8. Pattern analysis of total item score and item response of the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6 in a nationally representative sample of US adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Tomitaka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Several recent studies have shown that total scores on depressive symptom measures in a general population approximate an exponential pattern except for the lower end of the distribution. Furthermore, we confirmed that the exponential pattern is present for the individual item responses on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. To confirm the reproducibility of such findings, we investigated the total score distribution and item responses of the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6 in a nationally representative study. Methods Data were drawn from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS, which comprises four subsamples: (1 a national random digit dialing (RDD sample, (2 oversamples from five metropolitan areas, (3 siblings of individuals from the RDD sample, and (4 a national RDD sample of twin pairs. K6 items are scored using a 5-point scale: “none of the time,” “a little of the time,” “some of the time,” “most of the time,” and “all of the time.” The pattern of total score distribution and item responses were analyzed using graphical analysis and exponential regression model. Results The total score distributions of the four subsamples exhibited an exponential pattern with similar rate parameters. The item responses of the K6 approximated a linear pattern from “a little of the time” to “all of the time” on log-normal scales, while “none of the time” response was not related to this exponential pattern. Discussion The total score distribution and item responses of the K6 showed exponential patterns, consistent with other depressive symptom scales.

  9. Scale of Academic Emotion in Science Education: Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wen-Wei; Liu, Chia-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary research into science education has generally been conducted from the perspective of "conceptual change" in learning. This study sought to extend previous work by recognizing that human rationality can be influenced by the emotions generated by the learning environment and specific actions related to learning. Methods used…

  10. Science for action at the local landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Opddam; Joan Iverson Nassauer; Zhifang Wang; Christian Albert; Gary Bentrup; Jean-Christophe Castella; Clive McAlpine; Jianguo Liu; Stephen Sheppard; Simon Swaffield

    2013-01-01

    For landscape ecology to produce knowledge relevant to society, it must include considerations of human culture and behavior, extending beyond the natural sciences to synthesize with many other disciplines. Furthermore, it needs to be able to support landscape change processes which increasingly take the shape of deliberative and collaborative decision making by local...

  11. Present status of severe head injured patients with an admission glasgow coma scale score of 3 based on the Japan neurotrauma data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzura, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    Severe head injured patients presenting with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 3 have been hesitated to treat aggressively. We analyzed present status of patients with GCS score of 3 from the Project 2004 in the Japan Neurotrauma Data Bank. Among 1,101 cases registered, 805 cases with GCS score of 8 or less on admission. Of those, 215 cases with GCS score of 3 were classified the survival group (51 cases) and the dead group (164 cases) and compared each group. These results showed that the characteristics associated with favorable outcome including absence of cardiopulmonary arrest, no abnormality of pupil findings, stable condition of respiration and circulation, serum glucose level (less than 184 mg/dl), absence of initial CT findings including skull base fracture, pneumocephalus and subarachnoid hemorrhage, no serious extracranial injures including Injury Severity Scale score of less than 25, critic al care including intracranial pressure monitoring and temperature management. We suggest that it is important to treat brain and systemic problems aggressively in severe head injured patients with GCS score of 3. (author)

  12. Student-Centered Reliability, Concurrent Validity and Instructional Sensitivity in Scoring of Students' Concept Maps in a University Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Kilic, Ziya

    2004-01-01

    Student-centered approach of scoring the concept maps consisted of three elements namely symbol system, individual portfolio and scoring scheme. We scored student-constructed concept maps based on 5 concept map criteria: validity of concepts, adequacy of propositions, significance of cross-links, relevancy of examples, and interconnectedness. With…

  13. Examining the Impact of Unscorable Item Responses on the Validity and Interpretability of MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical (RC) Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon, Wendy R.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; Handel, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    This article examined the impact of unscorable item responses on the psychometric validity and practical interpretability of scores on the Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2/Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF). In analyses conducted with five…

  14. The Reverse of Social Anxiety Is Not Always the Opposite: The Reverse-Scored Items of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale Do Not Belong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Woods, Carol M.; Heimberg, Richard G.

    2007-01-01

    Although well-used and empirically supported, the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) has a questionable factor structure and includes reverse-scored items with questionable utility. Here, using samples of undergraduates and a sample of clients with social anxiety disorder, we extend previous work that opened the question of whether the…

  15. Long-Term Stability of Scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition in Children with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation explored the stability of scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV) over approximately a three-year period. Previous research has suggested that some children with Learning Disabilities (LD) do not demonstrate long-term stability of intelligence. Legally, school districts are no longer required…

  16. Investigating and Stimulating Primary Teachers' Attitudes Towards Science: Summary of a Large-Scale Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walma van der Molen, Juliette; van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Attention to the attitudes of primary teachers towards science is of fundamental importance to research on primary science education. The current article describes a large-scale research project that aims to overcome three main shortcomings in attitude research, i.e. lack of a strong theoretical concept of attitude, methodological flaws in…

  17. Investigating and stimulating primary teachers’ attitudes towards science: Summary of a large-scale research project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walma van der Molen, Julie Henriëtte; van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Attention to the attitudes of primary teachers towards science is of fundamental importance to research on primary science education. The current article describes a large-scale research project that aims to overcome three main shortcomings in attitude research, i.e. lack of a strong theoretical

  18. Raising Test Scores vs. Teaching Higher Order Thinking (HOT): Senior Science Teachers' Views on How Several Concurrent Policies Affect Classroom Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Anat; Alboher Agmon, Vered

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates how senior science teachers viewed the effects of a Raising Test Scores policy and its implementation on instruction of higher order thinking (HOT), and on teaching thinking to students with low academic achievements. Background: The study was conducted in the context of three concurrent policies advocating: (a)…

  19. A study of the effect of a visual arts-based program on the scores of Jefferson Scale for Physician Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kuang-Tao; Yang, Jen-Hung

    2013-10-25

    The effect of visual arts interventions on development of empathy has not been quantitatively investigated. A study was conducted on the effect of a visual arts-based program on the scores of the Jefferson Scale for Physician Empathy (JSPE). A total of 110 clerks (n = 92) and first-year postgraduate residents (PGY1s) (n = 18) participating in the program were recruited into this study. The 4-hr program covered the subjects of learning to interpret paintings, interpreting paintings relating to medicine, illness and human suffering, the related-topics of humanitarianism and the other humanities fields and values and meaning. The JSPE was completed at the beginning (pretest) and the end (posttest) of the program. There was no significant difference between the pretest and posttest JSPE scores. The average of the scores for the pretest was lower in the subgroup of PGY1s than the subgroup of clerks (p = 0.0358). An increased but not significantly mean posttest JESPE score was noted for the subgroup of PGY1s. Neither the females nor the males had higher posttest JSPE scores than the pretest scores. Although using a structured visual arts-based program as an intervention may be useful to enhance medical students' empathy, our results failed to show a positive effect on the JSPE Scores for a group of clerks and PGY1s. This suggests that further experimental studies are needed if quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of visual-arts based programs on empathy is to be investigated.

  20. Standardized Total Average Toxicity Score: A Scale- and Grade-Independent Measure of Late Radiotherapy Toxicity to Facilitate Pooling of Data From Different Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Gillian C., E-mail: gillbarnett@doctors.org.uk [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); West, Catharine M.L. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Coles, Charlotte E. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pharoah, Paul D.P. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Talbot, Christopher J. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Elliott, Rebecca M. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Tanteles, George A. [Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Symonds, R. Paul [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Jennifer S. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Dunning, Alison M. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Burnet, Neil G. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bentzen, Soren M. [University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Human Oncology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: The search for clinical and biologic biomarkers associated with late radiotherapy toxicity is hindered by the use of multiple and different endpoints from a variety of scoring systems, hampering comparisons across studies and pooling of data. We propose a novel metric, the Standardized Total Average Toxicity (STAT) score, to try to overcome these difficulties. Methods and Materials: STAT scores were derived for 1010 patients from the Cambridge breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy trial and 493 women from University Hospitals of Leicester. The sensitivity of the STAT score to detect differences between patient groups, stratified by factors known to influence late toxicity, was compared with that of individual endpoints. Analysis of residuals was used to quantify the effect of these covariates. Results: In the Cambridge cohort, STAT scores detected differences (p < 0.00005) between patients attributable to breast volume, surgical specimen weight, dosimetry, acute toxicity, radiation boost to tumor bed, postoperative infection, and smoking (p < 0.0002), with no loss of sensitivity over individual toxicity endpoints. Diabetes (p = 0.017), poor postoperative surgical cosmesis (p = 0.0036), use of chemotherapy (p = 0.0054), and increasing age (p = 0.041) were also associated with increased STAT score. When the Cambridge and Leicester datasets were combined, STAT was associated with smoking status (p < 0.00005), diabetes (p = 0.041), chemotherapy (p = 0.0008), and radiotherapy boost (p = 0.0001). STAT was independent of the toxicity scale used and was able to deal with missing data. There were correlations between residuals of the STAT score obtained using different toxicity scales (r > 0.86, p < 0.00005 for both datasets). Conclusions: The STAT score may be used to facilitate the analysis of overall late radiation toxicity, from multiple trials or centers, in studies of possible genetic and nongenetic determinants of radiotherapy toxicity.

  1. Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2 restructured form (MMPI-2-RF) scale score differences in bariatric surgery candidates diagnosed with binge eating disorder versus BMI-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Ashton, Kathleen; Heinberg, Leslie J

    2014-04-01

    Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is among the most common psychiatric disorders in bariatric surgery candidates. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) is a broadband, psychological test that includes measures of emotional and behavioral dysfunction, which have been associated with BED behaviors in bariatric surgery candidates; however these studies have lacked appropriate controls. In the current study, we compared MMPI-2-RF scale scores of bariatric surgery patients diagnosed with BED (BED+) with BMI-matched controls without BED (BED-). Three-hundred and seven BED+ participants (72.64% female and 67.87% Caucasian; mean BMI of 51.36 kg/m(2) [SD = 11.94]) were drawn from a large, database (N = 1304). Three-hundred and seven BED- participants were matched on BMI and demographics (72.64% female, 68.63% Caucasian, and mean BMI of 51.30 kg/m(2) [SD = 11.70]). The BED+ group scored significantly higher on measures of Demoralization, Low Positive Emotions, and Dysfunctional Negative Emotions and scored lower on measures of Antisocial Behaviors, reflecting behavioral constraint. Optimal T-Score cutoffs were below the traditional 65 T score for several MMPI-2-RF scales. MMPI-2-RF externalizing measures also added incrementally to differentiating between the groups beyond the Binge Eating Scale (BES). BED+ individuals produced greater elevations on a number of MMPI-2-RF internalizing scales and externalizing scales. Use of the test in conjunction with a clinical interview and other self-report data can further aid the clinician in guiding patients to appropriate treatment to optimize outcome. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Multi-scale modeling strategies in materials science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The problem of prediction of finite temperature properties of materials poses great computational challenges. The computational treatment of the multitude of length and time scales involved in determining macroscopic properties has been attempted by several workers with varying degrees of success. This paper will review ...

  3. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of mild head injury - is it appropriate to classify patients with glasgow coma scale score of 13 to 15 as 'mild injury'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, Y.; Saeki, N.; Yamaura, A.; Okimura, Y.; Tanaka, M.

    2001-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study is to examine the relation between Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score and findings on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of patients with mild head injury presenting GCS Scores between 13 and 15. Methods. Data were collected from all consecutive patients with mild head injury who were referred to our hospital between July 1 and October 31, 1999. All patients were recommended to undergo CT and MR imaging examinations. Patients younger than 14 years of age were excluded. Results. Ninety patients were recruited into this study. CT scans were obtained in 88 patients and MR imaging were obtained in 65 patients. Of those 90 patients, 2 patients scored 13 points, 5 scored 14 points and 83 (92.2 %) 15 points. Patients with GCS score of 13 points demonstrated parenchymal lesions an both CT and MR imaging. Those with 14 points revealed absence of parenchymal abnormality an CT, but presence of parenchymal lesions an MR imaging. Patients in advanced age (chi square test, p < 0.0001), and those with amnesia (p = 0005, not significant), although scoring 15 points, revealed a tendency to abnormal intracranial lesions on CT scans. Conclusion. It is doubtful whether patients with GCS score 13 should be included in the mild head injury category, due to obvious brain damage on CT scans. MR imaging should be performed on patients with GCS score 14, since the parenchymal lesions are not clearly demonstrated an CT scans. Even if patients scored GCS 15, patients which amnesia or of advanced age should undergo CT scans at minimum, and MR imaging when available. (author)

  4. The responsiveness of the International Prostate Symptom Score, Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Edmond P H; Chin, Weng Yee; Lam, Cindy L K; Wan, Eric Y F

    2015-08-01

    To examine the responsiveness of a combined symptom severity and health-related quality of life measure, condition-specific health-related quality of life measure and mental health measure in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. To establish the responsiveness of measures that accurately capture the change in health status of patients is crucial before any longitudinal studies can be appropriately planned and evaluated. Prospective longitudinal observational study. 402 patients were surveyed at baseline and 1-year using the International Prostate Symptom Score, the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-21. The internal and external responsiveness were assessed. Surveys were conducted from March 2013-July 2014. In participants with improvements, the internal responsiveness for detecting positive changes was satisfactory in males and females for all scales, expect for the Depression subscale. The health-related quality of life question of the International Prostate Symptom Score was more externally responsive than the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7. The International Prostate Symptom Score and Anxiety and Stress subscales were more responsive in males than in females. The symptom questions of the International Prostate Symptom Score and Anxiety and Stress subscales were not externally responsive in females. The health-related quality of life question of the International Prostate Symptom Score outperformed the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 in both males and females, in terms of external responsiveness. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Validation of the Domains of Creativity Scale for Nigerian Preservice Science, Technology, and Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awofala, Adeneye O. A.; Fatade, Alfred O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Investigation into the factor structure of Domains of Creativity Scale has been on for sometimes now. The purpose of this study was to test the validity of the Kaufman Domains of Creativity Scale on Nigerian preservice science, technology, and mathematics teachers. Method: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed…

  6. Optimization of MRI-based scoring scales of brain injury severity in children with unilateral cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagnozzi, Alex M.; Fiori, Simona; Boyd, Roslyn N.; Guzzetta, Andrea; Doecke, James; Rose, Stephen; Dowson, Nicholas; Gal, Yaniv

    2016-01-01

    Several scoring systems for measuring brain injury severity have been developed to standardize the classification of MRI results, which allows for the prediction of functional outcomes to help plan effective interventions for children with cerebral palsy. The aim of this study is to use statistical techniques to optimize the clinical utility of a recently proposed template-based scoring method by weighting individual anatomical scores of injury, while maintaining its simplicity by retaining only a subset of scored anatomical regions. Seventy-six children with unilateral cerebral palsy were evaluated in terms of upper limb motor function using the Assisting Hand Assessment measure and injuries visible on MRI using a semiquantitative approach. This cohort included 52 children with periventricular white matter injury and 24 with cortical and deep gray matter injuries. A subset of the template-derived cerebral regions was selected using a data-driven region selection algorithm. Linear regression was performed using this subset, with interaction effects excluded. Linear regression improved multiple correlations between MRI-based and Assisting Hand Assessment scores for both periventricular white matter (R squared increased to 0.45 from 0, P < 0.0001) and cortical and deep gray matter (0.84 from 0.44, P < 0.0001) cohorts. In both cohorts, the data-driven approach retained fewer than 8 of the 40 template-derived anatomical regions. The equal or better prediction of the clinically meaningful Assisting Hand Assessment measure using fewer anatomical regions highlights the potential of these developments to enable enhanced quantification of injury and prediction of patient motor outcome, while maintaining the clinical expediency of the scoring approach. (orig.)

  7. Optimization of MRI-based scoring scales of brain injury severity in children with unilateral cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnozzi, Alex M; Fiori, Simona; Boyd, Roslyn N; Guzzetta, Andrea; Doecke, James; Gal, Yaniv; Rose, Stephen; Dowson, Nicholas

    2016-02-01

    Several scoring systems for measuring brain injury severity have been developed to standardize the classification of MRI results, which allows for the prediction of functional outcomes to help plan effective interventions for children with cerebral palsy. The aim of this study is to use statistical techniques to optimize the clinical utility of a recently proposed template-based scoring method by weighting individual anatomical scores of injury, while maintaining its simplicity by retaining only a subset of scored anatomical regions. Seventy-six children with unilateral cerebral palsy were evaluated in terms of upper limb motor function using the Assisting Hand Assessment measure and injuries visible on MRI using a semiquantitative approach. This cohort included 52 children with periventricular white matter injury and 24 with cortical and deep gray matter injuries. A subset of the template-derived cerebral regions was selected using a data-driven region selection algorithm. Linear regression was performed using this subset, with interaction effects excluded. Linear regression improved multiple correlations between MRI-based and Assisting Hand Assessment scores for both periventricular white matter (R squared increased to 0.45 from 0, P < 0.0001) and cortical and deep gray matter (0.84 from 0.44, P < 0.0001) cohorts. In both cohorts, the data-driven approach retained fewer than 8 of the 40 template-derived anatomical regions. The equal or better prediction of the clinically meaningful Assisting Hand Assessment measure using fewer anatomical regions highlights the potential of these developments to enable enhanced quantification of injury and prediction of patient motor outcome, while maintaining the clinical expediency of the scoring approach.

  8. Optimization of MRI-based scoring scales of brain injury severity in children with unilateral cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagnozzi, Alex M. [Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, CSIRO Digital Productivity and Services Flagship, The Australian e-Health Research Centre, Herston, QLD (Australia); The University of Queensland, School of Medicine, Brisbane (Australia); Fiori, Simona [Stella Maris Scientific Institute, Pisa (Italy); Boyd, Roslyn N. [The University of Queensland, Queensland Cerebral Palsy and Rehabilitation Research Centre, School of Medicine, Brisbane (Australia); Guzzetta, Andrea [Stella Maris Scientific Institute, Pisa (Italy); University of Pisa, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Doecke, James; Rose, Stephen; Dowson, Nicholas [Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, CSIRO Digital Productivity and Services Flagship, The Australian e-Health Research Centre, Herston, QLD (Australia); Gal, Yaniv [The University of Queensland, Centre for Medical Diagnostic Technologies in Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)

    2016-02-15

    Several scoring systems for measuring brain injury severity have been developed to standardize the classification of MRI results, which allows for the prediction of functional outcomes to help plan effective interventions for children with cerebral palsy. The aim of this study is to use statistical techniques to optimize the clinical utility of a recently proposed template-based scoring method by weighting individual anatomical scores of injury, while maintaining its simplicity by retaining only a subset of scored anatomical regions. Seventy-six children with unilateral cerebral palsy were evaluated in terms of upper limb motor function using the Assisting Hand Assessment measure and injuries visible on MRI using a semiquantitative approach. This cohort included 52 children with periventricular white matter injury and 24 with cortical and deep gray matter injuries. A subset of the template-derived cerebral regions was selected using a data-driven region selection algorithm. Linear regression was performed using this subset, with interaction effects excluded. Linear regression improved multiple correlations between MRI-based and Assisting Hand Assessment scores for both periventricular white matter (R squared increased to 0.45 from 0, P < 0.0001) and cortical and deep gray matter (0.84 from 0.44, P < 0.0001) cohorts. In both cohorts, the data-driven approach retained fewer than 8 of the 40 template-derived anatomical regions. The equal or better prediction of the clinically meaningful Assisting Hand Assessment measure using fewer anatomical regions highlights the potential of these developments to enable enhanced quantification of injury and prediction of patient motor outcome, while maintaining the clinical expediency of the scoring approach. (orig.)

  9. A higher score on the Aging Males' Symptoms scale is associated with insulin resistance in middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanoue, Nobuya; Tanabe, Makito; Tanaka, Tomoko; Akehi, Yuko; Murakami, Junji; Nomiyama, Takashi; Yanase, Toshihiko

    2017-05-30

    An age-associated androgen decrease and its pathological conditions are defined as late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). Among the various symptoms associated with LOH, a visceral fat increase is strongly associated with relatively low levels of testosterone. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between the Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scores and metabolic abnormalities. Thus, we aimed to clarify this relationship by investigating the relationship between AMS scores and various markers in blood. During routine health examinations in 241 middle-aged males (52.7±7.5 years of age, mean±SD), 150 males (62.2%) displayed higher AMS values than normal. No statistical association was observed between total AMS scores and any testosterone value. All mental, physical and sexual AMS subscales were significantly positively correlated with insulin levels and HOMA-IR. Only sexual subscale scores were significantly inversely associated with free or bioavailable testosterone level. Males with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR≥2.5) demonstrated significantly higher AMS scores than those with normal insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IRinsulin and HOMA-IR values. Interestingly, univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that HOMA-IR≥2.5 was a significant predictor for detection of moderately severe AMS values (AMS≥37), whereas AMS≥37 was not a predictor of metabolic syndrome by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criterion. In conclusion, almost 60% of healthy male subjects displayed abnormal AMS scores. AMS values were not associated with testosterone values but rather were related to insulin resistance, particularly in subjects with moderately severe AMS values. Insulin resistance-related general unwellness might be reflected by AMS values.

  10. New scoring methodology improves the sensitivity of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Nishant; Beretvas, S Natasha; Pascual, Belen; Masdeu, Joseph C; Markey, Mia K

    2015-11-12

    As currently used, the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) has low sensitivity for measuring Alzheimer's disease progression in clinical trials. A major reason behind the low sensitivity is its sub-optimal scoring methodology, which can be improved to obtain better sensitivity. Using item response theory, we developed a new scoring methodology (ADAS-CogIRT) for the ADAS-Cog, which addresses several major limitations of the current scoring methodology. The sensitivity of the ADAS-CogIRT methodology was evaluated using clinical trial simulations as well as a negative clinical trial, which had shown an evidence of a treatment effect. The ADAS-Cog was found to measure impairment in three cognitive domains of memory, language, and praxis. The ADAS-CogIRT methodology required significantly fewer patients and shorter trial durations as compared to the current scoring methodology when both were evaluated in simulated clinical trials. When validated on data from a real clinical trial, the ADAS-CogIRT methodology had higher sensitivity than the current scoring methodology in detecting the treatment effect. The proposed scoring methodology significantly improves the sensitivity of the ADAS-Cog in measuring progression of cognitive impairment in clinical trials focused in the mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease stage. This provides a boost to the efficiency of clinical trials requiring fewer patients and shorter durations for investigating disease-modifying treatments.

  11. Large-scale Labeled Datasets to Fuel Earth Science Deep Learning Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskey, M.; Ramachandran, R.; Miller, J.

    2017-12-01

    Deep learning has revolutionized computer vision and natural language processing with various algorithms scaled using high-performance computing. However, generic large-scale labeled datasets such as the ImageNet are the fuel that drives the impressive accuracy of deep learning results. Large-scale labeled datasets already exist in domains such as medical science, but creating them in the Earth science domain is a challenge. While there are ways to apply deep learning using limited labeled datasets, there is a need in the Earth sciences for creating large-scale labeled datasets for benchmarking and scaling deep learning applications. At the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, we are using deep learning for a variety of Earth science applications where we have encountered the need for large-scale labeled datasets. We will discuss our approaches for creating such datasets and why these datasets are just as valuable as deep learning algorithms. We will also describe successful usage of these large-scale labeled datasets with our deep learning based applications.

  12. Science Teacher Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy as Predictors of Students' End-of-Instruction (EOI) Biology I Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angle, Julie; Moseley, Christine

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare teacher efficacy beliefs of secondary Biology I teachers whose students' mean scores on the statewide End-of-Instruction (EOI) Biology I test met or exceeded the state academic proficiency level (Proficient Group) to teacher efficacy beliefs of secondary Biology I teachers whose students' mean scores on the…

  13. Clinical study on HAT and SEDAN score scales and related risk factors for predicting hemorrhagic transformation following thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng WEI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the value of HAT and SEDAN score scales in predicting hemorrhagic transformation (HT following the recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke patients and risk factors affecting HT.  Methods A total of 143 patients with acute ischemic stroke underwent rt-PA intravenous thrombolysis within 4.50 h of onset and their clinical data were collected. According to head CT after thrombolysis, patients were divided into HT group (18 cases and non-HT group (125 cases. Single factor analysis was used to assess differences in HAT and SEDAN score scales and related risk factors of ischemic stroke in 2 groups, and further Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate independent predictors of HT. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of HAT and SEDAN score scales in predicting HT.  Results Univariate Logistic regression analysis showed that history of atrial fibrillation (AF, admission systolic blood pressure (SBP, admission blood glucose level, early low density of head CT, thrombolytic time window, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS, HAT and SEDAN scores were all risk factors for HT after thrombolysis (P < 0.05, for all. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that history of AF (OR = 1.677, 95% CI: 1.332-2.111; P = 0.000, admission SBP (OR = 1.102, 95% CI: 1.009-1.204; P = 0.031, admission blood glucose level (OR = 1.870, 95% CI: 1.119-3.125; P = 0.017, thrombolysis time window (OR = 1.030, 95%CI: 1.009-1.052; P = 0.005, NIHSS score (OR = 1.574, 95%CI: 1.186-2.090; P = 0.002, HAT score (OR = 2.515, 95%CI: 1.273-4.970;P = 0.008 and SEDAN score (OR = 2.413, 95%CI: 1.123-5.185; P = 0.024 were risk factors for HT after thrombolysis. ROC curve analysis showed that HAT score could predict HT with 94.40% sensitivity and 41.60% specificity, and area under curve (AUC was 0.70. SEDAN

  14. Citizen Science: The Small World Initiative Improved Lecture Grades and California Critical Thinking Skills Test Scores of Nonscience Major Students at Florida Atlantic University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Joseph P; Israel, Natalie; Rowland, Kimberly; Lovelace, Matthew J; Saunders, Mary Jane

    2016-03-01

    Course-based undergraduate research is known to improve science, technology, engineering, and mathematics student achievement. We tested "The Small World Initiative, a Citizen-Science Project to Crowdsource Novel Antibiotic Discovery" to see if it also improved student performance and the critical thinking of non-science majors in Introductory Biology at Florida Atlantic University (a large, public, minority-dominant institution) in academic year 2014-15. California Critical Thinking Skills Test pre- and posttests were offered to both Small World Initiative (SWI) and control lab students for formative amounts of extra credit. SWI lab students earned significantly higher lecture grades than control lab students, had significantly fewer lecture grades of D+ or lower, and had significantly higher critical thinking posttest total scores than control students. Lastly, more SWI students were engaged while taking critical thinking tests. These results support the hypothesis that utilizing independent course-based undergraduate science research improves student achievement even in nonscience students.

  15. Science at the Time-scale of the Electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, Margaret

    2010-03-01

    Replace this text with your abstract Ever since the invention of the laser 50 years ago and its application in nonlinear optics, scientists have been striving to extend coherent laser beams into the x-ray region of the spectrum. Very recently however, the prospects for tabletop coherent sources, with attosecond pulse durations, at very short wavelengths even in the hard x-ray region of the spectrum at wavelengths movie of how electron orbitals in a molecule change shape as a molecule breaks apart, following how fast a magnetic material can flip orientation, understanding how fast heat flows in a nanocircuit, or building a microscope without lenses. [4pt] [1] T. Popmintchev et al., ``Phase matched upconversion of coherent ultrafast laser light into the soft and hard x-ray regions of the spectrum'', PNAS 106, 10516 (2009). [0pt] [2] C. LaOVorakiat et al., ``Ultrafast Soft X-Ray Magneto-Optics at the M-edge Using a Tabletop High-Harmonic Source'', Physical Review Letters 103, 257402 (2009). [0pt] [3] M. Siemens et al. ``Measurement of quasi-ballistic heat transport across nanoscale interfaces using ultrafast coherent soft x-ray beams'', Nature Materials 9, 26 (2010). [0pt] [4] K. Raines et al., ``Three-dimensional structure determination from a single view,'' Nature 463, 214 (2010). [0pt] [5] W. Li et al., ``Time-resolved Probing of Dynamics in Polyatomic Molecules using High Harmonic Generation'', Science 322, 1207 (2008).

  16. On the Large-Scaling Issues of Cloud-based Applications for Earth Science Dat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, H.

    2016-12-01

    Next generation science data systems are needed to address the incoming flood of data from new missions such as NASA's SWOT and NISAR where its SAR data volumes and data throughput rates are order of magnitude larger than present day missions. Existing missions, such as OCO-2, may also require high turn-around time for processing different science scenarios where on-premise and even traditional HPC computing environments may not meet the high processing needs. Additionally, traditional means of procuring hardware on-premise are already limited due to facilities capacity constraints for these new missions. Experiences have shown that to embrace efficient cloud computing approaches for large-scale science data systems requires more than just moving existing code to cloud environments. At large cloud scales, we need to deal with scaling and cost issues. We present our experiences on deploying multiple instances of our hybrid-cloud computing science data system (HySDS) to support large-scale processing of Earth Science data products. We will explore optimization approaches to getting best performance out of hybrid-cloud computing as well as common issues that will arise when dealing with large-scale computing. Novel approaches were utilized to do processing on Amazon's spot market, which can potentially offer 75%-90% costs savings but with an unpredictable computing environment based on market forces.

  17. A Study of the Effect of a Child's Physical Attractiveness upon Verbal Scoring of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised) and upon Personality Attributions

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Paula Theisler

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate possible examiner bias in scoring the Verbal subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised) due to the level of facial attractiveness of the child. Sex of the child and sex of the research subject were also included as independent variables. No main effect for attractiveness or sex x attractiveness interactions were found. Thus, little evidence emerged to suggest attractiveness stereotyping effects in an intelligence testing ...

  18. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) processing speed scores as measures of noncredible responding: The third generation of embedded performance validity indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdodi, Laszlo A; Abeare, Christopher A; Lichtenstein, Jonathan D; Tyson, Bradley T; Kucharski, Brittany; Zuccato, Brandon G; Roth, Robert M

    2017-02-01

    Research suggests that select processing speed measures can also serve as embedded validity indicators (EVIs). The present study examined the diagnostic utility of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtests as EVIs in a mixed clinical sample of 205 patients medically referred for neuropsychological assessment (53.3% female, mean age = 45.1). Classification accuracy was calculated against 3 composite measures of performance validity as criterion variables. A PSI ≤79 produced a good combination of sensitivity (.23-.56) and specificity (.92-.98). A Coding scaled score ≤5 resulted in good specificity (.94-1.00), but low and variable sensitivity (.04-.28). A Symbol Search scaled score ≤6 achieved a good balance between sensitivity (.38-.64) and specificity (.88-.93). A Coding-Symbol Search scaled score difference ≥5 produced adequate specificity (.89-.91) but consistently low sensitivity (.08-.12). A 2-tailed cutoff on the Coding/Symbol Search raw score ratio (≤1.41 or ≥3.57) produced acceptable specificity (.87-.93), but low sensitivity (.15-.24). Failing ≥2 of these EVIs produced variable specificity (.81-.93) and sensitivity (.31-.59). Failing ≥3 of these EVIs stabilized specificity (.89-.94) at a small cost to sensitivity (.23-.53). Results suggest that processing speed based EVIs have the potential to provide a cost-effective and expedient method for evaluating the validity of cognitive data. Given their generally low and variable sensitivity, however, they should not be used in isolation to determine the credibility of a given response set. They also produced unacceptably high rates of false positive errors in patients with moderate-to-severe head injury. Combining evidence from multiple EVIs has the potential to improve overall classification accuracy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Enabling Wide-Scale Computer Science Education through Improved Automated Assessment Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Bryce A.

    There is a proliferating demand for newly trained computer scientists as the number of computer science related jobs continues to increase. University programs will only be able to train enough new computer scientists to meet this demand when two things happen: when there are more primary and secondary school students interested in computer science, and when university departments have the resources to handle the resulting increase in enrollment. To meet these goals, significant effort is being made to both incorporate computational thinking into existing primary school education, and to support larger university computer science class sizes. We contribute to this effort through the creation and use of improved automated assessment tools. To enable wide-scale computer science education we do two things. First, we create a framework called Hairball to support the static analysis of Scratch programs targeted for fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students. Scratch is a popular building-block language utilized to pique interest in and teach the basics of computer science. We observe that Hairball allows for rapid curriculum alterations and thus contributes to wide-scale deployment of computer science curriculum. Second, we create a real-time feedback and assessment system utilized in university computer science classes to provide better feedback to students while reducing assessment time. Insights from our analysis of student submission data show that modifications to the system configuration support the way students learn and progress through course material, making it possible for instructors to tailor assignments to optimize learning in growing computer science classes.

  20. A Comparison of Low IQ Scores from the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umphress, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty people with suspected intellectual disability took the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS; C. R. Reynolds & R. W. Kamphaus, 1998) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--3rd Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997) to see if the 2 IQ tests produced comparable results. A t test showed that the RIAS Composite Intelligence Index…

  1. Conversion Between Mini-Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Dementia Rating Scale-2 Scores in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steenoven, Inger; Aarsland, Dag; Hurtig, Howard; Chen-Plotkin, Alice; Duda, John E.; Rick, Jacqueline; Chahine, Lama M.; Dahodwala, Nabila; Trojanowski, John Q.; Roalf, David R.; Moberg, Paul J.; Weintraub, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is one of the earliest, most common, and most disabling non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Thus, routine screening of global cognitive abilities is important for the optimal management of PD patients. Few global cognitive screening instruments have been developed for or validated in PD patients. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and Dementia Rating Scale-2 (DRS-2) have been used extensively for cognitive screening in both clinical and research settings. Determining how to convert the scores between instruments would facilitate the longitudinal assessment of cognition in clinical settings and the comparison and synthesis of cognitive data in multicenter and longitudinal cohort studies. The primary aim of this study was to apply a simple and reliable algorithm for the conversion of MoCA to MMSE scores in PD patients. A secondary aim was to apply this algorithm for the conversion of DRS-2 to both MMSE and MoCA scores. The cognitive performance of a convenience sample of 360 patients with idiopathic PD was assessed by at least two of these cognitive screening instruments. We then developed conversion scores between the MMSE, MoCA, and DRS-2 using equipercentile equating and log-linear smoothing. The conversion score tables reported here enable direct and easy comparison of three routinely used cognitive screening assessments in PD patients. PMID:25381961

  2. Effect of image compression and scaling on automated scoring of immunohistochemical stainings and segmentation of tumor epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konsti Juho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Digital whole-slide scanning of tissue specimens produces large images demanding increasing storing capacity. To reduce the need of extensive data storage systems image files can be compressed and scaled down. The aim of this article is to study the effect of different levels of image compression and scaling on automated image analysis of immunohistochemical (IHC stainings and automated tumor segmentation. Methods Two tissue microarray (TMA slides containing 800 samples of breast cancer tissue immunostained against Ki-67 protein and two TMA slides containing 144 samples of colorectal cancer immunostained against EGFR were digitized with a whole-slide scanner. The TMA images were JPEG2000 wavelet compressed with four compression ratios: lossless, and 1:12, 1:25 and 1:50 lossy compression. Each of the compressed breast cancer images was furthermore scaled down either to 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 1:16, 1:32, 1:64 or 1:128. Breast cancer images were analyzed using an algorithm that quantitates the extent of staining in Ki-67 immunostained images, and EGFR immunostained colorectal cancer images were analyzed with an automated tumor segmentation algorithm. The automated tools were validated by comparing the results from losslessly compressed and non-scaled images with results from conventional visual assessments. Percentage agreement and kappa statistics were calculated between results from compressed and scaled images and results from lossless and non-scaled images. Results Both of the studied image analysis methods showed good agreement between visual and automated results. In the automated IHC quantification, an agreement of over 98% and a kappa value of over 0.96 was observed between losslessly compressed and non-scaled images and combined compression ratios up to 1:50 and scaling down to 1:8. In automated tumor segmentation, an agreement of over 97% and a kappa value of over 0.93 was observed between losslessly compressed images and

  3. Effects of TimeSlips on Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia scores of senile dementia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ying Chen

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: TimeSlips is beneficial to relieve depressive symptoms and ameliorate the emotions of mild or moderate senile dementia patients, thus improving their life quality and reducing the burden of their caregivers. A large-scale experimental research on TimeSlips with rigorous design is proposed for further studies.

  4. An Operational Definition of Learning Disabilities (Cognitive Domain) Using WISC Full Scale IQ and Peabody Individual Achievement Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton, Beatrice White; Gilmore, Doug

    An operational index of discrepancy between ability and achievement using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) was tested with 50 male and 10 female legally identified learning disabled (LD) children (mean age 9 years 2 months). Use of the index identified 74% of the males and 30% of the…

  5. Creating a brief rating scale for the assessment of learning disabilities using reliability and true score estimates of the scale's items based on the Rasch model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideridis, Georgios; Padeliadu, Susana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to provide the means to create brief versions of instruments that can aid the diagnosis and classification of students with learning disabilities and comorbid disorders (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). A sample of 1,108 students with and without a diagnosis of learning disabilities took part in study 1. Using information from modern theory methods (i.e., the Rasch model), a scale was created that included fewer than one third of the original battery items designed to assess reading skills. This best item synthesis was then evaluated for its predictive and criterion validity with a valid external reading battery (study 2). Using a sample of 232 students with and without learning disabilities, results indicated that the brief version of the scale was equally effective as the original scale in predicting reading achievement. Analysis of the content of the brief scale indicated that the best item synthesis involved items from cognition, motivation, strategy use, and advanced reading skills. It is suggested that multiple psychometric criteria be employed in evaluating the psychometric adequacy of scales used for the assessment and identification of learning disabilities and comorbid disorders.

  6. Associations of scores on the White-Campbell Psychological Birth Order Inventory and the Kern Lifestyle Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J; Campbell, L; Stewart, A

    1995-12-01

    This study investigated the relations among psychological birth order, actual birth order, and lifestyle. The study also further examined the convergent validity of the White-Campbell Psychological Birth Order Inventory. This inventory and Kern's Lifestyle Scale were administered to 126 individuals in a southeastern urban university. The several analyses of variance and canonical correlation analysis (1) supported a stronger relationship between psychological birth order and lifestyle than between actual birth order and lifestyle, (2) identified differential relationships between particular birth-order positions and lifestyle scales that were predicted and in accord with Adlerian theory, and (3) further supported the validity of the inventory. The results reaffirmed the lifestyle pattern and birth-order characterizations of Adlerian theory.

  7. Score of Inattention Subscale of ADHD Rating Scale-IV is Significantly Higher for AD/HD than PDD.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujibayashi, Hiromi; Kitayama, Shinji; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) must be differentiated because the respective treatments are different. However, they are difficult to distinguish because they often show similar symptoms. At our hospital, we have the rearer of a patient answer both the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS) and the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ), and use the results as an aid for the diagnosis of AD/HD or PDD. These results were compared wit...

  8. Influence of Deep Breathing on Heart Rate Variability in Parkinson's Disease: Co-relation with Severity of Disease and Non-Motor Symptom Scale Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidikar, Mukta Pritam; Jagtap, Gayatri J; Chakor, Rahul T

    2014-07-01

    Dysautonomia and non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) are frequent, disabling and reduce quality of life of patient. There is a paucity of studies on autonomic dysfunction in PD in Indian population. The study aimed to evaluate autonomic dysfunction in PD patients and co-relate the findings with severity of PD and Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS) score. We evaluated autonomic function in 30 diagnosed patients of PD (age 55-70 years) and 30 healthy age-matched controls by 3 min deep breathing test (DBT). NMSS was used to identify non-motor symptoms and Hoehn and Yahr (HY) Scale to grade severity of PD. The DBT findings were co-related with severity of PD (HY staging) and NMSS score. DBT was found to be abnormal in 40% while it was on borderline in 33.3% of PD patients. There was a statistically significant difference (psymptom. A negative co-relation was found between results of deep breathing test and clinical severity of disease and NMSS score. Abnormalities of autonomic function and NMS were integral and present across all the stages of PD patients. Early recognition and treatment of these may decrease morbidity and improve quality of life of PD patients.

  9. Lord-Wingersky Algorithm Version 2.0 for Hierarchical Item Factor Models with Applications in Test Scoring, Scale Alignment, and Model Fit Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li

    2015-06-01

    Lord and Wingersky's (Appl Psychol Meas 8:453-461, 1984) recursive algorithm for creating summed score based likelihoods and posteriors has a proven track record in unidimensional item response theory (IRT) applications. Extending the recursive algorithm to handle multidimensionality is relatively simple, especially with fixed quadrature because the recursions can be defined on a grid formed by direct products of quadrature points. However, the increase in computational burden remains exponential in the number of dimensions, making the implementation of the recursive algorithm cumbersome for truly high-dimensional models. In this paper, a dimension reduction method that is specific to the Lord-Wingersky recursions is developed. This method can take advantage of the restrictions implied by hierarchical item factor models, e.g., the bifactor model, the testlet model, or the two-tier model, such that a version of the Lord-Wingersky recursive algorithm can operate on a dramatically reduced set of quadrature points. For instance, in a bifactor model, the dimension of integration is always equal to 2, regardless of the number of factors. The new algorithm not only provides an effective mechanism to produce summed score to IRT scaled score translation tables properly adjusted for residual dependence, but leads to new applications in test scoring, linking, and model fit checking as well. Simulated and empirical examples are used to illustrate the new applications.

