WorldWideScience

Sample records for science researchers implications

  1. Argumentation research and its implications in science preservice teachers’ training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archila, Pablo Antonio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a literature review of argumentation research in sciences, it is motivated by the idea that recent advances in argumentation studies indicate that the topic of argumentation should be included in the curriculum and in science teachers’ preservice training. Firstly, some theoretical and practical benefits and developments of argumentation in sciences are exposed, localizing the field with Didactic of Science. Secondly, the intentions of researches which have explored ways for including argumentation in science preservice teachers training are described. Thirdly, the literature is analyzed in order to elucidate the implications of this localization. Finally, recommendations for the inclusion of argumentation in science preservice teachers’ training are proposed.

  2. Unpacking action research and implementation science: Implications for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Mary; O' Leary, Denise; Coghlan, David

    2017-11-03

    The aim of this study was to unpack the key concepts of action research and implementation science thereby enabling appropriate use of these methods in nursing. A key issue in action research is not so much the methodology employed to gather data/evidence but who decides the research agenda and who benefits from it. Implementation science is a way to ensure that evidence is translated into practice. The question arises as to how action research and implementation may be understood in relation to one another in nursing. Discussion Paper DATA SOURCES: This discussion paper is based on our own experiences and offers an exploration of action research and implementation science with the aim of clarifying what each involves and what synergies, if any, exist between them. Using action research to secure the voice of patients in their own care is essential to delivering quality nursing care. Using implementation science frameworks to get research evidence into practice is effective. Familiarity with both these concepts may enable their improved use and have a positive impact on quality of care. There is a tension between action researchers and the protagonists of implementation science related to perceived "trade offs" between what constitutes "science" and the necessity of community participation. Nevertheless, the use of an implementation science framework in an action research approach can reduce the research practice time lag and action research provides sound theoretical and philosophical underpinnings that can be used by those in the implementation science field. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Implications of Socio-Cultural Research Findings for Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many countries in the world, including the less developed ones, acknowledge that socio-economic development will rely for a good part on the rapidity of progress in and adoption of science and technology. As such, school systems have been asked to provide challenging and stimulating science programmes that lead to ...

  4. Structural stigma: Research evidence and implications for psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L

    2016-11-01

    Psychological research has provided essential insights into how stigma operates to disadvantage those who are targeted by it. At the same time, stigma research has been criticized for being too focused on the perceptions of stigmatized individuals and on microlevel interactions, rather than attending to structural forms of stigma. This article describes the relatively new field of research on structural stigma, which is defined as societal-level conditions, cultural norms, and institutional policies that constrain the opportunities, resources, and well-being of the stigmatized. I review emerging evidence that structural stigma related to mental illness and sexual orientation (a) exerts direct and synergistic effects on stigma processes that have long been the focus of psychological inquiry (e.g., concealment, rejection sensitivity), (b) serves as a contextual moderator of the efficacy of psychological interventions, and (c) contributes to numerous adverse health outcomes for members of stigmatized groups-ranging from dysregulated physiological stress responses to premature mortality-indicating that structural stigma represents an underrecognized mechanism producing health inequalities. Each of these pieces of evidence suggests that structural stigma is relevant to psychology and therefore deserves the attention of psychological scientists interested in understanding and ultimately reducing the negative effects of stigma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Training Math and Science Teacher-Researchers in a Collaborative Research Environment: Implications for Math and Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyei-Blankson, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    In this mixed-methods study, the effect of training teacher-researchers in a collaborative research environment is examined for a cohort of teachers enrolled in a Math and Science Partnership (MSP) master's degree program. The teachers describe changes in their research views and in their application of research in practice, and detail the…

  6. Implications for Application of Qualitative Methods to Library and Information Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Robert; Glazier, Jack

    1985-01-01

    Presents conceptual framework for library and information science research and analyzes research methodology that has application for information science, using as example results of study conducted by authors. Rationale for use of qualitative research methods in theory building is discussed and qualitative and quantitative research methods are…

  7. New Metaphors about Culture: Implications for Research in Science Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Gale

    2013-01-01

    Culture has been commonly used in science education research, in particular to examine issues of equity for students from low-income, racial, and ethnic minority communities. It has provided a lens with which to appreciate science classrooms as cultural places and to recognize the importance of students' cultural ways of being as resources for…

  8. Shifting Sands: Science Researchers on Google Scholar, Web of Science, and PubMed, with Implications for Library Collections Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Christy; Caldwell, Christy

    2010-01-01

    Science researchers at the University of California Santa Cruz were surveyed about their article database use and preferences in order to inform collection budget choices. Web of Science was the single most used database, selected by 41.6%. Statistically there was no difference between PubMed (21.5%) and Google Scholar (18.7%) as the second most…

  9. Intentional research design in implementation science: implications for the use of nomothetic and idiographic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Aaron R; Connors, Elizabeth; Jensen-Doss, Amanda; Landes, Sara J; Lewis, Cara C; McLeod, Bryce D; Rutt, Christopher; Stanick, Cameo; Weiner, Bryan J

    2017-09-01

    The advancement of implementation science is dependent on identifying assessment strategies that can address implementation and clinical outcome variables in ways that are valid, relevant to stakeholders, and scalable. This paper presents a measurement agenda for implementation science that integrates the previously disparate assessment traditions of idiographic and nomothetic approaches. Although idiographic and nomothetic approaches are both used in implementation science, a review of the literature on this topic suggests that their selection can be indiscriminate, driven by convenience, and not explicitly tied to research study design. As a result, they are not typically combined deliberately or effectively. Thoughtful integration may simultaneously enhance both the rigor and relevance of assessments across multiple levels within health service systems. Background on nomothetic and idiographic assessment is provided as well as their potential to support research in implementation science. Drawing from an existing framework, seven structures (of various sequencing and weighting options) and five functions (Convergence, Complementarity, Expansion, Development, Sampling) for integrating conceptually distinct research methods are articulated as they apply to the deliberate, design-driven integration of nomothetic and idiographic assessment approaches. Specific examples and practical guidance are provided to inform research consistent with this framework. Selection and integration of idiographic and nomothetic assessments for implementation science research designs can be improved. The current paper argues for the deliberate application of a clear framework to improve the rigor and relevance of contemporary assessment strategies.

  10. Information-seeking behavior of basic science researchers: implications for library services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Laura L; Light, Jeanene; O'Malley, Donna; Delwiche, Frances A

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the information-seeking behaviors of basic science researchers to inform the development of customized library services. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted on a sample of basic science researchers employed at a university medical school. The basic science researchers used a variety of information resources ranging from popular Internet search engines to highly technical databases. They generally relied on basic keyword searching, using the simplest interface of a database or search engine. They were highly collegial, interacting primarily with coworkers in their laboratories and colleagues employed at other institutions. They made little use of traditional library services and instead performed many traditional library functions internally. Although the basic science researchers expressed a positive attitude toward the library, they did not view its resources or services as integral to their work. To maximize their use by researchers, library resources must be accessible via departmental websites. Use of library services may be increased by cultivating relationships with key departmental administrative personnel. Despite their self-sufficiency, subjects expressed a desire for centralized information about ongoing research on campus and shared resources, suggesting a role for the library in creating and managing an institutional repository.

  11. Emergent Themes from Recent Research Syntheses in Science Education and Their Implications for Research Design, Replication, and Reporting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Joseph; Furtak, Erin; Kowalski, Susan; Martinez, Alina; Slavin, Robert; Stuhlsatz, Molly; Wilson, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This article draws upon the experiences of four recent efforts to synthesize the findings of quantitative studies in science education research. After establishing the need for research syntheses in advancing generalizable knowledge and causal effects research in our field, we identify a set themes that emerged in the process of conducting these…

  12. A review of writing to learn in science: Implications for practice and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Léonard P.

    The published literature on writing to learn in science was reviewed in order to develop a conceptual framework for readers of this special issue and an agenda for future research. Professional journals, books, ERIC documents, and doctoral dissertations were consulted in this review process. Research on writing to learn has been hindered because studies have not always been well designed or clearly reported, and few have been conducted in authentic classroom environments. Furthermore, the links between writing to learn and conceptual change, and writing to learn and critical thinking have not received sufficient attention. Carefully designed studies, both qualitative and quantitative, are still required to provide data from a variety of perspectives. Because the reported studies at the college level outnumber those at other levels, research is still required to generalize the findings across a variety of science classrooms and to elucidate principles for guiding effective teacher use of writing-to-learn strategies.

  13. Social science stereotypes of the Mexican American woman: policy implications for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, S J

    1982-01-01

    Reviewing the social science literature on the Chicana or Mexican American woman reveals a tenaciously perpetuated stereotype in which she appears almost exclusively as a submissive maternal figure. This may be related to an on-going trend to support studies of interpersonal or cultural characteristics of Chicanas and a resistance to undertake evaluations of systemic discrimination against Mexican American women. Almost all such studies investigated lower class samples, thus confounding ethnicity with socioeconomic status. The size and selection of many of the samples are questionable for purposes of generalizing to the entire population. Because many concepts are not defined in behavioral terms, they are seldom assessed empirically. The main concern is to what extent social scientists and the media are dictating norms to the Chicano family and to what extent are social planners and educators being influenced by these images. Examples from 3 distinct areas of research conclude with interpretations of Mexican American women that differ considerably from those with a heavy emphasis on cultural values: 1) demographic analyses of the 1970 Public Use Samples of the census that acknowledge the disadvantaged economic position of Mexican Americans; 2) studies that are beginning to measure empirically the family dynamics of Mexican Americans; and 3) family planning studies that attempt to examine the interaction between health care delivery systems and Mexican American contraceptive behavior. Trained and experienced Chicana researchers are needed to offset the male orientation and ethnocentrism that have characterized the social sciences.

  14. Foster Care Dynamics and System Science: Implications for Research and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulczyn, Fred; Halloran, John

    2017-10-05

    Although system is a word frequently invoked in discussions of foster care policy and practice, there have been few if any attempts by child welfare researchers to understand the ways in which the foster care system is a system. As a consequence, insights from system science have yet to be applied in meaningful ways to the problem of making foster care systems more effective. In this study, we draw on population biology to organize a study of admissions and discharges to foster care over a 15-year period. We are interested specifically in whether resource constraints, which are conceptualized here as the number of beds, lead to a coupling of admissions and discharges within congregate care. The results, which are descriptive in nature, are consistent with theory that ties admissions and discharges together because of a resource constraint. From the data, it is clear that the underlying system exerts an important constraint on what are normally viewed as individual-level decisions. Our discussion calls on extending efforts to understand the role of system science in studies of child welfare systems, with a particular emphasis on the role of feedback as a causal influence.

