Sample records for science role models

  1. Scientists as role models in space science outreach (United States)

    Alexander, D.

    The direct participation of scientists significantly enhances the impact of any E/PO effort. This is particularly true when the scientists come from minority or traditionally under-represented groups and, consequently, become role models for a large number of students while presenting positive counter-examples to the usual stereotypes. In this paper I will discuss the impact of scientists as role models through the successful implementation of a set of space physics games and activities, called Solar Week. Targetted at middle-school girls, the key feature of Solar Week is the "Ask a Scientist" section enabling direct interaction between participating students and volunteer scientists. All of the contributing scientists are women, serving as experts in their field and providing role models to whom the students can relate. Solar Week has completed four sessions with a total of some 140 edcuators and 12,000+ students in over 28 states and 9 countries. A major success of the Solar Week program has been the ability of the students to learn more about the scientists as people, through online biographies, and to discuss a variety of topics ranging from science, to careers and common hobbies.

  2. Enduring Influence of Stereotypical Computer Science Role Models on Women's Academic Aspirations (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Drury, Benjamin J.; Vichayapai, Marissa


    The current work examines whether a brief exposure to a computer science role model who fits stereotypes of computer scientists has a lasting influence on women's interest in the field. One-hundred undergraduate women who were not computer science majors met a female or male peer role model who embodied computer science stereotypes in appearance…

  3. Role Models in Science - An Effective Dissemination Strategy (United States)

    Chatzichristou, Eleni; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Balasis, George; Bourdarie, Sebastien; Horne, Richard B.; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Mann, Ian R.; Santolik, Ondrej; Turner, Drew L.; Giannakis, Omiros; Ropokis, George


    successful career path to both act as role model and to show the challenges that young scientists are facing today. The work leading to this paper has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2011-1) under grant agreement no. 284520 for the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Energization and Loss) collaborative research project. This paper reflects only the authors' views and the Union is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

  4. Increasing women's aspirations and achievement in science: The effect of role models on implicit cognitions (United States)

    Phelan, Julie E.

    This research investigated the role of implicit science beliefs in the gender gap in science aspirations and achievement, with the goal of testing identification with a female role model as a potential intervention strategy for increasing women's representation in science careers. At Time 1, women's implicit science stereotyping (i.e., associating men more than women with science) was linked to more negative (implicit and explicit) attitudes towards science and less identification with science. For men, stereotypes were either non-significantly or positively related to science attitudes and identification. Time 2 examined the influence of implicit and explicit science cognitions on students' science aspirations and achievement, and found that implicit stereotyping, attitudes, and identification were all unique predictors of science aspirations, but not achievement. Of more importance, Time 2 examined the influence of science role models, and found that identification with a role model of either gender reduced women's implicit science stereotyping and increased their positive attitudes toward science. Implications for decreasing the gender gap in advanced science achievement are discussed.

  5. The Role of Emotion in Informal Science Learning: Testing an Exploratory Model (United States)

    Staus, Nancy L.; Falk, John H.


    Although there is substantial research on the effect of emotions on educational outcomes in the classroom, relatively little is known about how emotion affects learning in informal science contexts. We examined the role of emotion in the context of an informal science learning experience by utilizing a path model to investigate the relationships…

  6. Encouraging Girls into Science and Technology with Feminine Role Model: Does This Work? (United States)

    Bamberger, Yael M.


    This study examines the effect of a program that aimed to encourage girls to choose a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career in Israel. The program involved school visits to a high-tech company and meeting with role model female scientists. Sixty ninth-grade female students from a Jewish modern-orthodox single-sex…

  7. Science teacher candidates' perceptions about roles and nature of scientific models (United States)

    Yenilmez Turkoglu, Ayse; Oztekin, Ceren


    Background: Scientific models have important roles in science and science education. For scientists, they provide a means for generating new knowledge or function as an accessible summary of scientific studies. In science education, on the other hand, they are accessible representations of abstract concepts, and are also organizational frameworks to teach and learn inaccessible facts. As being indispensable parts of learning and doing science, use of scientific models in science classes should be reinforced. At this point, uncovering pre-service science teachers' (PSTs) understandings of scientific models are of great importance since they will design and conduct teaching situations for their students. Purpose: The study aimed to provide an answer to the research question: What understandings do PSTs possess about scientific models? Sample: The sample of the study consisted of 14 PSTs enrolled in an Elementary Science Education program in a public university in Ankara, Turkey. Design and methods: Data were collected by using an open-item instrument and semi-structured interviews, and were analyzed by using qualitative data analysis methods. Results: Findings showed that PSTs held fragmented views of models by having informed views in some aspects while having naïve views on others. That is, although they displayed a constructivist orientation by acknowledging the presence of multiple models for the same phenomenon depending on scientists' perspectives or creativity involved in the production of scientific knowledge, PSTs also expressed logical positivist views by believing that models should be close to the real phenomena that they represent. Findings further revealed that PSTs generally conceptualized models' materialistic uses, yet they did not think much about their theoretical and conceptual uses. It was observed that roles like reifying and visualizing were overestimated and models were dominantly characterized as three-dimensional representations

  8. Community-based science education for fourth to sixth graders: Influences of a female role model (United States)

    Acklie, Deanna S.

    Women in the United States are underrepresented in science related careers. The Wonderwise curriculum was designed to encourage young women to become more involved in science and science careers. The Wonderwise kits have won numerous awards for quality science curriculum for formal educational environments. In 2000 the kits were adapted and new kits were developed to meet the needs of a nonformal Teaming environment (i.e., 4-H). The kits contain a video field trip with a featured female scientist demonstrating her work, an activity guidebook with five activities based on this scientist's work, and a CD-Rom serving as an additional resource. This study contributes to our understanding of a group of 4H youth who used the Wonderwise curriculum. It describes their view on science, their perspective about people who do science, the importance of role models within their lives, and their career visions. This study was a multi-method case study design. The subjects were youth ages 9--11 involved in 4H events in a three state area. Events such as overnight camps, day camps, special events and after school programs featuring the Wonderwise curriculum were used as sites for this study. The subjects studied in the Wonderwise 4-H project were primarily female youth who had some interest in science. Nearly half were Caucasian; the remainder were Hispanic, African American and Native American. The 25 youth involved in this study took part in a semi-structure interview process including four research methodologies: open-ended questions, drawing or writing a story about the featured scientist, a card sort activity and a relationship map drawn by the youth. Youths' prior experiences in formal, informal and nonformal settings impacted how they made sense of and incorporated Wonderwise experiences in their frame of reference. Through the experiential learning process youth experienced science activities and connected to individuals with science backgrounds, particularly those

  9. Enhancing the care navigation model: potential roles for health sciences librarians (United States)

    Huber, Jeffrey T.; Shapiro, Robert M.; Burke, Heather J.; Palmer, Aaron


    This study analyzed the overlap between roles and activities that health care navigators perform and competencies identified by the Medical Library Association's (MLA's) educational policy statement. Roles and activities that health care navigators perform were gleaned from published literature. Once common roles and activities that health care navigators perform were identified, MLA competencies were mapped against those roles and activities to identify areas of overlap. The greatest extent of correspondence occurred in patient empowerment and support. Further research is warranted to determine the extent to which health sciences librarians might assume responsibility for roles and activities that health care navigators perform. PMID:24415921

  10. The role of models/and analogies in science education: implications from research (United States)

    Coll, Richard K.; France, Bev; Taylor, Ian


    Models and modelling are key tools for scientists, science teachers and science learners. In this paper we argue that classroom-based research evidence demonstrates that the use of models and analogies within the pedagogy of science education may provide a route for students to gain some understanding of the nature of science. A common theme to emerge from the literature reviewed here is that in order to successfully develop conceptual understandings in science, learners need to be able to reflect on and discuss their understandings of scientific concepts as they are developing them. Pedagogies that involve various types of modelling are most effective when students are able to construct and critique their own and scientists' models. Research also suggests that group work and peer discussion are important ways of enhancing students' cognitive and metacognitive thinking skills. Further we argue that an understanding of science models and the modelling process enables students to develop a metacognitive awareness of knowledge development within the science community, as well as providing the tools to reflect on their own scientific understanding.

  11. Software Uncertainty in Integrated Environmental Modelling: the role of Semantics and Open Science (United States)

    de Rigo, Daniele


    Computational aspects increasingly shape environmental sciences [1]. Actually, transdisciplinary modelling of complex and uncertain environmental systems is challenging computational science (CS) and also the science-policy interface [2-7]. Large spatial-scale problems falling within this category - i.e. wide-scale transdisciplinary modelling for environment (WSTMe) [8-10] - often deal with factors (a) for which deep-uncertainty [2,11-13] may prevent usual statistical analysis of modelled quantities and need different ways for providing policy-making with science-based support. Here, practical recommendations are proposed for tempering a peculiar - not infrequently underestimated - source of uncertainty. Software errors in complex WSTMe may subtly affect the outcomes with possible consequences even on collective environmental decision-making. Semantic transparency in CS [2,8,10,14,15] and free software [16,17] are discussed as possible mitigations (b) . Software uncertainty, black-boxes and free software. Integrated natural resources modelling and management (INRMM) [29] frequently exploits chains of nontrivial data-transformation models (D- TM), each of them affected by uncertainties and errors. Those D-TM chains may be packaged as monolithic specialized models, maybe only accessible as black-box executables (if accessible at all) [50]. For end-users, black-boxes merely transform inputs in the final outputs, relying on classical peer-reviewed publications for describing the internal mechanism. While software tautologically plays a vital role in CS, it is often neglected in favour of more theoretical aspects. This paradox has been provocatively described as "the invisibility of software in published science. Almost all published papers required some coding, but almost none mention software, let alone include or link to source code" [51]. Recently, this primacy of theory over reality [52-54] has been challenged by new emerging hybrid approaches [55] and by the

  12. Encouraging Girls into Science and Technology with Feminine Role Model: Does This Work? (United States)

    Bamberger, Yael M.


    This study examines the effect of a program that aimed to encourage girls to choose a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career in Israel. The program involved school visits to a high-tech company and meeting with role model female scientists. Sixty ninth-grade female students from a Jewish modern-orthodox single-sex secondary school in the same city as the company participated in the study. The control group contained 30 girls from the same classes who did not participate in the program. Data were collected through pre-post questionnaires, observations, and focus group interviews. It was analyzed for three main themes: perceptions of scientists and engineers, capability of dealing with STEM, and future career choice. Findings indicated respect toward the women scientists as being smart and creative, but significant negative change on the perceptions of women scientists/engineers, the capability of dealing with STEM, and the STEM career choices. Possible causes for these results are discussed, as well as implications for education.

  13. The PDS4 Information Model and its Role in Agile Science Data Curation (United States)

    Hughes, J. S.; Crichton, D.


    PDS4 is an information model-driven service architecture supporting the capture, management, distribution and integration of massive planetary science data captured in distributed data archives world-wide. The PDS4 Information Model (IM), the core element of the architecture, was developed using lessons learned from 20 years of archiving Planetary Science Data and best practices for information model development. The foundational principles were adopted from the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model (ISO 14721), the Metadata Registry Specification (ISO/IEC 11179), and W3C XML (Extensible Markup Language) specifications. These provided respectively an object oriented model for archive information systems, a comprehensive schema for data dictionaries and hierarchical governance, and rules for rules for encoding documents electronically. The PDS4 Information model is unique in that it drives the PDS4 infrastructure by providing the representation of concepts and their relationships, constraints, rules, and operations; a sharable, stable, and organized set of information requirements; and machine parsable definitions that are suitable for configuring and generating code. This presentation will provide an over of the PDS4 Information Model and how it is being leveraged to develop and evolve the PDS4 infrastructure and enable agile curation of over 30 years of science data collected by the international Planetary Science community.

  14. Role model identification by medical radiation science practitioners - a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, S.J.; Robinson, J.W.


    Purpose: The objective of this study was to address the paucity of research in role modeling and to develop a greater understanding of role modeling within the occupations of diagnostic radiography and radiation therapy. It can be postulated that the shaping of professional growth may rest with the behavioural models accepted by the workplace or the individuals themselves; thus, role modeling is a vital ingredient in professionalization. The benefits of this research are to advance the attainment of professional development and awareness by diagnostic radiographers and radiation therapists through the processes of identification, classification and construction of generic role models. Method: A study was conducted with eight target centres representing diagnostic and therapy workplaces. The centres ranged from large teaching hospitals to small community hospitals with the inclusion of two large private practices; and geographically, these centres were all located within the Sydney Area Health Services. The research methodology consisted of a structured interview and a short written task. A hierarchical percentage of participants, ranging from chief/manager, senior/charge, junior to recently graduated diagnostic radiographers and radiation therapists were invited to participate in the study. Results and discussion: The results indicated that the generic role models were established for both diagnostic radiographers and radiation therapists despite their varying clinical roles. Also similar was the participants' identification of attributes while viewing themselves as suitable role models. The selection of choice of workplace role model was different for the two occupations. Interestingly, the results indicate a mismatch between the ideal characteristic composition of a role model and the self-perception of the participants as professional role models on the subject of ethical conduct

  15. Role model identification by medical radiation science practitioners - a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, S.J. E-mail:; Robinson, J.W


    Purpose: The objective of this study was to address the paucity of research in role modeling and to develop a greater understanding of role modeling within the occupations of diagnostic radiography and radiation therapy. It can be postulated that the shaping of professional growth may rest with the behavioural models accepted by the workplace or the individuals themselves; thus, role modeling is a vital ingredient in professionalization. The benefits of this research are to advance the attainment of professional development and awareness by diagnostic radiographers and radiation therapists through the processes of identification, classification and construction of generic role models. Method: A study was conducted with eight target centres representing diagnostic and therapy workplaces. The centres ranged from large teaching hospitals to small community hospitals with the inclusion of two large private practices; and geographically, these centres were all located within the Sydney Area Health Services. The research methodology consisted of a structured interview and a short written task. A hierarchical percentage of participants, ranging from chief/manager, senior/charge, junior to recently graduated diagnostic radiographers and radiation therapists were invited to participate in the study. Results and discussion: The results indicated that the generic role models were established for both diagnostic radiographers and radiation therapists despite their varying clinical roles. Also similar was the participants' identification of attributes while viewing themselves as suitable role models. The selection of choice of workplace role model was different for the two occupations. Interestingly, the results indicate a mismatch between the ideal characteristic composition of a role model and the self-perception of the participants as professional role models on the subject of ethical conduct.

  16. The Role Model Effect on Gender Equity: How are Female College Students Influenced by Female Teaching Assistants in Science? (United States)

    Ebert, Darilyn

    The gender gap of women in science is an important and unresolved issue in higher education and occupational opportunities. The present study was motivated by the fact that there are typically fewer females than males advancing in science, and therefore fewer female science instructor role models. This observation inspired the questions: Are female college students influenced in a positive way by female science teaching assistants (TAs), and if so how can their influence be measured? The study tested the hypothesis that female TAs act as role models for female students and thereby encourage interest and increase overall performance. To test this "role model" hypothesis, the reasoning ability and self-efficacy of a sample of 724 introductory college biology students were assessed at the beginning and end of the Spring 2010 semester. Achievement was measured by exams and course work. Performance of four randomly formed groups was compared: 1) female students with female TAs, 2) male students with female TAs, 3) female students with male TAs, and 4) male students with male TAs. Based on the role model hypothesis, female students with female TAs were predicted to perform better than female students with male TAs. However, group comparisons revealed similar performances across all four groups in achievement, reasoning ability and self-efficacy. The slight differences found between the four groups in student exam and coursework scores were not statistically significant. Therefore, the results did not support the role model hypothesis. Given that both lecture professors in the present study were males, and given that professors typically have more teaching experience, finer skills and knowledge of subject matter than do TAs, a future study that includes both female science professors and female TAs, may be more likely to find support for the hypothesis.

  17. A model project for exploring the role of sustainability science in a citizen-centered, collaborative decision-making process (United States)

    Karl, Herman A.; Turner, Christine


    The role of science in society is evolving as we enter the 21st century. The report, Science — The Endless Frontier (Bush 1990[1945]), outlined a model of national scientific research that served the country for 50 years. The contract between science and society established in that report stipulated that science is essential and that basic research meets national needs (Pielke and Byerly 1998). This stipulation and the abundant — seemingly unlimited and unquestioned — funding for research during the Cold War caused many scientists to come to believe that funding for science was an entitlement independent of societal needs. Implicit in this belief is that science alone can solve society’s problems. We now are learning that many policy issues that involve science involve diverse economic, political, social, and aesthetic values as well, and rarely, if ever, is scientific information alone the basis of public policy (e.g., see Sarewitz 1996a, 1996b; Frodeman 1997). Moreover, resources are increasingly more limited and many in society are questioning the value of public-supported science.

  18. The role of outside-school factors in science education: a two-stage theoretical model linking Bourdieu and Sen, with a case study (United States)

    Gokpinar, Tuba; Reiss, Michael


    The literature in science education highlights the potentially significant role of outside-school factors such as parents, cultural contexts and role models in students' formation of science attitudes and aspirations, and their attainment in science classes. In this paper, building on and linking Bourdieu's key concepts of habitus, cultural and social capital, and field with Sen's capability approach, we develop a model of students' science-related capability development. Our model proposes that the role of outside-school factors is twofold, first, in providing an initial set of science-related resources (i.e. habitus, cultural and social capital), and then in conversion of these resources to science-related capabilities. The model also highlights the distinction between science-related functionings (outcomes achieved by individuals) and science-related capabilities (ability to achieve desired functionings), and argues that it is necessary to consider science-related capability development in evaluating the effectiveness of science education. We then test our theoretical model with an account of three Turkish immigrant students' science-related capabilities and the role of outside-school factors in forming and extending these capabilities. We use student and parent interviews, student questionnaires and in-class observations to provide an analysis of how outside-school factors influence these students' attitudes, aspirations and attainment in science.

  19. An integrated model of decision-making in health contexts: the role of science education in health education (United States)

    Arnold, Julia C.


    Health education is to foster health literacy, informed decision-making and to promote health behaviour. To date, there are several models that seek to explain health behaviour (e.g. the Theory of Planned Behaviour or the Health Belief Model). These models include motivational factors (expectancies and values) that play a role in decision-making in health contexts. In this theoretical paper, it is argued that none of these models makes consequent use of expectancy-value pairs. It is further argued that in order to make these models fruitful for science education and for informed decision-making, models should systematically incorporate knowledge as part of the decision-making process. To fill this gap, this theoretical paper introduces The Integrated Model of Decision-Making in Health Contexts. This model includes three types of knowledge (system health knowledge, action-related health knowledge and effectiveness health knowledge) as influencing factors for motivational factors (perceived health threat, attitude towards health action, attitude towards health outcome and subjective norm) that are formed of expectancy-value pairs and lead to decisions. The model's potential for health education in science education as well as research implications is discussed.

  20. Implementation science: a role for parallel dual processing models of reasoning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Paddy A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better theoretical base for understanding professional behaviour change is needed to support evidence-based changes in medical practice. Traditionally strategies to encourage changes in clinical practices have been guided empirically, without explicit consideration of underlying theoretical rationales for such strategies. This paper considers a theoretical framework for reasoning from within psychology for identifying individual differences in cognitive processing between doctors that could moderate the decision to incorporate new evidence into their clinical decision-making. Discussion Parallel dual processing models of reasoning posit two cognitive modes of information processing that are in constant operation as humans reason. One mode has been described as experiential, fast and heuristic; the other as rational, conscious and rule based. Within such models, the uptake of new research evidence can be represented by the latter mode; it is reflective, explicit and intentional. On the other hand, well practiced clinical judgments can be positioned in the experiential mode, being automatic, reflexive and swift. Research suggests that individual differences between people in both cognitive capacity (e.g., intelligence and cognitive processing (e.g., thinking styles influence how both reasoning modes interact. This being so, it is proposed that these same differences between doctors may moderate the uptake of new research evidence. Such dispositional characteristics have largely been ignored in research investigating effective strategies in implementing research evidence. Whilst medical decision-making occurs in a complex social environment with multiple influences and decision makers, it remains true that an individual doctor's judgment still retains a key position in terms of diagnostic and treatment decisions for individual patients. This paper argues therefore, that individual differences between doctors in terms of

  1. Implementation science: a role for parallel dual processing models of reasoning? (United States)

    Sladek, Ruth M; Phillips, Paddy A; Bond, Malcolm J


    A better theoretical base for understanding professional behaviour change is needed to support evidence-based changes in medical practice. Traditionally strategies to encourage changes in clinical practices have been guided empirically, without explicit consideration of underlying theoretical rationales for such strategies. This paper considers a theoretical framework for reasoning from within psychology for identifying individual differences in cognitive processing between doctors that could moderate the decision to incorporate new evidence into their clinical decision-making. Parallel dual processing models of reasoning posit two cognitive modes of information processing that are in constant operation as humans reason. One mode has been described as experiential, fast and heuristic; the other as rational, conscious and rule based. Within such models, the uptake of new research evidence can be represented by the latter mode; it is reflective, explicit and intentional. On the other hand, well practiced clinical judgments can be positioned in the experiential mode, being automatic, reflexive and swift. Research suggests that individual differences between people in both cognitive capacity (e.g., intelligence) and cognitive processing (e.g., thinking styles) influence how both reasoning modes interact. This being so, it is proposed that these same differences between doctors may moderate the uptake of new research evidence. Such dispositional characteristics have largely been ignored in research investigating effective strategies in implementing research evidence. Whilst medical decision-making occurs in a complex social environment with multiple influences and decision makers, it remains true that an individual doctor's judgment still retains a key position in terms of diagnostic and treatment decisions for individual patients. This paper argues therefore, that individual differences between doctors in terms of reasoning are important considerations in any

  2. Models and role models. (United States)

    ten Cate, Jacob M


    Developing experimental models to understand dental caries has been the theme in our research group. Our first, the pH-cycling model, was developed to investigate the chemical reactions in enamel or dentine, which lead to dental caries. It aimed to leverage our understanding of the fluoride mode of action and was also utilized for the formulation of oral care products. In addition, we made use of intra-oral (in situ) models to study other features of the oral environment that drive the de/remineralization balance in individual patients. This model addressed basic questions, such as how enamel and dentine are affected by challenges in the oral cavity, as well as practical issues related to fluoride toothpaste efficacy. The observation that perhaps fluoride is not sufficiently potent to reduce dental caries in the present-day society triggered us to expand our knowledge in the bacterial aetiology of dental caries. For this we developed the Amsterdam Active Attachment biofilm model. Different from studies on planktonic ('single') bacteria, this biofilm model captures bacteria in a habitat similar to dental plaque. With data from the combination of these models, it should be possible to study separate processes which together may lead to dental caries. Also products and novel agents could be evaluated that interfere with either of the processes. Having these separate models in place, a suggestion is made to design computer models to encompass the available information. Models but also role models are of the utmost importance in bringing and guiding research and researchers. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. An Integrated Model of Decision-Making in Health Contexts: The Role of Science Education in Health Education (United States)

    Arnold, Julia C.


    Health education is to foster health literacy, informed decision-making and to promote health behaviour. To date, there are several models that seek to explain health behaviour (e.g. the Theory of Planned Behaviour or the Health Belief Model). These models include motivational factors (expectancies and values) that play a role in decision-making…

  4. Role models and professional development in dentistry: an important resource: The views of early career stage dentists at one academic health science centre in England. (United States)

    Mohamed Osama, O; Gallagher, J E


    The importance of role models, and their differing influence in early, mid- and late careers, has been identified in the process of professional development of medical doctors. There is a paucity of evidence within dentistry on role models and their attributes. To explore the views of early career dentists on positive and negative role models across key phases of professional development, together with role models' attributes and perceived influence. This is a phenomenological study collecting qualitative data through semi-structured interviews based on a topic guide. Dentists in junior (core training) hospital posts in one academic health science centre were all invited to participate. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using framework analysis. Twelve early career stage dentists, 10 of whom were female, reported having role models, mainly positive, in their undergraduate and early career phases. Participants defined role models' attributes in relation to three distinct domains: clinical attributes, personal qualities and teaching skills. Positive role models were described as "prioritising the patient's best interests", "delivering learner-centred teaching and training" and "exhibiting a positive personality", whilst negative role models demonstrated the converse. Early career dentists reported having largely positive dentist role models during- and post-dental school and report their impact on professional values and aspirations, learning outcomes and career choice. The findings suggest that these early career dentists in junior hospital posts have largely experienced and benefitted from positive role models, notably dentists, perceived as playing an important and creative influence promoting professionalism and shaping the career choices of early career stage dentists. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Reinvigorating the role of science in democracy. (United States)

    Rosenberg, Andrew A; Halpern, Michael; Shulman, Seth; Wexler, Celia; Phartiyal, Pallavi


    Private and political interests routinely conspire to sideline and misrepresent science and evidence in the public policy process. The Center for Science and Democracy, a new initiative at the Union of Concerned Scientists, endeavors to change this dynamic to strengthen the role of science in decision making.

  6. How do science centers perceive their role in science teaching?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Alexis; Stougaard, Birgitte; Andersen, Beth Wehner

    This poster presents the data of a survey of 11 science centres in the Region of Southern Denmark. The survey is the initial step in a project which aims, on the one hand, to identify the factors which conditions successful learning outcomes of visits to science centres, and, on the other hand...... and teachers. In the present survey we have approached the topic from the perspective of science centres. Needless to say, the science centres’ own perception of their role in science teaching plays a vital role with respect to the successfulness of such visits. The data of our survey suggest that, also from......, to apply this identification so as to guide the interaction of science teachers and science centres. Recent literature on this topic (Rennie et. al. 2003; Falk & Dierking 2000) suggest that stable learning outcomes of such visits require that such visits are (1) prepared in the sense that the teacher has...

  7. Models and role models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Cate, J.M.


    Developing experimental models to understand dental caries has been the theme in our research group. Our first, the pH-cycling model, was developed to investigate the chemical reactions in enamel or dentine, which lead to dental caries. It aimed to leverage our understanding of the fluoride mode of

  8. Ernst Mach and George Sarton's Successors: The Implicit Role Model of Teaching Science in USA and Elsewhere, Part II (United States)

    Siemsen, Hayo


    George Sarton had a strong influence on modern history of science. The method he pursued throughout his life was the method he had discovered in Ernst Mach's Mechanics when he was a student in Ghent. Sarton was in fact throughout his life implementing a research program inspired by the epistemology of Mach. Sarton in turn inspired many others in several generations (James Conant, Thomas Kuhn, Gerald Holton, etc.). What were the origins of these ideas in Mach and what can this origin tell us about the history of science and science education nowadays? Which ideas proved to be successful and which ones need to be improved upon? The following article will elaborate the epistemological questions, which Charles Darwin's "Origin" raised concerning human knowledge and scientific knowledge and which led Mach to adapt the concept of what is "empirical" in contrast to metaphysical a priori assumptions a second time after Galileo. On this basis Sarton proposed "genesis and development" as the major goal of his journal Isis. Mach had elaborated this epistemology in La Connaissance et l'Erreur ( Knowledge and Error), which Sarton read in 1911 (Hiebert in Knowledge and error. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1976; de Mey in George Sarton centennial. Communication & Cognition, Ghent, pp. 3-6, 1984). Accordingly for Sarton, history becomes not only a subject of science, but a method of science education. Culture—and science as part of culture—is a result of a genetic process. History of science shapes and is shaped by science and science education in a reciprocal process. Its epistemology needs to be adapted to scientific facts and the philosophy of science. Sarton was well aware of the need to develop the history of science and the philosophy of science along the lines of this reciprocal process. It was a very fruitful basis, but a specific part of it Sarton did not elaborate further, namely the erkenntnis-theory and psychology of science education. This proved to be a crucial missing

  9. CENTRAL EUROPE: Role models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Hungary is one of the newcomers to the CERN fold, having joined in 1992. The country's contributions are naturally in line with its slender resources and are not as immediately visible as those of the major Western European Member States. However the approach used and its consequent successes provide a good role model for a smaller nation in an international research environment. This was reflected on 24 September at a meeting of the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) convened in Budapest, continuing an ECFA tradition of holding meetings in national centres to learn more about the physics programmes of different countries. This tradition started with visits to major West European Centres, but last year ECFA held a meeting in Warsaw, its first in a central European country. By far the largest Hungarian population centre, Budapest is also a hub for national research in this sector, with university centres and the KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics of the National Academy of Sciences. However important research work is also carried out in the eastern city of Debrecen. Hungarians look back to the classic investigations of Eotvos early this century as the starting point of their national tradition in fundamental physics. (In the mid-80s, these experiments briefly came back into vogue when there was a suggestion of an additional 'fifth force' contribution to nuclear masses.)

  10. CENTRAL EUROPE: Role models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Hungary is one of the newcomers to the CERN fold, having joined in 1992. The country's contributions are naturally in line with its slender resources and are not as immediately visible as those of the major Western European Member States. However the approach used and its consequent successes provide a good role model for a smaller nation in an international research environment. This was reflected on 24 September at a meeting of the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) convened in Budapest, continuing an ECFA tradition of holding meetings in national centres to learn more about the physics programmes of different countries. This tradition started with visits to major West European Centres, but last year ECFA held a meeting in Warsaw, its first in a central European country. By far the largest Hungarian population centre, Budapest is also a hub for national research in this sector, with university centres and the KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics of the National Academy of Sciences. However important research work is also carried out in the eastern city of Debrecen. Hungarians look back to the classic investigations of Eotvos early this century as the starting point of their national tradition in fundamental physics. (In the mid-80s, these experiments briefly came back into vogue when there was a suggestion of an additional 'fifth force' contribution to nuclear masses.)

  11. The role of science in achieving sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragan, Gleb


    transformation (knowledge of sustainability goals); - Develop vision strategies and collective action capacities to shape transformation processes (knowledge of transformation strategies). A growing body of research on technological change can be found in main stream economic research. Recently new concepts and models have been developed that strengthen the economic basic for transformation and transformation research Science is needed to better understand the carrying capacity of the earth; how much material flow the earth can take. Science is needed both in technology and in environmental change. The social and human sciences too will help us to understand better how to get people to change their collective actions, how to make sustainability a new culture. Research is needed to develop and establish this new culture, and here human and social sciences play an important role. The advent of global environmental change, with its complexities, uncertainties an substantial displacement into the future tense, brings new challenges and tasks for science, public and policy maker. The world cannot afford to sit back and await the empirical evidence. The luxury of unhurried scientific curiosity must be replaced by more urgent attempt to estimate the dimensions of this problem and then feed this information, with all its imperfections and assumptions, into the policy arena. Consideration of human health is a central issue in the emerging international discourse on sustainable development. The terminology help to better understand the problems. It is known that in terminology the concept is commercial for characterising the nature of the subject specificity of terms. The theoretical and practical treatment of terms corresponds to the definition of terms. In scientific literature are mentioned many definitions of terms. The more complex presentation is done by Alen Welburn. Some of these terms are presented in this report. (authors)

  12. The Role of Science Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodsite, Michael Evan; Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Cassotta Pertoldi-Bianchi, Sandra


    also non-Arctic actors, such as China and the EU, which are developing new policies. Stations may not be developed and maintained only for the purpose of the scientific understanding of climatic and environmental impacts but also for function as entities that legitimize national or sovereign claims...... scientific and geopolitical issues. We argue that where there is scientific collaboration there is less risk of military conflict and that the Arctic is not "militarized" based on the international politics and science diplomacy of the Arctic....

  13. Finding Meaningful Roles for Scientists in science Education Reform (United States)

    Evans, Brenda

    Successful efforts to achieve reform in science education require the active and purposeful engagement of professional scientists. Working as partners with teachers, school administrators, science educators, parents, and other stakeholders, scientists can make important contributions to the improvement of science teaching and learning in pre-college classrooms. The world of a practicing university, corporate, or government scientist may seem far removed from that of students in an elementary classroom. However, the science knowledge and understanding of all future scientists and scientifically literate citizens begin with their introduction to scientific concepts and phenomena in childhood and the early grades. Science education is the responsibility of the entire scientific community and is not solely the responsibility of teachers and other professional educators. Scientists can serve many roles in science education reform including the following: (1) Science Content Resource, (2) Career Role Model, (3) Interpreter of Science (4) Validator for the Importance of Learning Science and Mathematics, (5) Champion of Real World Connections and Value of Science, (6) Experience and Access to Funding Sources, (7) Link for Community and Business Support, (8) Political Supporter. Special programs have been developed to assist scientists and engineers to be effective partners and advocates of science education reform. We will discuss the rationale, organization, and results of some of these partnership development programs.

  14. Ernst Mach and George Sarton's Successors: The Implicit Role Model of Teaching Science in USA and Elsewhere, Part II (United States)

    Siemsen, Hayo


    George Sarton had a strong influence on modern history of science. The method he pursued throughout his life was the method he had discovered in Ernst Mach's "Mechanics" when he was a student in Ghent. Sarton was in fact throughout his life implementing a research program inspired by the epistemology of Mach. Sarton in turn inspired many…

  15. The Role of Academic Science (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.


    Increasingly, new science and technology are expected to solve the nation's current economic malaise. Unfortunately, virtually no industrial laboratories are devoted to anything close to basic research, which, historically, has been the source of many of the innovations on which industry has flourished in the past. For example, a number of industrial laboratories contributed significantly to our basic understanding of polymer science and, in the course of doing so, made better and more useful plastics. The strength of the American system of higher education has always been basic research, which is also the cornerstone of the process of graduate education. Before World War II, academic research was the vehicle by which advanced students learned advanced skills--both cognitive and manipulative. It was the structure devised to produce exemplary scientists who could then apply their skills in a number of different kinds of environments; the research results produced were generally of only secondary interest. Now, the academic research establishment has evolved into the source of the "strategic," "relevant," or "targeted" research that will solve the nation's economic problems. As expectations in this regard grow higher, guidelines are bound to become even more specific. Excessive over-direction of basic research activities can have the effect of throttling down the very industry-building discoveries that are so eagerly sought. From one point of view, targeted academic research often goes in the wrong direction. While it is true that most academic research starts off in some direction, it often does not finish going in that direction. The work that stands behind theses and dissertations often bears little resemblance to the problem that was defined when the student began his/her research. Almost every paper that is written as the result of a piece of academic research is either unsophisticatedin itsdetails or irrelevant, in spite of the initial hopes and promises. That

  16. Roles of Teachers in Orchestrating Learning in Elementary Science Classrooms (United States)

    Zhai, Junqing; Tan, Aik-Ling


    This study delves into the different roles that elementary science teachers play in the classroom to orchestrate science learning opportunities for students. Examining the classroom practices of three elementary science teachers in Singapore, we found that teachers shuttle between four key roles in enabling student learning in science. Teachers…

  17. Springer handbook of model-based science

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolotti, Tommaso


    The handbook offers the first comprehensive reference guide to the interdisciplinary field of model-based reasoning. It highlights the role of models as mediators between theory and experimentation, and as educational devices, as well as their relevance in testing hypotheses and explanatory functions. The Springer Handbook merges philosophical, cognitive and epistemological perspectives on models with the more practical needs related to the application of this tool across various disciplines and practices. The result is a unique, reliable source of information that guides readers toward an understanding of different aspects of model-based science, such as the theoretical and cognitive nature of models, as well as their practical and logical aspects. The inferential role of models in hypothetical reasoning, abduction and creativity once they are constructed, adopted, and manipulated for different scientific and technological purposes is also discussed. Written by a group of internationally renowned experts in ...

  18. Role Models on Dope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest; Gleaves, John


    Compared to football-players cyclists are virtuous role models. Yes, Lance Armstrong, Michael Rasmussen and other riders have doped, and because of this they have received the predicate as the most immoral athletes in the sporting world. But if morality is not only a question of whether a person ...... has enhanced his or hers performances by the use of various drugs (and lied about it), but also is about human beings’ relations and interactions, then cycling isn’t as depraved as we like to tell each other. Football is much worse....

  19. Information Science Roles in the Emerging Field of Data Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Marchionini


    Full Text Available The article discusses how data science emerges from information science,statistics, computer science, and knowledge domain. Schools of information stand as meaningful and substantive entities that are critical to the education of scholars and practitioners who work across a wide range of enterprises. Data science is but one emerging field that will benefit from information school engagement.

  20. The Role of Research on Science Teaching and Learning (United States)

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2010


    Research on science teaching and learning plays an important role in improving science literacy, a goal called for in the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996) and supported by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA 2003). NSTA promotes a research agenda that is focused on the goal of enhancing student learning through effective…

  1. Theme: The Role of Science in the Agricultural Education Curriculum. (United States)

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 2002


    Thirteen theme articles discuss integration of science and agriculture, the role of science in agricultural education, biotechnology, agriscience in Tennessee and West Virginia, agriscience and program survival, modernization of agricultural education curriculum, agriscience and service learning, and biotechnology websites. (SK)

  2. Mathematical Modeling in Combustion Science

    CERN Document Server

    Takeno, Tadao


    An important new area of current research in combustion science is reviewed in the contributions to this volume. The complicated phenomena of combustion, such as chemical reactions, heat and mass transfer, and gaseous flows, have so far been studied predominantly by experiment and by phenomenological approaches. But asymptotic analysis and other recent developments are rapidly changing this situation. The contributions in this volume are devoted to mathematical modeling in three areas: high Mach number combustion, complex chemistry and physics, and flame modeling in small scale turbulent flow combustion.

  3. The role of history in science. (United States)

    Creath, Richard


    The case often made by scientists (and philosophers) against history and the history of science in particular is clear. Insofar as a field of study is historical as opposed to law-based, it is trivial. Insofar as a field attends to the past of science as opposed to current scientific issues, its efforts are derivative and, by diverting attention from acquiring new knowledge, deplorable. This case would be devastating if true, but it has almost everything almost exactly wrong. The study of history and the study of laws are not mutually exclusive, but unavoidably linked. Neither can be pursued without the other. Much the same can be said of the history of science. The history of science is neither a distraction from "real" science nor even merely a help to science. Rather, the history of science is an essential part of each science. Seeing that this is so requires a broader understanding of both history and science.

  4. The Role of Science and Discovery Centres in the Public Understanding of Science (United States)

    Short, Daniel B.; Weis, Nicole


    The number of science and discovery centres has grown exponentially over the last two centuries. Science and discovery centres are one of the top five stimuli that influence a career choice in science. Their history, growth, impact and role in the public understanding of science are discussed. (Contains 2 tables, 7 figures, and 21 online…

  5. Bridging the Gap: The Role of Research in Science Education (United States)

    Adams, M. L.; Michael, P. J.


    Teaching in K-12 science classrooms across the country does not accurately model the real processes of science. To fill this gap, programs that integrate science education and research are imperative. Teachers Experiencing Antarctica and the Arctic (TEA) is a program sponsored and supported by many groups including NSF, the Division of Elementary, Secondary, and Informal Education (ESIE), and the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH). It places teachers in partnerships with research scientists conducting work in polar regions. TEA immerses K-12 teachers in the processes of scientific investigation and enables conveyance of the experience to the educational community and public at large. The TEA program paired me with Dr. Peter Michael from the University of Tulsa to participate in AMORE (Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge Expedition) 2001. This international mission, combining the efforts of the USCGC Healy and RV Polarstern, involved cutting-edge research along the geologically and geophysically unsampled submarine Gakkel Ridge. While in the field, I was involved with dredge operations, CTD casts, rock cataloging/ processing, and bathymetric mapping. While immersed in these aspects of research, daily journals documented the scientific research and human aspects of life and work on board the Healy. E-mail capabilities allowed the exchange of hundreds of questions, answers and comments over the course of our expedition. The audience included students, numerous K-12 teachers, research scientists, NSF personnel, strangers, and the press. The expedition interested and impacted hundreds of individuals as it was proceeding. The knowledge gained by science educators through research expeditions promotes an understanding of what research science is all about. It gives teachers a framework on which to build strong, well-prepared students with a greater awareness of the role and relevance of scientific research. Opportunities such as this provide valauble partnerships that bridge

  6. The Role of Critical Thinking in Science Education (United States)

    Santos, Luis Fernando


    This review aims to respond various questions regarding the role of Critical Thinking in Science Education from aspects concerning the importance or relevance of critical thinking in science education, the situation in the classroom and curriculum, and the conception of critical thinking and fostering in science education. This review is specially…

  7. Role model and prototype matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkegaard, Eva; Ulriksen, Lars


    ’ meetings with the role models affected their thoughts concerning STEM students and attending university. The regular self-to-prototype matching process was shown in real-life role-models meetings to be extended to a more complex three-way matching process between students’ self-perceptions, prototype...

  8. The Role of Metaphysical Naturalism in Science (United States)

    Mahner, Martin


    This paper defends the view that metaphysical naturalism is a constitutive ontological principle of science in that the general empirical methods of science, such as observation, measurement and experiment, and thus the very production of empirical evidence, presuppose a no-supernature principle. It examines the consequences of metaphysical…

  9. Role Model, Hero or Champion? Children's Views Concerning Role Models (United States)

    Bricheno, Patricia; Thornton, Mary


    Background: Claims that male role models can improve the behaviour and achievement of boys are familiar and persistent. However, research has not confirmed such a link; recent UK studies indicate that peers and relatives may be far more important to boys than their teachers. Given the seemingly relentless reference to male teachers as role models…

  10. Faithful to science the role of science in religion

    CERN Document Server

    Steane, Andrew M


    Science and religious faith are two of the most important and influential forces in human life, yet there is widespread confusion about how, or indeed whether, they link together. This book describes this combination from the perspective of one who finds that they link together productively and creatively.

  11. Role of accelerator science and technology in medical science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru


    Updated status of compact and advanced-compact medical accelerator development is reviewed. In their applications, medical physics and medical physicist are necessary. Their educational programs have started in several universities and institutes. As one important new trend on life-science, the research on the synergy of DDS (Drug Delivery System) and physical energies are proposed. (author)

  12. Role of radiotracer in animal science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaprasad, N.


    Radiotracers have been used as radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of animal diseases in cattle and pet animals. In fact the veterinary nuclear medicine based on radiotracer as radiopharmaceuticals is established medical technique for functional studies and imaging of vital organs such as heart, lung, brain, spleen, liver, kidney etc for diagnosis as well as treatment of diseases such as cancers in animal. Besides, radiation from radioisotopes has been in use for radiation therapy of cancers in animals. The nuclear imaging using positron emitting radiotracer is gaining importance in the evolution of drug in small animals. In this respect, small animals have also contributed significantly in the development of radiopharmaceuticals particularly for biodistribution and bioscan studies. In fact, the quality control of radiopharmaceuticals in animals to test the safety is a mandatory requirement in the production of radiopharmaceuticals. In brief the animal science has contributed in various areas and facets of radiotracer techniques and its application vice versa the radiotracer techniques have contributed towards the progress of animal science. The animal science in combination with radiotracer has also contributed to the progress of other basic and applied sciences. Thus there exists a bond between radiotracer techniques and animal science. Some aspects of mutual dependence of animal science and radiotracer are elaborated

  13. The motivational theory of role modeling : How role models influence role aspirants' goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgenroth, Thekla; Ryan, Michelle K.; Peters, Kim


    Role models are often suggested as a way of motivating individuals to set and achieve ambitious goals, especially for members of stigmatized groups in achievement settings. Yet, the literature on role models tends not to draw on the motivational literature to explain how role models may help role

  14. `Models of' versus `Models for'. Toward an Agent-Based Conception of Modeling in the Science Classroom (United States)

    Gouvea, Julia; Passmore, Cynthia


    The inclusion of the practice of "developing and using models" in the Framework for K-12 Science Education and in the Next Generation Science Standards provides an opportunity for educators to examine the role this practice plays in science and how it can be leveraged in a science classroom. Drawing on conceptions of models in the philosophy of science, we bring forward an agent-based account of models and discuss the implications of this view for enacting modeling in science classrooms. Models, according to this account, can only be understood with respect to the aims and intentions of a cognitive agent (models for), not solely in terms of how they represent phenomena in the world (models of). We present this contrast as a heuristic— models of versus models for—that can be used to help educators notice and interpret how models are positioned in standards, curriculum, and classrooms.

  15. The role of informal science centers in science education: attitudes, skills, and self-efficacy


    Sasson, Irit


    Informal learning relates to activities that occur outside the school environment. These learning environments, such as visits to science centers provide valuable motivational opportunities for students to learn science. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the pre-academic center in science education and particularly to explore its effects on 750 middle-school students' attitudes toward science, their scientific thinking skills and self-efficacy. Pre and post-case based q...

  16. The Role of Historians of Science in Contemporary Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Agassi


    Full Text Available The famous gulf between the arts and the sciences comes from the current pervasiveness of scientific illiteracy. The resultant increased fragmentation of science threatens scientific research; the resultant increase of the portion of the population of the advanced world that shows general ignorance of science threatens Western culture and democracy, and thus science itself. Historians and popularizers of science can help reduce this gulf. Introducing science historically can help solve many acute social and political problems. Historians of science can try to bring this about. Discussions of the social role of intellectuals (and of historians of science in particular require a great deal of a sense of proportion, since most people are still barely educated, hardly familiar with science, much less with its history. Science nonetheless influences lives. Current increased inaccessibility of science boosts the prevailing excessive scientific specialization that scientific and technological progress have imposed. Consequently, the search diminishes severely for comprehensive overviews of the world and even of specific parts of it, leading to disorientation that imperils even the normal functioning of science. There is then a vital need for a search for remedy. Philosophers and historians and popularizers of science can help develop the tools necessary for this vital search.

  17. The perceived roles and functions of school science subject advisors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deals with the perceived roles and functions of science subject ad- visors. .... social control, rather than effective management and professional development at school ..... authority, restrictions on travelling, lack of mobile units and sci- ence kits ...

  18. Moderate takes key science role in Congress

    CERN Multimedia

    MacIlwain, C


    Sherry Boehlert has been named as chair of the Science committee in the US House of Representatives. Described as a moderate Republican with a keen interest in environmental and energy issues, it is seen as a good appointment by scientists (1/2 page)

  19. The Role of Science in Our Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Matthew


    Science, particularly physics, has been in a relatively privileged position since the end of World War II. Support by the government has been generous and those of us whose careers have spanned the period since World War II have, until recently, seen research funding increasing in real terms. Our support really rested on two assumptions: science would improve the lives of the citizens and science would make us secure in a world that seemed very dangerous because of the US/USSR confrontation. The world situation has changed radically, both politically and economically. The USSR is no more, and economic concerns loom much larger as our deficit has grown and as economic rivals have become much stronger. With these changes has come a re-examination of many of the assumptions about priorities for government activities. It should be no surprise that the rationale for the support of science is one of those things being re-examined. Being re-examined is not very comfortable for those under the microscope, for we are in effect being asked to rejustify our existence in terms of the relevance of our work to the problems that society perceives to be most immediate.

  20. Gender roles and science beliefs and their relationship to science interest (United States)

    Paolucci, Judith Jean

    This study investigated adolescents' views about the nature of science (NOS) and conceptions of their gender identities, and revealed whether these conceptions and views are related to their science interest. Participants were 566 high school students enrolled in chemistry courses at three high schools in a New England state. A questionnaire was used to assess participants' science interest, gender role perceptions, and views about science, as well as to provide background and math and science achievement data. The study found that while student scores of NOS understanding did not differ by gender, some significant differences were noted on the student responses to statements about science. Students with higher-than-average science interest scores responded to these statements differently than students with lower science interest scores; their responses tended to more closely match statements about NOS taken from current reform documents. The study also found that math and science achievement, masculinity scores, and NOS scores accounted for a greater variance of science interest for girls than for boys, though all three also contributed significantly and positively to the regression equation for boys. These predictor variables predicted membership to the lower or higher science interest groups, but could not predict students' career aspiration groups. Thus, other mediating factors not considered in this study may translate high science interest to science career aspiration. The results of this study coed prior research, which found that science and math achievement and masculinity are positively and significantly related to science interest for boy boys and girls. Moreover, the study found that achievement in math and science courses is a greater predictor of science interest for girls than for boys. The results of this study provide a rationale for incorporating the nature of science into the science curriculum. Moreover, since the science interest of boys was

  1. Models in Science Education: Applications of Models in Learning and Teaching Science (United States)

    Ornek, Funda


    In this paper, I discuss different types of models in science education and applications of them in learning and teaching science, in particular physics. Based on the literature, I categorize models as conceptual and mental models according to their characteristics. In addition to these models, there is another model called "physics model" by the…

  2. What makes a good experiment ? reasons and roles in science

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Allan


    What makes a good experiment? Although experimental evidence plays an essential role in science, as Franklin argues, there is no algorithm or simple set of criteria for ranking or evaluating good experiments, and therefore no definitive answer to the question. Experiments can, in fact, be good in any number of ways: conceptually good, methodologically good, technically good, and pedagogically important. And perfection is not a requirement: even experiments with incorrect results can be good, though they must, he argues, be methodologically good, providing good reasons for belief in their results. Franklin revisits the same important question he posed in his 1981 article in the British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, when it was generally believed that the only significant role of experiment in science was to test theories. But experiments can actually play a lot of different roles in science—they can, for example, investigate a subject for which a theory does not exist, help to articulate an existing ...