  10. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 4th edition-Chinese version index scores in Taiwanese children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pinchen; Cheng, Chung-Ping; Chang, Chen-Lin; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hsu, Hsiu-Yi; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2013-02-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 4th edition-Chinese version (WISC-IV-Chinese) has been in clinical use in Taiwan since 2007. Research is needed to determine how the WISC-IV, modified from its earlier version, will affect its interpretation in clinical practice in a Mandarin-speaking context. We attempted to use WISC-IV-Chinese scores to identify the cognitive strengths and weaknesses in 334 Taiwanese children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Comparison of cognitive profiles of WISC-IV-Chinese scores between subtypes of ADHD was also performed. The results indicated that the four-factor model of the WISC-IV-Chinese fitted well for Taiwanese children with ADHD. The profiles showed that performance in the index score of the Processing Speed Index was the weakness domain for the Taiwanese children with ADHD, as confirmed by two different kinds of analytic methods. Cognitive profile analysis of ADHD subtypes revealed children with inattentive subtypes to have a greater weakness in processing speed performance. The implications of the profiles of the index scores on the WISC-IV-Chinese version for Taiwanese children with ADHD were explored. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  11. Effect of Age on Glasgow Coma Scale in Patients with Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: An Approach with Propensity Score-Matched Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Shyuan Rau

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most widely used methods of describing traumatic brain injury (TBI are the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS and the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS. Recent evidence suggests that presenting GCS in older patients may be higher than that in younger patients for an equivalent anatomical severity of TBI. This study aimed to assess these observations with a propensity-score matching approach using the data from Trauma Registry System in a Level I trauma center. Methods: We included all adult patients (aged ≥20 years old with moderate to severe TBI from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2016. Patients were categorized into elderly (aged ≥65 years and young adults (aged 20–64 years. The severity of TBI was defined by an AIS score in the head (AIS 3‒4 and 5 indicate moderate and severe TBI, respectively. We examined the differences in the GCS scores by age at each head AIS score. Unpaired Student’s t- and Mann–Whitney U-tests were used to analyze normally and non-normally distributed continuous data, respectively. Categorical data were compared using either the Pearson chi-square or two-sided Fisher’s exact tests. Matched patient populations were allocated in a 1:1 ratio according to the propensity scores calculated using NCSS software with the following covariates: sex, pre-existing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin, sodium, glucose, and alcohol level. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effects of age on the GCS score in each head AIS stratum. Results: The study population included 2081 adult patients with moderate to severe TBI. These patients were categorized into elderly (n = 847 and young adults (n = 1234: each was exclusively further divided into three groups of patients with head AIS of 3, 4, or 5. In the 162 well-balanced pairs of TBI patients with head AIS of 3, the elderly demonstrated a significantly higher GCS score than the young adults (14.1 ± 2.2 vs. 13.1 ± 3

  12. Effects of random study checks and guided notes study cards on middle school special education students' notetaking accuracy and science vocabulary quiz scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles L.

    Federal legislation mandates that all students with disabilities have meaningful access to the general education curriculum and that students with and without disabilities be held equally accountable to the same academic standards (IDEIA, 2004; NCLB, 2001). Many students with disabilities, however, perform poorly in academic content courses, especially at the middle and secondary school levels. Previous research has reported increased notetaking accuracy and quiz scores over lecture content when students completed guided notes compared to taking their own notes. This study evaluated the effects of a pre-quiz review procedure and specially formatted guided notes on middle school special education students' learning of science vocabulary. This study compared the effects of three experimental conditions. (a) Own Notes (ON), (b) Own Notes+Random Study Checks (ON+RSC), and (c) Guided Notes Study Cards+Random Study Checks (GNSC+RSC) on each student's accuracy of notes, next-day quiz scores, and review quiz scores. Each session, the teacher presented 12 science vocabulary terms and definitions during a lecture and students took notes. The students were given 5 minutes to study their notes at the end of each session and were reminded to study their notes at home and in study hall period. In the ON condition students took notes on a sheet of paper with numbered lines from 1 to 12. Just before each next-day quiz in the ON+RSC condition students used write-on response cards to answer two teacher-posed questions over randomly selected vocabulary terms from the previous day's lecture. If the answer on a randomly selected student's response card was correct, that student earned a lottery ticket for inexpensive prizes and a quiz bonus point for herself and each classmate. In the GNSC+RSC condition students took notes on specially formatted guided notes that after the lecture they cut into a set of flashcards that could used for study. The students' mean notetaking accuracy was 75

  13. The Mathematics of Networks Science: Scale-Free, Power-Law Graphs and Continuum Theoretical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Janice

    2012-01-01

    When hoping to initiate or sustain students' interest in mathematics teachers should always consider relevance, relevance to students' lives and in the middle and later years of instruction in high school and university, accessibility. A topic such as the mathematics behind networks science, more specifically scale-free graphs, is up-to-date,…

  14. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Scale (AUDIT) normative scores for a multiracial sample of Rhodes University residence students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Charles; Mayson, Tamara

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this research is to obtain accurate drinking norms for students living in the university residences in preparation for future social norms interventions that would allow individual students to compare their drinking to an appropriate reference group. Random cluster sampling was used to obtain data from 318 residence students who completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), a brief, reliable and valid screening measure designed by the World Health Organisation (Babor et al. 2001). The Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.83 reported for this multicultural sample is high, suggesting that the AUDIT may be reliably used in this and similar contexts. Normative scores are reported in the form of percentiles. Comparisons between the portions of students drinking safely and hazardously according to race and gender indicate that while male students are drinking no more hazardously than female students, white students drink far more hazardously than black students. These differences suggest that both race- and gender-specific norms would be essential for an effective social norms intervention in this multicultural South African context. Finally, the racialised drinking patterns might reflect an informal segregation of social space at Rhodes University.

  15. Reference Values for the Marx Activity Rating Scale in a Young Athletic Population: History of Knee Ligament Injury Is Associated With Higher Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kenneth L; Peck, Karen Y; Thompson, Brandon S; Svoboda, Steven J; Owens, Brett D; Marshall, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    Activity-related patient-reported outcome measures are an important component of assessment after knee ligament injury in young and physically active patients; however, normative data for most activity scales are limited. To present reference values by sex for the Marx Activity Rating Scale (MARS) within a young and physically active population while accounting for knee ligament injury history and sex. Cross-sectional study. Level 2. All incoming freshman entering a US Service Academy in June of 2011 were recruited to participate in this study. MARS was administered to 1169 incoming freshmen (203 women) who consented to participate within the first week of matriculation. All subjects were deemed healthy and medically fit for military service on admission. Subjects also completed a baseline questionnaire that asked for basic demographic information and injury history. We calculated means with standard deviations, medians with interquartile ranges, and percentiles for ordinal and continuous variables, and frequencies and proportions for dichotomous variables. We also compared median scores by sex and history of knee ligament injury using the Kruskal-Wallis test. MARS was the primary outcome of interest. The median MARS score was significantly higher for men when compared with women (χ(2) = 13.22, df = 1, P MARS scores between men and women (χ(2) = 0.47, df = 1, P = 0.493) who reported a history of injury. Overall, median MARS scores were significantly higher among those who reported a history of knee ligament injury when compared with those who did not (χ(2) = 9.06, df = 1, P = 0.003). Assessing activity as a patient-reported outcome after knee ligament injury is important, and reference values for these instruments need to account for the influence of prior injury and sex. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. Predictive Accuracy of Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offender Version Risk and Change Scores in Treated Canadian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Mark E; Sowden, Justina N; Kingston, Drew A; Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Gordon, Audrey; Beggs Christofferson, Sarah M; Wong, Stephen C P

    2018-04-01

    The present study examined the predictive properties of Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offender version (VRS-SO) risk and change scores among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal sexual offenders in a combined sample of 1,063 Canadian federally incarcerated men. All men participated in sexual offender treatment programming through the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) at sites across its five regions. The Static-99R was also examined for comparison purposes. In total, 393 of the men were identified as Aboriginal (i.e., First Nations, Métis, Circumpolar) while 670 were non-Aboriginal and primarily White. Aboriginal men scored significantly higher on the Static-99R and VRS-SO and had higher rates of sexual and violent recidivism; however, there were no significant differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups on treatment change with both groups demonstrating close to a half-standard deviation of change pre and post treatment. VRS-SO risk and change scores significantly predicted sexual and violent recidivism over fixed 5- and 10-year follow-ups for both racial/ancestral groups. Cox regression survival analyses also demonstrated positive treatment changes to be significantly associated with reductions in sexual and violent recidivism among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men after controlling baseline risk. A series of follow-up Cox regression analyses demonstrated that risk and change score information accounted for much of the observed differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in rates of sexual recidivism; however, marked group differences persisted in rates of general violent recidivism even after controlling for these covariates. The results support the predictive properties of VRS-SO risk and change scores with treated Canadian Aboriginal sexual offenders.

  17. www.common-metrics.org: a web application to estimate scores from different patient-reported outcome measures on a common scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H Felix; Rose, Matthias

    2016-10-19

    Recently, a growing number of Item-Response Theory (IRT) models has been published, which allow estimation of a common latent variable from data derived by different Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs). When using data from different PROs, direct estimation of the latent variable has some advantages over the use of sum score conversion tables. It requires substantial proficiency in the field of psychometrics to fit such models using contemporary IRT software. We developed a web application ( http://www.common-metrics.org ), which allows estimation of latent variable scores more easily using IRT models calibrating different measures on instrument independent scales. Currently, the application allows estimation using six different IRT models for Depression, Anxiety, and Physical Function. Based on published item parameters, users of the application can directly estimate latent trait estimates using expected a posteriori (EAP) for sum scores as well as for specific response patterns, Bayes modal (MAP), Weighted likelihood estimation (WLE) and Maximum likelihood (ML) methods and under three different prior distributions. The obtained estimates can be downloaded and analyzed using standard statistical software. This application enhances the usability of IRT modeling for researchers by allowing comparison of the latent trait estimates over different PROs, such as the Patient Health Questionnaire Depression (PHQ-9) and Anxiety (GAD-7) scales, the Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), PROMIS Anxiety and Depression Short Forms and others. Advantages of this approach include comparability of data derived with different measures and tolerance against missing values. The validity of the underlying models needs to be investigated in the future.

  18. Education-stratified base-rate information on discrepancy scores within and between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Third Edition and the Wechsler Memory Scale--Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dori, Galit A; Chelune, Gordon J

    2004-06-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Third Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997a) and the Wechsler Memory Scale--Third Edition (WMS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997b) are 2 of the most frequently used measures in psychology and neuropsychology. To facilitate the diagnostic use of these measures in the clinical decision-making process, this article provides information on education-stratified, directional prevalence rates (i.e., base rates) of discrepancy scores between the major index scores for the WAIS-III, the WMS-III, and between the WAIS-III and WMS-III. To illustrate how such base-rate data can be clinically used, this article reviews the relative risk (i.e., odds ratio) of empirically defined "rare" cognitive deficits in 2 of the clinical samples presented in the WAIS-III--WMS-III Technical Manual (The Psychological Corporation, 1997). ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  19. Multiple Intelligence Scores of Science Stream Students and Their Relation with Reading Competency in Malaysian University English Test (MUET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Norizan Abdul; Zaini, Nuramirah

    2014-01-01

    Many researches have shown that different approach needed in analysing linear and non-linear reading comprehension texts and different cognitive skills are required. This research attempts to discover the relationship between Science Stream students' reading competency on linear and non-linear texts in Malaysian University English Test (MUET) with…

  20. Impact of baseline Diabetic Retinopathy Severity Scale scores on visual outcomes in the VIVID-DME and VISTA-DME studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staurenghi, Giovanni; Feltgen, Nicolas; Arnold, Jennifer J; Katz, Todd A; Metzig, Carola; Lu, Chengxing; Holz, Frank G

    2017-10-19

    To evaluate intravitreal aflibercept versus laser in subgroups of patients with baseline Diabetic Retinopathy Severity Scale (DRSS) scores ≤43, 47, and ≥53 in VIVID-DME and VISTA-DME. Patients with diabetic macular oedema were randomised to receive intravitreal aflibercept 2 mg every 4 weeks (2q4), intravitreal aflibercept 2 mg every 8 weeks after five initial monthly doses (2q8), or macular laser photocoagulation at baseline with sham injections at every visit. These post hoc analyses evaluate outcomes based on baseline DRSS scores in patients in the integrated dataset. The 2q4 and 2q8 treatment groups were also pooled. 748 patients had a baseline DRSS score based on fundus photographs (≤43, n=301; 47, n=153; ≥53, n=294). At week 100, the least squares mean difference between treatment groups (effect of intravitreal aflibercept above that of laser, adjusting for baseline best-corrected visual acuity) was 8.9 (95% CI 5.99 to 11.81), 9.7 (95% CI 5.54 to 13.91), and 11.0 (95% CI 7.96 to 14.1) letters in those with baseline DRSS scores ≤43, 47, and ≥53, respectively. The proportions of patients with ≥2 step DRSS score improvement were greater in the intravitreal aflibercept group versus laser, respectively, for those with baseline DRSS scores of ≤43 (13% vs 5.9%), 47 (25.8% vs 4.5%), and ≥53 (64.5% vs 28.4%). Regardless of baseline DRSS score, functional outcomes were superior in intravitreal aflibercept-treated patients, demonstrating consistent treatment benefit across various baseline levels of retinopathy. NCT01331681 and NCT01363440, Post-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Arthritis self-efficacy scale scores in knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing arthritis self-management education with or without exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Emily; Nyland, John; Henzman, Cameron; McGinnis, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Systematic literature review and meta-analysis. To evaluate studies that used arthritis self-management education alone or with exercise to improve Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale scores of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Increasing self-efficacy may improve patient knee osteoarthritis symptom management and function. MEDLINE (1946-March 2013), CINAHL (1981-March 2013), and PsycINFO (1967-March 2013) databases were searched. Twenty-four studies, including 3163 subjects (women, n = 2547 [80.5%]; mean ± SD age, 65.3 ± 6.5 years), met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis was performed to compare the standardized mean difference effect sizes (Cohen d) of randomized controlled studies that used the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale pain (13 studies, n = 1906), other symptoms (13 studies, n = 1957), and function (5 studies, n = 399) subscales. Cohen d effect sizes were also calculated for cohort studies that used the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale pain (10 studies, n = 1035), other symptoms (9 studies, n = 913), and function (3 studies, n = 141) subscales. Both randomized controlled studies and cohort studies were grouped by intervention type (intervention 1, arthritis self-management education alone; intervention 2, arthritis self-management education with exercise), and effect sizes were compared (Mann-Whitney U tests, Pmanagement education with exercise displayed higher methodological quality scale scores (76.8 ± 13.1 versus 61.6 ± 19.6, P = .03). Statistically significant standardized effect-size differences between intervention 1 and intervention 2 were not observed. Small to moderate effect sizes were observed regardless of whether the intervention included exercise. Exercise interventions used in conjunction with arthritis self-management education programs need to be developed to better enhance the self-efficacy of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Therapy, level 2b-.

  2. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis on the Attitude Scale of Constructivist Approach for Science Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Evrekli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Underlining the importance of teachers for the constructivist approach, the present study attempts to develop “Attitude Scale of Construc¬tivist Approach for Science Teachers (ASCAST”. The pre-applications of the scale were administered to a total of 210 science teachers; however, the data obtained from 5 teachers were excluded from the analysis. As a result of the analysis of the data obtained from the pre-applications, it was found that the scale could have a single factor structure, which was tested using the confir¬matory factor analysis. As a result of the initial confirmatory factor analysis, the values of fit were examined and found to be low. Subsequently, by exam¬ining the modification indices, error covariance was added between items 23 and 24 and the model was tested once again. The added error covariance led to a significant improvement in the model, producing values of fit suitable for limit values. Thus, it was concluded that the scale could be employed with a single factor. The explained variance value for the scale developed with a sin¬gle factor structure was calculated to be 50.43% and its reliability was found to be .93. The results obtained suggest that the scale possesses reliable-valid characteristics and could be used in further studies.

  3. Comparison of IMP-SPECT findings to subtest scores of Wechsler intelligence adult Scale-Revised in temporal lobe epilepsy patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, Rumiko; Uejima, Masahiko; Kaneko, Yuko; Miyamoto, Yuriko; Watabe, Manabu; Takahashi, Ruriko; Niwa, Shin-ichi; Shishido, Fumio [Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    In this study, 40 temporal lobe epilepsy patients were assessed, using the Laterality Index (LI) of ROI values in IMP-SPECT findings, Wechsler adult intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and subtest scores. LIs of the frontal, temporal and occipital lobes were calculated as follows: the ROI values on the right side were subtracted from those on the left, and the results was divided by the sum of the ROI values on the right and left sides. The individual subtest scores on WAIS-R were standardized by all evaluation scores in order to exclude the influence of differences in intelligence level as much as possible. The results were as follows: there was a positive correlation (r=0.74, p<0.001) between LI values and the performance in Arithmetic in the left temporal lobe hypoperfusion group. And there was a positive correlation (r=0.50, p<0.02) between LI values and the performance in Vocabulary in the left temporal lobe hypoperfusion group. In the right occipital lobe hypoperfusion group, there was a negative correlation (r=-O.44, p

  4. Comparison of IMP-SPECT findings to subtest scores of Wechsler intelligence adult Scale-Revised in temporal lobe epilepsy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Rumiko; Uejima, Masahiko; Kaneko, Yuko; Miyamoto, Yuriko; Watabe, Manabu; Takahashi, Ruriko; Niwa, Shin-ichi; Shishido, Fumio

    1998-01-01

    In this study, 40 temporal lobe epilepsy patients were assessed, using the Laterality Index (LI) of ROI values in IMP-SPECT findings, Wechsler adult intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and subtest scores. LIs of the frontal, temporal and occipital lobes were calculated as follows: the ROI values on the right side were subtracted from those on the left, and the results was divided by the sum of the ROI values on the right and left sides. The individual subtest scores on WAIS-R were standardized by all evaluation scores in order to exclude the influence of differences in intelligence level as much as possible. The results were as follows: there was a positive correlation (r=0.74, p<0.001) between LI values and the performance in Arithmetic in the left temporal lobe hypoperfusion group. And there was a positive correlation (r=0.50, p<0.02) between LI values and the performance in Vocabulary in the left temporal lobe hypoperfusion group. In the right occipital lobe hypoperfusion group, there was a negative correlation (r=-O.44, p< O.05) between LI values and the performance in Coding. It is suggested that decreased blood flow areas detected by SPECT might influence brain function. (author)

  5. Validation of a Novel Scoring System for Changes in Skeletal Manifestations of Hypophosphatasia in Newborns, Infants, and Children: The Radiographic Global Impression of Change Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Michael P; Fujita, Kenji P; Moseley, Scott; Thompson, David D; McAlister, William H

    2018-05-01

    Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is the heritable metabolic disease characterized by impaired skeletal mineralization due to low activity of the tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase. Although HPP during growth often manifests with distinctive radiographic skeletal features, no validated method was available to quantify them, including changes over time. We created the Radiographic Global Impression of Change (RGI-C) scale to assess changes in the skeletal burden of pediatric HPP. Site-specific pairs of radiographs of newborns, infants, and children with HPP from three clinical studies of asfotase alfa, an enzyme replacement therapy for HPP, were obtained at baseline and during treatment. Each pair was scored by three pediatric radiologists ("raters"), with nine raters across the three studies. Intrarater and interrater agreement was determined by weighted Kappa coefficients. Interrater reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and by two-way random effects analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a mixed-model repeated measures ANOVA. Pearson correlation coefficients evaluated relationships of the RGI-C to the Rickets Severity Scale (RSS), Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument Global Function Parent Normative Score, Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index, 6-Minute Walk Test percent predicted, and Z-score for height in patients aged 6 to 12 years at baseline. Eighty-nine percent (8/9) of raters showed substantial or almost perfect intrarater agreement of sequential RGI-C scores (weighted Kappa coefficients, 0.72 to 0.93) and moderate or substantial interrater agreement (weighted Kappa coefficients, 0.53 to 0.71) in patients aged 0 to 12 years at baseline. Moderate-to-good interrater reliability was observed (ICC, 0.57 to 0.65). RGI-C scores were significantly (p ≤ 0.0065) correlated with the RSS and with measures of global function, disability, endurance, and growth in the patients aged 6 to 12 years at

  6. The level of new science leadership behaviors of school principals: A scale development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpil Şerife

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Einstein’s theory of relativity and quantum physics opened Newton physics up for discussion, thus triggering the new science at the beginning of the 20th century. Philosophy of science, which was named as the new science in the 20th century, caused fundamental changes in research methods and paradigms. The methods and set of values brought by the new science affected social sciences as well. In conjunction with this mentioned change and development, the field of education and the view of schools were influenced. In the same vein, identifying the thoughts of school principals on leadership styles based on new science was considered as a primary need and set the objective of this research. In this regard, a “The Levels of New Science Leadership Behaviors of School Principals Scale” was developed. Following the literature review, the scale with 54 items was prepared and underwent expert review. Finally it was applied to 200 school principals who were working in primary and secondary schools in the Anatolian side of Istanbul. The data acquired were analyzed through SPSS 15.0 and Lisrel 8.51 programs. The results of the analysis revealed that the scale was comprised of a total of 27 items and had 5 factors (dimensions. The reliability analysis indicated internal consistency value (Cronbach Alpha as .94. Confirmatory factor analysis was carried out in Lisrel program. According to results of confirmatory factor analysis, the X2/df ratio was calculated as 2, 24 which showed that the measurement model was in accord with the data.

  7. Teachers' perceptions of the effectiveness of an urban health sciences curriculum in closing the Black-White test score gap: A participatory case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Joan Marie

    1999-12-01

    Over the past years, progress in Black academic achievement, particularly in the area of science, has generally slowed or ceased. According to the 1994 NAEP assessment, twelfth-grade Black students are performing at the level of White eighth-grade students in the discipline of science (Department of Education, 1996). These students, in their last year of required schooling, are about to graduate, yet they lag at least four years behind their white counterparts in science achievement. Despite the establishment and implementation of numerous science intervention programs, Black students still suffer from a disparate gap in standardized test score achievement. The purpose of this research is to investigate teachers' perceptions of the effectiveness of an urban sciences intervention tool that was designed to assist in narrowing the Black-White science academic achievement gap. Specifically, what factors affect teachers' personal sense of instructional efficacy, and how does this translate into their outcome expectancy for student academic success? A multiple-case, replicative design, grounded in descriptive theory, was selected for the study. Multiple sources of evidence were queried to provide robust findings. These sources included a validated health sciences self-efficacy instrument, an interview protocol, a classroom observation, and a review of archival material that included case study participants' personnel files and meeting minutes. A cross-comparative analytic approach was selected for interpretation (Yin, 1994). Findings indicate that teachers attribute the success or failure of educational intervention tools in closing the Black-White test score gap to a variety of internal and external factors. These factors included a perceived lack of both monetary and personal support by the school leadership, as well as a perceived lack of parental involvement which impacted negatively on student achievement patterns. The case study participants displayed a depressed

  8. Entorhinal cortex volume measured with 3T MRI is positively correlated with the Wechsler memory scale-revised logical/verbal memory score for healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Masami; Abe, Osamu; Takao, Hidemasa; Inano, Sachiko; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni; Miyati, Tosiaki; Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Shigeki; Ino, Kenji; Iida, Kyouhito; Yano, Keiichi

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies revealed a correlation between local brain volume and cognitive function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between local gray matter volume and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) logical/verbal memory (WMS-R-verbal) score in healthy adults using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained in 1,169 healthy adults. The T1-weighted images in native space were bias-corrected, spatially normalized, and segmented into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid images with Statistical Parametric Mapping 5. To investigate regionally the specific effects of the WMS-R-verbal score on the gray matter images, simple regression analysis was performed by VBM treating age, total intracranial volume, and gender as confounding covariates. A P value of less than 0.05 corrected with false discovery rate in voxel difference was considered to be statistically significant. Our study showed a significant positive correlation between the WMS-R-verbal score and the bilateral entorhinal cortex volume. In the right entorhinal, T value is 4.75, and the size of the clusters is 155 voxels. In the left entorhinal, T value is 4.08, and the size of the clusters is 23 voxels. A significant negative correlation was not found. To our knowledge, this is the first VBM study showing that entorhinal cortex volume is positively correlated with the WMS-R-verbal score for healthy subjects. Therefore, in our structural neuroimaging study, we add evidence to the hypothesis that the entorhinal cortex is involved in verbal memory processing. (orig.)

  9. Entorhinal cortex volume measured with 3T MRI is positively correlated with the Wechsler memory scale-revised logical/verbal memory score for healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Masami [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiological Technology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kanazawa University, Tsunomatyou, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa (Japan); Abe, Osamu; Takao, Hidemasa; Inano, Sachiko; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Miyati, Tosiaki [Kanazawa University, Tsunomatyou, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa (Japan); Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kabasawa, Hiroyuki [GE Healthcare, Japan Applied Science Laboratory, Hino (Japan); Aoki, Shigeki [Juntendo University, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Ino, Kenji; Iida, Kyouhito; Yano, Keiichi [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiological Technology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    Previous studies revealed a correlation between local brain volume and cognitive function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between local gray matter volume and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) logical/verbal memory (WMS-R-verbal) score in healthy adults using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained in 1,169 healthy adults. The T1-weighted images in native space were bias-corrected, spatially normalized, and segmented into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid images with Statistical Parametric Mapping 5. To investigate regionally the specific effects of the WMS-R-verbal score on the gray matter images, simple regression analysis was performed by VBM treating age, total intracranial volume, and gender as confounding covariates. A P value of less than 0.05 corrected with false discovery rate in voxel difference was considered to be statistically significant. Our study showed a significant positive correlation between the WMS-R-verbal score and the bilateral entorhinal cortex volume. In the right entorhinal, T value is 4.75, and the size of the clusters is 155 voxels. In the left entorhinal, T value is 4.08, and the size of the clusters is 23 voxels. A significant negative correlation was not found. To our knowledge, this is the first VBM study showing that entorhinal cortex volume is positively correlated with the WMS-R-verbal score for healthy subjects. Therefore, in our structural neuroimaging study, we add evidence to the hypothesis that the entorhinal cortex is involved in verbal memory processing. (orig.)

  10. Ischemic Volume and Neurological Deficit: Correlation of Computed Tomography Perfusion with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale Score in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanis, Giovanni; Ajčević, Miloš; Stragapede, Lara; Lugnan, Carlo; Ridolfi, Mariana; Caruso, Paola; Naccarato, Marcello; Ukmar, Maja; Manganotti, Paolo

    2018-04-30

    The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) is the most adopted stroke patients' evaluation tool in emergency settings to assess the severity of stroke and to determine the patients' eligibility for specific treatments. Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) is crucial to identify salvageable tissue that can benefit from the reperfusion treatment. The aim of this study is to identify the relation between the NIHSS scores and the hypoperfused volumes evaluated by CTP in patients with hyperacute ischemic stroke. This retrospective study was conducted on 105 patients with ischemic stroke who underwent NIHSS assessment and CTP in the hyperacute phase. Hypoperfused volume was evaluated by CTP maps processed with semi-automatic algorithm. An analysis was conducted to determine the degree of correlation between the NIHSS scores and the ischemic lesion volumes and to investigate the relation between the anterior and the posterior circulation strokes, as well as between the right and the left hemispheric strokes. A significant correlation was found between ischemic volume and NIHSS score at baseline (r = .82; P correlation was identified in the anterior circulation stroke (r = .76; P correlated for the left and the right hemispheric strokes (r = .83 and .81; P correlation between the baseline NIHSS score and the ischemic volume estimated by CTP. We confirmed that NIHSS is a reliable predictor of perfusion deficits in acute ischemic stroke. CTP allows fast imaging assessment in the hyperacute phase. The results highlight the importance of these diagnostic tools in the assessment of stroke severity and in acute decision-making. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. External Validation of the Prestroke Independence, Sex, Age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale Score for Predicting Pneumonia After Stroke Using Data From the China National Stroke Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runhua; Ji, Ruijun; Pan, Yuesong; Jiang, Yong; Liu, Gaifen; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun

    2017-05-01

    Pneumonia is an important risk factor for mortality and morbidity after stroke. The Prestroke Independence, Sex, Age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (ISAN) score was shown to be a useful tool for predicting stroke-associated pneumonia based on UK multicenter cohort study. We aimed to externally validate the score using data from the China National Stroke Registry (CNSR). Eligible patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the CNSR from 2007 to 2008 were included. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) curve was used to evaluate discrimination. The Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test and Pearson correlation coefficient were performed to assess calibration of the model. A total of 19,333 patients (AIS = 14400; ICH = 4933) were included and the overall pneumonia rate was 12.7%. The AUC was .76 (95% confidence interval [CI]: .75-.78) for the subgroup of AIS and .70 (95% CI: .68-.72) for the subgroup of ICH. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed the ISAN score with the good calibration for AIS and ICH (P = .177 and .405, respectively). The plot of observed versus predicted pneumonia rates suggested higher correlation for patients with AIS than with ICH (Pearson correlation coefficient = .99 and .83, respectively). The ISAN score was a useful tool for predicting in-hospital pneumonia after acute stroke, especially for patients with AIS. Further validations need to be done in different populations. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Premorbid functioning of patients with first-episode nonaffective psychosis: a comparison of deterioration in academic and social performance, and clinical correlates of Premorbid Adjustment Scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Ralph C; Goulding, Sandra M; Compton, Michael T

    2008-09-01

    Motivated by a previous study among male veterans [Allen, D.N., Frantom, L.V., Strauss, G.P., van Kammen, D.P., 2005. Differential patterns of premorbid academic and social deterioration in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 75, 389-397], the present analysis examined: (1) patterns of premorbid academic and social functioning during childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence, and (2) associations between these premorbid functioning dimensions and a number of clinical variables. Data on premorbid functioning were collected using the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS) in 95 hospitalized first-episode patients. Analyses were similar to those conducted by Allen and colleagues (2005). Deterioration was evident in both academic and social functioning from childhood to early adolescence, along with a pronounced/accelerated deterioration in academic functioning from early adolescence to late adolescence, occurring in both male and female patients. Age at onset of prodromal symptoms was predicted by childhood/early adolescent/late adolescent academic functioning scores, and age at onset of psychotic symptoms was significantly associated only with childhood academic functioning. Severity of negative symptoms was predicted by childhood and late adolescent social functioning scores, and severity of general psychopathology symptoms was predicted by late adolescent academic functioning, as well as childhood and late adolescent social functioning scores. Consistent with prior findings, deterioration in premorbid functioning appears to be more pronounced in the academic than social dimension of the PAS. Some PAS scores are predictive of ages at onset of prodrome/psychosis and severity of psychotic symptoms. Ongoing research on premorbid adjustment in schizophrenia may have implications for future prevention goals.

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Complex Multiple-Choice Items in Science Technology and Society: Item Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Vázquez Alonso

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The scarce attention to assessment and evaluation in science education research has been especially harmful for Science-Technology-Society (STS education, due to the dialectic, tentative, value-laden, and controversial nature of most STS topics. To overcome the methodological pitfalls of the STS assessment instruments used in the past, an empirically developed instrument (VOSTS, Views on Science-Technology-Society have been suggested. Some methodological proposals, namely the multiple response models and the computing of a global attitudinal index, were suggested to improve the item implementation. The final step of these methodological proposals requires the categorization of STS statements. This paper describes the process of categorization through a scaling procedure ruled by a panel of experts, acting as judges, according to the body of knowledge from history, epistemology, and sociology of science. The statement categorization allows for the sound foundation of STS items, which is useful in educational assessment and science education research, and may also increase teachers’ self-confidence in the development of the STS curriculum for science classrooms.

  14. From boring to scoring - a collaborative serious game for learning and practicing mathematical logic for computer science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Andreas; Holz, Jan; Leonhardt, Thiemo; Schroeder, Ulrik; Brauner, Philipp; Ziefle, Martina

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we address the problem of low retention and high dropout rates of computer science university students in early semesters of the studies. Complex and high abstract mathematical learning materials have been identified as one reason for the dropout rate. In order to support the understanding and practicing of core mathematical concepts, we developed a game-based multitouch learning environment in which the need for a suitable learning environment for mathematical logic was combined with the ability to train cooperation and collaboration in a learning scenario. As application domain, the field of mathematical logic had been chosen. The development process was accomplished along three steps: First, ethnographic interviews were run with 12 students of computer science revealing typical problems with mathematical logic. Second, a multitouch learning environment was developed. The game consists of multiple learning and playing modes in which teams of students can collaborate or compete against each other. Finally, a twofold evaluation of the environment was carried out (user study and cognitive walk-through). Overall, the evaluation showed that the game environment was easy to use and rated as helpful: The chosen approach of a multiplayer game supporting competition, collaboration, and cooperation is perceived as motivating and "fun."

  15. Terry Turbopump Expanded Operating Band Full-Scale Component and Basic Science Detailed Test Plan - Final.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Solom, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This document details the milestone approach to define the true operating limitations (margins) of the Terry turbopump systems used in the nuclear industry for Milestone 3 (full-scale component experiments) and Milestone 4 (Terry turbopump basic science experiments) efforts. The overall multinational-sponsored program creates the technical basis to: (1) reduce and defer additional utility costs, (2) simplify plant operations, and (3) provide a better understanding of the true margin which could reduce overall risk of operations.

  16. Catestatin, vasostatin, cortisol, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, scores of the short form of the Glasgow composite measure pain scale and visual analog scale for stress and pain behavior in dogs before and after ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srithunyarat, Thanikul; Höglund, Odd V; Hagman, Ragnvi; Olsson, Ulf; Stridsberg, Mats; Lagerstedt, Anne-Sofie; Pettersson, Ann

    2016-08-02

    The stress reaction induced by surgery and associated pain may be detrimental for patient recovery and should be minimized. The neuropeptide chromogranin A (CGA) has shown promise as a sensitive biomarker for stress in humans. Little is known about CGA and its derived peptides, catestatin (CST) and vasostatin (VS), in dogs undergoing surgery. The objectives of this study were to investigate and compare concentrations of CGA epitopes CST and VS, cortisol, body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, scores of the short form of the Glasgow composite measure pain scale (CMPS-SF) and visual analog scales (VAS) for stress and pain behavior in dogs before and after ovariohysterectomy. Thirty healthy privately owned female dogs admitted for elective ovariohysterectomy were included. Physical examination, CMPS-SF, pain behavior VAS, and stress behavior VAS were recorded and saliva and blood samples were collected before surgery, 3 h after extubation, and once at recall 7-15 days after surgery. Dogs were premedicated with morphine and received carprofen as analgesia for 7 days during the postoperative period. At 3 h after extubation, CMPS-SF and pain behavior VAS scores had increased (p stress behavior VAS scores, temperature, respiratory rate (p stress and pain changed in dogs subjected to ovariohysterectomy. To further evaluate CST and VS usefulness as pain biomarkers, studies on dogs in acute painful situations are warranted.

  17. Green infrastructure and its catchment-scale effects: an emerging science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Heather E; Hoghooghi, Nahal

    2018-01-01

    Urbanizing environments alter the hydrological cycle by redirecting stream networks for stormwater and wastewater transmission and increasing impermeable surfaces. These changes thereby accelerate the runoff of water and its constituents following precipitation events, alter evapotranspiration processes, and indirectly modify surface precipitation patterns. Green infrastructure, or low-impact development (LID), can be used as a standalone practice or in concert with gray infrastructure (traditional stormwater management approaches) for cost-efficient, decentralized stormwater management. The growth in LID over the past several decades has resulted in a concomitant increase in research evaluating LID efficiency and effectiveness, but mostly at localized scales. There is a clear research need to quantify how LID practices affect water quantity (i.e., runoff and discharge) and quality at the scale of catchments. In this overview, we present the state of the science of LID research at the local scale, considerations for scaling this research to catchments, recent advances and findings in scaling the effects of LID practices on water quality and quantity at catchment scales, and the use of models as novel tools for these scaling efforts.

  18. The relation of putamen nucleus 6-[18F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine uptake to total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchy, R.

    2002-01-01

    The contribution of dopaminergic deficiency in the striatum to the severity of locomotor disability in Parkinson's disease has been consistently shown with 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-DOPA in positron emission tomography. Recently, 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine, an alternative tracer with similar distribution kinetics has been used to facilitate data analysis. Locomotor disability in Parkinson's disease can be measured using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale was used in conjunction with 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine -PET to clinically examine a group of five Parkinson's disease patients. An inverse relation similar to that previously demonstrated with 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-DOPA was found between the putamen nucleus 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine influx constant and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score. This finding suggests that like 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine can be used to accurately measure the degree of locomotor disability caused by Parkinson's disease. (author)

  19. Web-Scale Discovery Services Retrieve Relevant Results in Health Sciences Topics Including MEDLINE Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Margaret Stovold

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Hanneke, R., & O’Brien, K. K. (2016. Comparison of three web-scale discovery services for health sciences research. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 104(2, 109-117. http://dx.doi.org/10.3163/1536-5050.104.2.004 Abstract Objective – To compare the results of health sciences search queries in three web-scale discovery (WSD services for relevance, duplicate detection, and retrieval of MEDLINE content. Design – Comparative evaluation and bibliometric study. Setting – Six university libraries in the United States of America. Subjects – Three commercial WSD services: Primo, Summon, and EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS. Methods – The authors collected data at six universities, including their own. They tested each of the three WSDs at two data collection sites. However, since one of the sites was using a legacy version of Summon that was due to be upgraded, data collected for Summon at this site were considered obsolete and excluded from the analysis. The authors generated three questions for each of six major health disciplines, then designed simple keyword searches to mimic typical student search behaviours. They captured the first 20 results from each query run at each test site, to represent the first “page” of results, giving a total of 2,086 total search results. These were independently assessed for relevance to the topic. Authors resolved disagreements by discussion, and calculated a kappa inter-observer score. They retained duplicate records within the results so that the duplicate detection by the WSDs could be compared. They assessed MEDLINE coverage by the WSDs in several ways. Using precise strategies to generate a relevant set of articles, they conducted one search from each of the six disciplines in PubMed so that they could compare retrieval of MEDLINE content. These results were cross-checked against the first 20 results from the corresponding query in the WSDs. To aid investigation of overall

  20. Test-retest reliability at the item level and total score level of the Norwegian version of the Spinal Cord Injury Falls Concern Scale (SCI-FCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roaldsen, Kirsti Skavberg; Måøy, Åsa Blad; Jørgensen, Vivien; Stanghelle, Johan Kvalvik

    2016-05-01

    Translation of the Spinal Cord Injury Falls Concern Scale (SCI-FCS), and investigation of test-retest reliability on item-level and total-score-level. Translation, adaptation and test-retest study. A specialized rehabilitation setting in Norway. Fifty-four wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury. The median age of the cohort was 49 years, and the median number of years after injury was 13. Interventions/measurements: The SCI-FCS was translated and back-translated according to guidelines. Individuals answered the SCI-FCS twice over the course of one week. We investigated item-level test-retest reliability using Svensson's rank-based statistical method for disagreement analysis of paired ordinal data. For relative reliability, we analyzed the total-score-level test-retest reliability with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2.1), the standard error of measurement (SEM), and the smallest detectable change (SDC) for absolute reliability/measurement-error assessment and Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency. All items showed satisfactory percentage agreement (≥69%) between test and retest. There were small but non-negligible systematic disagreements among three items; we recovered an 11-13% higher chance for a lower second score. There was no disagreement due to random variance. The test-retest agreement (ICC2.1) was excellent (0.83). The SEM was 2.6 (12%), and the SDC was 7.1 (32%). The Cronbach's alpha was high (0.88). The Norwegian SCI-FCS is highly reliable for wheelchair users with chronic spinal cord injuries.

  1. III. FROM SMALL TO BIG: METHODS FOR INCORPORATING LARGE SCALE DATA INTO DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Kean, Pamela E; Jager, Justin

    2017-06-01

    For decades, developmental science has been based primarily on relatively small-scale data collections with children and families. Part of the reason for the dominance of this type of data collection is the complexity of collecting cognitive and social data on infants and small children. These small data sets are limited in both power to detect differences and the demographic diversity to generalize clearly and broadly. Thus, in this chapter we will discuss the value of using existing large-scale data sets to tests the complex questions of child development and how to develop future large-scale data sets that are both representative and can answer the important questions of developmental scientists. © 2017 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  2. Extending Structural Analyses of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale to Consider Criterion-Related Validity: Can Composite Self-Esteem Scores Be Good Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, M Brent; Ackerman, Robert A; Brecheen, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    Although the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) is the most widely used measure of global self-esteem in the literature, there are ongoing disagreements about its factor structure. This methodological debate informs how the measure should be used in substantive research. Using a sample of 1,127 college students, we test the overall fit of previously specified models for the RSES, including a newly proposed bifactor solution (McKay, Boduszek, & Harvey, 2014 ). We extend previous work by evaluating how various latent factors from these structural models are related to a set of criterion variables frequently studied in the self-esteem literature. A strict unidimensional model poorly fit the data, whereas models that accounted for correlations between negatively and positively keyed items tended to fit better. However, global factors from viable structural models had similar levels of association with criterion variables and with the pattern of results obtained with a composite global self-esteem variable calculated from observed scores. Thus, we did not find compelling evidence that different structural models had substantive implications, thereby reducing (but not eliminating) concerns about the integrity of the self-esteem literature based on overall composite scores for the RSES.

  3. Project BudBurst: Continental-scale citizen science for all seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S.; Newman, S. J.; Ward, D.; Havens-Young, K.; Alaback, P.; Meymaris, K.