  15. Foster Care Dynamics and System Science: Implications for Research and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Wulczyn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although system is a word frequently invoked in discussions of foster care policy and practice, there have been few if any attempts by child welfare researchers to understand the ways in which the foster care system is a system. As a consequence, insights from system science have yet to be applied in meaningful ways to the problem of making foster care systems more effective. In this study, we draw on population biology to organize a study of admissions and discharges to foster care over a 15-year period. We are interested specifically in whether resource constraints, which are conceptualized here as the number of beds, lead to a coupling of admissions and discharges within congregate care. The results, which are descriptive in nature, are consistent with theory that ties admissions and discharges together because of a resource constraint. From the data, it is clear that the underlying system exerts an important constraint on what are normally viewed as individual-level decisions. Our discussion calls on extending efforts to understand the role of system science in studies of child welfare systems, with a particular emphasis on the role of feedback as a causal influence.

  16. Computer Science (CS) in the Compulsory Education Curriculum: Implications for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Don

    2017-01-01

    The subject of computer science (CS) and computer science education (CSE) has relatively recently arisen as a subject for inclusion within the compulsory school curriculum. Up to this present time, a major focus of technologies in the school curriculum has in many countries been on applications of existing technologies into subject practice (both…

  17. Educational Challenges of Molecular Life Science: Characteristics and Implications for Education and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibell, Lena A. E.; Rundgren, Carl-Johan

    2010-01-01

    Molecular life science is one of the fastest-growing fields of scientific and technical innovation, and biotechnology has profound effects on many aspects of daily life--often with deep, ethical dimensions. At the same time, the content is inherently complex, highly abstract, and deeply rooted in diverse disciplines ranging from "pure…

  18. Researching Undergraduate Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The experience(s) of undergraduate research students in the social sciences is under-represented in the literature in comparison to the natural sciences or science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM). The strength of STEM undergraduate research learning environments is understood to be related to an apprenticeship-mode of learning supported…

  19. Discovering indigenous science: Implications for science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snively, Gloria; Corsiglia, John

    2001-01-01

    Indigenous science relates to both the science knowledge of long-resident, usually oral culture peoples, as well as the science knowledge of all peoples who as participants in culture are affected by the worldview and relativist interests of their home communities. This article explores aspects of multicultural science and pedagogy and describes a rich and well-documented branch of indigenous science known to biologists and ecologists as traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). Although TEK has been generally inaccessible, educators can now use a burgeoning science-based TEK literature that documents numerous examples of time-proven, ecologically relevant, and cost effective indigenous science. Disputes regarding the universality of the standard scientific account are of critical importance for science educators because the definition of science is a de facto gatekeeping device for determining what can be included in a school science curriculum and what cannot. When Western modern science (WMS) is defined as universal it does displace revelation-based knowledge (i.e., creation science); however, it also displaces pragmatic local indigenous knowledge that does not conform with formal aspects of the standard account. Thus, in most science classrooms around the globe, Western modern science has been taught at the expense of indigenous knowledge. However, because WMS has been implicated in many of the world's ecological disasters, and because the traditional wisdom component of TEK is particularly rich in time-tested approaches that foster sustainability and environmental integrity, it is possible that the universalist gatekeeper can be seen as increasingly problematic and even counter productive. This paper describes many examples from Canada and around the world of indigenous people's contributions to science, environmental understanding, and sustainability. The authors argue the view that Western or modern science is just one of many sciences that need to be

  20. Structural Stigma and Health Inequalities: Research Evidence and Implications for Psychological Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Psychological research has provided essential insights into how stigma operates to disadvantage those who are targeted by it. At the same time, stigma research has been criticized for being too focused on the perceptions of stigmatized individuals and on micro-level interactions, rather than attending to structural forms of stigma. This article describes the relatively new field of research on structural stigma, which is defined as societal-level conditions, cultural norms, and institutional policies that constrain the opportunities, resources, and wellbeing of the stigmatized. I review emerging evidence that structural stigma related to mental illness and sexual orientation (1) exerts direct and synergistic effects on stigma processes that have long been the focus of psychological inquiry (e.g., concealment, rejection sensitivity); (2) serves as a contextual moderator of the efficacy of psychological interventions; and (3) contributes to numerous adverse health outcomes for members of stigmatized groups—ranging from dysregulated physiological stress responses to premature mortality—indicating that structural stigma represents an under-recognized mechanism producing health inequalities. Each of these pieces of evidence suggests that structural stigma is relevant to psychology and therefore deserves the attention of psychological scientists interested in understanding and ultimately reducing the negative effects of stigma. PMID:27977256

  1. Science and religion: implications for science educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2010-03-01

    A religious perspective on life shapes how and what those with such a perspective learn in science; for some students a religious perspective can hinder learning in science. For such reasons Staver's article is to be welcomed as it proposes a new way of resolving the widely perceived discord between science and religion. Staver notes that Western thinking has traditionally postulated the existence and comprehensibility of a world that is external to and independent of human consciousness. This has led to a conception of truth, truth as correspondence, in which our knowledge corresponds to the facts in this external world. Staver rejects such a conception, preferring the conception of truth as coherence in which the links are between and among independent knowledge claims themselves rather than between a knowledge claim and reality. Staver then proposes constructivism as a vehicle potentially capable of resolving the tension between religion and science. My contention is that the resolution between science and religion that Staver proposes comes at too great a cost—both to science and to religion. Instead I defend a different version of constructivism where humans are seen as capable of generating models of reality that do provide richer and more meaningful understandings of reality, over time and with respect both to science and to religion. I argue that scientific knowledge is a subset of religious knowledge and explore the implications of this for science education in general and when teaching about evolution in particular.

  2. Discussion Paper: Researchers and Open Science

    OpenAIRE

    Picarra, Mafalda

    2016-01-01

    This discussion paper introduces the concept of Open Science to policymakers and discusses how Open Science is fomenting change in the way scientific research is conducted, communicated, accessed and shared. The key highlights of this paper include an overview of the European Commission’s agenda for transforming science and democratising research through Open Science and considers the implications of Open Science for researchers’ and policymakers.

  3. Design Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Venable, John; Baskerville, Richard L.

    2017-01-01

    This workshop is an applied tutorial, aimed at novice and experienced researchers who wish to learn more about Design Science Research (DSR) and/or to develop and progress their own DSR work. During the workshop, attendees will be introduced to various DSR concepts and current trends, to create...

  4. Teaching Science through Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Zidani, Saleem; Kurtam, Naji

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the objectives of the science curriculum and the teacher's responsibility of passing through not only the required material, but also skills. Suggests that in order to improve teaching and learning skills, new strategies, such as teaching and learning through research must be utilized. Presents four examples of teaching and learning…

  5. Design Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Venable, John; Baskerville, Richard L.

    2017-01-01

    This workshop is an applied tutorial, aimed at novice and experienced researchers who wish to learn more about Design Science Research (DSR) and/or to develop and progress their own DSR work. During the workshop, attendees will be introduced to various DSR concepts and current trends, to create...... a coherent perspective on DSR and its relationship to other research paradigms. Attendees will also be introduced to three specific and applied techniques for planning and conducting DSR, which were developed by the workshop organisers. When covering the applied techniques and tools, both to further...... attendees’ learning and to develop their research, attendees will be invited to apply the techniques to their own ongoing, planned, or potential DSR research projects. The organisers have developed workbooks that the attendees can use to carry out practical exercises and take them away afterwards...

  6. Developing a Research Agenda in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Patricia E.; Brunkhorst, Herb; Lunetta, Vincent; Penick, John; Peterson, Jodi; Pietrucha, Barbara; Staver, John

    2005-06-01

    The Science Summit reinforced a question upon which many of us in science education are focused: How can we, the science education community of researchers, practitioners, and consumers, lead policy? We include a brief review of the No Child Left Behind Act and its implications for teachers, and elaborate about one ongoing and growing effort to answer the concerns about the paucity of research expressed at the Summit. We describe a unique and growing collaboration across professional science education and science organizations and societies that focuses on the development of a research agenda. The term `consilience' refers to the "jumping together of knowledge" that leads to scientific advancements, progressive, creative, fluid scientific research and intellectual capacity to move a research community toward an enlightened research agenda. A coherent research agenda enables us to specify what we know, what we need to know, and how research can be employed for creating and implementing policy. The use of a dynamic organizer (such as Pasteur's Quadrant) for a research matrix of topics provides a possible structure for organizing and cataloging research questions, designs, findings from past studies, needed areas for research, and policy implications. Through this unique collaboration, the science education community can better focus on needs and priorities and ensure that teachers, policy makers, scientists, and researchers in education at local through national levels have an important stake in research priorities and actions.

  7. Research in computer science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Various graduate research activities in the field of computer science are reported. Among the topics discussed are: (1) failure probabilities in multi-version software; (2) Gaussian Elimination on parallel computers; (3) three dimensional Poisson solvers on parallel/vector computers; (4) automated task decomposition for multiple robot arms; (5) multi-color incomplete cholesky conjugate gradient methods on the Cyber 205; and (6) parallel implementation of iterative methods for solving linear equations.

  8. Foundations of an Afrocentric Social Science: Implications for Curriculum-Building, Theory, and Research In Black Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmes, Clovis E.

    1981-01-01

    Considers Black Studies as a vital social science, and recommends Afrocentrism as the guiding principle for Black Studies. Identifies the mission of Afrocentrism discipline as a solution to the cultural problems of the African diaspora. (DA)

  9. The Nexus of Reading, Writing and Researching in the Doctoral Undertaking of Humanities and Social Sciences: Implications for Literature Reviewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Becky S.C.

    2008-01-01

    One indispensable task in the doctoral undertaking in the humanities and social sciences is that of reviewing the literature. To many graduate students, finding the "right" direction of reviewing is a particularly grueling experience, a practical concern seldom addressed in thesis manuals and studies of the doctoral thesis. This paper is an…

  10. The Theoretical Science of Research

    OpenAIRE

    Subbarayan Peri

    2013-01-01

    The science of research is unique among sciences in many respects. All other sciences are reared by it, but it has never been viewed as a science so far in this world. Had it been developed as an independent science, the world would have advanced by some centuries than what it did and had. The science of research is an integral part of the emerging ‗learning science‘ along with it counter-parts the science of education. Every systematic science has its elements i.e. paraphernalia —assumption...

  11. Computer Science Research in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-07

    This paper begins with a discussion of the nature of Computer Science Research in India. The type of institutions in which Computer Science research...Finally we study the influence on Indian Computer Science research of the phenomenal growth in exports by the Indian software industry and the arrival

  12. Center for Rehabilitation Sciences Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Rehabilitation Sciences Research (CRSR) was established as a research organization to promote successful return to duty and community reintegration of...

  13. A Comparison of the Expertise of University Faculty and Students in American Political Science: Implications for Future Research on High School Civics and Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budano, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the disciplinary knowledge and nature of expertise among political science experts studying American political science. A comparison group of students who had completed an introductory undergraduate course in American political science also participated in the study. Numerous research studies have found that civics and…

  14. Life Sciences Implications of Lunar Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document preliminary, predicted, life sciences implications of expected operational concepts for lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). Algorithms developed through simulation and testing in lunar analog environments were used to predict crew metabolic rates and ground reaction forces experienced during lunar EVA. Subsequently, the total metabolic energy consumption, the daily bone load stimulus, total oxygen needed, and other variables were calculated and provided to Human Research Program and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate stakeholders. To provide context to the modeling, the report includes an overview of some scenarios that have been considered. Concise descriptions of the analog testing and development of the algorithms are also provided. This document may be updated to remain current with evolving lunar or other planetary surface operations, assumptions and concepts, and to provide additional data and analyses collected during the ongoing analog research program.