  3. The role of cocrystals in pharmaceutical science. (United States)

    Shan, Ning; Zaworotko, Michael J


    Pharmaceutical cocrystals, a subset of a long known but little-studied class of compounds, represent an emerging class of crystal forms in the context of pharmaceutical science. They are attractive to pharmaceutical scientists because they can significantly diversify the number of crystal forms that exist for a particular active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and they can lead to improvements in physical properties of clinical relevance. In this article we address pharmaceutical cocrystals from the perspective of design (crystal engineering) and present a series of case studies that demonstrate how they can enhance the solubility, bioavailability, and/or stability of API crystal forms.

  4. The role of consistency in empirical science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Mosterín


    Full Text Available Any inconsistent theory whose underlying logic is classical encompasses all the sentences of its own language. As it denies everything it asserts, it is useless for explaining or predicting anything. Nevertheless, paraconsistent logic has shown that it is possible to live with contradictions and still avoid the collapse of the theory. The main point of this paper is to show that even if it is formally possible to isolate the contradictions and to live with them, this cohabitation is neither desired by working scientists not desirable for the progress of science. Several cases from the recent history of physics and cosmology are analyzed.

  5. Sustaining librarian vitality: embedded librarianship model for health sciences libraries. (United States)

    Wu, Lin; Mi, Misa


    With biomedical information widely accessible from anywhere at any time, health sciences libraries have become less centralized, and they are challenged to stay relevant and vital to the mission and strategic goals of their home institution. One solution is to embed librarians at strategic points in health professions' education, research, and patient care. This article discusses a proposed five-level model of embedded librarianship within the context of health sciences libraries and describes different roles, knowledge, and skills desirable for health sciences librarians working as embedded librarians.

  6. Computational Science Research in Support of Petascale Electromagnetic Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.-Q.


    Computational science research components were vital parts of the SciDAC-1 accelerator project and are continuing to play a critical role in newly-funded SciDAC-2 accelerator project, the Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS). Recent advances and achievements in the area of computational science research in support of petascale electromagnetic modeling for accelerator design analysis are presented, which include shape determination of superconducting RF cavities, mesh-based multilevel preconditioner in solving highly-indefinite linear systems, moving window using h- or p- refinement for time-domain short-range wakefield calculations, and improved scalable application I/O

  7. Role Modeling for Clinical Educators. (United States)

    Ettinger, Ellen Richter


    To become better role models, higher educators in institutions of clinical education should be conscious of the behaviors they demonstrate and the broad range of activities and attitudes that students observe and emulate, including clinical competence, professional demeanor, doctor-patient interactions, ethical values, and social consciousness.…

  8. Good mentors and role models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Today, as a teacher and researcher, I look forward to my day ... essential for women, and that it would prove to be more valuable ... mentors, who have been my role models. ... benefit to make the workplace gender friendly by including more.

  9. [The role of science in policy making--EuSANH-ISA project, framework for science advice for health]. (United States)

    Cianciara, Dorota; Piotrowicz, Maria; Bielska-Lasota, Magdalena; Wysocki, Mirosław J


    Governments and other authorities (including MPs) should be well informed on issues of science and technology. This is particularly important in the era of evidence-based practice. This implies the need to get expert advice. The process by which scientific knowledge is transmitted, along with proposals how to solve the problem, is called science advice. The main aim of the article is to discuss the issue of science advice--definitions, interaction between science and policymaking, and its position in contemporary policies. The second aim is to present European Science Advisory Network for Health (EuSANH), EuSANH-ISA project, and framework for science advice for health which was developed by participants. Furthermore, the role of civil society in decision-making process and science advice is also discussed. Interaction between scientists and policy-makers are described in terms of science-push approach (technocratic model), policy-pull (decisionistic) and simultaneous push-pull approach (pragmatic). The position of science advice is described in historical perspective from the 50s, especially in the last two decades. Description relies to USA, Canada and UK. Principles of scientific advice to government (Government Office for Science, UK) are quoted. Some important documents related to science advice in EU and UN are mentioned. EuSANH network is described as well as EuSANH-ISA project, with its objectives and outcomes. According to findings of this project, the process of science advice for health should follow some steps: framing the issue to be covered; planning entire process leading to the conclusion; drafting the report; reviewing the report and revision; publishing report and assessing the impact on policy.

  10. The Role of Science Education in the Nuclear Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ivan Lind


    The ramifications of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 and the Atom for Peace resolution adopted by the UN in 1954 has been the object of study for some time now, especially with regard to international relations, national security policies and popular culture. Far less...... attention has been paid to the impact of the subsequent UNESCO Atoms for Peace initiatives within science education. This article traces the international ideas about the role of education in the atomic age, as they were formulated by central agents within UNESCO’s Natural Science Department, Section...... of Science Teaching, Social Science Department and the Department of Education. Moving from the rhetoric of international ‘Big Politics’ to the local level of primary schools, the article explores how the Atom for Peace initiative was related to the general science teaching discourse and the already ongoing...

  11. The Use of Problem-Solving Techniques to Develop Semiotic Declarative Knowledge Models about Magnetism and Their Role in Learning for Prospective Science Teachers (United States)

    Ismail, Yilmaz


    This study aims to develop a semiotic declarative knowledge model, which is a positive constructive behavior model that systematically facilitates understanding in order to ensure that learners think accurately and ask the right questions about a topic. The data used to develop the experimental model were obtained using four measurement tools…

  12. Applied modelling and computing in social science

    CERN Document Server

    Povh, Janez


    In social science outstanding results are yielded by advanced simulation methods, based on state of the art software technologies and an appropriate combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. This book presents examples of successful applications of modelling and computing in social science: business and logistic process simulation and optimization, deeper knowledge extractions from big data, better understanding and predicting of social behaviour and modelling health and environment changes.

  13. Problem Solving Model for Science Learning (United States)

    Alberida, H.; Lufri; Festiyed; Barlian, E.


    This research aims to develop problem solving model for science learning in junior high school. The learning model was developed using the ADDIE model. An analysis phase includes curriculum analysis, analysis of students of SMP Kota Padang, analysis of SMP science teachers, learning analysis, as well as the literature review. The design phase includes product planning a science-learning problem-solving model, which consists of syntax, reaction principle, social system, support system, instructional impact and support. Implementation of problem-solving model in science learning to improve students' science process skills. The development stage consists of three steps: a) designing a prototype, b) performing a formative evaluation and c) a prototype revision. Implementation stage is done through a limited trial. A limited trial was conducted on 24 and 26 August 2015 in Class VII 2 SMPN 12 Padang. The evaluation phase was conducted in the form of experiments at SMPN 1 Padang, SMPN 12 Padang and SMP National Padang. Based on the development research done, the syntax model problem solving for science learning at junior high school consists of the introduction, observation, initial problems, data collection, data organization, data analysis/generalization, and communicating.

  14. The perceived roles and functions of school science subject advisors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The science subject advisor can play an important role in upgrading ... literature study highlighted practices in the UK and the US that are ... South Africa has recently adopted a strate- ... (North West Province) felt that a solution to their teaching problems ..... teachers, clustering of schools, practical work, cross teaching,.

  15. Context Based Learning: A Role for Cinema in Science Education (United States)

    Arroio, Agnaldo


    This paper discusses the role of cinema as a tool for science education. Based on the socio-cultural approach put forward by Vygotsky, it draws attention to the fact that an audience can interact with the characters and share their emotions and actions showed in an audiovisual setting. Experiences come from an interaction with a learning…

  16. Building a Democratic Model of Science Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhadi Ibnu


    Full Text Available Earlier in the last century, learning in science, as was learning in other disciplines, was developed according to the philosophy of behaviorism. This did not serve the purposes of learning in science properly, as the students were forced to absorb information transferred from the main and the only source of learning, the teacher. Towards the end of the century a significant shift from behaviorism to constructivism philosophy took place. The shift promoted the development of more democratic models of learning in science which provided greater opportunities to the students to act as real scientist, chattering for the building of knowledge and scientific skills. Considering the characteristics of science and the characteristics of the students as active learners, the shift towards democratic models of learning is unavoidable and is merely a matter of time

  17. The science of dermocosmetics and its role in dermatology. (United States)

    Dreno, B; Araviiskaia, E; Berardesca, E; Bieber, T; Hawk, J; Sanchez-Viera, M; Wolkenstein, P


    Our increased knowledge of normal skin physiology has ushered in a subtle revolution in cosmetic science. Originally designed as preparations to enhance personal appearance by direct application on to the skin, cosmetics have now taken on a new role in dermatology, through the support of the management of many skin disorders. This evolving role of cosmetics in skin care is primarily due to scientific and technological advancements that have changed our understanding of normal skin physiology and how cosmetics modify its appearance both physically and biologically. The vast array of techniques currently available to investigate skin responsivity to multiple stimuli has brought about a new era in cosmetic and dermocosmetic development based on a robust understanding of skin physiology and its varied responses to commonly encountered environmental insults. Most cosmetic research is undertaken on reconstructed skin models crucial in dermatological research, given the strict ban imposed by the European Union on animal testing. In addition, the design and conduct of trials evaluating cosmetics now follow rules comparable to those used in the development and evaluation of pharmaceutical products. Cosmetic research should now aim to ensure all trials adhere to strictly reproducible and scientifically sound methodologies. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the multidisciplinary scientific approach used in formulating dermocosmetics, and to examine the major advances in dermocosmetic development and assessment, the safety and regulatory guidelines governing their production and the exciting future outlook for these dermocosmetic processes following good practice rules. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  18. Deep Generative Models for Molecular Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Bjørn; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Winther, Ole


    Generative deep machine learning models now rival traditional quantum-mechanical computations in predicting properties of new structures, and they come with a significantly lower computational cost, opening new avenues in computational molecular science. In the last few years, a variety of deep...... generative models have been proposed for modeling molecules, which differ in both their model structure and choice of input features. We review these recent advances within deep generative models for predicting molecular properties, with particular focus on models based on the probabilistic autoencoder (or...

  19. New Roles for Scientists and Science Societies to Improve Science Communication (United States)

    Schneider, S. H.


    Should North American Scientists and Science Societies continue with current communication programs or is there a need for expanded and or altered roles in Science Communication? If current practices are working, why is discourse outside of science societies so often misinformed and distorted on environmental change issues that are clearly defined and described within the science community? Climate change is one example there is virtual unanimity and overwhelming evidence from the scientific community that the Earth is warming rapidly and humans are an important cause, but there is confusion in the media and the public, in part due to disinformation campaigns by greenhouse gas polluters and privately funded "Think Tanks." A summary discussion will be presented that addresses many of the ideas and issues brought forward by colleagues in science, science communication and education. Scientists and Science Societies must re-establish objectivity in science information communication to educators, the media and the public. Recommendations on directions will be a key outcome of this presentation.

  20. Scientist Role Models in the Classroom: How Important Is Gender Matching? (United States)

    Conner, Laura D. Carsten; Danielson, Jennifer


    Gender-matched role models are often proposed as a mechanism to increase identification with science among girls, with the ultimate aim of broadening participation in science. While there is a great deal of evidence suggesting that role models can be effective, there is mixed support in the literature for the importance of gender matching. We used…

  1. Applied Mathematics, Modelling and Computational Science

    CERN Document Server

    Kotsireas, Ilias; Makarov, Roman; Melnik, Roderick; Shodiev, Hasan


    The Applied Mathematics, Modelling, and Computational Science (AMMCS) conference aims to promote interdisciplinary research and collaboration. The contributions in this volume cover the latest research in mathematical and computational sciences, modeling, and simulation as well as their applications in natural and social sciences, engineering and technology, industry, and finance. The 2013 conference, the second in a series of AMMCS meetings, was held August 26–30 and organized in cooperation with AIMS and SIAM, with support from the Fields Institute in Toronto, and Wilfrid Laurier University. There were many young scientists at AMMCS-2013, both as presenters and as organizers. This proceedings contains refereed papers contributed by the participants of the AMMCS-2013 after the conference. This volume is suitable for researchers and graduate students, mathematicians and engineers, industrialists, and anyone who would like to delve into the interdisciplinary research of applied and computational mathematics ...

  2. The role of non-epistemic values in engineering models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekmann, S.; Peterson, M.B.


    We argue that non-epistemic values, including moral ones, play an important role in the construction and choice of models in science and engineering. Our main claim is that non-epistemic values are not only "secondary values" that become important just in case epistemic values leave some issues

  3. Modelling Spark Integration in Science Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Paz E. Morales


    Full Text Available The study critically explored how a PASCO-designed technology (SPARK ScienceLearning System is meaningfully integrated into the teaching of selected topics in Earth and Environmental Science. It highlights on modelling the effectiveness of using the SPARK Learning System as a primary tool in learning science that leads to learning and achievement of the students. Data and observation gathered and correlation of the ability of the technology to develop high intrinsic motivation to student achievement were used to design framework on how to meaningfully integrate SPARK ScienceLearning System in teaching Earth and Environmental Science. Research instruments used in this study were adopted from standardized questionnaires available from literature. Achievement test and evaluation form were developed and validated for the purpose of deducing data needed for the study. Interviews were done to delve into the deeper thoughts and emotions of the respondents. Data from the interviews served to validate all numerical data culled from this study. Cross-case analysis of the data was done to reveal some recurring themes, problems and benefits derived by the students in using the SPARK Science Learning System to further establish its effectiveness in the curriculum as a forerunner to the shift towards the 21st Century Learning.

  4. Merchandising's Evolving Role in Family and Consumer Sciences (United States)

    Sullivan, Pauline; Collier, Billie J.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth B.


    Merchandising and consumer economics traditionally have been part of family and consumer sciences (FCS) within the ecosystems framework. The purpose of this article is to examine progress of this sub-system within FCS. Specifically, the authors explore the relevance of the systems approach for merchandising programs and conclude that this model is…

  5. Academic Self-Concept: Modeling and Measuring for Science (United States)

    Hardy, Graham


    In this study, the author developed a model to describe academic self-concept (ASC) in science and validated an instrument for its measurement. Unlike previous models of science ASC, which envisage science as a homogenous single global construct, this model took a multidimensional view by conceiving science self-concept as possessing distinctive…

  6. The Role(s) of Process Models in Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Søren; Jensen, Mads Kunø Nyegaard; Vistisen, Peter


    This paper investigates how design process models are implemented and used in design-driven organisations. The archetypical theoretical framing of process models, describe their primary role as guiding the design process, and assign roles and deliverables throughout the process. We hypothesise...... that the process models also take more communicative roles in practice, both in terms of creating an internal design rationale, as well as demystifying the black box of design thinking to external stakeholders. We investigate this hypothesis through an interview study of four major danish design......-driven organisations, and analyse the different roles their archetypical process models take in their organisations. The main contribution is the identification of three, often overlapping roles, which design process models showed to assume in design-driven organisations: process guidance, adding transparency...

  7. Eliciting physics students mental models via science fiction stories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acar, H.


    This paper presents the results of an experiment which investigated the effects of the using science fiction stories in physics lessons. A questionnaire form containing 2 open-ended questions related to Jules Vernes story From the Earth to the Moon was used with 353, 9th and 10th grade students to determine their pre-conceptions about gravity and weightlessness. Mental models explaining students scientific and alternative views were constructed, according to students replies. After these studies, 6 students were interviewed. In this interview, researches were done about whether science fiction stories had an effect on bringing students pre-conceptions related to physics subjects out, on students inquiring their own concepts and on increasing students interest and motivation towards physics subjects. Studies in this research show that science fiction stories have an effect on arousing students interest and curiosity, have a role encouraging students to inquire their own concepts and are effective in making students alternative views come out

  8. The role of science education for combating and preventing diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaffar, A.


    In most developing countries, the role of science education for combating and preventing diseases is both minimal and impracticable. There are two main reasons to this: i) lack of medical knowledge; and ii) lack of practical knowledge. These consequences may be a result of exclusion of medically trained people in the education system, e.g. in our education systems, there is no established trend of medical doctors to teach at school, college or even at university levels. There is a provision of medical education at teaching hospitals, but they still lack the right educationists and latest trainings at par with global standards. In order to consolidate the concept and promotion of science education in the field of health and medicine, this paper discusses four diseases commonly found in developing countries like Pakistan. These diseases are Poliomyelitis, Malaria, Rabies and Typhoid. The disability/mortality due to Poliomyelitis; the morbidity and mortality as a result of Malaria and Typhoid fever, and a very high death rate (up to 5000/year) as a result of dog bites (Rabies) are reported in Pakistan. The study takes into account myths and mysteries related to these diseases and their consequences/complications leading to mortality. This study is focused on the prophylactic measures (prophylaxis), as an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Prophytactic measures can only be taken by creating awareness about these diseases and re-evaluation of the role of science education in all sectors. (author)

  9. The role of science education for combating and preventing diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaffar, A. [COMSATS Inst. of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Meteorology; Tariq, S. [Department of Meteorology, Islamabad (Pakistan)


    In most developing countries, the role of science education for combating and preventing diseases is both minimal and impracticable. There are two main reasons to this: i) lack of medical knowledge; and ii) lack of practical knowledge. These consequences may be a result of exclusion of medically trained people in the education system, e.g. in our education systems, there is no established trend of medical doctors to teach at school, college or even at university levels. There is a provision of medical education at teaching hospitals, but they still lack the right educationists and latest trainings at par with global standards. In order to consolidate the concept and promotion of science education in the field of health and medicine, this paper discusses four diseases commonly found in developing countries like Pakistan. These diseases are Poliomyelitis, Malaria, Rabies and Typhoid. The disability/mortality due to Poliomyelitis; the morbidity and mortality as a result of Malaria and Typhoid fever, and a very high death rate (up to 5000/year) as a result of dog bites (Rabies) are reported in Pakistan. The study takes into account myths and mysteries related to these diseases and their consequences/complications leading to mortality. This study is focused on the prophylactic measures (prophylaxis), as an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Prophytactic measures can only be taken by creating awareness about these diseases and re-evaluation of the role of science education in all sectors. (author)

  10. Derivation and Implementation of a Model Teaching the Nature of Science Using Informal Science Education Venues (United States)

    Spector, Barbara S.; Burkett, Ruth; Leard, Cyndy


    This paper introduces a model for using informal science education venues as contexts within which to teach the nature of science. The model was initially developed to enable university education students to teach science in elementary schools so as to be consistent with "National Science Education Standards" (NSES) (1996) and "A Framework for…

  11. The role of citizen science in monitoring biodiversity in Ireland (United States)

    Donnelly, Alison; Crowe, Olivia; Regan, Eugenie; Begley, Sinead; Caffarra, Amelia


    Citizen science is proving to be an effective tool in tracking the rapid pace at which our environment is changing over large geographic areas. It is becoming increasingly popular, in places such as North America and some European countries, to engage members of the general public and school pupils in the collection of scientific data to support long-term environmental monitoring. Participants in such schemes are generally volunteers and are referred to as citizen scientists. The Christmas bird count in the US is one of the worlds longest running citizen science projects whereby volunteers have been collecting data on birds on a specific day since 1900. Similar volunteer networks in Ireland have been in existence since the 1960s and were established to monitor the number and diversity of birds throughout the country. More recently, initiatives such as Greenwave (2006) and Nature Watch (2009) invite school children and members of the general public respectively, to record phenology data from a range of common species of plant, insect and bird. In addition, the Irish butterfly and bumblebee monitoring schemes engage volunteers to record data on sightings of these species. The primary purpose of all of these networks is to collect data by which to monitor changes in wildlife development and diversity, and in the case of Greenwave to involve children in hands-on, inquiry-based science. Together these various networks help raise awareness of key environmental issues, such as climate change and loss of biodiversity, while at the same time promote development of scientific skills among the general population. In addition, they provide valuable scientific data by which to track environmental change. Here we examine the role of citizen science in monitoring biodiversity in Ireland and conclude that some of the data collected in these networks can be used to fulfil Ireland's statutory obligations for nature conservation. In addition, a bee thought previously to be extinct

  12. The Role and Evolution of NASA's Earth Science Data Systems (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.


    One of the three strategic goals of NASA is to Advance understanding of Earth and develop technologies to improve the quality of life on our home planet (NASA strategic plan 2014). NASA's Earth Science Data System (ESDS) Program directly supports this goal. NASA has been launching satellites for civilian Earth observations for over 40 years, and collecting data from various types of instruments. Especially since 1990, with the start of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Program, which was a part of the Mission to Planet Earth, the observations have been significantly more extensive in their volumes, variety and velocity. Frequent, global observations are made in support of Earth system science. An open data policy has been in effect since 1990, with no period of exclusive access and non-discriminatory access to data, free of charge. NASA currently holds nearly 10 petabytes of Earth science data including satellite, air-borne, and ground-based measurements and derived geophysical parameter products in digital form. Millions of users around the world are using NASA data for Earth science research and applications. In 2014, over a billion data files were downloaded by users from NASAs EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS), a system with 12 Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) across the U. S. As a core component of the ESDS Program, EOSDIS has been operating since 1994, and has been evolving continuously with advances in information technology. The ESDS Program influences as well as benefits from advances in Earth Science Informatics. The presentation will provide an overview of the role and evolution of NASAs ESDS Program.

  13. Role of natural radiation environment in earth sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohra, K.G.


    Natural ionizing radiations play an important role in a wide spectrum of earth sciences, including meteorology, geophysics, hydrology, atmospheric physics, and atmospheric chemistry. The nature and distribution of ionizing radiation sources and natural radionuclides in the atmospheric environment are summarized. The present status of the use of natural radioactive tracers for atmospheric studies is discussed. The effect of ionization produced by natural radiation sources on atmospheric electricity, the relationship of electrical and meteorological variables, and the possible effects of man-made releases of 85 Kr are considered. Experimental evidence is presented for the production of condensation nuclei by the combined effects of radon and sulfur dioxide

  14. The role of probability arguments in the history of science. (United States)

    Weinert, Friedel


    The paper examines Wesley Salmon's claim that the primary role of plausibility arguments in the history of science is to impose constraints on the prior probability of hypotheses (in the language of Bayesian confirmation theory). A detailed look at Copernicanism and Darwinism and, more briefly, Rutherford's discovery of the atomic nucleus reveals a further and arguably more important role of plausibility arguments. It resides in the consideration of likelihoods, which state how likely a given hypothesis makes a given piece of evidence. In each case the likelihoods raise the probability of one of the competing hypotheses and diminish the credibility of its rival, and this may happen either on the basis of 'old' or 'new' evidence.

  15. Materials Informatics: Statistical Modeling in Material Science. (United States)

    Yosipof, Abraham; Shimanovich, Klimentiy; Senderowitz, Hanoch


    Material informatics is engaged with the application of informatic principles to materials science in order to assist in the discovery and development of new materials. Central to the field is the application of data mining techniques and in particular machine learning approaches, often referred to as Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) modeling, to derive predictive models for a variety of materials-related "activities". Such models can accelerate the development of new materials with favorable properties and provide insight into the factors governing these properties. Here we provide a comparison between medicinal chemistry/drug design and materials-related QSAR modeling and highlight the importance of developing new, materials-specific descriptors. We survey some of the most recent QSAR models developed in materials science with focus on energetic materials and on solar cells. Finally we present new examples of material-informatic analyses of solar cells libraries produced from metal oxides using combinatorial material synthesis. Different analyses lead to interesting physical insights as well as to the design of new cells with potentially improved photovoltaic parameters. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The vital role of transcendental truth in science. (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G


    I have come to believe that science depends for its long-term success on an explicit and pervasive pursuit of the ideal of transcendental truth. 'Transcendental' implies that a value is ideal and ultimate - it is aimed-at but can only imperfectly be known, achieved or measured. So, transcendental truth is located outside of science; beyond scientific methods, processes and peer consensus. Although the ultimate scientific authority of a transcendental value of truth was a view held almost universally by the greatest scientists throughout recorded history, modern science has all-but banished references to truth from professional scientific discourse - these being regarded as wishful, mystical and embarrassing at best, and hypocritical or manipulative at worst. With truth excluded, the highest remaining evaluation mechanism is 'professional consensus' or peer review - beyond which there is no higher court of appeal. Yet in Human accomplishment, Murray argues that cultures which foster great achievement need transcendental values (truth, beauty and virtue) to be a live presence in the culture; such that great artists and thinkers compete to come closer to the ideal. So a scientific system including truth as a live presence apparently performs better than a system which excludes truth. Transcendental truth therefore seems to be real in the pragmatic sense that it makes a difference. To restore the primacy of truth to science a necessary step would be to ensure that only truth-seekers were recruited to the key scientific positions, and to exclude from leadership those who are untruthful or exhibit insufficient devotion to the pursuit of truth. In sum, to remain anchored in its proper role, science should through 'truth talk' frequently be referencing normal professional practice to transcendental truth values. Ultimately, science should be conducted at every level, from top to bottom, on the basis of what Bronowski termed the 'habit of truth'. Such a situation currently

  17. Can the History of Science Contribute to Modelling in Physics Teaching? (United States)

    Machado, Juliana; Braga, Marco Antônio Barbosa


    A characterization of the modelling process in science is proposed for science education, based on Mario Bunge's ideas about the construction of models in science. Galileo's Dialogues are analysed as a potentially fruitful starting point to implement strategies aimed at modelling in the classroom in the light of that proposal. It is argued that a modelling process for science education can be conceived as the evolution from phenomenological approaches towards more representational ones, emphasizing the role of abstraction and idealization in model construction. The shift of reference of theories—from sensible objects to conceptual objects—and the black-box models construction process, which are both explicitly presented features in Galileo's Dialogues, are indicated as highly relevant aspects for modelling in science education.

  18. Using and Developing Measurement Instruments in Science Education: A Rasch Modeling Approach. Science & Engineering Education Sources (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng


    This book meets a demand in the science education community for a comprehensive and introductory measurement book in science education. It describes measurement instruments reported in refereed science education research journals, and introduces the Rasch modeling approach to developing measurement instruments in common science assessment domains,…

  19. The Role of Informal Science Centers in Science Education: Attitudes, Skills, and Self-efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irit Sasson


    Full Text Available Informal learning relates to activities that occur outside the school environment. These learning environments, such as visits to science centers provide valuable motivational opportunities for students to learn science. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the pre-academic center in science education and particularly to explore its effects on 750 middle-school students' attitudes toward science, their scientific thinking skills and self-efficacy. Pre and post-case based questionnaires were designed to assess the students’ higher order thinking skills – inquiry, graphing, and argumentation. In addition, a five-point Likert scale questionnaire was used to assess students' attitudes and self-efficacy. The research results indicated a positive effect of the pre-academic science center activities on scientific thinking skills. A significant improvement in the students' inquiry and graphing skills was found, yet non significant differences were found in argumentation skill. The students significantly improved their ability to ask research questions based on reading a scientific text, and to describe and analyze research results that were presented graphically. While no significant differences were found between girls and boys in the pre-questionnaire, in the post-questionnaire the girls' scores in inquiry skill were significantly higher than boys' scores. Increases in students' positive attitudes toward science and self-efficacy were found but the results were not statistically significant. However, the program length was found to be an important variable that affects achievement of educational goals. A three-dimension-based framework is suggested to characterize learning environments: organizational, psychological, and pedagogical.

  20. The Relationship between Race and Students' Identified Career Role Models and Perceived Role Model Influence (United States)

    Karunanayake, Danesh; Nauta, Margaret M.


    The authors examined whether college students' race was related to the modal race of their identified career role models, the number of identified career role models, and their perceived influence from such models. Consistent with A. Bandura's (1977, 1986) social learning theory, students tended to have role models whose race was the same as…

  1. Defining role models for staff orientation. (United States)

    Kinley, H

    This article examines the need for a formal role model to help integrate new staff within a unit. While acknowledging the range of titles and functions ascribed to such a role in the literature, the author suggests that the essence of the role and its formal recognition has benefits for experienced staff and orientees alike.

  2. A grounded theory study on the role of differentiated instruction in effective middle school science teaching (United States)

    Jones, Brian Kirby

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to develop a model explaining the role of differentiated instruction (DI) in effective middle school science teaching. The study examined the best teaching practices and differentiated elements from eight general education middle school science teachers, all scoring at the highest level of a teaching effectiveness measure on their evaluations, through a collection of observational, interview, survey, and teaching artifact data. The data were analyzed through the methodology of a systematic grounded theory qualitative approach using open, axial, and selective coding to develop a model describing how and to what degree effective middle school science teachers differentiated their best teaching practices. The model that emerged from the data shows instruction as a four-phase process and highlights the major elements of best practices and DI represented at each phase. The model also depicts how teachers narrowed the scope of their differentiating strategies as instruction progressed. The participants incorporated DI into their pedagogies, though in different degrees at each phase, and primarily by using variety to present concepts with multiple types of instruction followed by a series of sense-making activities related to several learning modalities. Teachers scaffolded students carefully, using informal and formal assessment data to inform future instructional decisions and especially their plans to reteach or extend on a concept. The model is intended to provide insight into the value of DI for middle school science teaching.

  3. Dissolving decision making? : Models and their roles in decision-making processes and policy at large

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiss, Ragna; van Egmond, S.


    This article studies the roles three science-based models play in Dutch policy and decision making processes. Key is the interaction between model construction and environment. Their political and scientific environments form contexts that shape the roles of models in policy decision making.

  4. The Instructional Model for Using History of Science (United States)

    Seker, Hayati


    This paper discusses the levels of The Instructional Model for Using History of Science (UHOS) to explain the relationship between the history of science and science teaching. The UHOS model proposes four levels: Conceptual Level, Epistemological Level, Sociocultural Level, and Interest Level. Each Level has sublevels with regards to types of…

  5. Challenges of citizen science contributions to modelling hydrodynamics of floods (United States)

    Assumpção, Thaine Herman; Popescu, Ioana; Jonoski, Andreja; Solomatine, Dimitri P.


    Citizen science is an established mechanism in many fields of science, including ecology, biology and astronomy. Citizen participation ranges from collecting and interpreting data towards designing experiments with scientists and cooperating with water management authorities. In the environmental sciences, its potential has begun to be explored in the past decades and many studies on the applicability to water resources have emerged. Citizen Observatories are at the core of several EU-funded projects such as WeSenseIt, GroundTruth, GroundTruth 2.0 and SCENT (Smart Toolbox for Engaging Citizens into a People-Centric Observation Web) that already resulted in valuable contributions to the field. Buytaert et al. (2014) has already reviewed the role of citizen science in hydrology. The work presented here aims to complement it, reporting and discussing the use of citizen science for modelling the hydrodynamics of floods in a variety of studies. Additionally, it highlights the challenges that lie ahead to utilize more fully the citizen science potential contribution. In this work, focus is given to each component of hydrodynamic models: water level, velocity, flood extent, roughness and topography. It is addressed how citizens have been contributing to each aspect, mainly considering citizens as sensors and citizens as data interpreters. We consider to which kind of model (1D or 2D) the discussed approaches contribute and what their limitations and potential uses are. We found that although certain mechanisms are well established (e.g. the use of Volunteer Geographic Information for soft validation of land-cover and land-use maps), the applications in a modelling context are rather modest. Also, most studies involving models are limited to replacing traditional data with citizen data. We recommend that citizen science continue to be explored in modelling frameworks, in different case studies, taking advantage of the discussed mechanisms and of new sensor technologies

  6. Numerical modeling in materials science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rappaz, Michel; Deville, Michel


    This book introduces the concepts and methodologies related to the modelling of the complex phenomena occurring in materials processing. After a short reminder of conservation laws and constitutive relationships, the authors introduce the main numerical methods: finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements. These techniques are developed in three main chapters of the book that tackle more specific problems: phase transformation, solid mechanics and fluid flow. The two last chapters treat inverse methods to obtain the boundary conditions or the material properties and stochastic methods for microstructural simulation. This book is intended for undergraduate and graduate students in materials science and engineering, mechanical engineering and physics and for engineering professionals or researchers who want to get acquainted with numerical simulation to model and compute materials processing.

  7. Role models for complex networks (United States)

    Reichardt, J.; White, D. R.


    We present a framework for automatically decomposing (“block-modeling”) the functional classes of agents within a complex network. These classes are represented by the nodes of an image graph (“block model”) depicting the main patterns of connectivity and thus functional roles in the network. Using a first principles approach, we derive a measure for the fit of a network to any given image graph allowing objective hypothesis testing. From the properties of an optimal fit, we derive how to find the best fitting image graph directly from the network and present a criterion to avoid overfitting. The method can handle both two-mode and one-mode data, directed and undirected as well as weighted networks and allows for different types of links to be dealt with simultaneously. It is non-parametric and computationally efficient. The concepts of structural equivalence and modularity are found as special cases of our approach. We apply our method to the world trade network and analyze the roles individual countries play in the global economy.

  8. The role of entrepreneurial activities in academic pharmaceutical science research. (United States)

    Stinchcomb, Audra L


    Academic pharmaceutical science research is expanding further and further from the University setting to encompass the for-profit private company setting. This parallels the National Institutes of Health momentum to include multiple funding opportunities for University and private company collaboration. It has been recognized that the nonprofit and for-profit combination research model can accelerate the commercialization of pharmaceutical products, and therefore more efficiently improve human health. Entrepreneurial activities require unique considerations in the University environment, but can be modeled after the commercialization expansion of the academic healthcare enterprise. Challenges and barriers exist to starting a company as an entrepreneurial faculty member, but the rewards to one's personal and professional lives are incomparable. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  9. Transforming community access to space science models (United States)

    MacNeice, Peter; Hesse, Michael; Kuznetsova, Maria; Maddox, Marlo; Rastaetter, Lutz; Berrios, David; Pulkkinen, Antti


    Researching and forecasting the ever changing space environment (often referred to as space weather) and its influence on humans and their activities are model-intensive disciplines. This is true because the physical processes involved are complex, but, in contrast to terrestrial weather, the supporting observations are typically sparse. Models play a vital role in establishing a physically meaningful context for interpreting limited observations, testing theory, and producing both nowcasts and forecasts. For example, with accurate forecasting of hazardous space weather conditions, spacecraft operators can place sensitive systems in safe modes, and power utilities can protect critical network components from damage caused by large currents induced in transmission lines by geomagnetic storms.

  10. The role of science in environmental impact assessment: process and procedure versus purpose in the development of theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashmore, Matthew


    Increasing emphasis has been placed in recent years on development of the theory of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), primarily as a consequence of increasing recognition that the theoretical basis of 'state-of-the-art' EIA is inadequately developed and detailed. This study reviews consideration given in the research literature to the role of science in EIA in order to identify implicit theories. It is suggested that there are two main interpretations of the role of science in EIA (EIA as applied science and EIA as civic science) and five distinct models are identified within these paradigms. These models appear to be based predominantly on existing philosophies of science (such as positivism or relativism) and simplistic and ill-defined conceptions of the purposes of EIA. A broad model is proposed for the advancement of theory regarding the role of science in EIA which emphasises conceptual consideration and empirical investigation of the purposes, and hence outcomes, of EIA and the causal processes utilised to achieve these purposes. The model necessitates a reorientation of the research agenda, away from process and procedure to focus on substantive purposes, and this will require more integrative and connective research than has been commonplace in the past. The EIA research agenda must evolve and mature if this globally significant decision tool is to fulfil its potential

  11. Partial differential equation models in the socio-economic sciences

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin; Caffarelli, Luis; Markowich, Peter A.


    Mathematical models based on partial differential equations (PDEs) have become an integral part of quantitative analysis in most branches of science and engineering, recently expanding also towards biomedicine and socio-economic sciences

  12. Integrated Modelling in CRUCIAL Science Education (United States)

    Mahura, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Mukhamedzhanova, Elena; Nerobelov, Georgiy; Sedeeva, Margarita; Suhodskiy, Alexander; Mostamandy, Suleiman; Smyshlyaev, Sergey


    The NordForsk CRUCIAL project (2016-2017) "Critical steps in understanding land surface - atmosphere interactions: from improved knowledge to socioeconomic solutions" as a part of the Pan-Eurasian EXperiment (PEEX; programme activities, is looking for a deeper collaboration between Nordic-Russian science communities. In particular, following collaboration between Danish and Russian partners, several topics were selected for joint research and are focused on evaluation of: (1) urbanization processes impact on changes in urban weather and climate on urban-subregional-regional scales and at contribution to assessment studies for population and environment; (2) effects of various feedback mechanisms on aerosol and cloud formation and radiative forcing on urban-regional scales for better predicting extreme weather events and at contribution to early warning systems, (3) environmental contamination from continues emissions and industrial accidents for better assessment and decision making for sustainable social and economic development, and (4) climatology of atmospheric boundary layer in northern latitudes to improve understanding of processes, revising parameterizations, and better weather forecasting. These research topics are realized employing the online integrated Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - High Resolution Limited Area Model) model within students' research projects: (1) "Online integrated high-resolution modelling of Saint-Petersburg metropolitan area influence on weather and air pollution forecasting"; (2) "Modeling of aerosol impact on regional-urban scales: case study of Saint-Petersburg metropolitan area"; (3) "Regional modeling and GIS evaluation of environmental pollution from Kola Peninsula sources"; and (4) "Climatology of the High-Latitude Planetary Boundary Layer". The students' projects achieved results and planned young scientists research training on online integrated modelling (Jun 2017) will be presented and

  13. Creating Role models for Japanese Learners


    Brown, Howard


    English classes in Japan are often taught through the medium of Japanese. This sends the message that English is a subject of study rather than a means of communication. A great deal of recent research and pedagogical work has gone into encouraging more classroom English use by Japanese Teachers of English in order to provide positive role models of language use to students. Along with this, other content area faculty members can become role models for students' English success. Results of th...

  14. Utilising the `3P-model' to Characterise the Discipline of Didactics of Science (United States)

    Adúriz-Bravo, Agustín; Izquierdo-Aymerich, Mercè

    In our research within didactics of science, we have been exploring contributions of the so called cognitive models from contemporary philosophy of science. We have used these philosophical frameworks on different levels. As an outcome, we have formulated a model of didactics of science according to which this discipline adapts and transforms theoretical contributions from different scholarly fields. In this paper, we concentrate on this description of didactics of science, which we have called the 3P-model (i.e., philosophy + psychology + pedagogy). This model of the internal functioning of the discipline may be useful to make innovations in science curriculum design and re-conceptualise the role of science teachers as professionals. We see didactics of science as a set of interrelated activities, performed by different individuals, and ranging from theoretical production to practice of science education at school. We find the concept of technoscience suitable to account for this diversity of goals. According to this concept, scientific disciplines are identified both with generation of knowledge and with active intervention on the world. Within current didactics of science, we recognise several kinds of research, having goals more or less directed to practical intervention in science education.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Angulo Delgado


    Full Text Available Understanding the mediating role of science museum in learning scientific content in school, it involves reflecting on the contributions of research to the question of what and how people learn in non-conventional educational settings. It has been shown that most people spend less than 3% of their lives learning in school, which emphasizes the importance of conceptualizing what they are and how much of their learning take place. While that question is resolved, it speaks at this bioassay on the complementary relationship between the museum and the school, as both institutions share the same educational purpose, but differ in the ways of achieving it. The science museum joins the class as a mediator that facilitates student learning as part of an education that promotes understanding of the phenomena of the world through models, which means that school learning goes in stages, one of which is that students have opportunity to structure new knowledge and synthesize on its own model. For this it is necessary that students speak, read, listen and write in science class, while the thought is expressed in language to attest to the facts. These communication skills arise in science class as indicators of mediation exercised by the museum and allow us to understand that it takes place in at least two dimensions: museographic and didactics.

  16. The Nature of Information Science: Changing Models (United States)

    Robinson, Lyn; Karamuftuoglu, Murat


    Introduction: This paper considers the nature of information science as a discipline and profession. Method: It is based on conceptual analysis of the information science literature, and consideration of philosophical perspectives, particularly those of Kuhn and Peirce. Results: It is argued that information science may be understood as a field of…

  17. Development of an Instructional Quality Assurance Model in Nursing Science (United States)

    Ajpru, Haruthai; Pasiphol, Shotiga; Wongwanich, Suwimon


    The purpose of this study was to develop an instructional quality assurance model in nursing science. The study was divided into 3 phases; (1) to study the information for instructional quality assurance model development (2) to develop an instructional quality assurance model in nursing science and (3) to audit and the assessment of the developed…

  18. Computer - based modeling in extract sciences research -III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular modeling techniques have been of great applicability in the study of the biological sciences and other exact science fields like agriculture, mathematics, computer science and the like. In this write up, a list of computer programs for predicting, for instance, the structure of proteins has been provided. Discussions on ...

  19. A Substantiation of Macdonald's Models in Science Curriculum Development. (United States)

    Searles, W. E.


    A history and analysis of science curriculum development is presented. Factors which influence the selection and organization of content in a science curriculum are discussed, including Macdonald's curriculum development models, propositions for curriculum development, and changes made in science curricula during the last century. (CJ)

  20. A new role-model for the future humanities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caviglia, Francesco; Pedersen, Alex Young

    The Knowledge Building approach (henceforth, KB) is a constructionist approach to learn-ing that builds on a Popperian epistemology and the idea of bringing to education “both the goals and the processes of knowledge-creating organizations – as represented, for instance, in scientific research...... of citizens” who work together to design solutions for living better together, which the authors suggest being an equally productive role-model as the idea of a “scientific research groups and industrial design teams”, which is the standard role-model for KB prac-tice. The authors sees this alternative model...... groups and industrial design teams” (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 2014). KB is becoming a signature pedagogy (Shulman, 2005) for scientific disciplines, with nearly all educational interventions quoted by Scardamalia & Bereiter (2014) or presented at con-ferences focusing on natural sciences. Although...

  1. The role of metadata in managing large environmental science datasets. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melton, R.B.; DeVaney, D.M. [eds.] [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); French, J. C. [Univ. of Virginia, (United States)


    The purpose of this workshop was to bring together computer science researchers and environmental sciences data management practitioners to consider the role of metadata in managing large environmental sciences datasets. The objectives included: establishing a common definition of metadata; identifying categories of metadata; defining problems in managing metadata; and defining problems related to linking metadata with primary data.

  2. Modeling and control in the biomedical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, H T


    These notes are based on (i) a series of lectures that I gave at the 14th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress held at the University of Western Ontario August 12-24, 1973 and (li) some of my lectures in a modeling course that I have cotaught in the Division of Bio-Medical Sciences at Brown during the past several years. An earlier version of these notes appeared in the Center for Dynamical Systems Lectures Notes series (CDS LN 73-1, November 1973). I have in this revised and extended version of those earlier notes incorporated a number of changes based both on classroom experience and on my research efforts with several colleagues during the intervening period. The narrow viewpoint of the present notes (use of optimization and control theory in biomedical problems) reflects more the scope of the CMC lectures given in August, 1973 than the scope of my own interests. Indeed, my real interests have included the modeling process itself as well as the contributions made by investiga­ tors who e...

  3. Can role models boost entrepreneurial attitudes? (United States)

    Fellnhofer, Katharina; Puumalainen, Kaisu


    This multi-country study used role models to boost perceptions of entrepreneurial feasibility and desirability. The results of a structural equation model based on a sample comprising 426 individuals who were primarily from Austria, Finland and Greece revealed a significant positive influence on perceived entrepreneurial desirability and feasibility. These findings support the argument for embedding entrepreneurial role models in entrepreneurship education courses to promote entrepreneurial activities. This direction is not only relevant for the academic community but also essential for nascent entrepreneurs, policymakers and society at large.

  4. A Study to Understand the Role of Visual Arts in the Teaching and Learning of Science (United States)

    Dhanapal, Saroja; Kanapathy, Ravi; Mastan, Jamilah


    This research was carried out to understand the role of visual arts in the teaching and learning of science among Grade 3 teachers and students. A mixture of qualitative and quantitative research design was used to discover the different perceptions of both teachers and students on the role of visual arts in science. The data for the research was…

  5. The Scientific Theory Profile: A Philosophy of Science Model for Science Teachers. (United States)

    Loving, Cathleen

    The model developed for use with science teachers--called the Scientific Theory Profile--consists of placing three well-known philosophers of science on a grid, with the x-axis being their methods for judging theories (rational vs. natural) and the y-axis being their views on scientific theories representing the Truth versus mere models of what…

  6. CERN to host conference on the Role of Science in the Information Society

    CERN Multimedia


    "On December 8-9, CERN will host the Role of Science in the Information Society (RSIS) conference, together with UNESCO, the International Council for Science, and the Third World Academy of Sciences. A Summit Event to the first phase of the World Summit on the Information Society (Geneva, December 10-12), RSIS is a grassroots initiative to bring science into the picture of the Summit" (1 page).

  7. The role of ethics in science and engineering. (United States)

    Johnson, Deborah G


    It is generally thought that science and engineering should never cross certain ethical lines. The idea connects ethics to science and engineering, but it frames the relationship in a misleading way. Moral notions and practices inevitably influence and are influenced by science and engineering. The important question is how such interactions should take place. Anticipatory ethics is a new approach that integrates ethics into technological development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Role Models for boosting mobility of women scientists in geosciences (United States)

    Avellis, Giovanna; Theodoridou, Magdalini


    More and more women today are choosing to study science and undertake scientific careers. Likewise mobility during one's career is increasingly important as research tends to be undertaken via international collaboration, often within networks based on the researchers mobility, especially in geosciences. We have developed an ebook on Role Models for boosting mobility of women scientists to showcase the careers of women scientists who have undertaken mobility during their careers. It is hoped that their stories will provide young women who are just starting out in their science careers with inspirational role models, and that these stories give them realistic information about career opportunities: many of them are women scientists in geosciences. These are not famous scientists, but rather real examples of people who express all the passion of the world of science. It is hoped that reading about successful scientists who have achieved a healthy work-life balance while moving to new locations will be particularly helpful for those individuals considering mobility in their own career. The ebook is available to be used by programs that support the development of systematic approaches to increasing the representation and advancement of women in science, engineering and technology, since mobility plays a key role in these programs. The stories contained herein will be useful to mentoring or advising program focusing on career, networking opportunities, discussion and grants opportunities in conjunction with mobility. There is still a gap between female graduates and the pool of female job applicants - even though the proportion of female graduate students and postdocs in most scientific fields is higher today than it is ever been. Therefore we suggest that focus should be placed on examining the real challenges which women need to overcome, particularly when "mobility" comes into play. Role models who have overcome these challenges will continue to play an important

  9. Schools, science, social justice, and the role of violence (United States)

    Weinstein, Matthew


    This article is a response to Carolina Castano's article "Extending the purposes of science education." Drawing on personal memories of life in Bogotá, I raise questions about the nature of violence in Colombia broadly, and ask how the intervention Castano proposes changes the ecology of violence in that country. It also ponders the relationship between schools, science, and violence. In conclusion it urges that science educators follow Castano's recommendation to make science education responsive to local community needs rather than standardized visions of education.

  10. The teacher's role in college level classes for non-science majors: A constructivist approach for teaching prospective science teachers (United States)

    Abbas, Abdullah Othman


    This interpretive research set out to investigate the characteristics of an exemplary college science instructor who endeavors to improve teaching and learning in a physical science course for prospective teachers. The course was innovative in the sense that it was designed to meet the specific needs of prospective elementary teachers who needed to have models of how to teach science in a way that employed materials and small group activities. The central purpose for this study is to understand the metaphors that Mark (a pseudonym), the chemistry instructor in the course, used as referents to conceptualize his roles and frame actions and interactions in the classroom. Within the theoretical frame of constructivism, human cognitive interests, and co-participation theories, an ethnographic research design, described by Erickson (1986), Guba and Lincoln (1989), and Gallagher (1991), was employed in the study. The main sources of data for this study were field notes, transcript analysis of interviews with the instructor and students, and analyses of videotaped excerpts. Additional data sources, such as student journals and the results of students' responses to the University/Community College Student Questionnaire which was developed by a group science education researchers at Florida State University, were employed to maximize that the assertions I constructed were consistent with the variety of data. Data analyses and interpretation in the study focused on identifying the aspects which the instructor and the researcher might find useful in reflecting to understand what was happening and why that was happening in the classroom. The analysis reveals how the instructor used constructivism as a referent for his teaching and the learning of his students. To be consistent with his beliefs and goals that prospective teachers should enjoy their journey of learning chemistry, Mark, the driver in the journey, used the roles of controller, facilitator, learner, and entertainer

  11. Role modeling excellence in clinical nursing practice. (United States)

    Perry, R N Beth


    Role modeling excellence in clinical nursing practice is the focus of this paper. The phenomenological research study reported involved a group of 8 nurses identified by their colleagues as exemplary. The major theme revealed in this study was that these exemplary nurses were also excellent role models in the clinical setting. This paper details approaches used by these nurses that made them excellent role models. Specifically, the themes of attending to the little things, making connections, maintaining a light-hearted attitude, modeling, and affirming others are presented. These themes are discussed within the framework of Watson [Watson, J., 1989. Human caring and suffering: a subjective model for health services. In: Watson, J., Taylor, R. (Eds.), They Shall Not Hurt: Human Suffering and Human Caring. Colorado University, Boulder, CO] "transpersonal caring" and [Bandura, A., 1997. Social Learning Theory. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ] "Social Learning Theory." Particular emphasis in the discussion is on how positive role modeling by exemplary practitioners can contribute to the education of clinical nurses in the practice setting.

  12. The influence of role-specific self-concept and sex-role identity on career choices in science (United States)

    Baker, Dale R.