    2011-12-01

    Project BudBurst's (budburst.org) recent move to the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) has benefitted both programs. NEON has been able to use Project BudBurst as a testbed to learn best practices, network with experts in the field, and prototype potential tools for engaging people in continental-scale ecology as NEON develops its citizen science program. Participation in Project BudBurst has grown significantly since the move to NEON. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants at a continental-scale; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch in February, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst and will report on the results of the 2010 field campaign and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst in 2012 including the use of mobile phones applications for data collection and reporting from the field. Project BudBurst is co-managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and the Chicago

  4. Inter-rater reliability of h-index scores calculated by Web of Science and Scopus for clinical epidemiology scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Benjamin; Alavifard, Sepand; Roberts, Surain; Lanes, Andrea; Ramsay, Tim; Boet, Sylvain

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the inter-rater reliability of Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus when calculating the h-index of 25 senior scientists in the Clinical Epidemiology Program of the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute. Bibliometric information and the h-indices for the subjects were computed by four raters using the automatic calculators in WoS and Scopus. Correlation and agreement between ratings was assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficient and a Bland-Altman plot, respectively. Data could not be gathered from Google Scholar due to feasibility constraints. The Spearman's rank correlation between the h-index of scientists calculated with WoS was 0.81 (95% CI 0.72-0.92) and with Scopus was 0.95 (95% CI 0.92-0.99). The Bland-Altman plot showed no significant rater bias in WoS and Scopus; however, the agreement between ratings is higher in Scopus compared to WoS. Our results showed a stronger relationship and increased agreement between raters when calculating the h-index of a scientist using Scopus compared to WoS. The higher inter-rater reliability and simple user interface used in Scopus may render it the more effective database when calculating the h-index of senior scientists in epidemiology. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  5. Sentiment analysis methods for understanding large-scale texts: a case for using continuum-scored words and word shift graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Reagan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The emergence and global adoption of social media has rendered possible the real-time estimation of population-scale sentiment, an extraordinary capacity which has profound implications for our understanding of human behavior. Given the growing assortment of sentiment-measuring instruments, it is imperative to understand which aspects of sentiment dictionaries contribute to both their classification accuracy and their ability to provide richer understanding of texts. Here, we perform detailed, quantitative tests and qualitative assessments of 6 dictionary-based methods applied to 4 different corpora, and briefly examine a further 20 methods. We show that while inappropriate for sentences, dictionary-based methods are generally robust in their classification accuracy for longer texts. Most importantly they can aid understanding of texts with reliable and meaningful word shift graphs if (1 the dictionary covers a sufficiently large portion of a given text’s lexicon when weighted by word usage frequency; and (2 words are scored on a continuous scale.

  6. Comparisons of American, Israeli, Italian and Mexican physicians and nurses on the total and factor scores of the Jefferson scale of attitudes toward physician-nurse collaborative relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Gonnella, Joseph S; Nasca, Thomas J; Fields, Sylvia K; Cicchetti, Americo; Lo Scalzo, Alessandra; Taroni, Francesco; Amicosante, Anna Maria Vincenza; Macinati, Manuela; Tangucci, Massimo; Liva, Carlo; Ricciardi, Gualtiero; Eidelman, Shmuel; Admi, Hanna; Geva, Hana; Mashiach, Tanya; Alroy, Gideon; Alcorta-Gonzalez, Adelina; Ibarra, David; Torres-Ruiz, Antonio

    2003-05-01

    This cross-cultural study was designed to compare the attitudes of physicians and nurses toward physician-nurse collaboration in the United States, Israel, Italy and Mexico. Total participants were 2522 physicians and nurses who completed the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes Toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration (15 Likert-type items, (Hojat et al., Evaluation and the Health Professions 22 (1999a) 208; Nursing Research 50 (2001) 123). They were compared on the total scores and four factors of the Jefferson Scale (shared education and team work, caring as opposed to curing, nurses, autonomy, physicians' dominance). Results showed inter- and intra-cultural similarities and differences among the study groups providing support for the social role theory (Hardy and Conway, Role Theory: Perspectives for Health Professionals, Appelton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1978) and the principle of least interest (Waller and Hill, The Family: A Dynamic Interpretation, Dryden, New York, 1951) in inter-professional relationships. Implications for promoting physician-nurse education and inter-professional collaboration are discussed.

  7. Proceedings of joint meeting of the 6th simulation science symposium and the NIFS collaboration research 'large scale computer simulation'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    Joint meeting of the 6th Simulation Science Symposium and the NIFS Collaboration Research 'Large Scale Computer Simulation' was held on December 12-13, 2002 at National Institute for Fusion Science, with the aim of promoting interdisciplinary collaborations in various fields of computer simulations. The present meeting attended by more than 40 people consists of the 11 invited and 22 contributed papers, of which topics were extended not only to fusion science but also to related fields such as astrophysics, earth science, fluid dynamics, molecular dynamics, computer science etc. (author)

  8. Belowground Carbon Cycling Processes at the Molecular Scale: An EMSL Science Theme Advisory Panel Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Nancy J.; Brown, Gordon E.; Plata, Charity

    2014-02-21

    As part of the Belowground Carbon Cycling Processes at the Molecular Scale workshop, an EMSL Science Theme Advisory Panel meeting held in February 2013, attendees discussed critical biogeochemical processes that regulate carbon cycling in soil. The meeting attendees determined that as a national scientific user facility, EMSL can provide the tools and expertise needed to elucidate the molecular foundation that underlies mechanistic descriptions of biogeochemical processes that control carbon allocation and fluxes at the terrestrial/atmospheric interface in landscape and regional climate models. Consequently, the workshop's goal was to identify the science gaps that hinder either development of mechanistic description of critical processes or their accurate representation in climate models. In part, this report offers recommendations for future EMSL activities in this research area. The workshop was co-chaired by Dr. Nancy Hess (EMSL) and Dr. Gordon Brown (Stanford University).

  9. Networking for large-scale science: infrastructure, provisioning, transport and application mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Nageswara S; Carter, Steven M; Wu Qishi; Wing, William R; Zhu Mengxia; Mezzacappa, Anthony; Veeraraghavan, Malathi; Blondin, John M

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale science computations and experiments require unprecedented network capabilities in the form of large bandwidth and dynamically stable connections to support data transfers, interactive visualizations, and monitoring and steering operations. A number of component technologies dealing with the infrastructure, provisioning, transport and application mappings must be developed and/or optimized to achieve these capabilities. We present a brief account of the following technologies that contribute toward achieving these network capabilities: (a) DOE UltraScienceNet and NSF CHEETAH network testbeds that provide on-demand and scheduled dedicated network connections; (b) experimental results on transport protocols that achieve close to 100% utilization on dedicated 1Gbps wide-area channels; (c) a scheme for optimally mapping a visualization pipeline onto a network to minimize the end-to-end delays; and (d) interconnect configuration and protocols that provides multiple Gbps flows from Cray X1 to external hosts

  10. Networking for large-scale science: infrastructure, provisioning, transport and application mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S [Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Carter, Steven M [Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wu Qishi [Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wing, William R [Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Zhu Mengxia [Department of Computer Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Mezzacappa, Anthony [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Veeraraghavan, Malathi [Department of Computer Science, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Blondin, John M [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale science computations and experiments require unprecedented network capabilities in the form of large bandwidth and dynamically stable connections to support data transfers, interactive visualizations, and monitoring and steering operations. A number of component technologies dealing with the infrastructure, provisioning, transport and application mappings must be developed and/or optimized to achieve these capabilities. We present a brief account of the following technologies that contribute toward achieving these network capabilities: (a) DOE UltraScienceNet and NSF CHEETAH network testbeds that provide on-demand and scheduled dedicated network connections; (b) experimental results on transport protocols that achieve close to 100% utilization on dedicated 1Gbps wide-area channels; (c) a scheme for optimally mapping a visualization pipeline onto a network to minimize the end-to-end delays; and (d) interconnect configuration and protocols that provides multiple Gbps flows from Cray X1 to external hosts.

  11. Large-Scale Science Observatories: Building on What We Have Learned from USArray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, R.; Busby, R.; Detrick, R. S.; Frassetto, A.

    2015-12-01

    With the NSF-sponsored EarthScope USArray observatory, the Earth science community has built the operational capability and experience to tackle scientific challenges at the largest scales, such as a Subduction Zone Observatory. In the first ten years of USArray, geophysical instruments were deployed across roughly 2% of the Earth's surface. The USArray operated a rolling deployment of seismic stations that occupied ~1,700 sites across the USA, made co-located atmospheric observations, occupied hundreds of sites with magnetotelluric sensors, expanded a backbone reference network of seismic stations, and provided instruments to PI-led teams that deployed thousands of additional seismic stations. USArray included a comprehensive outreach component that directly engaged hundreds of students at over 50 colleges and universities to locate station sites and provided Earth science exposure to roughly 1,000 landowners who hosted stations. The project also included a comprehensive data management capability that received, archived and distributed data, metadata, and data products; data were acquired and distributed in real time. The USArray project was completed on time and under budget and developed a number of best practices that can inform other large-scale science initiatives that the Earth science community is contemplating. Key strategies employed by USArray included: using a survey, rather than hypothesis-driven, mode of observation to generate comprehensive, high quality data on a large-scale for exploration and discovery; making data freely and openly available to any investigator from the very onset of the project; and using proven, commercial, off-the-shelf systems to ensure a fast start and avoid delays due to over-reliance on unproven technology or concepts. Scope was set ambitiously, but managed carefully to avoid overextending. Configuration was controlled to ensure efficient operations while providing consistent, uniform observations. Finally, community

  12. Self perception score from zero to ten correlates well with standardized scales of adolescent self esteem, body dissatisfaction, eating disorders risk, depression, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer A

    2009-01-01

    The ability to quickly and reliably assess mental health status would assist health workers, educators and youth workers to provide appropriate early intervention for adolescents. To investigate the validity of a simple self perception score out of ten by correlating the self perception scores of adolescents from a normal, community sample of adolescents with their scores on standardized mental health measures. Study group was 470 early adolescent students aged 11.0-14.5 years from grades 7 and 8 in two secondary schools. Self perception was self reported using a score of zero to ten points, and the scores were then correlated with scores on the Harter Self Perception Profile, Beck Junior Depression, Speilberger State and Trait Anxiety and the Eating Disorders Inventory. A High Risk group (self perception adolescents also had poor self esteem and risk for depression, anxiety, and eating disorders. Self perception scores correlated positively with self esteem and self concept subscales and it was negatively associated with depression, state and trait anxiety, and EDI scores. Of the 15.1% high risk adolescents in the overall sample, 78% scored below the group average on the mean of all Harter Self Concept scores; 70% scored above average for Beck Depression; 64% and 74% scored above average on Speilberger State/Trait Anxiety respectively; 80% scored higher than the average on the group mean EDI. A self perception score from zero to ten can be a simple and accurate way of gaining an initial insight into the current mental health status of adolescents.

  13. Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and ICU Mobility Scale: translation into Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yurika Maria Fogaça; Nawa, Ricardo Kenji; Figueiredo, Thais Borgheti; Martins, Lourdes; Pires-Neto, Ruy Camargo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To translate the Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and the ICU Mobility Scale (IMS) into Portuguese, creating versions that are cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil, and to determine the interobserver agreement and reliability for both versions. Methods: The processes of translation and cross-cultural validation consisted in the following: preparation, translation, reconciliation, synthesis, back-translation, review, approval, and pre-test. The Portuguese-language versions of both instruments were then used by two researchers to evaluate critically ill ICU patients. Weighted kappa statistics and Bland-Altman plots were used in order to verify interobserver agreement for the two instruments. In each of the domains of the instruments, interobserver reliability was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The correlation between the instruments was assessed by Spearman's correlation test. Results: The study sample comprised 103 patients-56 (54%) of whom were male-with a mean age of 52 ± 18 years. The main reason for ICU admission (in 44%) was respiratory failure. Both instruments showed excellent interobserver agreement (κ > 0.90) and reliability (α > 0.90) in all domains. Interobserver bias was low for the IMS and the Perme Score (−0.048 ± 0.350 and −0.06 ± 0.73, respectively). The 95% CIs for the same instruments ranged from −0.73 to 0.64 and −1.50 to 1.36, respectively. There was also a strong positive correlation between the two instruments (r = 0.941; p < 0.001). Conclusions: In their versions adapted for use in Brazil, both instruments showed high interobserver agreement and reliability. PMID:28117473

  14. Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and ICU Mobility Scale: translation into Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurika Maria Fogaça Kawaguchi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To translate the Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and the ICU Mobility Scale (IMS into Portuguese, creating versions that are cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil, and to determine the interobserver agreement and reliability for both versions. Methods: The processes of translation and cross-cultural validation consisted in the following: preparation, translation, reconciliation, synthesis, back-translation, review, approval, and pre-test. The Portuguese-language versions of both instruments were then used by two researchers to evaluate critically ill ICU patients. Weighted kappa statistics and Bland-Altman plots were used in order to verify interobserver agreement for the two instruments. In each of the domains of the instruments, interobserver reliability was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The correlation between the instruments was assessed by Spearman's correlation test. Results: The study sample comprised 103 patients-56 (54% of whom were male-with a mean age of 52 ± 18 years. The main reason for ICU admission (in 44% was respiratory failure. Both instruments showed excellent interobserver agreement ( > 0.90 and reliability ( > 0.90 in all domains. Interobserver bias was low for the IMS and the Perme Score (−0.048 ± 0.350 and −0.06 ± 0.73, respectively. The 95% CIs for the same instruments ranged from −0.73 to 0.64 and −1.50 to 1.36, respectively. There was also a strong positive correlation between the two instruments (r = 0.941; p < 0.001. Conclusions: In their versions adapted for use in Brazil, both instruments showed high interobserver agreement and reliability.

  15. The use of brain CT Scan in craniocerebral trauma with Glasgow coma scale scores of 13 – 15 in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital 1999-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jofizal Jannis

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available There is still a controversy among the neurologists whether brain CT scan must be performed on the mild head trauma patients. This study was executed to find out the correlation between the brain CT scan image findings and its clinical impairment among the mild head trauma patients with Glasgow coma scale (GCS score of 13 to 15. The study was a retrospective study by analyzing the uniform medical records of the head trauma patients hospitalized at the Neurology ward of Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital within the period of 1999 to 2001. During that period 1,663 patients were hospitalized due to head trauma, and 1,166 of them (70.1 % were suffered from mild head trauma patients with GCS score of 13-15. Among those with brain CT scan examinations (N: 271, the neurological abnormalities were found on 144 (53.1% of patients, consisted of cerebral edema (11,4%, intracerebral hemorrhage (5.5%, epidural hemorrhage (16.2%, subdural hemorrhage (18.1%, subarachnoid hemorrhage (5.5%, and combination (13.8%. The further analysis showed that cranial nerves disturbance, amnesia, loss of conciousness for more than 10 minutes, and vomiting are significantly correlated to the brain CT scan abnormality. Combination of the above four clinical signs and symptoms have sensitivity of 90 % in predicting brain insults. This findings may be used as a simple set of clinical criteria for identifying mild head trauma patients who need undergo CT scan examination. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 156-60 Keywords: mild head injury, brain CT scan

  16. Scaling up Three-Dimensional Science Learning through Teacher-Led Study Groups across a State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Brian J.; Michaels, Sarah; Moon, Jean; Bell, Tara; Dyer, Elizabeth; Edwards, Kelsey D.; McGill, Tara A. W.; Novak, Michael; Park, Aimee

    2017-01-01

    The vision for science teaching in the Framework for K-12 Science Education and the Next Generation Science Standards requires a radical departure from traditional science teaching. Science literacy is defined as three-dimensional (3D), in which students engage in science and engineering practices to develop and apply science disciplinary ideas…

  17. Using Citizen Science Observations to Model Species Distributions Over Space, Through Time, and Across Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelling, S.

    2017-12-01

    The goal of Biodiversity research is to identify, explain, and predict why a species' distribution and abundance vary through time, space, and with features of the environment. Measuring these patterns and predicting their responses to change are not exercises in curiosity. Today, they are essential tasks for understanding the profound effects that humans have on earth's natural systems, and for developing science-based environmental policies. To gain insight about species' distribution patterns requires studying natural systems at appropriate scales, yet studies of ecological processes continue to be compromised by inadequate attention to scale issues. How spatial and temporal patterns in nature change with scale often reflects fundamental laws of physics, chemistry, or biology, and we can identify such basic, governing laws only by comparing patterns over a wide range of scales. This presentation will provide several examples that integrate bird observations made by volunteers, with NASA Earth Imagery using Big Data analysis techniques to analyze the temporal patterns of bird occurrence across scales—from hemisphere-wide views of bird distributions to the impact of powerful city lights on bird migration.

  18. AP Potential™ Expectancy Tables Based on PSAT/NMSQT® and SAT® Scores on the 2015-16 Redesigned Scales. Statistical Report 2016-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Maureen; Wyatt, Jeffrey N.; Smith, Kara

    2016-01-01

    Historically, AP Potential™ has used PSAT/NMSQT® scores to identify students who are likely to earn a 3 or higher on a specific AP® Exam--based on research showing moderate to strong relationships between PSAT/NMSQT scores and AP Exam scores (Camara & Millsap, 1998; Ewing, Camara & Millsap, 2006; Zhang, Patel & Ewing, 2014a). For most…

  19. AP Potential Expectancy Tables Based on PSAT/NMSQT and SAT Scores on the 2015-16 Redesigned Scales Using Final Concordance Tables. Statistical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Maureen; Wyatt, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Historically, AP Potential™ has used PSAT/NMSQT® scores to identify students who are likely to earn a 3 or higher on a specific AP Exam based on research showing moderate to strong relationships between PSAT/NMSQT scores and AP Exam scores (Camara & Millsap, 1998; Ewing, Camara, & Millsap, 2006; Zhang, Patel, & Ewing, 2014a). For most…

  20. Using Analytics to Support Petabyte-Scale Science on the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votava, P.; Michaelis, A.; Ganguly, S.; Nemani, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) is a data, supercomputing and knowledge collaboratory that houses NASA satellite, climate and ancillary data where a focused community can come together to address large-scale challenges in Earth sciences. Analytics within NEX occurs at several levels - data, workflows, science and knowledge. At the data level, we are focusing on collecting and analyzing any information that is relevant to efficient acquisition, processing and management of data at the smallest granularity, such as files or collections. This includes processing and analyzing all local and many external metadata that are relevant to data quality, size, provenance, usage and other attributes. This then helps us better understand usage patterns and improve efficiency of data handling within NEX. When large-scale workflows are executed on NEX, we capture information that is relevant to processing and that can be analyzed in order to improve efficiencies in job scheduling, resource optimization, or data partitioning that would improve processing throughput. At this point we also collect data provenance as well as basic statistics of intermediate and final products created during the workflow execution. These statistics and metrics form basic process and data QA that, when combined with analytics algorithms, helps us identify issues early in the production process. We have already seen impact in some petabyte-scale projects, such as global Landsat processing, where we were able to reduce processing times from days to hours and enhance process monitoring and QA. While the focus so far has been mostly on support of NEX operations, we are also building a web-based infrastructure that enables users to perform direct analytics on science data - such as climate predictions or satellite data. Finally, as one of the main goals of NEX is knowledge acquisition and sharing, we began gathering and organizing information that associates users and projects with data, publications, locations

  1. Comparison of three web-scale discovery services for health sciences research*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosie Hanneke, MLS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative effectiveness of three web-scale discovery (WSD tools in answering health sciences search queries. Methods: Simple keyword searches, based on topics from six health sciences disciplines, were run at multiple real-world implementations of EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS, Ex Libris’s Primo, and ProQuest’s Summon. Each WSD tool was evaluated in its ability to retrieve relevant results and in its coverage of MEDLINE content. Results: All WSD tools returned between 50%–60% relevant results. Primo returned a higher number of duplicate results than the other 2WSD products. Summon results were more relevant when search terms were automatically mapped to controlled vocabulary. EDS indexed the largest number of MEDLINE citations, followed closely by Summon. Additionally, keyword searches in all 3 WSD tools retrieved relevant material that was not found with precision (Medical Subject Headings searches in MEDLINE. Conclusions: None of the 3 WSD products studied was overwhelmingly more effective in returning relevant results. While difficult to place the figure of 50%–60% relevance in context, it implies a strong likelihood that the average user would be able to find satisfactory sources on the first page of search results using a rudimentary keyword search. The discovery of additional relevant material beyond that retrieved from MEDLINE indicates WSD tools’ value as a supplement to traditional resources for health sciences researchers.

  2. Comparison of three web-scale discovery services for health sciences research*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanneke, Rosie; O'Brien, Kelly K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative effectiveness of three web-scale discovery (WSD) tools in answering health sciences search queries. Methods Simple keyword searches, based on topics from six health sciences disciplines, were run at multiple real-world implementations of EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS), Ex Libris's Primo, and ProQuest's Summon. Each WSD tool was evaluated in its ability to retrieve relevant results and in its coverage of MEDLINE content. Results All WSD tools returned between 50%–60% relevant results. Primo returned a higher number of duplicate results than the other 2 WSD products. Summon results were more relevant when search terms were automatically mapped to controlled vocabulary. EDS indexed the largest number of MEDLINE citations, followed closely by Summon. Additionally, keyword searches in all 3 WSD tools retrieved relevant material that was not found with precision (Medical Subject Headings) searches in MEDLINE. Conclusions None of the 3 WSD products studied was overwhelmingly more effective in returning relevant results. While difficult to place the figure of 50%–60% relevance in context, it implies a strong likelihood that the average user would be able to find satisfactory sources on the first page of search results using a rudimentary keyword search. The discovery of additional relevant material beyond that retrieved from MEDLINE indicates WSD tools' value as a supplement to traditional resources for health sciences researchers. PMID:27076797

  3. Comparison of three web-scale discovery services for health sciences research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanneke, Rosie; O'Brien, Kelly K

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative effectiveness of three web-scale discovery (WSD) tools in answering health sciences search queries. Simple keyword searches, based on topics from six health sciences disciplines, were run at multiple real-world implementations of EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS), Ex Libris's Primo, and ProQuest's Summon. Each WSD tool was evaluated in its ability to retrieve relevant results and in its coverage of MEDLINE content. All WSD tools returned between 50%-60% relevant results. Primo returned a higher number of duplicate results than the other 2 WSD products. Summon results were more relevant when search terms were automatically mapped to controlled vocabulary. EDS indexed the largest number of MEDLINE citations, followed closely by Summon. Additionally, keyword searches in all 3 WSD tools retrieved relevant material that was not found with precision (Medical Subject Headings) searches in MEDLINE. None of the 3 WSD products studied was overwhelmingly more effective in returning relevant results. While difficult to place the figure of 50%-60% relevance in context, it implies a strong likelihood that the average user would be able to find satisfactory sources on the first page of search results using a rudimentary keyword search. The discovery of additional relevant material beyond that retrieved from MEDLINE indicates WSD tools' value as a supplement to traditional resources for health sciences researchers.

  4. Enabling Extreme Scale Earth Science Applications at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaj, V. G.; Mozdzynski, G.; Hamrud, M.; Deconinck, W.; Smith, L.; Hack, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Oak Ridge Leadership Facility (OLCF), established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), welcomes investigators from universities, government agencies, national laboratories and industry who are prepared to perform breakthrough research across a broad domain of scientific disciplines, including earth and space sciences. Titan, the OLCF flagship system, is currently listed as #2 in the Top500 list of supercomputers in the world, and the largest available for open science. The computational resources are allocated primarily via the Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) program, sponsored by the U.S. DOE Office of Science. In 2014, over 2.25 billion core hours on Titan were awarded via INCITE projects., including 14% of the allocation toward earth sciences. The INCITE competition is also open to research scientists based outside the USA. In fact, international research projects account for 12% of the INCITE awards in 2014. The INCITE scientific review panel also includes 20% participation from international experts. Recent accomplishments in earth sciences at OLCF include the world's first continuous simulation of 21,000 years of earth's climate history (2009); and an unprecedented simulation of a magnitude 8 earthquake over 125 sq. miles. One of the ongoing international projects involves scaling the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) model to over 200K cores of Titan. ECMWF is a partner in the EU funded Collaborative Research into Exascale Systemware, Tools and Applications (CRESTA) project. The significance of the research carried out within this project is the demonstration of techniques required to scale current generation Petascale capable simulation codes towards the performance levels required for running on future Exascale systems. One of the techniques pursued by ECMWF is to use Fortran2008 coarrays to overlap computations and communications and

  5. Large-scale theoretical calculations in molecular science - design of a large computer system for molecular science and necessary conditions for future computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, H [Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, Aichi (Japan)

    1982-06-01

    A large computer system was designed and established for molecular science under the leadership of molecular scientists. Features of the computer system are an automated operation system and an open self-service system. Large-scale theoretical calculations have been performed to solve many problems in molecular science, using the computer system. Necessary conditions for future computers are discussed on the basis of this experience.

  6. Large-scale theoretical calculations in molecular science - design of a large computer system for molecular science and necessary conditions for future computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, H.

    1982-01-01

    A large computer system was designed and established for molecular science under the leadership of molecular scientists. Features of the computer system are an automated operation system and an open self-service system. Large-scale theoretical calculations have been performed to solve many problems in molecular science, using the computer system. Necessary conditions for future computers are discussed on the basis of this experience. (orig.)

  7. Large-scale laser-microwave synchronization for attosecond photon science facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafak, Kemal

    2017-04-15

    Low-noise transfer of time and frequency standards over large distances provides high temporal resolution for ambitious scientific explorations such as sensitive imaging of astronomical objects using multi-telescope arrays, comparison of distant optical clocks or gravitational-wave detection using large laser interferometers. In particular, rapidly expanding photon science facilities such as X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) and attoscience centers have the most challenging synchronization requirements of sub-fs timing precision to generate ultrashort X-ray pulses for the benefit of creating super-microscopes with sub-atomic spatiotemporal resolution. The critical task in these facilities is to synchronize various pulsed lasers and microwave sources across multi-kilometer distances as required for seeded FELs and attosecond pump-probe experiments. So far, there has been no timing distribution system meeting this strict requirement. Therefore, insufficient temporal precision provided by the current synchronization systems hinders the development of attosecond hard X-ray photon science facilities. The aim of this thesis is to devise a timing distribution system satisfying the most challenging synchronization requirements in science mandated by the next-generation photon science facilities. Using the pulsed-optical timing distribution approach, attosecond timing precision is realized by thoroughly investigating and eliminating the remaining noise sources in the synchronization system. First, optical and microwave timing detection schemes are further developed to support long-term stable, attosecond-precision measurements. Second, the feasibility of the master laser to support a kilometer-scale timing network with attosecond precision is examined by experimentally characterizing its free-running timing jitter and improving its long-term frequency stability with a sophisticated environmental insulation. Third, nonlinear pulse propagation inside optical fibers is studied

  8. Large-scale laser-microwave synchronization for attosecond photon science facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafak, Kemal

    2017-04-01

    Low-noise transfer of time and frequency standards over large distances provides high temporal resolution for ambitious scientific explorations such as sensitive imaging of astronomical objects using multi-telescope arrays, comparison of distant optical clocks or gravitational-wave detection using large laser interferometers. In particular, rapidly expanding photon science facilities such as X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) and attoscience centers have the most challenging synchronization requirements of sub-fs timing precision to generate ultrashort X-ray pulses for the benefit of creating super-microscopes with sub-atomic spatiotemporal resolution. The critical task in these facilities is to synchronize various pulsed lasers and microwave sources across multi-kilometer distances as required for seeded FELs and attosecond pump-probe experiments. So far, there has been no timing distribution system meeting this strict requirement. Therefore, insufficient temporal precision provided by the current synchronization systems hinders the development of attosecond hard X-ray photon science facilities. The aim of this thesis is to devise a timing distribution system satisfying the most challenging synchronization requirements in science mandated by the next-generation photon science facilities. Using the pulsed-optical timing distribution approach, attosecond timing precision is realized by thoroughly investigating and eliminating the remaining noise sources in the synchronization system. First, optical and microwave timing detection schemes are further developed to support long-term stable, attosecond-precision measurements. Second, the feasibility of the master laser to support a kilometer-scale timing network with attosecond precision is examined by experimentally characterizing its free-running timing jitter and improving its long-term frequency stability with a sophisticated environmental insulation. Third, nonlinear pulse propagation inside optical fibers is studied

  9. Comparing the Pre- and Posttest Scores in Relations to the Emporium and the Hands-on Instructional Approaches of Teaching Science in Prekindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headen, Patricia Ann

    This quantitative, quasi-experimental research investigated if two instructional approaches, the Emporium Computer-Based (Group 2) versus the hands-on approach (Group 1), resulted any difference in student achievement in science for four-year-old prekindergarten students at a private childcare facility in North Carolina. Three research questions hypothesized these relationships: (a) Group 2 versus Group 1 assessed student achievement as theoretically based on Piaget and Vygotsky's perspectives of child development, (b) the instructional approaches related to gender, and (c) the instructional approaches interrelated to ethnicity. Using a two-factor ANOVA and ANCOVA techniques, involved a convenience sample of 126 four-year-old prekindergarten students of which a convenience sample of 126 participated. The Assessment of Measurements for Pre-K (AMP-K), pretest and posttest scores of each group of 63 students measured student achievement. The t tests determined if a significant difference in student achievement existed (dependent variable) with the Emporium Computer-Based versus hands-on instructional approaches (independent variables). The posttest scores of Group 2 (p = 0.00), indicated a significant difference in student achievement. However, gender and ethnicity variables had no effect on student achievement, male (M = 36.14, SD = 19.61) and female (M = 42.91, SD = 18.99) with (p = 0.49), and ethnicity resulted, F (1,125) = 1.65, (p = 0.20). These results suggested that further research on the Emporium Computer-Based instructional approach could improve students' intellectual abilities through more innovative practices.

  10. Conservative treatment of soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities. Functional evaluation with LENT-SOMA scales and the Enneking score; Traitement conservateur des sarcomes des tissus mous des membres. Evaluation du resultat fonctionnel selon l'echelle LENT-SOMA et le score de Enneking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfiq, N.; Lagarde, P.; Thomas, L.; Kantor, G. [Institut Bergonie, Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer, Service de Radiotherapie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Stockle, E. [Institut Bergonie, Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer, Service de Chirurgie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Bui, B.N. [Institut Bergonie, Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer, Service d' Oncologie Medicale, 33 - Bordeaux (France)

    2000-12-01

    Objective. - The aim of this prospective study is the feasibility of late effects assessment by LENT-SOMA scales after conservative treatment of soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities and a comparison with the functional evaluation by the Enneking score. Patients and methods. - During the systematic follow-up consultations, a series of 32 consecutive patients was evaluated in terms of late effects by LENT SOMA scales and functional results by the Enneking score. The median time after treatment was 65 months. The treatment consisted of conservative surgery (all cases) followed by radiation therapy (29 cases), often combined with adjuvant therapy (12 concomitant radio-chemotherapy association cases out of 14). The assessment of the toxicity was retrospective for acute effects and prospective for the following late tissue damage: skin/subcutaneous tissues, muscles/soft tissues and peripheral nerves. Results. -According to the Enneking score, the global score for the overall series was high (24/30) despite four the scores zero for the psychological acceptance. According to LENT SOMA scales, a low rate of severe sequelae (grade 3-4) was observed. The occurrence of high-grade sequelae and their functional consequences were not correlated with quality of exeresis, dose of radiotherapy or use of concomitant chemotherapy. A complementarity was observed between certain factors of the Enneking score and some criteria of the LENTSOMA scales, especially of muscles/soft tissues. Conclusion. -The good quality of functional results was confirmed by the two mean scoring systems for late normal tissue damage. The routine use of LENT-SOMA seems to be more time consuming than the Enneking score (mean time of scoring: 1 3 versus five minutes). The LENT-SOMA scales are aimed at a detailed description of late toxicity and sequelae while the Enneking score provides a more global evaluation, including the psychological acceptance of treatment. The late effects assessment by the LENT

  11. Large Scale Monte Carlo Simulation of Neutrino Interactions Using the Open Science Grid and Commercial Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, A.; Boyd, J.; Davies, G.; Flumerfelt, E.; Herner, K.; Mayer, N.; Mhashilhar, P.; Tamsett, M.; Timm, S.

    2015-01-01

    Modern long baseline neutrino experiments like the NOvA experiment at Fermilab, require large scale, compute intensive simulations of their neutrino beam fluxes and backgrounds induced by cosmic rays. The amount of simulation required to keep the systematic uncertainties in the simulation from dominating the final physics results is often 10x to 100x that of the actual detector exposure. For the first physics results from NOvA this has meant the simulation of more than 2 billion cosmic ray events in the far detector and more than 200 million NuMI beam spill simulations. Performing these high statistics levels of simulation have been made possible for NOvA through the use of the Open Science Grid and through large scale runs on commercial clouds like Amazon EC2. We details the challenges in performing large scale simulation in these environments and how the computing infrastructure for the NOvA experiment has been adapted to seamlessly support the running of different simulation and data processing tasks on these resources. (paper)

  12. Loosening the shackles of scientific disciplines with network science. Reply to comments on "Network science of biological systems at different scales: A review"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosak, Marko; Markovič, Rene; Dolenšek, Jurij; Rupnik, Marjan Slak; Marhl, Marko; Stožer, Andraž; Perc, Matjaž

    2018-03-01

    We would like to thank all the experts for their insightful and very interesting comments that have been submitted in response to our review "Network science of biological systems at different scales" [1]. We are delighted with the number of comments that have been written, and even more so with the positive opinions that these comments communicate to the wider audience [2-9]. Although methods of network science have long proven their value in relevantly addressing various challenges in the biological sciences, such interdisciplinary research often still struggles for funding and recognition at many academic levels.

  13. Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and ICU Mobility Scale: translation into Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yurika Maria Fogaça; Nawa, Ricardo Kenji; Figueiredo, Thais Borgheti; Martins, Lourdes; Pires-Neto, Ruy Camargo

    2016-01-01

    To translate the Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and the ICU Mobility Scale (IMS) into Portuguese, creating versions that are cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil, and to determine the interobserver agreement and reliability for both versions. The processes of translation and cross-cultural validation consisted in the following: preparation, translation, reconciliation, synthesis, back-translation, review, approval, and pre-test. The Portuguese-language versions of both instruments were then used by two researchers to evaluate critically ill ICU patients. Weighted kappa statistics and Bland-Altman plots were used in order to verify interobserver agreement for the two instruments. In each of the domains of the instruments, interobserver reliability was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The correlation between the instruments was assessed by Spearman's correlation test. The study sample comprised 103 patients-56 (54%) of whom were male-with a mean age of 52 ± 18 years. The main reason for ICU admission (in 44%) was respiratory failure. Both instruments showed excellent interobserver agreement ( > 0.90) and reliability ( > 0.90) in all domains. Interobserver bias was low for the IMS and the Perme Score (-0.048 ± 0.350 and -0.06 ± 0.73, respectively). The 95% CIs for the same instruments ranged from -0.73 to 0.64 and -1.50 to 1.36, respectively. There was also a strong positive correlation between the two instruments (r = 0.941; p composta por 103 pacientes, sendo a maioria homens (n = 56; 54%), com média de idade = 52 ± 18 anos. O principal motivo de internação nas UTIs foi insuficiência respiratória (em 44%). Os dois instrumentos apresentaram excelente concordância interobservador (> 0,90) e confiabilidade ( > 0,90) em todos os domínios. Constatou-se um baixo viés interobservador na EMU e no Perme Escore (-0,048 ± 0,350 e -0,06 ± 0,73, respectivamente). Os IC95% para os mesmos instrumentos variaram

  14. A National Study of the Relationship between Home Access to a Computer and Academic Performance Scores of Grade 12 U.S. Science Students: An Analysis of the 2009 NAEP Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Mitchell Ward

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the relationship between student access to a computer at home and academic achievement. The 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) dataset was probed using the National Data Explorer (NDE) to investigate correlations in the subsets of SES, Parental Education, Race, and Gender as it relates to access of a home computer and improved performance scores for U.S. public school grade 12 science students. A causal-comparative approach was employed seeking clarity on the relationship between home access and performance scores. The influence of home access cannot overcome the challenges students of lower SES face. The achievement gap, or a second digital divide, for underprivileged classes of students, including minorities does not appear to contract via student access to a home computer. Nonetheless, in tests for significance, statistically significant improvement in science performance scores was reported for those having access to a computer at home compared to those not having access. Additionally, regression models reported evidence of correlations between and among subsets of controls for the demographic factors gender, race, and socioeconomic status. Variability in these correlations was high; suggesting influence from unobserved factors may have more impact upon the dependent variable. Having access to a computer at home increases performance scores for grade 12 general science students of all races, genders and socioeconomic levels. However, the performance gap is roughly equivalent to the existing performance gap of the national average for science scores, suggesting little influence from access to a computer on academic achievement. The variability of scores reported in the regression analysis models reflects a moderate to low effect, suggesting an absence of causation. These statistical results are accurate and confirm the literature review, whereby having access to a computer at home and the

  15. A study of low scores in Canadian children and adolescents on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale For Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Brian L

    2011-01-01

    Knowing the prevalence of low neurocognitive scores for the WISC-IV Canadian normative sample (WISC-IV(CDN)) is an important supplement for clinical interpretation of test performance. On the WISC-IV(CDN), it is uncommon for children and adolescents to have 4 or more subtest scores or 2 or more Index scores ≤ 9th percentile when all scores on the battery are considered simultaneously. As the level of the child's intelligence increases or the number of years of parental education increases, the prevalence of low scores decreases. These results are consistent with existing studies of the base rates of low scores in children and adolescents on pediatric cognitive batteries, including the WISC-IV American normative sample. Tables provided are ready for clinical use.

  16. Questionário específico para sintomas do joelho "Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale": tradução e validação para a língua portuguesa Specific questionnaire for knee symptoms - the "Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale": translation and validation into Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stella Peccin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As doenças do joelho apresentam conseqüências variadas para a função e a qualidade de vida do indivíduo. Para traduzir, validar e verificar as propriedades de medida do questionário específico para sintomas do joelho "Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale" para a língua portuguesa, selecionamos, por conveniência, 50 pacientes (29 homens e 21 mulheres, média de idade 38,7 anos com lesão de joelho (lesão meniscal, lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior, condromalácia ou artrose. A reprodutibilidade e a concordância ordinal inter e intra-entrevistador foram excelentes (alfa = 0,9. A concordância nominal inter-entrevistadores foi boa (Kappa = 0,7 e intra-entrevistador, excelente (Kappa = 0,8. No processo de validação, correlacionamos o questionário Lysholm com a escala numérica da dor (r=-0,6; p=0,001 e com o índice de Lequesne (r= -0,8; p=0,001. As correlações entre o Lysholm e a avaliação global da saúde pelo paciente e pelo terapeuta apresentaram-se fracas e não significantes. As correlações entre o questionário Lysholm e o SF-36 foram significantes nos aspectos físicos (r = 0,4; p = 0,04, de dor (r = 0,5; p = 0,001 e de capacidade funcional (r = 0,7; p = 0,0001. Concluímos que a tradução e adaptação cultural do "Lysholm knee scoring scale" para o nosso idioma apresentou reprodutibilidade e validade em pacientes com lesão meniscal, lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior, condromalácia ou artrose do joelho.Knee diseases present variable consequences for an individual’s function and quality of life. For the purposes of translating, validating and checking the measurement properties of the specific questionnaire for knee symptoms - the "Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale" - into Portuguese, we selected, for convenience, 50 patients (29 males and 21 females, mean age = 38.7 years with knee injuries (meniscal injury, anterior cruciate ligament injury, chondromalacia or arthrosis. Reproducibility and ordinal consistency inter- and

  17. The large-scale blast score ratio (LS-BSR pipeline: a method to rapidly compare genetic content between bacterial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. Sahl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. As whole genome sequence data from bacterial isolates becomes cheaper to generate, computational methods are needed to correlate sequence data with biological observations. Here we present the large-scale BLAST score ratio (LS-BSR pipeline, which rapidly compares the genetic content of hundreds to thousands of bacterial genomes, and returns a matrix that describes the relatedness of all coding sequences (CDSs in all genomes surveyed. This matrix can be easily parsed in order to identify genetic relationships between bacterial genomes. Although pipelines have been published that group peptides by sequence similarity, no other software performs the rapid, large-scale, full-genome comparative analyses carried out by LS-BSR.Results. To demonstrate the utility of the method, the LS-BSR pipeline was tested on 96 Escherichia coli and Shigella genomes; the pipeline ran in 163 min using 16 processors, which is a greater than 7-fold speedup compared to using a single processor. The BSR values for each CDS, which indicate a relative level of relatedness, were then mapped to each genome on an independent core genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP based phylogeny. Comparisons were then used to identify clade specific CDS markers and validate the LS-BSR pipeline based on molecular markers that delineate between classical E. coli pathogenic variant (pathovar designations. Scalability tests demonstrated that the LS-BSR pipeline can process 1,000 E. coli genomes in 27–57 h, depending upon the alignment method, using 16 processors.Conclusions. LS-BSR is an open-source, parallel implementation of the BSR algorithm, enabling rapid comparison of the genetic content of large numbers of genomes. The results of the pipeline can be used to identify specific markers between user-defined phylogenetic groups, and to identify the loss and/or acquisition of genetic information between bacterial isolates. Taxa-specific genetic markers can then be translated

  18. Factors influencing pediatric Injury Severity Score and Glasgow Coma Scale in pediatric automobile crashes: results from the Crash Injury Research Engineering Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Peter F; Brown, J Kristine; Sochor, Mark R; Wang, Stewart C; Eichelberger, Martin E

    2006-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes account for more than 50% of pediatric injuries. Triage of pediatric patients to appropriate centers can be based on the crash/injury characteristics. Pediatric motor vehicle crash/injury characteristics can be determined from an in vitro laboratory using child crash dummies. However, to date, no detailed data with respect to outcomes and crash mechanism have been presented with a pediatric in vivo model. The Crash Injury Research Engineering Network is comprised of 10 level 1 trauma centers. Crashes were examined with regard to age, crash severity (DeltaV), crash direction, restraint use, and airbag deployment. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with Injury Severity Score (ISS) and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) as outcomes. Standard age groupings (0-4, 5-9, 10-14, and 15-18) were used. The database is biases toward a survivor population with few fatalities. Four hundred sixty-one motor vehicle crashes with 2500 injuries were analyzed (242 boys, 219 girls). Irrespective of age, DeltaV > 30 mph resulted in increased ISS and decreased GCS (eg, for 0-4 years, DeltaV 30: ISS = 19.5, GCS = 10.6; P 15) injuries than did backseat passengers (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-3.4). A trend was noted for children younger than 12 years sitting in the front seat to have increased ISS and decreased GCS with airbag deployment but was limited by case number. A reproducible pattern of increased ISS and lower GCS characterized by high severity, lateral crashes in children was noted. Further analysis of the specific injuries as a function and the crash characteristic can help guide management and prevention strategies.