  15. Science Academies Summer Research Fellowship

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 11. Science Academies Summer Research Fellowship. Information and Announcements Volume 13 Issue 11 November 2008 pp 1091-1094. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Informing Science Special Issue on Information Science Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Spink

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The papers in this Special Issue of Informing Science highlight research areas in the interdisciplinary field of Information Science. Key research problems for Information Science include: (1 how to model and effectively support human information behaviors, including information seeking and use behaviors, and interaction with information retrieval (IR technologies, (2 how information should be organized intellectually in IR technologies for more effective human information retrieval, and (3 the organizational, social and policy implications for the information society of human information behaviors. Information Scientists are concerned with how people's information problems can be resolved. In this way, information science is an important part of the "informing sciences". Information Science has largely borrowed theories and approaches from other disciplines - but is now attracting attention from other disciplines as a generator of theory and models that delineate key areas of human information-related endeavors. As humans struggle to seek and use information within the plethora of information sources increasingly available via the Web, Information Science research is taking center stage. Each paper in this special issue is written by an expert in their area of Information Science research.

  17. On the Governance of Social Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt; Nørreklit, Hanne; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of social science research is conducted within public or semi-public institutions, such as universities. Over the past decades, these institutions have experienced substantial changes in governance structures and an increased focus on performance contracts. Obviously, the new...... study the implications of the current changes in the social science research landscape along with central aspects of mechanism design, validity, employee motivation as well as the ability to establish socially optimal resource allocations. We identify a number of potential problems that may come along...

  18. Community science, philosophy of science, and the practice of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2005-06-01

    Embedded in community science are implicit theories on the nature of reality (ontology), the justification of knowledge claims (epistemology), and how knowledge is constructed (methodology). These implicit theories influence the conceptualization and practice of research, and open up or constrain its possibilities. The purpose of this paper is to make some of these theories explicit, trace their intellectual history, and propose a shift in the way research in the social and behavioral sciences, and community science in particular, is conceptualized and practiced. After describing the influence and decline of logical empiricism, the underlying philosophical framework for science for the past century, I summarize contemporary views in the philosophy of science that are alternatives to logical empiricism. These include contextualism, normative naturalism, and scientific realism, and propose that a modified version of contextualism, known as perspectivism, affords the philosophical framework for an emerging community science. I then discuss the implications of perspectivism for community science in the form of four propositions to guide the practice of research.

  19. Research Journal of Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Research Journal of Health Sciences is dedicated to promoting high quality research work in the field of health and related biological sciences. It aligns with the mission of the Osun State University, which is “to create a unique institution, committed to the pursuit of academic innovation, skills-based training and a ...

  20. Indigenous Knowledge Systems: implications for natural science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous Knowledge Systems: implications for natural science and technology teaching and learning. ... Journal Home > Vol 22, No 4 (2002) > ... Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS), as a broad framework of thinking about our local context, seeks to problematise the insufficient integration of the cultural-social and the ...

  1. 5th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention: summary of key research and implications for policy and practice - basic sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascolinli, Mark; Kort, Rodney

    2010-06-01

    Basic science studies at the 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention (IAS 2009) provided important new information that has implications not only for treatment, but also for better understanding the complex dynamics of HIV infection, epidemiology, and the impact of biology and genetics on vulnerability to HIV infection, disease progression and the risk of vertical transmission. There was renewed interest in strategies on how to eliminate residual viremia, bolster the immune system and potentially achieve viral eradication given recent evidence that antiretroviral therapy (ART) is effective at minimizing viral reservoirs if administered early in acute infection.

  2. Interdisciplinary Science Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, P. J.; Hine, D.; Barnard, R. T.

    2013-01-01

    Science history shows us that interdisciplinarity is a spontaneous process that is intrinsic to, and engendered by, research activity. It is an activity that is done rather than an object to be designed and constructed. We examine three vignettes from the history of science that display the interdisciplinary process at work and consider the…

  3. Habermasian knowledge interests: epistemological implications for health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero-Molina, José; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano; Muñoz Terrón, José María; Aranda Torres, Cayetano

    2015-04-01

    The Habermasian concept of 'interest' has had a profound effect on the characterization of scientific disciplines. Going beyond issues unrelated to the theory itself, intra-theoretical interest characterizes the specific ways of approaching any science-related discipline, defining research topics and methodologies. This approach was developed by Jürgen Habermas in relation to empirical-analytical sciences, historical-hermeneutics sciences, and critical sciences; however, he did not make any specific references to health sciences. This article aims to contribute to shaping a general epistemological framework for health sciences, as well as its specific implications for the medical and nursing areas, via an analysis of the basic knowledge interests developed by Habermas. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A pragmatic conception of science: Implications for science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessoms, Deidre Bates

    In this dissertation, I examine various philosophical conceptions of the nature of science---its goals, methods and products---and link those views to how science is taught. While the review begins in the 1600s, the focus is primarily on logical positivism. The logical positivist view of science prevailed for much of the twentieth century and has greatly influenced how science is taught. The review section culminates with current conceptions of science from the fields of philosophy, sociology, feminist studies and radical studies of science. These various conceptions of the nature of science are linked to how science is currently taught, at the K--12 level and at the university. In particular, the logical positivist conception has influenced the teaching of science by emphasizing the products of science (factual knowledge and theories) over the processes of science (the social methods of knowledge production). As a result of viewing science as the logical positivists did, teachers primarily focus on science as unchanging factual knowledge, at the expense of examining the social and cultural aspects of scientific practices. I develop a pragmatic conception of the method of science as reflective thinking that we effectively use in our everyday lives. Linking that conception with the aims that John Dewey outlined for schools in a democratic society points the way towards certain goals and methods for teaching science. Therefore, I explore the type of science teaching that might result when viewing science as a pragmatic activity conducted in a democracy. Teaching of this sort would involve students in working together on shared problems that arise in the context of daily life. For science students at the university, this would include participating in and critiquing scientific research in active research laboratories. Implementing this view of science teaching might result in modifications in the practices and goals of science. Lastly, the experiences of a group of

  5. Open Science: tools, approaches, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neylon, Cameron; Wu, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    Open Science is gathering pace both as a grass roots effort amongst scientists to enable them to share the outputs of their research more effectively, and as a policy initiative for research funders to gain a greater return on their investment. In this workshop, we will discuss the current state of the art in collaborative research tools, the social challenges facing those adopting and advocating more openness, and the development of standards, policies and best practices for Open Science.

  6. Science and Strategic - Climate Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, J. A.; Moran, E. H.

    2008-12-01

    other lines of commodities often results in severely unbalanced supply and demand ratios, which eventually affect the entire global community. National economies potentially risk destabilization, which is especially important since economics plays a major role in strategic planning. This presentation will address these issues and the role that science can play in human sustainability and local, national, and international security.

  7. When Can Management Science Research Be Generalized Internationally?

    OpenAIRE

    Philip M. Rosenzweig

    1994-01-01

    Discussion about international generalizability has rarely addressed the full scope of management science research. This paper identifies a number of obstacles to international generalizability, and shows how they affect technical systems research and social systems research in different ways. Examples of management science research are examined critically for their validity elsewhere in the world. Implications are discussed for the interpretation of existing research and for the design of re...

  8. NASA's computer science research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Following a major assessment of NASA's computing technology needs, a new program of computer science research has been initiated by the Agency. The program includes work in concurrent processing, management of large scale scientific databases, software engineering, reliable computing, and artificial intelligence. The program is driven by applications requirements in computational fluid dynamics, image processing, sensor data management, real-time mission control and autonomous systems. It consists of university research, in-house NASA research, and NASA's Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) and Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE). The overall goal is to provide the technical foundation within NASA to exploit advancing computing technology in aerospace applications.

  9. Twitter and Health Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    Twitter is a communication platform that can be used to conduct health science research, but a full understanding of its use remains unclear. The purpose of this narrative literature review was to examine how Twitter is currently being used to conduct research in the health sciences and to consider how it might be used in the future. A time-limited search of the health-related research was conducted, which resulted in 31 peer-reviewed articles for review. Information relating to how Twitter is being used to conduct research was extracted and categorized, and an explanatory narrative was developed. To date, Twitter is largely being used to conduct large-scale studies, but this research is complicated by challenges relating to collecting and analyzing big data. Conversely, the use of Twitter to conduct small-scale investigations appears to be relatively unexplored. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Computer science and operations research

    CERN Document Server

    Balci, Osman

    1992-01-01

    The interface of Operation Research and Computer Science - although elusive to a precise definition - has been a fertile area of both methodological and applied research. The papers in this book, written by experts in their respective fields, convey the current state-of-the-art in this interface across a broad spectrum of research domains which include optimization techniques, linear programming, interior point algorithms, networks, computer graphics in operations research, parallel algorithms and implementations, planning and scheduling, genetic algorithms, heuristic search techniques and dat

  11. Open Science and Research Reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munafò, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Many scientists, journals and funders are concerned about the low reproducibility of many scientific findings. One approach that may serve to improve the reliability and robustness of research is open science. Here I argue that the process of pre-registering study protocols, sharing study materials and data, and posting preprints of manuscripts may serve to improve quality control procedures at every stage of the research pipeline, and in turn improve the reproducibility of published work.

  12. Geopolitical research in ukrainian science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Dashevs’ka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensity and diversity of political and geopolitical processes in Ukraine give greater empirical basis for Geopolitical Studies. However, the popularity of this research is purely populist currents, leaving only a quarter of all science research. The aim of the study is to examine the specific dynamics and geopolitical studies in modern Ukrainian political thought. This paper reviews the dissertation research of local scientists. It was noted that most of the work falls on political sciences, specialty 23.00.04 - political problems of international systems and global development. The main trends in domestic geopolitical studies: 1. Identification of Ukraine’s place on the geopolitical map of the world by analyzing the geopolitical position and historical and political research; 2. Study regional issues, bilateral relations between countries; 3. Research general issues of international security, terrorism and the role of Ukraine in the system of international security; 4. Analysis of ethnic and political problems in Ukraine and their impact on international relations; 5. Investigation euro integration aspirations of Ukraine as the only right in terms of the geopolitical position; 6. General geopolitical studies that examined the practice of various geopolitical theories and concepts in different times and different countries. The analysis presented dissertations and other scientific literature suggests domestic authors only the first stage of mastering such important political science as geopolitics.

  13. Computer Science Research at Langley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, S. J. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    A workshop was held at Langley Research Center, November 2-5, 1981, to highlight ongoing computer science research at Langley and to identify additional areas of research based upon the computer user requirements. A panel discussion was held in each of nine application areas, and these are summarized in the proceedings. Slides presented by the invited speakers are also included. A survey of scientific, business, data reduction, and microprocessor computer users helped identify areas of focus for the workshop. Several areas of computer science which are of most concern to the Langley computer users were identified during the workshop discussions. These include graphics, distributed processing, programmer support systems and tools, database management, and numerical methods.