    Despite much effort on the part of educators the number of females who choose science careers remains low. This research focuses on two factors which may be influencing females in their choice of careers. These factors are role-specific self-concept in science and self perception in terms of stereotypical masculine and feminine characteristics. In addition logical ability and mathematics and science courses were also examined as factors in career choice. Females preferring science related careers and females preferring nontraditional careers such as police, military and trades were found to have a positive role-specific self-concept and a masculine perception of themselves. Females preferring traditional careers such as teacher or hairdresser had a poor role-specific self-concept and a more feminine perception of themselves. Males as a group were found to have a more positive role-specific self-concept than females. Logical ability was also related to a science career preference for both males and females. Males expected to take more higher level math courses than females, while females preferring science careers expected to take the most higher level science courses.

  13. Effects of gender and role selection in cooperative learning groups on science inquiry achievement (United States)

    Affhalter, Maria Geralyn

    An action research project using science inquiry labs and cooperative learning groups examined the effects of same-gender and co-educational classrooms on science achievement and teacher-assigned or self-selected group roles on students' role preferences. Fifty-nine seventh grade students from a small rural school district participated in two inquiry labs in co-educational classrooms or in an all-female classroom, as determined by parents at the beginning of the academic year. Students were assigned to the same cooperative groups for the duration of the study. Pretests and posttests were administered for each inquiry-based science lab. Posttest assessments included questions for student reflection on role assignment and role preference. Instruction did not vary and a female science teacher taught all class sections. The same-gender classroom and co-ed classrooms produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Students' cooperative group roles, whether teacher-assigned or self-selected, produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Male and female students shared equally in favorable and unfavorable reactions to their group roles during the science inquiry labs. Reflections on the selection of the leader role revealed a need for females in co-ed groups to be "in charge". When reflecting on her favorite role of leader, one female student in a co-ed group stated, "I like to have people actually listen to me".

  14. Models of science dynamics encounters between complexity theory and information sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Börner, Katy; Besselaar, Peter


    Models of science dynamics aim to capture the structure and evolution of science. They are developed in an emerging research area in which scholars, scientific institutions and scientific communications become themselves basic objects of research. In order to understand phenomena as diverse as the structure of evolving co-authorship networks or citation diffusion patterns, different models have been developed. They include conceptual models based on historical and ethnographic observations, mathematical descriptions of measurable phenomena, and computational algorithms. Despite its evident importance, the mathematical modeling of science still lacks a unifying framework and a comprehensive research agenda. This book aims to fill this gap, reviewing and describing major threads in the mathematical modeling of science dynamics for a wider academic and professional audience. The model classes presented here cover stochastic and statistical models, game-theoretic approaches, agent-based simulations, population-dy...

  15. Science Instructional Leadership: The Role of the Department Chair (United States)

    Peacock, Jeremy S.


    With science teachers facing comprehensive curriculum reform that will shape science education for decades to come, high school department chairs represent a critical resource for instructional leadership and teacher support. While the historical literature on the department chair indicates that chairs are in prime positions to provide…

  16. The Role of Interest in Learning Science through Stories (United States)

    Klassen, Stephen; Klassen, Cathrine Froese


    A major aspect of the power of a historically based science story derives from its ability to cultivate interest in the reader or listener. In this paper, we review the research on interest originating from diverse scholarly areas and apply it to the understanding, construction, and effective use of science stories in both formal and informal…

  17. The role by scientific publications in science communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Fabbri


    Full Text Available In their contributions to this special issue, the British science writer Jon Turney and the American scholar Bruce Lewenstein discuss the validity of the book as a means for science communication in the era of the Internet, whereas the article by Vittorio Bo deals with scientific publishing in a broader sense.

  18. Library Science Education: A New Role for Academic Libraries (United States)

    Wesley, Threasa L.


    Many individuals working in library and information organizations do not hold a master of library science (MLS) degree or other specialized library science credential. Recognizing that this professional gap could be addressed by diversified educational opportunities, the W. Frank Steely Library at Northern Kentucky University in Highland Heights…

  19. Modeling economic growth fuelled by science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Costa Ribeiro


    Full Text Available This paper suggests a simulation model to investigate how science and technology fuel economic growth. This model is built upon a synthesis of technological capabilities represented by national innovation systems. This paper gathers data of papers and patents for 183 countries between 1999 and 2003, as well as GDP and population for 2003. These data show a strong correlation between science, technology and income. Three simulation exercises are performed. Feeding our algorithm with data for population, patents and scientific papers, we obtain the world income distribution. These results support our conjecture on the role of science and technology as sources of the wealth of nations.Este artigo propõe um modelo de simulação para investigar a contribuição da ciência e da tecnologia para o crescimento econômico. O ponto de partida são os sistemas nacionais de inovação, um conceito que sintetiza a capacitação tecnológica das nações. Desta forma, o modelo pode preservar simplicidade e parcimônia. Os dados coletados (patentes, artigos e PIB e população, para 183 países indicam uma forte correlação entre ciência, tecnologia e renda. Três exercícios com simulações são realizados para diversos momentos do tempo, mostrando a progressiva aderência do modelo a essas variáveis tecnológicas.

  20. The Changing Roles of Science Specialists during a Capacity Building Program for Primary School Science (United States)

    Herbert, Sandra; Xu, Lihua; Kelly, Leissa


    Science education starts at primary school. Yet, recent research shows primary school teachers lack confidence and competence in teaching science (Prinsley & Johnston, 2015). A Victorian state government science specialist initiative responded to this concern by providing professional learning programs to schools across Victoria. Drawing on…

  1. Investigating Omani Science Teachers' Attitudes towards Teaching Science: The Role of Gender and Teaching Experiences (United States)

    Ambusaidi, Abdullah; Al-Farei, Khalid


    A 30-item questionnaire was designed to determine Omani science teachers' attitudes toward teaching science and whether or not these attitudes differ according to gender and teaching experiences of teachers. The questionnaire items were divided into 3 domains: classroom preparation, managing hands-on science, and development appropriateness. The…

  2. New practices in science communication: Roles of professionals in science and technology development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wehrmann, Caroline; Dijkstra, Anne M.


    Currently, Science Communication (SC) professionals who are working in the context of science and technology development, have various jobs at universities, government agencies, NGOs and industry. Their positions have changed in recent years, due to developments in science and technology and to

  3. Role Model Influencers of Nontraditional Professional Women. (United States)

    Lunneborg, Patricia W.


    Tested the influence of a supportive family on 142 women employed in or studying for nontraditional careers. Results showed the importance of emotional support by parents, siblings, peers and teachers. Suggests counselors encourage women to locate role models and mentors if preparing for nontraditional careers. (Author/JAC)

  4. The Normative Dimension in Transdisciplinarity, Transition Management, and Transformation Sciences: New Roles of Science and Universities in Sustainable Transitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland W. Scholz


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the role normative aspects play in different approaches of science–practice collaboration, in particular as action research, (Mode 2 Transdisciplinarity (Td, Transition Management (TM, and Transformative Science (TSc. We elaborate on the different roles that scientists in these processes play. They work as facilitators (or contribute to a facilitated Td process, as activists (i.e., activist researchers in TM projects, and as catalysts in TSc. Td processes develop socially robust solutions for sustainable transitioning and impacts on the science system through mutual learning and by integrating epistemics (i.e., ways of knowing from science and practice and focusing on the empowerment of stakeholders. Science is viewed as a public good aiming to serve all key stakeholders. Researchers involved in TM projects strive to influence ongoing transition processes by actively engaging and participating in them, including lobbying for and empowering transformative changes toward sustainability based upon the researchers’ own analyses and world views. The TSc approach takes a catalyst perspective of the scientist’s role in inducing processes of strategic (societal transition when including certain stakeholder groups. The paper focuses on what roles normative aspects play in the different approaches and new societal demands imposed on science and universities. Based on this, we conclude that a new order of universities, public knowledge institutions, and boundary institutions is forthcoming.

  5. Manipulating Our Futures: The Role of Science Fiction in Education. (United States)

    Michalsky, Walt


    A rationale is presented for using science fiction in the English classroom, emphasizing that students like the genre and that it teaches them to analyze and interpret social and technological change. (SJL)

  6. Contextualising the role of the gatekeeper in social science research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on the physical premises of a specified organisation, for example, employees of ... Discipline of Psychology, School of Applied Human Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, ... research site has the resources to host the proposed study, and to.

  7. Imaginative science education the central role of imagination in science education

    CERN Document Server

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis


    This book is about imaginative approaches to teaching and learning school science. Its central premise is that science learning should reflect the nature of science, and therefore be approached as an imaginative/creative activity. As such, the book can be seen as an original contribution of ideas relating to imagination and creativity in science education. The approaches discussed in the book are storytelling, the experience of wonder, the development of ‘romantic understanding’, and creative science, including science through visual art, poetry and dramatization. However, given the perennial problem of how to engage students (of all ages) in science, the notion of ‘aesthetic experience’, and hence the possibility for students to have more holistic and fulfilling learning experiences through the aforementioned imaginative approaches, is also discussed. Each chapter provides an in-depth discussion of the theoretical background of a specific imaginative approach (e.g., storytelling, ‘wonder-full’ s...

  8. Expanding Science Teacher Preparation: the Role of External Funding (United States)

    Lindberg, John M.; Vokos, S.; Seeley, L.; Close, E.


    The Department of Physics and the School of Education at Seattle Pacific University are in the early stages of expanding the scope and reach of our science teacher preparation. We will describe how we are putting the puzzle together and our results to date. * Supported in part by NSF grant #ESI-0455796, NSF grant # DUE-0630460, NSF grant DUE-0310583, The Boeing Corporation, PhysTec and the SPU Science Initiative.

  9. Using Role-Play for Expert Science Communication with Professional Stakeholders in Flood Risk Management (United States)

    McEwen, Lindsey; Stokes, Alison; Crowley, Kate; Roberts, Carolyn


    This paper explores role-play pedagogies in learning and communicating about cutting-edge flood science by flood risk management professionals in local government. It outlines role-play process/structure and evaluates participant perceptions of their learning experiences. Issues were impacts of prior role-play experience on attitudes brought to…

  10. Academic Self-Concept: Modeling and Measuring for Science (United States)

    Hardy, Graham


    In this study, the author developed a model to describe academic self-concept (ASC) in science and validated an instrument for its measurement. Unlike previous models of science ASC, which envisage science as a homogenous single global construct, this model took a multidimensional view by conceiving science self-concept as possessing distinctive facets including conceptual and procedural elements. In the first part of the study, data were collected from 1,483 students attending eight secondary schools in England, through the use of a newly devised Secondary Self-Concept Science Instrument, and structural equation modeling was employed to test and validate a model. In the second part of the study, the data were analysed within the new self-concept framework to examine learners' ASC profiles across the domains of science, with particular attention paid to age- and gender-related differences. The study found that the proposed science self-concept model exhibited robust measures of fit and construct validity, which were shown to be invariant across gender and age subgroups. The self-concept profiles were heterogeneous in nature with the component relating to self-concept in physics, being surprisingly positive in comparison to other aspects of science. This outcome is in stark contrast to data reported elsewhere and raises important issues about the nature of young learners' self-conceptions about science. The paper concludes with an analysis of the potential utility of the self-concept measurement instrument as a pedagogical device for science educators and learners of science.

  11. The Normative Dimension in Transdisciplinarity, Transition Management, and Transformation Sciences: New Roles of Science and Universities in Sustainable Transitioning


    Scholz, Roland W.


    This paper discusses the role normative aspects play in different approaches of science–practice collaboration, in particular as action research, (Mode 2) Transdisciplinarity (Td), Transition Management (TM), and Transformative Science (TSc). We elaborate on the different roles that scientists in these processes play. They work as facilitators (or contribute to a facilitated Td process), as activists (i.e., activist researchers) in TM projects, and as catalysts in TSc. Td processes develop so...

  12. Cartographic modeling: The role and importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikonović Vesna


    Full Text Available Aim and sense of cartographic modeling is to represent essential, typical and characteristically attributes of mapping territory. Cartographic modeling is applying in two phases: 1. trough theoretical modeling and creating mind models (by notice relevant factors of space, modeling is in cartographer’s mind and 2. trough practical modeling and making prototype model (continuing and objectification of mind model which one has bigger degree of concrezation and experimented role. The maps are mathematical and logical models, which are not just representing the contents of the real space, but also their specific and relational traits which can’t be seen at first sight. Atlas is modeled contexture contents of treated thematic of space on optimal map union. Atlases are higher form of cartography. Modern computer's technology and specific software make possible better and faster making of all kinds of maps, atlases and spatial analysis connections and relationships among all elements of contents from concrete space which is, until now, demand much more time or they can not imagine.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne T. Helliar


    Full Text Available This is a review of the role of practical work in UK’s secondary school science lessons, the impact that practical work has in the promotion of science, the challenges created through use of non-specialist science teachers and a possible additional role for science technicians. The paper considers how improved deployment of suitably experienced school science technicians and their recognition, by schools’ management, for their involvement in the delivery of training in the use of practical work, for less experienced teachers, could benefit schools and their students. This together with its companion paper endeavours to show how the more effective use of practical work and technicians can encourage more students to select science at higher, non-compulsory levels.

  14. Some random models in traffic science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjorth, U.


    We give an overview of stochastic models for the following traffic phenomena. Models for traffic flow including gaps and capacities for lanes, crossings and roundabouts. Models for wanted and achieved speed distributions. Mode selection models including dispersed equilibrium models and traffic accident models. Also some statistical questions are discussed. 60 refs, 1 tab

  15. Science communication in regenerative medicine: Implications for the role of academic society and science policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuma Shineha


    Full Text Available It is essential to understand the hurdles, motivation, and other issues affecting scientists' active participation in science communication to bridge the gap between science and society. This study analyzed 1115 responses of Japanese scientists regarding their attitudes toward science communication through a questionnaire focusing on the field of stem cell and regenerative medicine. As a result, we found that scientists face systemic issues such as lack of funding, time, opportunities, and evaluation systems for science communication. At the same time, there is a disparity of attitudes toward media discourse between scientists and the public.

  16. Review of State-Space Models for Fisheries Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aeberhard, William H.; Flemming, Joanna Mills; Nielsen, Anders


    Fisheries science is concerned with the management and understanding of the raising and harvesting of fish. Fish stocks are assessed using biological and fisheries data with the goal of estimating either their total population or biomass. Stock assessment models also make it possible to predict how...... highlights what should be considered best practices for science-based fisheries management....

  17. A "Semantic" View of Scientific Models for Science Education (United States)

    Adúriz-Bravo, Agustín


    In this paper I inspect a "semantic" view of scientific models taken from contemporary philosophy of science-I draw upon the so-called "semanticist family", which frontally challenges the received, syntactic conception of scientific theories. I argue that a semantic view may be of use both for science education in the…

  18. Nature of Science and Models: Comparing Portuguese Prospective Teachers' Views (United States)

    Torres, Joana; Vasconcelos, Clara


    Despite the relevance of nature of science and scientific models in science education, studies reveal that students do not possess adequate views regarding these topics. Bearing in mind that both teachers' views and knowledge strongly influence students' educational experiences, the main scope of this study was to evaluate Portuguese prospective…

  19. A Pedagogical Model for Science Education through Blended Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bidarra, José; Rusman, Ellen


    This paper proposes a framework to support science education through blended learning, based on a participatory and interactive approach supported by ICT-based tools, called Science Learning Activities Model (SLAM). The study constitutes a work in progress and started as a response to complex

  20. [The role of science and technology in Canada's implementation strategy for climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oulton, D.


    The scientific-technical challenge facing Canada in meeting its Kyoto target was the subject of this discourse. It was suggested that in order to meet the six per cent reduction target we need to introduce new technology into the economy, but just as importantly, we need to change how people use energy and how they use things that emit greenhouse gases. The role that climate change experts can and must play in defining what needs to be done and how to do it, and the crucial contribution that science, analysis and modelling can make to the process, were discussed at length. The question of federal leadership, the role of the Climate Change Secretariat, the role of the Climate Change Action Fund, early action initiatives, the performance of the voluntary action initiative and its future role, federal-provincial cooperation in formulating and implementing climate change policy, and the question of whether or not to impose common greenhouse gas emission targets and timetables on all nations were some of the other major points touched upon. With regard to developing countries, this author put forth the view that developing countries would benefit most from a differentiated system of targets

  1. Investigating the Role of the Teacher in Science Curriculum: New Evidence for an Old Debate (United States)

    Penuel, W.; McAuliffe, C.; McWilliams, H.


    It is widely believed that teachers need high-quality curriculum materials to improve teaching and learning. Professional development designs differ, however, in whether they emphasize preparing teachers to use expert- designed curricula or preparing teachers with the tools needed to design and implement high-quality science units themselves. Evidence exists for the effectiveness of providing teachers with training in how to implement expert-designed curricula (Bredderman, 1983; Shymansky, Hedges, & Woodworth, 1990; Weinstein, Boulanger, & Walberg, 1982) and for providing teachers with professional development aimed at preparing teachers to design instruction and assessments (Black & Harrison, 2001; Shepard, 1997; Sneider, Adams, Ibanez, Templeton, & Porter, 1996). However, no studies, however, have compared explicitly these different approaches to preparing teachers to plan and enact instruction in science. The Transforming Instruction by Design in Earth Science (TIDES) project is an experimental study comparing the efficacy of three different approaches to professional development. The approaches differ with respect to the role that teachers are expected to play in curriculum. In one condition (Earth Science by Design), teachers learn how to design curriculum units in Earth science. In a second condition (Investigating Earth Systems), teachers learn how to adopt and implement curriculum materials developed by experts. In the third condition (Hybrid), teachers learn a principled approach to adapt expert-developed curriculum materials. The TIDES study is examining the impacts of each of the approaches to professional development on instructional planning and on the quality of assignments and assessments they give to students. We measured impacts on instructional planning using an end-of-unit questionnaire that focused on changes to teachers" overall approach to planning units of instruction, their strategies for organizing assignment, and materials they use in

  2. Role of social science in global environmental change: case of urbanisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Njiro, E


    Full Text Available the role of social scientists in global environmental change by examining urbanisation and other environmental changes as suggested in the science plan of the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP 2005)...

  3. Republic Scientific-practical Conference 'The Youth Role in the Development of National Science' Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Present collection comprises of materials of Republic Scientific-practical Conference 'The Youth Role in the Development of National Science'. Present collection is intended for scientific and technical staff, postgraduates, and students of institutes of higher education.

  4. Crossing the Cartesian Divide: An Investigation into the Role of Emotion in Science Learning (United States)

    Staus, Nancy L.

    Although many science educators and researchers believe that emotion is an important part of the learning process, few researchers have dealt with the topic in a systematic fashion. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of emotion in the learning process, particularly in the learning of science content. My study utilized a dimensional perspective which defined emotion in terms of arousal and valence, and drew on research from the fields of psychology and neuroscience to examine how emotion affects different aspects of cognition such as attention and memory. On the basis of these findings, I developed and tested a path model to investigate the predicted relationships among emotional arousal, valence, attention, intrinsic motivation and short- and long-term learning outcomes. I conducted the study in two phases. The first phase took place in a psychology laboratory in which participants watched either an exciting or neutral nature video, read a factual article related to the video and were tested on their learning. The second phase took place at the Oregon Coast Aquarium in which participants watched a narrated otter or sea lion presentation and took a short posttest after the show. In both phases, participants' emotional arousal, valence, attention, and motivation levels were also measured for inclusion in the model. The results indicated that emotional arousal was an important predictor of short-term learning in both experiments although its effect was fully mediated by attention at the aquarium. In addition, negative valence (displeasure) and intrinsic motivation were strong predictors of short-term learning in the laboratory experiment. At the aquarium, the narrator of the animal presentation strongly affected both attention and short-term learning---visitors who listened to a non-scripted rather than a scripted narration paid more attention and had significantly better short-term learning outcomes. In the aquarium study, emotional arousal correlated

  5. What Are the Roles that Children's Drawings Play in Inquiry of Science Concepts? (United States)

    Chang, Ni


    This study was designed to identify the roles that drawing played in the process of children's acquisition of science concepts. Seventy pre-service teachers through four semesters from a Midwest University in the USA developed lesson plans on science concepts and then taught them to 70 young children ages 4-7, respectively. This experience was…

  6. The Role of Political Theory in the Teaching of Political Science in Mexico. (United States)

    Suarez-Iniguez, Enrique


    Discusses three major problems within the field of political science in Mexico: the dearth of classes offered, lack of consensus on the content of courses, and the very limited role of political theory. Provides charts and statistics on the state of political science in the country. (RW)

  7. Developing Science Literacy through the Heat Game: An Online Role-Playing Game (United States)

    Rees, Carol Ann Butler


    The decline of young peoples' interest in science & technology education in western counties is causing concern worldwide. To help change this situation teachers need to take a leadership role in designing innovative approaches for engaging students with science curriculum in schools. Here I report on an action research study to examine…

  8. Crossing the Border: Science Student Teachers Using Role-Play in Grade 7 (United States)

    Braund, Martin; Moodley, Trevor; Ekron, Christelle; Ahmed, Zaiboenisha


    Drama is used to build knowledge and understanding in science as part of a socio-linguistic, constructivist approach. Role-plays, where learners act as analogues for components and processes, help access abstract ideas. However, a problem restricting many science teachers using these approaches has been that they lack sufficient pedagogical…

  9. Should students design or interact with models? Using the Bifocal Modelling Framework to investigate model construction in high school science (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Tamar; Schneider, Bertrand; Blikstein, Paulo


    The Bifocal Modelling Framework (BMF) is an approach for science learning which links students' physical experimentation with computer modelling in real time, focusing on the comparison of the two media. In this paper, we explore how a Bifocal Modelling implementation supported learning outcomes related to both content and metamodeling knowledge, focusing on the role of designing models. Our study consisted of three conditions implemented with a total of 69 9th grade high-school students. The first and second classes were assigned two implementation modes of BMF: with and without a model design module. The third condition, employed as a control, consisted of a class that received instruction in the school's traditional approach. Our results indicate that students participating in both BMF implementations demonstrated improved content knowledge and a better understanding of metamodeling. However, only the 'BMF-with-design' group improved significantly in both content and metamodeling knowledge. Our qualitative analyses indicate that both BMF groups designed detailed models that included scientific explanations. However only students who engaged in the model design component: (1) completed a detailed model displaying molecular interaction; and (2) developed a critical perspective about models. We discuss the implications of those results for teaching scientific science concepts and metamodeling knowledge.

  10. Science Professionals Engaging Theologians in India: Towards a Dialogical model (United States)

    Azhoni, A.; Vaiphei, S. S.


    Societies across the world have profoundly ambivalent attitudes towards science; exaggerated expectations to vigorous anti-science attitude abound whereby Science is perceived as the sole panacea for every societal problem to meddling with nature and creating environmental havoc. The rapid advancement in Sciences from the nineteenth century onwards had created a hype that organised religion will be a relic of the past by 21st century, which also unfortunately created an image of Science being hostile to religions. But this is not conducive for scientific progress. For good or for ill, religious beliefs continue to exert great influence with 87% of the world population, according to one survey, identifying themselves to be `part of a religion'. The scientific community cannot afford to ignore if they want to make a difference with their science. While India is often considered to be the most religious country in the world the ambivalent attitude towards science is perhaps not too dissimilar from other societies. This paper highlights the findings from a workshop conducted in India, by practicing scientists, and the follow-up responses from Christian theologians to a proposed curriculum revision on Science, Technology and Religion course being taught in mainline Christian Theological Seminaries in India. Feedbacks collected from the clergy/theologians based on the discussions regarding a) the nature, b) potentials and c) limits of science and technology, and, d) historical survey of the interaction between Science and Christian faith will be presented. Responses of Christian theologians in India regarding the new challenges and opportunities being thrown by Artificial Intelligence, Nanotechnology, Synthetic Biology and others will also be discussed. The paper concludes with the results of discussing four models of relating science and religion: conflict, independence, dialogue and integration discussed in the workshop to develop methods of meaningful engagements

  11. The changing roles of science in managing Australian droughts: An agricultural perspective


    Mark Howden; Serena Schroeter; Steven Crimp; Ivan Hanigan


    As the driest inhabited continent with a highly variable climate, Australia has had a long and evolving history of drought management in agriculture. This paper analyses the changing roles of science in the management of climate risk and uncertainty and how this may continue into the future. Initially science had a role in documenting the underlying nature of Australia׳s climate, and later broadening the understanding around the drivers of variability so as to provide useful climate forecasts...

  12. Developing a Reform-Minded Science Teaching Identity: The Role of Informal Science Environments (United States)

    Avraamidou, Lucy


    Recommendations for reform in science education around the world set high goals for beginning elementary teachers. Concurrently, existing literature indicates a number of challenges that beginning elementary teachers face. In this paper an argument is put forward about the integration of informal science environments in elementary teacher…

  13. Recent developments in life sciences research: Role of bioinformatics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Life sciences research and development has opened up new challenges and opportunities for bioinformatics. The contribution of bioinformatics advances made possible the mapping of the entire human genome and genomes of many other organisms in just over a decade. These discoveries, along with current efforts to ...

  14. The Role of Visualization in Computer Science Education (United States)

    Fouh, Eric; Akbar, Monika; Shaffer, Clifford A.


    Computer science core instruction attempts to provide a detailed understanding of dynamic processes such as the working of an algorithm or the flow of information between computing entities. Such dynamic processes are not well explained by static media such as text and images, and are difficult to convey in lecture. The authors survey the history…

  15. A Historical Journey in Science Education through Role Playing (United States)

    Guha, Smita


    In order to avoid a routine classroom environment, teachers often employ the use of role-plays. This is an effective strategy because it is essential for teachers to engage their students with information through various methods. Role-playing provides the children with the opportunity to incorporate multiple senses into a knowledge-based, fun…

  16. An Integrative Cultural Model to better situate marginalized science students in postsecondary science education (United States)

    Labouta, Hagar Ibrahim; Adams, Jennifer Dawn; Cramb, David Thomas


    In this paper we reflect on the article "I am smart enough to study postsecondary science: a critical discourse analysis of latecomers' identity construction in an online forum", by Phoebe Jackson and Gale Seiler (Cult Stud Sci Educ. In their article, the authors did a significant amount of qualitative analysis of a discussion on an online forum by four latecomer students with past negative experiences in science education. The students used this online forum as an out-of-class resource to develop a cultural model based on their ability to ask questions together with solidarity as a new optimistic way to position themselves in science. In this forum, we continue by discussing the identity of marginalized science students in relation to resources available in postsecondary science classes. Recent findings on a successful case of a persistent marginalized science student in spite of prior struggles and failures are introduced. Building on their model and our results, we proposed a new cultural model, emphasizing interaction between inside and outside classroom resources which can further our understanding of the identity of marginalized science students. Exploring this cultural model could better explain drop-outs or engagement of marginalized science students to their study. We, then, used this model to reflect on both current traditional and effective teaching and learning practices truncating or re-enforcing relationships of marginalized students with the learning environment. In this way, we aim to further the discussion initiated by Jackson and Seiler and offer possible frameworks for future research on the interactions between marginalized students with past low achievements and other high and mid achieving students, as well as other interactions between resources inside and outside science postsecondary classrooms.

  17. A model for education and promoting food science and technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A model for education and promoting food science and technology among high school students and the public. ... at the tertiary stage (retail) directly with the consumer while depending on the product of FST. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  18. Effective modelling for predictive analytics in data science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective modelling for predictive analytics in data science. ... the nearabsence of empirical or factual predictive analytics in the mainstream research going on ... Keywords: Predictive Analytics, Big Data, Business Intelligence, Project Planning.

  19. The Model Identification Test: A Limited Verbal Science Test (United States)

    McIntyre, P. J.


    Describes the production of a test with a low verbal load for use with elementary school science students. Animated films were used to present appropriate and inappropriate models of the behavior of particles of matter. (AL)

  20. The Role of Playful Science in Developing Positive Attitudes toward Teaching Science in a Science Teacher Preparation Program (United States)

    Bulunuz, Mizrap


    Problem Statement: Research studies indicate that teachers with negative attitudes toward science tend to use didactic approaches rather than approaches based on students' active participation. However, the reviews of the national academic literature in Turkey located a few research studies on the relationship between playful science experiences…

  1. Who Wants to Learn More Science? The Role of Elementary School Science Experiences and Science Self-Perceptions (United States)

    Aschbacher, Pamela R.; Ing, Marsha


    Background/Context: Much science education reform has been directed at middle and high school students; however, earlier experiences in elementary school may well have an important impact on young people's future science literacy and preparation for possible STEM careers. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: This study explores the…

  2. Science Writing and Rhetorical Training: A New Model for Developing Graduate Science Writers (United States)

    Karraker, N. E.; Lofgren, I.; Druschke, C. G.; McWilliams, S. R.; Morton-Aiken, J.; Reynolds, N.


    Graduate programs in the sciences generally offer minimal support for writing and communication, yet there is an increasing need for scientists to engage with the public and policymakers on technological, environmental, and health issues. The traditional focus on gaining particular discipline-related technical skills, coupled with the relegation of writing largely to the end of a student's academic tenure, falls short in equipping them to tackle these challenges. To address this problem, we launched a cross-disciplinary, National Science Foundation-funded training program in rhetoric and writing for science graduate students and faculty at the University of Rhode Island. This innovative program bases curricular and pedagogical support on three central practices, habitual writing, multiple genres, and frequent review, to offer a flexible model of writing training for science graduate students and pedagogical training for faculty that could be adopted in other institutional contexts. Key to the program, called SciWrite@URI, is a unique emphasis on rhetoric, which, we argue, is an essential—but currently lacking—component of science communication education. This new model has the potential to transform graduate education in the sciences by producing graduates who are as adept at the fundamentals of their science as they are at communicating that science to diverse audiences.

  3. Analytic innovations for air quality modeling | Science ... (United States)

    The presentation provides an overview of ongoing research activities at the U.S. EPA, focusing on improving long-term emission projections and the development of decision support systems for coordinated environmental, climate and energy planning. This presentation will be given on October 10th, 2016, at the Johns Hopkins Dept. of Environmental Health and Engineering as part of the Environmental Science and Management Seminar Series.

  4. Specifying a curriculum for biopolitical critical literacy in science teacher education: exploring roles for science fiction (United States)

    Gough, Noel


    In this essay I suggest some ways in which science teacher educators in Western neoliberal economies might facilitate learners' development of a critical literacy concerning the social and cultural changes signified by the concept of biopolitics. I consider how such a biopolitically inflected critical literacy might find expression in a science teacher education curriculum and suggest a number of ways of materializing such a curriculum in specific literatures, media, procedures, and assessment tasks, with particular reference to the contributions of science fiction in popular media.

  5. The role of subject-matter analysis in science didactics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    Cultural-historical theory is primarily a psychological theory about and human action and development within meaningful contexts. As a psychologically-oriented theory, it can be relevant to science education research, even if it was not been developed or elaborated specifically in relation...... to problems within science education. STEM education research can be reduced (roughly) to four major problem areas: curriculum, empirical evaluation of existing practices and conditions, didactics, and professional development, where each of these categories can be concretised further according to grade...... paper is primarily on the didactics category, and slightly on the professional development category. The purpose of this paper is to outline three significant points that have been developed within the cultural-historical tradition that have consequences for these two categories: (a) the relation...

  6. Space Science Cloud: a Virtual Space Science Research Platform Based on Cloud Model (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyan; Tong, Jizhou; Zou, Ziming

    Through independent and co-operational science missions, Strategic Pioneer Program (SPP) on Space Science, the new initiative of space science program in China which was approved by CAS and implemented by National Space Science Center (NSSC), dedicates to seek new discoveries and new breakthroughs in space science, thus deepen the understanding of universe and planet earth. In the framework of this program, in order to support the operations of space science missions and satisfy the demand of related research activities for e-Science, NSSC is developing a virtual space science research platform based on cloud model, namely the Space Science Cloud (SSC). In order to support mission demonstration, SSC integrates interactive satellite orbit design tool, satellite structure and payloads layout design tool, payload observation coverage analysis tool, etc., to help scientists analyze and verify space science mission designs. Another important function of SSC is supporting the mission operations, which runs through the space satellite data pipelines. Mission operators can acquire and process observation data, then distribute the data products to other systems or issue the data and archives with the services of SSC. In addition, SSC provides useful data, tools and models for space researchers. Several databases in the field of space science are integrated and an efficient retrieve system is developing. Common tools for data visualization, deep processing (e.g., smoothing and filtering tools), analysis (e.g., FFT analysis tool and minimum variance analysis tool) and mining (e.g., proton event correlation analysis tool) are also integrated to help the researchers to better utilize the data. The space weather models on SSC include magnetic storm forecast model, multi-station middle and upper atmospheric climate model, solar energetic particle propagation model and so on. All the services above-mentioned are based on the e-Science infrastructures of CAS e.g. cloud storage and

  7. A Model for Effective Professional Development of Formal Science Educators (United States)

    Bleacher, L. V.; Jones, A. J. P.; Farrell, W. M.


    The Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWE) series was developed by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) education team in 2010 to provide professional development on lunar science and exploration concepts for grades 6-9 science teachers. Over 300 educators have been trained to date. The LWE model incorporates best practices from pedagogical research of science education, thoughtful integration of scientists and engineer subject matter experts for both content presentations and informal networking with educators, access to NASA-unique facilities, hands-on and data-rich activities aligned with education standards, exposure to the practice of science, tools for addressing common misconceptions, follow-up with participants, and extensive evaluation. Evaluation of the LWE model via pre- and post-assessments, daily workshop surveys, and follow-up surveys at 6-month and 1-year intervals indicate that the LWE are extremely effective in increasing educators' content knowledge, confidence in incorporating content into the classroom, understanding of the practice of science, and ability to address common student misconceptions. In order to address the efficacy of the LWE model for other science content areas, the Dynamic Response of Environments at Asteroids, the Moon, and moons of Mars (DREAM2) education team, funded by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, developed and ran a pilot workshop called Dream2Explore at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in June, 2015. Dream2Explore utilized the LWE model, but incorporated content related to the science and exploration of asteroids and the moons of Mars. Evaluation results indicate that the LWE model was effectively used for educator professional development on non-lunar content. We will present more detail on the LWE model, evaluation results from the Dream2Explore pilot workshop, and suggestions for the application of the model with other science content for robust educator professional development.

  8. A Model for Effective Professional Development of Formal Science Educators (United States)

    Bleacher, L.; Jones, A. P.; Farrell, W. M.


    The Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWE) series was developed by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) education team in 2010 to provide professional development on lunar science and exploration concepts for grades 6-9 science teachers. Over 300 educators have been trained to date. The LWE model incorporates best practices from pedagogical research of science education, thoughtful integration of scientists and engineer subject matter experts for both content presentations and informal networking with educators, access to NASA-unique facilities, hands-on and data-rich activities aligned with education standards, exposure to the practice of science, tools for addressing common misconceptions, follow-up with participants, and extensive evaluation. Evaluation of the LWE model via pre- and post-assessments, daily workshop surveys, and follow-up surveys at 6-month and 1-year intervals indicate that the LWE are extremely effective in increasing educators' content knowledge, confidence in incorporating content into the classroom, understanding of the practice of science, and ability to address common student misconceptions. In order to address the efficacy of the LWE model for other science content areas, the Dynamic Response of Environments at Asteroids, the Moon, and moons of Mars (DREAM2) education team, funded by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, developed and ran a pilot workshop called Dream2Explore at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in June, 2015. Dream2Explore utilized the LWE model, but incorporated content related to the science and exploration of asteroids and the moons of Mars. Evaluation results indicate that the LWE model was effectively used for educator professional development on non-lunar content. We will present more detail on the LWE model, evaluation results from the Dream2Explore pilot workshop, and suggestions for the application of the model with other science content for robust educator professional development.

  9. Similarity and Modeling in Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kuneš, Josef


    The present text sets itself in relief to other titles on the subject in that it addresses the means and methodologies versus a narrow specific-task oriented approach. Concepts and their developments which evolved to meet the changing needs of applications are addressed. This approach provides the reader with a general tool-box to apply to their specific needs. Two important tools are presented: dimensional analysis and the similarity analysis methods. The fundamental point of view, enabling one to sort all models, is that of information flux between a model and an original expressed by the similarity and abstraction. Each chapter includes original examples and ap-plications. In this respect, the models can be divided into several groups. The following models are dealt with separately by chapter; mathematical and physical models, physical analogues, deterministic, stochastic, and cybernetic computer models. The mathematical models are divided into asymptotic and phenomenological models. The phenomenological m...

  10. Mars Colony: Using Role-Play as a Pedagogical Approach to Teaching Science (United States)

    Dolenc, Nathan; Wood, Aja; Soldan, Katie; Tai, Robert H.


    In this article, the authors discuss role-play as a pedagogical strategy to engage kindergarten and first-grade students in science and engineering. They present a five-part Mars colony lesson that they developed for a blended class, during which students role-play a space-exploration story that enables them to gain a firsthand perspective of what…

  11. Towards a Competency Model for Teaching Computer Science (United States)

    Bender, Elena; Hubwieser, Peter; Schaper, Niclas; Margaritis, Melanie; Berges, Marc; Ohrndorf, Laura; Magenheim, Johannes; Schubert, Sigrid


    To address the special challenges of teaching computer science, adequate development of teachers' competencies during their education is extremely important. In particular, pedagogical content knowledge and teachers' beliefs and motivational orientations play an important role in effective teaching. This research field has been sparsely…

  12. The Role of Project Science in the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Weisskopf, Martin C.


    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory, one of NASA's Great Observatories, has an outstanding record of scientific and technical success. This success results from the efforts of a team comprising NASA, its contractors, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the instrument groups, and other elements of the scientific community, including thousands of scientists who utilize this powerful facility for astrophysical research. We discuss the role of NASA Project Science in the formulation, development, calibration, and operation of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. In addition to representing the scientific community within the Project, Project Science performed what we term "science systems engineering". This activity encompasses translation of science requirements into technical requirements and assessment of the scientific impact of programmatic and technical trades. We briefly describe several examples of science systems engineering conducted by Chandra Project Science.

  13. Role of mass spectrometry in nuclear forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, M.; Sivaraman, N.


    The present talk will focus on the role of mass spectrometry in NFS in general; besides that, the various chromatographic methods developed towards separation of actinides and lanthanide fission products and characterization of dissolver solutions of nuclear reactor fuels using TIMS and some applications of using ICP-MS as well

  14. Modeling the role of environment in addiction. (United States)

    Caprioli, Daniele; Celentano, Michele; Paolone, Giovanna; Badiani, Aldo


    The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the main types of animal models used to investigate the modulatory role of environment on drug addiction. The environment can alter the responsiveness to addictive drugs in at least three major ways. First, adverse life experiences can make an individual more vulnerable to develop drug addiction or to relapse into drug seeking. Second, neutral environmental cues can acquire, through Pavlovian conditioning, the ability to trigger drug seeking even after long periods of abstinence. Third, the environment immediately surrounding drug taking can alter the behavioral, subjective, and rewarding effects of a given drug, thus influencing the propensity to use the same drug again. We have focused in particular on the results obtained using an animal model we have developed to study the latter type of drug-environment interaction.

  15. The Role of Science and Technology in the Advancement of Women Worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, I.; Farhar, B.


    Participants at the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing, China, created a Platform for Action focusing on 12 critical areas of concern (poverty, education and training, health, violence, armed conflict, economy, decision-making, institutional mechanisms, human rights, the media, environment, and the girl child) and the serious barriers to women's health and well-being in each area. Subsequently, the Department of Energy funded a study, described here, that shows, in a literature review and in interviews with 15 women experts, how science and technology can be integral to women's advancement in each of the 12 critical areas. Among the study's conclusions are that differing perspectives exist (pro-science, relativist, and skeptical) on the role of science and technology in women's lives and that these differing perspectives may explain why communication is difficult among policy makers and with scientists about the role science and technology may play in the advancem ent of women worldwide. Recommendations call for women's involvement in the ethics of science; removal of institutional barriers to advancing women; greater accountability in use of resources; changes in science education; and increased dialogue among those with differing perspectives on the role of science and technology in the advancement of women.

  16. On the role of model structure in hydrological modeling : Understanding models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gharari, S.


    Modeling is an essential part of the science of hydrology. Models enable us to formulate what we know and perceive from the real world into a neat package. Rainfall-runoff models are abstract simplifications of how a catchment works. Within the research field of scientific rainfall-runoff modeling,

  17. The role of science centres and museums in the dialogue between science and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rodari


    Full Text Available In a meta-analysis carried out in 2002, the two main associations of science centres and museums (ASTC, mainly US-centered, and ECSITE, mainly European gathered all studies analysing the impact of science centres and museums on their local communities1. Four types of impact were identified: personal, social, political and economical. It was noticed that the vast majority of studies concentrated on the personal impact (that is, learning outcome, visitor satisfaction, etc., while the latter three were largely neglected. The very fact of pointing this out, and many recent experiences - some of which are included in this commentary - show that there is now a shift of attention.

  18. Role model and prototype matching: Upper-secondary school students’ meetings with tertiary STEM students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lykkegaard


    Full Text Available Previous research has found that young people’s prototypes of science students and scientists affect their inclination to choose tertiary STEM programs (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. Consequently, many recruitment initiatives include role models to challenge these prototypes. The present study followed 15 STEM-oriented upper-secondary school students from university-distant backgrounds during and after their participation in an 18-months long university-based recruitment and outreach project involving tertiary STEM students as role models. The analysis focusses on how the students’ meetings with the role models affected their thoughts concerning STEM students and attending university. The regular self-to-prototype matching process was shown in real-life role-models meetings to be extended to a more complex three-way matching process between students’ self-perceptions, prototype images and situation-specific conceptions of role models. Furthermore, the study underlined the positive effect of prolonged role-model contact, the importance of using several role models and that traditional school subjects catered more resistant prototype images than unfamiliar ones did.

  19. State-Space Modelling in Marine Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Christoffer Moesgaard

    State-space models provide a natural framework for analysing time series that cannot be observed without error. This is the case for fisheries stock assessments and movement data from marine animals. In fisheries stock assessments, the aim is to estimate the stock size; however, the only data...... available is the number of fish removed from the population and samples on a small fraction of the population. In marine animal movement, accurate position systems such as GPS cannot be used. Instead, inaccurate alternative must be used yielding observations with large errors. Both assessment and individual...... animal movement models are important for management and conservation of marine animals. Consequently, models should be developed to be operational in a management context while adequately evaluating uncertainties in the models. This thesis develops state-space models using the Laplace approximation...

  20. A study to modify, extend, and verify, an existing model of interactive-constructivist school science teaching (United States)

    Numedahl, Paul Joseph

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the effects an interactive-constructive teaching and learning approach, the use of children's literature in science teaching and parental involvement in elementary school science had on student achievement in and attitudes toward science. The study was done in the context of Science PALS, a professional development program for inservice teachers. An existing model for interactive-constructive elementary science was modified to include five model variables; student achievement, student attitudes, teacher perceptions, teacher performance, and student perceptions. Data were collected from a sample of 12 teachers and 260 third and fourth grade students. Data analysis included two components, (1) the examination of relationships between teacher performance, teacher perceptions, student achievement and attitudes, and (2) the verification of a model using path analysis. Results showed a significant correlation between teacher perceptions and student attitude. However, only one model path was significant; thus, the model could not be verified. Further examination of the significant model path was completed. Study findings included: (1) Constructivist notions of teaching and learning may cause changes in the traditional role relationship between teachers and students leading to negative student attitudes. (2) Children who perceive parental interest toward science education are likely to have a positive attitude toward science learning, increased self-confidence in science and possess accurate ideas concerning the nature of science. (3) Students who perceive science instruction as relevant are likely to possess a positive attitude toward science learning, increased self-confidence in science, and possess accurate ideas concerning the nature of science. (4) Students who perceive their classroom as aligning with constructivist principles are likely to possess a positive attitude toward science, an increased self

  1. Silkworm: A Promising Model Organism in Life Science. (United States)

    Meng, Xu; Zhu, Feifei; Chen, Keping


    As an important economic insect, silkworm Bombyx mori (L.) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) has numerous advantages in life science, such as low breeding cost, large progeny size, short generation time, and clear genetic background. Additionally, there are rich genetic resources associated with silkworms. The completion of the silkworm genome has further accelerated it to be a modern model organism in life science. Genomic studies showed that some silkworm genes are highly homologous to certain genes related to human hereditary disease and, therefore, are a candidate model for studying human disease. In this article, we provided a review of silkworm as an important model in various research areas, including human disease, screening of antimicrobial agents, environmental safety monitoring, and antitumor studies. In addition, the application potentiality of silkworm model in life sciences was discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  2. The Role of Science Teachers' Beliefs in International Classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for educators. Within each of these areas there are specific explorations that examine important areas such as, the roles of beliefs in teaching and learning, the impact of beliefs on student achievement, and ways in which beliefs are connected to teacher actions in the classroom. Throughout all...... of these discussions, there is a focus on international perspectives. Those reading this book can use the research presented to consider how to confront, challenge, and cultivate beliefs during the teacher professional development process....

  3. Damsel: A Data Model Storage Library for Exascale Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koziol, Quincey [The HDF Group, Champaign, IL (United States)


    The goal of this project is to enable exascale computational science applications to interact conveniently and efficiently with storage through abstractions that match their data models. We will accomplish this through three major activities: (1) identifying major data model motifs in computational science applications and developing representative benchmarks; (2) developing a data model storage library, called Damsel, that supports these motifs, provides efficient storage data layouts, incorporates optimizations to enable exascale operation, and is tolerant to failures; and (3) productizing Damsel and working with computational scientists to encourage adoption of this library by the scientific community.

  4. Damsel - A Data Model Storage Library for Exascale Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samatova, Nagiza F


    The goal of this project is to enable exascale computational science applications to interact conveniently and efficiently with storage through abstractions that match their data models. We will accomplish this through three major activities: (1) identifying major data model motifs in computational science applications and developing representative benchmarks; (2) developing a data model storage library, called Damsel, that supports these motifs, provides efficient storage data layouts, incorporates optimizations to enable exascale operation, and is tolerant to failures; and (3) productizing Damsel and working with computational scientists to encourage adoption of this library by the scientific community.

  5. Generalized Linear Models with Applications in Engineering and the Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Raymond H; Vining, G Geoffrey; Robinson, Timothy J


    Praise for the First Edition "The obvious enthusiasm of Myers, Montgomery, and Vining and their reliance on their many examples as a major focus of their pedagogy make Generalized Linear Models a joy to read. Every statistician working in any area of applied science should buy it and experience the excitement of these new approaches to familiar activities."-Technometrics Generalized Linear Models: With Applications in Engineering and the Sciences, Second Edition continues to provide a clear introduction to the theoretical foundations and key applications of generalized linear models (GLMs). Ma

  6. Nanoethics, Science Communication, and a Fourth Model for Public Engagement. (United States)

    Miah, Andy


    This paper develops a fourth model of public engagement with science, grounded in the principle of nurturing scientific agency through participatory bioethics. It argues that social media is an effective device through which to enable such engagement, as it has the capacity to empower users and transforms audiences into co-producers of knowledge, rather than consumers of content. Social media also fosters greater engagement with the political and legal implications of science, thus promoting the value of scientific citizenship. This argument is explored by considering the case of nanoscience and nanotechnology, as an exemplar for how emerging technologies may be handled by the scientific community and science policymakers.

  7. Exploring persistence in science in CEGEP: Toward a motivational model (United States)

    Simon, Rebecca A.

    There is currently a shortage of science teachers in North America and continually decreasing rates of enrollment in science programs. Science continues to be the academic domain that sees the highest attrition rates, particularly for women. The purpose of the present study was to examine male and female students' experiences in mathematics and science courses during a crucial time in their academic development in an attempt to explain the high attrition rates in science between the last year of high school and the first year of CEGEP (junior college). In line with self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), as well as achievement-goal theory (Pintrich & Schunk, 1996) and research on academic emotions, the study examined the relation between a set of motivational variables (i.e., perceptions of autonomy-support, self-efficacy, achievement goals, and intrinsic motivation), affect, achievement, and persistence. A secondary objective was to test a motivational model of student persistence in science using structural equation modeling (SEM). The sample consisted of 603 male and 706 female students from four English-language CEGEPs in the greater Montreal area. Just prior to beginning CEGEP, participants completed a questionnaire that asked about the learning environment in high school mathematics and science classes as well as student characteristics including sources of motivation, personal achievement goals, and feelings of competence. All students expressed an initial interest in pursuing a career in science by enrolling in optional advanced mathematics and science courses during high school. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to examine differences among male and female students across the variables measured. Structural equation modeling was used to test the validity of a questionnaire designed specifically to gather information about CEGEP students' experiences with mathematics and science, and to evaluate the fit of a model designed to reflect the

  8. A content-oriented model for science exhibit engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne


    Recently, science museums have begun to review their educational purposes and redesign their pedagogies. At the most basic level, this entails accounting for the performance of individual exhibits, and indeed, in some cases, research indicates shortcomings in exhibit design: While often successful......: as a means to operationalize the link between exhibit features and visitor activities; and as a template to transform scientists’ practices in the research context into visitors’ activities in the exhibit context. The resulting model of science exhibit engineering is presented and exemplified, and its...... implications for science exhibit design are discussed at three levels: the design product, the design process, and the design methodology....

  9. US-Japan Seminar on Modeling in Combustion Science

    CERN Document Server

    Takeno, Tadao


    The articles in this volume treat various problems in combustion science that are of importance in applications to technology and to environmental sciences. The authors treat turbulence in premixed and non-premixed flames as well as pressure interactions and wave phenomena. Also supersonic flows and detonations are discussed. The main emphasis, however, is on the modelling and numerical treatment of combustion phenomena. The book addresses researchers in physics and engineering, and mathematicians from scientific computing.