  19. 'Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator' mobile applications (Apps): a systematic review and scoring using the validated user version of the Mobile Application Rating Scale (uMARS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Ahmed; Hellig, Julian C; Perera, Marlon; Bolton, Damien; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2018-04-01

    The use of mobile phone applications (Apps) has modernised the conventional practice of medicine. The diagnostic ability of the current Apps in prostate specific antigen monitoring, and its diagnostic ability within prostate cancer (PCa) risk calculators have not yet been appraised. We aimed to review, rate and assess the everyday functionality, and utility of all the currently available PCa risk calculator Apps. A systematic search on iTunes, Google Play Store, Blackberry World and Windows Apps Store, was performed on 23/11/2017, using the search term 'prostate cancer risk calculator'. After applying the exclusion criteria, each App was individually assessed and rated using pre-set criteria and grading was performed using the validated uMARS scale. In total, 83 Apps were retrieved. After applying our exclusion criteria, only 9 Apps were relevant, with 2 duplicated, and the remaining 7 were suitable for critical review. Data sizes ranged from 414 kb to 10.1 Mb. The cost of the Apps ranged from South African rand (ZAR) 0.00 to ZAR 29.99. The overall mean category uMARS scores ranged from 2.8/5 to 4.5/5. Apps such as Rotterdam Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator, Coral-Prostate Cancer Nomogram Calculator and CPC Risk Calculator, performed the best. The current PCa risk calculator mobile Apps available may be beneficial in counselling the concerned at risk patient. These Apps have potential to assist both the patient and the urologist alike. The PCa risk calculator App 'predictability' may be further enhanced by the incorporation of newly validated risk factors and predictors for PCa.

  20. Are large-scale flow experiments informing the science and management of freshwater ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Julian D.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Melis, Theodore S.; Kennard, Mark J.; Freeman, Mary C.; Mims, Meryl C.; Bray, Erin N.; Gido, Keith B.; Hemphill, Nina P.; Lytle, David A.; McMullen, Laura E.; Pyron, Mark; Robinson, Christopher T.; Schmidt, John C.; Williams, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Greater scientific knowledge, changing societal values, and legislative mandates have emphasized the importance of implementing large-scale flow experiments (FEs) downstream of dams. We provide the first global assessment of FEs to evaluate their success in advancing science and informing management decisions. Systematic review of 113 FEs across 20 countries revealed that clear articulation of experimental objectives, while not universally practiced, was crucial for achieving management outcomes and changing dam-operating policies. Furthermore, changes to dam operations were three times less likely when FEs were conducted primarily for scientific purposes. Despite the recognized importance of riverine flow regimes, four-fifths of FEs involved only discrete flow events. Over three-quarters of FEs documented both abiotic and biotic outcomes, but only one-third examined multiple taxonomic responses, thus limiting how FE results can inform holistic dam management. Future FEs will present new opportunities to advance scientifically credible water policies.

  1. Tracking global change at local scales: Phenology for science, outreach, conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharron, Ed; Mitchell, Brian

    2011-06-01

    A Workshop Exploring the Use of Phenology Studies for Public Engagement; New Orleans, Louisiana, 14 March 2011 ; During a George Wright Society Conference session that was led by the USA National Phenology Network (USANPN; http://www.usanpn.org) and the National Park Service (NPS), professionals from government organizations, nonprofits, and higher-education institutions came together to explore the possibilities of using phenology monitoring to engage the public. One of the most visible effects of global change on ecosystems is shifts in phenology: the timing of biological events such as leafing and flowering, maturation of agricultural plants, emergence of insects, and migration of birds. These shifts are already occurring and reflect biological responses to climate change at local to regional scales. Changes in phenology have important implications for species ecology and resource management and, because they are place-based and tangible, serve as an ideal platform for education, outreach, and citizen science.

  2. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard; Wasserman, Harvey

    2011-03-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility supporting research within the Department of Energy's Office of Science. NERSC provides high-performance computing (HPC) resources to approximately 4,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. In addition to hosting large-scale computing facilities, NERSC provides the support and expertise scientists need to effectively and efficiently use HPC systems. In February 2010, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for BES research through 2013. The workshop was part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users future needs and deploying the necessary resources to meet these demands. Workshop participants reached a consensus on several key findings, in addition to achieving the workshop's goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The key requirements for scientists conducting research in BES are: (1) Larger allocations of computational resources; (2) Continued support for standard application software packages; (3) Adequate job turnaround time and throughput; and (4) Guidance and support for using future computer architectures. This report expands upon these key points and presents others. Several 'case studies' are included as significant representative samples of the needs of science teams within BES. Research teams scientific goals, computational methods of solution, current and 2013 computing requirements, and special software and support needs are summarized in these case studies. Also included are researchers strategies for computing in the highly parallel, 'multi-core' environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. NERSC has strategic plans and initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings. This report includes a

  3. Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD): Science Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, S. C.; McClintock, W. E.; Eastes, R.; Anderson, D. N.; Andersson, L.; Burns, A. G.; Codrescu, M.; Daniell, R. E.; England, S.; Eparvier, F. G.; Evans, J. S.; Krywonos, A.; Lumpe, J. D.; Richmond, A. D.; Rusch, D. W.; Siegmund, O.; Woods, T. N.

    2017-12-01

    The Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) is a NASA mission of opportunity that will image the Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere from geostationary orbit. GOLD will investigate how the thermosphere-ionosphere (T-I) system responds to geomagnetic storms, solar radiation, and upward propagating tides and how the structure of the equatorial ionosphere influences the formation and evolution of equatorial plasma density irregularities. GOLD consists of a pair of identical imaging spectrographs that will measure airglow emissions at far-ultraviolet wavelengths from 132 to 162 nm. On the disk, temperature and composition will be determined during the day using emissions from molecular nitrogen Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) band and atomic oxygen 135.6 nm, and electron density will be derived at night from 135.6 nm emission. On the limb, exospheric temperature will be derived from LBH emission profiles, and molecular oxygen density will be measured using stellar occultations. This presentation describes the GOLD mission science implementation including the as-built instrument performance and the planned observing scenario. It also describes the results of simulations performed by the GOLD team to validate that the measured instrument performance and observing plan will return adequate data to address the science objectives of the mission.

  4. Toward Open Science at the European Scale: Geospatial Semantic Array Programming for Integrated Environmental Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rigo, Daniele; Corti, Paolo; Caudullo, Giovanni; McInerney, Daniel; Di Leo, Margherita; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    Interfacing science and policy raises challenging issues when large spatial-scale (regional, continental, global) environmental problems need transdisciplinary integration within a context of modelling complexity and multiple sources of uncertainty [1]. This is characteristic of science-based support for environmental policy at European scale [1], and key aspects have also long been investigated by European Commission transnational research [2-5]. Parameters ofthe neededdata- transformations ? = {?1????m} (a.5) Wide-scale transdisciplinary modelling for environment. Approaches (either of computational science or of policy-making) suitable at a given domain-specific scale may not be appropriate for wide-scale transdisciplinary modelling for environment (WSTMe) and corresponding policy-making [6-10]. In WSTMe, the characteristic heterogeneity of available spatial information (a) and complexity of the required data-transformation modelling (D- TM) appeal for a paradigm shift in how computational science supports such peculiarly extensive integration processes. In particular, emerging wide-scale integration requirements of typical currently available domain-specific modelling strategies may include increased robustness and scalability along with enhanced transparency and reproducibility [11-15]. This challenging shift toward open data [16] and reproducible research [11] (open science) is also strongly suggested by the potential - sometimes neglected - huge impact of cascading effects of errors [1,14,17-19] within the impressively growing interconnection among domain-specific computational models and frameworks. From a computational science perspective, transdisciplinary approaches to integrated natural resources modelling and management (INRMM) [20] can exploit advanced geospatial modelling techniques with an awesome battery of free scientific software [21,22] for generating new information and knowledge from the plethora of composite data [23-26]. From the perspective

  5. Harnessing Petaflop-Scale Multi-Core Supercomputing for Problems in Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, B. J.; Yin, L.; Bowers, K. J.; Daughton, W.; Bergen, B.; Kwan, T. J.

    2008-12-01

    The particle-in-cell kinetic plasma code VPIC has been migrated successfully to the world's fastest supercomputer, Roadrunner, a hybrid multi-core platform built by IBM for the Los Alamos National Laboratory. How this was achieved will be described and examples of state-of-the-art calculations in space science, in particular, the study of magnetic reconnection, will be presented. With VPIC on Roadrunner, we have performed, for the first time, plasma PIC calculations with over one trillion particles, >100× larger than calculations considered "heroic" by community standards. This allows examination of physics at unprecedented scale and fidelity. Roadrunner is an example of an emerging paradigm in supercomputing: the trend toward multi-core systems with deep hierarchies and where memory bandwidth optimization is vital to achieving high performance. Getting VPIC to perform well on such systems is a formidable challenge: the core algorithm is memory bandwidth limited with low compute-to-data ratio and requires random access to memory in its inner loop. That we were able to get VPIC to perform and scale well, achieving >0.374 Pflop/s and linear weak scaling on real physics problems on up to the full 12240-core Roadrunner machine, bodes well for harnessing these machines for our community's needs in the future. Many of the design considerations encountered commute to other multi-core and accelerated (e.g., via GPU) platforms and we modified VPIC with flexibility in mind. These will be summarized and strategies for how one might adapt a code for such platforms will be shared. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by the LANS LLC Los Alamos National Laboratory. Dr. Bowers is a LANL Guest Scientist; he is presently at D. E. Shaw Research LLC, 120 W 45th Street, 39th Floor, New York, NY 10036.

  6. Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale, Low Back Outcome Score and revised Oswestry low back pain disability scale for patients with low back pain due to degenerative disc disease: evaluation of Polish versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misterska, Ewa; Jankowski, Roman; Glowacki, Maciej

    2011-12-15

    Evaluation and comparison of translated and culturally adapted self-reported measurements. The aim of this prospective study was to cross-culturally adapt the Polish versions of Revised Oswestry Disability Index (RODI-PL), Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (QDS-PL), and the Low Back Outcome Score (LBOS-PL). The application of instruments in English, which have undergone translation must be subjected to validation studies. Such studies are necessary above all for instruments that have been adapted to establish their value and usefulness in studies of patient populations where English is not the native language. The translation was carried out according to International Quality of Life Association (IQOLA) Project and consisted of the following stages: translation, synthesis of the translations, back translation, expert committee, and testing of the prefinal versions of questionnaires. Eighty-five consecutive patients with low back pain due to spinal disc herniation and degenerative changes completed the QDS-PL, RODI-PL, LBOS-PL, and a Visual Analogue Scale twice within 2-day intervals. Mean duration of LBP was 45.9 months SD 55.5. The evaluation of degenerative changes in the lumbar region was carried out according to the Modic scale. Twenty-nine patients were categorized at type I, 4 patients were registered as type II, and 52 patients were type III. Cronbach α values for the LBOS-PL equaled 0.77, for the RODI-PL 0.85, and 0.95 for the QDS-PL. Item-total correlation confirmed that all scales are internally consistent. Test-retest reliability was excellent for RODI-PL and QDS-PL, but poor for LBOS-PL (0.88, 0.93, and 0.34, respectively). All questionnaires were significantly intercorrelated. We identified the strongest correlation between QDS-PL and RODI-PL (0.823, P < 0.001). The statistically significant correlation was identified between the QDS-PL and Modic Classification (rS = 0.226 P = 0.038). QBPDS-PL and RODI-PL are reliable and valid. Furthermore

  7. Science curiosity in learning environments: developing an attitudinal scale for research in schools, homes, museums, and the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weible, Jennifer L.; Toomey Zimmerman, Heather

    2016-05-01

    Although curiosity is considered an integral aspect of science learning, researchers have debated how to define, measure, and support its development in individuals. Prior measures of curiosity include questionnaire type scales (primarily for adults) and behavioral measures. To address the need to measure scientific curiosity, the Science Curiosity in Learning Environments (SCILE) scale was created and validated as a 12-item scale to measure scientific curiosity in youth. The scale was developed through (a) adapting the language of the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II [Kashdan, T. B., Gallagher, M. W., Silvia, P. J., Winterstein, B. P., Breen, W. E., Terhar, D., & Steger, M. F. (2009). The curiosity and exploration inventory-II: Development, factor structure, and psychometrics. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(6), 987-998] for youth and (b) crafting new items based on scientific practices drawn from U.S. science standards documents. We administered a preliminary set of 30 items to 663 youth ages 8-18 in the U.S.A. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis resulted in a three-factor model: stretching, embracing, and science practices. The findings indicate that the SCILE scale is a valid measure of youth's scientific curiosity for boys and girls as well as elementary, middle school, and high school learners.

  8. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  9. Adverse drug reaction prediction using scores produced by large-scale drug-protein target docking on high-performance computing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBute, Montiago X; Zhang, Xiaohua; Lenderman, Jason; Bennion, Brian J; Wong, Sergio E; Lightstone, Felice C

    2014-01-01

    Late-stage or post-market identification of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is a significant public health issue and a source of major economic liability for drug development. Thus, reliable in silico screening of drug candidates for possible ADRs would be advantageous. In this work, we introduce a computational approach that predicts ADRs by combining the results of molecular docking and leverages known ADR information from DrugBank and SIDER. We employed a recently parallelized version of AutoDock Vina (VinaLC) to dock 906 small molecule drugs to a virtual panel of 409 DrugBank protein targets. L1-regularized logistic regression models were trained on the resulting docking scores of a 560 compound subset from the initial 906 compounds to predict 85 side effects, grouped into 10 ADR phenotype groups. Only 21% (87 out of 409) of the drug-protein binding features involve known targets of the drug subset, providing a significant probe of off-target effects. As a control, associations of this drug subset with the 555 annotated targets of these compounds, as reported in DrugBank, were used as features to train a separate group of models. The Vina off-target models and the DrugBank on-target models yielded comparable median area-under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic-curves (AUCs) during 10-fold cross-validation (0.60-0.69 and 0.61-0.74, respectively). Evidence was found in the PubMed literature to support several putative ADR-protein associations identified by our analysis. Among them, several associations between neoplasm-related ADRs and known tumor suppressor and tumor invasiveness marker proteins were found. A dual role for interstitial collagenase in both neoplasms and aneurysm formation was also identified. These associations all involve off-target proteins and could not have been found using available drug/on-target interaction data. This study illustrates a path forward to comprehensive ADR virtual screening that can potentially scale with increasing number

  10. Adverse drug reaction prediction using scores produced by large-scale drug-protein target docking on high-performance computing machines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montiago X LaBute

    Full Text Available Late-stage or post-market identification of adverse drug reactions (ADRs is a significant public health issue and a source of major economic liability for drug development. Thus, reliable in silico screening of drug candidates for possible ADRs would be advantageous. In this work, we introduce a computational approach that predicts ADRs by combining the results of molecular docking and leverages known ADR information from DrugBank and SIDER. We employed a recently parallelized version of AutoDock Vina (VinaLC to dock 906 small molecule drugs to a virtual panel of 409 DrugBank protein targets. L1-regularized logistic regression models were trained on the resulting docking scores of a 560 compound subset from the initial 906 compounds to predict 85 side effects, grouped into 10 ADR phenotype groups. Only 21% (87 out of 409 of the drug-protein binding features involve known targets of the drug subset, providing a significant probe of off-target effects. As a control, associations of this drug subset with the 555 annotated targets of these compounds, as reported in DrugBank, were used as features to train a separate group of models. The Vina off-target models and the DrugBank on-target models yielded comparable median area-under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic-curves (AUCs during 10-fold cross-validation (0.60-0.69 and 0.61-0.74, respectively. Evidence was found in the PubMed literature to support several putative ADR-protein associations identified by our analysis. Among them, several associations between neoplasm-related ADRs and known tumor suppressor and tumor invasiveness marker proteins were found. A dual role for interstitial collagenase in both neoplasms and aneurysm formation was also identified. These associations all involve off-target proteins and could not have been found using available drug/on-target interaction data. This study illustrates a path forward to comprehensive ADR virtual screening that can potentially scale with

  11. [Hemostasiological, lipidemic, and hemodynamic indicators associated with the risk of cardiovascular death in high- and very high-risk patients according to the SCORE scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachkovskiĭ, M A; Simerzin, V V; Rybanenko, O A; Kirichenko, N A

    2014-01-01

    To identify lipidemic, hemostasiological, and hemodynamic indicators associated with the risk of cardiovascular death in high- and very high-risk patients. One hundred and forty-eight patients whose mean age was 50.8 +/- 4.4 years were examined. All the patients were divided into high (1 group) and very high (2 group) cardiovascular death risk groups according to the SCORE scale. Lipid metabolism, hemostatic system parameters (fibrinogen, time of ADP-induced platelet aggregation initiation, D-dimer), endothelial dysfunction markers (von Willebrand factor), and echocardiographic findings were studied. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the odds ratio for a cardiovascular death risk was 1.8 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1 to 4.2; p = 0.04) in patients with a D-dimer level of greater than 1 mg/ml, 0.77 (95% CI, 0.6 to 0.97; p = 0.03) in those with an ADP-induced platelet aggregation initiation time of 13.5 sec, 1.04 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.07; p = 0.02) in those with an end-diastolic volume of more than 123 ml, 1.1 (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.2; p = 0.003) in those with an end-diastolic dimension of more than 51 mm, 1.5 (95% CI, 1.1 to 2.0; p = 0.009) in those with a ventricular septal thickness of more than 11.5 mm, and 2.1 (95% CI, 1.03 to 3.2; p = 0.0032) in those with avon Willebrand factor level of more than 140%. The high levels of von Willebrand factor, D-dimer, ADP-induced platelet aggregation, triglycerides, end-diastolic volume, end-diastolic dimension, and ventricular septal thickness are independent predictors of cardiovascular death in very high-risk patients. These indicators bear out a close relationship between lipid metabolic and hemostatic disturbances and between endothelial dysfunction and intracardiac hemodynamic worsening in these patients.

  12. How Technicians Can Lead Science Improvements in Any School: A Small-Scale Study in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Beth; Quinnell, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how seven schools in England improved their science provision by focusing on the professional development of their science technicians. In September 2013, the Gatsby Charitable Foundation funded the National Science Learning Centre to lead a project connecting secondary schools with experienced senior science technicians…

  13. Developing partnerships for implementing continental-scale citizen science programs at the local-level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S. J.; Henderson, S.; Ward, D.

    2012-12-01

    Project BudBurst is a citizen science project focused on monitoring plant phenology that resides at the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON, Inc). A central question for Project BudBurst and other national outreach programs is: what are the most effective means of engaging and connecting with diverse communities throughout the country? How can continental scale programs like NEON's Project BudBurst engage audiences in such a way as to be relevant at both the local and continental scales? Staff with Project BudBurst pursued partnerships with several continental scale organizations: the National Wildlife Refuge System, the National Park Service, and botanic gardens to address these questions. The distributed nature of wildlife refuges, national parks, and botanic gardens around the country provided the opportunity to connect with participants locally while working with leadership at multiple scales. Project BudBurst staff talked with hundreds of staff and volunteers prior to setting a goal of obtaining and developing resources for several Refuge Partners, a pilot National Park partner, and an existing botanic garden partner during 2011. We were especially interested in learning best practices for future partnerships. The partnership efforts resulted in resource development for 12 Refuge partners, a pilot National Park partner, and 2 botanic garden partners. Early on, the importance of working with national level leaders to develop ownership of the partner program and input about resource needs became apparent. Once a framework for the partnership program was laid out, it became critical to work closely with staff and volunteers on the ground to ensure needs were met. In 2012 we began to develop an online assessment to allow our current and potential partners to provide feedback about whether or not the partnership program was meeting their needs and how the program could be improved. As the year progressed, the timeline for resource development became more

  14. Carga de trabajo en tres grupos de pacientes de UCI Española según el Nursing Activities Score Carga de trabalho em três grupos de pacientes em uma UTI espanhola segundo Nursing Activites Score Assessment of nursing workload in three groups of patients in a Spanish ICU using the Nursing Activities Score Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Carmona-Monge

    2013-04-01

    diferentes grupos de pacientes que passam com mais frequência pelas unidades de cuidados intensivos.The purpose of this study was to assess the nursing workload at admission to and discharge from intensive care of three groups of patients (i.e., acute coronary syndrome, acute respiratory failure, and sepsis. A prospective, descriptive study was performed over a 27-month period and included 563 patients. The workload was assessed using the Nursing Activities Score scale. Significant differences in the workload were determined on the days of admission and discharge: the workload was higher in both cases for patients with acute respiratory failure and sepsis compared with patients diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome. This difference was maintained over the first seven days of their hospital stay. From day 8 on, the difference disappeared, and a workload balance was achieved in the three groups. Good staffing requires adequate tools for measuring care needs and understanding the workload required in the groups of patients who are most frequently admitted to intensive care.

  15. Science Curiosity in Learning Environments: Developing an Attitudinal Scale for Research in Schools, Homes, Museums, and the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weible, Jennifer L.; Zimmerman, Heather Toomey

    2016-01-01

    Although curiosity is considered an integral aspect of science learning, researchers have debated how to define, measure, and support its development in individuals. Prior measures of curiosity include questionnaire type scales (primarily for adults) and behavioral measures. To address the need to measure scientific curiosity, the Science…

  16. Advanced Rotator Cuff Tear Score (ARoCuS): a multi-scaled tool for the classification and description of rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, S G; Stadler, T; Thomas, T S; Thomas, W

    2018-03-02

    To introduce a (semi-)quantitative surgical score for the classification of rotator cuff tears. A total of 146 consecutive patients underwent rotator cuff repair and were assessed using the previously defined Advanced Rotator Cuff Tear Score (ARoCuS) criteria: muscle tendon, size, tissue quality, pattern as well as mobilization of the tear. The data set was split into a training (125 patients) and a testing set (21 patients). The training data set fitted a nonlinear predictive model of the tear score based on the ARoCuS criteria, while the testing data served as control. Based on the scoring results, rotator cuff tears were assigned to one of four categories (ΔV I-IV) and received a stage-adapted treatment. For statistical analysis, mean values ± standard deviation, interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and kappa values were calculated. Overall, 32 patients were classified as ΔV I, 68 as ΔV II and 37 as ΔV III. Nine patients showed ΔV IV tears. Patients of all ΔV groups improved significantly their Constant scores (p tears in a standardized and reproducible manner.

  17. Mapping health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI) score, pain visual analog scale (VAS), and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) onto the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) utility score with the KORean Observational study Network for Arthritis (KORONA) registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Lin; Kim, Dam; Jang, Eun Jin; Lee, Min-Young; Song, Hyun Jin; Park, Sun-Young; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Choi, Chan-Bum; Won, Soyoung; Bang, So-Young; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Chung, Won Tae; Hong, Seung-Jae; Jun, Jae-Bum; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Jong; Koh, Eunmi; Lee, Hwajeong; Lee, Hye-Soon; Lee, Jisoo; Lee, Shin-Seok; Lee, Sung Won; Park, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Bo Young; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the mapping model for EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) utility values using the health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI), pain visual analog scale (VAS), and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) in a large, nationwide cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in Korea. The KORean Observational study Network for Arthritis (KORONA) registry data on 3557 patients with RA were used. Data were randomly divided into a modeling set (80 % of the data) and a validation set (20 % of the data). The ordinary least squares (OLS), Tobit, and two-part model methods were employed to construct a model to map to the EQ-5D index. Using a combination of HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28, four model versions were examined. To evaluate the predictive accuracy of the models, the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) were calculated using the validation dataset. A model that included HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28 produced the highest adjusted R (2) as well as the lowest Akaike information criterion, RMSE, and MAE, regardless of the statistical methods used in modeling set. The mapping equation of the OLS method is given as EQ-5D = 0.95-0.21 × HAQ-DI-0.24 × pain VAS/100-0.01 × DAS28 (adjusted R (2) = 57.6 %, RMSE = 0.1654 and MAE = 0.1222). Also in the validation set, the RMSE and MAE were shown to be the smallest. The model with HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28 showed the best performance, and this mapping model enabled the estimation of an EQ-5D value for RA patients in whom utility values have not been measured.

  18. Qualitative approaches to large scale studies and students' achievements in Science and Mathematics - An Australian and Nordic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, Eva; Sørensen, Helene

    Large scale studies play an increasing role in educational politics and results from surveys such as TIMSS and PISA are extensively used in medial debates about students' knowledge in science and mathematics. Although this debate does not usually shed light on the more extensive quantitative...... analyses, there is a lack of investigations which aim at exploring what is possible to conclude or not to conclude from these analyses. There is also a need for more detailed discussions about what trends could be discern concerning students' knowledge in science and mathematics. The aim of this symposium...... is therefore to highlight and discuss different approaches to how data from large scale studies could be used for additional analyses in order to increase our understanding of students' knowledge in science and mathematics, but also to explore possible longitudinal trends, hidden in the data material...

  19. Connecting science, policy, and implementation for landscape-scale habitat connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Jedediah F; Paxton, Midori; Nagulendran, Kangayatkarasu; Balamurugan, G; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Reynolds, Glen; Jain, Anuj; Hon, Jason

    2016-10-01

    We examined the links between the science and policy of habitat corridors to better understand how corridors can be implemented effectively. As a case study, we focused on a suite of landscape-scale connectivity plans in tropical and subtropical Asia (Malaysia, Singapore, and Bhutan). The process of corridor designation may be more efficient if the scientific determination of optimal corridor locations and arrangement is synchronized in time with political buy-in and establishment of policies to create corridors. Land tenure and the intactness of existing habitat in the region are also important to consider because optimal connectivity strategies may be very different if there are few, versus many, political jurisdictions (including commercial and traditional land tenures) and intact versus degraded habitat between patches. Novel financing mechanisms for corridors include bed taxes, payments for ecosystem services, and strategic forest certifications. Gaps in knowledge of effective corridor design include an understanding of how corridors, particularly those managed by local communities, can be protected from degradation and unsustainable hunting. There is a critical need for quantitative, data-driven models that can be used to prioritize potential corridors or multicorridor networks based on their relative contributions to long-term metacommunity persistence. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Trajectory Reconstruction and Uncertainty Analysis Using Mars Science Laboratory Pre-Flight Scale Model Aeroballistic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Rafael A.; Tolson, Robert H.; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) trajectory reconstruction effort at NASA Langley Research Center, free-flight aeroballistic experiments of instrumented MSL scale models was conducted at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland. The models carried an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a flush air data system (FADS) similar to the MSL Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS) that provided data types similar to those from the MSL entry. Multiple sources of redundant data were available, including tracking radar and on-board magnetometers. These experimental data enabled the testing and validation of the various tools and methodologies that will be used for MSL trajectory reconstruction. The aerodynamic parameters Mach number, angle of attack, and sideslip angle were estimated using minimum variance with a priori to combine the pressure data and pre-flight computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data. Both linear and non-linear pressure model terms were also estimated for each pressure transducer as a measure of the errors introduced by CFD and transducer calibration. Parameter uncertainties were estimated using a "consider parameters" approach.

  1. A comparison of global rating scale and checklist scores in the validation of an evaluation tool to assess performance in the resuscitation of critically ill patients during simulated emergencies (abbreviated as "CRM simulator study IB").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, John; Neilipovitz, David; Cardinal, Pierre; Chiu, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Crisis resource management (CRM) skills are a set of nonmedical skills required to manage medical emergencies. There is currently no gold standard for evaluation of CRM performance. A prior study examined the use of a global rating scale (GRS) to evaluate CRM performance. This current study compared the use of a GRS and a checklist as formal rating instruments to evaluate CRM performance during simulated emergencies. First-year and third-year residents participated in two simulator scenarios each. Three raters then evaluated resident performance in CRM using edited video recordings using both a GRS and a checklist. The Ottawa GRS provides a seven-point anchored ordinal scale for performance in five categories of CRM, and an overall performance score. The Ottawa CRM checklist provides 12 items in the five categories of CRM, with a maximum cumulative score of 30 points. Construct validity was measured on the basis of content validity, response process, internal structure, and response to other variables. T-test analysis of Ottawa GRS scores was conducted to examine response to the variable of level of training. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) scores were used to measure inter-rater reliability for both scenarios. Thirty-two first-year and 28 third-year residents participated in the study. Third-year residents produced higher mean scores for overall CRM performance than first-year residents (P CRM checklist (P CRM checklist. Users indicated a strong preference for the Ottawa GRS given ease of scoring, presence of an overall score, and the potential for formative evaluation. Construct validity seems to be present when using both the Ottawa GRS and CRM checklist to evaluate CRM performance during simulated emergencies. Data also indicate the presence of moderate inter-rater reliability when using both the Ottawa GRS and CRM checklist.

  2. Droning on about the Weather: Meteorological Science on a School-Friendly Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Phil; O'Neill, Ashley; Brown, Abby

    2016-01-01

    Meteorology is an important branch of science that offers exciting career opportunities and yet is not usually included in school curricula. The availability of multi-rotor model aircraft (drones) offers an exciting opportunity to bring meteorology into school science.

  3. Effects of endorphin massage on B-endorphin level and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS score in women with postpartum blues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayati Hidayati

    2014-06-01

    Results: Endorphin massage treatment significantly increase the B-endorphin level compared to before treatment (P 0.05. The level of EPDS significantly decrease after treatment than that before treatment (P 0.05. There is significantly negative correlation between B-endorphin level and EPDS score (r = -0,517; P 0.05. Conclusion: Endorphin massage is good alternative treatment to increase B-endorphin level and decresae EPDS score among mother with postpartum blues. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 512-516

  4. Relationship between the climbing up and climbing down stairs domain scores on the FES-DMD, the score on the Vignos Scale, age and timed performance of functional activities in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian A. Y. Fernandes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowing the potential for and limitations of information generated using different evaluation instruments favors the development of more accurate functional diagnoses and therapeutic decision-making. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the number of compensatory movements when climbing up and going down stairs, age, functional classification and time taken to perform a tested activity (TA of going up and down stairs in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. METHOD: A bank of movies featuring 30 boys with DMD performing functional activities was evaluated. Compensatory movements were assessed using the climbing up and going down stairs domain of the Functional Evaluation Scale for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (FES-DMD; age in years; functional classification using the Vignos Scale (VS, and TA using a timer. Statistical analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: There is a moderate relationship between the climbing up stairs domain of the FES-DMD and age (r=0.53, p=0.004 and strong relationships with VS (r=0.72, p=0.001 and TA for this task (r=0.83, p<0.001. There were weak relationships between the going down stairs domain of the FES-DMD-going down stairs with age (r=0.40, p=0.032, VS (r=0.65, p=0.002 and TA for this task (r=0.40, p=0.034. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the evaluation of compensatory movements used when climbing up stairs can provide more relevant information about the evolution of the disease, although the activity of going down stairs should be investigated, with the aim of enriching guidance and strengthening accident prevention. Data from the FES-DMD, age, VS and TA can be used in a complementary way to formulate functional diagnoses. Longitudinal studies and with broader age groups may supplement this information.

  5. The Development of the Nature of Science View Scale (NOSvs) at University Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Senar; Sen, Senol; Özcan, Özgür

    2018-01-01

    Background: Determining individuals' views of the nature of science is quite important for researchers since it is both a component of scientific literacy and a fundamental aim of science education. Purpose: This study aims to develop a NOSvs for assessing prospective teachers' views of the nature of science and to analyse their psychometric…

  6. Side effects of problem-solving strategies in large-scale nutrition science: towards a diversification of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Bart; Vos, Rein; Horstman, Klasien

    2009-11-01

    Solving complex problems in large-scale research programmes requires cooperation and division of labour. Simultaneously, large-scale problem solving also gives rise to unintended side effects. Based upon 5 years of researching two large-scale nutrigenomic research programmes, we argue that problems are fragmented in order to be solved. These sub-problems are given priority for practical reasons and in the process of solving them, various changes are introduced in each sub-problem. Combined with additional diversity as a result of interdisciplinarity, this makes reassembling the original and overall goal of the research programme less likely. In the case of nutrigenomics and health, this produces a diversification of health. As a result, the public health goal of contemporary nutrition science is not reached in the large-scale research programmes we studied. Large-scale research programmes are very successful in producing scientific publications and new knowledge; however, in reaching their political goals they often are less successful.

  7. Development and Large-Scale Validation of an Instrument to Assess Arabic-Speaking Students' Attitudes Toward Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Summers, Ryan; Said, Ziad; Wang, Shuai; Culbertson, Michael

    2015-11-01

    This study is part of a large-scale project focused on 'Qatari students' Interest in, and Attitudes toward, Science' (QIAS). QIAS aimed to gauge Qatari student attitudes toward science in grades 3-12, examine factors that impact these attitudes, and assess the relationship between student attitudes and prevailing modes of science teaching in Qatari schools. This report details the development and validation of the 'Arabic-Speaking Students' Attitudes toward Science Survey' (ASSASS), which was specifically developed for the purposes of the QIAS project. The theories of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRAPB) [Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (2005). The influence of attitudes on behavior. In D. Albarracín, B. T. Johnson, & M. P. Zanna (Eds.), The handbook of attitudes (pp. 173-221). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum] guided the instrument development. Development and validation of the ASSASS proceeded in 3 phases. First, a 10-member expert panel examined an initial pool of 74 items, which were revised and consolidated into a 60-item version of the instrument. This version was piloted with 369 Qatari students from the target schools and grade levels. Analyses of pilot data resulted in a refined version of the ASSASS, which was administered to a national probability sample of 3027 participants representing all students enrolled in grades 3-12 in the various types of schools in Qatar. Of the latter, 1978 students completed the Arabic version of the instrument. Analyses supported a robust, 5-factor model for the instrument, which is consistent with the TRAPB framework. The factors were: Attitudes toward science and school science, unfavorable outlook on science, control beliefs about ability in science, behavioral beliefs about the consequences of engaging with science, and intentions to pursue science.

  8. Relationship between Barthel Index (BI and the Modified Rankin Scale (mRS Score in Assessing Functional Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C S Mohanty

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Our study has demonstrated that stroke functional outcome can be predicted from the baseline BI and mRS scales. It is concluded thatBI and mRS Stroke scale can be used to prognosticate functional outcome at admission and at follow up.

  9. Generic, Extensible, Configurable Push-Pull Framework for Large-Scale Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Brian M.; Chang, Albert Y.; Freeborn, Dana J.; Crichton, Daniel J.; Woollard, David M.; Mattmann, Chris A.

    2011-01-01

    different underlying communication middleware (at present, both XMLRPC, and RMI). In addition, the framework is entirely suitable in a multi-mission environment and is supporting both NPP Sounder PEATE and the OCO Mission. Both systems involve tasks such as high-throughput job processing, terabyte-scale data management, and science computing facilities. NPP Sounder PEATE is already using the push-pull framework to accept hundreds of gigabytes of IASI (infrared atmospheric sounding interferometer) data, and is in preparation to accept CRIMS (Cross-track Infrared Microwave Sounding Suite) data. OCO will leverage the framework to download MODIS, CloudSat, and other ancillary data products for use in the high-performance Level 2 Science Algorithm. The National Cancer Institute is also evaluating the framework for use in sharing and disseminating cancer research data through its Early Detection Research Network (EDRN).

  10. [Religious/spiritual well-being in mentally ill persons II: the development of a short scale and comparison scores for clinical psychiatric groups and healthy controls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterrainer, Human-Friedrich; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-Being (MI-RSWB) was successfully applied in several clinical as well as non-clinical studies. However, the original version of the scale often showed to be as too comprehensive especially for clinical surroundings. There for the aim of this study is to develop a short version of the scale comprising 12 items. Based on a sample representative of the Austrian general population (N = 1,500), a first MI-RSWB short version is developed by means of factor- and reliability analysis. Furthermore the new short version of the scale is initially validated through several indicators of mental illness. The MI-RSWB short version shows convincing psychometric properties. The total scale as well as the sub scales exhibit at least a sufficient internal consistency. A significant negative association with several indicators of psychiatric illness is also confirmed for the short version of the scale. The MI-RWSB 12 scale is especially recommended for further research focusing on the clinical relevance of religiosity and spirituality.

  11. Season Spotter: Using Citizen Science to Validate and Scale Plant Phenology from Near-Surface Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Kosmala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a rapidly changing climate on the biosphere is an urgent area of research for mitigation policy and management. Plant phenology is a sensitive indicator of climate change and regulates the seasonality of carbon, water, and energy fluxes between the land surface and the climate system, making it an important tool for studying biosphere–atmosphere interactions. To monitor plant phenology at regional and continental scales, automated near-surface cameras are being increasingly used to supplement phenology data derived from satellite imagery and data from ground-based human observers. We used imagery from a network of phenology cameras in a citizen science project called Season Spotter to investigate whether information could be derived from these images beyond standard, color-based vegetation indices. We found that engaging citizen science volunteers resulted in useful science knowledge in three ways: first, volunteers were able to detect some, but not all, reproductive phenology events, connecting landscape-level measures with field-based measures. Second, volunteers successfully demarcated individual trees in landscape imagery, facilitating scaling of vegetation indices from organism to ecosystem. And third, volunteers’ data were used to validate phenology transition dates calculated from vegetation indices and to identify potential improvements to existing algorithms to enable better biological interpretation. As a result, the use of citizen science in combination with near-surface remote sensing of phenology can be used to link ground-based phenology observations to satellite sensor data for scaling and validation. Well-designed citizen science projects targeting improved data processing and validation of remote sensing imagery hold promise for providing the data needed to address grand challenges in environmental science and Earth observation.

  12. Translating the Science of Measuring Ecosystems at a National Scale: Developing NEON's Online Learning Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, L. A.; Gram, W.; Goehring, L.

    2014-12-01

    "Big Data" are becoming increasingly common in many fields. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will be collecting data over the 30 years, using consistent, standardized methods across the United States. These freely available new data provide an opportunity for increased understanding of continental- and global scale processes such as changes in vegetation structure and condition, biodiversity and landuse. However, while "big data" are becoming more accessible and available, integrating big data into the university courses is challenging. New and potentially unfamiliar data types and associated processing methods, required to work with a growing diversity of available data, may warrant time and resources that present a barrier to classroom integration. Analysis of these big datasets may further present a challenge given large file sizes, and uncertainty regarding best methods to properly statistically summarize and analyze results. Finally, teaching resources, in the form of demonstrative illustrations, and other supporting media that might help teach key data concepts, take time to find and more time to develop. Available resources are often spread widely across multi-online spaces. This presentation will overview the development of NEON's collaborative University-focused online education portal. Portal content will include 1) videos and supporting graphics that explain key concepts related to NEON data products including collection methods, key metadata to consider and consideration of potential error and uncertainty surrounding data analysis; and 2) packaged "lab" activities that include supporting data to be used in an ecology, biology or earth science classroom. To facilitate broad use in classrooms, lab activities will take advantage of freely and commonly available processing tools, techniques and scripts. All NEON materials are being developed in collaboration with existing labs and organizations.

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Procrastination Assessment Scale-Student (PASS) in a Student Sample of Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Forough; Mortazavi, Saideh S; Khosrorad, Razieh

    2015-09-01

    Procrastination is a common behavior which affects different aspects of life. The procrastination assessment scale-student (PASS) evaluates academic procrastination apropos its frequency and reasons. The aims of the present study were to translate, culturally adapt, and validate the Farsi version of the PASS in a sample of Iranian medical students. In this cross-sectional study, the PASS was translated into Farsi through the forward-backward method, and its content validity was thereafter assessed by a panel of 10 experts. The Farsi version of the PASS was subsequently distributed among 423 medical students. The internal reliability of the PASS was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on 18 items and then 28 items of the scale to find new models. The construct validity of the scale was assessed using both EFA and confirmatory factor analysis. The predictive validity of the scale was evaluated by calculating the correlation between the academic procrastination scores and the students' average scores in the previous semester. The corresponding reliability of the first and second parts of the scale was 0.781 and 0.861. An EFA on 18 items of the scale found 4 factors which jointly explained 53.2% of variances: The model was marginally acceptable (root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] =0.098, standardized root mean square residual [SRMR] =0.076, χ(2) /df =4.8, comparative fit index [CFI] =0.83). An EFA on 28 items of the scale found 4 factors which altogether explained 42.62% of variances: The model was acceptable (RMSEA =0.07, SRMR =0.07, χ(2)/df =2.8, incremental fit index =0.90, CFI =0.90). There was a negative correlation between the procrastination scores and the students' average scores (r = -0.131, P =0.02). The Farsi version of the PASS is a valid and reliable tool to measure academic procrastination in Iranian undergraduate medical students.

  14. Engagement in Science Lessons and Achievement Test Scores of Eighth-Grade Students in Korea: Findings from the TIMSS 2011 Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, J. Daniel; Telese, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific literacy and student engagement in science are important components of the school curriculum in Korea. In addition, several studies from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) assessments have identified factors associated with the learning outcomes of students in Korea. The purpose of this study was to…

  15. The Use of Illustrations in Large-Scale Science Assessment: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the complexity of test illustrations design across cultures. More specifically, it examines how the characteristics of illustrations used in science test items vary across content areas, assessment programs, and cultural origins. It compares a total of 416 Grade 8 illustrated items from the areas of earth science, life…

  16. Coordinated Multi-layer Multi-domain Optical Network (COMMON) for Large-Scale Science Applications (COMMON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vokkarane, Vinod [University of Massachusetts

    2013-09-01

    We intend to implement a Coordinated Multi-layer Multi-domain Optical Network (COMMON) Framework for Large-scale Science Applications. In the COMMON project, specific problems to be addressed include 1) anycast/multicast/manycast request provisioning, 2) deployable OSCARS enhancements, 3) multi-layer, multi-domain quality of service (QoS), and 4) multi-layer, multidomain path survivability. In what follows, we outline the progress in the above categories (Year 1, 2, and 3 deliverables).