  14. Biological researchers: building nursing science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Ellen; Grady, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Nursing science addresses the individual from a multidimensional perspective, and the questions nurses generate from their practice are often grounded in basic biology. However, concern is frequently voiced as to whether there is adequate preparation and support for biological researchers within nursing. This study reports on a survey of nurse investigators funded by the National Institutes of Health who carry out biological research. All study participants were current faculty, and 48% had post-doctoral training. The majority worked with animal models. Research areas ranged from cell and molecular biology to delivery of health care. Some participants reported tension between their work and how others view "typical" nursing research. All participants had been awarded federal research funding, primarily from the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR), and most reported receiving small grants from other funding organizations early in their careers. Self-identified factors influencing success included mentoring, flexibility, persistence, and hard work.

  15. Social Sciences in Nuclear Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggermont, G

    2001-04-01

    In 1998, an initiative was taken by SCK-CEN to include social sciences and humanities into its research programme. As a result, two working groups were created to discuss two broad items: (1) ethical choices in radiation protection; and (2) the role and culture of nuclear experts. The general objectives of SCK-CEN's social sciences programme are: (1) to improve the nuclear research approach by integrating social sciences - where needed- to solve complex problems in interaction with society; (2) to stimulate university collaboration with social disciplines in learning process towards transdisciplinary and improved social responsibility; (3) to improve the training of nuclear experts of SCK-CEN by gaining insight in their expert culture and implicit ethical choices; (4) to develop projects and an original transdisciplinary programme and project management by involving young and senior scientists, a variety of university opinions and relevant actors from industry and society. Along these lines, projects were developed on sustainability and nuclear development, transgenerational ethics related to disposal of long-lived radioactive waste and cognitive dissonance effects, legal aspects and liability, non-radiological aspects of nuclear emergencies and safety. Progress and major achievements in SCK-CEN's social science programme in 2000 are summarised.

  16. School Psychology Research: Combining Ecological Theory and Prevention Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    The current article comments on the importance of theoretical implications within school psychological research, and proposes that ecological theory and prevention science could provide the conceptual framework for school psychology research and practice. Articles published in "School Psychology Review" should at least discuss potential…

  17. Science Teachers' Misconceptions in Science and Engineering Distinctions: Reflections on Modern Research Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antink-Meyer, Allison; Meyer, Daniel Z.

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to learn about the misconceptions that may arise for elementary and high school science teachers in their reflections on science and engineering practice. Using readings and videos of real science and engineering work, teachers' reflections were used to uncover the underpinnings of their understandings. This knowledge ultimately provides information about supporting professional development (PD) for science teachers' knowledge of engineering. Six science teachers (two elementary and four high school teachers) participated in the study as part of an online PD experience. Cunningham and Carlsen's (Journal of Science Teacher Education 25:197-210, 2014) relative emphases of science and engineering practices were used to frame the design of PD activities and the analyses of teachers' views. Analyses suggest misconceptions within the eight practices of science and engineering from the US Next Generation Science Standards in four areas. These are that: (1) the nature of the practices in both science and engineering research is determined by the long-term implications of the research regardless of the nature of the immediate work, (2) engineering and science are hierarchical, (3) creativity is inappropriate, and (4) research outcomes cannot be processes. We discuss the nature of these understandings among participants and the implications for engineering education PD for science teachers.

  18. Science Academies' Summer Research Fellowship Programme for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    2013-11-30

    Nov 30, 2013 ... Science Academies' Summer Research Fellowship Programme for. Students and Teachers – 2014. Sponspored by. Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore. Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi. The National Academy of Sciences, India, Allahabad. The three national science academies offer ...

  19. Remote Sensing Information Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Keith C.; Scepan, Joseph; Hemphill, Jeffrey; Herold, Martin; Husak, Gregory; Kline, Karen; Knight, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    This document is the final report summarizing research conducted by the Remote Sensing Research Unit, Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara under National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Grant NAG5-10457. This document describes work performed during the period of 1 March 2001 thorough 30 September 2002. This report includes a survey of research proposed and performed within RSRU and the UCSB Geography Department during the past 25 years. A broad suite of RSRU research conducted under NAG5-10457 is also described under themes of Applied Research Activities and Information Science Research. This research includes: 1. NASA ESA Research Grant Performance Metrics Reporting. 2. Global Data Set Thematic Accuracy Analysis. 3. ISCGM/Global Map Project Support. 4. Cooperative International Activities. 5. User Model Study of Global Environmental Data Sets. 6. Global Spatial Data Infrastructure. 7. CIESIN Collaboration. 8. On the Value of Coordinating Landsat Operations. 10. The California Marine Protected Areas Database: Compilation and Accuracy Issues. 11. Assessing Landslide Hazard Over a 130-Year Period for La Conchita, California Remote Sensing and Spatial Metrics for Applied Urban Area Analysis, including: (1) IKONOS Data Processing for Urban Analysis. (2) Image Segmentation and Object Oriented Classification. (3) Spectral Properties of Urban Materials. (4) Spatial Scale in Urban Mapping. (5) Variable Scale Spatial and Temporal Urban Growth Signatures. (6) Interpretation and Verification of SLEUTH Modeling Results. (7) Spatial Land Cover Pattern Analysis for Representing Urban Land Use and Socioeconomic Structures. 12. Colorado River Flood Plain Remote Sensing Study Support. 13. African Rainfall Modeling and Assessment. 14. Remote Sensing and GIS Integration.

  20. Archives: Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 16 of 16 ... Archives: Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Archives: Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 34 of 34 ... Archives: Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. Journal Home > Archives: Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Philosophy of science and the emerging paradigm: implications for hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osowiec, Darlene A

    2014-01-01

    Within the hypnosis field, there is a disparity between clinical and research worldviews. Clinical practitioners work with patients who are dealing with serious, often unique, real-world problems-lived experience. Researchers adhere to objective measurements, standardization, data, and statistics. Although there is overlap, an ongoing divergence can be counterproductive to the hypnosis field and to the larger professional and social contexts. The purpose of this article is: (1) to examine some of the major assumptions, the history, and the philosophy that undergird the definition of science, which was constructed in the mid-17th century; (2) to discover how science is a product of prevailing social forces and is undergoing a paradigm shift; and (3) to understand the more encompassing, holistic paradigm with implications for the hypnosis field.

  4. 20% Research & Design Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Beth A.

    2015-04-01

    A project allowing employees to use 15 % of their time on independent projects was established at 3M in the 1950's. The result of this project included products like post it notes and masking tape. Google allows its employees to use 20% of their time on independently pursued projects. The company values creativity and innovation. Employees are allowed to explore projects of interest to them one day out of the week, 20 % of their work week. Products like AdSense, Gmail, Google Transit, Google News, and Google Talk are the result of this 20 % program. My school is implementing the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) as part of our regularly scheduled curriculum review. These new standards focus on the process of learning by doing and designing. The NGSS are very hands on and active. The new standards emphasize learning how to define, understand and solve problems in science and technology. In today's society everyone needs to be familiar with science and technology. This project allows students to develop and practice skills to help them be more comfortable and confident with science and technology while exploring something of interest to them. This project includes three major parts: research, design, and presentation. Students will spend approximately 2-4 weeks defining a project proposal and educating themselves by researching a science and technology topic that is of interest to them. In the next phase, 2-4 weeks, students design a product or plan to collect data for something related to their topic. The time spent on research and design will be dependant on the topic students select. Projects should be ambitious enough to encompass about six weeks. Lastly a presentation or demonstration incorporating the research and design of the project is created, peer reviewed and presented to the class. There are some problems anticipated or already experienced with this project. It is difficult for all students to choose a unique topic when you have large class sizes

  5. Self Concept: Research and Educational Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jurgen W. L.

    1983-01-01

    This article on the research and educational implications of self-concept discusses definitions, methods, theoretical orientations, developmental conditions, correlates, changes and changeability, and pedagogical consequences of self-concept. (PN)

  6. Science experiences of citizen scientists in entomology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Louise I.

    Citizen science is an increasingly popular collaboration between members of the public and the scientific community to pursue current research questions. In addition to providing researchers with much needed volunteer support, it is a unique and promising form of informal science education that can counter declining public science literacy, including attitudes towards and understanding of science. However, the impacts of citizen science programs on participants' science literacy remains elusive. The purpose of this study was to balance the top-down approach to citizen science research by exploring how adult citizen scientists participate in entomology research based on their perceptions and pioneer mixed methods research to investigate and explain the impacts of citizen science programs. Transference, in which citizen scientists transfer program impacts to people around them, was uncovered in a grounded theory study focused on adults in a collaborative bumble bee research program. Most of the citizen scientists involved in entomology research shared their science experiences and knowledge with people around them. In certain cases, expertise was attributed to the individual by others. Citizen scientists then have the opportunity to acquire the role of expert to those around them and influence knowledge, attitudinal and behavioral changes in others. An intervention explanatory sequential mixed methods design assessed how entomology-based contributory citizen science affects science self-efficacy, self-efficacy for environmental action, nature relatedness and attitude towards insects in adults. However, no statistically significant impacts were evident. A qualitative follow-up uncovered a discrepancy between statistically measured changes and perceived influences reported by citizen scientists. The results have important implications for understanding how citizen scientists learn, the role of citizen scientists in entomology research, the broader program impacts and

  7. The Implications for Science Education of Heidegger's Philosophy of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Science teaching always engages a philosophy of science. This article introduces a modern philosophy of science and indicates its implications for science education. The hermeneutic philosophy of science is the tradition of Kant, Heidegger, and Heelan. Essential to this tradition are two concepts of truth, truth as correspondence and truth as…

  8. Citizen Science on Your Smartphone: An ELSI Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Mark A; Wilbanks, John T; Brothers, Kyle B

    2015-01-01

    The prospect of newly-emerging, technology-enabled, unregulated citizen science health research poses a substantial challenge for traditional research ethics. Unquestionably, a significant amount of research ethics study is needed to prepare for the inevitable, widespread introduction of citizen science health research. Using the case study of mobile health (mHealth) research, this article provides an ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) research agenda for citizen science health research conducted outside conventional research institutions. The issues for detailed analysis include the role of IRBs, recruitment, inclusion and exclusion criteria, informed consent, confidentiality and security, vulnerable participants, incidental findings, and publication and data sharing. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  9. Open science, e-science and the new technologies: Challenges and old problems in qualitative research in the social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercilia García-Álvarez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As well as introducing the articles in the special issue titled "Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences", this article reviews the challenges, problems and main advances made by the qualitative paradigm in the context of the new European science policy based on open science and e-Science and analysis alternative technologies freely available in the 2.0 environment and their application to fieldwork and data analysis. Design/methodology: Theoretical review. Practical implications: The article identifies open access technologies with applications in qualitative research such as applications for smartphones and tablets, web platforms and specific qualitative data analysis software, all developed in both the e-Science context and the 2.0 environment. Social implications: The article discusses the possible role to be played by qualitative research in the open science and e-Science context and considers the impact of this new context on the size and structure of research groups, the development of truly collaborative research, the emergence of new ethical problems and quality assessment in review processes in an open environment. Originality/value: The article describes the characteristics that define the new scientific environment and the challenges posed for qualitative research, reviews the latest open access technologies available to researchers in terms of their main features and proposes specific applications suitable for fieldwork and data analysis.