  10. Surface science models of CoMoS hydrodesulfurisation catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de A.M.; Beer, de V.H.J.; Veen, van J.A.R.; Niemantsverdriet, J.W.; Froment, G.F.; Delmon, B.; Grange, P.


    Characterization of supported catalysts with surface spectroscopic techniques is often limited due to restraints imposed by the support material. The use of flat conducting substrates as a model support offers a way to apply these techniques to their full potential. Such surface science models of

  11. Conceptual Model of Artifacts for Design Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars


    We present a conceptual model of design science research artifacts. The model views an artifact at three levels. At the artifact level a selected artifact is viewed as a combination of material and immaterial aspects and a set of representations hereof. At the design level the selected artifact...

  12. Humanistic Model in Adult Education and Science and Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Humanistic Model in Adult Education and Science and Technology: Challenges of the 21 st Century Developing Nation. ... Annals of Modern Education ... is the result of the scientific and technological advancement, this paper considers humanistic model in adult education as liberal education appropriate for adult age.

  13. Science Student Role: Evidence of Social Structural Norms Specific to School Science (United States)

    Shanahan, Marie-Claire; Nieswandt, Martina


    Sociocultural studies of science education have consistently recognized the dialectic nature of students' agency to create and author positions for themselves and the structural constraints that may influence them. This mixed-methods study explores one particular aspect of these potential constraints: the possibility of a social structure specific…

  14. Specifying a Curriculum for Biopolitical Critical Literacy in Science Teacher Education: Exploring Roles for Science Fiction (United States)

    Gough, Noel


    In this essay I suggest some ways in which science teacher educators in Western neoliberal economies might facilitate learners' development of a critical literacy concerning the social and cultural changes signified by the concept of "biopolitics." I consider how such a biopolitically inflected critical literacy might find expression in…

  15. Developing a Reform-Minded Science Teaching Identity: The Role of Informal Science Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avraamidou, Lucy


    Recommendations for reform in science education around the world set high goals for beginning elementary teachers. Concurrently, existing literature indicates a number of challenges that beginning elementary teachers face. In this paper an argument is put forward about the integration of informal

  16. The Increasingly Important Role of Science Competency Beliefs for Science Learning in Girls (United States)

    Vincent-Ruz, Paulette; Schunn, Christian D.


    The number of women studying STEM careers and pursuing graduate degrees has not changed in the last decade (National Student Clearinghouse Research Center, 2015; Science & Engineering Degree Attainment: 2004-2014). Most prior research to explain this problem has focused on the topics of identity, access, pedagogy, and choice (Brotman &…

  17. COSEE-AK Ocean Science Fairs: A Science Fair Model That Grounds Student Projects in Both Western Science and Traditional Native Knowledge (United States)

    Dublin, Robin; Sigman, Marilyn; Anderson, Andrea; Barnhardt, Ray; Topkok, Sean Asiqluq


    We have developed the traditional science fair format into an ocean science fair model that promoted the integration of Western science and Alaska Native traditional knowledge in student projects focused on the ocean, aquatic environments, and climate change. The typical science fair judging criteria for the validity and presentation of the…

  18. Open access behaviours and perceptions of health sciences faculty and roles of information professionals. (United States)

    Lwoga, Edda T; Questier, Frederik


    This study sought to investigate the faculty's awareness, attitudes and use of open access, and the role of information professionals in supporting open access (OA) scholarly communication in Tanzanian health sciences universities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 librarians, while questionnaires were physically distributed to 415 faculty members in all eight Tanzanian health sciences universities, with a response rate of 71.1%. The study found that most faculty members were aware about OA issues. However, the high level of OA awareness among faculty members did not translate into actual dissemination of faculty's research outputs through OA web avenues. A small proportion of faculty's research materials was made available as OA. Faculty were more engaged with OA journal publishing than with self-archiving practices. Senior faculty with proficient technical skills were more likely to use open access than junior faculty. Major barriers to OA usage were related to ICT infrastructure, awareness, skills, author-pay model, and copyright and plagiarism concerns. Interviews with librarians revealed that there was a strong support for promoting OA issues on campus; however, this positive support with various open access-related tasks did not translate into actual action. It is thus important for librarians and OA administrators to consider all these factors for effective implementation of OA projects in research and academic institutions. This is the first comprehensive and detailed study focusing on the health sciences faculty's and librarians' behaviours and perceptions of open access initiatives in Tanzania and reveals findings that are useful for planning and implementing open access initiatives in other institutions with similar conditions. © 2015 Health Libraries Journal.

  19. The role of social support in students' perceived abilities and attitudes toward math and science. (United States)

    Rice, Lindsay; Barth, Joan M; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Smith, Gabrielle P A; McCallum, Debra M


    Social cognitive models examining academic and career outcomes emphasize constructs such as attitude, interest, and self-efficacy as key factors affecting students' pursuit of STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) courses and careers. The current research examines another under-researched component of social cognitive models: social support, and the relationship between this component and attitude and self-efficacy in math and science. A large cross-sectional design was used gathering data from 1,552 participants in four adolescent school settings from 5th grade to early college (41 % female, 80 % white). Students completed measures of perceived social support from parents, teachers and friends as well as their perceived ability and attitudes toward math and science. Fifth grade and college students reported higher levels of support from teachers and friends when compared to students at other grade levels. In addition, students who perceived greater social support for math and science from parents, teachers, and friends reported better attitudes and had higher perceptions of their abilities in math and science. Lastly, structural equation modeling revealed that social support had both a direct effect on math and science perceived abilities and an indirect effect mediated through math and science attitudes. Findings suggest that students who perceive greater social support for math and science from parents, teachers, and friends have more positive attitudes toward math and science and a higher sense of their own competence in these subjects.




    This paper deals with the present position of a specialized scientific library, the increase in the number of such libraries, and their development in conjunction with that of the institutes and laboratories to which they belong. It describes the danger for these libraries of too great expansion and the need to restrict themselves to a well-defined area. The different categories of specialized scientific libraries are reviewed, as well as the role of each of these categories vis-à-vis overburdened university libraries. There is an account of the assistance given [by specialized scientific libraries] to university libraries now and in the near future.

  1. Focus: knowing the ocean: a role for the history of science. (United States)

    Rozwadowski, Helen M


    While most historians have treated the sea as a surface or a void, the history of science is well positioned to draw the ocean itself into history. The contributors to this Focus section build on the modest existing tradition of history of oceanography and extend that tradition to demonstrate both the insights to be gained by studying oceans historically and the critical role that the history of science should play in future environmental history of the ocean.

  2. Sulfur and Its Role In Modern Materials Science. (United States)

    Boyd, Darryl A


    Although well-known and studied for centuries, sulfur continues to be at the center of an extensive array of scientific research topics. As one of the most abundant elements in the Universe, a major by-product of oil refinery processes, and as a common reaction site within biological systems, research involving sulfur is both broad in scope and incredibly important to our daily lives. Indeed, there has been renewed interest in sulfur-based reactions in just the past ten years. Sulfur research spans the spectrum of topics within the physical sciences including research on improving energy efficiency, environmentally friendly uses for oil refinery waste products, development of polymers with unique optical and mechanical properties, and materials produced for biological applications. This Review focuses on some of the latest exciting ways in which sulfur and sulfur-based reactions are being utilized to produce materials for application in energy, environmental, and other practical areas. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Surface science in hernioplasty: The role of plasma treatments (United States)

    Nisticò, Roberto; Magnacca, Giuliana; Martorana, Selanna


    The aim of this review is to clarify the importance of surface modifications induced in biomaterials for hernia-repair application. Starting from the pioneering experiences involving proto-materials as ancient prosthesis, a historical excursus between the biomaterials used in hernioplasty was realized. Subsequently, after the revolutionary discovery of stereoregular polymerization followed by the PP application in the biomedical field performed by the surgeon F. Usher, a comparative study on different hernia-repair meshes available was realized in order to better understand all the outstanding problems and possible future developments. Furthermore, since many unsolved problems on prosthetic devices implantation are linked to phenomena occurring at the interface between the biomaterials surface and the body fluids, the importance of surface science in hernioplasty was highlighted and case studies of new surface-modified generations of prosthesis presented. The results discussed in the following evidence how the surface study are becoming increasingly important for a proper knowledge of issues related to the interaction between the living matter and the artificial prostheses.

  4. The Role of the Nuclear Science and Technology in Hydrocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eko Budi Lelono; Isnawati


    The development of the nuclear science and technology influences the method of hydrocarbon exploration as shown by the use of radioactive isotope to determine the absolute age of the rock. Traditionally, the age determination relies on the occurrence of index fossil, both micro and macro forms, to define the relative age of the rock. The absolute age is basically defined based on the calculation of the decay of the selected radioactive mineral. By referring to its absolute age, the rock (source rock or reservoir) can be precisely put in the certain stratigraphic level. On the other hand, the nuclear technology - so called NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) - is applied in the well exploration survey to measure the porosity and the permeability of the rock for predicting the existence of hydrocarbon. From the sedimentology view point, the nuclear technology is used in x ray diffraction (XRD) laboratory to identify mineral in the reservoir rock. In addition, it is also applied in scanning electron microscope (sem) laboratory for estimating the porosity of reservoir. These kinds of information are required by the exploration experts to create reservoir management. (author)

  5. The role of trees in urban stormwater management | Science ... (United States)

    Urban impervious surfaces convert precipitation to stormwater runoff, which causes water quality and quantity problems. While traditional stormwater management has relied on gray infrastructure such as piped conveyances to collect and convey stormwater to wastewater treatment facilities or into surface waters, cities are exploring green infrastructure to manage stormwater at its source. Decentralized green infrastructure leverages the capabilities of soil and vegetation to infiltrate, redistribute, and otherwise store stormwater volume, with the potential to realize ancillary environmental, social, and economic benefits. To date, green infrastructure science and practice have largely focused on infiltration-based technologies that include rain gardens, bioswales, and permeable pavements. However, a narrow focus on infiltration overlooks other losses from the hydrologic cycle, and we propose that arboriculture – the cultivation of trees and other woody plants – deserves additional consideration as a stormwater control measure. Trees interact with the urban hydrologic cycle by intercepting incoming precipitation, removing water from the soil via transpiration, enhancing infiltration, and bolstering the performance of other green infrastructure technologies. However, many of these interactions are inadequately understood, particularly at spatial and temporal scales relevant to stormwater management. As such, the reliable use of trees for stormwater control depe

  6. When science met the consumer: the role of industry. (United States)

    Short, Donald


    The Coca-Cola Company is committed to understanding consumers and providing solutions to help them live active and healthy lifestyles. The Coca-Cola Company has developed a wide range of innovative beverages that can be incorporated into a healthy diet. Product offerings include beverages with fewer calories, smaller package sizes, and expanded beverage fortification options. In addition, the company has policies in place that responsibly address advertising to children and guidelines for selling beverages to schools. Nutrition education messages continue to be delivered through the Internet and on product packaging while physical activity initiatives are promoted in schools and communities. The most recent initiative has been the creation of The Beverage Institute for Health & Wellness. This institute comprises nutritionists, food scientists, physicians, and communicators and has been established with the holistic goal of providing people all over the world with a wide range of healthy beverages options. The institute supports scientific research and consumer education that focuses on the role of beverages in a healthy lifestyle. Current projects of the institute include the role of hydration in health and performance, alternative beverage sweeteners, capturing the natural goodness of fruits and vegetables for beverage use, and appropriate beverage fortification.

  7. Mixed models for predictive modeling in actuarial science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonio, K.; Zhang, Y.


    We start with a general discussion of mixed (also called multilevel) models and continue with illustrating specific (actuarial) applications of this type of models. Technical details on (linear, generalized, non-linear) mixed models follow: model assumptions, specifications, estimation techniques

  8. Life histories of female elementary teachers and their science/teacher role construction (United States)

    Ramseur, Aletha Johnson

    The research conducted in this study focuses on life histories of female elementary teachers and their science/teacher role construction. Identity theorists argue that the self consists of a collection of identities founded on occupying a particular role. Who we are depends on the roles we occupy. These roles are often referred to as "role identities". In the case of these participants, many role identities (mother, wife, sibling, and teacher) exist. This study focuses primarily on their (science) teacher role identity. Literature on women's lives, as learners and teachers, suggest that women's experiences, currently and throughout history influenced their teacher role construction. There is however, little knowledge of women's lives as elementary teachers of science and the affect of their experiences, currently and throughout history, on their (science) teacher identity construction. Schools delineated by race, class, and gender relations, are similar to other sectors of society's, social and cultural spheres within which race, class, and gender identities are constructed. Using in-depth-interviews female elementary teachers were encouraged to actively reconstruct their life and work-life experiences focusing on family, school and science interactions. They addressed the intellectual and emotional connections between their life and work experiences by focusing on details of their past and present experiences and examining the meaning of those experiences. It was the scrutiny of these connections between their life and work experiences, the meaning derived from them and historical events, and the constraints imposed on their personal choices by broader power relations, such as those of class, race, and gender that informed why we teach, how we teach, and what we teach.

  9. What to do? Does science have a role?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasselmann, K.


    A new generation of integrated assessment models of climate change policies is needed to capture the basic dynamical processes that govern the required transformation of the present fossil-based global economic system to a sustainable de-carbonized system. After an overview of the abatement technologies and policy instruments that are already available and able today to achieve the transformation, three examples are presented of typical actor-based, system-dynamical models that are able to simulate some of the key dynamics of the transition processes. In addition to developing a new hierarchy of integrated assessment models, scientists need also to better educate the public and policy makers on the wide-reaching implications of the inherent inertia of the climate system. (author)

  10. Modeling human behavior in economics and social science. (United States)

    Dolfin, M; Leonida, L; Outada, N


    The complex interactions between human behaviors and social economic sciences is critically analyzed in this paper in view of possible applications of mathematical modeling as an attainable interdisciplinary approach to understand and simulate the aforementioned dynamics. The quest is developed along three steps: Firstly an overall analysis of social and economic sciences indicates the main requirements that a contribution of mathematical modeling should bring to these sciences; subsequently the focus moves to an overview of mathematical tools and to the selection of those which appear, according to the authors bias, appropriate to the modeling; finally, a survey of applications is presented looking ahead to research perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Towards A Model of Identity and Role Exit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S. Milne


    Full Text Available Explanations of role exit often focus on how factors associated with a specific role that affect whether the individual will exit a role or not. Other research explains how identities affect our performance in a role. However, no one has yet to demonstrate the connection between role-set factors and identities, and role exit. Using data from a survey of 940 current and former soccer referees, this paper provides a model of role exit that involves a complex of processes that include role-set factors (structural and cultural factors associated with a specific role and identity processes. Specifically, this paper demonstrates that, other than role conflict, identity processes explain the relationship between role-set factors and role exit. The model provides a beginning method for understanding the connection between identities and role exit.

  12. Educating adult females for leadership roles in an informal science program for girls (United States)

    McCreedy, Dale

    The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of and an evidentiary warrant for, how a community of practice focused on informal science learning, can engage and promote active participation that offers adult female members and the community opportunities for legitimacy and transformation. This study is a qualitative, ethnographic research study that documents how adult female volunteers, historically inexperienced and/or excluded from traditional practices of science, come to engage in science activities through an informal, community-based context that helps them to appreciate science connections in their lives that are ultimately empowering and agentic. I begin to understand the ways in which such informal contexts, often thought to be marginal to dominant educational beliefs and practices, can offer adults outside of the field of science, education, or both, an entree into science learning and teaching that facilitate female's participation in legitimate and empowering ways. Using descriptive analyses, I first identify the characteristics of peripheral and active program participants. Through phenomenological analyses, I then develop an understanding of participation in an informal science program by focusing on three adult female members' unique trajectories of participation leading to core member status. Each draws on different aspects of the program that they find most salient, illustrating how different elements can serve as motivators for participation, and support continuation along the trajectory of participation reflecting personal and political agency. Through a purposeful ethnographic case-study analysis, I then explore one core member's transformation, evidenced by her developing identities as someone who enjoys science, engages in science activities, and, enacts a role as community old timer and door opener to science learning. This study: (1) contributes to the limited knowledge base in fields of informal learning, science education, and

  13. "The Role of the Unit in Physics and Psychometrics" by Stephen Humphry--One Small Step for the Rasch Model, but Possibly One Giant Leap for Measurement in the Social Sciences (United States)

    Salzberger, Thomas


    Compared to traditional test theory, where person measures are typically referenced to the distribution of a population, item response theory allows for a much more meaningful interpretation of measures as they can be directly compared to item locations. However, Stephen Humphry shows that the crucial role of the unit of measurement has been…

  14. Contextualising the role of the gatekeeper in social science research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenuka Singh


    Full Text Available Accessing research participants within some social institutions for research purposes may involve a simple single administrative event. However, accessing some institutions to conduct research on their data, personnel, clients or service users can be quite complex. Research ethics committee chairpersons frequently field questions from researchers wanting to know when and why gatekeeper permission should be sought. This article examines the role and influence of gatekeepers in formal and organisational settings and explores pragmatic methods to improve understanding and facilitation of this process. Conscientious and well-informed negotiations with gatekeepers are required in order to honour the ethical obligations to conduct appropriate stakeholder engagement before and during research, along with respect for the autonomy of institutions and their employees/clients/service recipients. Provision must be made to identify explicit and implicit gatekeepers to initiate and build collaborative networks that could best support the research process. Careful mutually respectful access agreements which consider the needs and vulnerabilities of both the gatekeeper and the researcher can improve the quality of the scientific data collected. Strategic planning in the research process must take these sometimes complex processes of gatekeeper permission into careful account.

  15. Science Roles and Interactions in Adaptive Management of Large River Restoration Projects, Midwest United States (United States)

    Jacobson, R. B.; Galat, D. L.; Smith, C. B.


    Most large-river restoration projects include formal or informal implementations of adaptive management strategies which acknowledge uncertainty and use scientific inquiry to learn and refine management options. Although the central role of science in reducing uncertainty is acknowledged in such projects, specific roles and interactions can vary widely, including how science relates to decision-making within the governance of these projects. Our objective is to present some structured generalizations about science roles and interactions as developed from the authors’ experiences in adaptive management of large river restoration in the Midwest United States. Scientific information may be introduced into decision making by scientists acting in any of the three roles common to adaptive management -- action agency representative, stakeholder, or science provider. We have observed that confusion and gridlock can arise when it is unclear if a scientist is acting as an advocate for a stakeholder or management position, or instead as an independent, “honest broker” of science. Although both advocacy and independence are proper and expected in public decision making, it is useful when scientists unambiguously identify their role. While complete scientific independence may be illusory, transparency and peer review can promote the ideal. Transparency comes from setting clear directions and objectives at the decision-making level and defining at the outset how learning will help assess progress and inform decisions. Independent peer reviews of proposals, study plans, and publications serve as a powerful tool to advance scientific independence, even if funding sources present a potential conflict of interest. Selection of experts for scientific advice and review often requires consideration of the balance between benefits of the “outside” expert (independent, knowledgeable but with little specific understanding of the river system), compared to those provided by the

  16. Assessment of the Clinical Trainer as a Role Model: A Role Model Apperception Tool (RoMAT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochemsen-van der Leeuw, H. G. A. Ria; van Dijk, Nynke; Wieringa-de Waard, Margreet


    Purpose Positive role modeling by clinical trainers is important for helping trainees learn professional and competent behavior. The authors developed and validated an instrument to assess clinical trainers as role models: the Role Model Apperception Tool (RoMAT). Method On the basis of a 2011

  17. Modeling in applied sciences a kinetic theory approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pulvirenti, Mario


    Modeling complex biological, chemical, and physical systems, in the context of spatially heterogeneous mediums, is a challenging task for scientists and engineers using traditional methods of analysis Modeling in Applied Sciences is a comprehensive survey of modeling large systems using kinetic equations, and in particular the Boltzmann equation and its generalizations An interdisciplinary group of leading authorities carefully develop the foundations of kinetic models and discuss the connections and interactions between model theories, qualitative and computational analysis and real-world applications This book provides a thoroughly accessible and lucid overview of the different aspects, models, computations, and methodology for the kinetic-theory modeling process Topics and Features * Integrated modeling perspective utilized in all chapters * Fluid dynamics of reacting gases * Self-contained introduction to kinetic models * Becker–Doring equations * Nonlinear kinetic models with chemical reactions * Kinet...

  18. Beyond Construction: Five arguments for the role and value of critique in learning science (United States)

    Henderson, J. Bryan; MacPherson, Anna; Osborne, Jonathan; Wild, Andrew


    This paper argues that science education has overemphasized the importance of construction at the expense of critique. In doing so, it draws on two key premises-Ford's argument that the construction of knowledge requires a dialectic between construction and critique and Mercier and Sperber's theory of argumentative reasoning that critique is essential for epistemic vigilance. Five separate cases are presented which argue that the absence of critique within school science limits the opportunities for students to engage in scientific reasoning making the learning of science less effective. These five arguments incorporate research literature surrounding the nature of science, epistemology, literacy, pedagogy, and motivation. Furthermore, we draw on data collected from cognitive think-aloud interviews to show that students can, with the appropriate prompts, engage in the important epistemic activity of critique. We conclude by examining the implications for the teaching and learning of science. In essence, we argue that the undervaluing of critique within the curriculum and pedagogy of school science results in a failure to develop the analytical faculties which are the valued hall mark of the practicing scientist; a misrepresentation of the nature of science; and, more importantly, a less effective learning experience. Critique, therefore, needs to play a central role in the teaching and learning of science.

  19. The perception of science teachers on the role of student relationships in the classroom (United States)

    Mattison, Cheryl Ann

    With the increased accountability of educators comes the responsibility of the entire educational community to find ways in which we can help our students succeed in the classroom. In addition, it is important to discover what it takes to keep those students in school Many science teachers enter the profession unprepared to handle the regular classroom routine. Classroom management, grading, lesson planning, setting up labs, and the myriad of other obligations, can leave teachers overwhelmed and sometimes can get in the way of actually helping students be successful. This study investigated how science teachers viewed the importance of developing strong teacher/student relationships to the increase of student success in a science classroom. I attempted to answer 4 major questions: · How do science teachers in a select high school community view the role of interactive relationships in their classrooms and how that might impact their students? · How do science teachers in a select high school community believe they establish successful interactive relationships with their students? · What do science teachers in a select high school community believe are some of the outcomes of those relationships? · What do science teachers suggest to increase the teacher's ability to form good relationships with their students? A qualitative research method was used including observations, interviews and group discussions of 5 high school science teachers in a small urban school.

  20. The role of the mechanical clock in medieval science. (United States)

    Álvarez, Víctor Pérez


    The invention and spread of the mechanical clock is a complex and multifaceted historical phenomenon. Some of these facets, such as its social impact, have been widely studied, but their scientific dimensions have often been dismissed. The mechanical clock was probably born as a scientific instrument for driving a model of the universe, and not only natural philosophers but also kings, nobles and other members of the social elites showed an interest in clocks as scientific instruments. Public clocks later spread a new way of telling time based on equal hours, laying the foundations for changes in time consciousness that would accelerate scientific thinking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Industrial leadership in Science-based Industries. A co-evolution model


    Fatas-Villafranca , Francisco; Jarne , Gloria; Sanchez-Choliz , Julio


    Abstract In this paper, we seek to analyse the role of national university systems in combination with technological and market factors as sources of industrial leadership and industry growth in sciencebased industries. We propose a model in which national university systems and their respective national firms and industries are considered as co-evolving. National firms compete on a worldwide level and they rely on the progress of science and the availability of scientists to innov...

  2. SMART social science? Examining the nature and role of social scientific expertise in institutional design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan C. Tait


    Full Text Available Daniel Bromley argues against Oran Young's FIT model as a basis for environmental governance, on the grounds that humans cannot manage nature and that attempts to do so are based on a scientistic, modernist conceit. At issue is the role of natural and social scientists in adjudicating questions about what we ought to do to close governance gaps and address unsustainable behaviors. If Bromley is right, then the lessons of the American pragmatist tradition recommend against attempts to "fit" social institutions to the natural world. The first objective of this paper is to argue that Bromley's view is not in keeping with the pragmatism of C. S. Peirce and John Dewey, which actually places a high value on natural and social scientific modes of inquiry in the service of social ends. I argue that Young's proposal is in fact a development of the pragmatist idea that social institutions must be fit in the sense of fitness, i.e., resilient and able to navigate uncertainty. Social institutions must also evolve to accommodate the emerging values of the agents who operate within them. The second objective of this paper is to examine the role of social science expertise in the design of social policies. Governance institutions typically rely on the testimony of natural scientists, at least in part, to understand the natural systems they operate within. However, natural systems are also social systems, so it seems pertinent to ask whether there is a role for social systems experts to play in helping to design environmental governance institutions. I argue that social scientists can make a unique contribution as experts on social institutions, and as such, are necessary to bring about a transformation of the unsustainable institutions that are preventing us from achieving stated sustainable development goals.

  3. The Standard Model in the history of the Natural Sciences, Econometrics, and the social sciences (United States)

    Fisher, W. P., Jr.


    In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, scientists appropriated Newton's laws of motion as a model for the conduct of any other field of investigation that would purport to be a science. This early form of a Standard Model eventually informed the basis of analogies for the mathematical expression of phenomena previously studied qualitatively, such as cohesion, affinity, heat, light, electricity, and magnetism. James Clerk Maxwell is known for his repeated use of a formalized version of this method of analogy in lectures, teaching, and the design of experiments. Economists transferring skills learned in physics made use of the Standard Model, especially after Maxwell demonstrated the value of conceiving it in abstract mathematics instead of as a concrete and literal mechanical analogy. Haavelmo's probability approach in econometrics and R. Fisher's Statistical Methods for Research Workers brought a statistical approach to bear on the Standard Model, quietly reversing the perspective of economics and the social sciences relative to that of physics. Where physicists, and Maxwell in particular, intuited scientific method as imposing stringent demands on the quality and interrelations of data, instruments, and theory in the name of inferential and comparative stability, statistical models and methods disconnected theory from data by removing the instrument as an essential component. New possibilities for reconnecting economics and the social sciences to Maxwell's sense of the method of analogy are found in Rasch's probabilistic models for measurement.

  4. The Standard Model in the history of the Natural Sciences, Econometrics, and the social sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, W P Jr


    In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, scientists appropriated Newton's laws of motion as a model for the conduct of any other field of investigation that would purport to be a science. This early form of a Standard Model eventually informed the basis of analogies for the mathematical expression of phenomena previously studied qualitatively, such as cohesion, affinity, heat, light, electricity, and magnetism. James Clerk Maxwell is known for his repeated use of a formalized version of this method of analogy in lectures, teaching, and the design of experiments. Economists transferring skills learned in physics made use of the Standard Model, especially after Maxwell demonstrated the value of conceiving it in abstract mathematics instead of as a concrete and literal mechanical analogy. Haavelmo's probability approach in econometrics and R. Fisher's Statistical Methods for Research Workers brought a statistical approach to bear on the Standard Model, quietly reversing the perspective of economics and the social sciences relative to that of physics. Where physicists, and Maxwell in particular, intuited scientific method as imposing stringent demands on the quality and interrelations of data, instruments, and theory in the name of inferential and comparative stability, statistical models and methods disconnected theory from data by removing the instrument as an essential component. New possibilities for reconnecting economics and the social sciences to Maxwell's sense of the method of analogy are found in Rasch's probabilistic models for measurement.

  5. The Learning Assistant Model for Science Teacher Recruitment and Preparation (United States)

    Otero, Valerie


    There is a shortage of high quality physical science teachers in the United States. In 2001, less than 50% of teachers who taught physics held a major or minor in physics or physics education (Neuschatz & McFarling, 2003). Studies point to content knowledge as one of the two factors that is positively correlated with teacher quality. However, those directly responsible for the science content preparation of teachers, specifically science research faculty, are rarely involved in focused efforts to improve teacher quality or to create alternative paths for becoming a teacher. What role should science research faculty play in the recruitment and preparation of science teachers? How might teacher recruitment and preparation be conceived so that science research faculty members' participation in these efforts is not at odds with the traditional scientific research foci of science research departments? To address this issue, we have coupled our teacher recruitment and preparation efforts with our efforts for transforming our large-enrollment, undergraduate science courses. This is achieved through the undergraduate Learning Assistant (LA) program, where talented mathematics and science majors are hired to assist in transforming large enrollment courses to student-centered, collaborative environments. These LAs are the target of our teacher recruitment efforts. Science research faculty, in collaboration with faculty from the school of education have established a community that supports LAs in making decisions to explore K12 teaching as a career option. Fifteen percent of the LAs who have participated in this program have entered teaching credential programs and now plan to become K12 teachers. An added effect of this program is that research faculty have developed skills and knowledge regarding inquiry-based and student-centered pedagogy and theories of student learning. The Learning Assistant program has led to increased subject matter knowledge among learning

  6. Damsel: A Data Model Storage Library for Exascale Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Alok [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Liao, Wei-keng [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)


    Computational science applications have been described as having one of seven motifs (the “seven dwarfs”), each having a particular pattern of computation and communication. From a storage and I/O perspective, these applications can also be grouped into a number of data model motifs describing the way data is organized and accessed during simulation, analysis, and visualization. Major storage data models developed in the 1990s, such as Network Common Data Format (netCDF) and Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) projects, created support for more complex data models. Development of both netCDF and HDF5 was influenced by multi-dimensional dataset storage requirements, but their access models and formats were designed with sequential storage in mind (e.g., a POSIX I/O model). Although these and other high-level I/O libraries have had a beneficial impact on large parallel applications, they do not always attain a high percentage of peak I/O performance due to fundamental design limitations, and they do not address the full range of current and future computational science data models. The goal of this project is to enable exascale computational science applications to interact conveniently and efficiently with storage through abstractions that match their data models. The project consists of three major activities: (1) identifying major data model motifs in computational science applications and developing representative benchmarks; (2) developing a data model storage library, called Damsel, that supports these motifs, provides efficient storage data layouts, incorporates optimizations to enable exascale operation, and is tolerant to failures; and (3) productizing Damsel and working with computational scientists to encourage adoption of this library by the scientific community. The product of this project, Damsel library, is openly available for download from Several case studies and application programming interface

  7. The National Ocean Sciences Bowl: An Effective Model for Engaging High School Students in Ocean Science (United States)

    Holloway, A. E.


    The National Ocean Sciences Bowl (NOSB) is an informal high school education program that engages students in ocean and environmental science and exposes them to the breadth of ocean-related careers. The NOSB strives to train the next generation of interdisciplinary capable scientists and build a STEM-literate society that harnesses the power of ocean and climate science to address environmental, economic, and societal issues. Through the NOSB, students not only learn scientific principles, but also apply them to compelling real-world problems. The NOSB provides a richer STEM education and exposes students to ocean science topics they may not otherwise study through classroom curriculum. A longitudinal study that began in 2007 has shown that NOSB participants have an enhanced interest in ocean-related hobbies and environmental stewardship and an increasing number of these students have remained in the STEM pipeline and workforce.While the NOSB is primarily an academic competition, it has evolved since its creation in 1998 to include a variety of practical and professional development components. One of the program enhancements, the Scientific Expert Briefing (SEB), gives students the opportunity to apply what they have studied and think critically about current and ongoing ocean science challenges. The SEB helps students connect their knowledge of ocean science with current and proposed policy initiatives. Students gain significant research, writing, and presentation skills, while enhancing their ability for collaboration and consensus building, all vital workforce skills. Ultimately, the SEB teaches students how to communicate complex scientific research into digestible information for decision-makers and the general public.This poster will examine the impact of the NOSB and its role in strengthening the workforce pipeline through a combination of independent learning, competition, and opportunities for communication skills development.

  8. Hierarchical modelling for the environmental sciences statistical methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, James S


    New statistical tools are changing the way in which scientists analyze and interpret data and models. Hierarchical Bayes and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods for analysis provide a consistent framework for inference and prediction where information is heterogeneous and uncertain, processes are complicated, and responses depend on scale. Nowhere are these methods more promising than in the environmental sciences.

  9. International workshop on learning by modelling in science education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredeweg, B.; Salles, P.; Biswas, G.; Bull, S.; Kay, J.; Mitrovic, A.


    Modelling is nowadays a well-established methodology in the sciences, supporting the inquiry and understanding of complex phenomena and systems in the natural, social and artificial worlds. Hence its strong potential as pedagogical approach fostering students' learning of scientific concepts and

  10. A study of the historical role of African Americans in science, engineering and technology (United States)

    Jones, Keith Wayne


    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is adequate documentation of an historical role of African and African American involvement in science, engineering, and technology. Through the use of history of science and technology research methodology, along with an examination of the sociological and economic impacts of adequately accredited innovations and inventions contributed by Africans and African Americans, the researcher investigated their contributions to the following areas of science and technology: life science, physical sciences and chemistry, engineering, and science education. In regard to the timeframe for this study, the researcher specifically investigated African and African American involvement in science and technology that includes periods prior to black enslavement, scientific racism and colonialism, as well as during and after those periods. This research study reveals that there are adequate historical data regarding African and African American contributions to science, engineering, and technology. The data reveals that for many millennia African peoples have been continually involved in science and world science histories. The data further show that the numbers of African Americans acquiring BS, MS, Ph.D., Doctor of Science and Doctor of Engineering degrees in science and engineering disciplines are increasing. That these increases are not happening at a rate representative of the present or future African American percentages of the population. Consequently, because of future changes in our nation's demographics, increasing the numbers of people from under-represented groups who pursue scientific and engineering professions has become a matter of national security at the highest levels of government. Moreover, African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans are not pursuing careers or taking courses in science and engineering at a rate high enough to fulfill the prospective needs for the United States' industries, government

  11. Role of land state in a high resolution mesoscale model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences · Resonance – Journal of Science ... Land surface characteristics; high resolution mesoscale model; Uttarakhand ... to predict realistic location, timing, amount,intensity and distribution of rainfall ... region embedded within two low pressure centers over Arabian Seaand Bay of Bengal.

  12. The gap in scientific knowledge and role of science communication in South Korea. (United States)

    Chang, Jeong-Heon; Kim, Sei-Hill; Kang, Myung-Hyun; Shim, Jae Chul; Ma, Dong Hoon


    Using data from a national survey of South Koreans, this study explores the role of science communication in enhancing three different forms of scientific knowledge ( factual, procedural, and subjective). We first assess learning effects, looking at the extent to which citizens learn science from different channels of communication (interpersonal discussions, traditional newspapers, television, online newspapers, and social media). We then look into the knowledge gap hypothesis, investigating how different communication channels can either widen or narrow the gap in knowledge between social classes. Television was found to function as a "knowledge leveler," narrowing the gap between highly and less educated South Koreans. The role of online newspapers in science learning is pronounced in our research. Reading newspapers online indicated a positive relationship to all three measures of knowledge. Contrary to the knowledge-leveling effect of television viewing, reading online newspapers was found to increase, rather than decrease, the gap in knowledge. Implications of our findings are discussed in detail.

  13. Recommendations for the role of social science research in One Health. (United States)

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Funk, Julie A; Moccia, Lauren T


    The social environment has changed rapidly as technology has facilitated communication among individuals and groups in ways not imagined 20 years ago. Communication technology increasingly plays a role in decision-making about health and environmental behaviors and is being leveraged to influence that process. But at its root is the fundamental need to understand human cognition, communication, and behavior. The concept of 'One Health' has emerged as a framework for interdisciplinary work that cuts across human, animal, and ecosystem health in recognition of their interdependence and the value of an integrated perspective. Yet, the science of communication, information studies, social psychology, and other social sciences have remained marginalized in this emergence. Based on an interdisciplinary collaboration, this paper reports on a nascent conceptual framework for the role of social science in 'One Health' issues and identifies a series of recommendations for research directions that bear additional scrutiny and development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A special issue of the Journal of Forestry - Wilderness science and its role in wilderness stewardship (United States)

    Susan F. Fox


    This special issue of the Journal of Forestry provides an overview of America’s National Wilderness Preservation System and highlights the important role that science serves in informing wilderness stewardship. The lead authors of the articles in this volume selected the Journal because it is highly respected and widely circulated among foresters and federal...

  15. Sustainability and Science Learning: Perceptions from 8th Grade Students Involved with a Role Playing Activity (United States)

    Freire, Sofia; Baptista, Mónica; Freire, Ana


    Raising awareness about sustainability is an urgent need and as such education for sustainability has gained relevancy for the last decades. It is acknowledged that science education can work as an important context for educating for sustainability. The goal of the present paper is to describe a role-playing activity about the construction of a…

  16. The Many Roles of "Explanation" in Science Education: A Case Study (United States)

    Rocksén, Miranda


    In this paper the role of explanations is discussed in relation to possible consequences originating in the polysemy of the word explanation. The present study is a response to conceptual confusions that have arisen in the intersection between theory and practice, and between science education literature and communication in authentic science…

  17. An Investigation of Science Educators' View of Roles and Responsibilities for Climate Change Education (United States)

    McGinnis, J. Randy; McDonald, Chris; Hestness, Emily; Breslyn, Wayne


    This exploratory study investigates what science educators from differing groups (outside of higher education--informal and formal (K-12) and inside of higher education--content and pedagogy experts) believe are the roles and responsibilities (and what actions these might involve) in climate change education for: 1) their group of educators, and…

  18. The evolution, approval and implementation of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Data Lifecycle Model (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.; Hutchison, Vivian


    This paper details how the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Community for Data Integration (CDI) Data Management Working Group developed a Science Data Lifecycle Model, and the role the Model plays in shaping agency-wide policies. Starting with an extensive literature review of existing data Lifecycle models, representatives from various backgrounds in USGS attended a two-day meeting where the basic elements for the Science Data Lifecycle Model were determined. Refinements and reviews spanned two years, leading to finalization of the model and documentation in a formal agency publication . The Model serves as a critical framework for data management policy, instructional resources, and tools. The Model helps the USGS address both the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) for increased public access to federally funded research, and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) 2013 Open Data directives, as the foundation for a series of agency policies related to data management planning, metadata development, data release procedures, and the long-term preservation of data. Additionally, the agency website devoted to data management instruction and best practices ( is designed around the Model’s structure and concepts. This paper also illustrates how the Model is being used to develop tools for supporting USGS research and data management processes.

  19. The changing roles of science in managing Australian droughts: An agricultural perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Howden


    Full Text Available As the driest inhabited continent with a highly variable climate, Australia has had a long and evolving history of drought management in agriculture. This paper analyses the changing roles of science in the management of climate risk and uncertainty and how this may continue into the future. Initially science had a role in documenting the underlying nature of Australia׳s climate, and later broadening the understanding around the drivers of variability so as to provide useful climate forecasts and developing metrics to measure and compare the severity of extreme climatic events. Over time this has shifted to providing effective integrating approaches to enhance social cohesion, rural economies, environmental protection, health, and food security under drought conditions. Institutional responses initially framed drought as a natural disaster, for which State and Federal funding for farmers was distributed; however, the need for farmers to proactively manage climate risk and build adaptive capacity has resulted in climate variability being seen as a risk to be managed as part of normal practise. The formulation of a national drought policy in 1992 placed responsibility for adaptation and education in the hands of the farmers, where science played various roles, including the provision of training for strategic business planning and decision-making, methods of managing uncertainty as well as via delivery of climate data and methods to integrate this into meaningful information that is embedded into the social and institutional processes through which decisions are made. This policy continues to evolve and science inputs will evolve with this. In particular, we anticipate that ongoing and projected climate changes will impact on drought frequency and severity and will require science integrated with stakeholder input into developing climate adaptation practices and technologies and effective adoption paths particularly to deal with climate extremes

  20. Environmental Empowerment - the role of Co-operation between Civil Society, Universities and Science Shops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Hansen, Anne Grethe


    The University based Science Shops were established in the 1970s in the Netherlands, and in Denmark and other countries in the 1980s and 1990s. The aim was to give civil society organisations access to scientific knowledge and to empower citizen participation regarding environmental and social...... improvements. It has recently been suggested that the role of Science Shops should change as a consequence of the stated increasing professionalisation of the Non Governmental Organisations and Civil Society Organisations, and of industry’s increasing interest in introducing environmental management measures....... Increasing internationalisation of the environmental agenda has contributed to this as well as a general acceptance of environmental considerations in industry policy and strategy. However, with departure point in three different Science Shop projects, the article proposes that Science Shops are still...

  1. Didactic models in the discourse of science teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene Margaret Avelar Guimarães


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research carried out among Science Teachers at Municipal Schools in Goiânia, State of Goiás. In 2000, questionnaires were sent out to all the teachers, of whom 56 (43% replied. Through an analysis of these questionnaires, an identification of the didactic models underlying their ideas on teaching/learning was made in the hope of delineating the profile of municipal science teaching which has been going through a process of curriculum re-structuring at primary school level, since 1998, with the implementation of formation cycles. Results show that teachers are going through a period of conception change which is probably a result of the experience of living through this process of curriculum restructuring. The profile is characterized as an eclectic didactic model, combining shades of different models identified in the literature: traditional, technological, spontaneous-activist and school research models; however, closer to the spontaneous model. The inclusion of certain presuppositions from other didactic models could further indicate a period of evolution in the professional development of Science teachers, which may constitute a significant space for reflection on the aims of education and on day-by-day classroom practices.

  2. Factors Affecting the Choice of Professors as a Role Model from the Viewpoint of Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masome Rahimi


    Full Text Available The role of professors as a model can have a beneficial impact on the mental, psychological and educational conditions of medical students. This also plays an important role in improving professionalism and academic achievements among medical students. Therefore, the present study was aimed at evaluating the standpoint of students on factors influencing the selection of professors as a role model. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on the students of different disciplines studying in Jahrom University of Medical Sciences in 2016. A randomized sampling method was conducted on 217 students. Their viewpoints were collected using a 30- question researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three parts, each containing ten items. In addition, this questionnaire was distributed among 20 people (as a pilot survey, the alpha coefficient of which was equal to 0.88; and its measurement was based on Likert scale "from very low to very high". Data were analyzed using SPSS 18 and descriptive statistics. Most respondents were nursing students and the highest influence of professors as a role model was associated with their role as a research leader (future specialized courses in the clinical choices and selection of future specialized fields. The factors influencing the selection of professors as a role model included their respectful attitude toward students, and the high level of their knowledge and skills. On the other hand, the most important factors that caused professors not to be regarded as a role model included their inappropriate relationship with the students and refusing to listen to them. Role model professors can have a beneficial impact on the future of students and scientific communities, as far as the science and education is concerned. Therefore, it is necessary for professors to pay particular attention to strengthening their role as a model at universities.

  3. Preparing Middle School Teachers to Use Science Models Effectively when Teaching about Weather and Climate Topics (United States)

    Yarker, M. B.; Stanier, C. O.; Forbes, C.; Park, S.


    their students; they rarely discussed the idea that models are a representation of reality (as opposed to a replication of reality) and never discussed the predictive power of models and how they are used to further scientific knowledge. The results indicate that these teachers do not have a complete understanding of science models and the role they play in the scientific process. Therefore, the teachers struggled to incorporate modeling into the classroom in a way that aligns with what the NSES suggests. They tended to lean on models as "proof" of a particular concept rather than a representation of a concept. In actuality, scientists do not just use models to explain a concept, they also use them to make projections and as a way to improve our understanding the atmosphere. A possible consequence of teachers using models as "proof" of a concept is that students expect climate and forecast models to be concrete and exact, rather than tentative and representative. Increasing student understanding of climate and weather models is important to meet the needs of future STEM professionals, decision-makers, and the general populace to support rational decision-making about weather and the future of climate by an educated society.

  4. Partial differential equation models in the socio-economic sciences. (United States)

    Burger, Martin; Caffarelli, Luis; Markowich, Peter A


    Mathematical models based on partial differential equations (PDEs) have become an integral part of quantitative analysis in most branches of science and engineering, recently expanding also towards biomedicine and socio-economic sciences. The application of PDEs in the latter is a promising field, but widely quite open and leading to a variety of novel mathematical challenges. In this introductory article of the Theme Issue, we will provide an overview of the field and its recent boosting topics. Moreover, we will put the contributions to the Theme Issue in an appropriate perspective. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Partial differential equation models in the socio-economic sciences

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin


    Mathematical models based on partial differential equations (PDEs) have become an integral part of quantitative analysis in most branches of science and engineering, recently expanding also towards biomedicine and socio-economic sciences. The application of PDEs in the latter is a promising field, but widely quite open and leading to a variety of novel mathematical challenges. In this introductory article of the Theme Issue, we will provide an overview of the field and its recent boosting topics. Moreover, we will put the contributions to the Theme Issue in an appropriate perspective.

  6. Taiwanese Students' Science Learning Self-Efficacy and Teacher and Student Science Hardiness: A Multilevel Model Approach (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    This study aimed to investigate the factors accounting for science learning self-efficacy (the specific beliefs that people have in their ability to complete tasks in science learning) from both the teacher and the student levels. We thus propose a multilevel model to delineate its relationships with teacher and student science hardiness (i.e.,…

  7. How Does Science Learning Occur in the Classroom? Students' Perceptions of Science Instruction during the Implementation of REAPS Model (United States)

    Gomez-Arizaga, Maria P.; Bahar, A. Kadir; Maker, C. June; Zimmerman, Robert; Pease, Randal


    In this qualitative study the researchers explored children's perceptions of their participation in a science class in which an elementary science curriculum, the Full Option Science System (FOSS), was combined with an innovative teaching model, Real Engagement in Active Problem Solving (REAPS). The children were capable of articulating views…

  8. Solar energy market penetration models - Science or number mysticism (United States)

    Warren, E. H., Jr.


    The forecast market potential of a solar technology is an important factor determining its R&D funding. Since solar energy market penetration models are the method used to forecast market potential, they have a pivotal role in a solar technology's development. This paper critiques the applicability of the most common solar energy market penetration models. It is argued that the assumptions underlying the foundations of rigorously developed models, or the absence of a reasonable foundation for the remaining models, restrict their applicability.

  9. Task-role-based Access Control Model in Smart Health-care System


    Wang Peng; Jiang Lingyun


    As the development of computer science and smart health-care technology, there is a trend for patients to enjoy medical care at home. Taking enormous users in the Smart Health-care System into consideration, access control is an important issue. Traditional access control models, discretionary access control, mandatory access control, and role-based access control, do not properly reflect the characteristics of Smart Health-care System. This paper proposes an advanced access control model for...

  10. Empowering Effective STEM Role Models to Promote STEM Equity in Local Communities (United States)

    Harte, T.; Taylor, J.


    Empowering Effective STEM Role Models, a three-hour training developed and successfully implemented by NASA Langley Research Center's Science Directorate, is an effort to encourage STEM professionals to serve as role models within their community. The training is designed to help participants reflect on their identity as a role model and provide research-based strategies to effectively engage youth, particularly girls, in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics). Research shows that even though girls and boys do not demonstrate a significant difference in their ability to be successful in mathematics and science, there is a significant difference in their confidence level when participating in STEM subject matter and pursuing STEM careers. The Langley training model prepares professionals to disrupt this pattern and take on the habits and skills of effective role models. The training model is based on other successful models and resources for role modeling in STEM including SciGirls; the National Girls Collaborative; and publications by the American Association of University Women and the National Academies. It includes a significant reflection component, and participants walk through situation-based scenarios to practice a focused suite of research-based strategies. These strategies can be implemented in a variety of situations and adapted to the needs of groups that are underrepresented in STEM fields. Underpinning the training and the discussions is the fostering of a growth mindset and promoting perseverance. "The Power of Yet" becomes a means whereby role models encourage students to believe in themselves, working toward reaching their goals and dreams in the area of STEM. To provide additional support, NASA Langley role model trainers are available to work with a champion at other organizations to facilitate the training. This champion helps recruit participants, seeks leadership buy-in, and helps provide valuable insights for needs and

  11. An investigation of a professional development model in science education: A systems approach (United States)

    Bell, Glenda Love

    The Mathematics and Science Cooperative (MSEC), a four year longevity model of professional development education for in-service teachers, is closely aligned with the spirit and tenets of science for all. This partnership of a university, a school district, and a higher education coordinating board, seeks to promote and improve science and mathematics achievement for underserved and underrepresented populations. This study sought to explore how this model affects elementary in-service teachers' feelings of self-efficacy toward science and science teaching. Interactive Qualitative Research (IQR), a systems approach of natural inquiry, was used for this study. Theory is grounded in the data collected and analyzed through group processes. A core group of teachers, key teachers representing grades one through six and lead teachers the campus contact representatives, received professional development education from university professors in semi-monthly after school workshops and in a three week summer science institute held on-site. In this study, (N = 18) key and lead teachers participated in a focus group, a picture board exercise (a projective type exercise), interviews, and classroom observations. Within the system of the MSEC professional development model, cause and effect relationships among eleven phenomena were identified which had the greatest impact on the teachers' feelings of self-efficacy and science teaching practices. Changed teaching practices were indicated by inquiry-based science lessons with students as active learners. Five principles of self-efficacy: (1) efficacy; (2) goals setting; (3) values; (4) expectancy; and, (5) control beliefs were used to evaluate efficacy beliefs. Findings from the data collection and analysis identified two phenomena, the university instructional leadership role and teacher time commitments and time constraints, both internally and externally imposed, which seemed to have the greatest impact on elementary teachers

  12. Researchers must be aware of their roles at the interface of ecosystem services science and policy. (United States)

    Crouzat, Emilie; Arpin, Isabelle; Brunet, Lucas; Colloff, Matthew J; Turkelboom, Francis; Lavorel, Sandra


    Scientists working on ecosystem service (ES) science are engaged in a mission-driven discipline. They can contribute to science-policy interfaces where knowledge is co-produced and used. How scientists engage with the governance arena to mobilise their knowledge remains a matter of personal choice, influenced by individual values. ES science cannot be considered neutral and a discussion of the values that shape it forms an important part of the sustainability dialogue. We propose a simple decision tree to help ES scientists identify their role and the purpose of the knowledge they produce. We characterise six idealised scientific postures spanning possible roles at the science-policy interface (pure scientist, science arbiter-guarantor, issue advocate-guardian, officer, honest broker and stealth issue advocate) and illustrate them with feedbacks from interviews. We encourage ES scientists to conduct a reflexive exploration of their attitudes regarding knowledge production and use, with the intention of progressing toward a higher recognition of the political and ethical importance of ES assessments.