  17. Terry Turbopump Expanded Operating Band Full-Scale Component and Basic Science Detailed Test Plan-Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solom, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Severe Accident Analysis Dept.; Ross, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Severe Accident Analysis Dept.; Cardoni, Jeffrey N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Severe Accident Analysis Dept.; Osborn, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Severe Accident Analysis Dept.

    2017-08-01

    This document details the milestone approach to define the true operating limitations (margins) of the Terry turbopump systems used in the nuclear industry for Milestone 3 (full-scale component experiments) and Milestone 4 (Terry turbopump basic science experiments) efforts. The overall multinational-sponsored program creates the technical basis to: (1) reduce and defer additional utility costs, (2) simplify plant operations, and (3) provide a better understanding of the true margin which could reduce overall risk of operations.

  18. Validation of the early childhood attitude toward women in science scale (ECWiSS): A pilot administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkey, Lynn M.

    The intention of this research was to measure attitudes of young children toward women scientists. A 27-item instrument, the Early Childhood Women in Science Scale (ECWiSS) was validated in a test case of the proposition that differential socialization predicts entry into the scientific talent pool. Estimates of internal consistency indicated that the scale is highly reliable. Known groups and correlates procedures, employed to determine the validity of the instrument, revealed that the scale is able to discriminate significant differences between groups and distinguishes three dimensions of attitude (role-specific self-concept, home-related sex-role conflict, and work-related sex-role conflict). Results of the analyses also confirmed the anticipated pattern of correlations with measures of another construct. The findings suggest the utility of the ECWiSS for measurement of early childhood attitudes in models of the ascriptive and/or meritocratic processes affecting recruitment to science and more generally in program and curriculum evaluation where attitude toward women in science is the construct of interest.

  19. EPOS Multi-Scale Laboratory platform: a long-term reference tool for experimental Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippanera, Daniele; Tesei, Telemaco; Funiciello, Francesca; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Rosenau, Matthias; Elger, Kirsten; Ulbricht, Damian; Lange, Otto; Calignano, Elisa; Spiers, Chris; Drury, Martin; Willingshofer, Ernst; Winkler, Aldo

    2017-04-01

    With continuous progress on scientific research, a large amount of datasets has been and will be produced. The data access and sharing along with their storage and homogenization within a unique and coherent framework is a new challenge for the whole scientific community. This is particularly emphasized for geo-scientific laboratories, encompassing the most diverse Earth Science disciplines and typology of data. To this aim the "Multiscale Laboratories" Work Package (WP16), operating in the framework of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS), is developing a virtual platform of geo-scientific data and services for the worldwide community of laboratories. This long-term project aims at merging the top class multidisciplinary laboratories in Geoscience into a coherent and collaborative network, facilitating the standardization of virtual access to data, data products and software. This will help our community to evolve beyond the stage in which most of data produced by the different laboratories are available only within the related scholarly publications (often as print-version only) or they remain unpublished and inaccessible on local devices. The EPOS multi-scale laboratory platform will provide the possibility to easily share and discover data by means of open access, DOI-referenced, online data publication including long-term storage, managing and curation services and to set up a cohesive community of laboratories. The WP16 is starting with three pilot cases laboratories: (1) rock physics, (2) palaeomagnetic, and (3) analogue modelling. As a proof of concept, first analogue modelling datasets have been published via GFZ Data Services (http://doidb.wdc-terra.org/search/public/ui?&sort=updated+desc&q=epos). The datasets include rock analogue material properties (e.g. friction data, rheology data, SEM imagery), as well as supplementary figures, images and movies from experiments on tectonic processes. A metadata catalogue tailored to the specific communities

  20. Preoptometry and optometry school grade point average and optometry admissions test scores as predictors of performance on the national board of examiners in optometry part I (basic science) examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J E; Yackle, K A; Yuen, M T; Voorhees, L I

    2000-04-01

    To evaluate preoptometry and optometry school grade point averages and Optometry Admission Test (OAT) scores as predictors of performance on the National Board of Examiners in Optometry NBEO Part I (Basic Science) (NBEOPI) examination. Simple and multiple correlation coefficients were computed from data obtained from a sample of three consecutive classes of optometry students (1995-1997; n = 278) at Southern California College of Optometry. The GPA after year two of optometry school was the highest correlation (r = 0.75) among all predictor variables; the average of all scores on the OAT was the highest correlation among preoptometry predictor variables (r = 0.46). Stepwise regression analysis indicated a combination of the optometry GPA, the OAT Academic Average, and the GPA in certain optometry curricular tracks resulted in an improved correlation (multiple r = 0.81). Predicted NBEOPI scores were computed from the regression equation and then analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (roc) and statistic of agreement (kappa) methods. From this analysis, we identified the predicted score that maximized identification of true and false NBEOPI failures (71% and 10%, respectively). Cross validation of this result on a separate class of optometry students resulted in a slightly lower correlation between actual and predicted NBEOPI scores (r = 0.77) but showed the criterion-predicted score to be somewhat lax. The optometry school GPA after 2 years is a reasonably good predictor of performance on the full NBEOPI examination, but the prediction is enhanced by adding the Academic Average OAT score. However, predicting performance in certain subject areas of the NBEOPI examination, for example Psychology and Ocular/Visual Biology, was rather insubstantial. Nevertheless, predicting NBEOPI performance from the best combination of year two optometry GPAs and preoptometry variables is better than has been shown in previous studies predicting optometry GPA from the best

  1. Education, Outreach, and Diversity Partnerships and Science Education Resources From the Center for Multi-scale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S. Q.; Randall, D.; Denning, S.; Jones, B.; Russell, R.; Gardiner, L.; Hatheway, B.; Johnson, R. M.; Drossman, H.; Pandya, R.; Swartz, D.; Lanting, J.; Pitot, L.

    2007-12-01

    The need for improving the representation of cloud processes in climate models has been one of the most important limitations of the reliability of climate-change simulations. The new National Science Foundation- funded Center for Multi-scale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes (CMMAP) at Colorado State University (CSU) is a major research program addressing this problem over the next five years through a revolutionary new approach to representing cloud processes on their native scales, including the cloud-scale interactions among the many physical and chemical processes that are active in cloud systems. At the end of its first year, CMMAP has established effective partnerships between scientists, students, and teachers to meet its goals to: (1) provide first-rate graduate education in atmospheric science; (2) recruit diverse undergraduates into graduate education and careers in climate science; and (3) develop, evaluate, and disseminate educational resources designed to inform K-12 students, teachers, and the general public about the nature of the climate system, global climate change, and career opportunities in climate science. This presentation will describe the partners, our challenges and successes, and measures of achievement involved in the integrated suite of programs launched in the first year. They include: (1) a new high school Colorado Climate Conference drawing prestigious climate scientists to speak to students, (2) a summer Weather and Climate Workshop at CSU and the National Center for Atmospheric Research introducing K-12 teachers to Earth system science and a rich toolkit of teaching materials, (3) a program from CSU's Little Shop of Physics reaching 50 schools and 20,000 K-12 students through the new "It's Up In the Air" program, (4) expanded content, imagery, and interactives on clouds, weather, climate, and modeling for students, teachers, and the public on The Windows to the Universe web site at University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

  2. Using Mahalanobis Distance Scores for Matched Pairing of Schools in a Randomized Controlled Trial Study of Leadership and Assistance for Science Education Reform (LASER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoblotsky, Todd; Ransford-Kaldon, Carolyn; Morrison, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes the recruitment and site selection process that has been underway since January 2011, with particular emphasis on the use of Mahalanobis distance score to determine matched pairs of sites prior to randomization to treatment and control groups. Through a systematic winnowing process, the authors found that they could…

  3. Validación de los Puntajes de Corte del MACI a través de las Escalas Clínicas del MMPI-A Validation of Cutoff Scores for MACI Using the MMPI-A Clinical Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia V Vinet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Inserta en el proyecto de desarrollo de normas chilenas del MACI, se reporta la validación concurrente de los puntajes de corte de las escalas del MACI, utilizando como criterio las escalas clínicas del MMPI-A. Las puntuaciones MMPI-A de los participantes de la muestra de baremación del MACI (n = 807 fueron analizadas a través de una serie de MANOVAS y ANO VAS que diferenciaron significativamente a los grupos de funcionamiento sano y funcionamiento alterado creados a partir de la segmentación de la muestra total según el puntaje de corte de cada escala. La discusión destaca la congruencia de la diferenciación realizada por el MMPI-A y sus aportes a la mejor comprensión de las escalas MACI.Inserted in a project for building Chilean norms for the MACI, the concurrent validation of the cutoff scores of MACI is reported, using as a criterion the MMPI-A scores obtained by the MACI normative sample (n = 807. Data were analyzed through a set of MANOVAS and ANO VAS that allowed significant differentiation between healthy functioning and disorderly functioning groups that were created by dividing the sample on the basis of cutoff scores for each scale. Discussion emphasizes the congruence of MMPI-A results and its contribution to the better understanding of MACI scales.

  4. A confirmatory test of the underlying factor structure of scores on the collective self-esteem scale in two independent samples of Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsey, Shawn O; Constantine, Madonna G

    2006-04-01

    In this study, we examined the factor structure of the Collective Self-Esteem Scale (CSES; Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) across 2 separate samples of Black Americans. The CSES was administered to a sample of Black American adolescents (n = 538) and a community sample of Black American adults (n = 313). Results of confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs), however, did not support the original 4-factor model identified by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992) as providing an adequate fit to the data for these samples. Furthermore, an exploratory CFA procedure failed to find a CSES factor structure that could be replicated across the 2 samples of Black Americans. We present and discuss implications of the findings.

  5. Localized Scale Coupling and New Educational Paradigms in Multiscale Mathematics and Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingber, Marc; Vorobieff, Peter

    2014-03-14

    We have experimentally demonstrated how microscale phenomena affect suspended particle behavior on the mesoscale, and how particle group behavior on the mesoscale influences the macroscale suspension behavior. Semi-analytical and numerical methods to treat flows on different scales have been developed, and a framework to combine these scale-dependent treatment has been described.

  6. Multimedia's Effect on College Students' Quantitative Mental Effort Scores and Qualitative Extraneous Cognitive Load Responses in a Food Science and Human Nutrition Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Jeanette; Huang, Wen-Hao David; Bohn, Dawn M.

    2014-01-01

    Effective use of multimedia (MM) in instructional design is critical for student learning, especially for large lecture introductory courses. This study used a mixed-method approach to explore the effect of food science supporting course materials that utilized different MM formats, designed with Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML)…

  7. An Examination of Secondary School Students' Academic Achievement in Science Course and Achievement Scores in Performance Assignments with Regard to Different Variables: A Boarding School Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre; Günaydin, Esra; Okur, Alperen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the academic achievement and performance tasks of students studying in a regional primary boarding school in science course with regard to different variables. The study was carried out via survey method and total 96 students, 57 of them boarding students and 39 of them non-boarding students studying in the 5th,…

  8. What Should Educational Reform in Indonesia Look Like?--Learning from the PISA Science Scores of East-Asian Countries and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprapto, Nadi

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia always continually failed international assessments even though many efforts have been made. The results of PISA 2012 put Indonesian students in the worst position. In contrast, East Asian countries' performance well in mathematics, reading, and science. Indeed, Singapore has the best performance in the Southeast Asia region even in the…

  9. Measurable Changes in Pre-Post Test Scores in Iraqi 4-H Leader’s Knowledge of Animal Science Production Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justen O. Smith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 4-H volunteer program is a new concept to the people of Iraq, for decades the country has been closed to western ideas. Iraqi culture and the Arabic customs have not embraced the volunteer concept and even more the concept of scientific animal production technologies designed to increase profitability for producers. In 2011 the USAID-Inma Agribusiness program teamed with the Iraq 4-H program to create youth and community entrepreneurship opportunities for widowed families. Iraq 4-H provided the youth members and adult volunteers and Inma provided the financial capital (livestock and the animal science training program for the volunteers. The purpose of this study was to measure the knowledge level gained through intensive animal science training for Iraqi 4-H volunteers. Researchers designed and implemented a pre and post test to measure the knowledge of fifteen volunteers who participated in the three day course. The pretest exposed a general lack of animal science knowledge of all volunteers; over 80% of the participants incorrectly answered the questions. However, the post-test indicated positive change in the participants understanding of animal science production principles.

  10. Representing scale: What should be special about the heritage of mass science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bud, Robert

    2016-02-01

    This symposium marks the achievement of a transformation in the history of science. Whereas in the 1960s, the study of modern developments was marginal to the field, it has now become a key part of the discipline's central concerns. The contrast between this conference and a 1960 symposium is illuminating. The paper reflects on the tensions over the future direction of the discipline expressed at the 1974 semi-centenary conference of the History of Science Society. Today, genomics with its vast demand for resources and its challenges to traditional boundaries is not untypical of a wide range of scientific activities. Its study can serve as a pioneering case study interesting for itself and important for a wider understanding of science. Papers at this meeting show the implications for the understanding of methods, appropriate targets of study, the interpretation of images and the preservation of archives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Large-Scale Sentinel-1 Processing for Solid Earth Science and Urgent Response using Cloud Computing and Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, H.; Owen, S. E.; Yun, S. H.; Agram, P. S.; Manipon, G.; Starch, M.; Sacco, G. F.; Bue, B. D.; Dang, L. B.; Linick, J. P.; Malarout, N.; Rosen, P. A.; Fielding, E. J.; Lundgren, P.; Moore, A. W.; Liu, Z.; Farr, T.; Webb, F.; Simons, M.; Gurrola, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    With the increased availability of open SAR data (e.g. Sentinel-1 A/B), new challenges are being faced with processing and analyzing the voluminous SAR datasets to make geodetic measurements. Upcoming SAR missions such as NISAR are expected to generate close to 100TB per day. The Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) project can now generate geocoded unwrapped phase and coherence products from Sentinel-1 TOPS mode data in an automated fashion, using the ISCE software. This capability is currently being exercised on various study sites across the United States and around the globe, including Hawaii, Central California, Iceland and South America. The automated and large-scale SAR data processing and analysis capabilities use cloud computing techniques to speed the computations and provide scalable processing power and storage. Aspects such as how to processing these voluminous SLCs and interferograms at global scales, keeping up with the large daily SAR data volumes, and how to handle the voluminous data rates are being explored. Scene-partitioning approaches in the processing pipeline help in handling global-scale processing up to unwrapped interferograms with stitching done at a late stage. We have built an advanced science data system with rapid search functions to enable access to the derived data products. Rapid image processing of Sentinel-1 data to interferograms and time series is already being applied to natural hazards including earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions, and land subsidence due to fluid withdrawal. We will present the status of the ARIA science data system for generating science-ready data products and challenges that arise from being able to process SAR datasets to derived time series data products at large scales. For example, how do we perform large-scale data quality screening on interferograms? What approaches can be used to minimize compute, storage, and data movement costs for time series analysis in the cloud? We will also

  12. Generation of large-scale maps of science and associated indicators.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klavans, Richard (SciTech Strategies, Inc., Berwyn, PA); Boyack, Kevin W.

    2005-12-01

    Over the past several years, techniques have been developed for clustering very large segments of the technical literature using sources such as Thomson ISI's Science Citation Index. The primary objective of this work has been to develop indicators of potential impact at the paper level to enhance planning and evaluation of research. These indicators can also be aggregated at different levels to enable profiling of departments, institutions, agencies, etc. Results of this work are presented as maps of science and technology with various overlays corresponding to the indicators associated with a particular search or question.

  13. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Sciences: Target 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard

    2014-05-02

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computing center for the DOE Office of Science, serving approximately 4,500 users working on some 650 projects that involve nearly 600 codes in a wide variety of scientific disciplines. In March 2013, NERSC, DOE?s Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE?s Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) held a review to characterize High Performance Computing (HPC) and storage requirements for FES research through 2017. This report is the result.

  14. Fault Tolerance and Scaling in e-Science Cloud Applications: Observations from the Continuing Development of MODISAzure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jie [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Humphrey, Marty [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Cheah, You-Wei [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Ryu, Youngryel [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management; Agarwal, Deb [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jackson, Keith [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); van Ingen, Catharine [Microsoft Research. San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2010-04-01

    It can be natural to believe that many of the traditional issues of scale have been eliminated or at least greatly reduced via cloud computing. That is, if one can create a seemingly wellfunctioning cloud application that operates correctly on small or moderate-sized problems, then the very nature of cloud programming abstractions means that the same application will run as well on potentially significantly larger problems. In this paper, we present our experiences taking MODISAzure, our satellite data processing system built on the Windows Azure cloud computing platform, from the proof-of-concept stage to a point of being able to run on significantly larger problem sizes (e.g., from national-scale data sizes to global-scale data sizes). To our knowledge, this is the longest-running eScience application on the nascent Windows Azure platform. We found that while many infrastructure-level issues were thankfully masked from us by the cloud infrastructure, it was valuable to design additional redundancy and fault-tolerance capabilities such as transparent idempotent task retry and logging to support debugging of user code encountering unanticipated data issues. Further, we found that using a commercial cloud means anticipating inconsistent performance and black-box behavior of virtualized compute instances, as well as leveraging changing platform capabilities over time. We believe that the experiences presented in this paper can help future eScience cloud application developers on Windows Azure and other commercial cloud providers.

  15. Proceedings of joint meeting of the 6th simulation science symposium and the NIFS collaboration research 'large scale computer simulation'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    Joint meeting of the 6th Simulation Science Symposium and the NIFS Collaboration Research 'Large Scale Computer Simulation' was held on December 12-13, 2002 at National Institute for Fusion Science, with the aim of promoting interdisciplinary collaborations in various fields of computer simulations. The present meeting attended by more than 40 people consists of the 11 invited and 22 contributed papers, of which topics were extended not only to fusion science but also to related fields such as astrophysics, earth science, fluid dynamics, molecular dynamics, computer science etc. (author)

  16. Implementation of Large-Scale Science Curricula: A Study in Seven European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, G. M.; Waddington, D. J.

    2005-01-01

    The Salters Chemistry courses, context-led curricula for 13-16 and 17-18 year old students, first developed by the Science Education Group at the University of York in the UK, have now been translated and/or adapted in seven other European countries. This paper describes and discusses the different reasons for taking up the courses, the ways in…

  17. Validating a Scale That Measures Scientists' Self-Efficacy for Public Engagement with Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson Evia, Jane; Peterman, Karen; Cloyd, Emily; Besley, John

    2018-01-01

    Self-efficacy, or the beliefs people hold about their ability to succeed in certain pursuits, is a long-established construct. Self-efficacy for science communication distinguishes scientists who engage with the public and relates to scientists' attitudes about the public. As such, self-efficacy for public engagement has the potential to serve as…

  18. The challenges associated with developing science-based landscape scale management plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Szaro; Douglas A. Jr. Boyce; Thomas. Puchlerz

    2005-01-01

    Planning activities over large landscapes poses a complex of challenges when trying to balance the implementation of a conservation strategy while still allowing for a variety of consumptive and nonconsumptive uses. We examine a case in southeast Alaska to illustrate the breadth of these challenges and an approach to developing a science-based resource plan. Not only...

  19. The Development of Paranormal Belief Scale (PBS) for Science Education in the Context of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Mehmet; Yesilyurt, Ezgi

    2014-01-01

    Present study aims to translate and develop Paranormal Belief Questions (Rice, 2003) measuring students' non-scientific beliefs which threat science education. Original version of these questions was asked in Southern Focus Poll (1998). 17 questions about paranormal beliefs were administered to 114 university students from different departments.…

  20. Analysis of long-term (median 10.5 years) outcomes in children presenting with traumatic brain injury and an initial Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3 or 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Daniel H; White, Ian K; Rees, Jacqueline M; Baumanis, Maraya M; Smith, Jodi L; Ackerman, Laurie L; Boaz, Joel C; Luerssen, Thomas G

    2015-10-01

    Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) with low presenting Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores have very high morbidity and mortality rates. Neurosurgeons may be faced with difficult decisions in managing the most severely injured (GCS scores of 3 or 4) patients. The situation may be considered hopeless, with little chance of a functional recovery. Long-term data are limited regarding the clinical outcome of children with severe head injury. The authors evaluate predictor variables and the clinical outcomes at discharge, 1 year, and long term (median 10.5 years) in a cohort of children with TBI presenting with postresuscitation GCS scores of 3 and 4. A review of a prospectively collected trauma database was performed. Patients treated at Riley Hospital for Children (Indianapolis, Indiana) from 1988 to 2004 were reviewed. All children with initial GCS (modified for pediatric patients) scores of 3 or 4 were identified. Patients with a GCS score of 3 were compared with those with a GCS score of 4. The outcomes of all patients at the time of death or discharge and at 1-year and long-term follow-up were measured with a modified Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) that included a "normal" outcome. Long-term outcomes were evaluated by contacting surviving patients. Statistical "classification trees" were formed for survival and outcome, based on predictor variables. Sixty-seven patients with a GCS score of 3 or 4 were identified in a database of 1636 patients (4.1%). Three of the presenting factors differed between the GCS 3 patients (n = 44) and the GCS 4 patients (n = 23): presence of hypoxia, single seizure, and open basilar cisterns on CT scan. The clinical outcomes were statistically similar between the 2 groups. In total, 48 (71.6%) of 67 patients died, remained vegetative, or were severely disabled by 1 year. Eight patients (11.9%) were normal at 1 year. Ten of the 22 patients with long-term follow-up were either normal or had a GOS score of 5. Multiple clinical

  1. Integrating Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Ecological Science: a Question of Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Gagnon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The benefits and challenges of integrating traditional ecological knowledge and scientific knowledge have led to extensive discussions over the past decades, but much work is still needed to facilitate the articulation and co-application of these two types of knowledge. Through two case studies, we examined the integration of traditional ecological knowledge and scientific knowledge by emphasizing their complementarity across spatial and temporal scales. We expected that combining Inuit traditional ecological knowledge and scientific knowledge would expand the spatial and temporal scales of currently documented knowledge on the arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus and the greater snow goose (Chen caerulescens atlantica, two important tundra species. Using participatory approaches in Mittimatalik (also known as Pond Inlet, Nunavut, Canada, we documented traditional ecological knowledge about these species and found that, in fact, it did expand the spatial and temporal scales of current scientific knowledge for local arctic fox ecology. However, the benefits were not as apparent for snow goose ecology, probably because of the similar spatial and temporal observational scales of the two types of knowledge for this species. Comparing sources of knowledge at similar scales allowed us to gain confidence in our conclusions and to identify areas of disagreement that should be studied further. Emphasizing complementarities across scales was more powerful for generating new insights and hypotheses. We conclude that determining the scales of the observations that form the basis for traditional ecological knowledge and scientific knowledge represents a critical step when evaluating the benefits of integrating these two types of knowledge. This is also critical when examining the congruence or contrast between the two types of knowledge for a given subject.

  2. Less Interested after Lessons? Report on a Small-Scale Research Study into 12- to 13-Year-Old Students' Attitudes to Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    Results of a small-scale research study conducted with year 8 (ages 12-13) students suggest that although these students have generally positive attitudes towards earth science, girls tend to be less interested in it than boys. Interest in earth science was found to separate into two dominant factors, labelled "scientific" and…

  3. Evaluating Interest in Acids-Bases: Development of an Acid-Base Interest Scale (ABIS) and Assessment of Pre-Service Science Teachers' Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiçek, Ö.; Ilhan, N.

    2017-01-01

    Students are more likely to be successful in topics they are interested in than others. This study aims to develop an Acid-Base Interest Scale (ABIS) and subsequently evaluate the interest of pre-service science teachers in acids-bases according to gender, years at the university, type of high school the pre-service science teachers attended, and…

  4. Natural Hazard Resilience - A Large-scale Transdisciplinary "National Science Challenge" for New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    The National Science Challenges are initiatives to address the most important public science issues that face New Zealand with long-term funding and the combined strength of a coordinated science-sector behind them. Eleven major topics are tackled, across our human, natural and built environments. In the "Resilience Challenge" we address New Zealand's natural hazards. Alongside severe metrological threats, New Zealand also faces one of the highest levels of earthquake and volcanic hazard in the world. Resilience is a hotly discussed concept, here, we take the view: Resilience encapsulates the features of a system to anticipate threats, acknowledge there will be impacts (no matter how prepared we are), quickly pick up the pieces, as well as learn and adapt from the experience to better absorb and rebound from future shocks. Our research must encompass innovation in building and lifelines engineering, planning and regulation, emergency management practice, alongside understanding how our natural hazard systems work, how we monitor them and how our communities/governance/industries can be influenced and encouraged (e.g., via economic incentives) to develop and implement resilience practice. This is a complex interwoven mix of areas and is best addressed through case-study areas where researchers and the users of the research can jointly identify problems and co-develop science solutions. I will highlight some of the strengths and weaknesses of this coordinated approach to an all-hazard, all-country problem, using the example of the Resilience Challenge approach after its first two and a half years of operation. Key issues include balancing investment into high-profile (and often high consequence), but rare hazards against the frequent "monthly" hazards that collectively occupy regional and local governance. Also, it is clear that despite increasingly sophisticated hazard and hazard mitigation knowledge being generated in engineering and social areas, a range of policy

  5. What Will the Neighbors Think? Building Large-Scale Science Projects Around the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Craig; Mrotzek, Christian; Toge, Nobu; Sarno, Doug

    2007-01-01

    Public participation is an essential ingredient for turning the International Linear Collider into a reality. Wherever the proposed particle accelerator is sited in the world, its neighbors -- in any country -- will have something to say about hosting a 35-kilometer-long collider in their backyards. When it comes to building large-scale physics projects, almost every laboratory has a story to tell. Three case studies from Japan, Germany and the US will be presented to examine how community relations are handled in different parts of the world. How do particle physics laboratories interact with their local communities? How do neighbors react to building large-scale projects in each region? How can the lessons learned from past experiences help in building the next big project? These and other questions will be discussed to engage the audience in an active dialogue about how a large-scale project like the ILC can be a good neighbor.

  6. Integrating science into governance and management of coastal areas at urban scale

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Celliers, Louis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available and development planning (CSDP) is no longer an option but a necessity. Current legislation devolves many fine scale planning and management functions within coastal urban centres to local authorities, including land-use and urban and economic development... into governance and management of coastal areas at urban scale L CELLIERS, S TALJAARD AND R VAN BALLEGOOYEN CSIR, PO Box 395, Pretoria, South Africa, 0001 Email: lcelliers@csir.co.za ? www.csir.co.za BACKGROUND With burgeoning demand for coastal space...

  7. An interview with James Wilbur, Ph.D. General Manager, Life Sciences, Meso Scale Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, James

    2004-06-01

    James L. Wilbur, Ph.D. received a Bachelor's degree from the University of California, San Diego and a Ph.D. in Chemistry from Stanford University. After completing an NIH Postdoctoral Fellowship with Professor George M. Whitesides in the Department of Chemistry at Harvard University, he joined IGEN International, Inc., where he held a variety of positions in Research and Development. During that time, he was part of the team that developed the core technology and products for Meso Scale Discovery. He assumed his current position in 2001 when Meso Scale Discovery launched the products discussed here.

  8. On unravelling mechanism of interplay between cloud and large scale circulation: a grey area in climate science

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, S.; Agarwal, N. K.; Hazra, Anupam; Chaudhari, Hemantkumar S.; Sahai, A. K.

    2018-04-01

    The interaction between cloud and large scale circulation is much less explored area in climate science. Unfolding the mechanism of coupling between these two parameters is imperative for improved simulation of Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and to reduce imprecision in climate sensitivity of global climate model. This work has made an effort to explore this mechanism with CFSv2 climate model experiments whose cloud has been modified by changing the critical relative humidity (CRH) profile of model during ISM. Study reveals that the variable CRH in CFSv2 has improved the nonlinear interactions between high and low frequency oscillations in wind field (revealed as internal dynamics of monsoon) and modulates realistically the spatial distribution of interactions over Indian landmass during the contrasting monsoon season compared to the existing CRH profile of CFSv2. The lower tropospheric wind error energy in the variable CRH simulation of CFSv2 appears to be minimum due to the reduced nonlinear convergence of error to the planetary scale range from long and synoptic scales (another facet of internal dynamics) compared to as observed from other CRH experiments in normal and deficient monsoons. Hence, the interplay between cloud and large scale circulation through CRH may be manifested as a change in internal dynamics of ISM revealed from scale interactive quasi-linear and nonlinear kinetic energy exchanges in frequency as well as in wavenumber domain during the monsoon period that eventually modify the internal variance of CFSv2 model. Conversely, the reduced wind bias and proper modulation of spatial distribution of scale interaction between the synoptic and low frequency oscillations improve the eastward and northward extent of water vapour flux over Indian landmass that in turn give feedback to the realistic simulation of cloud condensates attributing improved ISM rainfall in CFSv2.

  9. From Rasch scores to regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang

    2006-01-01

    Rasch models provide a framework for measurement and modelling latent variables. Having measured a latent variable in a population a comparison of groups will often be of interest. For this purpose the use of observed raw scores will often be inadequate because these lack interval scale propertie....... This paper compares two approaches to group comparison: linear regression models using estimated person locations as outcome variables and latent regression models based on the distribution of the score....

  10. Large scale inverse problems computational methods and applications in the earth sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Scheichl, Robert; Freitag, Melina A; Kindermann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This book is thesecond volume of three volume series recording the ""Radon Special Semester 2011 on Multiscale Simulation & Analysis in Energy and the Environment"" taking place in Linz, Austria, October 3-7, 2011. The volume addresses the common ground in the mathematical and computational procedures required for large-scale inverse problems and data assimilation in forefront applications.

  11. Maps4Science - National Roadmap for Large-Scale Research Facilities 2011 (NWO Application form)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Van der Wal, T.; De By, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Netherlands is historically known as one of worlds' best-measured countries. It is continuing this tradition today with unequalled new datasets, such as the nationwide large-scale topographic map, our unique digital height map (nationwide coverage; ten very accurate 3D points for every Dutch m2)

  12. Corrosion chemistry closing comments: opportunities in corrosion science facilitated by operando experimental characterization combined with multi-scale computational modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, John R

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in characterization tools, computational capabilities, and theories have created opportunities for advancement in understanding of solid-fluid interfaces at the nanoscale in corroding metallic systems. The Faraday Discussion on Corrosion Chemistry in 2015 highlighted some of the current needs, gaps and opportunities in corrosion science. Themes were organized into several hierarchical categories that provide an organizational framework for corrosion. Opportunities to develop fundamental physical and chemical data which will enable further progress in thermodynamic and kinetic modelling of corrosion were discussed. These will enable new and better understanding of unit processes that govern corrosion at the nanoscale. Additional topics discussed included scales, films and oxides, fluid-surface and molecular-surface interactions, selected topics in corrosion science and engineering as well as corrosion control. Corrosion science and engineering topics included complex alloy dissolution, local corrosion, and modelling of specific corrosion processes that are made up of collections of temporally and spatially varying unit processes such as oxidation, ion transport, and competitive adsorption. Corrosion control and mitigation topics covered some new insights on coatings and inhibitors. Further advances in operando or in situ experimental characterization strategies at the nanoscale combined with computational modelling will enhance progress in the field, especially if coupling across length and time scales can be achieved incorporating the various phenomena encountered in corrosion. Readers are encouraged to not only to use this ad hoc organizational scheme to guide their immersion into the current opportunities in corrosion chemistry, but also to find value in the information presented in their own ways.

  13. dV/dt - Accelerating the Rate of Progress towards Extreme Scale Collaborative Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livny, Miron [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2018-01-22

    This report introduces publications that report the results of a project that aimed to design a computational framework that enables computational experimentation at scale while supporting the model of “submit locally, compute globally”. The project focuses on estimating application resource needs, finding the appropriate computing resources, acquiring those resources,deploying the applications and data on the resources, managing applications and resources during run.

  14. Transforming Global Health by Improving the Science of Scale-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Kruk, Margaret E.; Yamey, Gavin; Angell, Sonia Y.; Beith, Alix; Cotlear, Daniel; Guanais, Frederico; Jacobs, Lisa; Saxenian, Helen; Victora, Cesar; Goosby, Eric

    2016-01-01

    In its report Global Health 2035, the Commission on Investing in Health proposed that health investments can reduce mortality in nearly all low- and middle-income countries to very low levels, thereby averting 10 million deaths per year from 2035 onward. Many of these gains could be achieved through scale-up of existing technologies and health services. A key instrument to close this gap is policy and implementation research (PIR) that aims to produce generalizable evidence on what works to i...

  15. Measuring adolescent science motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Maximiliane F.; Bogner, Franz X.

    2016-02-01

    To monitor science motivation, 232 tenth graders of the college preparatory level ('Gymnasium') completed the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II). Additionally, personality data were collected using a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis based on the eigenvalue-greater-than-one criterion, extracted a loading pattern, which in principle, followed the SMQ-II frame. Two items were dropped due to inappropriate loadings. The remaining SMQ-II seems to provide a consistent scale matching the findings in literature. Nevertheless, also possible shortcomings of the scale are discussed. Data showed a higher perceived self-determination in girls which seems compensated by their lower self-efficacy beliefs leading to equality of females and males in overall science motivation scores. Additionally, the Big Five personality traits and science motivation components show little relationship.

  16. Transforming Global Health by Improving the Science of Scale-Up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E Kruk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In its report Global Health 2035, the Commission on Investing in Health proposed that health investments can reduce mortality in nearly all low- and middle-income countries to very low levels, thereby averting 10 million deaths per year from 2035 onward. Many of these gains could be achieved through scale-up of existing technologies and health services. A key instrument to close this gap is policy and implementation research (PIR that aims to produce generalizable evidence on what works to implement successful interventions at scale. Rigorously designed PIR promotes global learning and local accountability. Much greater national and global investments in PIR capacity will be required to enable the scaling of effective approaches and to prevent the recycling of failed ideas. Sample questions for the PIR research agenda include how to close the gap in the delivery of essential services to the poor, which population interventions for non-communicable diseases are most applicable in different contexts, and how to engage non-state actors in equitable provision of health services in the context of universal health coverage.

  17. How Partners are Producing Science and Addressing Issues of Scale for Springs Management in the Desert Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G.; Springer, A. E.; Misztal, L.; Grabau, M.

    2017-12-01

    Climate changes in the arid Southwest are expected to further stress critical water sources, such as springs, in the near future. Springs are abundant features in the Southwest, providing habitat for listed species and water for wildlife, agricultural, cities, recreation, and the base flow for many rivers. But springs occupy a small fraction of the land area and, as a result, they have not been significantly studied or mapped. Managers recognize that effective stewardship of these critical resources requires a landscape-scale understanding of distribution, ecological integrity, and risks; access to comprehensive inventory, assessment and restoration protocols; and local implementation. They need easy access to information at varying scales to respond to stressors like climate change. The Desert Landscape Conservation Cooperative, Sky Island Alliance, and Springs Stewardship Institute worked with scientists, resource managers, and conservationists to develop and increase access to data by involving them in the entire research process through field surveys, workshops, trainings, and development of products needed to solve critical management challenges. We built on and connected existing efforts underway in the Southwest, including developing: 1) Springs Inventory Protocol, 2) an online geospatial database, 3) methodologies for climate-savvy monitoring and 4) a springs restoration handbook. We also worked with partners to evaluate the condition and risk of springs' resources at the local scale to create products used in site-specific management planning. Our results indicate that coproduction resulted in more understanding of common issues, more focus on solving management challenges, and increased use of the science and protocols produced. Information developed through this project assists managers in understanding how their springs contribute at local and landscape scales. New information developed through this project is being used in support of planning and

  18. A stakeholder-driven agenda for advancing the science and practice of scale-up and spread in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Wynne E; McCannon, C Joseph; Schall, Marie W; Mittman, Brian S

    2012-12-06

    Although significant advances have been made in implementation science, comparatively less attention has been paid to broader scale-up and spread of effective health programs at the regional, national, or international level. To address this gap in research, practice and policy attention, representatives from key stakeholder groups launched an initiative to identify gaps and stimulate additional interest and activity in scale-up and spread of effective health programs. We describe the background and motivation for this initiative and the content, process, and outcomes of two main phases comprising the core of the initiative: a state-of-the-art conference to develop recommendations for advancing scale-up and spread and a follow-up activity to operationalize and prioritize the recommendations. The conference was held in Washington, D.C. during July 2010 and attended by 100 representatives from research, practice, policy, public health, healthcare, and international health communities; the follow-up activity was conducted remotely the following year. Conference attendees identified and prioritized five recommendations (and corresponding sub-recommendations) for advancing scale-up and spread in health: increase awareness, facilitate information exchange, develop new methods, apply new approaches for evaluation, and expand capacity. In the follow-up activity, 'develop new methods' was rated as most important recommendation; expanding capacity was rated as least important, although differences were relatively minor. Based on the results of these efforts, we discuss priority activities that are needed to advance research, practice and policy to accelerate the scale-up and spread of effective health programs.

  19. Association Between Change in Body Mass Index, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Scores, and Survival Among Persons With Parkinson Disease: Secondary Analysis of Longitudinal Data From NINDS Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease Long-term Study 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Anne-Marie A; Pérez, Adriana; Wang, Jue; Su, Xiao; Morgan, John; Rajan, Suja S; Leehey, Maureen A; Pontone, Gregory M; Chou, Kelvin L; Umeh, Chizoba; Mari, Zoltan; Boyd, James

    2016-03-01

    Greater body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) is associated with improved survival among persons with Huntington disease or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Weight loss is common among persons with Parkinson disease (PD) and is associated with worse quality of life. To explore the association between change in BMI, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor and total scores, and survival among persons with PD and to test whether there is a positive association between BMI at randomization and survival. Secondary analysis (from May 27, 2014, to October 13, 2015) of longitudinal data (3-6 years) from 1673 participants who started the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Exploratory Trials in PD Long-term Study-1 (NET-PD LS-1). This was a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of creatine monohydrate (10 g/d) that was performed at 45 sites throughout the United States and Canada. Participants with early (within 5 years of diagnosis) and treated (receiving dopaminergic therapy) PD were enrolled from March 2007 to May 2010 and followed up until September 2013. Change across time in motor UPDRS score, change across time in total UPDRS score, and time to death. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate the effect of BMI on the change in motor and total UPDRS scores after controlling for covariates. Survival was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models of time to death. A participant's BMI was measured at randomization, and BMI trajectory groups were classified according to whether participants experienced weight loss ("decreasing BMI"), weight stability ("stable BMI"), or weight gain ("increasing BMI") during the study. Of the 1673 participants (mean [SD] age, 61.7 [9.6] years; 1074 [64.2%] were male), 158 (9.4%) experienced weight loss (decreasing BMI), whereas 233 (13.9%) experienced weight gain (increasing BMI). After adjusting for covariates, we

  20. Cross Validated Temperament Scale Validities Computed Using Profile Similarity Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-27

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral & Social Sciences 6000 6TH Street (Bldg. 1464 / Mail...AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral & Social Sciences 6000 6TH...respondent’s scale score is equal to the mean of the non-reversed and recoded-reversed items. Table 1 portrays the conventional scoring algorithm on

  1. Ultrafast, laser-based, x-ray science: the dawn of atomic-scale cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barty, C.P.J.

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of ultrafast chirped pulse amplification systems are reviewed. Application of ultrafast chirped pulse amplification to the generation of femtosecond, incoherent, 8-keV line radiation is outlined and the use of femtosecond laser-based, x-rays for novel time-resolved diffraction studies of crystalline dynamics with sub-picosecond temporal resolution and sub-picometer spatial resolution is reviewed in detail. Possible extensions of laser-based, x-ray technology and evaluation of alternative x-ray approaches for time-resolved studies of the atomic scale dynamics are given. (author)

  2. Ultrafast, laser-based, x-ray science: the dawn of atomic-scale cinematography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barty, C.P.J. [University of California, Department of Applied Mechanics and Engineering Science, Urey Hall, Mali Code 0339, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2000-03-01

    The characteristics of ultrafast chirped pulse amplification systems are reviewed. Application of ultrafast chirped pulse amplification to the generation of femtosecond, incoherent, 8-keV line radiation is outlined and the use of femtosecond laser-based, x-rays for novel time-resolved diffraction studies of crystalline dynamics with sub-picosecond temporal resolution and sub-picometer spatial resolution is reviewed in detail. Possible extensions of laser-based, x-ray technology and evaluation of alternative x-ray approaches for time-resolved studies of the atomic scale dynamics are given. (author)

  3. Allegheny County Walk Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Walk Score measures the walkability of any address using a patented system developed by the Walk Score company. For each 2010 Census Tract centroid, Walk Score...

  4. Scaling-Up the Impact of Aflatoxin Research in Africa. The Role of Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Stepman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available At the interface between agriculture and nutrition, the aflatoxin contamination of food and feed touches on agriculture, health, and trade. For more than three decades now, the problem of aflatoxin has been researched in Africa. The interest of development cooperation for aflatoxin and the support to aflatoxin mitigation projects has its ups and downs. The academic world and the development world still seem to operate in different spheres and a collaboration is still challenging due to the complexity of the contamination sources at pre-harvest and post-harvest levels. There is a growing call by research funders and development actors for the impact of solutions at a scale. The solutions to mitigate aflatoxin contamination require new ways of working together. A more prominent role is to be played by social scientists. The role of social scientists in scaling-up the impact of aflatoxin research in Africa and the proposed mitigation solutions is to ensure that awareness, advantage, affordability, and access are systematically assessed. Aflatoxin-reduced staple foods and feed would be an agricultural result with a considerable health and food safety impact.