  10. Fundamental care and knowledge interests: Implications for nursing science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero-Molina, José; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano; Mateo Aguilar, Ester; Aranda Torres, Cayetano; Román López, Pablo; Hernández-Padilla, José Manuel

    2017-11-09

    The aim of this discursive paper was to characterize the intra-theoretical interests of knowledge in nursing science as an epistemological framework for fundamental care. For Jürgen Habermas, theory does not separate knowledge interests from life. All knowledge, understanding and human research is always interested. Habermas formulated the knowledge interests in empirical-analytical, historical-hermeneutic and critical social sciences; but said nothing about health sciences and nursing science. Discursive paper. The paper is organised into five sections that develop our argument about the implications of the Habermasian intra-theoretical interests in nursing science and fundamental care: the persistence of a technical interest, the predominance of a practical interest, the importance of an emancipatory interest, "being there" to understand individuals' experience and an "existential crisis" that uncovers the individual's subjectivity. The nursing discipline can take on practical and emancipatory interests (together with a technical interest) as its fundamental knowledge interests. Nurses' privileged position in the delivery of fundamental care gives them the opportunity to gain a deep understanding of the patient's experience and illness process through physical contact and empathic communication. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. From 'implications' to 'dimensions': science, medicine and ethics in society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickersgill, Martyn D

    2013-03-01

    Much bioethical scholarship is concerned with the social, legal and philosophical implications of new and emerging science and medicine, as well as with the processes of research that under-gird these innovations. Science and technology studies (STS), and the related and interpenetrating disciplines of anthropology and sociology, have also explored what novel technoscience might imply for society, and how the social is constitutive of scientific knowledge and technological artefacts. More recently, social scientists have interrogated the emergence of ethical issues: they have documented how particular matters come to be regarded as in some way to do with 'ethics', and how this in turn enjoins particular types of social action. In this paper, I will discuss some of this and other STS (and STS-inflected) literature and reflect on how it might complement more 'traditional' modes of bioethical enquiry. I argue that STS might (1) cast new light on current bioethical issues, (2) direct the gaze of bioethicists towards matters that may previously have escaped their attention, and (3) indicate the import not only of the ethical implications of biomedical innovation, but also how these innovative and other processes feature ethics as a dimension of everyday laboratory and clinical work. In sum, engagements between STS and bioethics are increasingly important in order to understand and manage the complex dynamics between science, medicine and ethics in society.

  12. Basic Energy Sciences FY 2014 Research Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a collection of research abstracts and highlights for more than 1,200 research projects funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in Fiscal Year 2014 at some 200 institutions across the U.S. This volume is organized along the three BES Divisions: Materials Sciences and Engineering; Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences; and Scientific User Facilities.

  13. Basic Energy Sciences FY 2012 Research Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a collection of research abstracts and highlights for more than 1,400 research projects funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in Fiscal Year 2012 at some 180 institutions across the U.S. This volume is organized along the three BES Divisions: Materials Sciences and Engineering; Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences; and Scientific User Facilities.

  14. Basic Energy Sciences FY 2011 Research Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-01-01

    This report provides a collection of research abstracts for more than 1,300 research projects funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in Fiscal Year 2011 at some 180 institutions across the U.S. This volume is organized along the three BES divisions: Materials Sciences and Engineering; Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences; and Scientific User Facilities.

  15. Research facility access & science education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, S.P. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Teplitz, V.L. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Physics Dept.

    1994-10-01

    As Congress voted to terminate the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory in October of 1993, the Department of Energy was encouraged to maximize the benefits to the nation of approximately $2 billion which had already been expended to date on its evolution. Having been recruited to Texas from other intellectually challenging enclaves around the world, many regional scientists, especially physicists, of course, also began to look for viable ways to preserve some of the potentially short-lived gains made by Texas higher education in anticipation of {open_quotes}the SSC era.{close_quotes} In fact, by November, 1993, approximately 150 physicists and engineers from thirteen Texas universities and the SSC itself, had gathered on the SMU campus to discuss possible re-uses of the SSC assets. Participants at that meeting drew up a petition addressed to the state and federal governments requesting the creation of a joint Texas Facility for Science Education and Research. The idea was to create a facility, open to universities and industry alike, which would preserve the research and development infrastructure and continue the educational mission of the SSC.

  16. Science Academies' Summer Research Fellowship Programme for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Science Academies' Summer Research Fellowship Programme for Students and Teachers - 2017. Information and Announcements Volume 21 Issue 9 September 2016 pp 861-861 ...

  17. Science Academies Summer Research Fellowship Programme for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 10. Science Academies Summer Research Fellowship Programme for Students and Teachers. Information and Announcements Volume 16 Issue 10 October 2011 pp 999-999 ...

  18. Science Academies' Summer Research Fellowship Programme for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 11. Science Academies' Summer Research Fellowship Programme for Students and Teachers - 2018. Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 11 November 2017 pp 1100-1100 ...

  19. Science Academies' Summer Research Fellowship Programme for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 9. Science Academies' Summer Research Fellowship Programme for Students and Teachers - 2015. Information and Announcements Volume 19 Issue 9 September 2014 pp 877-877 ...

  20. Science Education Research vs. Physics Education Research: A Structural Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Akarsu, Bayram

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to introduce physics education research (PER) to researchers in other fields. Topics include discussion of differences between science education research (SER) and physics education research (PER), physics educators, research design and methodology in physics education research and current research traditions and trends (e.g. current research ideas) within PER.

  1. Advancing Research on Undergraduate Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Susan Rundell

    2013-01-01

    This special issue of "Journal of Research in Science Teaching" reflects conclusions and recommendations in the "Discipline-Based Education Research" (DBER) report and makes a substantial contribution to advancing the field. Research on undergraduate science learning is currently a loose affiliation of related fields. The…

  2. Science Education Research vs. Physics Education Research: A Structural Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu, Bayram

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to introduce physics education research (PER) to researchers in other fields. Topics include discussion of differences between science education research (SER) and physics education research (PER), physics educators, research design and methodology in physics education research and current research traditions and…

  3. High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) is the primary archive for NASA missions dealing with extremely energetic phenomena, from...

  4. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Research Review and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbach, Linda Sue; Polloway, Edward A.

    Research on fetal alcohol syndrome is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the implications of the syndrome for the development of mental retardation and other handicapping conditions. Attention is given to historical aspects; epidemiology; physiological and behavioral characteristics; and concerns related to diagnosis, prevention, and…

  5. Computational science for energy research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abgrall, Rémi; Koren, Barry

    2017-09-01

    Computational science complements theory and experiments. It can deliver knowledge and understanding in application areas where the latter two can not. Computational science is particularly important for the simulation of various energy-related processes, ranging from classical energy processes as combustion and subsurface oil-reservoir flows to more modern processes as wind-farm aerodynamics, photovoltaics and - very challenging from a computational perspective - tokamak-plasma physics.

  6. Research chief wants to make science matter

    CERN Multimedia

    König, R

    1999-01-01

    The new research chief of the European Union, Phillippe Busquin wants to move science into the heart of EU decision-taking. He would like to make European research more 'cohesive, focused, mobile and multilateral' (2 pages).

  7. Mapping a research agenda for the science of team science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk-Krzesinski, Holly J; Contractor, Noshir; Fiore, Stephen M; Hall, Kara L; Kane, Cathleen; Keyton, Joann; Klein, Julie Thompson; Spring, Bonnie; Stokols, Daniel; Trochim, William

    2011-06-01

    An increase in cross-disciplinary, collaborative team science initiatives over the last few decades has spurred interest by multiple stakeholder groups in empirical research on scientific teams, giving rise to an emergent field referred to as the science of team science (SciTS). This study employed a collaborative team science concept-mapping evaluation methodology to develop a comprehensive research agenda for the SciTS field. Its integrative mixed-methods approach combined group process with statistical analysis to derive a conceptual framework that identifies research areas of team science and their relative importance to the emerging SciTS field. The findings from this concept-mapping project constitute a lever for moving SciTS forward at theoretical, empirical, and translational levels.

  8. The ICPSR and Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendell G.

    2008-01-01

    The Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR), a unit within the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan, is the world's largest social science data archive. The data sets in the ICPRS database give the social sciences librarian/subject specialist an opportunity of providing value-added bibliographic…

  9. Space Life Sciences Research and Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Alfred C.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1969, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA), a private, nonprofit corporation, has worked closely with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to advance space science and technology and to promote education in those areas. USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) has been NASA's life sciences research partner for the past 18 years. For the last six years, our Cooperative Agreement NCC9-41 for the 'Space Life Sciences Research and Education Program' has stimulated and assisted life sciences research and education at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) - both at the Center and in collaboration with outside academic institutions. To accomplish our objectives, the DSLS has facilitated extramural research, developed and managed educational programs, recruited and employed visiting and staff scientists, and managed scientific meetings.

  10. Research on College Science Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Mary Budd, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes 16 psychological types that result from the interaction of four mental powers described by G. G. Jung and the attitudes in which they are expressed. The relevance of psychological type to choice of careers in science and disposition to prefer theoretical or applied emphases are also discussed. (HM)

  11. Strategic Research Directions In Microgravity Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Raymond G., Jr.; Wargo, Michael J.; Marzwell, Neville L.; Sanders, Gerald; Schlagheck, Ron; Semmes, Ed; Bassler, Julie; Cook, Beth

    2004-01-01

    The Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) is moving aggressively to align programs, projects, and products with the vision for space exploration. Research in advanced materials is a critical element in meeting exploration goals. Research in low gravity materials science in OBPR is being focused on top priority needs in support of exploration: 1) Space Radiation Shielding; 2) In Situ Resource Utilization; 3) In Situ Fabrication and Repair; 4) Materials Science for Spacecraft and Propulsion Systems; 5) Materials Science for Advanced Life Support Systems. Roles and responsibilities in low gravity materials research for exploration between OBPR and the Office of Exploration Systems are evolving.

  12. Scientific Research in Computer Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwa al-Yasiry

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper displays the importance of selection research objective and supervisor; In addition this paper suggested the optimal research methods that help researcher to get to optimal results in efficient way. This paper shows the thesis writing style and arrangement in way that to be readable for reader about reality of type and size of the work. The one important result of this paper it's the successful of scientific research must depend about many features that join together and miss one of the research methods that mean unsuccessful research.

  13. High school science fair and research integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinnell, Frederick; Dalley, Simon; Shepherd, Karen; Reisch, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Research misconduct has become an important matter of concern in the scientific community. The extent to which such behavior occurs early in science education has received little attention. In the current study, using the web-based data collection program REDCap, we obtained responses to an anonymous and voluntary survey about science fair from 65 high school students who recently competed in the Dallas Regional Science and Engineering Fair and from 237 STEM-track, post-high school students (undergraduates, 1st year medical students, and 1st year biomedical graduate students) doing research at UT Southwestern Medical Center. Of the post-high school students, 24% had competed in science fair during their high school education. Science fair experience was similar overall for the local cohort of Dallas regional students and the more diverse state/national cohort of post-high school students. Only one student out of 122 reported research misconduct, in his case making up the data. Unexpectedly, post-high school students who did not participate in science fair anticipated that carrying out science fair would be much more difficult than actually was the case, and 22% of the post-high school students anticipated that science fair participants would resort to research misconduct to overcome obstacles. No gender-based differences between students' science fair experiences or expectations were evident.