  13. From Aspiration to Action: A Learning Intentions Model to Promote Critical Engagement with Science in the Print-Based Media (United States)

    McClune, Billy; Jarman, Ruth


    Science programmes which prepare students to read critically and respond thoughtfully to science-based reports in the media could play an important role in promoting informed participation in the public debate about issues relating to science, technology and society. Evidence based guidance about the practice and pattern of use of science-based media in the classroom is limited. This study sought to identify learning intentions that teachers believe ought to underpin the development of programmes of study designed to achieve this end-result. Teachers' views of knowledge, skills and attitudes required to engage critically with science-based news served as a basis for this study. Teachers developed a pedagogical model by selecting appropriate statements of learning intentions, grouping these into coherent and manageable themes and coding them according to perceived level of difficulty. The model is largely compatible with current curricular provision in the UK, highlights opportunities for interdisciplinary collaboration and illustrates the developmental nature of the topic.

  14. Students' Views About Secondary School Science Lessons: The Role of Practical Work (United States)

    Toplis, Rob


    This paper reports an interpretive study that sought students' views about the role that practical work plays in their school science lessons. Twenty-nine students aged between 13 and 16 years were selected from three secondary schools in England. Data were collected from initial lesson observations and in-depth interviews in order to explore students' views about practical work. The findings suggest that students have three main reasons why practical work is important in their school science lessons: for interest and activity, including social and personal features such as participation and autonomy; as an alternative to other forms of science teaching involving a pedagogy of transmission, and as a way of learning, including memorizing and recall. The findings are discussed in the context of a critical view of previous work on the role of practical work, work on attitudes to science and on the student voice. The paper concludes that practical work is seen to provide opportunities for students to engage with and influence their own learning but that learning with practical work remains a complex issue that needs further research and evaluation about its use, effectiveness and of the role of scientific inquiry as a component of practical activity.

  15. Participatory modeling - engineering and social sciences in tandem (United States)

    Class, Holger; Kissinger, Alexander; Knopf, Stefan; Konrad, Wilfried; Noack, Vera; Scheer, Dirk


    The modeling of flow and transport processes in the context of engineering in the subsurface often takes place within a field of conflict from different interests, where societal issues are touched or involved. Carbon Capture and Storage, Fracking, or nuclear waste disposal are just a few prominent examples, where engineering (or: natural sciences) and social sciences have a common field of research. It is only consequent for both disciplines to explore methods and tools to achieve best possible mutual benefits. Participatory modeling (PM) is such an idea, where so-called stakeholders can be involved during different phases of the modeling process. This can be accomplished by very different methods of participation and for different reasons (public acceptance, public awareness, transparency, improved understanding through collective learning, etc). Therefore, PM is a generic approach, open for different methods to be used in order to facilitate early expert and stakeholder integration in science development. We have used PM recently in two examples, both in the context of Carbon Capture and Storage. The first one addressed the development and evaluation (by stakeholders) of a screening criterion for site selection. The second one deals with a regional-scale brine migration scenario where stakeholders have been involved in evaluating the general importance of brine migration, the design of a representative geological model for a case study and in the definition of scenarios to be simulated. This contribution aims at summarizing our experiences and share it with the modeling community. References: A Kissinger, V Noack, S Knopf, D Scheer, W Konrad, H Class Characterization of reservoir conditions for CO2 storage using a dimensionless gravitational number applied to the North German Basin, Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments 7, 209-220, 2014 D Scheer, W Konrad, H Class, A Kissinger, S Knopf, V Noack Expert involvement in science development: (re

  16. The Role of the National Laboratory in Improving Secondary Science Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White,K.; Morris, M.; Stegman, M.


    While the role of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) teachers in our education system is obvious, their role in our economic and national security system is less so. Our nation relies upon innovation and creativity applied in a way that generates new technologies for industry, health care, and the protection of our national assets and citizens. Often, it is our science teachers who generate the excitement that leads students to pursue science careers. While academia provides these teachers with the tools to educate, the rigors of a science and technology curriculum, coupled with the requisite teaching courses, often limit teacher exposure to an authentic research environment. As the single largest funding agency for the physical sciences, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science plays an important role in filling this void. For STEM teachers, the DOE Academies Creating Teacher Scientists program (ACTS) bridges the worlds of research and education. The ACTS program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), one of several across the country, exemplifies the value of this program for participating teachers. Outcomes of the work at BNL as evidenced by the balance of this report, include the following: (1) Teachers have developed long-term relationships with the Laboratory through participation in ongoing research, and this experience has both built enthusiasm for and enriched the content knowledge of the participants. (2) Teachers have modified the way they teach and are more likely to engage students in authentic research and include more inquiry-based activities. (3) Teachers have reported their students are more interested in becoming involved in science through classes, extra-curricular clubs, and community involvement. (4) Teachers have established leadership roles within their peer groups, both in their own districts and in the broader teaching community. National laboratories are making an important contribution to the

  17. Nature of science in instruction materials of science through the model of educational reconstruction (United States)

    Azizah, Nur; Mudzakir, Ahmad


    The study was carried out to reconstruct the science teaching materials charged view of the nature of science (VNOS). This reconstruction process using the Model of Educational Reconstruction (MER), which is the framework for research and development of science education as well as a guide for planning the teaching of science in the schools is limited in two stages, namely: content structure analysis, and empirical studies of learners. The purpose of this study is to obtain a pre-conception of learners and prospective scientists to the topic of the nature of the material and utilization. The method used to descriptive with the instruments is guidelines for interviews for 15 students of class VIII, text analysis sheet, sheet analysis of the concept, and the validation sheet indicators and learning objectives NOS charged on cognitive and affective aspects. The results obtained in the form of pre-conceptions of learners who demonstrate almost 100% of students know the types of materials and some of its nature, the results of the scientist's perspective on the topic of the nature of the material and its use, as well as the results of the validation indicators and learning objectives charged NOS and competencies PISA 2015 cognitive and affective aspects with CVI value of 0.99 and 1.0 after being validated by five experts. This suggests that the indicators and the resulting learning objectives feasible and can proceed to the reconstruction of teaching materials on the topic of material properties and utilization.

  18. Modeling for Integrated Science Management and Resilient Systems Development (United States)

    Shelhamer, M.; Mindock, J.; Lumpkins, S.


    Many physiological, environmental, and operational risks exist for crewmembers during spaceflight. An understanding of these risks from an integrated perspective is required to provide effective and efficient mitigations during future exploration missions that typically have stringent limitations on resources available, such as mass, power, and crew time. The Human Research Program (HRP) is in the early stages of developing collaborative modeling approaches for the purposes of managing its science portfolio in an integrated manner to support cross-disciplinary risk mitigation strategies and to enable resilient human and engineered systems in the spaceflight environment. In this talk, we will share ideas being explored from fields such as network science, complexity theory, and system-of-systems modeling. Initial work on tools to support these explorations will be discussed briefly, along with ideas for future efforts.

  19. Role of the future creative universities in the triple helix of science and technology corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj nabipour


    Full Text Available The science and technology corridor is a complex cluster containing universities, science parks, research centers, high-tech companies, venture capital, institutional and physical infrastructures, and human capital in a defined geography with its unique management and legal structure in association with the business space and knowledge-based products. In fact, the science and technology corridor reflects the concept of development based on the knowledge region (the especial region for science and technology. The knowledge region is clearly a triple helix phenomenon par excellence: universities, governments and businesses combine their efforts to construct a common advantage which they would not be able to offer on their own. The future creative universities in connection with the knowledge city-regions not only will deal with innovation and entrepreneurial training but also produce a competitive, vibrant environment with high indices for quality of life and full of green technologies. In this article, we will present functional interactions of the creative universities in the triple helix, particularly the missions for the Iranian universities of medical sciences. As a theoretical model, the complex interactions of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences and Health Services with Bushehr Science and Technology Corridor will be discussed.

  20. Development of an Analysis Model from the Perspectives of Science, Individual and Society in the Teaching of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel do Carmo


    Full Text Available The basic vision of learning science has changed as scientific culture concepts evolution and the nature of the teaching of science go along. From a model essentially based on information acquisition, science instruction has included the practice of the science method when the importance of emphasizing the development of personal skills, thinking processes, and action was considered. The concern about citizens’ education in matters referring to the relationship between science and society and enlightened social participation demanded a special attention in investigation and in students’ participation in issues related to urban, natural, and technological environment. This research seeks to develop an integrative model of curriculum organizations based on these three axes or perspectives: science, individual, and society. A matrix enabling the analysis of curricular proposals and organization plans of didactic units is built, as well as the observation of teachers’ representations in the teaching of science.

  1. A Knowledge-Based Representation Scheme for Environmental Science Models (United States)

    Keller, Richard M.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)


    One of the primary methods available for studying environmental phenomena is the construction and analysis of computational models. We have been studying how artificial intelligence techniques can be applied to assist in the development and use of environmental science models within the context of NASA-sponsored activities. We have identified several high-utility areas as potential targets for research and development: model development; data visualization, analysis, and interpretation; model publishing and reuse, training and education; and framing, posing, and answering questions. Central to progress on any of the above areas is a representation for environmental models that contains a great deal more information than is present in a traditional software implementation. In particular, a traditional software implementation is devoid of any semantic information that connects the code with the environmental context that forms the background for the modeling activity. Before we can build AI systems to assist in model development and usage, we must develop a representation for environmental models that adequately describes a model's semantics and explicitly represents the relationship between the code and the modeling task at hand. We have developed one such representation in conjunction with our work on the SIGMA (Scientists' Intelligent Graphical Modeling Assistant) environment. The key feature of the representation is that it provides a semantic grounding for the symbols in a set of modeling equations by linking those symbols to an explicit representation of the underlying environmental scenario.

  2. A Conceptual Culture Model for Design Science Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Richter


    Full Text Available The aim of design science research (DSR in information systems is the user-centred creation of IT-artifacts with regard to specific social environments. For culture research in the field, which is necessary for a proper localization of IT-artifacts, models and research approaches from social sciences usually are adopted. Descriptive dimension-based culture models most commonly are applied for this purpose, which assume culture being a national phenomenon and tend to reduce it to basic values. Such models are useful for investigations in behavioural culture research because it aims to isolate, describe and explain culture-specific attitudes and characteristics within a selected society. In contrast, with the necessity to deduce concrete decisions for artifact-design, research results from DSR need to go beyond this aim. As hypothesis, this contribution generally questions the applicability of such generic culture dimensions’ models for DSR and focuses on their theoretical foundation, which goes back to Hofstede’s conceptual Onion Model of Culture. The herein applied literature-based analysis confirms the hypothesis. Consequently, an alternative conceptual culture model is being introduced and discussed as theoretical foundation for culture research in DSR.

  3. How Role Play Addresses the Difficulties Students Perceive when Writing Reflectively about the Concepts They are Learning in Science (United States)

    Millar, Susan

    A fundamental problem which confronts Science teachers is the difficulty many students experience in the construction, understanding and remembering of concepts. This is more likely to occur when teachers adhere to a Transmission model of teaching and learning, and fail to provide students with opportunities to construct their own learning. Social construction, followed by individual reflective writing, enables students to construct their own understanding of concepts and effectively promotes deep learning. This method of constructing knowledge in the classroom is often overlooked by teachers as they either have no knowledge of it, or do not know how to appropriate it for successful teaching in Science. This study identifies the difficulties which students often experience when writing reflectively and offers solutions which are likely to reduce these difficulties. These solutions, and the use of reflective writing itself, challenge the ideology of the Sydney Genre School, which forms the basis of the attempt to deal with literacy in the NSW Science Syllabus. The findings of this investigation support the concept of literacy as the ability to use oral and written language, reading and listening to construct meaning. The investigation demonstrates how structured discussion, role play and reflective writing can be used to this end. While the Sydney Genre School methodology focuses on the structure of genre as a prerequisite for understanding concepts in Science, the findings of this study demonstrate that students can use their own words to discuss and write reflectively as they construct scientific concepts for themselves. Social construction and reflective writing can contribute to the construction of concepts and the development of metacognition in Science. However, students often experience difficulties when writing reflectively about scientific concepts they are learning. In this investigation, students identified these difficulties as an inability to understand

  4. Scientific Visualization & Modeling for Earth Systems Science Education (United States)

    Chaudhury, S. Raj; Rodriguez, Waldo J.


    Providing research experiences for undergraduate students in Earth Systems Science (ESS) poses several challenges at smaller academic institutions that might lack dedicated resources for this area of study. This paper describes the development of an innovative model that involves students with majors in diverse scientific disciplines in authentic ESS research. In studying global climate change, experts typically use scientific visualization techniques applied to remote sensing data collected by satellites. In particular, many problems related to environmental phenomena can be quantitatively addressed by investigations based on datasets related to the scientific endeavours such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Working with data products stored at NASA's Distributed Active Archive Centers, visualization software specifically designed for students and an advanced, immersive Virtual Reality (VR) environment, students engage in guided research projects during a structured 6-week summer program. Over the 5-year span, this program has afforded the opportunity for students majoring in biology, chemistry, mathematics, computer science, physics, engineering and science education to work collaboratively in teams on research projects that emphasize the use of scientific visualization in studying the environment. Recently, a hands-on component has been added through science student partnerships with school-teachers in data collection and reporting for the GLOBE Program (GLobal Observations to Benefit the Environment).

  5. Models and applications of chaos theory in modern sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Zeraoulia, Elhadj


    This book presents a select group of papers that provide a comprehensive view of the models and applications of chaos theory in medicine, biology, ecology, economy, electronics, mechanical, and the human sciences. Covering both the experimental and theoretical aspects of the subject, it examines a range of current topics of interest. It considers the problems arising in the study of discrete and continuous time chaotic dynamical systems modeling the several phenomena in nature and society-highlighting powerful techniques being developed to meet these challenges that stem from the area of nonli

  6. Business model innovation: the role of leadership


    Foss, Nicolai, J.; Saebi, Tina


    We draw on the complementarity literature in economics and management research to dimensionalize business models innovations. Specifically, such innovation can be dimensionalized in terms of the depth and the breadth of the changes to the company’s business model that they imply. In turn, different business model innovations are associated with different management challenges and require different leadership interventions to become successful.

  7. Critical thinking of destabilizing interpretations of events and phenomena: the role of economic sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Андріївна Непокупна


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the global transformations and their impact on the main society life; the specifics of modern interpretations of events and phenomena, their destabilizing effects on behavior, health and life of humans; the role of economic sciences in the formation of critical thinking as a means of combating ignorance and propaganda, formation of an objective world view that grounded on knowledge

  8. A Diverging View of Role Modeling in Medical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurjit Sandhu


    Full Text Available Research in the area of role modeling has primarily focused on the qualities and attributes of exceptional role models, and less attention has been given to the act of role modeling itself (Elzubeir & Rizk, 2001; Jochemsen-van der Leeuw, van Dijk, van Etten-Jamaludin, & Wieringa-de Waard, 2013; Wright, 1996; Wright, Wong, & Newill, 1997. A standardized understanding of role modeling in medical education remains elusive (Kenny, Mann, & MacLeod, 2003. This is problematic given that role modeling is pervasively documented as an approach to teaching (Reuler & Nardone, 1994. Our study attempts to fill a void in this body of research by looking at what faculty are thinking, saying, and doing when they say they are role modeling. Individual semi-structured interviews with faculty members were conducted in the Department of General Surgery at Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative methods for themes surrounding teaching and role modeling. Three major themes emerged from the data: (1 faculty members think they are teaching when they are acting professionally; (2 faculty members become aware of teaching opportunities and act on them; and (3 faculty members employ evidence-based teaching methods, but they are incorrectly labeling them as “role modeling.” As a whole, our findings should help distinguish between role modeling as roles and responsibilities enacted while doing one’s job well, and teaching as facilitated instruction that helps connect knowledge with action (Clayton, 2006; Fassbinder, 2007. Contributing to a better understanding of how teaching is separate from role modeling has the potential to improve the scope and quality of teaching, ultimately enhancing the learning experience for trainees.

  9. Teaching Mathematical Modelling for Earth Sciences via Case Studies (United States)

    Yang, Xin-She


    Mathematical modelling is becoming crucially important for earth sciences because the modelling of complex systems such as geological, geophysical and environmental processes requires mathematical analysis, numerical methods and computer programming. However, a substantial fraction of earth science undergraduates and graduates may not have sufficient skills in mathematical modelling, which is due to either limited mathematical training or lack of appropriate mathematical textbooks for self-study. In this paper, we described a detailed case-study-based approach for teaching mathematical modelling. We illustrate how essential mathematical skills can be developed for students with limited training in secondary mathematics so that they are confident in dealing with real-world mathematical modelling at university level. We have chosen various topics such as Airy isostasy, greenhouse effect, sedimentation and Stokes' flow,free-air and Bouguer gravity, Brownian motion, rain-drop dynamics, impact cratering, heat conduction and cooling of the lithosphere as case studies; and we use these step-by-step case studies to teach exponentials, logarithms, spherical geometry, basic calculus, complex numbers, Fourier transforms, ordinary differential equations, vectors and matrix algebra, partial differential equations, geostatistics and basic numeric methods. Implications for teaching university mathematics for earth scientists for tomorrow's classroom will also be discussed. Refereces 1) D. L. Turcotte and G. Schubert, Geodynamics, 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, (2002). 2) X. S. Yang, Introductory Mathematics for Earth Scientists, Dunedin Academic Press, (2009).

  10. Preditive Models And Health Sciences: A Brief Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Sales Paulino, Msc


    Full Text Available Background: Predictive Models are an important tool in event predicting and health planning. Despite this, there are few works focusing this area. Thus, the analysis of the real benefits of these models in Health Sciences is necessary to be performed. Results: Predictive techniques largely evolved in second half of XX century. The development of AR, MA, ARMA, ARIMA and SARIMA models, through Box-Jenkins methodology, constitute a robust conjunct of mechanisms able to help in solution of epidemiological modeling problems, mainly in Health Sciences, once it allows to evaluate individual characteristics of living beings and its correlation with pathologies in the same space-time. Nevertheless, AR, MA and ARMA does not have tendency in seasonality, which weakens the analysis. Conclusions: To predict the natural history of endemic/epidemic and its health-disease processes in a determined population is a sine que non condition to its adequate management in Public Health context and in adoption of affirmative measures concerning health promotion. Thus, the predictive models, with emphasis in ARIMA, SARIMA, Artificial Neural Networks and Formalism of Copulas are alternatives that can be feasible.

  11. The Role of Work-Related Skills and Career Role Models in Adolescent Career Maturity. (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann


    Using data for 2,722 British adolescents explores whether work-related skills and career role models are associated with career maturity when sociodemographic characteristics, family support, and personal characteristics are controlled. Having work-related skills and having a career role model were positively associated with career maturity.…

  12. The many roles of "explanation" in science education: a case study (United States)

    Rocksén, Miranda


    In this paper the role of explanations is discussed in relation to possible consequences originating in the polysemy of the word explanation. The present study is a response to conceptual confusions that have arisen in the intersection between theory and practice, and between science education literature and communication in authentic science classroom settings. Science classroom communication is examined in terms of one teacher's word use during eleven lessons about evolution. The study contributes empirical examples of how disciplinary norms of valid explanations are manifested in science classroom communication. A dialogical analysis shows how the teacher provides three conversational structures: asking for acts of explanation, providing opportunities to talk about what explanations are in this context and providing opportunities to talk about explanations constructed by students. These three structures facilitate the process of learning how to evaluate and justify explanations. Three potential meanings of the word "explanation" are pointed to: an everyday meaning, a pedagogical-professional meaning and a scientific meaning of the word. It is suggested that the co-existence of these three potential meanings has communicative consequences in science education.

  13. Role modelling in medical education: the importance of teaching skills. (United States)

    Burgess, Annette; Oates, Kim; Goulston, Kerry


    By observation of role models, and participation in activities, students develop their attitudes, values and professional competencies. Literature suggests that clinical skills and knowledge, personality, and teaching skills are three main areas that students consider central to the identification of positive role models. The aim of this study was to explore junior medical students' opinions of the ideal attributes of a good role model in clinical tutors. The study was conducted with one cohort (n = 301) of students who had completed year 1 of the medical programme in 2013. All students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the ideal attributes of a good role model in a clinical tutor. The questionnaire consisted of seven closed items and one open-ended question. The response rate to the questionnaire was 265/301 (88%). Although students found all three key areas important in a good role model, students emphasised the importance of excellence in teaching skills. Specifically, students see good role models as being able to provide a constructive learning environment, a good understanding of the curriculum and an ability to cater to the learning needs of all students. Students see good role models as being able to provide a constructive learning environment While acknowledging the importance of a patient-centred approach, as well as clinical knowledge and skills, our findings reinforce the importance of the actual teaching abilities of role models within medical education. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Relations between science and politics in the climate regime: In search of a new model of expertise?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahan, Amy; Guillemot, Helene


    Over the past 25 years, anthropogenic climate change has been addressed as a global environmental problem, which must be resolved by reducing human greenhouse gas emissions through a global agreement negotiated under the auspices of the UN. The role of sciences in the construction of the problem is essential and is aptly summarized by the claim that 'science speaks truth to power', with science and politics assumed to be hermetically separated. Although this 'linear model' is in fact largely inadequate to account for the much more complex links between climate science and politics, notably within the IPCC, it has long been hegemonic, leading to debates focused on science rather than political responses. This dominant approach has been undermined by the failure of international negotiations: it is now clear that scientific consensus does not suffice to produce significant global political decisions. It is now evident that climate change is a geopolitical, economic, and development problem as much as an environmental one. As the Paris CoP approaches, in a phase of political uncertainties and discussions around the need for a change of paradigm in negotiations, our paper examines critically the evolving relationship between science and politics in the climate regime, revisiting the role of science and discussing emerging critiques, proposals, and perspectives on models of expertise

  15. Multifunctional Collaborative Modeling and Analysis Methods in Engineering Science (United States)

    Ransom, Jonathan B.; Broduer, Steve (Technical Monitor)


    Engineers are challenged to produce better designs in less time and for less cost. Hence, to investigate novel and revolutionary design concepts, accurate, high-fidelity results must be assimilated rapidly into the design, analysis, and simulation process. This assimilation should consider diverse mathematical modeling and multi-discipline interactions necessitated by concepts exploiting advanced materials and structures. Integrated high-fidelity methods with diverse engineering applications provide the enabling technologies to assimilate these high-fidelity, multi-disciplinary results rapidly at an early stage in the design. These integrated methods must be multifunctional, collaborative, and applicable to the general field of engineering science and mechanics. Multifunctional methodologies and analysis procedures are formulated for interfacing diverse subdomain idealizations including multi-fidelity modeling methods and multi-discipline analysis methods. These methods, based on the method of weighted residuals, ensure accurate compatibility of primary and secondary variables across the subdomain interfaces. Methods are developed using diverse mathematical modeling (i.e., finite difference and finite element methods) and multi-fidelity modeling among the subdomains. Several benchmark scalar-field and vector-field problems in engineering science are presented with extensions to multidisciplinary problems. Results for all problems presented are in overall good agreement with the exact analytical solution or the reference numerical solution. Based on the results, the integrated modeling approach using the finite element method for multi-fidelity discretization among the subdomains is identified as most robust. The multiple-method approach is advantageous when interfacing diverse disciplines in which each of the method's strengths are utilized. The multifunctional methodology presented provides an effective mechanism by which domains with diverse idealizations are

  16. Probabilistic Role Models and the Guarded Fragment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred


    We propose a uniform semantic framework for interpreting probabilistic concept subsumption and probabilistic role quantification through statistical sampling distributions. This general semantic principle serves as the foundation for the development of a probabilistic version of the guarded fragm...... fragment of first-order logic. A characterization of equivalence in that logic in terms of bisimulations is given....

  17. Probabilistic role models and the guarded fragment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred


    We propose a uniform semantic framework for interpreting probabilistic concept subsumption and probabilistic role quantification through statistical sampling distributions. This general semantic principle serves as the foundation for the development of a probabilistic version of the guarded fragm...... fragment of first-order logic. A characterization of equivalence in that logic in terms of bisimulations is given....

  18. Cultural politics: Linguistic identity and its role as gatekeeper in the science classroom (United States)

    Hilton-Brown, Bryan Anthony

    their cultural speech patterns. Proficiency Status students demonstrated a fluency in applying features of scientific discourse into their current speech genre. Focus group interviews confirmed students' cultural resistance to science discourse, despite their complex understanding of the role, purpose, and function of science discourse as social practice. These findings contribute to an ongoing discussion of how scientists, science teachers, and science education researchers can create equitable learning environments that reflect the components of students' ethnic and cultural backgrounds.

  19. Mentoring and role models in recruitment and retention: a study of junior medical faculty perceptions. (United States)

    Steele, Margaret M; Fisman, Sandra; Davidson, Brenda


    This study explored the views of junior faculty toward informing mentorship program development. Mixed sampling methodologies including questionnaires (n = 175), focus groups (female, n = 4; male, n = 4), and individual interviews (female n = 10; male, n = 9) of junior faculty were conducted in clinical departments at one academic health sciences center. Questionnaire results indicated that having role models increased commitment to an academic career; mentorship experience during residency training was a high incentive to pursue an academic career; and junior faculty did have identifiable mentorship experiences. Focus group results revealed that mentoring as well as the presence of role models a few years ahead of the junior faculty would promote career development. Females preferred similar age role models who spoke the same language, particularly in the area of promotion. Females identified several challenges and issues including a lack of researcher role models, a range of perceptions regarding the merits of formal versus informal mentoring, and the idea that mentors should provide advice on promotion and grants. Males valued advice on finances while females wanted advice on work-life balance. Mentorship emerged as an important factor in academic faculty recruitment and retention, with varying perceptions of how it should be institutionalized. Role models were viewed as important for retention, and a paucity of mid-career, female researcher role models suggests a gap to be filled in future programmatic efforts.

  20. Teachers’ design and use of rubrics and modeling activities for formative assessment of lower secondary school students’ modeling competence in science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Schnell

    Modeling competence plays a central role in the recently revised science curriculum in Denmark. Teachers are requested to assess students learning progress targeting the modeling competence in their daily teaching. Accordingly, the teachers must understand this competence and have suitable...... assessment criteria and methods at hand. However, the curriculum descriptions of the modeling competence concept is only phrased in general terms and not based on a systematic framework....

  1. Methods for model selection in applied science and engineering.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Richard V., Jr.


    Mathematical models are developed and used to study the properties of complex systems and/or modify these systems to satisfy some performance requirements in just about every area of applied science and engineering. A particular reason for developing a model, e.g., performance assessment or design, is referred to as the model use. Our objective is the development of a methodology for selecting a model that is sufficiently accurate for an intended use. Information on the system being modeled is, in general, incomplete, so that there may be two or more models consistent with the available information. The collection of these models is called the class of candidate models. Methods are developed for selecting the optimal member from a class of candidate models for the system. The optimal model depends on the available information, the selected class of candidate models, and the model use. Classical methods for model selection, including the method of maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, as well as a method employing a decision-theoretic approach, are formulated to select the optimal model for numerous applications. There is no requirement that the candidate models be random. Classical methods for model selection ignore model use and require data to be available. Examples are used to show that these methods can be unreliable when data is limited. The decision-theoretic approach to model selection does not have these limitations, and model use is included through an appropriate utility function. This is especially important when modeling high risk systems, where the consequences of using an inappropriate model for the system can be disastrous. The decision-theoretic method for model selection is developed and applied for a series of complex and diverse applications. These include the selection of the: (1) optimal order of the polynomial chaos approximation for non-Gaussian random variables and stationary stochastic processes, (2) optimal pressure load model to be

  2. Mathematical modeling and signal processing in speech and hearing sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Xin, Jack


    The aim of the book is to give an accessible introduction of mathematical models and signal processing methods in speech and hearing sciences for senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students with basic knowledge of linear algebra, differential equations, numerical analysis, and probability. Speech and hearing sciences are fundamental to numerous technological advances of the digital world in the past decade, from music compression in MP3 to digital hearing aids, from network based voice enabled services to speech interaction with mobile phones. Mathematics and computation are intimately related to these leaps and bounds. On the other hand, speech and hearing are strongly interdisciplinary areas where dissimilar scientific and engineering publications and approaches often coexist and make it difficult for newcomers to enter.

  3. Navigating role forces and the aesthetic|authentic caring dialectic: a novice urban science teacher's developmental trajectory (United States)

    Rivera Maulucci, Maria S.


    Examining role forces and resources available to new teachers is crucial to understanding how teachers use and expand cultural, social, and symbolic resources and how they engage teaching for social justice and caring in urban science education. This critical narrative inquiry explores three levels of story. First, the narratives explore my role as a district science staff developer and my efforts to leverage district resources to improve students' opportunities to learn science. Second, the narratives explore the ways in which a novice science teacher, Tina, navigated role forces and the aesthetic|authentic caring dialectic in a high poverty, urban school. A third level of narrative draws on sociological theories of human interaction to explore role forces and how they shaped Tina's developmental trajectory. I describe how Tina expanded cultural, social, and symbolic resources to enact her teaching role.

  4. Seeking science information online: Data mining Google to better understand the roles of the media and the education system. (United States)

    Segev, Elad; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet


    Which extrinsic cues motivate people to search for science-related information? For many science-related search queries, media attention and time during the academic year are highly correlated with changes in information seeking behavior (expressed by changes in the proportion of Google science-related searches). The data mining analysis presented here shows that changes in the volume of searches for general and well-established science terms are strongly linked to the education system. By contrast, ad-hoc events and current concerns were better aligned with media coverage. The interest and ability to independently seek science knowledge in response to current events or concerns is one of the fundamental goals of the science literacy movement. This method provides a mirror of extrapolated behavior and as such can assist researchers in assessing the role of the media in shaping science interests, and inform the ways in which lifelong interests in science are manifested in real world situations.

  5. The role of science in deepening democracy: the case for water in post-Apartheid South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Turton


    Full Text Available South Africa is a water constrained country with a complex history of resource capture and human rights abuses. Science, as practiced by the national science councils, could play a significant role in deepening our democracy. This paper explores two possible paradigms - one where science is divorced from the national constitution, and the other where our science is embedded in the national constitution. The paper argues that the latter approach would make our national science more relevant, but of necessity would embroil it in issues of historic legacy and therefore become “messy”.

  6. Fuzzy expert systems models for operations research and management science (United States)

    Turksen, I. B.


    Fuzzy expert systems can be developed for the effective use of management within the domains of concern associated with Operations Research and Management Science. These models are designed with: (1) expressive powers of representation embedded in linguistic variables and their linguistic values in natural language expressions, and (2) improved methods of interference based on fuzzy logic which is a generalization of multi-valued logic with fuzzy quantifiers. The results of these fuzzy expert system models are either (1) approximately good in comparison with their classical counterparts, or (2) much better than their counterparts. Moreover, for fuzzy expert systems models, it is only necessary to obtain ordinal scale data. Whereas for their classical counterparts, it is generally required that data be at least on ratio and absolute scale in order to guarantee the additivity and multiplicativity assumptions.

  7. The caBIG® Life Science Business Architecture Model. (United States)

    Boyd, Lauren Becnel; Hunicke-Smith, Scott P; Stafford, Grace A; Freund, Elaine T; Ehlman, Michele; Chandran, Uma; Dennis, Robert; Fernandez, Anna T; Goldstein, Stephen; Steffen, David; Tycko, Benjamin; Klemm, Juli D


    Business Architecture Models (BAMs) describe what a business does, who performs the activities, where and when activities are performed, how activities are accomplished and which data are present. The purpose of a BAM is to provide a common resource for understanding business functions and requirements and to guide software development. The cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) Life Science BAM (LS BAM) provides a shared understanding of the vocabulary, goals and processes that are common in the business of LS research. LS BAM 1.1 includes 90 goals and 61 people and groups within Use Case and Activity Unified Modeling Language (UML) Diagrams. Here we report on the model's current release, LS BAM 1.1, its utility and usage, and plans for future use and continuing development for future releases. The LS BAM is freely available as UML, PDF and HTML (

  8. History and Philosophy of Science through Models: The Case of Chemical Kinetics. (United States)

    Justi, Rosaria; Gilbert, John K.


    A greater role for the history and philosophy of science in science education can only be realized if it is based on both a credible analytical approach--such as that of Lakatos--and if the evolution of a sufficient number of major themes in science is known in suitable detail. Considers chemical kinetics as an example topic. Contains 62…

  9. International Conference on Applied Mathematics, Modeling and Computational Science & Annual meeting of the Canadian Applied and Industrial Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Bélair, Jacques; Kunze, Herb; Makarov, Roman; Melnik, Roderick; Spiteri, Raymond J


    Focusing on five main groups of interdisciplinary problems, this book covers a wide range of topics in mathematical modeling, computational science and applied mathematics. It presents a wealth of new results in the development of modeling theories and methods, advancing diverse areas of applications and promoting interdisciplinary interactions between mathematicians, scientists, engineers and representatives from other disciplines. The book offers a valuable source of methods, ideas, and tools developed for a variety of disciplines, including the natural and social sciences, medicine, engineering, and technology. Original results are presented on both the fundamental and applied level, accompanied by an ample number of real-world problems and examples emphasizing the interdisciplinary nature and universality of mathematical modeling, and providing an excellent outline of today’s challenges. Mathematical modeling, with applied and computational methods and tools, plays a fundamental role in modern science a...

  10. The influence of female social models in corporate STEM initiatives on girls' math and science attitudes (United States)

    Medeiros, Donald J.

    The United States' Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) workforce is growing slower than in the past, in comparison to demand, and in comparison to other countries. Competitive talent conditions require the United States to develop a strong pipeline of STEM talent within its own citizens. Given the number of female college graduates and their underrepresentation in the STEM workforce, women provide the greatest opportunity for fulfilling this need. The term social model represents the individuals and media that shape children's self-perceptions. Social models have been shown to positively influence girl's perceptions of the value of math and science as well as their expectations of success. This study examined differences in attitudes towards math and science among student participants in corporate STEM programs. Differences were measured based on participant gender and ethnicity, their mentor's gender and ethnicity, and program design differences. The research purpose was to inform the design of corporate STEM programs to improve female participants' attitudes towards math and science and eventually increase the number of women in the STEM workforce. Over three hundred students in differing corporate STEM programs completed math and science attitudinal scales at the start and end of their programs. Study results revealed, prior to program start, female participants had a better attitude towards math and science than male participants. Analysis of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study data showed similar results. Overall program results demonstrated higher post program math and science attitudes with no differences based on gender, age, or ethnicity of the participant or mentor. Participants with high program or mentor satisfaction were found to have higher attitudes towards math and science. These results may suggest improving female academic choice requires more focus on their expectations of success than perceived task

  11. Social defeat models in animal science: What we have learned from rodent models. (United States)

    Toyoda, Atsushi


    Studies on stress and its impacts on animals are very important in many fields of science, including animal science, because various stresses influence animal production and animal welfare. In particular, the social stresses within animal groups have profound impact on animals, with the potential to induce abnormal behaviors and health problems. In humans, social stress induces several health problems, including psychiatric disorders. In animal stress models, social defeat models are well characterized and used in various research fields, particularly in studies concerning mental disorders. Recently, we have focused on behavior, nutrition and metabolism in rodent models of social defeat to elucidate how social stresses affect animals. In this review, recent significant progress in studies related to animal social defeat models are described. In the field of animal science, these stress models may contribute to advances in the development of functional foods and in the management of animal welfare. © 2017 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Conceptualising forensic science and forensic reconstruction. Part I: A conceptual model. (United States)

    Morgan, R M


    There has been a call for forensic science to actively return to the approach of scientific endeavour. The importance of incorporating an awareness of the requirements of the law in its broadest sense, and embedding research into both practice and policy within forensic science, is arguably critical to achieving such an endeavour. This paper presents a conceptual model (FoRTE) that outlines the holistic nature of trace evidence in the 'endeavour' of forensic reconstruction. This model offers insights into the different components intrinsic to transparent, reproducible and robust reconstructions in forensic science. The importance of situating evidence within the whole forensic science process (from crime scene to court), of developing evidence bases to underpin each stage, of frameworks that offer insights to the interaction of different lines of evidence, and the role of expertise in decision making are presented and their interactions identified. It is argued that such a conceptual model has value in identifying the future steps for harnessing the value of trace evidence in forensic reconstruction. It also highlights that there is a need to develop a nuanced approach to reconstructions that incorporates both empirical evidence bases and expertise. A conceptual understanding has the potential to ensure that the endeavour of forensic reconstruction has its roots in 'problem-solving' science, and can offer transparency and clarity in the conclusions and inferences drawn from trace evidence, thereby enabling the value of trace evidence to be realised in investigations and the courts. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Using hierarchical linear growth models to evaluate protective mechanisms that mediate science achievement (United States)

    von Secker, Clare Elaine

    The study of students at risk is a major topic of science education policy and discussion. Much research has focused on describing conditions and problems associated with the statistical risk of low science achievement among individuals who are members of groups characterized by problems such as poverty and social disadvantage. But outcomes attributed to these factors do not explain the nature and extent of mechanisms that account for differences in performance among individuals at risk. There is ample theoretical and empirical evidence that demographic differences should be conceptualized as social contexts, or collections of variables, that alter the psychological significance and social demands of life events, and affect subsequent relationships between risk and resilience. The hierarchical linear growth models used in this dissertation provide greater specification of the role of social context and the protective effects of attitude, expectations, parenting practices, peer influences, and learning opportunities on science achievement. While the individual influences of these protective factors on science achievement were small, their cumulative effect was substantial. Meta-analysis conducted on the effects associated with psychological and environmental processes that mediate risk mechanisms in sixteen social contexts revealed twenty-two significant differences between groups of students. Positive attitudes, high expectations, and more intense science course-taking had positive effects on achievement of all students, although these factors were not equally protective in all social contexts. In general, effects associated with authoritative parenting and peer influences were negative, regardless of social context. An evaluation comparing the performance and stability of hierarchical linear growth models with traditional repeated measures models is included as well.

  14. Computation of Probabilities in Causal Models of History of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Pessoa Jr.


    Full Text Available : The aim of this paper is to investigate the ascription of probabilities in a causal model of an episode in the history of science. The aim of such a quantitative approach is to allow the implementation of the causal model in a computer, to run simulations. As an example, we look at the beginning of the science of magnetism, “explaining” — in a probabilistic way, in terms of a single causal model — why the field advanced in China but not in Europe (the difference is due to different prior probabilities of certain cultural manifestations. Given the number of years between the occurrences of two causally connected advances X and Y, one proposes a criterion for stipulating the value pY=X of the conditional probability of an advance Y occurring, given X. Next, one must assume a specific form for the cumulative probability function pY=X(t, which we take to be the time integral of an exponential distribution function, as is done in physics of radioactive decay. Rules for calculating the cumulative functions for more than two events are mentioned, involving composition, disjunction and conjunction of causes. We also consider the problems involved in supposing that the appearance of events in time follows an exponential distribution, which are a consequence of the fact that a composition of causes does not follow an exponential distribution, but a “hypoexponential” one. We suggest that a gamma distribution function might more adequately represent the appearance of advances.

  15. The path to the future: The role of science and technology at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reck, R.A.


    Today some scientists are concerned that present budget considerations in Washington will make it impossible for the US to maintain its preeminence in important areas of science and technology. In the private sector there has been a demise of substantive R & D efforts through most of the major industries. For DOE a lack of future support for science and technology would be an important issue because this could impact DOE`s abilities to solve problems in its major areas of concern, national security, energy, environment. In fact some scientists maintain that were the present trend to continue unabated it could lead to a national security issue. Preeminence in science and technology plays a critical role in our nation`s position as the leader of world democracy. In contrast with this point of view of gloom and doom, however, in this presentation I hope to bring to you what I see as an exciting message of good news. Today I will list the important opportunities and challenges for the future that I note for ANL, the leadership role that I believe ANL can play and the qualities that will help our laboratory to maintain its status as an outstanding DOE National Laboratory.

  16. Enhancing interest in statistics among computer science students using computer tool entrepreneur role play (United States)

    Judi, Hairulliza Mohamad; Sahari @ Ashari, Noraidah; Eksan, Zanaton Hj


    Previous research in Malaysia indicates that there is a problem regarding attitude towards statistics among students. They didn't show positive attitude in affective, cognitive, capability, value, interest and effort aspects although did well in difficulty. This issue should be given substantial attention because students' attitude towards statistics may give impacts on the teaching and learning process of the subject. Teaching statistics using role play is an appropriate attempt to improve attitudes to statistics, to enhance the learning of statistical techniques and statistical thinking, and to increase generic skills. The objectives of the paper are to give an overview on role play in statistics learning and to access the effect of these activities on students' attitude and learning in action research framework. The computer tool entrepreneur role play is conducted in a two-hour tutorial class session of first year students in Faculty of Information Sciences and Technology (FTSM), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, enrolled in Probability and Statistics course. The results show that most students feel that they have enjoyable and great time in the role play. Furthermore, benefits and disadvantages from role play activities were highlighted to complete the review. Role play is expected to serve as an important activities that take into account students' experience, emotions and responses to provide useful information on how to modify student's thinking or behavior to improve learning.

  17. Life sciences research in space: The requirement for animal models (United States)

    Fuller, C. A.; Philips, R. W.; Ballard, R. W.


    Use of animals in NASA space programs is reviewed. Animals are needed because life science experimentation frequently requires long-term controlled exposure to environments, statistical validation, invasive instrumentation or biological tissue sampling, tissue destruction, exposure to dangerous or unknown agents, or sacrifice of the subject. The availability and use of human subjects inflight is complicated by the multiple needs and demands upon crew time. Because only living organisms can sense, integrate and respond to the environment around them, the sole use of tissue culture and computer models is insufficient for understanding the influence of the space environment on intact organisms. Equipment for spaceborne experiments with animals is described.

  18. What is the role of culture, diversity, and community engagement in transdisciplinary translational science? (United States)

    Graham, Phillip W; Kim, Mimi M; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Yaros, Anna; Richmond, Alan N; Jackson, Melvin; Corbie-Smith, Giselle


    Concepts of culture and diversity are necessary considerations in the scientific application of theory generation and developmental processes of preventive interventions; yet, culture and/or diversity are often overlooked until later stages (e.g., adaptation [T3] and dissemination [T4]) of the translational science process. Here, we present a conceptual framework focused on the seamless incorporation of culture and diversity throughout the various stages of the translational science process (T1-T5). Informed by a community-engaged research approach, this framework guides integration of cultural and diversity considerations at each phase with emphasis on the importance and value of "citizen scientists" being research partners to promote ecological validity. The integrated partnership covers the first phase of intervention development through final phases that ultimately facilitate more global, universal translation of changes in attitudes, norms, and systems. Our comprehensive model for incorporating culture and diversity into translational research provides a basis for further discussion and translational science development.

  19. The role of science fiction within the fluidity of slipstream literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Steble


    Full Text Available The paper explores the complex and contradictory role of science fiction in slipstream, the type of postmodern non-realistic literature situated between the fantastic genres and the mainstream literary fiction. Because of its unstable status of occupying an interstitial position between multiple literary conventions, the article first deals with an expansive terminology affiliated with slipstream and elucidates upon using a unified term for it. Avantpop, transrealism, and interstitial fiction all help us in understanding the vast postmodern horizon of slipstream. Furthermore, the slipstream's philosophy of cognitive dissonance in comparison to science fiction's is analysed to see the similarities and differences between them. The section is mainly concerned on expanding Darko Suvin's concept of cognition and viewing it as partially compatible with slipstream's estrangement techniques. The final part is focused on the exemplary slipstream novel Vurt by Jeff Noon, a perfect example of science fiction providing material, including latest post-Newtonian paradigms of science, for slipstream to mould it in its own fashion.

  20. Pre-service elementary teachers' understanding of scientific inquiry and its role in school science (United States)

    Macaroglu, Esra

    The purpose of this research was to explore pre-service elementary teachers' developing understanding of scientific inquiry within the context of their elementary science teaching and learning. More specifically, the study examined 24 pre-service elementary teachers' emerging understanding of (1) the nature of science and scientific inquiry; (2) the "place" of scientific inquiry in school science; and (3) the roles and responsibilities of teachers and students within an inquiry-based learning environment. Data sources consisted primarily of student-generated artifacts collected throughout the semester, including pre/post-philosophy statements and text-based materials collected from electronic dialogue journals. Individual data sources were open-coded to identify concepts and categories expressed by students. Cross-comparisons were conducted and patterns were identified. Assertions were formed with these patterns. Findings are hopeful in that they suggest pre-service teachers can develop a more contemporary view of scientific inquiry when immersed in a context that promotes this perspective. Not surprisingly, however, the prospective teachers encountered a number of barriers when attempting to translate their emerging ideas into practice. More research is needed to determine which teacher preparation experiences are most powerful in supporting pre-service teachers as they construct a framework for science teaching and learning that includes scientific inquiry as a central component.

  1. The Role of Science in the Information Society asserted in CERN conference

    CERN Multimedia


    A key objective of the RSIS conference (CERN, 8-9 December) was to respond to a challenge made by the UN Secretary-General, Kofi Annan, last March, when he called on the world's scientists to work with the United Nations to extend the benefits of modern science to developing countries. In hosting the Role of Science in the Information Society (RSIS) conference, CERN took a bold step forward into the policy arena. The conference, which was organised jointly by CERN, UNESCO, the International Council for Science, and the Third World Academy of Sciences, was held at CERN on 8-9 December as a Summit Event to the first phase of the World Summit on the Information Society (Geneva, 10-12 December). "This event has helped to develop a vision for how information and communication technologies can be applied for the greater benefit of all," said Luciano Maiani, Director General of CERN until the end of 2003, who gave a summary of the conference. The globalisation of the information society has the...

  2. The influence of a Classroom Model of Scientific Scholarship on Four Girls' Trajectories of Identification with Science (United States)

    Cook, Melissa Sunshine

    This study examines the teacher's role in shaping the identity construction resources available in a classroom and the ways in which individual students take up, modify, and appropriate those resources to construct themselves as scientists through interaction with their teacher and peers. Drawing on frameworks of identity construction and social positioning, I propose that the locally-negotiated classroom-level cultural model of what it means to be a "good" science student forms the arena in which students construct a sense of their own competence at, affiliation with, and interest in science. The setting for this study was a 6th grade science class at a progressive urban elementary school whose population roughly represents the ethnic and socioeconomic diversity of the state of California. The teacher was an experienced science and math teacher interested in social justice and inquiry teaching. Drawing from naturalistic observations, video and artifact analysis, survey data, and repeated interviews with students and the teacher, I demonstrated what it meant to be a "good" science student in this particular cultural community by analyzing what was required, reinforced, and rewarded in this classroom. Next, I traced the influence of this particular classroom's conception of what it meant to be good at science on the trajectories of identification with science of four 6th grade girls selected to represent a variety of stances towards science, levels of classroom participation, and personal backgrounds. Scientific scholarship in this class had two parts: values related to science as a discipline, and a more generic set of school-related values one might see in any classroom. Different meanings of and values for science were indexed in the everyday activities of the classroom: science as a language for describing the natural world, science as a set of rhetorical values, science as an adult social community, and science as a place for mess and explosions. Among school

  3. The Role of the Future Career Prospects in Students’ Educational Motivation of Birjand University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Akbari Booreng


    Full Text Available Introduction : One of the important factors affecting on students’ educational success is their educational motivation. This study was designed and performed for investigating the role of the future career prospects in students’ educational motivation.   Methods : This was a cross sectional analytic study. For this purpose according to Cochrane formula, 285 participants were selected based on the random-cluster method out of all students of Birjand University of Medical Sciences in 2013-2014 academic year. The questionnaires of mental illustration of the future career and educational motivation were used to gather data. The collected data were analyzed through Structural Equation-Finding Method by using PLS software.   Results : The findings of the present study showed that the used model had a suitable fitting. All direct and indirect paths were significant and confirmed (p<0.01, but the direct path of mental illustration of the future career to demotivation. The results also revealed that the students of Anesthesiology had less motivation compared to the students of medicine, health and laboratory sciences. Moreover, the students of operating room had more extrinsic motivation than nursing students. The students of operating room had less intrinsic motivation than the students of medicine.   Conclusion : With regard to the results of this study and the role of future career prospects in the students’ educational motivation, it seemed that providing a situation for students’ mental illustration of their future career by instructors and university lecturers was necessary.