  5. Um novo escore para dependência a nicotina e uma nova escala de conforto do paciente durante o tratamento do tabagismo A new nicotine dependence score and a new scale assessing patient comfort during smoking cessation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Scholz Issa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O tabagismo é considerado a maior causa evitável de morbidade e mortalidade. O manuseio farmacológico da síndrome de abstinência de nicotina possibilita melhores taxas de cessação. Desenvolvemos um sistema de coleta de dados em nosso programa de assistência ao fumante, que inclui dois instrumentos novos: um escore para dependência de nicotina em fumantes de Smoking is considered the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. The pharmacological management of nicotine withdrawal syndrome enables better cessation rates. In our smoking cessation program, we have developed a data collection system, which includes two new instruments: a score that assesses nicotine dependence in smokers of < 10 cigarettes/day; and a patient comfort scale to be used during smoking cessation treatment. Here, we describe the two instruments, both of which are still undergoing validation.

  6. Reconciling the science and policy divide: The reality of scaling up antiretroviral therapy in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Whiteside

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the world’s largest national treatment programme and over 340 000 incident casesannually, the response to HIV in South Africa is hotly contested and there is sometimes adissonance between activism, science and policy. Too often, policy, whilst well intentioned, isinformed only by epidemiological data. The state of the healthcare system and socioculturalfactors drive and shape the epidemic and its response. By analysis of the financial,infrastructural, human resources for health, and governance landscape in South Africa,we assess the feasibility and associated costs of implementing a universal test and treatprogramme. We situate a universal test and treat strategy within the governance, fiscal,human resources for health, and infrastructural landscape in South Africa. We argue that theresponse to the epidemic must be forward thinking, progressive and make the most of thebenefits from treatment as prevention. However, the logistics of implementing a universaltest and treat strategy mean that this option is problematic in the short term. We recommenda health systems strengthening HIV treatment and prevention approach that includes scalingup treatment (for treatment and prevention along with a range of other prevention strategies.

  7. Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, JD [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Berg, LK [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2015-12-01

    Cumulus convection is an important component in the atmospheric radiation budget and hydrologic cycle over the Southern Great Plains and over many regions of the world, particularly during the summertime growing season when intense turbulence induced by surface radiation couples the land surface to clouds. Current convective cloud parameterizations contain uncertainties resulting in part from insufficient coincident data that couples cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties to inhomogeneities in boundary layer and aerosol properties. The Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) campaign is designed to provide a detailed set of measurements that are needed to obtain a more complete understanding of the life cycle of shallow clouds by coupling cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties to land surface properties, ecosystems, and aerosols. HI-SCALE consists of 2, 4-week intensive observational periods, one in the spring and the other in the late summer, to take advantage of different stages and distribution of “greenness” for various types of vegetation in the vicinity of the Atmospheric Radiation and Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site as well as aerosol properties that vary during the growing season. Most of the proposed instrumentation will be deployed on the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Gulfstream 1 (G-1) aircraft, including those that measure atmospheric turbulence, cloud water content and drop size distributions, aerosol precursor gases, aerosol chemical composition and size distributions, and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations. Routine ARM aerosol measurements made at the surface will be supplemented with aerosol microphysical properties measurements. The G-1 aircraft will complete transects over the SGP Central Facility at multiple altitudes within the boundary layer, within clouds, and above clouds.

  8. Web-scale discovery in an academic health sciences library: development and implementation of the EBSCO Discovery Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jolinda L; Obrig, Kathe S; Abate, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    Funds made available at the close of the 2010-11 fiscal year allowed purchase of the EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS) for a year-long trial. The appeal of this web-scale discovery product that offers a Google-like interface to library resources was counter-balanced by concerns about quality of search results in an academic health science setting and the challenge of configuring an interface that serves the needs of a diverse group of library users. After initial configuration, usability testing with library users revealed the need for further work before general release. Of greatest concern were continuing issues with the relevance of items retrieved, appropriateness of system-supplied facet terms, and user difficulties with navigating the interface. EBSCO has worked with the library to better understand and identify problems and solutions. External roll-out to users occurred in June 2012.

  9. Mathematical methods in material science and large scale optimization workshops: Final report, June 1, 1995-November 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, A. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Inst. for Mathematics and Its Applications

    1996-12-01

    The summer program in Large Scale Optimization concentrated largely on process engineering, aerospace engineering, inverse problems and optimal design, and molecular structure and protein folding. The program brought together application people, optimizers, and mathematicians with interest in learning about these topics. Three proceedings volumes are being prepared. The year in Materials Sciences deals with disordered media and percolation, phase transformations, composite materials, microstructure; topological and geometric methods as well as statistical mechanics approach to polymers (included were Monte Carlo simulation for polymers); miscellaneous other topics such as nonlinear optical material, particulate flow, and thin film. All these activities saw strong interaction among material scientists, mathematicians, physicists, and engineers. About 8 proceedings volumes are being prepared.

  10. Scientific Grand Challenges: Challenges in Climate Change Science and the Role of Computing at the Extreme Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Johnson, Gary M.; Washington, Warren M.

    2009-07-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) in partnership with the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) held a workshop on the challenges in climate change science and the role of computing at the extreme scale, November 6-7, 2008, in Bethesda, Maryland. At the workshop, participants identified the scientific challenges facing the field of climate science and outlined the research directions of highest priority that should be pursued to meet these challenges. Representatives from the national and international climate change research community as well as representatives from the high-performance computing community attended the workshop. This group represented a broad mix of expertise. Of the 99 participants, 6 were from international institutions. Before the workshop, each of the four panels prepared a white paper, which provided the starting place for the workshop discussions. These four panels of workshop attendees devoted to their efforts the following themes: Model Development and Integrated Assessment; Algorithms and Computational Environment; Decadal Predictability and Prediction; Data, Visualization, and Computing Productivity. The recommendations of the panels are summarized in the body of this report.

  11. Citizen science reveals unexpected continental-scale evolutionary change in a model organism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Silvertown

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Organisms provide some of the most sensitive indicators of climate change and evolutionary responses are becoming apparent in species with short generation times. Large datasets on genetic polymorphism that can provide an historical benchmark against which to test for recent evolutionary responses are very rare, but an exception is found in the brown-lipped banded snail (Cepaea nemoralis. This species is sensitive to its thermal environment and exhibits several polymorphisms of shell colour and banding pattern affecting shell albedo in the majority of populations within its native range in Europe. We tested for evolutionary changes in shell albedo that might have been driven by the warming of the climate in Europe over the last half century by compiling an historical dataset for 6,515 native populations of C. nemoralis and comparing this with new data on nearly 3,000 populations. The new data were sampled mainly in 2009 through the Evolution MegaLab, a citizen science project that engaged thousands of volunteers in 15 countries throughout Europe in the biggest such exercise ever undertaken. A known geographic cline in the frequency of the colour phenotype with the highest albedo (yellow was shown to have persisted and a difference in colour frequency between woodland and more open habitats was confirmed, but there was no general increase in the frequency of yellow shells. This may have been because snails adapted to a warming climate through behavioural thermoregulation. By contrast, we detected an unexpected decrease in the frequency of Unbanded shells and an increase in the Mid-banded morph. Neither of these evolutionary changes appears to be a direct response to climate change, indicating that the influence of other selective agents, possibly related to changing predation pressure and habitat change with effects on micro-climate.

  12. Laboratory Scale X-ray Fluorescence Tomography: Instrument Characterization and Application in Earth and Environmental Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforce, Brecht; Vermeulen, Bram; Garrevoet, Jan; Vekemans, Bart; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Janssen, Colin; Vincze, Laszlo

    2016-03-15

    A new laboratory scale X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging instrument, based on an X-ray microfocus tube equipped with a monocapillary optic, has been developed to perform XRF computed tomography experiments with both higher spatial resolution (20 μm) and a better energy resolution (130 eV @Mn-K(α)) than has been achieved up-to-now. This instrument opens a new range of possible applications for XRF-CT. Next to the analytical characterization of the setup by using well-defined model/reference samples, demonstrating its capabilities for tomographic imaging, the XRF-CT microprobe has been used to image the interior of an ecotoxicological model organism, Americamysis bahia. This had been exposed to elevated metal (Cu and Ni) concentrations. The technique allowed the visualization of the accumulation sites of copper, clearly indicating the affected organs, i.e. either the gastric system or the hepatopancreas. As another illustrative application, the scanner has been employed to investigate goethite spherules from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, revealing the internal elemental distribution of these valuable distal ejecta layer particles.

  13. Beyond the plot: technology extrapolation domains for scaling out agronomic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattalino Edreira, Juan I.; Cassman, Kenneth G.; Hochman, Zvi; van Ittersum, Martin K.; van Bussel, Lenny; Claessens, Lieven; Grassini, Patricio

    2018-05-01

    Ensuring an adequate food supply in systems that protect environmental quality and conserve natural resources requires productive and resource-efficient cropping systems on existing farmland. Meeting this challenge will be difficult without a robust spatial framework that facilitates rapid evaluation and scaling-out of currently available and emerging technologies. Here we develop a global spatial framework to delineate ‘technology extrapolation domains’ based on key climate and soil factors that govern crop yields and yield stability in rainfed crop production. The proposed framework adequately represents the spatial pattern of crop yields and stability when evaluated over the data-rich US Corn Belt. It also facilitates evaluation of cropping system performance across continents, which can improve efficiency of agricultural research that seeks to intensify production on existing farmland. Populating this biophysical spatial framework with appropriate socio-economic attributes provides the potential to amplify the return on investments in agricultural research and development by improving the effectiveness of research prioritization and impact assessment.

  14. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    Give us the tools: science and technology for development. Ottawa, ...... altered technical rela- tionships among the factors used in the process of production, and the en- .... to ourselves only the rights of audit and periodic substantive review." If a ...... and destroying scarce water reserves, recreational areas and a generally.

  15. Utilizing a scale model solar system project to visualize important planetary science concepts and develop technology and spatial reasoning skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortenkamp, Stephen J.; Brock, Laci

    2016-10-01

    Scale model solar systems have been used for centuries to help educate young students and the public about the vastness of space and the relative sizes of objects. We have adapted the classic scale model solar system activity into a student-driven project for an undergraduate general education astronomy course at the University of Arizona. Students are challenged to construct and use their three dimensional models to demonstrate an understanding of numerous concepts in planetary science, including: 1) planetary obliquities, eccentricities, inclinations; 2) phases and eclipses; 3) planetary transits; 4) asteroid sizes, numbers, and distributions; 5) giant planet satellite and ring systems; 6) the Pluto system and Kuiper belt; 7) the extent of space travel by humans and robotic spacecraft; 8) the diversity of extrasolar planetary systems. Secondary objectives of the project allow students to develop better spatial reasoning skills and gain familiarity with technology such as Excel formulas, smart-phone photography, and audio/video editing.During our presentation we will distribute a formal description of the project and discuss our expectations of the students as well as present selected highlights from preliminary submissions.

  16. Translating the Science of Measuring Ecosystems at a National Scale: NEON's Online Learning Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    "Big Data" are becoming increasingly common in many fields. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will collect data over the 30 years, using consistent, standardized methods across the United States. These freely available new data provide an opportunity for increased understanding of continental- and global scale processes such as changes in vegetation structure and condition, biodiversity and landuse. However, while "big data" are becoming more accessible and available, working with big data is challenging. New and potentially unfamiliar data types and associated processing methods, required to work with a growing diversity of available data take time and resources to learn. Analysis of these big datasets may further present a challenge given large file sizes, and uncertainty regarding best methods to properly statistically summarize and analyze results. Finally, resources that support learning these concepts and approaches, are distributed widely across multiple online spaces and may take time to find. This presentation will overview the development of NEON's collaborative University-focused online education portal. It will also cover content testing, community feedback and results from workshops using online content. Portal content is hosted in github to facilitate community input, accessibility version control. Content includes 1) videos and supporting graphics that explain key concepts related to NEON and related big spatio-temporal and 2) data tutorials that include subsets of spatio-temporal data that can be used to learn key big data skills in a self-paced approach, or that can be used as a teaching tool in the classroom or in a workshop. All resources utilize free and open data processing, visualization and analysis tools, techniques and scripts. All NEON materials are being developed in collaboration with the scientific community and are being tested via in-person workshops. Visit the portal online: www.neondataskills.org.

  17. Building a multi-scaled geospatial temporal ecology database from disparate data sources: Fostering open science through data reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soranno, Patricia A.; Bissell, E.G.; Cheruvelil, Kendra S.; Christel, Samuel T.; Collins, Sarah M.; Fergus, C. Emi; Filstrup, Christopher T.; Lapierre, Jean-Francois; Lotting, Noah R.; Oliver, Samantha K.; Scott, Caren E.; Smith, Nicole J.; Stopyak, Scott; Yuan, Shuai; Bremigan, Mary Tate; Downing, John A.; Gries, Corinna; Henry, Emily N.; Skaff, Nick K.; Stanley, Emily H.; Stow, Craig A.; Tan, Pang-Ning; Wagner, Tyler; Webster, Katherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Although there are considerable site-based data for individual or groups of ecosystems, these datasets are widely scattered, have different data formats and conventions, and often have limited accessibility. At the broader scale, national datasets exist for a large number of geospatial features of land, water, and air that are needed to fully understand variation among these ecosystems. However, such datasets originate from different sources and have different spatial and temporal resolutions. By taking an open-science perspective and by combining site-based ecosystem datasets and national geospatial datasets, science gains the ability to ask important research questions related to grand environmental challenges that operate at broad scales. Documentation of such complicated database integration efforts, through peer-reviewed papers, is recommended to foster reproducibility and future use of the integrated database. Here, we describe the major steps, challenges, and considerations in building an integrated database of lake ecosystems, called LAGOS (LAke multi-scaled GeOSpatial and temporal database), that was developed at the sub-continental study extent of 17 US states (1,800,000 km2). LAGOS includes two modules: LAGOSGEO, with geospatial data on every lake with surface area larger than 4 ha in the study extent (~50,000 lakes), including climate, atmospheric deposition, land use/cover, hydrology, geology, and topography measured across a range of spatial and temporal extents; and LAGOSLIMNO, with lake water quality data compiled from ~100 individual datasets for a subset of lakes in the study extent (~10,000 lakes). Procedures for the integration of datasets included: creating a flexible database design; authoring and integrating metadata; documenting data provenance; quantifying spatial measures of geographic data; quality-controlling integrated and derived data; and extensively documenting the database. Our procedures make a large, complex, and integrated

  18. Building a multi-scaled geospatial temporal ecology database from disparate data sources: fostering open science and data reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soranno, Patricia A; Bissell, Edward G; Cheruvelil, Kendra S; Christel, Samuel T; Collins, Sarah M; Fergus, C Emi; Filstrup, Christopher T; Lapierre, Jean-Francois; Lottig, Noah R; Oliver, Samantha K; Scott, Caren E; Smith, Nicole J; Stopyak, Scott; Yuan, Shuai; Bremigan, Mary Tate; Downing, John A; Gries, Corinna; Henry, Emily N; Skaff, Nick K; Stanley, Emily H; Stow, Craig A; Tan, Pang-Ning; Wagner, Tyler; Webster, Katherine E

    2015-01-01

    Although there are considerable site-based data for individual or groups of ecosystems, these datasets are widely scattered, have different data formats and conventions, and often have limited accessibility. At the broader scale, national datasets exist for a large number of geospatial features of land, water, and air that are needed to fully understand variation among these ecosystems. However, such datasets originate from different sources and have different spatial and temporal resolutions. By taking an open-science perspective and by combining site-based ecosystem datasets and national geospatial datasets, science gains the ability to ask important research questions related to grand environmental challenges that operate at broad scales. Documentation of such complicated database integration efforts, through peer-reviewed papers, is recommended to foster reproducibility and future use of the integrated database. Here, we describe the major steps, challenges, and considerations in building an integrated database of lake ecosystems, called LAGOS (LAke multi-scaled GeOSpatial and temporal database), that was developed at the sub-continental study extent of 17 US states (1,800,000 km(2)). LAGOS includes two modules: LAGOSGEO, with geospatial data on every lake with surface area larger than 4 ha in the study extent (~50,000 lakes), including climate, atmospheric deposition, land use/cover, hydrology, geology, and topography measured across a range of spatial and temporal extents; and LAGOSLIMNO, with lake water quality data compiled from ~100 individual datasets for a subset of lakes in the study extent (~10,000 lakes). Procedures for the integration of datasets included: creating a flexible database design; authoring and integrating metadata; documenting data provenance; quantifying spatial measures of geographic data; quality-controlling integrated and derived data; and extensively documenting the database. Our procedures make a large, complex, and integrated

  19. Scaling of Attitudes Toward Population Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, George A.

    1975-01-01

    This study related population problem attitudes and socioeconomic variables. Six items concerned with number of children, birth control, family, science, economic depression, and overpopulation were selected for a Guttman scalogram. Education, occupation, and number of children were correlated with population problems scale scores; marital status,…

  20. Reverse shock index multiplied by Glasgow Coma Scale score (rSIG) is a simple measure with high discriminant ability for mortality risk in trauma patients: an analysis of the Japan Trauma Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Akio; Tanaka, Noriko

    2018-04-11

    The shock index (SI), defined as heart rate (HR) divided by systolic blood pressure (SBP), is reported to be a more sensitive marker of shock than traditional vital signs alone. In previous literature, use of the reverse shock index (rSI), taken as SBP divided by HR, is recommended instead of SI for hospital triage. Among traumatized patients aged > 55 years, SI multiplied by age (SIA) might provide better prediction of early post-injury mortality. Separately, the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score has been shown to be a very strong predictor. When considering these points together, rSI multiplied by GCS score (rSIG) or rSIG divided by age (rSIG/A) could provide even better prediction of in-hospital mortality. This retrospective, multicenter study used data from 168,517 patients registered in the Japan Trauma Data Bank for the period 2006-2015. We calculated areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs) to measure the discriminant ability by comparing those of SI (or rSI), SIA, rSIG, and rSIG/A for in-hospital mortality and for 24-h blood transfusion. The highest ROC AUC (AUROC), 0.901(0.894-0.908) for in-hospital mortality in younger patients (aged < 55 years), was seen for rSIG. In older patients (aged ≥ 55 years), the AUROC of rSIG/A, 0.845(0.840-0.850), was highest for in-hospital mortality. However, the difference between rSIG and rSIG/A was slight and did not seem to be clinically important. rSIG also had the highest AUROC of 0.745 (0.741-749) for 24-h blood transfusion. rSIG ((SBP/HR) × GCS score) is easy to calculate without the need for additional information, charts or equipment, and can be a more reliable triage tool for identifying risk levels in trauma patients.

  1. Crossing Science-Policy-Societal Boundaries to Reduce Scientific and Institutional Uncertainty in Small-Scale Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Abigail M.; Rudd, Murray A.

    2016-10-01

    The governance of small-scale fisheries (SSF) is challenging due to the uncertainty, complexity, and interconnectedness of social, political, ecological, and economical processes. Conventional SSF management has focused on a centralized and top-down approach. A major criticism of conventional management is the over-reliance on `expert science' to guide decision-making and poor consideration of fishers' contextually rich knowledge. That is thought to exacerbate the already low governance potential of SSF. Integrating scientific knowledge with fishers' knowledge is increasingly popular and is often assumed to help reduce levels of biophysical and institutional uncertainties. Many projects aimed at encouraging knowledge integration have, however, been unsuccessful. Our objective in this research was to assess factors that influence knowledge integration and the uptake of integrated knowledge into policy-making. We report results from 54 semi-structured interviews with SSF researchers and practitioners from around the globe. Our analysis is framed in terms of scientific credibility, societal legitimacy, and policy saliency, and we discuss cases that have been partially or fully successful in reducing uncertainty via push-and-pull-oriented boundary crossing initiatives. Our findings suggest that two important factors affect the science-policy-societal boundary: a lack of consensus among stakeholders about what constitutes credible knowledge and institutional uncertainty resulting from shifting policies and leadership change. A lack of training for scientific leaders and an apparent `shelf-life' for community organizations highlight the importance of ongoing institutional support for knowledge integration projects. Institutional support may be enhanced through such investments, such as capacity building and specialized platforms for knowledge integration.

  2. Crossing Science-Policy-Societal Boundaries to Reduce Scientific and Institutional Uncertainty in Small-Scale Fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Abigail M; Rudd, Murray A

    2016-10-01

    The governance of small-scale fisheries (SSF) is challenging due to the uncertainty, complexity, and interconnectedness of social, political, ecological, and economical processes. Conventional SSF management has focused on a centralized and top-down approach. A major criticism of conventional management is the over-reliance on 'expert science' to guide decision-making and poor consideration of fishers' contextually rich knowledge. That is thought to exacerbate the already low governance potential of SSF. Integrating scientific knowledge with fishers' knowledge is increasingly popular and is often assumed to help reduce levels of biophysical and institutional uncertainties. Many projects aimed at encouraging knowledge integration have, however, been unsuccessful. Our objective in this research was to assess factors that influence knowledge integration and the uptake of integrated knowledge into policy-making. We report results from 54 semi-structured interviews with SSF researchers and practitioners from around the globe. Our analysis is framed in terms of scientific credibility, societal legitimacy, and policy saliency, and we discuss cases that have been partially or fully successful in reducing uncertainty via push-and-pull-oriented boundary crossing initiatives. Our findings suggest that two important factors affect the science-policy-societal boundary: a lack of consensus among stakeholders about what constitutes credible knowledge and institutional uncertainty resulting from shifting policies and leadership change. A lack of training for scientific leaders and an apparent 'shelf-life' for community organizations highlight the importance of ongoing institutional support for knowledge integration projects. Institutional support may be enhanced through such investments, such as capacity building and specialized platforms for knowledge integration.

  3. Item response theory analysis of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students (UWES-S) using a sample of Japanese university and college students majoring medical science, nursing, and natural science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubakita, Takashi; Shimazaki, Kazuyo; Ito, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Nobuo

    2017-10-30

    The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students has been used internationally to assess students' academic engagement, but it has not been analyzed via item response theory. The purpose of this study was to conduct an item response theory analysis of the Japanese version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students translated by authors. Using a two-parameter model and Samejima's graded response model, difficulty and discrimination parameters were estimated after confirming the factor structure of the scale. The 14 items on the scale were analyzed with a sample of 3214 university and college students majoring medical science, nursing, or natural science in Japan. The preliminary parameter estimation was conducted with the two parameter model, and indicated that three items should be removed because there were outlier parameters. Final parameter estimation was conducted using the survived 11 items, and indicated that all difficulty and discrimination parameters were acceptable. The test information curve suggested that the scale better assesses higher engagement than average engagement. The estimated parameters provide a basis for future comparative studies. The results also suggested that a 7-point Likert scale is too broad; thus, the scaling should be modified to fewer graded scaling structure.

  4. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana - Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark L; Renne, Elisha; Roncoli, Carla; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Tenkorang, Emmanuel Yamoah

    2015-07-15

    This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA) of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve "push" factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a "poverty trap" of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana's ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere.

  5. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana — Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Wilson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve “push” factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a “poverty trap” of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana’s ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere.

  6. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana — Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark L.; Renne, Elisha; Roncoli, Carla; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Yamoah Tenkorang, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA) of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve “push” factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a “poverty trap” of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana’s ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere. PMID:26184277

  7. The Zhongshan Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Guo, Jianming; Wang, Hang; Wang, Guomin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the zero ischemia era of nephron-sparing surgery (NSS), a new anatomic classification system (ACS) is needed to adjust to these new surgical techniques. We devised a novel and simple ACS, and compared it with the RENAL and PADUA scores to predict the risk of NSS outcomes. We retrospectively evaluated 789 patients who underwent NSS with available imaging between January 2007 and July 2014. Demographic and clinical data were assessed. The Zhongshan (ZS) score consisted of three parameters. RENAL, PADUA, and ZS scores are divided into three groups, that is, high, moderate, and low scores. For operative time (OT), significant differences were seen between any two groups of ZS score and PADUA score (all P RENAL showed no significant difference between moderate and high complexity in OT, WIT, estimated blood loss, and increase in SCr. Compared with patients with a low score of ZS, those with a high or moderate score had 8.1-fold or 3.3-fold higher risk of surgical complications, respectively (all P RENAL score, patients with a high or moderate score had 5.7-fold or 1.9-fold higher risk of surgical complications, respectively (all P RENAL and PADUA scores. ZS score could be used to reflect the surgical complexity and predict the risk of surgical complications in patients undergoing NSS. PMID:25654399

  8. Predicting Outcome in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) Utilizing the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, F A; Lo, B W Y; Akoth, E; Silvaggio, J; Kaufmann, A M; Teitelbaum, J; West, M

    2017-12-01

    Existing scoring systems for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients fail to accurately predict patient outcome. Our goal was to prospectively study the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) score as applied to newly admitted aneurysmal SAH patients. All adult patients presenting to Health Sciences Center in Winnipeg from January 2013 to July 2015 (2.5 year period) with aneurysmal SAH were prospectively enrolled in this study. All patients were followed up to 6 months. FOUR score was calculated upon admission, with repeat calculation at 7 and 14 days. The primary outcomes were: mortality, as well as dichotomized 1- and 6-month Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) values. Sixty-four patients were included, with a mean age of 54.2 years (range 26-85 years). The mean FOUR score upon admission pre- and post-external ventricular drain (EVD) was 10.3 (range 0-16) and 11.1 (range 3-16), respectively. There was a statistically significant association between pre-EVD FOUR score (total, eye, respiratory and motor sub-scores) with mortality, 1-month GOS, and 6-month GOS/mRS (p FOUR scores were associated with mortality, 1-month GOS/mRS, and 6-month GOS/mRS (p FOUR scores were associated with 6-month GOS (p FOUR score was associated with the development of clinical vasospasm (p FOUR score at admission and day 7 post-SAH is associated with mortality, 1-month GOS/mRS, and 6-month GOS/mRS. The FOUR score at day 14 post-SAH is associated with 6-month GOS. The brainstem sub-score was not associated with 1- or 6-month primary outcomes.

  9. A Simple but Powerful Heuristic Method for Accelerating k-Means Clustering of Large-Scale Data in Life Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Kazuki; Morishita, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    K-means clustering has been widely used to gain insight into biological systems from large-scale life science data. To quantify the similarities among biological data sets, Pearson correlation distance and standardized Euclidean distance are used most frequently; however, optimization methods have been largely unexplored. These two distance measurements are equivalent in the sense that they yield the same k-means clustering result for identical sets of k initial centroids. Thus, an efficient algorithm used for one is applicable to the other. Several optimization methods are available for the Euclidean distance and can be used for processing the standardized Euclidean distance; however, they are not customized for this context. We instead approached the problem by studying the properties of the Pearson correlation distance, and we invented a simple but powerful heuristic method for markedly pruning unnecessary computation while retaining the final solution. Tests using real biological data sets with 50-60K vectors of dimensions 10-2001 (~400 MB in size) demonstrated marked reduction in computation time for k = 10-500 in comparison with other state-of-the-art pruning methods such as Elkan's and Hamerly's algorithms. The BoostKCP software is available at http://mlab.cb.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~ichikawa/boostKCP/.

  10. Versión breve de la escala de satisfacción laboral: evaluación estructural y distribucional de sus puntajes / Brief version of the job satisfaction scale: structural and distributive evaluation of their scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Boluarte Carbajal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La evaluación de la satisfacción laboral permite conocer y explicar varios resultados conductuales del trabajador, como su desempeño laboral. El presente estudio analiza la estructura interna de la versión breve de la Escala de Satisfacción Laboral de Warr, Cook y Wall (1979, que se orienta a medir unidimensionalmente el constructo de satisfacción laboral con ítems relacionados con la satisfacción intrínseca y extrínseca. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 88 profesionales de una institución de rehabilitación ubicada en Lima Metropolitana, a los que se les administró la versión completa del instrumento (16 ítems para examinar la versión abreviada y derivar una nueva. Se realizó un análisis factorial confirmatorio (AFC para evaluar la estructura factorial, mediante el modelamiento de ecuaciones estructurales. Se halló que una dimensión latente es válida para el instrumento completo, y se obtuvo una nueva versión breve con diferentes ítems, mayor varianza explicada y cargas factoriales elevadas. Las estimaciones de confiabilidad fueron aceptables. La distribución del puntaje fue inusualmente ajustada a un modelo Wakeby. Se discute los resultados en el contexto del uso de esta nueva versión y de la distribución de los puntajes. ABSTRACT The job satisfaction evaluation allows us to know and explain several behavioral results of a worker such as his job performance. This study analyzes the internal structure of the brief version by Warr, Cook and Wall’s Job Satisfaction Scale (1979, which is designed to unidimensionaly measure the job satisfaction construct with items related to intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction. The sample was composed by 88 professionals from a rehabilitation institution located in Metropolitan Lima, who were given the full version of the instrument (16 items, to examine the abbreviated version and derive a new one. We performed a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA to evaluate the factorial

  11. The Role of Content and Context in PISA Interest Scales: A study of the embedded interest items in the PISA 2006 science assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsel, Barbara; Carstensen, Claus; Prenzel, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses interest in science as one of the attitudinal aspects of scientific literacy. Large-scale data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006 are analysed in order to describe student interest more precisely. So far the analyses have provided a general indicator of interest, aggregated over all contexts and contents in the science test. With its innovative approach PISA embeds interest items within the cognitive test unit and its contents and contexts. The main difference from conventional interest measures is that in most questionnaires, a relatively small number of interest items cover broad fields of contents and contexts. The science units represent a number of systematically differentiated scientific contexts and contents. The units' stimulus texts allow for concrete descriptions of relevant content aspects, applications, and contexts. In the analyses, multidimensional item response models are applied in order to disentangle student interest. The results indicate that multidimensional models fit the data. A two-dimensional model separating interest into two different knowledge of science dimensions described in the PISA science framework is further analysed with respect to gender, performance differences, and country. The findings give a comprehensive description of students' interest in science. The paper deals with methodological problems and describes requirements of the test construction for further assessments. The results are discussed with regard to their significance for science education.

  12. What are the barriers to scaling up health interventions in low and middle income countries? A qualitative study of academic leaders in implementation science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamey Gavin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most low and middle income countries (LMICs are currently not on track to reach the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. One way to accelerate progress would be through the large-scale implementation of evidence-based health tools and interventions. This study aimed to: (a explore the barriers that have impeded such scale-up in LMICs, and (b lay out an “implementation research agenda”—a series of key research questions that need to be addressed in order to help overcome such barriers. Methods Interviews were conducted with fourteen key informants, all of whom are academic leaders in the field of implementation science, who were purposively selected for their expertise in scaling up in LMICs. Interviews were transcribed by hand and manually coded to look for emerging themes related to the two study aims. Barriers to scaling up, and unanswered research questions, were organized into six categories, representing different components of the scaling up process: attributes of the intervention; attributes of the implementers; scale-up approach; attributes of the adopting community; socio-political, fiscal, and cultural context; and research context. Results Factors impeding the success of scale-up that emerged from the key informant interviews, and which are areas for future investigation, include: complexity of the intervention and lack of technical consensus; limited human resource, leadership, management, and health systems capacity; poor application of proven diffusion techniques; lack of engagement of local implementers and of the adopting community; and inadequate integration of research into scale-up efforts. Conclusions Key steps in expanding the evidence base on implementation in LMICs include studying how to: simplify interventions; train “scale-up leaders” and health workers dedicated to scale-up; reach and engage communities; match the best delivery strategy to the specific health problem and

  13. Intelligence Score Profiles of Female Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Shelby Spare; Hart, Kathleen J.; Ficke, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that male juvenile offenders typically obtain low scores on measures of intelligence, often with a pattern of higher scores on measures of nonverbal relative to verbal tasks. The research on the intelligence performance of female juvenile offenders is limited. This study explored the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  14. Using CyberShake Workflows to Manage Big Seismic Hazard Data on Large-Scale Open-Science HPC Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, S.; Maechling, P. J.; Juve, G.; Vahi, K.; Deelman, E.; Jordan, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    The CyberShake computational platform, developed by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), is an integrated collection of scientific software and middleware that performs 3D physics-based probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Southern California. CyberShake integrates large-scale and high-throughput research codes to produce probabilistic seismic hazard curves for individual locations of interest and hazard maps for an entire region. A recent CyberShake calculation produced about 500,000 two-component seismograms for each of 336 locations, resulting in over 300 million synthetic seismograms in a Los Angeles-area probabilistic seismic hazard model. CyberShake calculations require a series of scientific software programs. Early computational stages produce data used as inputs by later stages, so we describe CyberShake calculations using a workflow definition language. Scientific workflow tools automate and manage the input and output data and enable remote job execution on large-scale HPC systems. To satisfy the requests of broad impact users of CyberShake data, such as seismologists, utility companies, and building code engineers, we successfully completed CyberShake Study 15.4 in April and May 2015, calculating a 1 Hz urban seismic hazard map for Los Angeles. We distributed the calculation between the NSF Track 1 system NCSA Blue Waters, the DOE Leadership-class system OLCF Titan, and USC's Center for High Performance Computing. This study ran for over 5 weeks, burning about 1.1 million node-hours and producing over half a petabyte of data. The CyberShake Study 15.4 results doubled the maximum simulated seismic frequency from 0.5 Hz to 1.0 Hz as compared to previous studies, representing a factor of 16 increase in computational complexity. We will describe how our workflow tools supported splitting the calculation across multiple systems. We will explain how we modified CyberShake software components, including GPU implementations and

  15. How to score questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstee, W.K.B.; Ten Berge, J.M.F.; Hendriks, A.A.J.

    The standard practice in scoring questionnaires consists of adding item scores and standardizing these sums. We present a set of alternative procedures, consisting of (a) correcting for the acquiescence variance that disturbs the structure of the questionnaire; (b) establishing item weights through

  16. SCORE - A DESCRIPTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SLACK, CHARLES W.

    REINFORCEMENT AND ROLE-REVERSAL TECHNIQUES ARE USED IN THE SCORE PROJECT, A LOW-COST PROGRAM OF DELINQUENCY PREVENTION FOR HARD-CORE TEENAGE STREET CORNER BOYS. COMMITTED TO THE BELIEF THAT THE BOYS HAVE THE POTENTIAL FOR ETHICAL BEHAVIOR, THE SCORE WORKER FOLLOWS B.F. SKINNER'S THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING AND REINFORCES THE DELINQUENT'S GOOD…

  17. 'Scaling-up is a craft not a science': Catalysing scale-up of health innovations in Ethiopia, India and Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Neil; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Dimka, Ritgak; Fanta, Feleke; Mangham-Jefferies, Lindsay; Schellenberg, Joanna; Tamire-Woldemariam, Addis; Walt, Gill; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi

    2014-11-01

    Donors and other development partners commonly introduce innovative practices and technologies to improve health in low and middle income countries. Yet many innovations that are effective in improving health and survival are slow to be translated into policy and implemented at scale. Understanding the factors influencing scale-up is important. We conducted a qualitative study involving 150 semi-structured interviews with government, development partners, civil society organisations and externally funded implementers, professional associations and academic institutions in 2012/13 to explore scale-up of innovative interventions targeting mothers and newborns in Ethiopia, the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and the six states of northeast Nigeria, which are settings with high burdens of maternal and neonatal mortality. Interviews were analysed using a common analytic framework developed for cross-country comparison and themes were coded using Nvivo. We found that programme implementers across the three settings require multiple steps to catalyse scale-up. Advocating for government to adopt and finance health innovations requires: designing scalable innovations; embedding scale-up in programme design and allocating time and resources; building implementer capacity to catalyse scale-up; adopting effective approaches to advocacy; presenting strong evidence to support government decision making; involving government in programme design; invoking policy champions and networks; strengthening harmonisation among external programmes; aligning innovations with health systems and priorities. Other steps include: supporting government to develop policies and programmes and strengthening health systems and staff; promoting community uptake by involving media, community leaders, mobilisation teams and role models. We conclude that scale-up has no magic bullet solution - implementers must embrace multiple activities, and require substantial support from donors and governments in

  18. Multilayer network modeling creates opportunities for novel network statistics. Comment on "Network science of biological systems at different scales: A review" by Gosak et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Sarah Feldt

    2018-03-01

    As described in the review by Gosak et al., the field of network science has had enormous success in providing new insights into the structure and function of biological systems [1]. In the complex networks framework, system elements are network nodes, and connections between nodes represent some form of interaction between system elements [2]. The flexibility to define network nodes and edges to represent different aspects of biological systems has been employed to model numerous diverse systems at multiple scales.

  19. The Bandim tuberculosis score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Joaquim, Luis Carlos; Vieira, Cesaltina

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was carried out in Guinea-Bissau ’ s capital Bissau among inpatients and outpatients attending for tuberculosis (TB) treatment within the study area of the Bandim Health Project, a Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. Our aim was to assess the variability between 2...... physicians in performing the Bandim tuberculosis score (TBscore), a clinical severity score for pulmonary TB (PTB), and to compare it to the Karnofsky performance score (KPS). Method : From December 2008 to July 2009 we assessed the TBscore and the KPS of 100 PTB patients at inclusion in the TB cohort and...

  20. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun

    2002-01-01

    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  1. LifeWatch - a Large-scale eScience Infrastructure to Assist in Understanding and Managing our Planet's Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Ernst, Vera; Poigné, Axel; Los, Walter

    2010-05-01

    Understanding and managing the complexity of the biodiversity system in relation to global changes concerning land use and climate change with their social and economic implications is crucial to mitigate species loss and biodiversity changes in general. The sustainable development and exploitation of existing biodiversity resources require flexible and powerful infrastructures offering, on the one hand, the access to large-scale databases of observations and measures, to advanced analytical and modelling software, and to high performance computing environments and, on the other hand, the interlinkage of European scientific communities among each others and with national policies. The European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) selected the "LifeWatch e-science and technology infrastructure for biodiversity research" as a promising development to construct facilities to contribute to meet those challenges. LifeWatch collaborates with other selected initiatives (e.g. ICOS, ANAEE, NOHA, and LTER-Europa) to achieve the integration of the infrastructures at landscape and regional scales. This should result in a cooperating cluster of such infrastructures supporting an integrated approach for data capture and transmission, data management and harmonisation. Besides, facilities for exploration, forecasting, and presentation using heterogeneous and distributed data and tools should allow the interdisciplinary scientific research at any spatial and temporal scale. LifeWatch is an example of a new generation of interoperable research infrastructures based on standards and a service-oriented architecture that allow for linkage with external resources and associated infrastructures. External data sources will be established data aggregators as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) for species occurrences and other EU Networks of Excellence like the Long-Term Ecological Research Network (LTER), GMES, and GEOSS for terrestrial monitoring, the

  2. A diagnostic scoring system for myxedema coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoveniuc, Geanina; Chandra, Tanu; Sud, Anchal; Sharma, Meeta; Blackman, Marc R; Burman, Kenneth D; Mete, Mihriye; Desale, Sameer; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2014-08-01

    To develop diagnostic criteria for myxedema coma (MC), a decompensated state of extreme hypothyroidism with a high mortality rate if untreated, in order to facilitate its early recognition and treatment. The frequencies of characteristics associated with MC were assessed retrospectively in patients from our institutions in order to derive a semiquantitative diagnostic point scale that was further applied on selected patients whose data were retrieved from the literature. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the predictive power of the score. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to test the discriminative power of the score. Of the 21 patients examined, 7 were reclassified as not having MC (non-MC), and they were used as controls. The scoring system included a composite of alterations of thermoregulatory, central nervous, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and metabolic systems, and presence or absence of a precipitating event. All 14 of our MC patients had a score of ≥60, whereas 6 of 7 non-MC patients had scores of 25 to 50. A total of 16 of 22 MC patients whose data were retrieved from the literature had a score ≥60, and 6 of 22 of these patients scored between 45 and 55. The odds ratio per each score unit increase as a continuum was 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.16; P = .019); a score of 60 identified coma, with an odds ratio of 1.22. The area under the ROC curve was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.65 to 1.00), and the score of 60 had 100% sensitivity and 85.71% specificity. A score ≥60 in the proposed scoring system is potentially diagnostic for MC, whereas scores between 45 and 59 could classify patients at risk for MC.

  3. Higher Education Teachers' Descriptions of Their Own Learning: A Large-Scale Study of Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töytäri, Aija; Piirainen, Arja; Tynjälä, Päivi; Vanhanen-Nuutinen, Liisa; Mäki, Kimmo; Ilves, Vesa

    2016-01-01

    In this large-scale study, higher education teachers' descriptions of their own learning were examined with qualitative analysis involving application of principles of phenomenographic research. This study is unique: it is unusual to use large-scale data in qualitative studies. The data were collected through an e-mail survey sent to 5960 teachers…

  4. Instant MuseScore

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Maxwell

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant MuseScore is written in an easy-to follow format, packed with illustrations that will help you get started with this music composition software.This book is for musicians who would like to learn how to notate music digitally with MuseScore. Readers should already have some knowledge about musical terminology; however, no prior experience with music notation software is necessary.