  14. Left Preference for Sport Tasks Does Not Necessarily Indicate Left-Handedness: Sport-Specific Lateral Preferences, Relationship with Handedness and Implications for Laterality Research in Behavioural Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffing, Florian; Sölter, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In the elite domain of interactive sports, athletes who demonstrate a left preference (e.g., holding a weapon with the left hand in fencing or boxing in a ‘southpaw’ stance) seem overrepresented. Such excess indicates a performance advantage and was also interpreted as evidence in favour of frequency-dependent selection mechanisms to explain the maintenance of left-handedness in humans. To test for an overrepresentation, the incidence of athletes' lateral preferences is typically compared with an expected ratio of left- to right-handedness in the normal population. However, the normal population reference values did not always relate to the sport-specific tasks of interest, which may limit the validity of reports of an excess of ‘left-oriented’ athletes. Here we sought to determine lateral preferences for various sport-specific tasks (e.g., baseball batting, boxing) in the normal population and to examine the relationship between these preferences and handedness. To this end, we asked 903 participants to indicate their lateral preferences for sport-specific and common tasks using a paper-based questionnaire. Lateral preferences varied considerably across the different sport tasks and we found high variation in the relationship between those preferences and handedness. In contrast to unimanual tasks (e.g., fencing or throwing), for bimanually controlled actions such as baseball batting, shooting in ice hockey or boxing the incidence of left preferences was considerably higher than expected from the proportion of left-handedness in the normal population and the relationship with handedness was relatively low. We conclude that (i) task-specific reference values are mandatory for reliably testing for an excess of athletes with a left preference, (ii) the term ‘handedness’ should be more cautiously used within the context of sport-related laterality research and (iii) observation of lateral preferences in sports may be of limited suitability for the

  15. Left preference for sport tasks does not necessarily indicate left-handedness: sport-specific lateral preferences, relationship with handedness and implications for laterality research in behavioural sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffing, Florian; Sölter, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In the elite domain of interactive sports, athletes who demonstrate a left preference (e.g., holding a weapon with the left hand in fencing or boxing in a 'southpaw' stance) seem overrepresented. Such excess indicates a performance advantage and was also interpreted as evidence in favour of frequency-dependent selection mechanisms to explain the maintenance of left-handedness in humans. To test for an overrepresentation, the incidence of athletes' lateral preferences is typically compared with an expected ratio of left- to right-handedness in the normal population. However, the normal population reference values did not always relate to the sport-specific tasks of interest, which may limit the validity of reports of an excess of 'left-oriented' athletes. Here we sought to determine lateral preferences for various sport-specific tasks (e.g., baseball batting, boxing) in the normal population and to examine the relationship between these preferences and handedness. To this end, we asked 903 participants to indicate their lateral preferences for sport-specific and common tasks using a paper-based questionnaire. Lateral preferences varied considerably across the different sport tasks and we found high variation in the relationship between those preferences and handedness. In contrast to unimanual tasks (e.g., fencing or throwing), for bimanually controlled actions such as baseball batting, shooting in ice hockey or boxing the incidence of left preferences was considerably higher than expected from the proportion of left-handedness in the normal population and the relationship with handedness was relatively low. We conclude that (i) task-specific reference values are mandatory for reliably testing for an excess of athletes with a left preference, (ii) the term 'handedness' should be more cautiously used within the context of sport-related laterality research and (iii) observation of lateral preferences in sports may be of limited suitability for the verification of

  16. Left preference for sport tasks does not necessarily indicate left-handedness: sport-specific lateral preferences, relationship with handedness and implications for laterality research in behavioural sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Loffing

    Full Text Available In the elite domain of interactive sports, athletes who demonstrate a left preference (e.g., holding a weapon with the left hand in fencing or boxing in a 'southpaw' stance seem overrepresented. Such excess indicates a performance advantage and was also interpreted as evidence in favour of frequency-dependent selection mechanisms to explain the maintenance of left-handedness in humans. To test for an overrepresentation, the incidence of athletes' lateral preferences is typically compared with an expected ratio of left- to right-handedness in the normal population. However, the normal population reference values did not always relate to the sport-specific tasks of interest, which may limit the validity of reports of an excess of 'left-oriented' athletes. Here we sought to determine lateral preferences for various sport-specific tasks (e.g., baseball batting, boxing in the normal population and to examine the relationship between these preferences and handedness. To this end, we asked 903 participants to indicate their lateral preferences for sport-specific and common tasks using a paper-based questionnaire. Lateral preferences varied considerably across the different sport tasks and we found high variation in the relationship between those preferences and handedness. In contrast to unimanual tasks (e.g., fencing or throwing, for bimanually controlled actions such as baseball batting, shooting in ice hockey or boxing the incidence of left preferences was considerably higher than expected from the proportion of left-handedness in the normal population and the relationship with handedness was relatively low. We conclude that (i task-specific reference values are mandatory for reliably testing for an excess of athletes with a left preference, (ii the term 'handedness' should be more cautiously used within the context of sport-related laterality research and (iii observation of lateral preferences in sports may be of limited suitability for the

  17. Practice in Digital Research Spaces to Engage Students with eScience

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBard, Rebecca J.; Hibbert, D. Brynn; Quinnell, Rosanne

    2017-01-01

    New and emerging digital technologies are making an impact on how we practice science, and this has implications on how we teach science. We introduce the concept of the Electronic Laboratory Notebook (ELN) as used in the research environment and describe how we have implemented this as a tool for providing undergraduate science students with an…

  18. Medical education research as translational science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaghie, William C

    2010-02-17

    Research on medical education is translational science when rigorous studies on trainee clinical skill and knowledge acquisition address key health care problems and measure outcomes in controlled laboratory settings (T1 translational research); when these outcomes transfer to clinics, wards, and offices where better health care is delivered (T2); and when patient or public health improves as a result of educational practices (T3). This Commentary covers features of medical education interventions and environments that contribute to translational outcomes, reviews selected research studies that advance translational science in medical education at all three levels, and presents pathways to improve medical education translational science.

  19. Undergraduate Research in Quantum Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum Information Science (QIS) is an interdisciplinary field involving mathematics, computer science, and physics. Appealing aspects include an abundance of accessible open problems, active interest and support from government and industry, and an energetic, open, and collaborative international research culture. We describe our student-faculty…

  20. Science Learning Environments and Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Dunlop, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    A learning environment survey can be easily used in the science classroom to evaluate new instructional approaches, to spark enthusiasm, and to produce evidence showing that science teachers are indeed becoming a reflective practitioner. Conducting learning environment research in the classroom is personally rewarding as well. It allows science…

  1. Recent Research in Science Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    This article is designed to point "CBE-Life Sciences Education" readers to current articles of interest in life sciences education as well as more general and noteworthy publications in education research. URLs are provided for the abstracts or full text of articles. For articles listed as "Abstract available," full text may be…

  2. Science Granting Councils Initiative: Research uptake | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Science Granting Councils Initiative in sub-Saharan Africa aims to strengthen the capacities of science granting councils in sub-Saharan Africa to support research and evidence-based policies that contribute to economic and social development. The initiative's activities include training, regional exchanges and forums, ...

  3. Outcomes research: science and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Henry H; Xiang, Mei-xiang; Wang, Jian-an

    2013-08-01

    Outcomes research, which investigates the outcomes of health care practices, is intended to provide scientific evidence for clinical decision making and health care. This paper elucidates the goal and domains of outcomes research. Also it shows the potential and promise of outcomes research to provide a methodology to uncover what to do and how to do it, and enable the health care profession to achieve the right care, for the right patient, at the right time, the first time, every time, nothing more, and nothing less.

  4. Recontextualization of Science from Lab to School: Implications for Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajay; Anderson, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    Scientists' science differs remarkably from school science. In order to be taught to students, science is recontextualized from scientific research communities to science classrooms. This paper examines scientific discourse in scientific research communities, and discusses its transformation from an internally-persuasive and authoritative…

  5. Computer science research and technology volume 3

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Janice P

    2011-01-01

    This book presents leading-edge research from across the globe in the field of computer science research, technology and applications. Each contribution has been carefully selected for inclusion based on the significance of the research to this fast-moving and diverse field. Some topics included are: network topology; agile programming; virtualization; and reconfigurable computing.

  6. Evaluating an artifact in design science research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, M

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the iterative evaluation of an artifact developed through the application of Design Science Research (DSR) methodology in a resource constrained environment. In the DSR process the aspect of evaluation is often done...

  7. Information Science Research Institute. Quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nartker, T.A.

    1994-06-30

    This is a second quarter 1194 progress report on the UNLV Information Science Research Institute. Included is symposium activity; staff activity; document analysis program; text retrieval program; institute activity; and goals.

  8. Reproducible research in vadose zone sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant portion of present-day soil and Earth science research is computational, involving complex data analysis pipelines, advanced mathematical and statistical models, and sophisticated computer codes. Opportunities for scientific progress are greatly diminished if reproducing and building o...

  9. Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 3 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. South African Antarctic earth science research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SASCAR

    1984-02-01

    Full Text Available This document describes the past, current and planned future South African earth science research programme in the Antarctic, Southern Ocean and subantarctic regions. The scientific programme comprises five components into which present and future...

  13. Sensory science research on taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Recent ethnographies from the anthropology of food and the senses have shown how moments in which people taste foods are shaped by scientific knowledge, methods and rationales. Building on approaches developed in science and technology studies, this paper offers an ethnography of the field to which...... this shaping power has been assigned: the scientific study of taste. Detailed tracing and analysis of two laboratory experiments on taste performed in laboratories in Western Europe brings out how both turn moments in which people taste into a bodily response. At the same time, since their technical set......-ups address different societal problems and varying interest groups, they stage diverging versions: a perception versus a reaction to an exposure. The paper, thus, sheds light on how cultural and social norms, ideals, and practices shape the knowledge production about taste and its resulting effects....

  14. Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denit, Jeffery; Planicka, J. Gregory

    1998-12-01

    This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern.

  15. Materials irradiation research in neutron science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Kenji; Oyama, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    Materials irradiation researches are planned in Neutron Science Research Program. A materials irradiation facility has been conceived as one of facilities in the concept of Neutron Science Research Center at JAERI. The neutron irradiation field of the facility is characterized by high flux of spallation neutrons with very wide energy range up to several hundred MeV, good accessibility to the irradiation field, good controllability of irradiation conditions, etc. Extensive use of such a materials irradiation facility is expected for fundamental materials irradiation researches and R and D of nuclear energy systems such as accelerator-driven incineration plant for long-lifetime nuclear waste. In this paper, outline concept of the materials irradiation facility, characteristics of the irradiation field, preliminary technical evaluation of target to generate spallation neutrons, and materials researches expected for Neutron Science Research program are described. (author)

  16. Indigenous Knowledge Systems: implications for natural science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    whether or not the artefacts and activities of the setting allow students to engage in practices that bear ... ful to refer to the Mode 1 and Mode 2 models of knowledge produc- tion, postulated by Gibbons (in Kraak, 2001). ..... nology educators can thus "avoid the standard didacticism of mathe- matics and science teaching" ...