  4. The influence of role models in undergraduate nurse education. (United States)

    Jack, Kirsten; Hamshire, Claire; Chambers, Alison


    To explore the concept of role modelling in undergraduate nurse education and its effect on the personal and professional development of student nurses. Effective educative strategies are important for student nurses, who have to cope with learning in both clinical and university settings. Given the contemporary issues facing nurse education and practice in the United Kingdom (UK), it is timely and important to undertake pedagogical research into the concept of role modelling as an effective educative method. A descriptive narrative approach. Unstructured interviews were conducted with 14 current/recently discontinued students from Adult and Mental Health branches of nursing degree programmes in the north-west region of England, United Kingdom (UK). Data were thematically analysed. Students valued exposure to positive role models in clinical and university settings and viewed them as beneficial to their learning. Exposure to negative role models occurred, and this provided students with opportunities to consider the type of nurse they aspired to become. In some cases, students' exposure to perceived poor practice had an adverse effect on their learning and led to negative feelings about nursing work. Clinical staff might be perceived as more relevant role models than those in the university setting although there were still opportunities for academic staff to model professional behaviours. The study found that role modelling is an effective way to support learning and led to student satisfaction across both clinical and university settings. The findings support the use of role models in nurse education, and further research about conscious positive modelling of practice is required. Exploring the use of role models is important when examining ways in which the quality of nurse education might be developed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A Controversial Role Model for Pakistani Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza Mushtaq


    Full Text Available Al-Huda is a movement of Islamic education and reform with a dedicated female following in Pakistani cities. Its founder and leader is a woman, Dr. Farhat Hashmi, who has become a well-known public figure in Pakistan. This paper explores how Hashmi derives her authority, displays it, and defends it against challenges. Women who become active participants in her classes claim she transforms their understanding of Islam and inspires them to change their lives. However she is criticized by the secular-liberal elites of the country and by the traditional male leadership of Islamic institutions, who question her religious expertise and are uncomfortable with the role of both gender and class in this movement. This analysis highlights the collective interactions and organizational innovations through which Hashmi’s teachings acquire an authoritative status for selected women.

  6. Modeling the Drift Towards Sex Role Deviance. (United States)

    James, Jennifer; Vitaliano, Peter Paul

    The interrelationships of deviant life experiences and current status, i.e., prostitution versus non-prostitution, were investigated by the application of multivariate analyses. Variables were studied involving early home life, pregnancy history, sexual history, and criminal involvement. Based on the analyses, three models were developed that…

  7. The Role of CLEAR Thinking in Learning Science from Multiple-Document Inquiry Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. GRIFFIN


    Full Text Available The main goal for the current study was to investigate whether individual differences in domaingeneral thinking dispositions might affect learning from multiple-document inquiry tasks in science.Middle school students were given a set of documents and were tasked with understanding how and why recent patterns in global temperature might be different from what has been observed in the past from those documents. Understanding was assessed with two measures: an essay task and an inference verification task. Domain-general thinking dispositions were assessed with a Commitment to Logic, Evidence, and Reasoning (CLEAR thinking scale. The measures of understanding wereuniquely predicted by both reading skills and CLEAR thinking scores, and these effects were not attributable to prior knowledge or interest. The results suggest independent roles for thinkingdispositions and reading ability when students read to learn from multiple-document inquiry tasks in science.

  8. The learning in a science museum and the role of the monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassiana Fernanda Genzini de Carvalho


    Full Text Available The importance attributed to Science Museums regarding to their educational role increased in the past few decades. However there is a considerable distance between the intentions of an exhibition and the perception and possible interpretation of visitors to what is shown to them. This work investigates the part played by monitors at the Estação Ciência da USP in Brazil (Science Station when they follow visiting students groups. The process developed in the interaction with visitors aims to communicate the scientific knowledge involved in the exhibition object when the situation is permeated by social interactions that in a Vigotskian view about learning should favor the building up of scientific concepts. The focus, however, is to realize characteristics of the discourses of monitors with a view to scientific communication; Results have led us to conclude that monitors speeches are far from their intentions showing inconsistencies, and being simplistic, poor in analogies, without scientific rigor.

  9. A critical evaluation of science outreach via social media: its role and impact on scientists. (United States)

    McClain, Craig; Neeley, Liz


    The role of scientists in social media and its impact on their careers are not fully explored.  While policies and best practices are still fluid, it is concerning that discourse is often based on little to no data, and some arguments directly contradict the available data.  Here, we consider the relevant but subjective questions about science outreach via social media (SOSM), specifically: (1) Does a public relations nightmare exist for science?; (2) Why (or why aren't) scientists engaging in social media?; (3) Are scientists using social media well?; and (4) Will social media benefit a scientist's career? We call for the scientific community to create tangible plans that value, measure, and help manage scientists' social media engagement.

  10. Towards Understanding and Managing Sustainable Complex, Dynamic Environmental/Economic/Social Systems - The Evolving Role of the Natural Sciences (United States)

    Historically the natural sciences have played a major role in informing environmental management decisions. However, review of landmark cases like Love Canal, NY and Times Beach, MO have shown that the value of natural science information in decision making can be overwhelmed by ...

  11. Adding intrapreneurial role in HR business partner model: (an extension in the HR business partner model)


    Bashir, Jibran; Afzal, Sara


    Purpose: The Purpose of this paper is to introduce a concept, whereby extending the Dave Ulrich’s HR business partner model by adding fifth Role – The HR Intrapreneur Role – in the existing model. This will be done by combining two separate concepts “Four Roles HR Business Partner Model” and “Intrapreneurial HR”, resulting in a five roles HR Business Partner Model. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is introducing a new concept through theoretical research. Findings: H...

  12. Bridging the language gap: Exploring science teachers' dual role as teachers of content and English literacy (United States)

    Arnold, Suzanne C.

    Responsibility for educating English language learners is increasingly falling on the shoulders of content specialists at the secondary level, as students are mainstreamed into classes. Therefore, providing these students an opportunity to achieve academic success depends largely on the quality of mainstream instruction (Cornell, 1995). Most teachers receive little or no preparation in how to work with English language learners. In my study, I address the instructional issues confronting three white, monolingual English-speaking middle school science teachers who must meet the demands of an increasing English language learner population. Specifically, this study explores teacher beliefs and enactment of reform-oriented science and sheltered instructional approaches to develop English language learners scientific and English literacy skills. I also explore the relationships that exist between these two dynamics in an effort to determine the extent to which teachers take on a dual role as teachers promoting English language and science proficiency. Using a participant observation case study method and my adaptation of Schwab's commonplaces heuristic, I analyzed the relationship between teacher beliefs, milieu, subject matter, and enactment in bridging the language gap in the science classroom for English language learners. The most noteworthy finding of this study was the significant role of milieu in enacting lessons that bridge the language gap and foster the development of English language learners science and English literacy skills. The findings suggest that greater attention be given to helping teachers establish a relationship-driven classroom milieu. You can provide all kinds of courses or professional learning experiences to improve teachers' instructional practices, but they must also recognize the importance of establishing relationships with their students; the coursework they take will not supplant the need to foster a warm and safe environment for all

  13. Development and Exemplification of a Model for Teacher Assessment in Primary Science (United States)

    Davies, D. J.; Earle, S.; McMahon, K.; Howe, A.; Collier, C.


    The Teacher Assessment in Primary Science project is funded by the Primary Science Teaching Trust and based at Bath Spa University. The study aims to develop a whole-school model of valid, reliable and manageable teacher assessment to inform practice and make a positive impact on primary-aged children's learning in science. The model is based on a…

  14. The Managerial Roles of Academic Library Directors: The Mintzberg Model. (United States)

    Moskowitz, Michael Ann


    A study based on a model developed by Henry Mintzberg examined the internal and external managerial roles of 126 New England college and university library directors. Survey results indicate that the 97 responding directors were primarily involved with internal managerial roles and work contacts. (CDD)

  15. The Anthropology of Science Education Reform: An Alabama Model for Building an Integrated Stakeholder Systems Approach (United States)

    Denson, R. L.; Cox, G. N.


    education through facilitating communication among education, business, and public policy organizations. Through the AMSTEC approach to systemic Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) education reform, business and other aspects of our culture play a vital role as stakeholders in the development of the integrated stakeholder model. Using the STEMnet model developed by National Space Science and Technology Center (NSSTC), each of the stakeholders has been working in support of the Alabama Department of Education's Math Science and Technology K-12 research-based Initiative (AMSTI) . In this respect, Alabama has the education aspects of science education reform underway. AMSTI continues to grow and strengthen its program now using an integrated stakeholder model. The integrated stakeholder approach enhances and strengthens Alabama's STEM educational activities in support of systemic K-12 education reform called for in our nation to meet the needs of the 21st century workforce. In addition, aspects of culture including the media, the health community, and local business and industry will also align messages and programs to work in support of systemic K-20 education reform. It truly "takes a village" of good communicating stakeholders who have created a shared vision and common language for discussing and aligning resources and strategies for changing the perceptions, feelings and teaching and learning of science in our society,

  16. The CEO's role in business model reinvention. (United States)

    Govindarajan, Vijay; Trimble, Chris


    Fending off new competitors is a perennial struggle for established companies. Govindarajan and Trimble, of Dartmouth's Tuck School of Business, explain why: Many corporations become too comfortable with their existing business models and neglect the necessary work of radically reinventing them. The authors map out an alternative in their "three boxes" framework. They argue that while a CEO manages the present (box 1), he or she must also selectively forget the past (box 2) in order to create the future (box 3). Infosys chairman N.R. Narayana Murthy mastered the three boxes to reinvigorate his company and greatly increased its changes of enduring for generations.

  17. A Model-Driven, Science Data Product Registration Service (United States)

    Hardman, S.; Ramirez, P.; Hughes, J. S.; Joyner, R.; Cayanan, M.; Lee, H.; Crichton, D. J.


    artifacts above as well as offering the flexibility to support customer-defined artifacts. Key features for the Registry Service include: - Model-based configuration specifying customer-defined artifact types, metadata attributes to capture for each artifact type, supported associations and classification schemes. - A REST-based external interface that is accessible via the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). - Federation of Registry Service instances allowing associations between registered artifacts across registries as well as queries for artifacts across those same registries. A federation also enables features such as replication and synchronization if desired for a given deployment. In addition to its use as a core component of the PDS, the generic implementation of the Registry Service facilitates its applicability as a core component in any science data archive or science data system.

  18. Are Universities Role Models for Communities? A Gender Perspective


    Felicia Cornelia MACARIE; Octavian MOLDOVAN


    The present paper explores the degree in which universities could/should serve as role models for communities from the perspective of gender integration. Although the theoretical/ moral answer would be affirmative (universities should be in such a position that would allow local communities to regard them as role models of gender integration), the primary empirical analysis leads to another conclusion. A brief theoretical review (that connects gender discrimination, sustainable development, u...

  19. Paraconsistency, Pluralistic Models and Reasoning in Climate Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Brown


    Full Text Available Scientific inquiry is typically focused on particular questions about particular objects and properties.  This leads to a multiplicity of models which, even when they draw on a single, consistent body of concepts and principles, often employ different methods and assumptions to model different systems.  Pluralists have remarked on how scientists draw on different assumptions to model different systems, different aspects of systems and systems under different conditions and defended the value of distinct, incompatible models within science at any given time. (Cartwright, 1999; Chang, 2012 Paraconsistentists have proposed logical strategies to avoid trivialization when inconsistencies arise by a variety of means.(Batens, 2001; Brown, 1990; Brown, 2002  Here we examine how chunk and permeate, a simple approach to paraconsistent reasoning which avoids heterodox logic by confining commitments to separate contexts in which reasoning with them is taken to be reliable while allowing ‘permeation’ of some conclusions into other contexts, can help to systematize pluralistic reasoning across the boundaries of plural contexts, using regional climate models as an example.(Benham et al., 2014; Brown & Priest 2004, 2015  The result is a kind of unity for science—but a unity achieved by the constrained exchange of specified information between different contexts, rather than the closure of all commitments under some paraconsistent consequence relation. 

  20. Role of conceptual models in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.D.; Moran, T.P.; Brown, J.S.


    A crucial objective in plant operation (and perhaps licensing) ought to be to explicitly train operators to develop, perhaps with computer aids, robust conceptual models of the plants they control. The question is whether we are actually able to develop robust conceptual models and validate their robustness. Cognitive science is just beginning to come to grips with this problem. This paper describes some of the evolving technology for building conceptual models of physical mechanisms and some of the implications of such models in the context of nuclear power plant operation

  1. Understanding science teacher enhancement programs: Essential components and a model (United States)

    Spiegel, Samuel Albert

    Researchers and practioners alike recognize that "the national goal that every child in the United States has access to high-quality school education in science and mathematics cannot be realized without the availability of effective professional development of teachers" (Hewson, 1997, p. 16). Further, there is a plethora of reports calling for the improvement of professional development efforts (Guskey & Huberman, 1995; Kyle, 1995; Loucks-Horsley, Hewson, Love, & Stiles, 1997). In this study I analyze a successful 3-year teacher enhancement program, one form of professional development, to: (1) identify essential components of an effective teacher enhancement program; and (2) create a model to identify and articulate the critical issues in designing, implementing, and evaluating teacher enhancement programs. Five primary sources of information were converted into data: (1) exit questionnaires, (2) exit surveys, (3) exit interview transcripts, (4) focus group transcripts, and (5) other artifacts. Additionally, a focus group was used to conduct member checks. Data were analyzed in an iterative process which led to the development of the list of essential components. The Components are categorized by three organizers: Structure (e.g., science research experience, a mediator throughout the program), Context (e.g., intensity, collaboration), and Participant Interpretation (e.g., perceived to be "safe" to examine personal beliefs and practices, actively engaged). The model is based on: (1) a 4-year study of a successful teacher enhancement program; (2) an analysis of professional development efforts reported in the literature; and (3) reflective discussions with implementors, evaluators, and participants of professional development programs. The model consists of three perspectives, cognitive, symbolic interaction, and organizational, representing different viewpoints from which to consider issues relevant to the success of a teacher enhancement program. These

  2. Scientific literacy: Role of natural history studies in constructing understanding of the nature of science (United States)

    Lutz, Martha Victoria Rosett


    knowledge and to comprehend, apply, and evaluate scientific information, including a requirement that students demonstrate an ability to use evidence to support a conclusion. Genuine science experiments may help students construct an understanding of the nature of science, and therefore have the potential to play a vital role in achieving the goal of scientific literacy.

  3. Rethinking board role performance: Towards an integrative model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Verica M.


    Full Text Available This research focuses on the board role evolution analysis which took place simultaneously with the development of different corporate governance theories and perspectives. The purpose of this paper is to provide understanding of key factors that make a board effective in the performance of its role. We argue that analysis of board role performance should incorporate both structural and process variables. This paper’s contribution is the development of an integrative model that aims to establish the relationship between the board structure and processes on the one hand, and board role performance on the other.

  4. The role of money in modern macro models


    Seitz, Franz; Schmidt, Markus A.


    This paper is the starting point of a series of analyses aiming at re-discovering the role of money for monetary policy purposes. It provides an overview of the role of money in modern macro models. In particular, we are focussing on New Keynesian and New Monetarist models to investigate their main findings and most significant shortcomings in considering money properly. As a further step, we ask about the role of financial intermediaries in this respect. In dealing with these issues, we dist...

  5. Evolution of the personal teaching models of prospective secondary school science teachers as expressed through metaphors (United States)

    Mellado, Lucía; de la Montaña, Juan L.; Luengo, María Rosa; Bermejo, María Luisa


    This study analyses the evolution of the personal metaphors of 31 science graduates enrolled in a Master's degree course in Secondary Education Teaching during the 2012-13 academic year. The instrument used was an open questionnaire that included asking the participants to make drawings representing the roles of the teacher. Four categories of metaphor were considered: behaviourist/transmissive, cognitivist/constructivist, situative/socio-historical, and self-referential. It was found that most of the prospective teachers were indeed able to conceptualize their roles in the form of metaphors. Comparison of the results before and after the teaching practicum revealed no changes in most of the participants' metaphors and associated models. Instead, these appeared to be firmly set already at the beginning of the Master's course, and remained uninfluenced by either the course or the practicum. Only a minority of the participants showed changes in their metaphors—5 with progressive changes, and 5 with regressive changes.

  6. The Role of Semantics in Open-World, Integrative, Collaborative Science Data Platforms (United States)

    Fox, Peter; Chen, Yanning; Wang, Han; West, Patrick; Erickson, John; Ma, Marshall


    As collaborative science spreads into more and more Earth and space science fields, both participants and funders are expressing stronger needs for highly functional data and information capabilities. Characteristics include a) easy to use, b) highly integrated, c) leverage investments, d) accommodate rapid technical change, and e) do not incur undue expense or time to build or maintain - these are not a small set of requirements. Based on our accumulated experience over the last ~ decade and several key technical approaches, we adapt, extend, and integrate several open source applications and frameworks to handle major portions of functionality for these platforms. This includes: an object-type repository, collaboration tools, identity management, all within a portal managing diverse content and applications. In this contribution, we present our methods and results of information models, adaptation, integration and evolution of a networked data science architecture based on several open source technologies (Drupal, VIVO, the Comprehensive Knowledge Archive Network; CKAN, and the Global Handle System; GHS). In particular we present the Deep Carbon Observatory - a platform for international science collaboration. We present and discuss key functional and non-functional attributes, and discuss the general applicability of the platform.

  7. In pursuit of a science of agriculture: the role of statistics in field experiments. (United States)

    Parolini, Giuditta


    Since the beginning of the twentieth century statistics has reshaped the experimental cultures of agricultural research taking part in the subtle dialectic between the epistemic and the material that is proper to experimental systems. This transformation has become especially relevant in field trials and the paper will examine the British agricultural institution, Rothamsted Experimental Station, where statistical methods nowadays popular in the planning and analysis of field experiments were developed in the 1920s. At Rothamsted statistics promoted randomisation over systematic arrangements, factorisation over one-question trials, and emphasised the importance of the experimental error in assessing field trials. These changes in methodology transformed also the material culture of agricultural science, and a new body, the Field Plots Committee, was created to manage the field research of the agricultural institution. Although successful, the vision of field experimentation proposed by the Rothamsted statisticians was not unproblematic. Experimental scientists closely linked to the farming community questioned it in favour of a field research that could be more easily understood by farmers. The clash between the two agendas reveals how the role attributed to statistics in field experimentation defined different pursuits of agricultural research, alternately conceived of as a scientists' science or as a farmers' science.

  8. “Space” and its Role in Recreating Architectural Theory and Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zarghami


    Full Text Available “Space” was architecture’s main keyword between the 1890s and 1960s, but it lost its significance in architecture gradually; this was mainly due to the prevalence of postmodern semiotics and theories of “place” in architecture. Social science however went through an inverse path. In the nineteenth century, in modern consciousness and through historicism, space became subordinate to time, time became linear, space became marginalized, and the temporal “stages” of development gained importance. Space in this period was a Cartesian/Newtonian abstract notion which was neutral in relation to society, history and context; and thus it was not in the domain of social sciences studies. In twentieth century, however, the social analyses adopted spatiality gradually, to the extent that the late twentieth century transformations in this field were called “the spatial turn”. Through investigating these two lines of evolution, it will be discussed in this article that with the adoption of a relational ontology concerning space and its enrichment through inter- and trans-disciplinary studies, “space”, as a keyword, can continue to be of importance in architectural theory and play a mediating role in its relation with social science.

  9. Bayesian Hierarchical Random Effects Models in Forensic Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin G. G. Aitken


    Full Text Available Statistical modeling of the evaluation of evidence with the use of the likelihood ratio has a long history. It dates from the Dreyfus case at the end of the nineteenth century through the work at Bletchley Park in the Second World War to the present day. The development received a significant boost in 1977 with a seminal work by Dennis Lindley which introduced a Bayesian hierarchical random effects model for the evaluation of evidence with an example of refractive index measurements on fragments of glass. Many models have been developed since then. The methods have now been sufficiently well-developed and have become so widespread that it is timely to try and provide a software package to assist in their implementation. With that in mind, a project (SAILR: Software for the Analysis and Implementation of Likelihood Ratios was funded by the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes through their Monopoly programme to develop a software package for use by forensic scientists world-wide that would assist in the statistical analysis and implementation of the approach based on likelihood ratios. It is the purpose of this document to provide a short review of a small part of this history. The review also provides a background, or landscape, for the development of some of the models within the SAILR package and references to SAILR as made as appropriate.

  10. Bayesian Hierarchical Random Effects Models in Forensic Science. (United States)

    Aitken, Colin G G


    Statistical modeling of the evaluation of evidence with the use of the likelihood ratio has a long history. It dates from the Dreyfus case at the end of the nineteenth century through the work at Bletchley Park in the Second World War to the present day. The development received a significant boost in 1977 with a seminal work by Dennis Lindley which introduced a Bayesian hierarchical random effects model for the evaluation of evidence with an example of refractive index measurements on fragments of glass. Many models have been developed since then. The methods have now been sufficiently well-developed and have become so widespread that it is timely to try and provide a software package to assist in their implementation. With that in mind, a project (SAILR: Software for the Analysis and Implementation of Likelihood Ratios) was funded by the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes through their Monopoly programme to develop a software package for use by forensic scientists world-wide that would assist in the statistical analysis and implementation of the approach based on likelihood ratios. It is the purpose of this document to provide a short review of a small part of this history. The review also provides a background, or landscape, for the development of some of the models within the SAILR package and references to SAILR as made as appropriate.

  11. Preparation for microgravity - The role of the Microgravity Material Science Laboratory (United States)

    Johnston, J. Christopher; Rosenthal, Bruce N.; Meyer, Maryjo B.; Glasgow, Thomas K.


    Experiments at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Microgravity Material Science Laboratory using physical and mathematical models to delineate the effects of gravity on processes of scientific and commercial interest are discussed. Where possible, transparent model systems are used to visually track convection, settling, crystal growth, phase separation, agglomeration, vapor transport, diffusive flow, and polymer reactions. Materials studied include metals, alloys, salts, glasses, ceramics, and polymers. Specific technologies discussed include the General Purpose furnace used in the study of metals and crystal growth, the isothermal dendrite growth apparatus, the electromagnetic levitator/instrumented drop tube, the high temperature directional solidification furnace, the ceramics and polymer laboratories and the center's computing facilities.

  12. Task-role-based Access Control Model in Smart Health-care System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Peng


    Full Text Available As the development of computer science and smart health-care technology, there is a trend for patients to enjoy medical care at home. Taking enormous users in the Smart Health-care System into consideration, access control is an important issue. Traditional access control models, discretionary access control, mandatory access control, and role-based access control, do not properly reflect the characteristics of Smart Health-care System. This paper proposes an advanced access control model for the medical health-care environment, task-role-based access control model, which overcomes the disadvantages of traditional access control models. The task-role-based access control (T-RBAC model introduces a task concept, dividing tasks into four categories. It also supports supervision role hierarchy. T-RBAC is a proper access control model for Smart Health-care System, and it improves the management of access rights. This paper also proposes an implementation of T-RBAC, a binary two-key-lock pair access control scheme using prime factorization.

  13. Perspectives of Blockchain Technology, its Relation to the Cloud and its Potential Role in Computer Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Purdon


    Full Text Available Blockchain ledgers and the Cloud are a perfect match. On the one hand, there is an inherent requirement for multiple separate authentication nodes to validate every Blockchain transaction with each node requiring substantial encryption calculation capability. On the other hand, massive economies of scale can bring down the cost per transaction, and provide service continuity. Additionally, the Cloud provides a perfect incubator for proof-of-concept projects. This paper considers the future implications of Blockchain, as the concept of disintermediated trustless ledgers stimulates the imagination of computer scientists and innovators. The Cloud’s role in implementing this new paradigm is also highlighted, as a new decentralized P2P-Cloud model. Finally, this paper discusses how Blockchain may be integrated into the university level computer science and information technology curriculum.

  14. Individual to collaborative: guided group work and the role of teachers in junior secondary science classrooms (United States)

    Fung, Dennis; Lui, Wai-mei


    This paper, through discussion of a teaching intervention at two secondary schools in Hong Kong, demonstrates the learning advancement brought about by group work and dissects the facilitating role of teachers in collaborative discussions. One-hundred and fifty-two Secondary Two (Grade 8) students were divided into three pedagogical groups, namely 'whole-class teaching', 'self-directed group work' and 'teacher-supported group work' groups, and engaged in peer-review, team debate, group presentation and reflection tasks related to a junior secondary science topic (i.e. current electricity). Pre- and post-tests were performed to evaluate students' scientific conceptions, alongside collected written responses and audio-recorded discussions. The results indicate that students achieved greater cognitive growth when they engaged in cooperative learning activities, the interactive and multi-sided argumentative nature of which is considered to apply particularly well to science education and Vygotsky's zone of proximal development framework. Group work learning is also found to be most effective when teachers play a role in navigating students during the joint construction of conceptual knowledge.

  15. Ocular hemodynamics and glaucoma: the role of mathematical modeling. (United States)

    Harris, Alon; Guidoboni, Giovanna; Arciero, Julia C; Amireskandari, Annahita; Tobe, Leslie A; Siesky, Brent A


    To discuss the role of mathematical modeling in studying ocular hemodynamics, with a focus on glaucoma. We reviewed recent literature on glaucoma, ocular blood flow, autoregulation, the optic nerve head, and the use of mathematical modeling in ocular circulation. Many studies suggest that alterations in ocular hemodynamics play a significant role in the development, progression, and incidence of glaucoma. Although there is currently a limited number of studies involving mathematical modeling of ocular blood flow, regulation, and diseases (such as glaucoma), preliminary modeling work shows the potential of mathematical models to elucidate the mechanisms that contribute most significantly to glaucoma progression. Mathematical modeling is a useful tool when used synergistically with clinical and laboratory data in the study of ocular blood flow and glaucoma. The development of models to investigate the relationship between ocular hemodynamic alterations and glaucoma progression will provide a unique and useful method for studying the pathophysiology of glaucoma.

  16. Surface science models of CoMoS hydrodesulfurisation catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, A.M.; De Beer, V.H.J.; Van Veen, J.A.R.; Niemantsverdriet, J.W. [Schuit Institute of Catalysis, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    Characterization of supported catalysts with surface spectroscopic techniques is often limited due to restraints imposed by the support material. The use of flat conducting substrates as a model support offers a way to apply these techniques to their full potential. Such surface science models of silica and alumina supported CoMoS catalysts have been made by impregnating thin SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films with a solution of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) complexes of cobalt and molybdenum. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) spectra indicate that the order in which cobalt and molybdenum transfer to the sulfided state is reversed with respect to oxidic Co and Mo systems prepared by conventional methods, implying that NTA complexation retards the sulfidation of cobalt to temperatures where MoS{sub 2} is already formed. Catalytic tests show that the CoMoS model catalysts exhibit activities for thiophene desulfurisation and product distributions similar to those of their high surface area counterparts. 25 refs.

  17. Science Education Using a Computer Model-Virtual Puget Sound (United States)

    Fruland, R.; Winn, W.; Oppenheimer, P.; Stahr, F.; Sarason, C.


    We created an interactive learning environment based on an oceanographic computer model of Puget Sound-Virtual Puget Sound (VPS)-as an alternative to traditional teaching methods. Students immersed in this navigable 3-D virtual environment observed tidal movements and salinity changes, and performed tracer and buoyancy experiments. Scientific concepts were embedded in a goal-based scenario to locate a new sewage outfall in Puget Sound. Traditional science teaching methods focus on distilled representations of agreed-upon knowledge removed from real-world context and scientific debate. Our strategy leverages students' natural interest in their environment, provides meaningful context and engages students in scientific debate and knowledge creation. Results show that VPS provides a powerful learning environment, but highlights the need for research on how to most effectively represent concepts and organize interactions to support scientific inquiry and understanding. Research is also needed to ensure that new technologies and visualizations do not foster misconceptions, including the impression that the model represents reality rather than being a useful tool. In this presentation we review results from prior work with VPS and outline new work for a modeling partnership recently formed with funding from the National Ocean Partnership Program (NOPP).

  18. What¿s the deal with the web/blogs/the next big technology: a key role for information science in e-social science research?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thelwall, M.; Wouters, P.


    Since many nations have provided substantial funding for new e-social science and humanities investigations, there is now an opportunity for information scientists to adopt an enabling role for this new kind of research. Logically, a more information-centred environment should be more conducive to

  19. What role for social sciences in socio-hydrology? Results from an online survey among hydrologists (United States)

    Seidl, Roman; Barthel, Roland; Stauffacher, Michael


    The necessity of a more integrated approach in hydrological research has been highlighted by the IAHS scientific decade 2013-2022 "Panta Rhei", dedicated to foster multi-disciplinary research activities on changes in hydrology and society (Montanari, Young et al. 2013). On a similar note, the concept of Socio-Hydrology (Sivapalan, Savenije et al. 2012) suggests a much deeper involvement of hydrologists in socio-economic questions. Despite this general consensus, it remains unclear how such interdisciplinary approaches should be carried out and, in particular, which roles hydrological sciences (HS) and social sciences and the humanities (SSH) should assume. In order to evaluate the opinion of HS on the mutual contributions of HS and SSH to the process of integration, an online survey was prepared by the authors and announced through the newsletters of the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS). Two sets of questions offered a choice of potential contributions to interdisciplinary processes of HS and SSH respectively. A third group of questions asked for the status of integration of HS and SSH and if improvements are needed. Finally, participants were asked to rank different options to foster or improve cooperation between natural and social scientists. 141 questionnaires could be used for further analysis. As expected the background of most participants is hydrology, but many also mention more than one discipline. Most participants have their main place of work in Europe. The answers were analysed using Factor and Cluster analysis to reveal potential patterns in the data. The main results from the survey can be summarized like this: The majority of respondents agrees that SSH is not well integrated into hydrological research as yet and most participants see a need for better cooperation. Expectations from hydrologists who should do what in integrative work, reveal that some roles are

  20. Entering the Community of Practitioners: A Science Research Workshop Model (United States)

    Streitwieser, Bernhard; Light, Gregory; Pazos, Pilar


    This article describes the Science Research Workshop Program (SRW) and discusses how it provides students a legitimate science experience. SRW, which is funded by the National Science Foundation, is an apprenticeship-style program in which students write proposals requesting resources to research an original question. The program creates a…

  1. Global Analysis, Interpretation, and Modelling: First Science Conference (United States)

    Sahagian, Dork


    Topics considered include: Biomass of termites and their emissions of methane and carbon dioxide - A global database; Carbon isotope discrimination during photosynthesis and the isotope ratio of respired CO2 in boreal forest ecosystems; Estimation of methane emission from rice paddies in mainland China; Climate and nitrogen controls on the geography and timescales of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling; Potential role of vegetation feedback in the climate sensitivity of high-latitude regions - A case study at 6000 years B.P.; Interannual variation of carbon exchange fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems; and Variations in modeled atmospheric transport of carbon dioxide and the consequences for CO2 inversions.

  2. Problem Solving in the Natural Sciences and Early Adolescent Girls' Gender Roles and Self-Esteem a Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis from AN Ecological Perspective (United States)

    Slavkin, Michael

    What impact do gender roles and self-esteem have on early adolescent girls' abilities to solve problems when participating in natural science-related activities? Bronfenbrenner's human ecology model and Barker's behavior setting theory were used to assess how environmental contexts relate to problem solving in scientific contexts. These models also provided improved methodology and increased understanding of these constructs when compared with prior research. Early adolescent girls gender roles and self-esteem were found to relate to differences in problem solving in science-related groups. Specifically, early adolescent girls' gender roles were associated with levels of verbal expression, expression of positive affect, dominance, and supportive behavior during science experiments. Also, levels of early adolescent girls self-esteem were related to verbal expression and dominance in peer groups. Girls with high self-esteem also were more verbally expressive and had higher levels of dominance during science experiments. The dominant model of a masculine-typed and feminine-typed dichotomy of problem solving based on previous literature was not effective in Identifying differences within girls' problem solving. Such differences in the results of these studies may be the result of this study's use of observational measures and analysis of the behavior settings in which group members participated. Group behavior and problem-solving approaches of early adolescent girls seemed most likely to be defined by environmental contexts, not governed solely by the personalities of participants. A discussion for the examination of environmental factors when assessing early adolescent girls' gender roles and self-esteem follows this discussion.

  3. A role of decision-making competency in science learning utilizing a social valuation framework (United States)

    Katsuo, Akihito


    The role of decision-making in learning performance has been an occasional topic in the research literature in science education, but rarely has it been a central issue in the field. Nonetheless, recent studies regarding the topic in several fields other than education, such as cognitive neuroscience and social choice theory, indicate the fundamental importance(s) of the topic. This study focuses on a possible role of decision-making in science learning. Initially the study was designed to probe the decision-making ability of elementary school children with a modified version of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The experiment involved six Montessori 3rd and 4th grade students as the experimental group and eight public school 3rd and 4th grade students as the control group. The result of the modified IGT revealed a tendency in choice trajectories favoring children at the Montessori school. However, the probabilistic value went below the statistically significant level set by the U test. A further study focused on the impact of better decision-making ability revealed in the first experiment on performances with a science learning module that emphasized collective reasoning. The instruction was based on a set of worksheets with multiple choices on which students were asked to make predictions with and to provide supportive arguments regarding outcomes of experiments introduced in the worksheet. Then the whole class was involved with a real experiment to see which choice was correct. The findings in the study indicated that the Montessori students often obtained higher scores than non-Montessori students in making decision with a tendency of consistency in terms of their choices of the alternatives on the worksheets. The findings of the experiments were supported by a correlational analysis that was performed at the end of study. Although no statistically significant correlations were found, there was a tendency for positively associative shifts between the scores of the

  4. Supporting Three-Dimensional Science Learning: The Role of Curiosity-Driven Classroom Discourse (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy Renae


    The National Research Council's "Framework for K-12 Science Education" (2011) presents a new vision for science education that calls for the integration of the three dimensions of science learning: science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas. Unlike previous conceptions of science learning that…

  5. Scientific Grand Challenges: Challenges in Climate Change Science and the Role of Computing at the Extreme Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Johnson, Gary M.; Washington, Warren M.


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) in partnership with the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) held a workshop on the challenges in climate change science and the role of computing at the extreme scale, November 6-7, 2008, in Bethesda, Maryland. At the workshop, participants identified the scientific challenges facing the field of climate science and outlined the research directions of highest priority that should be pursued to meet these challenges. Representatives from the national and international climate change research community as well as representatives from the high-performance computing community attended the workshop. This group represented a broad mix of expertise. Of the 99 participants, 6 were from international institutions. Before the workshop, each of the four panels prepared a white paper, which provided the starting place for the workshop discussions. These four panels of workshop attendees devoted to their efforts the following themes: Model Development and Integrated Assessment; Algorithms and Computational Environment; Decadal Predictability and Prediction; Data, Visualization, and Computing Productivity. The recommendations of the panels are summarized in the body of this report.

  6. Why we do what we do: a theoretical evaluation of the integrated practice model for forensic nursing science. (United States)

    Valentine, Julie L


    An evaluation of the Integrated Practice Model for Forensic Nursing Science () is presented utilizing methods outlined by . A brief review of nursing theory basics and evaluation methods by Meleis is provided to enhance understanding of the ensuing theoretical evaluation and critique. The Integrated Practice Model for Forensic Nursing Science, created by forensic nursing pioneer Virginia Lynch, captures the theories, assumptions, concepts, and propositions inherent in forensic nursing practice and science. The historical background of the theory is explored as Lynch's model launched the role development of forensic nursing practice as both a nursing and forensic science specialty. It is derived from a combination of nursing, sociological, and philosophical theories to reflect the grounding of forensic nursing in the nursing, legal, psychological, and scientific communities. As Lynch's model is the first inception of forensic nursing theory, it is representative of a conceptual framework although the title implies a practice theory. The clarity and consistency displayed in the theory's structural components of assumptions, concepts, and propositions are analyzed. The model is described and evaluated. A summary of the strengths and limitations of the model is compiled followed by application to practice, education, and research with suggestions for ongoing theory development.

  7. The role of assessment infrastructures in crafting project-based science classrooms (United States)

    D'Amico, Laura Marie

    In project-based science teaching, teachers engage students in the practice of conducting meaningful investigations and explanations of natural phenomena, often in collaboration with fellow students or adults. Reformers suggest that this approach can provide students with more profitable learning experiences; but for many teachers, a shift to such instruction can be difficult to manage. As some reform-minded teachers have discovered, classroom assessment can serve as a vital tool for meeting the challenges associated with project science activity. In this research, classroom assessment was viewed as an infrastructure that both students and teachers rely upon as a mediational tool for classroom activity and communications. The study explored the classroom assessment infrastructures created by three teachers involved in the Learning through Collaborative Visualization (CoVis) Project from 1993--94 to 1995--96. Each of the three teachers under study either created a new course or radically reformulated an old one in an effort to incorporate project-based science pedagogy and supporting technologies. Data in the form of interviews, classroom observations, surveys, student work, and teacher records was collected. From these data, an interpretive case study was developed for each course and its accompanying assessment infrastructure. A set of cross-case analyses was also constructed, based upon common themes that emerged from all three cases. These themes included: the assessment challenges based on the nature of project activity, the role of technology in the teachers' assessment infrastructure designs, and the influence of the wider assessment infrastructure on their course and assessment designs. In combination, the case studies and cross-case analyses describe the synergistic relationship between the design of pedagogical reforms and classroom assessment infrastructures, as well as the effectiveness of all three assessment designs. This work contributes to research

  8. Using the instructional congruence model to change a science teacher's practices and English language learners' attitudes and achievement in science (United States)

    Salame, Hania Moussa

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of adapting the instructional congruence model on the English Language Learners' (ELL) attitudes and achievement in science. Changes in teacher's views and practices were documented. The mixed-method approach was adapted. Data sources were the "Attitude Towards Science" survey, VNOS-C questionnaire, Luykx and Lee (2007) observational instrument, Gee (1997) discussion categories, video recordings, and pre- and post-tests. A science teacher and a class of 24 ELL female students in a charter school participated in this research. The results of this study indicated that student achievement increased significantly and students' attitudes improved in all contexts. At the conclusion of the study, all teacher's views on NOS were reported to be informed, teacher's practices were rated higher, and different classroom interactions increased significantly. The instructional congruence model in science education has been successful in reaching different learners, improving students' attitudes and achievement in science and enhancing teacher's views and practices. This model has significant potential for meeting the challenging goals of reformed science education.

  9. Young Children's Thinking About Decomposition: Early Modeling Entrees to Complex Ideas in Science (United States)

    Ero-Tolliver, Isi; Lucas, Deborah; Schauble, Leona


    This study was part of a multi-year project on the development of elementary students' modeling approaches to understanding the life sciences. Twenty-three first grade students conducted a series of coordinated observations and investigations on decomposition, a topic that is rarely addressed in the early grades. The instruction included in-class observations of different types of soil and soil profiling, visits to the school's compost bin, structured observations of decaying organic matter of various kinds, study of organisms that live in the soil, and models of environmental conditions that affect rates of decomposition. Both before and after instruction, students completed a written performance assessment that asked them to reason about the process of decomposition. Additional information was gathered through one-on-one interviews with six focus students who represented variability of performance across the class. During instruction, researchers collected video of classroom activity, student science journal entries, and charts and illustrations produced by the teacher. After instruction, the first-grade students showed a more nuanced understanding of the composition and variability of soils, the role of visible organisms in decomposition, and environmental factors that influence rates of decomposition. Through a variety of representational devices, including drawings, narrative records, and physical models, students came to regard decomposition as a process, rather than simply as an end state that does not require explanation.

  10. Trends in Social Science: The Impact of Computational and Simulative Models (United States)

    Conte, Rosaria; Paolucci, Mario; Cecconi, Federico

    This paper discusses current progress in the computational social sciences. Specifically, it examines the following questions: Are the computational social sciences exhibiting positive or negative developments? What are the roles of agent-based models and simulation (ABM), network analysis, and other "computational" methods within this dynamic? (Conte, The necessity of intelligent agents in social simulation, Advances in Complex Systems, 3(01n04), 19-38, 2000; Conte 2010; Macy, Annual Review of Sociology, 143-166, 2002). Are there objective indicators of scientific growth that can be applied to different scientific areas, allowing for comparison among them? In this paper, some answers to these questions are presented and discussed. In particular, comparisons among different disciplines in the social and computational sciences are shown, taking into account their respective growth trends in the number of publication citations over the last few decades (culled from Google Scholar). After a short discussion of the methodology adopted, results of keyword-based queries are presented, unveiling some unexpected local impacts of simulation on the takeoff of traditionally poorly productive disciplines.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarot Tri Tri Bowo Santoso


    Full Text Available Accounting lesson is considered as a difficult lesson by most students in SMK/SMA. It is even sometimes worse with the less ability of accounting teachers to select learning methods thatcan attract students’ attention and thought. Therefore, it is necessary to find an alternative learning which can help students to involve in the real situation which is fun and memorable. The learning model which can fulfill the fun situation is the role playing. The steps to implement this model in the learning of accounting cycle for trade firm are to divide students in groups and to give each of them an opportunity to play a role. In practice, each student changers the role weekly based on the order. The model makesstuents easier to understand the basic accounting and leads the teachers evaluate the materials if the lack of conformity occurs during the learning.

  12. Learning Activities That Combine Science Magic Activities with the 5E Instructional Model to Influence Secondary-School Students' Attitudes to Science (United States)

    Lin, Jang-Long; Cheng, Meng-Fei; Chang, Ying-Chi; Li, Hsiao-Wen; Chang, Jih-Yuan; Lin, Deng-Min


    The purpose of this study was to investigate how learning materials based on Science Magic activities affect student attitudes to science. A quasi-experimental design was conducted to explore the combination of Science Magic with the 5E Instructional Model to develop learning materials for teaching a science unit about friction. The participants…

  13. Lorenz curves in a new science-funding model (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei


    We propose an agent-based model to theoretically and systematically explore the implications of a new approach to fund science, which has been suggested recently by J. Bollen et al.[?] We introduce various parameters and examine their effects. The concentration of funding is shown by the Lorenz curve and the Gini coefficient. In this model, all scientists are treated equally and follow the well-intended regulations. All scientists give a fixed ratio of their funding to others. The fixed ratio becomes an upper bound for the Gini coefficient. We observe two distinct regimes in the parameter space: valley and plateau. In the valley regime, the fluidity of funding is significant. The Lorenz curve is smooth. The Gini coefficient is well below the upper bound. The funding distribution is the desired result. In the plateau regime, the cumulative advantage is significant. The Lorenz curve has a sharp turn. The Gini coefficient saturates to the upper bound. The undue concentration of funding happens swiftly. The funding distribution is the undesired results, where a minority of scientists take the majority of funding. Phase transitions between these two regimes are discussed.

  14. Ground Contact Model for Mars Science Laboratory Mission Simulations (United States)

    Raiszadeh, Behzad; Way, David


    The Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST 2) has been successful in simulating the flight of launch vehicles and entry bodies on earth and other planets. POST 2 has been the primary simulation tool for the Entry Descent, and Landing (EDL) phase of numerous Mars lander missions such as Mars Pathfinder in 1997, the twin Mars Exploration Rovers (MER-A and MER-B) in 2004, Mars Phoenix lander in 2007, and it is now the main trajectory simulation tool for Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) in 2012. In all previous missions, the POST 2 simulation ended before ground impact, and a tool other than POST 2 simulated landing dynamics. It would be ideal for one tool to simulate the entire EDL sequence, thus avoiding errors that could be introduced by handing off position, velocity, or other fight parameters from one simulation to the other. The desire to have one continuous end-to-end simulation was the motivation for developing the ground interaction model in POST 2. Rover landing, including the detection of the postlanding state, is a very critical part of the MSL mission, as the EDL landing sequence continues for a few seconds after landing. The method explained in this paper illustrates how a simple ground force interaction model has been added to POST 2, which allows simulation of the entire EDL from atmospheric entry through touchdown.

  15. Assessing the Role of Technology in Citizen Science: A Volunteer's Perspective (United States)

    Wei, J. H.; Force, A.


    Adventure Scientists' approach provides a model for connecting science with the growing outdoor recreation community; by embracing technology already in our pockets, scientists can hope to connect with more participants and future generations to come.

  16. The Role of Technology in Science Teaching Activities: Web Based Teaching Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma ALKAN


    Full Text Available 2015 Abstract In this research the attitudes of pre-service teachers studying at Hacettepe University, Division of Science Education towards the importance of technological equipment in chemistry education activities and how effective they find technology in teaching different skills and applications have been examined. Pre-test/post-test control group design has been used in the research. In the experimental group Titrimetric Analysis has been conducted with simulations supported web based instruction and in the control group with teacher-centered instruction. In general, it has been found out that the attitudes of pre-service teachers in experiment group towards the importance of technological equipment as a teaching tool in chemistry are more positive than those in control group. In other words, statistically significant differences have occurred in attitudes of pre-service teachers in both experiment and control group towards the role of technology in chemistry teaching activities after web based teaching.

  17. The role of nuclear science and engineering in the twenty first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Itsuro


    For the sustainable development of the world and the welfare of mankind in the 21st century, nuclear energy and radiation including particle and photon beams must play an important role, although there is a large negative side in them. As in the 20th century, the activities of both research and education in Nuclear Science and Engineering (NSE) should be positively promoted and enhanced for safer nuclear energy and wider utilization of radiation and various beams and for the diminishment of their negative side. In this paper, a brief history of NSE in the 20th century and its implications are given first. As an example, the NSE activity in the 100 years' history of Kyoto University is shown. And then the 40 years' development of NSE in Japan is briefly introduced. Finally, presented is the way that the research and education in NSE in the 21st century should be. (author)

  18. The lure of rationality: Why does the deficit model persist in science communication? (United States)

    Simis, Molly J; Madden, Haley; Cacciatore, Michael A; Yeo, Sara K


    Science communication has been historically predicated on the knowledge deficit model. Yet, empirical research has shown that public communication of science is more complex than what the knowledge deficit model suggests. In this essay, we pose four lines of reasoning and present empirical data for why we believe the deficit model still persists in public communication of science. First, we posit that scientists' training results in the belief that public audiences can and do process information in a rational manner. Second, the persistence of this model may be a product of current institutional structures. Many graduate education programs in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields generally lack formal training in public communication. We offer empirical evidence that demonstrates that scientists who have less positive attitudes toward the social sciences are more likely to adhere to the knowledge deficit model of science communication. Third, we present empirical evidence of how scientists conceptualize "the public" and link this to attitudes toward the deficit model. We find that perceiving a knowledge deficit in the public is closely tied to scientists' perceptions of the individuals who comprise the public. Finally, we argue that the knowledge deficit model is perpetuated because it can easily influence public policy for science issues. We propose some ways to uproot the deficit model and move toward more effective science communication efforts, which include training scientists in communication methods grounded in social science research and using approaches that engage community members around scientific issues. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. An Investigation of Teacher Impact on Student Inquiry Science Performance Using a Hierarchical Linear Model (United States)

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Lee, Hee-Sun; Linn, Marcia C.


    Teachers play a central role in inquiry science classrooms. In this study, we investigate how seven teacher variables (i.e., gender, experience, perceived importance of inquiry and traditional teaching, workshop attendance, partner teacher, use of technology) affect student knowledge integration understanding of science topics drawing on previous…

  20. Scientific Grand Challenges: Forefront Questions in Nuclear Science and the Role of High Performance Computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.


    This report is an account of the deliberations and conclusions of the workshop on 'Forefront Questions in Nuclear Science and the Role of High Performance Computing' held January 26-28, 2009, co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Physics (ONP) and the DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing (ASCR). Representatives from the national and international nuclear physics communities, as well as from the high performance computing community, participated. The purpose of this workshop was to (1) identify forefront scientific challenges in nuclear physics and then determine which-if any-of these could be aided by high performance computing at the extreme scale; (2) establish how and why new high performance computing capabilities could address issues at the frontiers of nuclear science; (3) provide nuclear physicists the opportunity to influence the development of high performance computing; and (4) provide the nuclear physics community with plans for development of future high performance computing capability by DOE ASCR.

  1. Scientific Grand Challenges: Forefront Questions in Nuclear Science and the Role of High Performance Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.


    This report is an account of the deliberations and conclusions of the workshop on "Forefront Questions in Nuclear Science and the Role of High Performance Computing" held January 26-28, 2009, co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Physics (ONP) and the DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing (ASCR). Representatives from the national and international nuclear physics communities, as well as from the high performance computing community, participated. The purpose of this workshop was to 1) identify forefront scientific challenges in nuclear physics and then determine which-if any-of these could be aided by high performance computing at the extreme scale; 2) establish how and why new high performance computing capabilities could address issues at the frontiers of nuclear science; 3) provide nuclear physicists the opportunity to influence the development of high performance computing; and 4) provide the nuclear physics community with plans for development of future high performance computing capability by DOE ASCR.

  2. Adolescents of the U.S. National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study: male role models, gender role traits, and psychological adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.; Goldberg, N.; van Gelderen, L.; Gartrell, N.