  5. 學術論文被引用次數之分析研究:以Science Citation Index Expanded及Scopus為例 An Analytical Study of Citedness Score on Scholarly Literatures: Based on Science Citation Index Expanded and Scopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-hsia Shih

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available 論文被引用次數常被用為評估學術研究成果的指標,其對學術界的重要性不言可喻。為求公允,引用次數的運算宜力求正確,然而,由於提供查詢論文被引用次數之系統,因發展背景不同,系統的資料處理程序與原則有別,使得各篇論文的被引用次數在不同系統之檢索結果因而產生差異。本研究除藉由文獻探討外,選擇淡江大學工學院獲得校內研究獎助之學術論文372篇,以Science Citation Index Expanded(簡稱SCIE)與Scopus為對象,透過實際檢索,比較分析兩者計算論文被引用次數存在的現象與問題,以歸納影響因素。研究結果發現在比較SCIE與Scopus兩者的收錄範圍時,除資料種數外,應一併考量其收錄的資料類型與政策等面向。此外,其著錄參考文獻的規範不一,書目記錄品質的控管、引用與被引用文獻連結的處理機制等亦存在相異的作法,因而影響同一篇文獻卻有不同的被引用次數之檢索結果。由此可知,系統收錄資料的範圍、參考文獻著錄之完整性、書目記錄的品質以及文獻連結機制等情況,都是影響論文被引用次數計算之因素。Citedness score is a widely accepted metric for the quality of scholarly literatures, therefore, the forming calculation and corresponsive consequence of citation counts becomes of importance for academic researchers, especially for the research assessment. However, the distinction of citedness score exists in heterogeneous information systems resulted from considerations for system construction and development, such as purpose, procedure and policy of data processing, and that would bring various meanings and impacts for citedness score. This paper aims to examine the distinctive factors and results on calculation of citedness score of scholarly literatures between Science Citation Index Expanded and Scopus by adoption of

  6. Science of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Santo; Bergstrom, Carl T; Börner, Katy; Evans, James A; Helbing, Dirk; Milojević, Staša; Petersen, Alexander M; Radicchi, Filippo; Sinatra, Roberta; Uzzi, Brian; Vespignani, Alessandro; Waltman, Ludo; Wang, Dashun; Barabási, Albert-László

    2018-03-02

    Identifying fundamental drivers of science and developing predictive models to capture its evolution are instrumental for the design of policies that can improve the scientific enterprise-for example, through enhanced career paths for scientists, better performance evaluation for organizations hosting research, discovery of novel effective funding vehicles, and even identification of promising regions along the scientific frontier. The science of science uses large-scale data on the production of science to search for universal and domain-specific patterns. Here, we review recent developments in this transdisciplinary field. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  7. The lod score method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J P; Saccone, N L; Corbett, J

    2001-01-01

    The lod score method originated in a seminal article by Newton Morton in 1955. The method is broadly concerned with issues of power and the posterior probability of linkage, ensuring that a reported linkage has a high probability of being a true linkage. In addition, the method is sequential, so that pedigrees or lod curves may be combined from published reports to pool data for analysis. This approach has been remarkably successful for 50 years in identifying disease genes for Mendelian disorders. After discussing these issues, we consider the situation for complex disorders, where the maximum lod score (MLS) statistic shares some of the advantages of the traditional lod score approach but is limited by unknown power and the lack of sharing of the primary data needed to optimally combine analytic results. We may still learn from the lod score method as we explore new methods in molecular biology and genetic analysis to utilize the complete human DNA sequence and the cataloging of all human genes.

  8. The Bayesian Score Statistic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibergen, F.R.; Kleijn, R.; Paap, R.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a novel Bayesian test under a (noninformative) Jeffreys'priorspecification. We check whether the fixed scalar value of the so-calledBayesian Score Statistic (BSS) under the null hypothesis is aplausiblerealization from its known and standardized distribution under thealternative. Unlike

  9. South African Scoring System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-18

    Nov 18, 2014 ... for 80% (SASS score) and 75% (NOT) of the variation in the regression model. Consequently, SASS ... further investigation: spatial analyses of macroinvertebrate assemblages; and the use of structural and functional metrics. Keywords: .... conductivity levels was assessed using multiple linear regres- sion.

  10. Developing Scoring Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  11. Reliable scar scoring system to assess photographs of burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecott, Gabriel A; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M; Branski, Ludwik K; Hegde, Sachin; Kraft, Robert; Williams, Felicia N; Maldonado, Susana A; Rivero, Haidy G; Rodriguez-Escobar, Noe; Jeschke, Marc G

    2015-12-01

    Several scar-scoring scales exist to clinically monitor burn scar development and maturation. Although scoring scars through direct clinical examination is ideal, scars must sometimes be scored from photographs. No scar scale currently exists for the latter purpose. We modified a previously described scar scale (Yeong et al., J Burn Care Rehabil 1997) and tested the reliability of this new scale in assessing burn scars from photographs. The new scale consisted of three parameters as follows: scar height, surface appearance, and color mismatch. Each parameter was assigned a score of 1 (best) to 4 (worst), generating a total score of 3-12. Five physicians with burns training scored 120 representative photographs using the original and modified scales. Reliability was analyzed using coefficient of agreement, Cronbach alpha, intraclass correlation coefficient, variance, and coefficient of variance. Analysis of variance was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Color mismatch and scar height scores were validated by analyzing actual height and color differences. The intraclass correlation coefficient, the coefficient of agreement, and Cronbach alpha were higher for the modified scale than those of the original scale. The original scale produced more variance than that in the modified scale. Subanalysis demonstrated that, for all categories, the modified scale had greater correlation and reliability than the original scale. The correlation between color mismatch scores and actual color differences was 0.84 and between scar height scores and actual height was 0.81. The modified scar scale is a simple, reliable, and useful scale for evaluating photographs of burn patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) Mission: Science from Geostationary Orbit on-board a Commercial Communications Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastes, R.; Deaver, T.; Krywonos, A.; Lankton, M. R.; McClintock, W. E.; Pang, R.

    2011-12-01

    Geostationary orbits are ideal for many science investigations of the Earth system on global scales. These orbits allow continuous observations of the same geographic region, enabling spatial and temporal changes to be distinguished and eliminating the ambiguity inherent to observations from low Earth orbit (LEO). Just as observations from geostationary orbit have revolutionized our understanding of changes in the troposphere, they will dramatically improve our understanding of the space environment at higher altitudes. However, geostationary orbits are infrequently used for science missions because of high costs. Geostationary satellites are large, typically weighing tons. Consequently, devoting an entire satellite to a science mission requires a large financial commitment, both for the spacecraft itself and for sufficient science instrumentation to justify a dedicated spacecraft. Furthermore, the small number of geostationary satellites produced for scientific missions increases the costs of each satellite. For these reasons, it is attractive to consider flying scientific instruments on satellites operated by commercial companies, some of whom have fleets of ~40 satellites. However, scientists' lack of understanding of the capabilities of commercial spacecraft as well as commercial companies' concerns about risks to their primary mission have impeded the cooperation necessary for the shared use of a spacecraft. Working with a commercial partner, the GOLD mission has successfully overcome these issues. Our experience indicates that there are numerous benefits to flying on commercial communications satellites (e.g., it is possible to downlink large amounts of data) and the costs are low if the experimental requirements adequately match the capabilities and available resources of the host spacecraft. Consequently, affordable access to geostationary orbit aboard a communications satellite now appears possible for science payloads.

  13. The comparison of modified early warning score and Glasgow coma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to assess and compare the discriminatory ability of the Glasgow coma scale (GCS)‑age‑systolic blood pressure (GAP) score and modified early warning scoring system (mEWS) score for 4‑week mortality, for the patients being in the triage category 1 and 2 who refer to Emergency ...

  14. Confidence Scoring of Speaking Performance: How Does Fuzziness become Exact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tan; Mak, Barley; Zhou, Pei

    2012-01-01

    The fuzziness of assessing second language speaking performance raises two difficulties in scoring speaking performance: "indistinction between adjacent levels" and "overlap between scales". To address these two problems, this article proposes a new approach, "confidence scoring", to deal with such fuzziness, leading to "confidence" scores between…

  15. Validation of the Simplified Motor Score in patients with traumatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. This study used data from a large prospectively entered database to assess the efficacy of the motor score (M score) component of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and the Simplified Motor Score (SMS) in predicting overall outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Objective. To safely and reliably ...

  16. AUDIT-C scores as a scaled marker of mean daily drinking, alcohol use disorder severity, and probability of alcohol dependence in a U.S. general population sample of drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsky, Anna D; Dawson, Deborah A; Williams, Emily C; Kivlahan, Daniel R; Bradley, Katharine A

    2013-08-01

    Brief alcohol screening questionnaires are increasingly used to identify alcohol misuse in routine care, but clinicians also need to assess the level of consumption and the severity of misuse so that appropriate intervention can be offered. Information provided by a patient's alcohol screening score might provide a practical tool for assessing the level of consumption and severity of misuse. This post hoc analysis of data from the 2001 to 2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) included 26,546 U.S. adults who reported drinking in the past year and answered additional questions about their consumption, including Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption questionnaire (AUDIT-C) alcohol screening. Linear or logistic regression models and postestimation methods were used to estimate mean daily drinking, the number of endorsed alcohol use disorder (AUD) criteria ("AUD severity"), and the probability of alcohol dependence associated with each individual AUDIT-C score (1 to 12), after testing for effect modification by gender and age. Among eligible past-year drinkers, mean daily drinking, AUD severity, and the probability of alcohol dependence increased exponentially across increasing AUDIT-C scores. Mean daily drinking ranged from alcohol dependence ranged from used to estimate patient-specific consumption and severity based on age, gender, and alcohol screening score. This information could be integrated into electronic decision support systems to help providers estimate and provide feedback about patient-specific risks and identify those patients most likely to benefit from further diagnostic assessment. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. SCIENCE TEACHERS’ INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIAL LEARNING RELATED TO IBSE IN A LARGE-SCALE, LONG- TERM, COLLABORATIVE TPD PROJECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Sillasen, Martin Krabbe

    2014-01-01

    It is acknowledged internationally that teachers’ Professional Development (TPD) is crucial for reforming science teaching. The Danish QUEST project is designed using widely agreed criteria for effective TPD: content focus, active learning, coherence, duration, collaborative activities and collec......It is acknowledged internationally that teachers’ Professional Development (TPD) is crucial for reforming science teaching. The Danish QUEST project is designed using widely agreed criteria for effective TPD: content focus, active learning, coherence, duration, collaborative activities...... and collective participation, and is organised on principles of situated learning in Professional Learning Communities (PLCs). QUEST-activities follow a rhythm of full day seminars followed by a period of collaborative inquiries locally. A major theme in the first year has been Inquiry Based Science Education......-on experiences and fewer including students’ minds-on. Teachers’ reflections indicate that many are positive towards QUEST seminars based on trying out activities directly applicable in the classroom. Case studies indicate a potentially more sustainable development, where the teachers collaboratively re...

  18. Credit scoring methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtek, Martin; Kočenda, Evžen

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, 3-4 (2006), s. 152-167 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/05/0931 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : banking sector * credit scoring * discrimination analysis Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.190, year: 2006 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1050_s_152_167.pdf

  19. Integrating Science-Based Co-management, Partnerships, Participatory Processes and Stewardship Incentives to Improve the Performance of Small-Scale Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra A. Karr

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Small scale fisheries are critically important for the provision of food security, livelihoods, and economic development for billions of people. Yet, most of these fisheries appear to not be achieving either fisheries or conservation goals, with respect to creating healthier oceans that support more fish, feed more people and improve livelihoods. Research and practical experience have elucidated many insights into how to improve the performance of small-scale fisheries. Here, we present lessons learned from five case studies of small-scale fisheries in Cuba, Mexico, the Philippines, and Belize. The major lessons that arise from these cases are: (1 participatory processes empower fishers, increase compliance, and support integration of local and scientific knowledge; (2 partnership across sectors improves communication and community buy-in; (3 scientific analysis can lead fishery reform and be directly applicable to co-management structures. These case studies suggest that a fully integrated approach that implements a participatory process to generate a scientific basis for fishery management (e.g., data collection, analysis, design and to design management measures among stakeholders will increase the probability that small-scale fisheries will implement science-based management and improve their performance.

  20. Credit scoring for individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria DIMITRIU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lending money to different borrowers is profitable, but risky. The profits come from the interest rate and the fees earned on the loans. Banks do not want to make loans to borrowers who cannot repay them. Even if the banks do not intend to make bad loans, over time, some of them can become bad. For instance, as a result of the recent financial crisis, the capability of many borrowers to repay their loans were affected, many of them being on default. That’s why is important for the bank to monitor the loans. The purpose of this paper is to focus on credit scoring main issues. As a consequence of this, we presented in this paper the scoring model of an important Romanian Bank. Based on this credit scoring model and taking into account the last lending requirements of the National Bank of Romania, we developed an assessment tool, in Excel, for retail loans which is presented in the case study.

  1. The PESPERF Scale: An Instrument for Measuring Service Quality in the School of Physical Education and Sports Sciences (PESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Suleyman M.; Kara, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: HEdPERF (Higher Education PERFormance) is one of the most recently developed scales in the literature to measure service quality in higher education. However, HEdPERF is designed to measure service quality at a macro level (university level) and may be considered as a more generic measurement instrument. In higher education, new scales…

  2. On the use of Cloud Computing and Machine Learning for Large-Scale SAR Science Data Processing and Quality Assessment Analysi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, H.

    2016-12-01

    Geodetic imaging is revolutionizing geophysics, but the scope of discovery has been limited by labor-intensive technological implementation of the analyses. The Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) project has proven capability to automate SAR data processing and analysis. Existing and upcoming SAR missions such as Sentinel-1A/B and NISAR are also expected to generate massive amounts of SAR data. This has brought to the forefront the need for analytical tools for SAR quality assessment (QA) on the large volumes of SAR data-a critical step before higher-level time series and velocity products can be reliably generated. Initially leveraging an advanced hybrid-cloud computing science data system for performing large-scale processing, machine learning approaches were augmented for automated analysis of various quality metrics. Machine learning-based user-training of features, cross-validation, prediction models were integrated into our cloud-based science data processing flow to enable large-scale and high-throughput QA analytics for enabling improvements to the production quality of geodetic data products.

  3. Curvas de referência de pontos brutos no Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale de crianças e adolescentes Curvas de referencia de puntaje bruto en el Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale de niños y adolescentes Curves reference crude scores in Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale for children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Fumagalli Marteleto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo construir curvas de referência de pontos brutos das Áreas e do Total do Stanford-Binet em crianças e adolescentes paulistanos. Foram avaliadas individualmente 257 crianças e adolescentes, com idade média de 5 anos e 10 meses, sendo 130 (50,58% do sexo feminino e 127 (49,42% do sexo masculino, todas frequentadoras de Escolas Públicas de Educação Infantil e Fundamental, de diferentes regiões da cidade de São Paulo. O teste foi aplicado individualmente na própria escola das crianças, sempre a partir do primeiro item, independentemente da idade da criança. Os participantes foram agrupados por idade; calcularam-se medidas descritivas para cada faixa etária desta população. Foram confeccionadas curvas de referência para Áreas e Total do Stanford Binet com os pontos brutos obtidos. Os pontos brutos foram distribuídos de acordo com a curva normal.El estudio tuvo como objetivo construir curvas de referencia de puntajes brutos de las Áreas y del Total del Stanford-Binet en niños y adolescentes del estado de São Paulo-Brasil. Fueron evaluados individualmente 257 niños y adolescentes, con edad media de 5 años y 10 meses, siendo 130 (50,58% del sexo femenino y 127 (49,42% del sexo masculino, todos frecuentadores de escuelas públicas de educación infantil y básica, de diferentes regiones de la ciudad de São Paulo. El test fue aplicado individualmente en la propia escuela de los niños, siempre a partir del primer ítem, independientemente de la edad del niño. Los participantes fueron agrupados por edad; se calculó medidas descriptivas para cada rango etario de esta población. Fueron confeccionadas curvas de referencia para Áreas y Total del Stanford Binet con los puntajes brutos obtenidos. Los puntajes brutos fueron distribuidos de acuerdo con la curva normal.The objective of this study was to construct curves reference crude scores on the areas and total of the Stanford-Binet test for children in

  4. College Math Assessment: SAT Scores vs. College Math Placement Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley-Peres, Kathleen; Poirier, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Many colleges and university's use SAT math scores or math placement tests to place students in the appropriate math course. This study compares the use of math placement scores and SAT scores for 188 freshman students. The student's grades and faculty observations were analyzed to determine if the SAT scores and/or college math assessment scores…

  5. An Investigation of Students' Personality Traits and Attitudes toward Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zuway-R.; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2011-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to validate an instrument of attitudes toward science and to investigate grade level, type of school, and gender differences in Taiwan's students' personality traits and attitudes toward science as well as predictors of attitudes toward science. Nine hundred and twenty-two elementary students and 1,954 secondary students completed the School Student Questionnaire in 2008. Factor analyses, correlation analyses, ANOVAs, and regressions were used to compare the similarities and differences among male and female students in different grade levels. The findings were as follows: female students had higher interest in science and made more contributions in teams than their male counterparts across all grade levels. As students advanced through school, student scores on the personality trait scales of Conscientiousness and Openness sharply declined; students' scores on Neuroticism dramatically increased. Elementary school and academic high school students had significantly higher total scores on interest in science than those of vocational high and junior high school students. Scores on the scales measuring the traits of Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness were the most significant predictors of students' attitudes toward science. Implications of these findings for classroom instruction are discussed.

  6. Estimating NHL Scoring Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Buttrey, Samuel E.; Washburn, Alan R.; Price, Wilson L.; Operations Research

    2011-01-01

    The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.2202/1559-0410.1334 We propose a model to estimate the rates at which NHL teams score and yield goals. In the model, goals occur as if from a Poisson process whose rate depends on the two teams playing, the home-ice advantage, and the manpower (power-play, short-handed) situation. Data on all the games from the 2008-2009 season was downloaded and processed into a form suitable for the analysis. The model...

  7. [The use of scores in general medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Ursula; Rösli, Andreas; Ballmer, Peter E; Rippin, Sarah Jane

    2013-10-01

    Scores are tools to combine complex information into a numerical value. In General Medicine, there are scores to assist in making diagnoses and prognoses, scores to assist therapeutic decision making and to evaluate therapeutic results and scores to help physicians when informing and advising patients. We review six of the scoring systems that have the greatest utility for the General Physician in hospital-based care and in General Practice. The Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS 2002) tool is designed to identify hospital patients in danger of malnutrition. The aim is to improve the nutritional status of these patients. The CURB-65 score predicts 30-day mortality in patients with community acquired pneumonia. Patients with a low score can be considered for home treatment, patients with an elevated score require hospitalisation and those with a high score should be treated as having severe pneumonia; treatment in the intensive care unit should be considered. The IAS-AGLA score of the Working Group on Lipids and Atherosclerosis of the Swiss Society of Cardiology calculates the 10-year risk of a myocardial infarction for people living in Switzerland. The working group makes recommendations for preventative treatment according to the calculated risk status. The Body Mass Index, which is calculated by dividing the body weight in kilograms by the height in meters squared and then divided into weight categories, is used to classify people as underweight, of normal weight, overweight or obese. The prognostic value of this classification is discussed. The Mini-Mental State Examination allows the physician to assess important cognitive functions in a simple and standardised form. The Glasgow Coma Scale is used to classify the level of consciousness in patients with head injury. It can be used for triage and correlates with prognosis.

  8. Surveying the factor structure and reliability of the Persian version of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Lifelong Learning (JeffSPLL) in staff of medical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Fatemeh Zahra; Alesheikh, Aytay; Pakravan, Soheila; Abdollahi, Mahbubeh; Damough, Mozhdeh; Anbaran, Zahra Khosravi; Farahani, Leila Amiri

    2017-10-01

    In medical sciences, commitment to lifelong learning has been expressed as an important element. Today, due to the rapid development of medical information and technology, lifelong learning is critical for safe medical care and development in medical research. JeffSPLL is one of the scales for measuring lifelong learning among the staff of medical sciences that has never been used in Iran. The aim of the present study was to determine the factor structure and reliability of the Persian version of JeffSPLL among Persian-speaking staff of universities of medical sciences in Iran. This study was a cross-sectional study, methodologically, that was conducted in 2012-2013. In this study, 210 staff members of Birjand University of Medical Sciences were selected. Data collection tool was the Persian version of JeffSPLL. To investigate the factor structure of this tool, confirmatory factor analysis was used and to evaluate the model fit, goodness-of-fit indices, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), the ratio of chi-square to the degree of freedom associated with it, comparative fit index (CFI), and root mean square residual (RMR) were used. To investigate the reliability of tool, Cronbach's alpha was employed. Data analysis was conducted using LISREL8.8 and SPSS 20 software. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that RMSEA was close to 0.1, and CFI and GFI were close to one. Therefore, four-factor model was appropriate. Cronbach's alpha was 0.92 for the whole tool and it was between 0.82 and 0.89 for subscales. The present study verified the four-factor structure of the 19-item Persian version of JeffSPLL that included professional learning beliefs and motivation, scholarly activities, attention to learning opportunities, and technical skills in information seeking among the staff. In addition, this tool has acceptable reliability. Therefore, it was appropriate to assess lifelong learning in the Persian-speaking staff population.

  9. Prediction of surgical outcome in compressive cervical myelopathy: A novel clinicoradiological prognostic score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Anil Aggarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Preoperative severity of myelopathy, age, and duration of symptoms have been shown to be highly predictive of the outcome in compressive cervical myelopathy (CCM. The role of radiological parameters is still controversial. Aims: Define the prognostic factors in CCM and formulate a prognostic score to predict the outcome following surgery in CCM. Settings and Design: Retrospective. Materials and Methods: This study included 78 consecutive patients with CCM treated surgically. The modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA scale was used to quantify severity of myelopathy at admission and at 12-month follow-up. The outcome was defined as "good" if the patient had mJOA score ≥16 and "poor" if the score was <16. Age, sex, duration of symptoms, comorbidities, intrinsic hand muscle wasting (IHMW, diagnosis, surgical technique, Torg ratio, instability on dynamic radiographs, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI signal intensity changes were assessed. Statistics: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS (version 20.0 was used for statistical analysis. The association was assessed amongst variables using logistic regression analysis. Parameters having a statistically significant correlation with the outcome were included in formulating a prognostic score. Results: Severity of myelopathy, IHMW, age, duration, diabetes, and instability on radiographs were predictive of the outcome with a P value <0.01. Genders, diagnosis, surgical procedure, Torg ratio, and intensity changes on MRI were not significantly related to the outcome. A 8-point scoring system was devised incorporating the significant clinicoradiological parameters, and it was found that nearly all patients (97.82% with a score below 5 had good outcome and all patients (100% with a score above 5 had poor outcome. The outcome is difficult to predict with a score of 5. Conclusions: Clinical parameters are better predictors of the outcome as compared to radiological findings

  10. The International Bleeding Risk Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Laine, L.; Dalton, H.

    2017-01-01

    The International Bleeding Risk Score: A New Risk Score that can Accurately Predict Mortality in Patients with Upper GI-Bleeding.......The International Bleeding Risk Score: A New Risk Score that can Accurately Predict Mortality in Patients with Upper GI-Bleeding....

  11. Improving Learning in a Traditional, Large-Scale Science Module with a Simple and Efficient Learning Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    the impact on teaching and learning in terms of how the teacher and the students used the materials and the impact on the students’ performance and satisfaction. The article concludes that replacing face-to-face lectures with webcasts and online activities has the potential to improve learning in terms...... of a better student performance, higher student satisfaction, and a higher degree of flexibility for the students. In addition, the article discusses implications of using learning design for educational development, how learning design may help breaking with the perception that facilitating blended learning...... is a daunting process, and, ultimately, its potential for addressing some of the grand challenges in science education and the political agenda of today....

  12. Data-Science Analysis of the Macro-scale Features Governing the Corrosion to Crack Transition in AA7050-T7451

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co, Noelle Easter C.; Brown, Donald E.; Burns, James T.

    2018-05-01

    This study applies data science approaches (random forest and logistic regression) to determine the extent to which macro-scale corrosion damage features govern the crack formation behavior in AA7050-T7451. Each corrosion morphology has a set of corresponding predictor variables (pit depth, volume, area, diameter, pit density, total fissure length, surface roughness metrics, etc.) describing the shape of the corrosion damage. The values of the predictor variables are obtained from white light interferometry, x-ray tomography, and scanning electron microscope imaging of the corrosion damage. A permutation test is employed to assess the significance of the logistic and random forest model predictions. Results indicate minimal relationship between the macro-scale corrosion feature predictor variables and fatigue crack initiation. These findings suggest that the macro-scale corrosion features and their interactions do not solely govern the crack formation behavior. While these results do not imply that the macro-features have no impact, they do suggest that additional parameters must be considered to rigorously inform the crack formation location.

  13. Continued validation of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavin, S L; Clavin, R H; Gayton, W F; Broida, J

    1996-06-01

    Scores on the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale have been correlated with measures of obsessive-compulsive tendencies for women, so the validity of scores on this scale for 41 men was examined. Scores on the Perfectionism Scale were significantly correlated (.47-.03) with scores on the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory.

  14. Geoscience Meets Social Science: A Flexible Data Driven Approach for Developing High Resolution Population Datasets at Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, A.; McKee, J.; Weber, E.; Bhaduri, B. L.

    2017-12-01

    Leveraging decades of expertise in population modeling, and in response to growing demand for higher resolution population data, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is now generating LandScan HD at global scale. LandScan HD is conceived as a 90m resolution population distribution where modeling is tailored to the unique geography and data conditions of individual countries or regions by combining social, cultural, physiographic, and other information with novel geocomputation methods. Similarities among these areas are exploited in order to leverage existing training data and machine learning algorithms to rapidly scale development. Drawing on ORNL's unique set of capabilities, LandScan HD adapts highly mature population modeling methods developed for LandScan Global and LandScan USA, settlement mapping research and production in high-performance computing (HPC) environments, land use and neighborhood mapping through image segmentation, and facility-specific population density models. Adopting a flexible methodology to accommodate different geographic areas, LandScan HD accounts for the availability, completeness, and level of detail of relevant ancillary data. Beyond core population and mapped settlement inputs, these factors determine the model complexity for an area, requiring that for any given area, a data-driven model could support either a simple top-down approach, a more detailed bottom-up approach, or a hybrid approach.

  15. A Modified APACHE II Score for Predicting Mortality of Variceal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Modified APACHE II score is effective in predicting outcome of patients with variceal bleeding. Score of L 15 points and long ICU stay are associated with high mortality. Keywords: liver cirrhosis, periportal fibrosis, portal hypertension, schistosomiasis udan Journal of Medical Sciences Vol. 2 (2) 2007: pp. 105- ...

  16. How is the injury severity scored? a brief review of scoring systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ebrahimi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The management of injured patients is a critical issue in pre-hospital and emergency departments. Trauma victims are usually young and the injuries may lead to mortality or severe morbidities. The severity of injury can be estimated by observing the anatomic and physiologic evidences. Scoring systems are used to present a scale of describing the severity of the injuries in the victims.We reviewed the evidences of famous scoring systems, the history of their development, applications and their evolutions. We searched electronic database PubMed and Google scholar with keywords: (trauma OR injury AND (severity OR intensity AND (score OR scale.In this paper, we are going to present a definition of scoring systems and discuss the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS and Injury Severity Score (ISS, the most acceptable systems, their applications and their advantages and limitations.Several injury-scoring methods have been introduced. Each method has specific features, advantages and disadvantages. The AIS is an anatomical-based scoring system, which provides a standard numerical scale of ranking and comparing injuries. The ISS was established as a platform for trauma data registry. ISS is also an anatomically-based ordinal scale, with a range of 1-75. Several databases and studies are formed based on ISS and are available for trauma management research.Although the ISS is not perfect, it is established as the basic platform of health services and public health researches. The ISS registering system can provide many opportunities for the development of efficient data recording and statistical analyzing models.

  17. Synergistic Use of Citizen Science and Remote Sensing for Continental-Scale Measurements of Forest Tree Phenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Elmore

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is great potential value in linking geographically dispersed multitemporal observations collected by lay volunteers (or “citizen scientists” with remotely-sensed observations of plant phenology, which are recognized as useful indicators of climate change. However, challenges include a large mismatch in spatial scale and diverse sources of uncertainty in the two measurement types. These challenges must be overcome if the data from each source are to be compared and jointly used to understand spatial and temporal variation in phenology, or if remote observations are to be used to predict ground-based observations. We investigated the correlation between land surface phenology derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS data and citizen scientists’ phenology observations from the USA National Phenology Network (NPN. The volunteer observations spanned 2004 to 2013 and represented 25 plant species and nine phenophases. We developed quality control procedures that removed observations outside of an a priori determined acceptable period and observations that were made more than 10 days after a preceding observation. We found that these two quality control steps improved the correlation between ground- and remote-observations, but the largest improvement was achieved when the analysis was restricted to forested MODIS pixels. These results demonstrate a high degree of correlation between the phenology of individual trees (particularly dominant forest trees such as quaking aspen, white oak, and American beech and the phenology of the surrounding forested landscape. These results provide helpful guidelines for the joint use of citizen scientists’ observations and remote sensing phenology in work aimed at understanding continental scale variation and temporal trends.

  18. In-situ exploration of Venus on a global scale : direct measurements of origins and evolution, meterology, dynamics, and chemistry by a long-duration aerial science station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Kevin H.; Atreya, Sushi; Carlson, Robert W.; Chutjian, Ara; Crisp, David; Hall, Jeffrey L.; Jones, Dayton L.; Kerzhanovich, Victor V.; Limaye, Sanjay S.

    2005-01-01

    Drifting in the strong winds of Venus under benign Earth-like temperature and pressure conditions, an instrumented balloon-borne science station presents a viable means to explore, in-situ, the Venusian atmosphere on a global scale. Flying over the ground at speeds exceeding 240 km/hour while floating in the Venusian skies near 55 km altitude for several weeks, such an aerostat can conduct a 'world tour' of our neighboring planet, as it circumnavigates the globe multiple times during its flight from equatorial to polar latitudes. Onboard science sensors can repeatedly and directly sample gas compositions, atmospheric pressures and temperatures and cloud particle properties, giving unprecedented insight into the chemical processes occurring within the sulfuric clouds. Additionally, interferometric tracking via Earth-based radio observatories can yield positions and windspeeds to better than 10 cm/sec over one-hour periods, providing important information for understanding the planet's meridional circulation and enigmatic zonal super-rotation, as well as local dynamics associated with meteorological processes. As well, hundreds of GCMS spectra collected during the flight can provide measurements of noble gas compositions and their isotopes with unprecedented accuracy, thereby enabling fundamental new insights into Venus's origin and evolution.

  19. Application of the FOUR Score in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Risk Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braksick, Sherri A; Hemphill, J Claude; Mandrekar, Jay; Wijdicks, Eelco F M; Fugate, Jennifer E

    2018-06-01

    The Full Outline of Unresponsiveness (FOUR) Score is a validated scale describing the essentials of a coma examination, including motor response, eye opening and eye movements, brainstem reflexes, and respiratory pattern. We incorporated the FOUR Score into the existing ICH Score and evaluated its accuracy of risk assessment in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Consecutive patients admitted to our institution from 2009 to 2012 with spontaneous ICH were reviewed. The ICH Score was calculated using patient age, hemorrhage location, hemorrhage volume, evidence of intraventricular extension, and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). The FOUR Score was then incorporated into the ICH Score as a substitute for the GCS (ICH Score FS ). The ability of the 2 scores to predict mortality at 1 month was then compared. In total, 274 patients met the inclusion criteria. The median age was 73 years (interquartile range 60-82) and 138 (50.4%) were male. Overall mortality at 1 month was 28.8% (n = 79). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was .91 for the ICH Score and .89 for the ICH Score FS . For ICH Scores of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, 1-month mortality was 4.2%, 29.9%, 62.5%, 95.0%, and 100%. In the ICH Score FS model, mortality was 10.7%, 26.5%, 64.5%, 88.9%, and 100% for scores of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The ICH Score and the ICH Score FS predict 1-month mortality with comparable accuracy. As the FOUR Score provides additional clinical information regarding patient status, it may be a reasonable substitute for the GCS into the ICH Score. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Model for predicting the injury severity score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Shuichi; Oshima, Kiyohiro; Murata, Masato; Kaneko, Minoru; Aoki, Makoto; Kanbe, Masahiko; Nakamura, Takuro; Ohyama, Yoshio; Tamura, Jun'ichi

    2015-07-01

    To determine the formula that predicts the injury severity score from parameters that are obtained in the emergency department at arrival. We reviewed the medical records of trauma patients who were transferred to the emergency department of Gunma University Hospital between January 2010 and December 2010. The injury severity score, age, mean blood pressure, heart rate, Glasgow coma scale, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell count, platelet count, fibrinogen, international normalized ratio of prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and fibrin degradation products, were examined in those patients on arrival. To determine the formula that predicts the injury severity score, multiple linear regression analysis was carried out. The injury severity score was set as the dependent variable, and the other parameters were set as candidate objective variables. IBM spss Statistics 20 was used for the statistical analysis. Statistical significance was set at P  Watson ratio was 2.200. A formula for predicting the injury severity score in trauma patients was developed with ordinary parameters such as fibrin degradation products and mean blood pressure. This formula is useful because we can predict the injury severity score easily in the emergency department.

  1. Attribution Theory in Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by…

  2. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana-Part 2: Natural Sciences Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaee, Mozhgon; Obiri, Samuel; Green, Allyson; Long, Rachel; Cobbina, Samuel J; Nartey, Vincent; Buck, David; Antwi, Edward; Basu, Niladri

    2015-07-31

    This paper is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA) that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an integrated assessment (IA) framework was utilized to analyze socio-economic, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with stakeholders. This paper focuses on the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ecological issues related to ASGM activity in Ghana. It reviews dozens of studies and thousands of samples to document evidence of heavy metals contamination in ecological media across Ghana. Soil and water mercury concentrations were generally lower than guideline values, but sediment mercury concentrations surpassed guideline values in 64% of samples. Arsenic, cadmium, and lead exceeded guideline values in 67%, 17%, and 24% of water samples, respectively. Other water quality parameters near ASGM sites show impairment, with some samples exceeding guidelines for acidity, turbidity, and nitrates. Additional ASGM-related stressors on environmental quality and ecosystem services include deforestation, land degradation, biodiversity loss, legacy contamination, and potential linkages to climate change. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the long-term impacts of ASGM on the environment, the plausible consequences of ecological damages should guide policies and actions to address the unique challenges posed by ASGM.

  3. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana—Part 2: Natural Sciences Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaee, Mozhgon; Obiri, Samuel; Green, Allyson; Long, Rachel; Cobbina, Samuel J.; Nartey, Vincent; Buck, David; Antwi, Edward; Basu, Niladri

    2015-01-01

    This paper is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA) that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an integrated assessment (IA) framework was utilized to analyze socio-economic, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with stakeholders. This paper focuses on the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ecological issues related to ASGM activity in Ghana. It reviews dozens of studies and thousands of samples to document evidence of heavy metals contamination in ecological media across Ghana. Soil and water mercury concentrations were generally lower than guideline values, but sediment mercury concentrations surpassed guideline values in 64% of samples. Arsenic, cadmium, and lead exceeded guideline values in 67%, 17%, and 24% of water samples, respectively. Other water quality parameters near ASGM sites show impairment, with some samples exceeding guidelines for acidity, turbidity, and nitrates. Additional ASGM-related stressors on environmental quality and ecosystem services include deforestation, land degradation, biodiversity loss, legacy contamination, and potential linkages to climate change. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the long-term impacts of ASGM on the environment, the plausible consequences of ecological damages should guide policies and actions to address the unique challenges posed by ASGM. PMID:26264012

  4. Scientific Grand Challenges: Discovery In Basic Energy Sciences: The Role of Computing at the Extreme Scale - August 13-15, 2009, Washington, D.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galli, Giulia [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Workshop Chair; Dunning, Thom [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Workshop Chair

    2009-08-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) and Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) workshop in August 2009 on extreme-scale computing provided a forum for more than 130 researchers to explore the needs and opportunities that will arise due to expected dramatic advances in computing power over the next decade. This scientific community firmly believes that the development of advanced theoretical tools within chemistry, physics, and materials science—combined with the development of efficient computational techniques and algorithms—has the potential to revolutionize the discovery process for materials and molecules with desirable properties. Doing so is necessary to meet the energy and environmental challenges of the 21st century as described in various DOE BES Basic Research Needs reports. Furthermore, computational modeling and simulation are a crucial complement to experimental studies, particularly when quantum mechanical processes controlling energy production, transformations, and storage are not directly observable and/or controllable. Many processes related to the Earth’s climate and subsurface need better modeling capabilities at the molecular level, which will be enabled by extreme-scale computing.

  5. Network biology: Describing biological systems by complex networks. Comment on "Network science of biological systems at different scales: A review" by M. Gosak et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2018-03-01

    I enjoyed reading Gosak et al. review on analysing biological systems from network science perspective [1]. Network science, first started within Physics community, is now a mature multidisciplinary field of science with many applications ranging from Ecology to biology, medicine, social sciences, engineering and computer science. Gosak et al. discussed how biological systems can be modelled and described by complex network theory which is an important application of network science. Although there has been considerable progress in network biology over the past two decades, this is just the beginning and network science has a great deal to offer to biology and medical sciences.

  6. Do Test Scores Buy Happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Neal

    2017-01-01

    Since at least the enactment of No Child Left Behind in 2002, standardized test scores have served as the primary measures of public school effectiveness. Yet, such scores fail to measure the ultimate goal of education: maximizing happiness. This exploratory analysis assesses nation level associations between test scores and happiness, controlling…

  7. Information Power Grid: Distributed High-Performance Computing and Large-Scale Data Management for Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, William E.; Gannon, Dennis; Nitzberg, Bill

    2000-01-01

    We use the term "Grid" to refer to distributed, high performance computing and data handling infrastructure that incorporates geographically and organizationally dispersed, heterogeneous resources that are persistent and supported. This infrastructure includes: (1) Tools for constructing collaborative, application oriented Problem Solving Environments / Frameworks (the primary user interfaces for Grids); (2) Programming environments, tools, and services providing various approaches for building applications that use aggregated computing and storage resources, and federated data sources; (3) Comprehensive and consistent set of location independent tools and services for accessing and managing dynamic collections of widely distributed resources: heterogeneous computing systems, storage systems, real-time data sources and instruments, human collaborators, and communications systems; (4) Operational infrastructure including management tools for distributed systems and distributed resources, user services, accounting and auditing, strong and location independent user authentication and authorization, and overall system security services The vision for NASA's Information Power Grid - a computing and data Grid - is that it will provide significant new capabilities to scientists and engineers by facilitating routine construction of information based problem solving environments / frameworks. Such Grids will knit together widely distributed computing, data, instrument, and human resources into just-in-time systems that can address complex and large-scale computing and data analysis problems. Examples of these problems include: (1) Coupled, multidisciplinary simulations too large for single systems (e.g., multi-component NPSS turbomachine simulation); (2) Use of widely distributed, federated data archives (e.g., simultaneous access to metrological, topological, aircraft performance, and flight path scheduling databases supporting a National Air Space Simulation systems}; (3

  8. Predicting occupational personality test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, A; Drakeley, R

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between students' actual test scores and their self-estimated scores on the Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI; R. Hogan & J. Hogan, 1992), an omnibus personality questionnaire, was examined. Despite being given descriptive statistics and explanations of each of the dimensions measured, the students tended to overestimate their scores; yet all correlations between actual and estimated scores were positive and significant. Correlations between self-estimates and actual test scores were highest for sociability, ambition, and adjustment (r = .62 to r = .67). The results are discussed in terms of employers' use and abuse of personality assessment for job recruitment.

  9. Examining the reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochowalski, Joseph H; Liu, Ying; Siedlecki, Karen L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate and examine ways to improve the reliability of change scores on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, Cognitive Subtest (ADAS-Cog). The sample, provided by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, included individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 153) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 352). All participants were administered the ADAS-Cog at baseline and 1 year, and change scores were calculated as the difference in scores over the 1-year period. Three types of change score reliabilities were estimated using multivariate generalizability. Two methods to increase change score reliability were evaluated: reweighting the subtests of the scale and adding more subtests. Reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores over 1 year was low for both the AD sample (ranging from .53 to .64) and the MCI sample (.39 to .61). Reweighting the change scores from the AD sample improved reliability (.68 to .76), but lengthening provided no useful improvement for either sample. The MCI change scores had low reliability, even with reweighting and adding additional subtests. The ADAS-Cog scores had low reliability for measuring change. Researchers using the ADAS-Cog should estimate and report reliability for their use of the change scores. The ADAS-Cog change scores are not recommended for assessment of meaningful clinical change.

  10. Differences of wells scores accuracy, caprini scores and padua scores in deep vein thrombosis diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatot, D.; Mardia, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) is the venous thrombus in lower limbs. Diagnosis is by using venography or ultrasound compression. However, these examinations are not available yet in some health facilities. Therefore many scoring systems are developed for the diagnosis of DVT. The scoring method is practical and safe to use in addition to efficacy, and effectiveness in terms of treatment and costs. The existing scoring systems are wells, caprini and padua score. There have been many studies comparing the accuracy of this score but not in Medan. Therefore, we are interested in comparative research of wells, capriniand padua score in Medan.An observational, analytical, case-control study was conducted to perform diagnostic tests on the wells, caprini and padua score to predict the risk of DVT. The study was at H. Adam Malik Hospital in Medan.From a total of 72 subjects, 39 people (54.2%) are men and the mean age are 53.14 years. Wells score, caprini score and padua score has a sensitivity of 80.6%; 61.1%, 50% respectively; specificity of 80.65; 66.7%; 75% respectively, and accuracy of 87.5%; 64.3%; 65.7% respectively.Wells score has better sensitivity, specificity and accuracy than caprini and padua score in diagnosing DVT.