  17. Basic Research in Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Widgets 82 6.5.6 Debugging 83 6.5.7 Utilities 84 6.6 Higher-Level Tools 84 6.6.1 Gilt 85 6.6.2 Lapidary 86 6.6.3 C32 86 6.6.4 Marquise 86 6.7...phase of the research-facilitating the eventual transfer of the technology, providing feedback for the ongoing basic-sensor research, and demonstrating... feedback object might have constraints that say "I am the same size as whatever I’m over," and then at runtime, the program will set the referent

  18. International Conference on Data Science & Social Research

    CERN Document Server

    Amaturo, Enrica; Grassia, Maria; Aragona, Biagio; Marino, Marina

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume lays the groundwork for Social Data Science, addressing epistemological issues, methods, technologies, software and applications of data science in the social sciences. It presents data science techniques for the collection, analysis and use of both online and offline new (big) data in social research and related applications. Among others, the individual contributions cover topics like social media, learning analytics, clustering, statistical literacy, recurrence analysis and network analysis. Data science is a multidisciplinary approach based mainly on the methods of statistics and computer science, and its aim is to develop appropriate methodologies for forecasting and decision-making in response to an increasingly complex reality often characterized by large amounts of data (big data) of various types (numeric, ordinal and nominal variables, symbolic data, texts, images, data streams, multi-way data, social networks etc.) and from diverse sources. This book presents selected papers from...

  19. Big data science: A literature review of nursing research exemplars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Bonnie L; Sylvia, Martha; Weinfurter, Elizabeth F; Pruinelli, Lisiane; Park, Jung In; Dodd, Dianna; Keenan, Gail M; Senk, Patricia; Richesson, Rachel L; Baukner, Vicki; Cruz, Christopher; Gao, Grace; Whittenburg, Luann; Delaney, Connie W

    Big data and cutting-edge analytic methods in nursing research challenge nurse scientists to extend the data sources and analytic methods used for discovering and translating knowledge. The purpose of this study was to identify, analyze, and synthesize exemplars of big data nursing research applied to practice and disseminated in key nursing informatics, general biomedical informatics, and nursing research journals. A literature review of studies published between 2009 and 2015. There were 650 journal articles identified in 17 key nursing informatics, general biomedical informatics, and nursing research journals in the Web of Science database. After screening for inclusion and exclusion criteria, 17 studies published in 18 articles were identified as big data nursing research applied to practice. Nurses clearly are beginning to conduct big data research applied to practice. These studies represent multiple data sources and settings. Although numerous analytic methods were used, the fundamental issue remains to define the types of analyses consistent with big data analytic methods. There are needs to increase the visibility of big data and data science research conducted by nurse scientists, further examine the use of state of the science in data analytics, and continue to expand the availability and use of a variety of scientific, governmental, and industry data resources. A major implication of this literature review is whether nursing faculty and preparation of future scientists (PhD programs) are prepared for big data and data science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Operational research as implementation science: definitions, challenges and research priorities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monks, Thomas

    ...; and many other complex implementation problems of an operational or logistical nature. To date, there has been limited debate about the role that operational research should take within implementation science...

  1. Nanotechnology research: applications in nutritional sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Pothur R; Philbert, Martin; Vu, Tania Q; Huang, Qingrong; Kokini, Josef L; Saltos, Etta; Saos, Etta; Chen, Hongda; Peterson, Charles M; Friedl, Karl E; McDade-Ngutter, Crystal; Hubbard, Van; Starke-Reed, Pamela; Miller, Nancy; Betz, Joseph M; Dwyer, Johanna; Milner, John; Ross, Sharon A

    2010-01-01

    The tantalizing potential of nanotechnology is to fabricate and combine nanoscale approaches and building blocks to make useful tools and, ultimately, interventions for medical science, including nutritional science, at the scale of approximately 1-100 nm. In the past few years, tools and techniques that facilitate studies and interventions in the nanoscale range have become widely available and have drawn widespread attention. Recently, investigators in the food and nutrition sciences have been applying the tools of nanotechnology in their research. The Experimental Biology 2009 symposium entitled "Nanotechnology Research: Applications in Nutritional Sciences" was organized to highlight emerging applications of nanotechnology to the food and nutrition sciences, as well as to suggest ways for further integration of these emerging technologies into nutrition research. Speakers focused on topics that included the problems and possibilities of introducing nanoparticles in clinical or nutrition settings, nanotechnology applications for increasing bioavailability of bioactive food components in new food products, nanotechnology opportunities in food science, as well as emerging safety and regulatory issues in this area, and the basic research applications such as the use of quantum dots to visualize cellular processes and protein-protein interactions. The session highlighted several emerging areas of potential utility in nutrition research. Nutrition scientists are encouraged to leverage ongoing efforts in nanomedicine through collaborations. These efforts could facilitate exploration of previously inaccessible cellular compartments and intracellular pathways and thus uncover strategies for new prevention and therapeutic modalities.

  2. Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology Research Directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowndes, D. H.; Alivisatos, A. P.; Alper, M.; Averback, R. S.; Jacob Barhen, J.; Eastman, J. A.; Imre, D.; Lowndes, D. H.; McNulty, I.; Michalske, T. A.; Ho, K-M; Nozik, A. J.; Russell, T. P.; Valentin, R. A.; Welch, D. O.; Barhen, J.; Agnew, S. R.; Bellon, P.; Blair, J.; Boatner, L. A.; Braiman, Y.; Budai, J. D.; Crabtree, G. W.; Feldman, L. C.; Flynn, C. P.; Geohegan, D. B.; George, E. P.; Greenbaum, E.; Grigoropoulos, C.; Haynes, T. E.; Heberlein, J.; Hichman, J.; Holland, O. W.; Honda, S.; Horton, J. A.; Hu, M. Z.-C.; Jesson, D. E.; Joy, D. C.; Krauss, A.; Kwok, W.-K.; Larson, B. C.; Larson, D. J.; Likharev, K.; Liu, C. T.; Majumdar, A.; Maziasz, P. J.; Meldrum, A.; Miller, J. C.; Modine, F. A.; Pennycook, S. J.; Pharr, G. M.; Phillpot, S.; Price, D. L.; Protopopescu, V.; Poker, D. B.; Pui, D.; Ramsey, J. M.; Rao, N.; Reichl, L.; Roberto, J.; Saboungi, M-L; Simpson, M.; Strieffer, S.; Thundat, T.; Wambsganss, M.; Wendleken, J.; White, C. W.; Wilemski, G.; Withrow, S. P.; Wolf, D.; Zhu, J. H.; Zuhr, R. A.; Zunger, A.; Lowe, S.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes important future research directions in nanoscale science, engineering and technology. It was prepared in connection with an anticipated national research initiative on nanotechnology for the twenty-first century. The research directions described are not expected to be inclusive but illustrate the wide range of research opportunities and challenges that could be undertaken through the national laboratories and their major national scientific user facilities with the support of universities and industry.

  3. Research in the Optical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    c2dt2 ( + y (dr2 + r2d02 + r2 sin 2O d02 ) r r 2ac + d~dt, (9) where the Schwarzschild radius rs = 2M G/c 2 and a = 1 r P sin The values of the...laser whose efeCtive aperture size param- Acknowledgement eter q is unity, that is, rp = (=nr)"’ at : = 0. For this case the radius of the circle...for a quasihomo- the Army Research Office. United States Army. geneous source whose effective aperture size is 10 times the radius of the laser aperture

  4. Making science accessible through collaborative science teacher action research on feminist pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, Brenda M.

    research. This study revealed that there are no uniform solutions or standard methods to address issues of equity and accessibility in science education. This study recommends teachers be given time, support, and freedom to collaborate with other teacher-researchers, enact decisions for change, and reflect on and make public the results of their work. Additional implications suggest science teacher educators collaborate with practicing science teachers to devise practical applications and feasible resources for a wider audience.

  5. Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Research Organization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Soutien organisationnel de la phase 2 de l'Initiative Think tank : Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Research Organization ... This funding will help strengthen the Economic and Social Research Foundation's (ESRF) role as a credible public policy institution in Tanzania by enhancing its ability to provide ...

  6. Educational Technology Research Journals: "Instructional Science,"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrie, Curtis R.; Williams, Greg S.; West, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    The authors analyzed all research articles published between 2002 and 2011 in the international journal "Instructional Science," with a goal to provide an understanding of the type of research being published in this journal, major contributing authors, and the most-cited publications of this time period. They examined research…

  7. The future research of material science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Hironobu [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), which was established on 1 April, consists of two institutes. One of these is Institute of Materials Structure Science. New research program in the new institute using synchrotron radiation, neutrons and muons are discussed. (author)

  8. Reforms in Nigerian education sector: Implications for Science and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the state of Education in Nigeria, the current educational reforms and their implications for science and technology education. It reviews various score sheets for the state of the countries educational system pointing to indicators of the system being inefficient, and attendantly calling for a reformation.

  9. Bad Science and Its Social Implications: Historical Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, Dana L.; Sadler, Troy D.

    This paper inquires into the topic of bad science and its social implications by examining selected issues aimed at elucidating some of the brute facts of scientific progress. It should be noted that the paper is also situated in at least 3 of the 10 overarching thematic strands that form the basis of the societal studies standards: cultural…

  10. Nanotechnology Research: Applications in Nutritional Sciences12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Pothur R.; Philbert, Martin; Vu, Tania Q.; Huang, Qingrong; Kokini, Josef L.; Saos, Etta; Chen, Hongda; Peterson, Charles M.; Friedl, Karl E.; McDade-Ngutter, Crystal; Hubbard, Van; Starke-Reed, Pamela; Miller, Nancy; Betz, Joseph M.; Dwyer, Johanna; Milner, John; Ross, Sharon A.

    2010-01-01

    The tantalizing potential of nanotechnology is to fabricate and combine nanoscale approaches and building blocks to make useful tools and, ultimately, interventions for medical science, including nutritional science, at the scale of ∼1–100 nm. In the past few years, tools and techniques that facilitate studies and interventions in the nanoscale range have become widely available and have drawn widespread attention. Recently, investigators in the food and nutrition sciences have been applying the tools of nanotechnology in their research. The Experimental Biology 2009 symposium entitled “Nanotechnology Research: Applications in Nutritional Sciences” was organized to highlight emerging applications of nanotechnology to the food and nutrition sciences, as well as to suggest ways for further integration of these emerging technologies into nutrition research. Speakers focused on topics that included the problems and possibilities of introducing nanoparticles in clinical or nutrition settings, nanotechnology applications for increasing bioavailability of bioactive food components in new food products, nanotechnology opportunities in food science, as well as emerging safety and regulatory issues in this area, and the basic research applications such as the use of quantum dots to visualize cellular processes and protein-protein interactions. The session highlighted several emerging areas of potential utility in nutrition research. Nutrition scientists are encouraged to leverage ongoing efforts in nanomedicine through collaborations. These efforts could facilitate exploration of previously inaccessible cellular compartments and intracellular pathways and thus uncover strategies for new prevention and therapeutic modalities. PMID:19939997

  11. Global change research: Science and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S.

    1993-05-01

    This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change.