    This article focuses on the influence of male role models on the lives of adolescents (N = 78) in the U.S. National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study. Half of the adolescents had male role models; those with and those without male role models had similar scores on the feminine and masculine scales

  3. Astrobiology outreach and the nature of science: the role of creativity. (United States)

    Fergusson, Jennifer; Oliver, Carol; Walter, Malcolm R


    There is concern in many developed countries that school students are turning away from science. However, students may be choosing not to study science and dismissing the possibility of a scientific career because, in the junior secondary years, they gain a false view of science and the work of scientists. There is a disparity between science as it is portrayed at school and science as it is practiced. This paper describes a study to explore whether engaging in science through astrobiology outreach activities may improve students' understanding of the nature and processes of science, and how this may influence their interest in a career in science. The results suggest that the students attending these Mars research-related outreach activities are more interested in science than the average student but are lacking in understanding of aspects of the nature of science. A significant difference was detected between pre- and posttest understandings of some concepts of the nature of science.

  4. Museums as brokers of participation: how visitors view the emerging role of European science centres and museums in policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bandelli


    Full Text Available Science centres and museums in Europe traditionally offer opportunities for public participation, such as dialogues, debates and workshops. In recent years, starting with the support of grants from the European Commission, the purpose of these initiatives is increasingly more connected with the policy making processes where science centres play a role as brokers between the public and other stakeholders. This article begins an investigation on how these two levels of participation – the participation of museums in policy, and the participation of visitors in museums – are related in seven European science centres and museums. The results suggest that science centres and museums are regarded by their visitors as potential platforms to facilitate public participation in policy, especially in countries where the general infrastructure for public participation in science is weak.

  5. On track for success: an innovative behavioral science curriculum model. (United States)

    Freedy, John R; Carek, Peter J; Dickerson, Lori M; Mallin, Robert M


    This article describes the behavioral science curriculum currently in place at the Trident/MUSC Family Medicine Residency Program. The Trident/MUSC Program is a 10-10-10 community-based, university-affiliated program in Charleston, South Carolina. Over the years, the Trident/MUSC residency program has graduated over 400 Family Medicine physicians. The current behavioral science curriculum consists of both required core elements (didactic lectures, clinical observation, Balint groups, and Resident Grand Rounds) as well as optional elements (longitudinal patient care experiences, elective rotations, behavioral science editorial experience, and scholars project with a behavioral science focus). All Trident/MUSC residents complete core behavioral science curriculum elements and are free to participate in none, some, or all of the optional behavioral science curriculum elements. This flexibility allows resident physicians to tailor the educational program in a manner to meet individual educational needs. The behavioral science curriculum is based upon faculty interpretation of existing "best practice" guidelines (Residency Review Committee-Family Medicine and AAFP). This article provides sufficient curriculum detail to allow the interested reader the opportunity to adapt elements of the behavioral science curriculum to other residency training programs. While this behavioral science track system is currently in an early stage of implementation, the article discusses track advantages as well as future plans to evaluate various aspects of this innovative educational approach.

  6. There’s More to Science than Research: A Team-Based Role Game to Develop School Students’ Understanding of Science Careers in Pharmaceutical Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Collins


    Full Text Available School students lack information about STEM based careers, a subject that is not sufficiently embedded in the national science curriculum. As a result, students feel they receive insufficient advice to support their choice of subjects at GCSE level and beyond. Students struggle to envisage potential career pathways leading on from studying science at school, and especially for younger students it is difficult to convey typical science-based career pictures in a way that is easily accessible to them. To address this need, we developed an interactive team-based activity which uses role play to help students envisage typical work processes within a science-based career—microbial quality control in a pharmaceutical industrial environment. This activity addresses children’s curiosity about science-based careers, by enabling them to experience typical every day work processes in an industrial environment in a hands-on fashion. Additionally, the activity helps to convey abstract concepts, such as the abundance of microbes in the natural environment, microbial contamination and the importance of hygiene, which link to the science curriculum.

  7. Two-year study relating adolescents' self-concept and gender role perceptions to achievement and attitudes toward science (United States)

    Handley, Herbert M.; Morse, Linda W.

    To assess the developmental relationship of perceptions of self-concept and gender role identification with adolescents' attitudes and achievement in science, a two-year longitudinal study was conducted. A battery of instruments assessing 16 dimensions of self-concept/gender role identifications was employed to predict students' achievement and attitudes toward science. Specific behaviors studied included self-concept in school and science and mathematics, attitudes toward appropriate gender roles in science activities and careers, and self-perceptions of masculine and feminine traits. One hundred and fifty-five adolescents, enrolled, respectively, in the seventh and eighth grades, participated in the study. Through Fisher z transformations of correlation coefficients, differences in relationships between these two sets of variables were studied for males and females during the two years. Results indicated that students' self-concepts/gender role perceptions were related to both achievement and attitudes toward science, but more related to attitudes than achievement. These relationships became more pronounced for students as they matured from seventh to eighth graders.

  8. Quality resource networks for young women in science: The role of Internet-facilitated ties (United States)

    Gillette, Shana Cecile

    In communications, a new approach to the study of online interaction has been suggested by social network analysts. Garton, Haythornthwaite, and Wellman (1997) have outlined the importance of using network analysis to study how media are interconnected with other social aspects of a media user's world. As applied here, this approach to communication when combined with recent network studies from the fields of education and rural development, provides a method for looking at the role of Internet-facilitated ties in the development of resource networks in the learning communities of young women from seven rural schools across the state of Washington. Twenty-six young women (ages 14-16) from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds (approximately half of the participants are Hispanic or Native American, the other half are White) participated in the research. Participants were selected because they shared a common educational orientation through Rural Girls in Science, a NSF-funded program at the Northwest Center for Research on Women at the University of Washington. As part of the school-based component of the Rural Girls in Science program, all 26 participants designed and conducted year-long, community-based research projects in science. Each school in the program was provided an Internet workstation for communication and research. Through the Internet, students could conceivably maintain distant ties with mentors and research scientists whom they met at summer camp as well as seek additional information resources. Toward the conclusion of the long-term research projects, each student participant was interviewed using a participatory form of network analysis that included a combined qualitative and quantitative approach. Given the small number of participants and schools in the sample, the results from the analysis can not be generalized to a larger population. However the study of the structure and composition of networks among individuals and school groups provided

  9. Visions of the Future - the Changing Role of Actors in Data-Intensive Science (United States)

    Schäfer, L.; Klump, J. F.


    Around the world scientific disciplines are increasingly facing the challenge of a burgeoning volume of research data. This data avalanche consists of a stream of information generated from sensors and scientific instruments, digital recordings, social-science surveys or drawn from the World Wide Web. All areas of the scientific economy are affected by this rapid growth in data, from the logging of digs in Archaeology, telescope data with observations of distant galaxies in Astrophysics or data from polls and surveys in the Social Sciences. The challenge for science is not only to process the data through analysis, reduction and visualization, but also to set up infrastructures for provisioning and storing the data. The rise of new technologies and developments also poses new challenges for the actors in the area of research data infrastructures. Libraries, as one of the actors, enable access to digital media and support the publication of research data and its long-term archiving. Digital media and research data, however, introduce new aspects into the libraries' range of activities. How are we to imagine the library of the future? The library as an interface to the computer centers? Will library and computer center fuse into a new service unit? What role will scientific publishers play in future? Currently the traditional form of publication still carry greater weight - articles for conferences and journals. But will this still be the case in future? New forms of publication are already making their presence felt. The tasks of the computer centers may also change. Yesterday their remit was provisioning of rapid hardware, whereas now everything revolves around the topic of data and services. Finally, how about the researchers themselves? Not such a long time ago, Geoscience was not necessarily seen as linked to Computer Science. Nowadays, modern Geoscience relies heavily on IT and its techniques. Thus, in how far will the profile of the modern geoscientist change

  10. The Role of Cultural Identity as a Learning Factor in Physics: A Discussion through the Role of Science in Brazil (United States)

    Gurgel, Ivã; Pietrocola, Mauricio; Watanabe, Graciella


    In recent decades, changes in society have deeply affected the internal organization and the main goals of schools. These changes are particularly important in science education because science is one of the major sources of change in peoples' lives. This research provided the opportunity to investigate how these changes affect the way teachers…

  11. Science as a Model for Rational, Legitimate Government (United States)

    Branscomb, Lewis


    Before WWII science was largely dependent on support through teaching, and a few foundations. In the last half century, thanks to the contribution of applied science to winning the second world war, government became a deep-pockets source of support for science. While many academic scientists were deeply suspicious of government as a sponsor, the research universities saw an opportunity to build their institutions around government support. Government saw science as a means for sustaining its military primacy. Thus a marriage was consummated by partners -- science and politics -- who needed each other, but for quite different and to some degree conflicting motives. In the U.S. democracy, the relationship between science and politics has never been easy. The search for truth in science and for legitimacy in politics both require systems for generating public trust, but these systems are not the same, and indeed they are often incompatible. The most profound area of mismatch between science and politics is found not in conflicts over what kinds of research are deserving of public funding, but rather in conflicts over the advice government receives from scientific and technical experts. It is no accident that democratic America fostered progress in science and technology. Both American democracy and modern science are products of the Enlightenment, with its emphasis on reason and openness rather than on prejudice and traditional authority. American democracy has always benefited from a pragmatic willingness to learn from experience, very much as science relies on experiment. Progress in science is based transparency and accountability; these are also basic principles of democratic government. If science is corrupted by government, government itself is in danger of becoming corrupt. In recent years we seemed to be going down that path. It is no accident that President Obama and media commentators speak often of the ``new pragmatism,'' or that he appointed exceptionally

  12. Improving accountability through alignment: the role of academic health science centres and networks in England. (United States)

    Ovseiko, Pavel V; Heitmueller, Axel; Allen, Pauline; Davies, Stephen M; Wells, Glenn; Ford, Gary A; Darzi, Ara; Buchan, Alastair M


    As in many countries around the world, there are high expectations on academic health science centres and networks in England to provide high-quality care, innovative research, and world-class education, while also supporting wealth creation and economic growth. Meeting these expectations increasingly depends on partnership working between university medical schools and teaching hospitals, as well as other healthcare providers. However, academic-clinical relationships in England are still characterised by the "unlinked partners" model, whereby universities and their partner teaching hospitals are neither fiscally nor structurally linked, creating bifurcating accountabilities to various government and public agencies. This article focuses on accountability relationships in universities and teaching hospitals, as well as other healthcare providers that form core constituent parts of academic health science centres and networks. The authors analyse accountability for the tripartite mission of patient care, research, and education, using a four-fold typology of accountability relationships, which distinguishes between hierarchical (bureaucratic) accountability, legal accountability, professional accountability, and political accountability. Examples from North West London suggest that a number of mechanisms can be used to improve accountability for the tripartite mission through alignment, but that the simple creation of academic health science centres and networks is probably not sufficient. At the heart of the challenge for academic health science centres and networks is the separation of accountabilities for patient care, research, and education in different government departments. Given that a fundamental top-down system redesign is now extremely unlikely, local academic and clinical leaders face the challenge of aligning their institutions as a matter of priority in order to improve accountability for the tripartite mission from the bottom up. It remains to be

  13. Linking Formal and Informal Science Education: A Successful Model using Libraries, Volunteers and NASA Resources (United States)

    Race, M. S.; Lafayette Library; Learning Center Foundation (Lllcf)


    In these times of budget cuts, tight school schedules, and limited opportunities for student field trips and teacher professional development, it is especially difficult to expose elementary and middle school students to the latest STEM information-particularly in the space sciences. Using our library as a facilitator and catalyst, we built a volunteer-based, multi-faceted, curriculum-linked program for students and teachers in local middle schools (Grade 8) and showcased new astronomical and planetary science information using mainly NASA resources and volunteer effort. The project began with the idea of bringing free NASA photo exhibits (FETTU) to the Lafayette and Antioch Libraries for public display. Subsequently, the effort expanded by adding layers of activities that brought space and science information to teachers, students and the pubic at 5 libraries and schools in the 2 cities, one of which serves a diverse, underserved community. Overall, the effort (supported by a pilot grant from the Bechtel Foundation) included school and library based teacher workshops with resource materials; travelling space museum visits with hands-on activities (Chabot-to-Go); separate powerpoint presentations for students and adults at the library; and concurrent ancillary space-related themes for young children's programs at the library. This pilot project, based largely on the use of free government resources and online materials, demonstrated that volunteer-based, standards-linked STEM efforts can enhance curriculum at the middle school, with libraries serving a special role. Using this model, we subsequently also obtained a small NASA-Space Grant award to bring star parties and hand-on science activities to three libraries this Fall, linking with numerous Grade 5 teachers and students in two additional underserved areas of our county. It's not necessary to reinvent the wheel, you just collect the pieces and build on what you already have.

  14. Redefining roles of science in planning and management: ecology as a planning and management tool (United States)

    Greg Mason; Stephen Murphy


    Science as a way of knowing has great value to decision-making but there is need to consider all its attributes and assess how science ought to be informing decision-making. Consideration of the critiques of science can make science stronger and more useful to decision-making in an environmental and ecological context. Scientists, planners, and managers need to...

  15. Female Leaders: Injurious or Inspiring Role Models for Women? (United States)

    Hoyt, Crystal L.; Simon, Stefanie


    The impact of female role models on women's leadership aspirations and self-perceptions after a leadership task were assessed across two laboratory studies. These studies tested the prediction that upward social comparisons to high-level female leaders will have a relatively detrimental impact on women's self-perceptions and leadership aspirations…

  16. Consumer perception and the role of science in the meat industry. (United States)

    Troy, D J; Kerry, J P


    The relationship between consumer perception of quality and the food industry's drive to satisfy consumer needs is complex and involves many different components. Science and innovation play a major role in equipping the industry to respond to consumer concerns and expectations. This paper examines the main elements of consumer perception of meat with focus on the red meat sector. Emphasis is placed on perception at point of sale particularly the intrinsic quality cues of colour, packaging and degree of visual fat. The state of the art developments in increasing consumers' perception at this point are discussed. Experienced quality cues such as tenderness and flavour are well known as being of immense importance to consumers at point of consumption. The latest technological developments to enhance the quality experienced by consumers are discussed. The use of pre-rigor restraining techniques offers the industry a method for changing its conventional procedures of processing beef for instance. Background cues of safety, nutrition, animal welfare and sustainability are also discussed. Finally opportunities and challenges facing the industry are outlined. It is concluded that the meat industry needs to invest in and embrace an innovation agenda in order to be sustainable. It must utilise emerging scientific knowledge and take a more proactive role in setting out a research agenda.

  17. Cryosphere Science Outreach using the Ice Sheet System Model and a Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory (United States)

    Cheng, D. L. C.; Halkides, D. J.; Larour, E. Y.


    Understanding the role of Cryosphere Science within the larger context of Sea Level Rise is both a technical and educational challenge that needs to be addressed if the public at large is to trulyunderstand the implications and consequences of Climate Change. Within this context, we propose a new approach in which scientific tools are used directly inside a mobile/website platform geared towards Education/Outreach. Here, we apply this approach by using the Ice Sheet System Model, a state of the art Cryosphere model developed at NASA, and integrated within a Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory, with the goal is to outreach Cryospherescience to K-12 and College level students. The approach mixes laboratory experiments, interactive classes/lessons on a website, and a simplified interface to a full-fledged instance of ISSM to validate the classes/lessons. This novel approach leverages new insights from the Outreach/Educational community and the interest of new generations in web based technologies and simulation tools, all of it delivered in a seamlessly integrated web platform. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory undera contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere Science Program.

  18. Experiments and Modeling in Support of Generic Salt Repository Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, Suzanne Michelle; Stauffer, Philip H.; Weaver, Douglas James; Caporuscio, Florie Andre; Otto, Shawn; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Jordan, Amy B.; Chu, Shaoping; Zyvoloski, George Anthony; Johnson, Peter Jacob


    Salt is an attractive material for the disposition of heat generating nuclear waste (HGNW) because of its self-sealing, viscoplastic, and reconsolidation properties (Hansen and Leigh, 2012). The rate at which salt consolidates and the properties of the consolidated salt depend on the composition of the salt, including its content in accessory minerals and moisture, and the temperature under which consolidation occurs. Physicochemical processes, such as mineral hydration/dehydration salt dissolution and precipitation play a significant role in defining the rate of salt structure changes. Understanding the behavior of these complex processes is paramount when considering safe design for disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) in salt formations, so experimentation and modeling is underway to characterize these processes. This report presents experiments and simulations in support of the DOE-NE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for development of drift-scale, in-situ field testing of HGNW in salt formations.

  19. Experiments and Modeling in Support of Generic Salt Repository Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourret, Suzanne Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weaver, Douglas James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Otto, Shawn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zyvoloski, George Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Johnson, Peter Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Salt is an attractive material for the disposition of heat generating nuclear waste (HGNW) because of its self-sealing, viscoplastic, and reconsolidation properties (Hansen and Leigh, 2012). The rate at which salt consolidates and the properties of the consolidated salt depend on the composition of the salt, including its content in accessory minerals and moisture, and the temperature under which consolidation occurs. Physicochemical processes, such as mineral hydration/dehydration salt dissolution and precipitation play a significant role in defining the rate of salt structure changes. Understanding the behavior of these complex processes is paramount when considering safe design for disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) in salt formations, so experimentation and modeling is underway to characterize these processes. This report presents experiments and simulations in support of the DOE-NE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for development of drift-scale, in-situ field testing of HGNW in salt formations.

  20. Coteaching as a Model for Preservice Secondary Science Teacher Education (United States)

    Scantlebury, Kathryn; Gallo-Fox, Jennifer; Wassell, Beth


    This paper focuses on a 3-year, longitudinal study of the implementation of coteaching, as an innovative approach for preparing high school science teachers enrolled in an undergraduate science teacher education programme located in the United States. The coteaching/co-generative dialogue/co-respect/co-responsibility dialectic is introduced as a…

  1. A Cognitive Model for Problem Solving in Computer Science (United States)

    Parham, Jennifer R.


    According to industry representatives, computer science education needs to emphasize the processes involved in solving computing problems rather than their solutions. Most of the current assessment tools used by universities and computer science departments analyze student answers to problems rather than investigating the processes involved in…

  2. Science and technology awareness for preschool children: a working model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Deventer, A


    Full Text Available Skills shortages exist in the areas of Science and Technology, not only in South Africa but globally. This creates a need for more people to follow careers in Science and Technology. We need to do something to make sure that we do not loose...

  3. Correlation Educational Model in Primary Education Curriculum of Mathematics and Computer Science (United States)

    Macinko Kovac, Maja; Eret, Lidija


    This article gives insight into methodical correlation model of teaching mathematics and computer science. The model shows the way in which the related areas of computer science and mathematics can be supplemented, if it transforms the way of teaching and creates a "joint" lessons. Various didactic materials are designed, in which all…

  4. The Value of Conceptual Models in Coping with Complexity and Interdisciplinarity in Environmental Sciences Education (United States)

    Fortuin, Karen P. J.; van Koppen, C. S. A.; Leemans, Rik


    Conceptual models are useful for facing the challenges of environmental sciences curriculum and course developers and students. These challenges are inherent to the interdisciplinary and problem-oriented character of environmental sciences curricula. In this article, we review the merits of conceptual models in facing these challenges. These…

  5. Process-Based Development of Competence Models to Computer Science Education (United States)

    Zendler, Andreas; Seitz, Cornelia; Klaudt, Dieter


    A process model ("cpm.4.CSE") is introduced that allows the development of competence models in computer science education related to curricular requirements. It includes eight subprocesses: (a) determine competence concept, (b) determine competence areas, (c) identify computer science concepts, (d) assign competence dimensions to…

  6. Behavioral and social sciences theories and models: are they used in unintentional injury prevention research? (United States)

    Trifiletti, L B; Gielen, A C; Sleet, D A; Hopkins, K


    Behavioral and social sciences theories and models have the potential to enhance efforts to reduce unintentional injuries. The authors reviewed the published literature on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury problems to enumerate and categorize the ways different theories and models are used in injury prevention research. The authors conducted a systematic review to evaluate the published literature from 1980 to 2001 on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury prevention and control. Electronic database searches in PubMed and PsycINFO identified articles that combined behavioral and social sciences theories and models and injury causes. The authors identified some articles that examined behavioral and social science theories and models and unintentional injury topics, but found that several important theories have never been applied to unintentional injury prevention. Among the articles identified, the PRECEDE PROCEED Model was cited most frequently, followed by the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior and Health Belief Model. When behavioral and social sciences theories and models were applied to unintentional injury topics, they were most frequently used to guide program design, implementation or develop evaluation measures; few examples of theory testing were found. Results suggest that the use of behavioral and social sciences theories and models in unintentional injury prevention research is only marginally represented in the mainstream, peer-reviewed literature. Both the fields of injury prevention and behavioral and social sciences could benefit from greater collaborative research to enhance behavioral approaches to injury control.

  7. Methodical Approaches to Teaching of Computer Modeling in Computer Science Course (United States)

    Rakhimzhanova, B. Lyazzat; Issabayeva, N. Darazha; Khakimova, Tiyshtik; Bolyskhanova, J. Madina


    The purpose of this study was to justify of the formation technique of representation of modeling methodology at computer science lessons. The necessity of studying computer modeling is that the current trends of strengthening of general education and worldview functions of computer science define the necessity of additional research of the…

  8. The Evaluation of Modelling Competences: Difficulties and Potentials for the Learning of the Sciences (United States)

    Lopes, J. Bernardino; Costa, Nilza


    Modelling is an inherent process for the construction and use of science concepts that mobilize diverse specific competences. The aims of this work are to put forward a means of evaluating modelling competences that is relevant for physics teaching and science education research and to identify the potentials and constraints in the development of…

  9. Efficacy development in science: Investigating the effects of the Teacher-to-Teacher (T2T) professional development model in Hilo elementary schools (United States)

    Pinner, Pascale Creek

    Conderman and Sheldon Woods (2008) suggest that although science plays a central role in our world today, science instruction seems to be minimized particularly at the elementary grade levels. Research has investigated the construct of efficacy (Bandura, 1977, 2006a; Riggs & Enochs, 1990; Ramey-Gassert, Shroyer & Staver, 1996; Tschannen-Moran, Hoy & Hoy, 1998, 2001). Professional and conceptual development in teachers has also been explored (Gordon, 1990; Sheerer, 1997; Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2007). The purpose of this research was to describe the changes in efficacy elementary teachers experience as they participated in science professional development. Data from a Math/Science Partnership (MSP) grant sample suggested significant changes in science self-efficacy and improved pedagogy. Mixed methods revealed connections resulting in a multi-faceted Progression of Efficacy Growth flowchart. The results suggest that utilizing the Teacher-to-Teacher (T2T) professional development model has created a pathway for more science teaching across the Hilo elementary schools.

  10. A bridge role metric model for nodes in software networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    Full Text Available A bridge role metric model is put forward in this paper. Compared with previous metric models, our solution of a large-scale object-oriented software system as a complex network is inherently more realistic. To acquire nodes and links in an undirected network, a new model that presents the crucial connectivity of a module or the hub instead of only centrality as in previous metric models is presented. Two previous metric models are described for comparison. In addition, it is obvious that the fitting curve between the Bre results and degrees can well be fitted by a power law. The model represents many realistic characteristics of actual software structures, and a hydropower simulation system is taken as an example. This paper makes additional contributions to an accurate understanding of module design of software systems and is expected to be beneficial to software engineering practices.

  11. A Model for Teaching a Climate Change Elective Science Course at the Community College Level (United States)

    Mandia, S. A.


    The impact of global climate change is far-reaching, both for humanity and for the environment. It is essential that our students be provided a strong scientific background for the role of natural and human caused climate change so that they are better prepared to become involved in the discussion. Here the author reveals a successful model designed for use with a diverse student body at the community college level. Teaching strategies beyond the traditional lecture and exam style include: web-based resources such as static websites along with dynamic blogging tools, post-lecture cooperative learning review sessions, weekly current event research projects, use of rubrics to assist students in their own project evaluation before submission, and a research paper utilizing the Skeptical Science website to examine the validity of the most common climate change myths.

  12. The role of citizen public-interest groups in the decision-making process of a science-intensive culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, M.P.


    This study explores how concerns about the environment have escalated in the past three decades from being peripheral to that of a mainstream social movement. Most environmental concerns stem from the deployment of technologies where technical expertise is essential to effective participation in the decision-making process. The manner in which the current policy for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste was devised and passed by Congress provides the information base through which the role of citizen groups in the decision-making process in a science-intensive culture is explored, as they seek to overcome the adverse environmental impacts and economic inequities of this Act. The actual process by which citizens have confronted this current flawed policy is described, which includes how technical expertise from various sources made the citizens' case credible and effective. Several existing and theoretical models of citizen participation are described. Recommendations and conclusions are presented briefly, and a recommended model based on the concept of sustainable development is proposed

  13. Mathematical Model of the Public Understanding of Space Science (United States)

    Prisniakov, V.; Prisniakova, L.

    science. The boundary sectioning area of effective and unefficient modes of training and education of the population of country in space spirit is determined. The mathematical model of quality of process of education concern to an outer space exploration is reviewed separately. The coefficient of quality of education in an estimation of space event is submitted as relation Δ I' to mismatch of the universal standard of behavior with the information, which is going to the external spectator, about the applicable reacting of the considered individual Δ I''. The obtained outcomes allow to control a learning process and education of the society spirit of adherence to space ideals of mankind.

  14. Gender role models in fictional novels for emerging adult lesbians. (United States)

    Cook, Jennifer R; Rostosky, Sharon S; Riggle, Ellen D B


    Novels provide role models for young adult lesbians and thus may influence their identity development. This study focused on 16 lesbian protagonists identified in 11 young adult novels that received 2011 Lambda Literary Award nominations. Content analyses revealed six themes. Three themes defied traditional gender stereotypes: Asserting Oneself, Pursuing Intimacy with Another Woman, and Breaking Free of Constraints to Authentic Self-Expression. Three themes reinforced gender stereotypes: Negative Emotional Experiences Associated with Lesbian Identity, Traditional Masculine Gender Expression, and Traditional Gender Role-Based Sexual Scripts. Each theme is discussed in light of its possible contribution to lesbian identity development.

  15. Role of Institutes of Social Sciences in Enhancing the Quality of Postgraduate Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz TONBUL


    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop suggestions for the management of the Institute of Social Sciences on the effective execution of postgraduate education. A ‘mixed’ design was used. Data collection tools were applied directly to student population without the use of any sampling method. For advisors, criterion sampling was used.The participants of the study were composed of 207 postgraduate students registered at the Institute of Social Sciences and 39 instructors at Ege University. The student data were collected via the Supervisor Evaluation Scale and interview guide consisting of open-ended questions. The instructor data were collected during semi-structured focus group interviews. The participants stressed the informative, supportive and instructional roles of the institute for improving the quality of graduate education. In addition, differences as well as commonalities between the expectations of the students and those of the instructors were detected. The students’ expectations from the institute were the protection of students’ rights, mediation, ensuring the diversity of elective courses, the proper teaching of the courses in accordance with the nature of graduate education, and provision of information about career, time and stress management. Besides, the instructors’ expectations included attracting qualified candidates to programs, informing students, supporting the students with cadre and scholarship, reducing bureaucratic procedures, regulating the processes of supervisor selection and thesis proposal, providing access to resources during the processes of both course work and thesis writing, and forming colloquiums. The institute’s existing structure, authority distribution, staff and budget resources were found to be inadequate for increasing the quality of postgraduate education. Regarding the course and thesis stages, one third of the supervisors were evaluated as insufficient by the students. Many suggestions related to

  16. Role of BRNS in the DAE's program in the area of nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandeya, S.G.


    Full text: Soon after the discovery of fission and recognition of its potential for power production, Atomic Research Commission (ARC) was formed under the Chairmanship of Dr. Homi J. Bhabha, which was later renamed, first as Board of Research in Atomic Energy (BRAE) and subsequently as Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS) in late fifties under the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). The BRNS, right from its inception, has been playing an important role of assisting leading universities, academic and R and D institutions in the country for their participation in the departmental program and also in developing skilled human resources in the country for implementing the DAE's programs. Today BRNS has multiple programs which include; sponsored R and D programs in academic and R and D institutes, conducting/supporting international and national conferences, symposia, seminars, workshops in the advanced thematic areas in nuclear science and technology, building Centres of Excellence by way of equipping laboratories with the state-of-the-art experimental facilities and by way of nurturing the local talent. The program has also effective mechanism to strengthen the DAE-university interface through numerous fellowship schemes which cater to students, research scholars and academic staff in the country .The activities of BRNS have been recently further extended to implement the Prospective Research Funding (PRF) scheme under the current Xlth plan project for research scholars from within the department. Possibilities of establishing linkages with the private R and D houses are also being explored. The present talk will give a quick glimpse of the BRNS activities and illustration of some of the important achievements under its programs. The talk is also aimed at further increasing the awareness about the mechanisms and opportunities for participation in the BRNS activities for the scientists and engineers within and outside the department

  17. Recruitment of Early STEM Majors into Possible Secondary Science Teaching Careers: The Role of Science Education Summer Internships (United States)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.


    A shortage of highly qualified math and science teachers pervades the U.S. public school system. Clearly, recruitment of talented STEM educators is critical. Previous literature offers many suggestions for how STEM teacher recruitment programs and participant selection should occur. This study investigates how early STEM majors who are not already…

  18. Science leadership for tomorrow: The role of schools of public affairs and universities in meeting needs of public science agencies (United States)

    Rosenthal, A. H.; Wilcox, R. F.; Marini, F.; Reeves, H. C.


    Recommendations and requirements for the preparation of personnel with some scientific or technological background to enter fields of public policy and administration are reported. University efforts to provide science administration graduate programs are outlined and increased cooperation between government and university resources is outlined.

  19. Reporting on Strategic Considerations About the Role of Science in Initial Human Missions to Mars (United States)

    Beaty, David; Bass, Deborah; Thronson, Harley; Hays, Lindsay; Carberry, Chris; Cassady, Joe; Craig, Mark; Duggan, Matt; Drake, Bret; Stern, Jennifer; Zucker, Rick


    mission prior to a Mars surface mission should be initiated. 3. A well-planned set of science objectives for a future human-landed mission to Mars is essential in order to sustain coordination among the science and human spaceflight communities. In particular, while it is clear how humans on the surface of Mars would significantly accelerate the pace of the search for past life, it is unclear how humans would play a role in (and not serve as a hindrance to) the search for extant life. Further study should be supported. 4. Sustained formal collaboration among Mars scientists, engineers, technologists, and teams developing scenarios for Mars exploration should be supported. The human and robotic sides of the Mars exploration community need to become further engaged with each other, particularly as we enter a potential period of dual-purpose (science + human precursor) missions. Central to this era is generating mutual support for a Mars sample return architecture as a goal that has crucial value to both the human preparatory program and planetary science.

  20. An exploration of administrators' perceptions of elementary science: A case study of the role of science in two elementary schools based on the interactions of administrators with colleagues, science content and state standards (United States)

    Brogdon, Lori-Anne Stelmark

    This research is a case study on the perceptions and attitudes of administrators in the area of elementary science and how their responses reflect agreement or dissonance with the perceptions of elementary teachers on the subject of science within the same district. The study used Likert-type surveys and interviews from both administrators and teachers on five key areas: 1) Attitudes towards science and teaching 2) Attitudes towards teaching science 3) Attitudes towards administrators 4) Time teaching science and 5) Attitudes about policy and standards. Survey data was analyzed within and across areas to identify similarity and difference within each group. The medians from the administrative and teacher surveys were then crossed referenced through the use of a Mann Whitney test to identify areas of similarity. Interview data was coded around three major themes: 1) Standards 2) Classroom Instruction and 3) Conversations. The findings show that even though administrators' perceptions favor the inclusion of science in the elementary classroom, both administrators and teachers in this study reported limited involvement from, and conversation with, each other on the topic of science education. Heavy reliance by the administrators was placed on the use of consultants to provide professional development in the area of science instruction and to review the use of state standards, resulting in limited conversation between administrators and teachers about science. Teachers reported a heavy reliance upon their colleagues in the area of science instruction and curriculum planning. In addition, both administrators and teachers reported a greater focus on math and English for classroom instruction. Findings in this research support implications that more focus should be placed on the role of administrators in the implementation of science instruction. Administrators can play a crucial role in the success of science programs at the building, district and state levels

  1. The role of Facilities in Engaging and Informing the Public of EarthScope Science (United States)

    Charlevoix, D. J.; Taber, J. J.; Berg, M.; Dorr, P. M.; McQuillan, P.; Olds, S. E.


    The IRIS and UNAVCO facilities play an important role in support of EarthScope through joint and independent education and outreach activities. These activities are focused on providing data and data products to a wide range of audiences, disseminating EarthScope science results through formal and informal venues, and informing the public of the broader impacts of EarthScope. The facilities are particularly well-suited for sustained engagement of multiple audiences over the decade-long course of EarthScope. One such example of a long-term effort was the Transportable Array student siting program, where over an 8 year period, students from about 55 institutions across the US and Canada conducted site reconnaissance and talked to landowners about EarthScope. Another activity focused on students was the development of a student intern program to support field engineering efforts during the construction of the Plate Boundary Observatory. Other ongoing activities include developing and maintaining relationships with media representatives and annual training of National Parks staff throughout the western U.S. The UNAVCO-IRIS partnership has been particularly valuable for EarthScope-related activities, where UNAVCO and IRIS work closely with the EarthScope National Office (ESNO) to bring EarthScope science to national, regional and local audiences within the EarthScope footprint. Collaborations have ranged across each group's products and services, including: EarthScope-focused teacher workshops, participation in EarthScope interpretive workshops for informal educators (led by ESNO), development of content for the IRIS Active Earth Monitor, preparing PBO-, USArray- and EarthScope-focused materials on topics such as Episodic Tremor and Slip for wider distribution through print, web, and mobile information technologies, and organizing research experiences for undergraduates on EarthScope-related topics. Other collaborations have focused on social media, and the development

  2. The role of computer modelling in participatory integrated assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebenhuener, Bernd; Barth, Volker


    In a number of recent research projects, computer models have been included in participatory procedures to assess global environmental change. The intention was to support knowledge production and to help the involved non-scientists to develop a deeper understanding of the interactions between natural and social systems. This paper analyses the experiences made in three projects with the use of computer models from a participatory and a risk management perspective. Our cross-cutting analysis of the objectives, the employed project designs and moderation schemes and the observed learning processes in participatory processes with model use shows that models play a mixed role in informing participants and stimulating discussions. However, no deeper reflection on values and belief systems could be achieved. In terms of the risk management phases, computer models serve best the purposes of problem definition and option assessment within participatory integrated assessment (PIA) processes

  3. Information Science: Science or Social Science?


    Sreeramana Aithal; Paul P.K.,; Bhuimali A.


    Collection, selection, processing, management, and dissemination of information are the main and ultimate role of Information Science and similar studies such as Information Studies, Information Management, Library Science, and Communication Science and so on. However, Information Science deals with some different characteristics than these subjects. Information Science is most interdisciplinary Science combines with so many knowledge clusters and domains. Information Science is a broad disci...

  4. Meta-Theoretical Contributions to the Constitution of a Model-Based Didactics of Science (United States)

    Ariza, Yefrin; Lorenzano, Pablo; Adúriz-Bravo, Agustín


    There is nowadays consensus in the community of didactics of science (i.e. science education understood as an academic discipline) regarding the need to include the philosophy of science in didactical research, science teacher education, curriculum design, and the practice of science education in all educational levels. Some authors have identified an ever-increasing use of the concept of `theoretical model', stemming from the so-called semantic view of scientific theories. However, it can be recognised that, in didactics of science, there are over-simplified transpositions of the idea of model (and of other meta-theoretical ideas). In this sense, contemporary philosophy of science is often blurred or distorted in the science education literature. In this paper, we address the discussion around some meta-theoretical concepts that are introduced into didactics of science due to their perceived educational value. We argue for the existence of a `semantic family', and we characterise four different versions of semantic views existing within the family. In particular, we seek to contribute to establishing a model-based didactics of science mainly supported in this semantic family.

  5. Role of Social Networks in Developing Religious and Social Values of the Students of the World Islamic Sciences & Education University (United States)

    Al-Mosa, Nosiba Ali


    The study aimed to identify the role of Social Networks in the social and religious values of The World Islamic Sciences & Education University students. The study applied the survey and descriptive Approach. The population of the study represents all BA students who enrolled in the first academic semester for the year 2014-2015. The sample of…

  6. Moving beyond "Those Kids": Addressing Teacher Beliefs Regarding the Role of Culture within Effective Science Pedagogy for Diverse Learners (United States)

    Johnson, Carla C.; Bolshakova, Virginia L. J.


    This study focused on intensive work within a large, urban, low-performing middle school in the southwest to address and transform teacher beliefs regarding the role of culture within their science pedagogy. Given the recent, rapid growth of numbers of students from Hispanic/Latino(a) backgrounds in the United States, it is critical that a…

  7. Models and Materials: Bridging Art and Science in the Secondary Curriculum (United States)

    Pak, D.; Cavazos, L.


    Creating and sustaining student engagement in science is one challenge facing secondary teachers. The visual arts provide an alternative means of communicating scientific concepts to students who may not respond to traditional formats or identify themselves as interested in science. We have initiated a three-year teacher professional development program at U C Santa Barbara focused on bridging art and science in secondary curricula, to engage students underrepresented in science majors, including girls, English language learners and non-traditional learners. The three-year format provides the teams of teachers with the time and resources necessary to create innovative learning experiences for students that will enhance their understanding of both art and science content. Models and Materials brings together ten secondary art and science teachers from six Santa Barbara County schools. Of the five participating science teachers, three teach Earth Science and two teach Life Science. Art and science teachers from each school are teamed and challenged with the task of creating integrated curriculum projects that bring visual art concepts to the science classroom and science concepts to the art classroom. Models and Materials were selected as unifying themes; understanding the concept of models, their development and limitations, is a prominent goal in the California State Science and Art Standards. Similarly, the relationship between composition, structure and properties of materials is important to both art and science learning. The program began with a 2-week institute designed to highlight the natural links between art and science through presentations and activities by both artists and scientists, to inspire teachers to develop new ways to present models in their classrooms, and for the teacher teams to brainstorm ideas for curriculum projects. During the current school year, teachers will begin to integrate science and art and the themes of modeling and materials

  8. A role based coordination model in agent systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ya-ying; YOU Jin-yuan


    Coordination technology addresses the construction of open, flexible systems from active and independent software agents in concurrent and distributed systems. In most open distributed applications, multiple agents need interaction and communication to achieve their overall goal. Coordination technologies for the Internet typically are concerned with enabling interaction among agents and helping them cooperate with each other.At the same time, access control should also be considered to constrain interaction to make it harmless. Access control should be regarded as the security counterpart of coordination. At present, the combination of coordination and access control remains an open problem. Thus, we propose a role based coordination model with policy enforcement in agent application systems. In this model, coordination is combined with access control so as to fully characterize the interactions in agent systems. A set of agents interacting with each other for a common global system task constitutes a coordination group. Role based access control is applied in this model to prevent unauthorized accesses. Coordination policy is enforced in a distributed manner so that the model can be applied to the open distributed systems such as Intemet. An Internet online auction system is presented as a case study to illustrate the proposed coordination model and finally the performance analysis of the model is introduced.

  9. The Evolution of Research and Education Networks and their Essential Role in Modern Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, W.; Chaniotakis, E.; Dart, E.; Guok, C.; Metzger, J.; Tierney, B.


    ESnet - the Energy Sciences Network - has the mission of enabling the aspects of the US Department of Energy's Office of Science programs and facilities that depend on large collaborations and large-scale data sharing to accomplish their science. The Office of Science supports a large fraction of all U.S. physical science research and operates many large science instruments and supercomputers that are used by both DOE and University researchers. The network requirements of this community have been explored in some detail by ESnet and a long-term plan has been developed in order to ensure adequate networking to support the science. In this paper we describe the planning process (which has been in place for several years and was the basis of a new network that is just now being completed and a new set of network services) and examine the effectiveness and adequacy of the planning process in the light of evolving science requirements.

  10. Science Lives: Women and Minorities in the Sciences. (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. KUOM Radio.

    This pamphlet and accompanying brochure of the same title describe a radio series of 13 half hour programs on the participation of women and minorities in science in the United States. The series attempts to make the public aware of the crisis in the sciences and science education and provides role models for young people, particularly young women…

  11. State of the science: does the theory of maternal role attainment apply to African American motherhood? (United States)

    Fouquier, Katherine Ferrell


    This article reviews the current state of knowledge of the theory of maternal role attainment (MRA) and its relevance in describing African American motherhood. EBSCOhost Research Databases that included PubMed, CINAHL plus, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, and Web of Science were searched for journal articles that examined maternal identity and MRA. Keyword searches included maternal identity, maternal role attainment, becoming a mother, prenatal attachment, maternal-fetal attachment, and maternal-infant attachment. Inclusion criteria for this review were published journal articles of studies conducted in the United States, with a clear delineation of the theoretical framework of MRA. Journal articles that measured MRA among women with depression or medically fragile infants were excluded. Two hundred and twelve studies were reviewed; 25 studies, published between 1975 and 2007, met the inclusion criteria. Nine articles described the theory of MRA, 11 articles measured variables thought to influence MRA, and 6 articles described maternal-fetal attachment, a construct of MRA. Studies were reviewed, categorized, and analyzed to determine current knowledge of how the theory of MRA describes African American motherhood. Categories included studies describing the theoretical framework of maternal identity and MRA, studies measuring key variables thought to impact MRA, and studies measuring maternal-fetal attachment and maternal-infant attachment. The studies were limited by homogenous samples of upper-middle-class white women and low-income, single, African American adolescents. Study results of MRA cannot be generalized to African American women. Further research is essential to identify attributes influencing MRA, specifically among larger samples of African American women with demographics similar to that of the white populations that have been included in studies thus far. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  12. The role of handouts, note-taking and overhead transparencies in veterinary science lectures. (United States)

    McLennan, M W; Isaacs, G


    To study student and staff views of the role and use of handouts, note-taking and overhead transparencies in veterinary science lectures at the University of Queensland The Nominal Group Technique was used to help develop a questionnaire, which was completed by 351 students (a response rate of 84%) and 35 staff (76%) from the 5 years of the veterinary course. The data were analysed using the SAS statistical computer package. Staff and students held different views as to the frequency with which handouts should be used, their educational value, and whether they should be complete or partial. Fewer students than staff agreed that handouts discourage further reading in a subject. Almost all staff and students saw the central functions of note-taking to be provision of notes for subsequent revision and encoding information given by the lecturer. More students than staff however, considered that note-taking in lectures interferes with understanding. Staff and students held similar views as to the uses of overheads in lectures. Interestingly however, more staff than students agreed that overheads often contain too much information. Both students and staff saw the central role of note-taking as providing a set of good notes for revision. Generally students preferred that this information be provided in the form of partial or complete handouts, while staff preferred students to take notes and to read outside lectures. Surprisingly, more staff than students felt that overhead transparencies often contained too much information. Note-taking, handouts and overhead transparencies need to be linked in a coherent educational strategy to promote effective learning.

  13. Are Universities Role Models for Communities? A Gender Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Cornelia MACARIE


    Full Text Available The present paper explores the degree in which universities could/should serve as role models for communities from the perspective of gender integration. Although the theoretical/ moral answer would be affirmative (universities should be in such a position that would allow local communities to regard them as role models of gender integration, the primary empirical analysis leads to another conclusion. A brief theoretical review (that connects gender discrimination, sustainable development, universities and local communities is followed by an empirical analysis that compares the management structures of 12 Romanian Universities of Advanced Research and Education (the best Romanian universities according to a national ranking with those of four local communities where they are located (as geographic proximity would lead to a better diffusion of best practices. Contrary to initial expectations, even in higher education institutions, women are underrepresented both in executive and legislative positions. Since universities are subject to the same major patterns of gender discrimination (such as role theory, glass ceiling and glass elevator as private and public organizations, they lose the moral high ground that theory would suggest. However, medicine and pharmacy universities that can be connected with the traditional roles attributed to women provide better gender integration, but glass escalator phenomena remain present even in these limited fields.

  14. CSIR ScienceScope: Art and science of modelling and simulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)



    Full Text Available -2780 I CSRR Ma)ewialx Science and Manufac)uwing Pretoria 012 841-4392 Johannesburg 011 482-1300 Port olizabeth 041 508-3200 Cape Town 021 685-4329 I CSRR Na)uwal Rexouwcex and )he En0iwonmen) Pretoria 012 841-4005 Johannesburg 011 358...) En0iwonmen) Pretoria 012 841-3871 Stellenbosch 021 888-2508 I CSRR Defencec Neacec Safe)y and Secuwi)y Pretoria 012 841-2780 I CSRR Ma)ewialx Science and Manufac)uwing Pretoria 012 841-4392 Johannesburg 011 482-1300 Port olizabeth 041 508...

  15. Pathways in Learning to Teach Elementary Science: Navigating Contexts, Roles, Affordances and Constraints (United States)

    Smith, Deborah C.; Jang, Shinho


    This case study of a fifth-year elementary intern's pathway in learning to teach science focused on her science methods course, placement science teaching, and reflections as a first-year teacher. We studied the sociocultural contexts within which the intern learned, their affordances and constraints, and participants' perspectives on their roles…

  16. Astrobiology Outreach and the Nature of Science: The Role of Creativity (United States)

    Oliver, Carol; Walter, Malcolm R.


    Abstract There is concern in many developed countries that school students are turning away from science. However, students may be choosing not to study science and dismissing the possibility of a scientific career because, in the junior secondary years, they gain a false view of science and the work of scientists. There is a disparity between science as it is portrayed at school and science as it is practiced. This paper describes a study to explore whether engaging in science through astrobiology outreach activities may improve students' understanding of the nature and processes of science, and how this may influence their interest in a career in science. The results suggest that the students attending these Mars research–related outreach activities are more interested in science than the average student but are lacking in understanding of aspects of the nature of science. A significant difference was detected between pre- and posttest understandings of some concepts of the nature of science. Key Words: Science education—School science—Creativity—Nature and processes of science—Attitudes—Astrobiology. Astrobiology 12, 1143–1153. PMID:23134090

  17. The Information Book Genre: Its Role in Integrated Science Literacy Research and Practice (United States)

    Pappas, Christine C.


    There has been a call for approaches that connect science learning with literacy, yet the use of, and research on, children's literature information books in science instruction has been quite limited. Because the discipline of science involves distinctive generic linguistic registers, what information books should be integrated in science…

  18. Professional Development in Climate Science Education as a Model for Navigating the Next Generations Science Standards - A High School Science Teacher's Perspective (United States)

    Manning, C.; Buhr, S. M.


    The Next Generation Science Standards attempt to move the American K12 education system into the 21st century by focusing on science and engineering practice, crosscutting concepts, and the core ideas of the different disciplines. Putting these standards into practice will challenge a deeply entrenched system and science educators will need significant financial support from state and local governments, professional development from colleges and universities, and the creation of collegial academic networks that will help solve the many problems that will arise. While all of this sounds overwhelming, there are proven strategies and mechanisms already in place. Educators who tackle challenging topics like global climate change are turning to scientists and other like-minded teachers. Many of these teachers have never taken a class in atmospheric science but are expected to know the basics of climate and understand the emerging science as well. Teachers need scientists to continue to reach out and provide rigorous and in-depth professional development opportunities that enable them to answer difficult student questions and deal with community misconceptions about climate science. Examples of such programs include Earthworks, ICEE (Inspiring Climate Education Excellence) and ESSEA (Earth System Science Education Alliance). Projects like CLEAN (Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network) provide excellent resources that teachers can integrate into their lessons. All of these benefit from the umbrella of documents like Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science. Support from the aforementioned networks has encouraged the development of effective approaches for teaching climate science. From the perspective of a Geoscience master teacher and instructional coach, this presentation will demonstrate how scientists, researchers, and science education professionals have created models for professional development that create long-term networks supporting

  19. Expanding the basic science debate: the role of physics knowledge in interpreting clinical findings. (United States)

    Goldszmidt, Mark; Minda, John Paul; Devantier, Sarah L; Skye, Aimee L; Woods, Nicole N


    Current research suggests a role for biomedical knowledge in learning and retaining concepts related to medical diagnosis. However, learning may be influenced by other, non-biomedical knowledge. We explored this idea using an experimental design and examined the effects of causal knowledge on the learning, retention, and interpretation of medical information. Participants studied a handout about several respiratory disorders and how to interpret respiratory exam findings. The control group received the information in standard "textbook" format and the experimental group was presented with the same information as well as a causal explanation about how sound travels through lungs in both the normal and disease states. Comprehension and memory of the information was evaluated with a multiple-choice exam. Several questions that were not related to the causal knowledge served as control items. Questions related to the interpretation of physical exam findings served as the critical test items. The experimental group outperformed the control group on the critical test items, and our study shows that a causal explanation can improve a student's memory for interpreting clinical details. We suggest an expansion of which basic sciences are considered fundamental to medical education.