  11. A high COPD assessment test score may predict anxiety in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harryanto H

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hilman Harryanto,1 Sally Burrows,2 Yuben Moodley1,2 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Fiona Stanley Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia; 2Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Medical School, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, AustraliaThe prevalence of anxiety is 55% in patients with COPD,1 and it is associated with worse disease control. Therefore, early recognition and institution of treatment of this comorbidity significantly improve patient’s quality of life. Recently, a questionnaire called the COPD assessment test (CAT has been incorporated into the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD guidelines for the management of COPD, and a higher score is associated with increased COPD symptoms.2 Considering the regular use of CAT, it was evaluated whether this tool can also be used to identify anxiety. The CAT score was correlated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS to determine the level at which CAT may predict anxiety.

  12. ITC Guidelines on Quality Control in Scoring, Test Analysis, and Reporting of Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allalouf, Avi

    2014-01-01

    The Quality Control (QC) Guidelines are intended to increase the efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the scoring, analysis, and reporting process of testing. The QC Guidelines focus on large-scale testing operations where multiple forms of tests are created for use on set dates. However, they may also be used for a wide variety of other testing…

  13. Literature in focus: How to Score

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    What is the perfect way to take a free kick? Which players are under more stress: attackers, midfielders or defenders? How do we know when a ball has crossed the goal-line? And how can teams win a penalty shoot out? From international team formations to the psychology of the pitch and the changing room... The World Cup might be a time to forget about physics for a while, but not for Ken Bray, a theoretical physicist and visiting Fellow of the Sport and Exercise Science Group at the University of Bath who specializes in the science of football. Dr Bray will visit CERN to talk exclusively about his book: How to Score. As a well-seasoned speaker and advisor to professional football teams, this presentation promises to be a fascinating and timely insight into the secret science that lies behind 'the beautiful game'. If you play or just watch football, don't miss this event! Ken Bray - How to Score Thursday 22 June at 3 p.m. (earlier than usual to avoid clashes with World Cup matches!) Central Library reading ...

  14. Linking Climate Change Science and Adaptation Policy at the Community Scale through Anticipatory Governance: A Review of Concepts with Application to Arizona Communities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D. D.; Quay, R.; Ferguson, D. B.; Buizer, J. L.; Guido, Z.; Chhetri, N.

    2013-12-01

    Scientific consensus and certainty varies regarding the link between climate change, specific natural hazards and extreme events, and local and regional impacts. Despite these uncertainties, it is necessary to apply the best available scientific knowledge to anticipate a range of possible futures, develop mitigation and adaptation strategies, and monitor changes to build resilience. While there is widespread recognition of the need to improve the linkages between climate science information and public policy for adaptation at the community scale, there are significant challenges to this goal. Many community outreach and engagement efforts, for instance, operate using a one-size-fits-all approach. Recent research has shown this to be problematic for local governments. Public policy occurs in a cycle that includes problem understanding, planning and policy approval, and implementation, with ongoing policy refinement through multiple such cycles. One promising approach to incorporating scientific knowledge with uncertainty into public policy is an anticipatory governance approach. Anticipatory governance employs a continual cycle of anticipation (understanding), planning, monitoring, and adaptation (policy choice and implementation). The types of information needed in each of these phases will be different given the nature of each activity and the unique needs of each community. It is highly unlikely that all local governments will be in the same phase of climate adaptation with the same unique needs at the same time and thus a uniform approach to providing scientific information will only be effective for a discrete group of communities at any given point in time. A key concept for the effective integration of scientific information into public discourse is that such information must be salient, credible, and legitimate. Assuming a scientific institution has established credibility with engaged communities, maximizing the effectiveness of climate science requires

  15. Examining science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools: A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Kecia C.

    This dissertation examined factors that affected the science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools. The research literature informed that African American females are facing the barriers of race, gender, socioeconomic status, and cultural learning style preferences. Nationally used measurements of science achievement such as the Standardized Achievement Test, Tenth edition (SAT-10), National Assessment for Educational Progress, and National Center for Educational Statistics showed that African American females are continuing to falter in the areas of science when compared to other ethnic groups. This study used a transformative sequential explanatory mixed methods design. In the first, quantitative, phase, the relationships among the dependent variables, science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores, yearly averages, and the independent variables, attitude toward science scores obtained from the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudes toward Science Scale, socioeconomics, and caregiver status were tested. The participants were 150 African American females in grades 6 through 8 in four suburban middle schools located in the Southeastern United States. The results showed a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitude and their science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores and a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitudes and their yearly averages in science. The results also confirmed that attitude was a significant predictor of science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores for these females and that attitude and socioeconomics were significant predictors of the females' yearly averages in science. In the second, qualitative, phase, nine females purposefully selected from those who had high and low attitude towards science scores on the scale in the quantitative phase were interviewed. The themes that emerged revealed seven additional factors that impacted the females' science achievement. They were usefulness of science

  16. SCORE - Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineschi, Silvano; Moses, Dan; Romoli, Marco

    The Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment - SCORE - is a The Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment - SCORE - is a coronagraph for multi-wavelength imaging of the coronal Lyman-alpha lines, HeII 30.4 nm and HI 121.6 nm, and for the broad.band visible-light emission of the polarized K-corona. SCORE has flown successfully in 2009 acquiring the first images of the HeII line-emission from the extended corona. The simultaneous observation of the coronal Lyman-alpha HI 121.6 nm, has allowed the first determination of the absolute helium abundance in the extended corona. This presentation will describe the lesson learned from the first flight and will illustrate the preparations and the science perspectives for the second re-flight approved by NASA and scheduled for 2016. The SCORE optical design is flexible enough to be able to accommodate different experimental configurations with minor modifications. This presentation will describe one of such configurations that could include a polarimeter for the observation the expected Hanle effect in the coronal Lyman-alpha HI line. The linear polarization by resonance scattering of coronal permitted line-emission in the ultraviolet (UV) can be modified by magnetic fields through the Hanle effect. Thus, space-based UV spectro-polarimetry would provide an additional new tool for the diagnostics of coronal magnetism.

  17. Managing missing scores on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    2009-01-01

    systematically dropped from each person’s raw scores and the standardized score was proportionally recalculated. This process was repeated until 6 questions had been dropped from each person’s questionnaire. ·         The error (absolute and percentage) introduced by each level of dropped question was calculated......MANAGING MISSING SCORES ON THE ROLAND MORRIS DISABILITY QUESTIONNAIRE  Peter Kenta and Henrik Hein Lauridsenb  aBack Research Centre and bInstitute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark Background There is no standard method to calculate Roland Morris...... Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) sum scores when one or more questions have not been answered. However, missing data are common on the RMDQ and the current options are: calculate a sum score regardless of unanswered questions, reject all data containing unanswered questions, or to impute scores. Other...

  18. Multiple Score Comparison: a network meta-analysis approach to comparison and external validation of prognostic scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Haile

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction models and prognostic scores have been increasingly popular in both clinical practice and clinical research settings, for example to aid in risk-based decision making or control for confounding. In many medical fields, a large number of prognostic scores are available, but practitioners may find it difficult to choose between them due to lack of external validation as well as lack of comparisons between them. Methods Borrowing methodology from network meta-analysis, we describe an approach to Multiple Score Comparison meta-analysis (MSC which permits concurrent external validation and comparisons of prognostic scores using individual patient data (IPD arising from a large-scale international collaboration. We describe the challenges in adapting network meta-analysis to the MSC setting, for instance the need to explicitly include correlations between the scores on a cohort level, and how to deal with many multi-score studies. We propose first using IPD to make cohort-level aggregate discrimination or calibration scores, comparing all to a common comparator. Then, standard network meta-analysis techniques can be applied, taking care to consider correlation structures in cohorts with multiple scores. Transitivity, consistency and heterogeneity are also examined. Results We provide a clinical application, comparing prognostic scores for 3-year mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using data from a large-scale collaborative initiative. We focus on the discriminative properties of the prognostic scores. Our results show clear differences in performance, with ADO and eBODE showing higher discrimination with respect to mortality than other considered scores. The assumptions of transitivity and local and global consistency were not violated. Heterogeneity was small. Conclusions We applied a network meta-analytic methodology to externally validate and concurrently compare the prognostic properties

  19. [Propensity score matching in SPSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fuqiang; DU, Chunlin; Sun, Menghui; Ning, Bing; Luo, Ying; An, Shengli

    2015-11-01

    To realize propensity score matching in PS Matching module of SPSS and interpret the analysis results. The R software and plug-in that could link with the corresponding versions of SPSS and propensity score matching package were installed. A PS matching module was added in the SPSS interface, and its use was demonstrated with test data. Score estimation and nearest neighbor matching was achieved with the PS matching module, and the results of qualitative and quantitative statistical description and evaluation were presented in the form of a graph matching. Propensity score matching can be accomplished conveniently using SPSS software.

  20. [Prognostic scores for pulmonary embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, Alain

    2016-03-23

    Nine prognostic scores for pulmonary embolism (PE), based on retrospective and prospective studies, published between 2000 and 2014, have been analyzed and compared. Most of them aim at identifying PE cases with a low risk to validate their ambulatory care. Important differences in the considered outcomes: global mortality, PE-specific mortality, other complications, sizes of low risk groups, exist between these scores. The most popular score appears to be the PESI and its simplified version. Few good quality studies have tested the applicability of these scores to PE outpatient care, although this approach tends to already generalize in the medical practice.

  1. Biological mechanisms beyond network analysis via mathematical modeling. Comment on "Network science of biological systems at different scales: A review" by Marko Gosak et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Morten Gram

    2018-03-01

    Methods from network theory are increasingly used in research spanning from engineering and computer science to psychology and the social sciences. In this issue, Gosak et al. [1] provide a thorough review of network science applications to biological systems ranging from the subcellular world via neuroscience to ecosystems, with special attention to the insulin-secreting beta-cells in pancreatic islets.

  2. ABOUT PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES IN APPLICATION SCORING MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Rogers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of psychological variables and scales suggested by Economic Psychology in predicting individuals’ default. Therefore, a sample of 555 individuals completed a self-completion questionnaire, which was composed of psychological variables and scales. By adopting the methodology of the logistic regression, the following psychological and behavioral characteristics were found associated with the group of individuals in default: a negative dimensions related to money (suffering, inequality and conflict; b high scores on the self-efficacy scale, probably indicating a greater degree of optimism and over-confidence; c buyers classified as compulsive; d individuals who consider it necessary to give gifts to children and friends on special dates, even though many people consider this a luxury; e problems of self-control identified by individuals who drink an average of more than four glasses of alcoholic beverage a day.

  3. D-score: a search engine independent MD-score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudel, Marc; Breiter, Daniela; Beck, Florian; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Martens, Lennart; Zahedi, René P

    2013-03-01

    While peptides carrying PTMs are routinely identified in gel-free MS, the localization of the PTMs onto the peptide sequences remains challenging. Search engine scores of secondary peptide matches have been used in different approaches in order to infer the quality of site inference, by penalizing the localization whenever the search engine similarly scored two candidate peptides with different site assignments. In the present work, we show how the estimation of posterior error probabilities for peptide candidates allows the estimation of a PTM score called the D-score, for multiple search engine studies. We demonstrate the applicability of this score to three popular search engines: Mascot, OMSSA, and X!Tandem, and evaluate its performance using an already published high resolution data set of synthetic phosphopeptides. For those peptides with phosphorylation site inference uncertainty, the number of spectrum matches with correctly localized phosphorylation increased by up to 25.7% when compared to using Mascot alone, although the actual increase depended on the fragmentation method used. Since this method relies only on search engine scores, it can be readily applied to the scoring of the localization of virtually any modification at no additional experimental or in silico cost. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  5. Quadratic prediction of factor scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansbeek, T

    1999-01-01

    Factor scores are naturally predicted by means of their conditional expectation given the indicators y. Under normality this expectation is linear in y but in general it is an unknown function of y. II is discussed that under nonnormality factor scores can be more precisely predicted by a quadratic

  6. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  7. Matching score based face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, B.J.; Beumer, G.M.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate face registration is of vital importance to the performance of a face recognition algorithm. We propose a new method: matching score based face registration, which searches for optimal alignment by maximizing the matching score output of a classifier as a function of the different

  8. Modelling sequentially scored item responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, W.

    2000-01-01

    The sequential model can be used to describe the variable resulting from a sequential scoring process. In this paper two more item response models are investigated with respect to their suitability for sequential scoring: the partial credit model and the graded response model. The investigation is

  9. Managing missing scores on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    2011-01-01

    Study Design: Analysis of Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) and Oswestry Disability Index (Oswestry) responses.Objectives: To determine the prevalence of unanswered questions on the RMDQ23 (23-item RMDQ version) and Oswestry questionnaires. To determine if managing RMDQ23 missing data...... fully completed RMDQ23 and matching Oswestry questionnaire sets. Raw sum scores were calculated, and questions systematically dropped. At each stage, sum scores were converted to a score on a 0-100 scale and the error calculated. Wilcoxon Tests were used to compare the magnitude of the error scores...

  10. Research data management support for large-scale, long-term, interdisciplinary collaborative research centers with a focus on environmental sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curdt, C.; Hoffmeister, D.; Bareth, G.; Lang, U.

    2017-12-01

    Science conducted in collaborative, cross-institutional research projects, requires active sharing of research ideas, data, documents and further information in a well-managed, controlled and structured manner. Thus, it is important to establish corresponding infrastructures and services for the scientists. Regular project meetings and joint field campaigns support the exchange of research ideas. Technical infrastructures facilitate storage, documentation, exchange and re-use of data as results of scientific output. Additionally, also publications, conference contributions, reports, pictures etc. should be managed. Both, knowledge and data sharing is essential to create synergies. Within the coordinated programme `Collaborative Research Center' (CRC), the German Research Foundation offers funding to establish research data management (RDM) infrastructures and services. CRCs are large-scale, interdisciplinary, multi-institutional, long-term (up to 12 years), university-based research institutions (up to 25 sub-projects). These CRCs address complex and scientifically challenging research questions. This poster presents the RDM services and infrastructures that have been established for two CRCs, both focusing on environmental sciences. Since 2007, a RDM support infrastructure and associated services have been set up for the CRC/Transregio 32 (CRC/TR32) `Patterns in Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Systems: Monitoring, Modelling and Data Assimilation' (www.tr32.de). The experiences gained have been used to arrange RDM services for the CRC1211 `Earth - Evolution at the Dry Limit' (www.crc1211.de), funded since 2016. In both projects scientists from various disciplines collect heterogeneous data at field campaigns or by modelling approaches. To manage the scientific output, the TR32DB data repository (www.tr32db.de) has been designed and implemented for the CRC/TR32. This system was transferred and adapted to the CRC1211 needs (www.crc1211db.uni-koeln.de) in 2016. Both

  11. Extension of the lod score: the mod score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerget-Darpoux, F

    2001-01-01

    In 1955 Morton proposed the lod score method both for testing linkage between loci and for estimating the recombination fraction between them. If a disease is controlled by a gene at one of these loci, the lod score computation requires the prior specification of an underlying model that assigns the probabilities of genotypes from the observed phenotypes. To address the case of linkage studies for diseases with unknown mode of inheritance, we suggested (Clerget-Darpoux et al., 1986) extending the lod score function to a so-called mod score function. In this function, the variables are both the recombination fraction and the disease model parameters. Maximizing the mod score function over all these parameters amounts to maximizing the probability of marker data conditional on the disease status. Under the absence of linkage, the mod score conforms to a chi-square distribution, with extra degrees of freedom in comparison to the lod score function (MacLean et al., 1993). The mod score is asymptotically maximum for the true disease model (Clerget-Darpoux and Bonaïti-Pellié, 1992; Hodge and Elston, 1994). Consequently, the power to detect linkage through mod score will be highest when the space of models where the maximization is performed includes the true model. On the other hand, one must avoid overparametrization of the model space. For example, when the approach is applied to affected sibpairs, only two constrained disease model parameters should be used (Knapp et al., 1994) for the mod score maximization. It is also important to emphasize the existence of a strong correlation between the disease gene location and the disease model. Consequently, there is poor resolution of the location of the susceptibility locus when the disease model at this locus is unknown. Of course, this is true regardless of the statistics used. The mod score may also be applied in a candidate gene strategy to model the potential effect of this gene in the disease. Since, however, it

  12. Balancing Treatment and Control Groups in Quasi-Experiments: An Introduction to Propensity Scoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Brian S.; Sackett, Paul R.; Waters, Shonna D.

    2013-01-01

    Organizational and applied sciences have long struggled with improving causal inference in quasi-experiments. We introduce organizational researchers to propensity scoring, a statistical technique that has become popular in other applied sciences as a means for improving internal validity. Propensity scoring statistically models how individuals in…

  13. Towards a Scalable and Adaptive Application Support Platform for Large-Scale Distributed E-Sciences in High-Performance Network Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chase Qishi [New Jersey Inst. of Technology, Newark, NJ (United States); Univ. of Memphis, TN (United States); Zhu, Michelle Mengxia [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    2016-06-06

    The advent of large-scale collaborative scientific applications has demonstrated the potential for broad scientific communities to pool globally distributed resources to produce unprecedented data acquisition, movement, and analysis. System resources including supercomputers, data repositories, computing facilities, network infrastructures, storage systems, and display devices have been increasingly deployed at national laboratories and academic institutes. These resources are typically shared by large communities of users over Internet or dedicated networks and hence exhibit an inherent dynamic nature in their availability, accessibility, capacity, and stability. Scientific applications using either experimental facilities or computation-based simulations with various physical, chemical, climatic, and biological models feature diverse scientific workflows as simple as linear pipelines or as complex as a directed acyclic graphs, which must be executed and supported over wide-area networks with massively distributed resources. Application users oftentimes need to manually configure their computing tasks over networks in an ad hoc manner, hence significantly limiting the productivity of scientists and constraining the utilization of resources. The success of these large-scale distributed applications requires a highly adaptive and massively scalable workflow platform that provides automated and optimized computing and networking services. This project is to design and develop a generic Scientific Workflow Automation and Management Platform (SWAMP), which contains a web-based user interface specially tailored for a target application, a set of user libraries, and several easy-to-use computing and networking toolkits for application scientists to conveniently assemble, execute, monitor, and control complex computing workflows in heterogeneous high-performance network environments. SWAMP will enable the automation and management of the entire process of scientific

  14. Joint Applications Pilot of the National Climate Predictions and Projections Platform and the North Central Climate Science Center: Delivering climate projections on regional scales to support adaptation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, A. J.; Ojima, D. S.; Morisette, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    The DOI North Central Climate Science Center (NC CSC) and the NOAA/NCAR National Climate Predictions and Projections (NCPP) Platform and have initiated a joint pilot study to collaboratively explore the "best available climate information" to support key land management questions and how to provide this information. NCPP's mission is to support state of the art approaches to develop and deliver comprehensive regional climate information and facilitate its use in decision making and adaptation planning. This presentation will describe the evolving joint pilot as a tangible, real-world demonstration of linkages between climate science, ecosystem science and resource management. Our joint pilot is developing a deliberate, ongoing interaction to prototype how NCPP will work with CSCs to develop and deliver needed climate information products, including translational information to support climate data understanding and use. This pilot also will build capacity in the North Central CSC by working with NCPP to use climate information used as input to ecological modeling. We will discuss lessons to date on developing and delivering needed climate information products based on this strategic partnership. Four projects have been funded to collaborate to incorporate climate information as part of an ecological modeling project, which in turn will address key DOI stakeholder priorities in the region: Riparian Corridors: Projecting climate change effects on cottonwood and willow seed dispersal phenology, flood timing, and seedling recruitment in western riparian forests. Sage Grouse & Habitats: Integrating climate and biological data into land management decision models to assess species and habitat vulnerability Grasslands & Forests: Projecting future effects of land management, natural disturbance, and CO2 on woody encroachment in the Northern Great Plains The value of climate information: Supporting management decisions in the Plains and Prairie Potholes LCC. NCCSC's role in

  15. The Effect of a State Department of Education Teacher Mentor Initiative on Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Stephen L.; Wallace, Carolyn S.

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a southern state's department of education program to improve science achievement through embedded professional development of science teachers in the lowest performing schools. The Science Mentor Program provided content and inquiry-based coaching by teacher leaders to science teachers in their own classrooms. The study analyzed the mean scale scores for the science portion of the state's high school graduation test for the years 2004 through 2007 to determine whether schools receiving the intervention scored significantly higher than comparison schools receiving no intervention. The results showed that all schools achieved significant improvement of scale scores between 2004 and 2007, but there were no significant performance differences between intervention and comparison schools, nor were there any significant differences between various subgroups in intervention and comparison schools. However, one subgroup, economically disadvantaged (ED) students, from high-level intervention schools closed the achievement gap with ED students from no-intervention schools across the period of the study. The study provides important information to guide future research on and design of large-scale professional development programs to foster inquiry-based science.

  16. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ination of high quality research generated in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region, ... fisheries, recovery and restoration processes, legal and institutional frameworks, and interactions/relationships ... Science features state-of-the-art review articles and short communications. ... Non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS).

  17. Re-Scoring the Game’s Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasselseder, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study explores immersive presence as well as emotional valence and arousal in the context of dynamic and non-dynamic music scores in the 3rd person action-adventure video game genre while also considering relevant personality traits of the player. 60 subjects answered self-report questionnai......This study explores immersive presence as well as emotional valence and arousal in the context of dynamic and non-dynamic music scores in the 3rd person action-adventure video game genre while also considering relevant personality traits of the player. 60 subjects answered self......-temporal alignment in the resulting emotional congruency of nondiegetic music. Whereas imaginary aspects of immersive presence are systemically affected by the presentation of dynamic music, sensory spatial aspects show higher sensitivity towards the arousal potential of the music score. It is argued...

  18. Further validation of the Indecisiveness Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, W F; Clavin, R H; Clavin, S L; Broida, J

    1994-12-01

    Scores on the Indecisiveness Scale have been shown to be correlated with scores on measures of obsessive-compulsive tendencies and perfectionism for women. This study examined the validity of the Indecisiveness Scale with 41 men whose mean age was 21.1 yr. Indecisiveness scores were significantly correlated with scores on measures of obsessive-compulsive tendencies and perfectionism. Also, undeclared majors had a significantly higher mean on the Indecisiveness Scale than did declared majors.

  19. Scaling down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L Breiger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available While “scaling up” is a lively topic in network science and Big Data analysis today, my purpose in this essay is to articulate an alternative problem, that of “scaling down,” which I believe will also require increased attention in coming years. “Scaling down” is the problem of how macro-level features of Big Data affect, shape, and evoke lower-level features and processes. I identify four aspects of this problem: the extent to which findings from studies of Facebook and other Big-Data platforms apply to human behavior at the scale of church suppers and department politics where we spend much of our lives; the extent to which the mathematics of scaling might be consistent with behavioral principles, moving beyond a “universal” theory of networks to the study of variation within and between networks; and how a large social field, including its history and culture, shapes the typical representations, interactions, and strategies at local levels in a text or social network.

  20. Science teachers’ individual and social learning related to IBSE in the frames of a large-scale, long-term, collaborative TPD project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Sillasen, Martin

    of collaborative inquiries locally. A major theme in the first year has been Inquiry Based Science Education (IBSE) recommended as a focus to improve science education internationally. The research presented focuses on the participating teachers’ intertwined levels of individual and social learning. Data from...... repeated surveys and case studies reveal a positive attitude towards trying IBSE in the own classroom, however with the main part of the reflections focused on students’ hands-on experiences and fewer including students manipulating science ideas, like posing hypotheses. Teachers’ reflections indicate......It is acknowledged internationally that teachers’ Professional Development (TPD) is crucial for reforming science teaching. The Danish QUEST project (“Qualifying in-service Education of Science Teachers”) is designed using widely agreed criteria for effective TPD: content focus, active learning...

  1. Science Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect our nation and promote world stability Science & ; Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Science Highlights Lab Organizations Science Programs Applied

  2. Mobile health technology transforms injury severity scoring in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Richard Trafford; Zargaran, Eiman; Hameed, S Morad; Navsaria, Pradeep; Nicol, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    The burden of data collection associated with injury severity scoring has limited its application in areas of the world with the highest incidence of trauma. Since January 2014, electronic records (electronic Trauma Health Records [eTHRs]) replaced all handwritten records at the Groote Schuur Hospital Trauma Unit in South Africa. Data fields required for Glasgow Coma Scale, Revised Trauma Score, Kampala Trauma Score, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Trauma Score-Injury Severity Score calculations are now prospectively collected. Fifteen months after implementation of eTHR, the injury severity scores were compared as predictors of mortality on three accounts: (1) ability to discriminate (area under receiver operating curve, ROC); (2) ability to calibrate (observed versus expected ratio, O/E); and (3) feasibility of data collection (rate of missing data). A total of 7460 admissions were recorded by eTHR from April 1, 2014 to July 7, 2015, including 770 severely injured patients (ISS > 15) and 950 operations. The mean age was 33.3 y (range 13-94), 77.6% were male, and the mechanism of injury was penetrating in 39.3% of cases. The cohort experienced a mortality rate of 2.5%. Patient reserve predictors required by the scores were 98.7% complete, physiological injury predictors were 95.1% complete, and anatomic injury predictors were 86.9% complete. The discrimination and calibration of Trauma Score-Injury Severity Score was superior for all admissions (ROC 0.9591 and O/E 1.01) and operatively managed patients (ROC 0.8427 and O/E 0.79). In the severely injured cohort, the discriminatory ability of Revised Trauma Score was superior (ROC 0.8315), but no score provided adequate calibration. Emerging mobile health technology enables reliable and sustainable injury severity scoring in a high-volume trauma center in South Africa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of Prehire Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) Police Candidate Scores to Predict Supervisor Ratings of Posthire Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Brewster, JoAnne; Corey, David M; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2015-08-01

    We examined associations between prehire Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scores and posthire performance ratings for a sample of 131 male police officers. Substantive scale scores in this sample were meaningfully lower than those obtained by the test's normative sample and substantially range restricted, but scores were consistent with those produced by members of the police candidate comparison group (Corey & Ben-Porath). After applying a statistical correction for range restriction, we found several associations between MMPI-2-RF substantive scale scores and supervisor ratings of job-related performance. Findings for scales from the emotional dysfunction and interpersonal functioning domains of the test were particularly strong. For example, scales assessing low positive emotions and social avoidance were associated with several criteria that may be affected by lack of engagement with one's environment and other people, including problems with routine task performance, decision making, assertiveness, conscientiousness, and social competence. Implications of these findings for assessment science and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Translation and validation of the new version of the Knee Society Score - The 2011 KS Score - into Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Adriana Lucia Pastore E; Croci, Alberto Tesconi; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Hinckel, Betina Bremer; Pecora, José Ricardo; Demange, Marco Kawamura

    2017-01-01

    Translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the new version of the Knee Society Score - The 2011 KS Score - into Brazilian Portuguese and verification of its measurement properties, reproducibility, and validity. In 2012, the new version of the Knee Society Score was developed and validated. This scale comprises four separate subscales: (a) objective knee score (seven items: 100 points); (b) patient satisfaction score (five items: 40 points); (c) patient expectations score (three items: 15 points); and (d) functional activity score (19 items: 100 points). A total of 90 patients aged 55-85 years were evaluated in a clinical cross-sectional study. The pre-operative translated version was applied to patients with TKA referral, and the post-operative translated version was applied to patients who underwent TKA. Each patient answered the same questionnaire twice and was evaluated by two experts in orthopedic knee surgery. Evaluations were performed pre-operatively and three, six, or 12 months post-operatively. The reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between the two applications. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha. The ICC found no difference between the means of the pre-operative, three-month, and six-month post-operative evaluations between sub-scale items. The Brazilian Portuguese version of The 2011 KS Score is a valid and reliable instrument for objective and subjective evaluation of the functionality of Brazilian patients who undergo TKA and revision TKA.

  5. High throughput sample processing and automated scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar eBrunborg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The comet assay is a sensitive and versatile method for assessing DNA damage in cells. In the traditional version of the assay, there are many manual steps involved and few samples can be treated in one experiment. High throughput modifications have been developed during recent years, and they are reviewed and discussed. These modifications include accelerated scoring of comets; other important elements that have been studied and adapted to high throughput are cultivation and manipulation of cells or tissues before and after exposure, and freezing of treated samples until comet analysis and scoring. High throughput methods save time and money but they are useful also for other reasons: large-scale experiments may be performed which are otherwise not practicable (e.g., analysis of many organs from exposed animals, and human biomonitoring studies, and automation gives more uniform sample treatment and less dependence on operator performance. The high throughput modifications now available vary largely in their versatility, capacity, complexity and costs. The bottleneck for further increase of throughput appears to be the scoring.

  6. Investigation the opinions of the primary science teachers toward practice of teaching and learning activities in science learning area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamnanwong, Pornpaka; Thathong, Kongsak

    2018-01-01

    In preparing a science lesson plan, teachers may deal with numerous difficulties. Having a deep understanding of their problems and their demands is extremely essential for the teachers in preparing themselves for the job. Moreover, it is also crucial for the stakeholders in planning suitable and in-need teachers' professional development programs, in school management, and in teaching aid. This study aimed to investigate the primary school science teachers' opinion toward practice of teaching and learning activities in science learning area. Target group was 292 primary science teachers who teach Grade 4 - 6 students in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand in the academic year of 2014. Data were collected using Questionnaire about Investigation the opinions of the primary science teachers toward practice of teaching and learning activities in science learning area. The questionnaires were consisted of closed questions scored on Likert scale and open-ended questions that invite a sentence response to cover from LS Process Ideas. Research findings were as follow. The primary science teachers' level of opinion toward teaching and learning science subject ranged from 3.19 - 3.93 (mean = 3.43) as "Moderate" level of practice. The primary school science teachers' needs to participate in a training workshop based on LS ranged from 3.66 - 4.22 (mean = 3.90) as "High" level. The result indicated that they were interested in attending a training course under the guidance of the Lesson Study by training on planning of management of science learning to solve teaching problems in science contents with the highest mean score 4.22. Open-ended questions questionnaire showed the needs of the implementation of the lesson plans to be actual classrooms, and supporting for learning Medias, innovations, and equipment for science experimentation.

  7. Science Policy at the Wrong Scale and Without Adequate Political Institutions: Parallels between the U.S. 19th Century and the 21st Century Global Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Constitution of the United States is a document for economic development written by people wary of government failure at the extremes, whether too heavy handed a central government or too loose a confederation. The strong central government favored by Hamilton, Industrialists and later by forward thinking men of the 19th century created a discontinuity wherein government institutions designed to facilitate agriculture were incapable of regulating corporations operating on a national scale, which made mineral and other natural resource exploitation needed to support industrialization enormously profitable. At the same time, Agriculturalists and other conservative citizens sought to control the economy by protecting their rural interests and power. The political institutional power remained with states as agriculturalists and industrialists struggled for economic superiority in the 19th century. As Agriculture moved west, Science warned of the dangers of extending Homesteading regulations into arid regions to no avail. The west was settled in townships without concern for watersheds, carrying capacity, or climatic variability. Gold seekers ignored the consequences of massive hydraulic mining techniques. The tension resident in the Constitution between strong local control of government (states' rights) and a strong central government (nationalism) provided no institutional context to resolve mining problems or other 19th century policy problems linked to rapid population expansion and industrialization. Environmental protection in the late 20th century has been the last wave of nationalized policy solutions following the institution-building blueprint provided by electoral successes in the Progressive, New Deal, and Great Society eras. Suddenly in the 21st century, scientific warnings of dangers again go unheeded, this time as evidence of global warming mounts. Again, tension in policy making exists in all political arenas (executive, legislative and judicial at

  8. Comparing the Scoring of Human Decomposition from Digital Images to Scoring Using On-site Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbs, Gretchen R; Bytheway, Joan A; Connor, Melissa

    2017-09-01

    When in forensic casework or empirical research in-person assessment of human decomposition is not possible, the sensible substitution is color photographic images. To date, no research has confirmed the utility of color photographic images as a proxy for in situ observation of the level of decomposition. Sixteen observers scored photographs of 13 human cadavers in varying decomposition stages (PMI 2-186 days) using the Total Body Score system (total n = 929 observations). The on-site TBS was compared with recorded observations from digital color images using a paired samples t-test. The average difference between on-site and photographic observations was -0.20 (t = -1.679, df = 928, p = 0.094). Individually, only two observers, both students with human decomposition based on digital images can be substituted for assessments based on observation of the corpse in situ, when necessary. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Achievement of Serbian eighth grade students in science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonijević Radovan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the main results and some educational implications of the TIMSS 2003 assessment conducted in Serbia in the fields of the science achievement of Serbian eighth grade students and the science curriculum context of their achievement. There were 4264 students in the sample. It was confirmed that Serbian eighth graders had made average scale score of 468 points in the science, and with this achievement they are placed in the zone of the top of low international benchmarking level, very close to the point of intermediate benchmark. The average science achievement of the Serbian eighth graders is somewhat below the general international science achievement. The best results were achieved in the science content domain of "chemistry", and the lower results in the content domain of "environmental science". Across the defined science cognitive domains, it was confirmed that the Serbian students had achieved the best results in cognitive domain of "factual knowledge" and weaker results in "reasoning and analysis". The achieved results raise many questions about contents of the science curriculum in Serbia, its overall quality and basic characteristics of its implementation. These results can be eligibly used to improve the science curricula and teaching in Serbian primary school. .

  10. Skin scoring in systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Hugh; Bjerring, Peter; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars

    1994-01-01

    Forty-one patients with systemic sclerosis were investigated with a new and simple skin score method measuring the degree of thickening and pliability in seven regions together with area involvement in each region. The highest values were, as expected, found in diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis...... (type III SS) and the lowest in limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (type I SS) with no lesions extending above wrists and ancles. A positive correlation was found to the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen, a serological marker for synthesis of type III collagen. The skin score...

  11. Nutech functional score: A novel scoring system to assess spinal cord injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Geeta; Barthakur, Jitendra Kumar

    2017-06-26

    To develop a new scoring system, nutech functional scores (NFS) for assessing the patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). The conventional scale, American Spinal Injury Association's (ASIA) impairment scale is a measure which precisely describes the severity of the SCI. However, it has various limitations which lead to incomplete assessment of SCI patients. We have developed a 63 point scoring system, i . e ., NFS for patients suffering with SCI. A list of symptoms either common or rare that were found to be associated with SCI was recorded for each patient. On the basis of these lists, we have developed NFS. These lists served as a base to prepare NFS, a 63 point positional (each symptom is sub-graded and get points based on position) and directional (moves in direction BAD → GOOD) scoring system. For non-progressive diseases, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 denote worst, bad, moderate, good and best (normal), respectively. NFS for SCI has been divided into different groups based on the affected part of the body being assessed, i . e ., motor assessment (shoulders, elbow, wrist, fingers-grasp, fingers-release, hip, knee, ankle and toe), sensory assessment, autonomic assessment, bed sore assessment and general assessment. As probability based studies required a range of (-1, 1) or at least the range of (0, 1) to be useful for real world analysis, the grades were converted to respective numeric values. NFS can be considered as a unique tool to assess the improvement in patients with SCI as it overcomes the limitations of ASIA impairment scale.

  12. Shake, Rattle and Roles: Lessons from Experimental Earthquake Engineering for Incorporating Remote Users in Large-Scale E-Science Experiments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Birnholtz, Jeremy P; Horn, Daniel B

    2007-01-01

    While there has been substantial interest in using e-science and cyberinfrastructure technologies to enable synchronous remote participation in experimental research, the details of such participation are in question...

  13. Managing missing scores on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    Background and purpose: It is likely that the most common method for calculating a Roland Morris Disability Index (RMDQ) sum score is to simply ignore any unanswered questions. In contrast, the raw sum score on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is converted to a 0-100 scale, with the advantage...... of unanswered RMDQ questions was measured in a research and a routine care setting. The accuracy of the RMDQ proportional recalculation method was measured using 311 fully completed RMDQ and matching ODI questionnaire sets. Raw sum scores were calculated, and questions systematically dropped. At each stage, sum...

  14. The persistence of depression score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, J.; de Graaf, R.; Ormel, J.; Nolen, W. A.; Grobbee, D. E.; Burger, H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To construct a score that allows prediction of major depressive episode (MDE) persistence in individuals with MDE using determinants of persistence identified in previous research. Method: Data were derived from 250 subjects from the general population with new MDE according to DSM-III-R.

  15. Score distributions in information retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arampatzis, A.; Robertson, S.; Kamps, J.

    2009-01-01

    We review the history of modeling score distributions, focusing on the mixture of normal-exponential by investigating the theoretical as well as the empirical evidence supporting its use. We discuss previously suggested conditions which valid binary mixture models should satisfy, such as the

  16. Developing Scoring Algorithms (Earlier Methods)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  17. Mitigating Mosquito Disease Vectors with Citizen Science: a Review of the GLOBE Observer Mosquito Habitat Mapper Pilot and Implications for Wide-scale Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebeek Kohl, H.; Low, R.; Boger, R. A.; Schwerin, T. G.; Janney, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    The spread of disease vectors, including mosquitoes, is an increasingly significant global environmental issue driven by a warming climate. In 2017, the GLOBE Observer Program launched a new citizen science initiative to map mosquito habitats using the free GLOBE Observer App for smart phones and tablets. The app guides people to identify mosquito larvae and breeding sites, and then once documented, to eliminate or treat the site to prevent further breeding. It also gives citizen scientists the option to identify the mosquito larvae species to determine whether it is one of three genera that potentially could transmit Zika, dengue fever, yellow fever, chikungunya, and other diseases. This data is uploaded to an international database that is freely available to the public and science community. GLOBE Observer piloted the initiative with educators in the United States, Brazil, and Peru, and it is now open for global participation. This presentation will discuss lessons learned in the pilot phase as well as plans to implement the initiative worldwide in partnership with science museums and science centers. GLOBE Observer is the non-student citizen science arm of the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Program, a long-standing, international science and education program that provides students and citizen scientists with the opportunity to participate in data collection and the scientific process, and contribute meaningfully to our understanding of the Earth system and global environment. GLOBE Observer data collection also includes cloud cover and cloud type and land cover/land use (in late 2017).

  18. The efficacy beliefs of preservice science teachers in professional development school and traditional school settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Demetria Lynn

    Teachers' efficacy beliefs have been shown to correlate positively with to the successful implementation of science reform measures (National Research Council, 1996) and are context specific (Koul & Rubba, 1999). Studies on teacher efficacy in specific contexts have been conducted including the availability of resources and parent support (Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2002), classroom management (Emmer & Hickman, 1990; Raudenbush, Rowen, & Cheong, 1992); and institutional climate and behavior of the principal (Hoy & Woolfolk, 1993). The purpose of this study was to compare the science teaching efficacy beliefs of teacher interns prepared in professional development schools with those of student teachers prepared in traditional school settings. Other variables examined included academic level, academic major, and area of science concentration. Preservice science teacher efficacy beliefs were measured using the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument for Preservice Science Teachers, STEBI Form B (Enoch & Riggs, 1990) with demographic information being collected by an accompanying questionnaire. Analyses included scoring the surveys on two scales, Personal Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Scale and the Outcome Expectancy Scale, calculating descriptive statistics, as well as performing MANOVAS and correlations. Results indicate that preservice science teachers working in professional development schools exhibit higher personal science teaching efficacy beliefs. This finding corroborates previous studies on the efficacy beliefs of preservice teachers working in PDS schools (Long, 1996; Sandholtz & Dadlez, 2000). Results also show a strong correlation between the personal science teaching efficacy beliefs and the setting where student teaching takes place. In addition, significant differences were found in the personal science teaching efficacy beliefs between elementary education majors and science majors, science education majors, and secondary education majors

  19. SOS score: an optimized score to screen acute stroke patients for obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilo, Millene R; Sander, Heidi H; Eckeli, Alan L; Fernandes, Regina M F; Dos Santos-Pontelli, Taiza E G; Leite, Joao P; Pontes-Neto, Octavio M

    2014-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is frequent in acute stroke patients, and has been associated with higher mortality and worse prognosis. Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard diagnostic method for OSA, but it is impracticable as a routine for all acute stroke patients. We evaluated the accuracy of two OSA screening tools, the Berlin Questionnaire (BQ), and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) when administered to relatives of acute stroke patients; we also compared these tools against a combined screening score (SOS score). Ischemic stroke patients were submitted to a full PSG at the first night after onset of symptoms. OSA severity was measured by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). BQ and ESS were administered to relatives of stroke patients before the PSG and compared to SOS score for accuracy and C-statistics. We prospectively studied 39 patients. OSA (AHI ≥10/h) was present in 76.9%. The SOS score [area under the curve (AUC): 0.812; P = 0.005] and ESS (AUC: 0.789; P = 0.009) had good predictive value for OSA. The SOS score was the only tool with significant predictive value (AUC: 0.686; P = 0.048) for severe OSA (AHI ≥30/h), when compared to ESS (P = 0.119) and BQ (P = 0.191). The threshold of SOS ≤10 showed high sensitivity (90%) and negative predictive value (96.2%) for OSA; SOS ≥20 showed high specificity (100%) and positive predictive value (92.5%) for severe OSA. The SOS score administered to relatives of stroke patients is a useful tool to screen for OSA and may decrease the need for PSG in acute stroke setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Science Understanding through Playground Physics: Organized Recess Teaching (SUPPORT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Russell

    2010-03-01

    From 1995-2007, U.S. science students in grade four scored higher than the scaled TIMSS average, but their scores did not improve over this time. Moreover, in the area of physical science, the U.S. scored significantly lower than several Asian countries, as well as Russia, England, and Latvia (TIMSS). Methods to enhance student achievement in science are still being sought. An approach to utilizing playground equipment as a teaching tool for a variety of physics concepts was developed as a physical science teaching method. This program established an appropriate set of experiments, coordinated the effort with local school districts, and implemented a brief pilot study to test the teaching methodology. The program assigned undergraduate middle school science education majors to teach small groups of fourth grade students. The experimental group used the newly developed ``Playground Physics'' methodology while the control group used traditional approaches. Follow up activities will include an expansion of the duration and the scope of the program.