  20. Science Communication and the "via Panisperna boys": the Role of Ettore Majorana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastroianni Angelo


    Full Text Available Enrico Fermi’s work gave birth to a real cultural revolution in the Italian scientific scenario. His scientific studies concerned almost every field in physics and had far-reaching effects of which virtually everybody, above all in Italy, is still taking advantage. Two important “by-products” of Fermi’s ideas and initiatives will be here taken into consideration: the new way of carrying out research and communicating science invented by Fermi and his group and his publications for the general public, which often stood for high examples of scientific popularisation. Then the focus will shift on Ettore Majorana’s role to try to understand why his work in the field of communication within the School of Physics of Rome was basically non-existent despite the excellent communicative skills he demonstrated both during his university lectures – also published in this magazine – and in his article “Il valore delle leggi statistiche nella fisica e nelle scienze sociali” [20], the only one which does not deal with pure physics issues and which will be also taken into account in this paper

  1. JPL's Role in Advancing Earth System Science to Meet the Challenges of Climate and Environmental Change (United States)

    Evans, Diane


    Objective 2.1.1: Improve understanding of and improve the predictive capability for changes in the ozone layer, climate forcing, and air quality associated with changes in atmospheric composition. Objective 2.1.2: Enable improved predictive capability for weather and extreme weather events. Objective 2.1.3: Quantify, understand, and predict changes in Earth s ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles, including the global carbon cycle, land cover, and biodiversity. Objective 2.1.4: Quantify the key reservoirs and fluxes in the global water cycle and assess water cycle change and water quality. Objective 2.1.5: Improve understanding of the roles of the ocean, atmosphere, land and ice in the climate system and improve predictive capability for its future evolution. Objective 2.1.6: Characterize the dynamics of Earth s surface and interior and form the scientific basis for the assessment and mitigation of natural hazards and response to rare and extreme events. Objective 2.1.7: Enable the broad use of Earth system science observations and results in decision-making activities for societal benefits.

  2. Community-based native seed production for restoration in Brazil - the role of science and policy. (United States)

    Schmidt, I B; de Urzedo, D I; Piña-Rodrigues, F C M; Vieira, D L M; de Rezende, G M; Sampaio, A B; Junqueira, R G P


    Large-scale restoration programmes in the tropics require large volumes of high quality, genetically diverse and locally adapted seeds from a large number of species. However, scarcity of native seeds is a critical restriction to achieve restoration targets. In this paper, we analyse three successful community-based networks that supply native seeds and seedlings for Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado restoration projects. In addition, we propose directions to promote local participation, legal, technical and commercialisation issues for up-scaling the market of native seeds for restoration with high quality and social justice. We argue that effective community-based restoration arrangements should follow some principles: (i) seed production must be based on real market demand; (ii) non-governmental and governmental organisations have a key role in supporting local organisation, legal requirements and selling processes; (iii) local ecological knowledge and labour should be valued, enabling local communities to promote large-scale seed production; (iv) applied research can help develop appropriate techniques and solve technical issues. The case studies from Brazil and principles presented here can be useful for the up-scaling restoration ecology efforts in many other parts of the world and especially in tropical countries where improving rural community income is a strategy for biodiversity conservation and restoration. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Expected role of nuclear science and technology to support the sustainable supply of energy in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soentono, Soedyartomo; Aziz, Ferhat


    Energy resources are available in Indonesia but small per capita. The increase of oil price and its reserve depletion rate dictates to decrease the oil consumption. Therefore, it is imperative to increase the shares of other fossils as well as the new and renewable sources of energy in various energy sectors substituting the oil. The introduction of nuclear power plant becomes more indispensable, although the share is to be small but significantly important for electric generation in Java-Madura-Bali grid. Nuclear technology can have also important role enabling the increase of the shares of renewable, e.g. geothermal, hydro and bio-fuels as well as fossil energies to meet more sustainable energy mix sufficing the energy demand to attain intended economic and population growths while maintaining the environment. The first introduced nuclear power plant is to be the proven ones, but the innovative nuclear energy systems being developed by various countries will eventually also be partially employed to further improve the sustainability. The nuclear science and technology are to be symbiotic and synergistic to other sources of energy to enhance the sustainable supply of energy. (author)

  4. Consumer Behavior and Sustainable Development in China: The Role of Behavioral Sciences in Environmental Policymaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dias Simões


    Full Text Available China’s astonishing economic development over the last decades has produced a momentous impact on the country’s environmental equilibrium. Chinese officials are now confronted with the need to tackle environmental problems without disrupting the country’s development. The Chinese government seems keen on striking a balance between these two apparently contradictory goals by promoting the concept of “ecological civilization”, a notion that emphasizes the importance of individual behavior. Over the last few years, environmental policymaking worldwide has been giving a lower profile to the role of the State and placing increasing responsibility for many environmental issues on citizens/consumers. Individuals are increasingly perceived as agents for environmental change and their behaviors are subject to tighter scrutiny. Due to the emergence of a consumer society in China, individual behaviors are increasingly a source of environmental problems and a key component of efficient and long-lasting solutions. Accordingly, Chinese policymakers should recognize the environmental significance of individual behaviors and look beyond traditional policy tools. This article argues that Behavioral Sciences can offer important lessons and help in designing new strategies that can speak directly to the Chinese people as a source of environmental harm, thus reducing their impact on the environment.

  5. Gender equity in STEM: The role of dual enrollment science courses in selecting a college major (United States)

    Persons, Christopher Andrew

    A disproportionately low number of women, despite rigorous high school preparation and evidenced interest in STEM through voluntary participation in additional coursework, declare a STEM-related college major. The result of this drop in participation in STEM-related college majors is a job market flooded with men and the support of an incorrect stereotype: STEM is for men. This research seeks to assess the effects, if any, that Dual Enrollment (DE) science courses have on students' self-identified intent to declare a STEM-related college major as well as the respective perceptions of both male and female students. Self-Determination Theory and Gender Equity Framework were used respectively as the theoretical frames. High school students from six schools in two district participated in an online survey and focus groups in this mixed methods study. The results of the research identified the role the DE course played in their choice of college major, possible interventions to correct the underrepresentation, and societal causes for the stereotype.

  6. Earth Observation for Citizen Science Validation, or Citizen Science for Earth Observation Validation? The Role of Quality Assurance of Volunteered Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier G. Leibovici


    Full Text Available Environmental policy involving citizen science (CS is of growing interest. In support of this open data stream of information, validation or quality assessment of the CS geo-located data to their appropriate usage for evidence-based policy making needs a flexible and easily adaptable data curation process ensuring transparency. Addressing these needs, this paper describes an approach for automatic quality assurance as proposed by the Citizen OBservatory WEB (COBWEB FP7 project. This approach is based upon a workflow composition that combines different quality controls, each belonging to seven categories or “pillars”. Each pillar focuses on a specific dimension in the types of reasoning algorithms for CS data qualification. These pillars attribute values to a range of quality elements belonging to three complementary quality models. Additional data from various sources, such as Earth Observation (EO data, are often included as part of the inputs of quality controls within the pillars. However, qualified CS data can also contribute to the validation of EO data. Therefore, the question of validation can be considered as “two sides of the same coin”. Based on an invasive species CS study, concerning Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed, the paper discusses the flexibility and usefulness of qualifying CS data, either when using an EO data product for the validation within the quality assurance process, or validating an EO data product that describes the risk of occurrence of the plant. Both validation paths are found to be improved by quality assurance of the CS data. Addressing the reliability of CS open data, issues and limitations of the role of quality assurance for validation, due to the quality of secondary data used within the automatic workflow, are described, e.g., error propagation, paving the route to improvements in the approach.

  7. A New Model of Master of Philosophy in Physiological Sciences. (United States)

    Ahmad, H R; Arain, F M; Khan, N A


    The objectives of Master of Philosophy (MPhil) in Physiological Sciences are: 1) to describe the new ways in which anatomy, biochemistry and physiology on one hand, and microbiology, pathology and pharmacology on other hand meet their functional requirements through multidisciplinary integrated concepts; 2) to elucidate relationships between cell biology, molecular biology and molecular genetics by connecting dots of how cell functions are driven by molecules and being controlled by genes. This forms the basis of cell, molecular and genetics [CMG] module upon which 7 multidisciplinary modules of Physiological Sciences follow; 3) these 24 credit hours provide the physiological basis for PhD studies as well as faculty development to enhance learning abilities of medical student; 4) the modules constitute Cardio- Respiratory Physiological Sciences, GI and Renal Physiological Sciences, Neurosciences, Endo-Reproductive Physiological Sciences.; 5) it has integrated microbiology, pathology and pharmacology in a unique way through CMG of microbes leading to associated pathology and mechanisms of prescribed drugs; 6) it has additional synopsis and thesis friendly course work leading to comprehensive examinations; 7) the year two deals with research work of 6 credit hours leading to defense of thesis; 8) The MPhil in Physiological Sciences is fundamentally different from what is being offered elsewhere. It prepares and offers a good spring board to dovetail PhD studies as well as faculty and institutional development. This is the first study that deals with innovative programmes in research, learning and education in the field of physiological sciences. This broad-based MPhil would make its recipients competent, critical, confident and productive learner. This is a completely unique design of a curriculum that has no comparable examples elsewhere. Our mission is to educate graduate students in the field of Physiological Sciences such that they have a complete grasp over the

  8. Investigating the experience: A case study of a science professional development program based on Kolb's experiential learning model (United States)

    Davis, Brian L.

    Professional development for educators has been defined as the process or processes by which teachers achieve higher levels of professional competence and expand their understanding of self, role, context and career (Duke and Stiggins, 1990). Currently, there is limited research literature that examines the effect a professional development course, which uses David Kolb's experiential learning model, has on the professional growth and teaching practice of middle school science teachers. The purpose of this interpretive case study is to investigate how three science teachers who participated in the Rivers to Reef professional development course interpreted the learning experience and integrated the experience into their teaching practice. The questions guiding this research are (1) What is the relationship between a professional development course that uses an experiential learning model and science teaching practice? (2) How do the Rivers to Reef participants reflect on and describe the course as a professional growth experience? The creation of the professional development course and the framework for the study were established using David Kolb's (1975) experiential learning theory and the reflection process model designed by David Boud (1985). The participants in the study are three middle school science teachers from schools representing varied settings and socioeconomic levels in the southeastern United States. Data collected used the three-interview series interview format designed by Dolbere and Schuman (Seidman, 1998). Data was analyzed for the identification of common categories related to impact on science teaching practice and professional growth. The major finding of this study indicates the years of teaching experience of middle school science teachers significantly influences how they approach professional development, what and how they learn from the experience, and the ways in which the experience influences their teaching practices.

  9. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    Give us the tools: science and technology for development. Ottawa, ...... altered technical rela- tionships among the factors used in the process of production, and the en- .... to ourselves only the rights of audit and periodic substantive review." If a ...... and destroying scarce water reserves, recreational areas and a generally.

  10. The role of cultural identity as a learning factor in physics: a discussion through the role of science in Brazil (United States)

    Gurgel, Ivã; Pietrocola, Mauricio; Watanabe, Graciella


    In recent decades, changes in society have deeply affected the internal organization and the main goals of schools. These changes are particularly important in science education because science is one of the major sources of change in peoples' lives. This research provided the opportunity to investigate how these changes affect the way teachers develop their classroom activities. In this work, we focus on science as part of the cultural identity of a society and how this identity affects the process of teaching and learning inside the classroom. Other works have shown that certain social characteristics such as gender, race, religion, etc., can create a cultural barrier to learning science. This results in an obstacle between those particular students and the science that is taught, hindering their learning process. We first aim to present the notion of identity in education and in other related fields such as social psychology and sociology. Our main purpose is to focus on identity in a school setting and how that identity affects the relationship students have with the science content. Next, we present and analyze an intervention in the subject of Modern and Contemporary Physics composed by a sequence of activities in a private school in the region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. This intervention serves to illustrate how scientific topics may be explored while considering aspects of cultural differences as an obstacle. The intervention was completed in two steps: first, in the classroom with a discussion concerning scientific works and nationality of scientists, with one being a Brazilian physicist; second, taking students to visit a particle collider at the University of São Paulo. One of the results of our research was realizing that students do not perceive science as something representative of the Brazilian cultural identity. At the same time, the activity gave the students the opportunity to make the connection between doing physical sciences at an

  11. Simulation modelling: educational development roles for learning technologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Riley


    Full Text Available Simulation modelling was in the mainstream of CAL development in the 1980s when the late David Squires introduced this author to the Dynamic Modelling System. Since those early days, it seems that simulation modelling has drifted into a learning technology backwater to become a member of Laurillard's underutilized, 'adaptive and productive' media. Referring to her Conversational Framework, Laurillard constructs a pedagogic case for modelling as a productive student activity but provides few references to current practice and available resources. This paper seeks to complement her account by highlighting the pioneering initiatives of the Computers in the Curriculum Project and more recent developments in systems modelling within geographic and business education. The latter include improvements to system dynamics modelling programs such as STELLA®, the publication of introductory textbooks, and the emergence of online resources. The paper indicates several ways in which modelling activities may be approached and identifies some educational development roles for learning technologists. The paper concludes by advocating simulation modelling as an exemplary use of learning technologies - one that realizes their creative-transformative potential.

  12. Examining the social and scientific roles of invention in science education (United States)

    Calabrese-Barton, Angela


    I have been drawn to the construct of “invention” and “inventive acts” because in my research involving how homeless children construct science and the self-in-science, an overwhelming theme has been the multiple ways in which self-identity in science has been described by the children through a language of invention. Using post-modern feminism and science and technologies studies, I examine the multiple uses and definitions of “invention” in science in order to develop a theory of invention and inventive acts around the themes: invention as a social act, invention as a recursive and socially linked process, and embodied agency. I use this framework to examine the construct of “invention” in two different case studies involving the science education of urban homeless children. Finally, I link this discussion of invention and inventive acts with current international reform initiatives revolving around constructivist science teaching and learning.

  13. A Black Feminist Book Club as a Multicultural Professional Development Model for Inservice Secondary Science Teachers (United States)

    Hoard, Althea B.

    According to science teacher educators, science teachers often struggle to embrace and implement multicultural teaching practices due to limited awareness of the biases, assumptions, and oppressive structures that hinder the success of Students of Color in science classrooms. At its core, teachers lack this awareness due to incomplete understanding of the ways identity markers, such as race, gender, and socioeconomic status, work together to shape one's coming into, understanding of, and success in the sciences. To this end, this case study features four science teachers of diverse backgrounds who engaged in a book club structured to support their understanding of their intersectionality and their identity development. These four science teachers met as a science department to engage with the text Black Feminist Thought (BFT) (Collins, 2009) and other critical texts over a six-month period at a New York City, charter high school. The findings revealed the ways racial stereotypes, propagated by many factors--including images of scientists, relationships with teachers, and expectations of peers and family--influenced their coming into and understanding of science. Additionally, the findings show the ways teachers discovered their intersectionality--particularly the interplay of their race and gender--influenced their approaches to teaching science. As teachers learned about the multidimensionality of their positional identities, they became aware of discriminatory structures of power that disadvantage their Black female science students and reported implementing more student-centered pedagogical practices. Altogether, this study offers a professional development model for building critical consciousness with inservice secondary science teachers.

  14. Applying Catastrophe Theory to an Information-Processing Model of Problem Solving in Science Education (United States)

    Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Tsaparlis, Georgios


    In this study, we test an information-processing model (IPM) of problem solving in science education, namely the working memory overload model, by applying catastrophe theory. Changes in students' achievement were modeled as discontinuities within a cusp catastrophe model, where working memory capacity was implemented as asymmetry and the degree…

  15. International cryospheric science capacity building and its role in policy and management (United States)

    Wilson, A. M.; Armstrong, R. L.; Armstrong, B. R.; Barrett, A. P.; Brodzik, M. J.; Fetterer, F. M.; Fluri, J. L.; Hill, A. F.; Kayastha, R. B.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Khan, A. L.; Miller, H. A.; Minbaeva, C.; Racoviteanu, A.; Raup, B. H.; Rittger, K.


    The USAID-funded Contribution to High Asia Runoff from Ice and Snow (CHARIS) project has operated since 2012 with dual goals of research and capacity building. The scientific goal is to quantify snowmelt and ice melt and is tackled in tandem with capacity building activities for partner institutions in eight countries across High Asia. We held project workshops covering topics such as snow and glacier melt modeling, remote sensing of snow and ice, hydrochemistry-based hydrograph separation, and data management. CHARIS also facilitated the start of the first glacier mass balance program in Afghanistan, the first water chemistry laboratory in Bhutan, and supported eight students from four countries in earning Masters of Science by Research in Glaciology degrees from Kathmandu University. Capacity building outcomes are tracked through surveys and interviews with project partners. This feedback, both quantitative and qualitative, improves our understanding of how skills fostered by CHARIS are translated into different workplace contexts and in different political settings. Through this feedback, we document how CHARIS collaborations promote analytical skill development and provide the benefit of improved communication among colleagues across borders in a region where resource management requires a trans-boundary approach. Additionally, we are gathering feedback from partners on ways their hydrology and glaciology research is translated to the policy and management realms. Partners anecdotally report a range of policy relationships, especially with respect to management strategies for water intensive developments such as hydropower and mining. Here we present findings from these surveys, which will guide future development-oriented, science-driven resource management projects. Such endeavors must be tailored to large regional differences in expertise, capacities, policy settings, and research infrastructures, and CHARIS demonstrates ways this can be done effectively.

  16. Public understanding of science and the perception of nanotechnology: the roles of interest in science, methodological knowledge, epistemological beliefs, and beliefs about science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retzbach, Andrea; Marschall, Joachim; Rahnke, Marion; Otto, Lukas; Maier, Michaela


    In this article, we report data from an online questionnaire study with 587 respondents, representative for the adult U.S. population in terms of age, gender, and level of education. The aim of this study was to assess how interest in science and knowledge as well as beliefs about science are associated with risk and benefit perceptions of nanotechnology. The findings suggest that the U.S. public is still rather unfamiliar with nanotechnology. Those who have some knowledge mainly have gotten it from TV and the Internet. The content of current media reports is perceived as fairly positive. Knowledge of scientific methods is unrelated to benefit and risk perceptions, at least when other predictors are controlled. In contrast, positive beliefs about science (e.g., its impact on economy or health) and more sophisticated epistemological beliefs about the nature of scientific knowledge are moderately linked to more positive perceptions of nanotechnology. The only exception is the perception of scientific uncertainty: This is associated with less positive evaluations. Finally, higher engagement with science is associated with higher risk perceptions. These findings show that laypersons who are engaged with science and who are aware of the inherent uncertainty of scientific evidence might perceive nanotechnology in a somewhat more differentiated way, contrary to how it is portrayed in the media today.

  17. The Research Library and the E-Science Challenge: New Roles Building on Expanding Responsibilities in Service of the Science Community (United States)

    Neal, J. G.


    Research libraries provide a set of core services to the scholarly and educational communities. This includes: information acquisition, synthesis, navigation, discovery, dissemination, interpretation, presentation, understanding and archiving. Researchers across the science disciplines and increasingly in multi disciplinary projects are producing massive amounts of data, and they seek the infrastructure, the strategies and the partnerships that will enable rigorous and sustained tools for extraction, distribution, collaboration, application and permanent availability. This paper will address the role of the research library from three perspectives. First, the view of scientific datasets as information assets that would benefit from traditional library collection development practice will be explored. Second, the agenda on e-science developed by the Association of Research Libraries will be outlined with a focus on the need for policy and standards development, for resources assessment and allocation, for new approaches to the preparation of the library professional, and library leadership in campus planning and innovative collaborations for research cyberinfrastructure. And third, the responses to the call for proposals from the National Science Foundation's DataNet program will be analyzed and the role of the research library in these project plans will be summarized as an indicator of the expanding responsibility of the library for research data stewardship.

  18. The Calibration Target for the Mars 2020 SHERLOC Instrument: Multiple Science Roles for Future Manned and Unmanned Mars Exploration (United States)

    Fries, M.; Bhartia, R.; Beegle, L.; Burton, A.; Ross, A.; Shahar, A.


    The Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman & Luminescence for Organics & Chemicals (SHERLOC) instrument is a deep ultraviolet (UV) Raman/fluorescence instrument selected as part of the Mars 2020 rover instrument suite. SHERLOC will be mounted on the rover arm and its primary role is to identify carbonaceous species in martian samples, which may be selected for inclusion into a returnable sample cache. The SHERLOC instrument will require the use of a calibration target, and by design, multiple science roles will be addressed in the design of the target. Samples of materials used in NASA Extravehicular Mobility unit (EMU, or "space suit") manufacture have been included in the target to serve as both solid polymer calibration targets for SHERLOC instrument function, as well as for testing the resiliency of those materials under martian ambient conditions. A martian meteorite will also be included in the target to serve as a well-characterized example of a martian rock that contains trace carbonaceous material. This rock will be the first rock that we know of that has completed a round trip between planets and will therefore serve an EPO role to attract public attention to science and planetary exploration. The SHERLOC calibration target will address a wide range of NASA goals to include basic science of interest to both the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD).

  19. From Scientific Innovation to Popularization of Science: a Theoretical Model TOC \\o "1-5" \\h \\z of Science Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana M. Medvedeva


    Full Text Available Science communication is process of promotion of scientific ideas from a scientist through scientific community to muss public. Now this research area attracts a lot of attention from scientists. At the same time science communication suffers from the lack of theoretical framework, which can integrate it. In this article we try to contribute to the further theoretical integration of this area. Here we discuss a model of motion and transformation of ideas from the moment of their generation to the time of their appearance in public movies and literature. The model consists of 5 elements: phase of a scientist (generation of ideas; phase of scientific community (promotion of the ideas among scientists; phase of interested groups (communication with business and government, education of future scientists; phase of popular science (promotion of ideas into mass culture; phase of fiction (subject of communication becomes not scientific knowledge, but myth about science. Each phase is conceived as equal in value stage of existence of scientific ideas. There is a consistent interaction between all phases. The ideas can flow sequentially through all five phases. But independent communication among separate stages is also possible. Furthermore, the ideas can flow in both directions from scientific community to public and visa verse. As a result, scientific communication becomes a real dialogue with equal partners.

  20. A novel model for extending international co-operation in science and education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.J.; Ji-zehn, Q.


    Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE (ISSN 1009-3095, Monthly) 2004 Vol. 5 No. 3 p.358-364 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------A novel model for extending international co-operation in science and educationDE BOER Sirp J.1, QIU Ji-zhen 2(1International

  1. Science Inquiry into Local Animals: Structure and Function Explored through Model Making (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Tallakson, Denise A.; Glascock, Alex L.; Chao, Astoria


    This article describes an arts- and spatial thinking skill--integrated inquiry project applied to life science concepts from the Next Generation Science Standards for fourth grade students that focuses on two unifying or crosscutting themes: (1) structure (or "form") and function and (2) use of models. Students made observations and…

  2. Are We Teaching Them Anything?: A Model for Measuring Methodology Skills in the Political Science Major (United States)

    Siver, Christi; Greenfest, Seth W.; Haeg, G. Claire


    While the literature emphasizes the importance of teaching political science students methods skills, there currently exists little guidance for how to assess student learning over the course of their time in the major. To address this gap, we develop a model set of assessment tools that may be adopted and adapted by political science departments…

  3. Extended Technology Acceptance Model for SPSS Acceptance among Slovenian Students of Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brezavšček Alenka


    Full Text Available Background and Purpose - IBM SPSS Statistics is among the most widely used programs for statistical analysis in social sciences. Due to many practical values it is frequently used as a tool for teaching statistical concepts in many social science university programs. In our opinion, motivation to learn and to use SPSS during the studying process plays a significant role in building a positive attitude towards SPSS which influences its usage at the professional level after finishing study.

  4. Predicting Stereotype Endorsement and Academic Motivation in Women in Science Programs: A Longitudinal Model (United States)

    Delisle, Marie-Noelle; Guay, Frederic; Senecal, Caroline; Larose, Simon


    This study proposed and tested a model based on stereotype threat theory. The hypothesis is that women who are exposed to a low percentage of women in a science program are more likely to endorse the gender stereotype that science is a male domain, which will in turn undermine their autonomous academic motivation. A total of 167 women university…

  5. Research on Educational Standards in German Science Education--Towards a Model of Student Competences (United States)

    Kulgemeyer, Christoph; Schecker, Horst


    This paper gives an overview of research on modelling science competence in German science education. Since the first national German educational standards for physics, chemistry and biology education were released in 2004 research projects dealing with competences have become prominent strands. Most of this research is about the structure of…

  6. Understanding Korean Transnational Girls in High School Science Classes: Beyond the Model Minority Stereotype (United States)

    Ryu, Minjung


    This study examines six Korean transnational girls enrolled in two advanced placement (AP) biology classes to understand their experiences in science classrooms at the intersection of race, language, and gender. Confronting the model minority stereotype for Asian students, which is particularly salient in science, technology, engineering, and…

  7. Teaching Writing in the Social Sciences: A Comparison and Critique of Three Models (United States)

    Hansen, Kristine; Adams, Joyce


    This article describes and evaluates three approaches to teaching writing in the social sciences, particularly psychology: an English department-based course for all social science majors; a team-teaching model that embeds writing in core courses in psychology; and a stand-alone course dedicated to teaching writing in psychology, often taken…

  8. The Effectiveness of CBL Model to Improve Analytical Thinking Skills the Students of Sport Science (United States)

    Sudibyo, Elok; Jatmiko, Budi; Widodo, Wahono


    Sport science undergraduate education, one of which purposes is to produce an analyst in sport. However, generally analytical thinking skills of sport science's students is still relatively very low in the context of sport. This study aimed to describe the effectiveness of Physics Learning Model in Sport Context, Context Based Learning (CBL)…

  9. Using the Mixture Rasch Model to Explore Knowledge Resources Students Invoke in Mathematic and Science Assessments (United States)

    Zhang, Danhui; Orrill, Chandra; Campbell, Todd


    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mixture Rasch models followed by qualitative item-by-item analysis of selected Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) mathematics and science items offered insight into knowledge students invoke in mathematics and science separately and combined. The researchers administered an…

  10. Models for Understanding Student Thinking using Data from Complex Computerized Science Tasks


    LaMar, Michelle


    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States, 2013) define performance targets which will require assessment tasks that can integrate discipline knowledge and cross-cutting ideas with the practices of science. Complex computerized tasks will likely play a large role in assessing these standards, but many questions remain about how best to make use of such tasks within a psychometric framework (National Research Council, 2014). This dissertation explores the use of a more extensive...

  11. Towards a pedagogical model for science education: bridging educational contexts through a blended learning approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bidarra, José; Rusman, Ellen


    This paper proposes a design framework to support science education through blended learning, based on a participatory and interactive approach supported by ICT-based tools, called Science Learning Activities Model (SLAM). The development of this design framework started as a response to complex


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy G. Harrison


    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a study made on the impact of improved deployment of science technicians in the classroom could directly benefit students in practical science investigations. Science technicians are skilled individuals whose understanding of practical work is a valuable resource not being used of in support of students understanding of science. Aspects of practical work and technician support were scrutinised, through information attained from a post-16 student survey to improve understanding about this teaching tool, to establish if it was being used to its full potential within science lessons. Analysis was also made of students’ perceptions of school science. The main outcomes were that the majority of students enjoyed science practical work and felt that science could not be taught without it. Students studying science at pre-university level attained a greater understanding, through participating in relevant practical work, than students who had studied it at earlier, compulsory levels. Students reported that science technicians provide impact on student learning when contact time was the greatest.

  13. Validity of "Hi_Science" as instructional media based-android refer to experiential learning model (United States)

    Qamariah, Jumadi, Senam, Wilujeng, Insih


    Hi_Science is instructional media based-android in learning science on material environmental pollution and global warming. This study is aimed: (a) to show the display of Hi_Science that will be applied in Junior High School, and (b) to describe the validity of Hi_Science. Hi_Science as instructional media created with colaboration of innovative learning model and development of technology at the current time. Learning media selected is based-android and collaborated with experiential learning model as an innovative learning model. Hi_Science had adapted student worksheet by Taufiq (2015). Student worksheet had very good category by two expert lecturers and two science teachers (Taufik, 2015). This student worksheet is refined and redeveloped in android as an instructional media which can be used by students for learning science not only in the classroom, but also at home. Therefore, student worksheet which has become instructional media based-android must be validated again. Hi_Science has been validated by two experts. The validation is based on assessment of meterials aspects and media aspects. The data collection was done by media assessment instrument. The result showed the assessment of material aspects has obtained the average value 4,72 with percentage of agreement 96,47%, that means Hi_Science on the material aspects is in excellent category or very valid category. The assessment of media aspects has obtained the average value 4,53 with percentage of agreement 98,70%, that means Hi_Science on the media aspects is in excellent category or very valid category. It was concluded that Hi_Science as instructional media can be applied in the junior high school.

  14. Climate Change Modeling Methodology Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server


    The Earth's average temperature has risen by 1.4°F over the past century, and computer models project that it will rise much more over the next hundred years, with significant impacts on weather, climate, and human society. Many climate scientists attribute these increases to the buildup of greenhouse gases produced by the burning of fossil fuels and to the anthropogenic production of short-lived climate pollutants. Climate Change Modeling Methodologies: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology provides readers with an introduction to the tools and analysis techniques used by climate change scientists to interpret the role of these forcing agents on climate.  Readers will also gain a deeper understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of these models and how to test and assess them.  The contributions include a glossary of key terms and a concise definition of the subject for each topic, as well as recommendations for sources of more detailed information. Features au...

  15. The Knowledge Production Model of the New Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauto, Giancarlo; Valentin, Finn


    The tremendous achievements of life sciences research in the last 40 years have brought relatively little improvements to medical practice, suggesting a deficiency of the medical innovation system in capitalizing on these fundamental advances. We argue that a major cause of the poor innovative...

  16. A model for education and promoting food science and technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 2, 2010 ... economics, hospitality management and nutrition/dietetics. FST operates at the .... strategy involved inviting food industry professionals to deliver talks and .... shared outcomes in this case is to see FST education and training alive ... in the concepts of food science and an awareness of food system will help ...

  17. Multimodal Science Teachers' Discourse in Modeling the Water Cycle (United States)

    Marquez, Conxita; Izquierdo, Merce; Espinet, Mariona


    The paper presents an intensive study of a micro-event aiming at the characterization of teacher's discourse from a multimodal communication perspective in a secondary school science classroom dealing with the topic of "water cycle." The research addresses the following questions: (a) What communicative modes are used by the teacher?, (b) what…

  18. Wanted: role models - medical students’ perceptions of professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byszewski Anna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transformation of medical students to become medical professionals is a core competency required for physicians in the 21st century. Role modeling was traditionally the key method of transmitting this skill. Medical schools are developing medical curricula which are explicit in ensuring students develop the professional competency and understand the values and attributes of this role. The purpose of this study was to determine student perception of professionalism at the University of Ottawa and gain insights for improvement in promotion of professionalism in undergraduate medical education. Methods Survey on student perception of professionalism in general, the curriculum and learning environment at the University of Ottawa, and the perception of student behaviors, was developed by faculty and students and sent electronically to all University of Ottawa medical students. The survey included both quantitative items including an adapted Pritzker list and qualitative responses to eight open ended questions on professionalism at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa. All analyses were performed using SAS version 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA. Chi-square and Fischer’s exact test (for cell count less than 5 were used to derive p-values for categorical variables by level of student learning. Results The response rate was 45.6% (255 of 559 students for all four years of the curriculum. 63% of the responses were from students in years 1 and 2 (preclerkship. Students identified role modeling as the single most important aspect of professionalism. The strongest curricular recommendations included faculty-led case scenario sessions, enhancing interprofessional interactions and the creation of special awards to staff and students to “celebrate” professionalism. Current evaluation systems were considered least effective. The importance of role modeling and information on how to report lapses and breaches was

  19. A Collaborative Diagonal Learning Network: The role of formal and informal professional development in elementary science reform (United States)

    Cooke-Nieves, Natasha Anika

    Science education research has consistently shown that elementary teachers have a low self-efficacy and background knowledge to teach science. When they teach science, there is a lack of field experiences and inquiry-based instruction at the elementary level due to limited resources, both material and pedagogical. This study focused on an analysis of a professional development (PD) model designed by the author known as the Collaborative Diagonal Learning Network (CDLN). The purpose of this study was to examine elementary school teacher participants pedagogical content knowledge related to their experiences in a CDLN model. The CDLN model taught formal and informal instruction using a science coach and an informal educational institution. Another purpose for this research included a theoretical analysis of the CDLN model to see if its design enabled teachers to expand their resource knowledge of available science education materials. The four-month-long study used qualitative data obtained during an in-service professional development program facilitated by a science coach and educators from a large natural history museum. Using case study as the research design, four elementary school teachers were asked to evaluate the effectiveness of their science coach and museum educator workshop sessions. During the duration of this study, semi-structured individual/group interviews and open-ended pre/post PD questionnaires were used. Other data sources included researcher field notes from lesson observations, museum field trips, audio-recorded workshop sessions, email correspondence, and teacher-created artifacts. The data were analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach. Themes that emerged included increased self-efficacy; increased pedagogical content knowledge; increased knowledge of museum education resources and access; creation of a professional learning community; and increased knowledge of science notebooking. Implications for formal and informal

  20. Can the History of Science Contribute to Modelling in Physics Teaching? The Case of Galilean Studies and Mario Bunge's Epistemology (United States)

    Machado, Juliana; Braga, Marco Antônio Barbosa


    A characterization of the modelling process in science is proposed for science education, based on Mario Bunge's ideas about the construction of models in science. Galileo's "Dialogues" are analysed as a potentially fruitful starting point to implement strategies aimed at modelling in the classroom in the light of that proposal. It is…

  1. Role of the epistemic subject in Piaget's genetic epistemology and its importance for science education (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    According to Piaget, a fundamental epistemological distinction must be made between the psychological and the epistemic subject. The epistemic subject is studied by the genetic epistemologist who charts development through a common universal rationality, which develops, whereas the psychological subject is studied by the developmental/cognitive psychologist by focusing on accidental contingencies surrounding particular people and their individual differences. The epistemic subject as compared to the psychological subject is an idealized abstraction, viz., that set of underlying epistemic structures common to everyone at the same level of development. The objective of this study is to investigate the degree to which investigators in science education conceptualize the difference between the epistemic and the psychological subjects. It is argued that just as the ideal gas law (based on the theoretical formulation of Maxwell and Boltzmann) provides a general model to which the real gases approximate under different experimental conditions, so we can consider (by abduction) the epistemic subject to be an ideal knower to which the real (psychological) subjects approximate to varying degrees. The difference between the epistemic and the psychological subjects, however, cannot be used as an epistemological shield in defense of Piagetian theory. Any test of the Piagetian theory must involve psychological or real subjects. Empirical testability, however, need not be equated to being scientific. An analogy is drawn between Galileo's idealization, which led to the discovery of the law of free-fall, and Piaget's epistemic subject. Research conducted in science education shows that at least for some critics the wide variations in the age at which individuals acquire the different Piagetian stages is crucial for rejecting the theory. It is argued that the real issue is not the proportion of heterogeneity but the understanding that Piaget, by neglecting individual differences

  2. Defining the Roles, Responsibilities, and Functions for Data Science Within the Defense Intelligence Agency (United States)


    different variables. Specifically, this component consisted of a mixture of organizational, psychological , and cognitive sciences and has not been...organizational science, etc.) and a branch of terms strongly associated with cognitive science, psychology , linguistics, and artificial intelligence. We post, n.d.; Jeffrey Goldstein , “Resource Guide and Glossary for Nonlinear/Complex Systems Terms,”, n.d

  3. Building Science Identity in Disadvantaged Teenage Girls using an Apprenticeship Model (United States)

    Pettit, E. C.; Conner, L.; Tzou, C.


    Expeditionary science differs from laboratory science in that expeditionary science teams conduct investigations in conditions that are often physically and socially, as well as intellectually, challenging. Team members live in close quarters for extended periods of time, team building and leadership affect the scientific process, and research tools are limited to what is available on site. Girls on Ice is an expeditionary science experience primarily for disadvantaged girls; it fully immerses girls in a mini scientific expedition to study alpine, glacierized environments. In addition to mentoring the girls through conducting their own scientific research, we encourage awareness and discussion of different sociocultural perspectives on the relation between the natural world, science, and society. The experience aligns closely with the apprenticeship model of learning, which can be effective in enhancing identification with science. Using a mixed-methods approach, we show that the Girls on Ice model helps girls (1) increase their interest and engagement in science and build a stronger science identity, (2) develop confidence, importantly they develop a combined physical and intellectual confidence; (3) engage in authentic scientific thinking, including critical thinking and problem solving; and (4) enhance leadership self-confidence. We discuss these results in a learning sciences framework, which posits that learning is inseparable from the social and physical contexts in which it takes place.

  4. The Role and Value of Dialogue Events as Sites of Informal Science Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehr, Jane L.; McCallie, Ellen; Davies, Sarah Rachael


    and staging of adult-focused, face-to-face forums that bring scien- tific and technical experts, social scientists, and policy-makers into discussion with members of the public about contemporary scientific and socioscientific issues related to the development and application of science and technology......In the past five years, informal science institutions (ISIs), science communication, advocacy and citizen action groups, funding organizations, and policy-makers in the UK and the USA have become increasingly involved in efforts to promote increased public engagement with science and technology...

  5. The Economy of Shark Conservation in the Northeast Pacific: The Role of Ecotourism and Citizen Science. (United States)

    Mieras, Peter A; Harvey-Clark, Chris; Bear, Michael; Hodgin, Gina; Hodgin, Boone

    Historically sharks have been seen either as a source of income through harvesting, or as a nuisance and danger. The economic value of sharks has traditionally been measured as the total value of sharks caught for liver oil, fins, or meat for consumption. Sharks have also been killed to near extinction in cases where they were seen as a threat to fisheries on other species. This is illustrated by the mass extermination of Basking Sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) in British Columbia. They were seen as a nuisance to fishermen as they got entangled in gill nets during the salmon fishing season. However with the development of the SCUBA diving industry, and ecotourism in general, increased awareness of the role sharks play in marine ecosystems has resulted in changes in how they are perceived and utilized. Despite an ongoing harvest of sharks such as the North Pacific Spiny Dogfish (Squalus suckleyi), sharks now generate economic value through SCUBA diving enthusiasts who travel the globe to see, swim with, and photograph them. The use of digital cameras and other digital media has brought sharks into households around the world and increased awareness of the conservation issues facing many species. This renewed appreciation has led to a better understanding of sharks by the public, resulting in advocates calling for better protections and conservation. In particular, a growing part of the SCUBA diving community wants to contribute to conservation and research projects, which has led to participation in citizen science projects. These projects provide scientific data but also gain ground as ecotourism activities, thus adding to both economic value of tourism and conservation efforts. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  6. Teacher’s role model ingender education of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Dode


    Full Text Available Gender education as an important part of education, affects by the role and attitudes of teachers. Including gender perspective in schools is a prerequisite in alienable of human development, instead insuring gender equality it is considered as respecting human rights. Elimination of the gender stereotypes has a two-fold significance since itemsurest gender equality not only in the school system but even in the society as a whole. Gender stereotype messages, regardless by hidden or displayed form, unilaterally influence the development of the personality in its appearance as well as the formation of the individual. Children learn about gender identity simply by observing what happens in different circumstances around. In education exist gender disparities, which can be assessed by means of measurable indicators. So, the content of the curricula and instructive texts, the interactive relationships teacher-students, the institutional ambiance, etc. play an important role into the preservation and transmission of the gender disparity stereotypes through the messages they convey. The purpose of thestudy is to perform a systematic research in order to show the scale and shape in which gender stereotypes are portrayed and shown in social life, even through the role model of teacher and their affecting the education for a democratic society. To achieve this goal, we use the method of studying the existing literature; a detailed analysis of the questionnaires and interviews content with school directors and teachers of pre-university education in city: Shkodër, Tiranë, Elbasan, Pogradec, Korçë. Parents and teachers attitudes, seems to be a role model and affect the education of students. Therefore it is necessary before to teach students about gender equality, teachers need to be careful in their behavior about gender equality as an integral part of thinking. Need to have successful teacher, to get successful students otherwise should be successful

  7. Using focus groups to design systems science models that promote oral health equity. (United States)

    Kum, Susan S; Northridge, Mary E; Metcalf, Sara S


    While the US population overall has experienced improvements in oral health over the past 60 years, oral diseases remain among the most common chronic conditions across the life course. Further, lack of access to oral health care contributes to profound and enduring oral health inequities worldwide. Vulnerable and underserved populations who commonly lack access to oral health care include racial/ethnic minority older adults living in urban environments. The aim of this study was to use a systematic approach to explicate cause and effect relationships in creating a causal map, a type of concept map in which the links between nodes represent causality or influence. To improve our mental models of the real world and devise strategies to promote oral health equity, methods including system dynamics, agent-based modeling, geographic information science, and social network simulation have been leveraged by the research team. The practice of systems science modeling is situated amidst an ongoing modeling process of observing the real world, formulating mental models of how it works, setting decision rules to guide behavior, and from these heuristics, making decisions that in turn affect the state of the real world. Qualitative data were obtained from focus groups conducted with community-dwelling older adults who self-identify as African American, Dominican, or Puerto Rican to elicit their lived experiences in accessing oral health care in their northern Manhattan neighborhoods. The findings of this study support the multi-dimensional and multi-level perspective of access to oral health care and affirm a theorized discrepancy in fit between available dental providers and patients. The lack of information about oral health at the community level may be compromising the use and quality of oral health care among racial/ethnic minority older adults. Well-informed community members may fill critical roles in oral health promotion, as they are viewed as highly credible

  8. Entrepreneurial Women in Radiology: Role Models of Success. (United States)

    Anzai, Yoshimi; Meltzer, Carolyn C; DeStigter, Kristen K; Destounis, Stamatia; Pawley, Barbara K; Oates, M Elizabeth


    Radiology is undeniably male dominated. Alongside surgery and orthopedic surgery, academic radiology ranks near the bottom in having the lowest proportion of full-time female faculty members. Despite many efforts to recruit talented women, the pipeline entering the radiologic disciplines continues to flow at a trickle. One factor is the relative lack of role models for female medical students. Entrepreneurial women in radiology can lead the field with their innovation and creativity, courage, and commitment. In this article, the authors highlight two entrepreneurial female radiologists who shared their success stories at the American Association for Women Radiologists' session at the 2015 ACR annual meeting. Their successes underscore the potential for such women to serve as role models to female medical students and even college undergraduates. Despite the gender gap in radiology, the field has yielded some exceptional women who can take on challenges, overcome barriers and assume risks, create strategies and processes to operationalize their visions, secure funding, and expand their enterprises to make sustainable impacts both at home and abroad. As we move toward more patient- and family-centered care models and become increasingly visible to diverse populations, there is no better time for female leaders in radiology to inspire the next generation to join our essential and rewarding specialty. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Shaping and Shifting Worldviews: An Analysis of What Astro 101 Students Learned About the Role of Science in Society (United States)

    Becker, Samantha Lauren; Hirst, Dalton; Barron-Santella, Angelica; Prather, Edward E.; Mendelsohn, Benjamin; Wallace, Colin Scott


    A group of graduate and undergraduate students and researchers with the Center for Astronomy Education (CAE) have been analyzing general education introductory astronomy (Astro 101) students’ written responses to questions that probe their ideas about the role and relevance of science in our society and in their lives. At the end of the semester, students were asked several questions to elicit their ideas about the positive and potential negative impacts that science has on our society's prosperity and their quality of life. Students were asked to provide examples and justifications for the most important discoveries in science, advancements in health and medicine and innovations in technology over the past century. Students were also asked to comment on which facet of the course (lecture, homework, in-class writings, Think-Pair-Share questions and/or Lecture-Tutorials) contributed to changing their understanding of their world and society.

  10. Managing ocean information in the digital era--events in Canada open questions about the role of marine science libraries. (United States)

    Wells, Peter G


    Information is the foundation of evidence-based policies for effective marine environmental protection and conservation. In Canada, the cutback of marine science libraries introduces key questions about the role of such institutions and the management of ocean information in the digital age. How vital are such libraries in the mission of studying and protecting the oceans? What is the fate and value of the massive grey literature holdings, including archival materials, much of which is not in digital form but which often contains vital data? How important is this literature generally in the marine environmental sciences? Are we likely to forget the history of the marine pollution field if our digital focus eclipses the need for and access to comprehensive collections and skilled information specialists? This paper explores these and other questions against the backdrop of unprecedented changes in the federal libraries, marine environmental science and legislation in Canada. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Aspects of Mathematical Modelling Applications in Science, Medicine, Economics and Management

    CERN Document Server

    Hosking, Roger J


    The construction of mathematical models is an essential scientific activity. Mathematics has long been associated with developments in the exact sciences and engineering, but more recently mathematical modelling has been used to investigate complex systems that arise in many other fields. The contributors to this book demonstrate the application of mathematics to modern research topics in ecology and environmental science, health and medicine, phylogenetics and neural networks, theoretical chemistry, economics and management.

  12. Communication Skills Training in Pediatric Oncology: Moving Beyond Role Modeling (United States)

    Feraco, Angela M.; Brand, Sarah R.; Mack, Jennifer W.; Kesselheim, Jennifer C.; Block, Susan D.; Wolfe, Joanne


    Communication is central to pediatric oncology care. Pediatric oncologists disclose life-threatening diagnoses, explain complicated treatment options, and endeavor to give honest prognoses, to maintain hope, to describe treatment complications, and to support families in difficult circumstances ranging from loss of function and fertility to treatment-related or disease-related death. However, parents, patients, and providers report substantial communication deficits. Poor communication outcomes may stem, in part, from insufficient communication skills training, overreliance on role modeling, and failure to utilize best practices. This review summarizes evidence for existing methods to enhance communication skills and calls for revitalizing communication skills training within pediatric oncology. PMID:26822066

  13. Communication Skills Training in Pediatric Oncology: Moving Beyond Role Modeling. (United States)

    Feraco, Angela M; Brand, Sarah R; Mack, Jennifer W; Kesselheim, Jennifer C; Block, Susan D; Wolfe, Joanne


    Communication is central to pediatric oncology care. Pediatric oncologists disclose life-threatening diagnoses, explain complicated treatment options, and endeavor to give honest prognoses, to maintain hope, to describe treatment complications, and to support families in difficult circumstances ranging from loss of function and fertility to treatment-related or disease-related death. However, parents, patients, and providers report substantial communication deficits. Poor communication outcomes may stem, in part, from insufficient communication skills training, overreliance on role modeling, and failure to utilize best practices. This review summarizes evidence for existing methods to enhance communication skills and calls for revitalizing communication skills training within pediatric oncology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Female role models in physics education in Ireland (United States)

    Chormaic, Síle Nic; Fee, Sandra; Tobin, Laura; Hennessy, Tara


    In this paper we consider the statistics on undergraduate student representation in Irish universities and look at student numbers in secondary (high) schools in one region in Ireland. There seems to be no significant change in female participation in physics from 2002 to 2011. Additionally, we have studied the influence of an educator's gender on the prevalence of girls studying physics in secondary schools in Co. Louth, Ireland, and at the postgraduate level in Irish universities. It would appear that strong female role models have a positive influence and lead to an increase in girls' participation in physics.

  15. Science teachers' knowledge about teaching models and modelling in the context of a new syllabus on Public Understanding of Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henze, I.; van Driel, J.H.; Verloop, N.


    As teachers' knowledge determines to a large extent how they respond to educational innovation, it is necessary for innovators to take this knowledge into account when implementing educational changes. This study aimed at identifying patterns in the content and the structure of science teachers'

  16. A study of Korean students' creativity in science using structural equation modeling (United States)

    Jo, Son Mi

    creativity. The strength of relationships between scientific proficiency and scientific creativity (estimate parameter=0.43) and creative competence and scientific creativity (estimate parameter=0.17) are similar [chi2.05(1)=0.670, P>.05]. In specific analysis of structural model, I found that creative competence and scientific proficiency play a role of partial mediators among three components (general creativity, scientific proficiency, and scientific creativity). The moderate effects of intrinsic motivation and context component were investigated, but the moderation effects were not found.

  17. Promoting Students' Interest and Motivation towards Science Learning: The Role of Personal Needs and Motivation Orientations (United States)

    Loukomies, Anni; Pnevmatikos, Dimitris; Lavonen, Jari; Spyrtou, Anna; Byman, Reijo; Kariotoglou, Petros; Juuti, Kalle


    This study aimed to design a teaching sequence for science education that enabled lower secondary school students to enhance their motivation towards science. Further, it looked to examine the way the designed teaching sequence affected students with different motivational profiles. Industry site visits, with embodied theory-based motivational…

  18. The Academic Role of the Vice President for Health Sciences: Can a Walrus Become a Unicorn? (United States)

    Pellegrino, Edmund D.


    The Vice President for Health Sciences is a term used for the chief administrative officer of a multi-unit health science component of a university. This essay reviews this job, and the transformation it has undergone in the past. (Editor/PG)

  19. Going to School with Madame Curie and Mr. Einstein: Gender Roles in Children's Science Biographies (United States)

    Owens, Trevor


    One of the first places children encounter science and scientists is children's literature. Children's books about science and scientists have, however, received limited scholarly attention. By exploring the history of children's biographies of Marie Curie and Albert Einstein, the two most written about scientist in children's literature, this…

  20. STEM Enrichment Programs and Graduate School Matriculation: The Role of Science Identity Salience (United States)

    Merolla, David M.; Serpe, Richard T.


    Improving the state of science education in the United States has become a national priority. One response to this problem has been the implementation of STEM enrichment programs designed to increase the number of students that enter graduate programs in science. Current research indicates enrichment programs have positive effects for student…