  12. Molecular Science Research Center 1992 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knotek, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Molecular Science Research Center is a designated national user facility, available to scientists from universities, industry, and other national laboratories. After an opening section, which includes conferences hosted, appointments, and projects, this document presents progress in the following fields: chemical structure and dynamics; environmental dynamics and simulation; macromolecular structure and dynamics; materials and interfaces; theory, modeling, and simulation; and computing and information sciences. Appendices are included: MSRC staff and associates, 1992 publications and presentations, activities, and acronyms and abbreviations.

  13. Faith in science in global perspective: Implications for transhumanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John H

    2014-10-01

    While citizens can know scientific facts, they also have faith in science - with faith defined as a firm belief for which there is no proof. Using national public opinion surveys from twelve nations from 1993 to 2010, I examine three different types of faith in science that citizens could hold. I examine temporal changes in levels of faith in science as well as the social determinants of each type of faith. I focus on the implications of these levels of faith for the transhumanist movement, which is particularly dependent on faith in science. I find that two of three types of faith in science are on the rise across the West, and that the social determinants of these types of faith suggest particular challenges for the transhumanist movement. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Design science research as research approach in doctoral studies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kotzé, P

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Proceedings, Puerto Rico, 13 - 15 August 2015 Design science research as research approach in doctoral studies Paula Kotzé CSIR Meraka Institute and Department of Informatics, University of Pretoria paula.kotze@meraka.org.za Alta van der Merwe...

  15. Research in Institutional Economics in Management Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    . In (sub-)disciplinary terms, organization, strategy, corporate governance, and international business are the major areas of application of institutional economics ideas. In terms of countries, the EU strongholds are Holland, Denmark, UK, and Germany. There is apparently no or very little relevant......This report maps research in institutional economics in management science in the European Union for the 1995 to 2002 period. The reports applies Internet search based on a university listing, search on journal databases, key informants and an internet-based survey. 195 researchers are identified...... is partly explainable by the highly pragmatic way in which research in management science is typically conducted (so that institutional economics approaches are likely to be merely one type of input among many). Keywords Institutional economics, management science, European union....

  16. MSRR Rack Materials Science Research Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Shawn

    2017-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). The MSRR is managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, AL. The MSRR facility subsystems were manufactured by Teledyne Brown Engineering (TBE) and integrated with the ESA/EADS-Astrium developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) at the MSFC Space Station Integration and Test Facility (SSITF) as part of the Systems Development Operations Support (SDOS) contract. MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009, and is currently installed in the U. S. Destiny Laboratory Module on the ISS. Materials science is an integral part of developing new, safer, stronger, more durable materials for use throughout everyday life. The goal of studying materials processing in space is to develop a better understanding of the chemical and physical mechanisms involved, and how they differ in the microgravity environment of space. To that end, the MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment of the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. Currently the NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA developed Materials

  17. Science, Science Signaling, and Science Translational Medicine – AAAS Special Collection on Cancer Research, March 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsythe, Katherine H.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Cancer Act, signed in 1971, aimed to eliminate cancer deaths through a massive increase in research funding. The American Association for the Advancement of Science, the publisher of Science, Science Signaling, and Science Translational Medicine, observed the 40th anniversary of the Cancer Act in 2011, with special research articles and features, found in all three journals, on the state of cancer research 40 years later. This collection of articles explores both breakthroughs and the challenges in cancer research over the last four decades, and lets us know what we might expect in the future.

  18. Data-Intensive Science and Research Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Elliott, Kevin C; Soranno, Patricia A; Smith, Elise M

    2017-01-01

    In this commentary, we consider questions related to research integrity in data-intensive science and argue that there is no need to create a distinct category of misconduct that applies to deception related to processing, analyzing, or interpreting data. The best way to promote integrity in data-intensive science is to maintain a firm commitment to epistemological and ethical values, such as honesty, openness, transparency, and objectivity, which apply to all types of research, and to promote education, policy development, and scholarly debate concerning appropriate uses of statistics.

  19. Community centrality and social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have.

  20. How Do Scientists Define Openness? Exploring the Relationship Between Open Science Policies and Research Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Nadine; Leonelli, Sabina; Weckowska, Dagmara; Castle, David; Dupré, John

    2016-06-01

    This article documents how biomedical researchers in the United Kingdom understand and enact the idea of "openness." This is of particular interest to researchers and science policy worldwide in view of the recent adoption of pioneering policies on Open Science and Open Access by the U.K. government-policies whose impact on and implications for research practice are in need of urgent evaluation, so as to decide on their eventual implementation elsewhere. This study is based on 22 in-depth interviews with U.K. researchers in systems biology, synthetic biology, and bioinformatics, which were conducted between September 2013 and February 2014. Through an analysis of the interview transcripts, we identify seven core themes that characterize researchers' understanding of openness in science and nine factors that shape the practice of openness in research. Our findings highlight the implications that Open Science policies can have for research processes and outcomes and provide recommendations for enhancing their content, effectiveness, and implementation.

  1. Trends of Science Education Research: An Automatic Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Chang, Chun-Yen; Tseng, Yuen-Hsien

    2010-01-01

    This study used scientometric methods to conduct an automatic content analysis on the development trends of science education research from the published articles in the four journals of "International Journal of Science Education, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Research in Science Education, and Science Education" from 1990 to 2007. The…

  2. Undergraduate Research or Research-Based Courses: Which Is Most Beneficial for Science Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Donoso, Ruby; González, Carlos

    2017-06-01

    Over the last 25 years, both research literature and practice-oriented reports have claimed the need for improving the quality of undergraduate science education through linking research and teaching. Two manners of doing this are reported: undergraduate research and research-based courses. Although there are studies reporting benefits of participating in these experiences, few synthesize their findings. In this article, we present a literature review aimed at synthesizing and comparing results of the impact of participating in these research experiences to establish which approach is most beneficial for students to develop as scientists. Twenty studies on student participation in undergraduate research and research-based courses were reviewed. Results show that both types of experiences have positive effects on students. These results have implications for both practice and research. Regarding practice, we propose ideas for designing and implementing experiences that combine both types of experiences. Concerning research, we identify some methodological limitations that should be addressed in further studies.

  3. Using Network Science to Support Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parraguez Ruiz, Pedro; Maier, Anja

    2016-01-01

    A network-based perspective on designing permits research on the complexity of product, process, and people interactions. Strengthened by the latest advances in information technologies and accessibility of data, a network-based perspective and use of appropriate network analysis metrics, theories......, and tools allow us to explore new data-driven research approaches in design. These approaches allow us to move from counting to connecting, meaning to explicitly link disconnected pieces of data, information, and knowledge, and thus to answer far-reaching research questions with strong industrial...... and societal impact. This chapter contributes to the use of network science in empirical studies of design organisations. It focuses on introducing a network-based perspective on the design process and in particular on making use of network science to support design research and practice. The main contribution...

  4. A collaboratively-derived science-policy research agenda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Sutherland

    Full Text Available The need for policy makers to understand science and for scientists to understand policy processes is widely recognised. However, the science-policy relationship is sometimes difficult and occasionally dysfunctional; it is also increasingly visible, because it must deal with contentious issues, or itself becomes a matter of public controversy, or both. We suggest that identifying key unanswered questions on the relationship between science and policy will catalyse and focus research in this field. To identify these questions, a collaborative procedure was employed with 52 participants selected to cover a wide range of experience in both science and policy, including people from government, non-governmental organisations, academia and industry. These participants consulted with colleagues and submitted 239 questions. An initial round of voting was followed by a workshop in which 40 of the most important questions were identified by further discussion and voting. The resulting list includes questions about the effectiveness of science-based decision-making structures; the nature and legitimacy of expertise; the consequences of changes such as increasing transparency; choices among different sources of evidence; the implications of new means of characterising and representing uncertainties; and ways in which policy and political processes affect what counts as authoritative evidence. We expect this exercise to identify important theoretical questions and to help improve the mutual understanding and effectiveness of those working at the interface of science and policy.

  5. A Collaboratively-Derived Science-Policy Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, William J.; Bellingan, Laura; Bellingham, Jim R.; Blackstock, Jason J.; Bloomfield, Robert M.; Bravo, Michael; Cadman, Victoria M.; Cleevely, David D.; Clements, Andy; Cohen, Anthony S.; Cope, David R.; Daemmrich, Arthur A.; Devecchi, Cristina; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Denegri, Simon; Doubleday, Robert; Dusic, Nicholas R.; Evans, Robert J.; Feng, Wai Y.; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Harris, Paul; Hartley, Sue E.; Hester, Alison J.; Holmes, John; Hughes, Alan; Hulme, Mike; Irwin, Colin; Jennings, Richard C.; Kass, Gary S.; Littlejohns, Peter; Marteau, Theresa M.; McKee, Glenn; Millstone, Erik P.; Nuttall, William J.; Owens, Susan; Parker, Miles M.; Pearson, Sarah; Petts, Judith; Ploszek, Richard; Pullin, Andrew S.; Reid, Graeme; Richards, Keith S.; Robinson, John G.; Shaxson, Louise; Sierra, Leonor; Smith, Beck G.; Spiegelhalter, David J.; Stilgoe, Jack; Stirling, Andy; Tyler, Christopher P.; Winickoff, David E.; Zimmern, Ron L.

    2012-01-01

    The need for policy makers to understand science and for scientists to understand policy processes is widely recognised. However, the science-policy relationship is sometimes difficult and occasionally dysfunctional; it is also increasingly visible, because it must deal with contentious issues, or itself becomes a matter of public controversy, or both. We suggest that identifying key unanswered questions on the relationship between science and policy will catalyse and focus research in this field. To identify these questions, a collaborative procedure was employed with 52 participants selected to cover a wide range of experience in both science and policy, including people from government, non-governmental organisations, academia and industry. These participants consulted with colleagues and submitted 239 questions. An initial round of voting was followed by a workshop in which 40 of the most important questions were identified by further discussion and voting. The resulting list includes questions about the effectiveness of science-based decision-making structures; the nature and legitimacy of expertise; the consequences of changes such as increasing transparency; choices among different sources of evidence; the implications of new means of characterising and representing uncertainties; and ways in which policy and political processes affect what counts as authoritative evidence. We expect this exercise to identify important theoretical questions and to help improve the mutual understanding and effectiveness of those working at the interface of science and policy. PMID:22427809

  6. Environmental Social Sciences: Methods and Research Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Spoon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of Environmental Social Sciences: Methods and Research Design. Ismael Vaccaro, Eric Alden Smith, and Shankar Aswani, eds. 2010. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Pp. 396, 41 b/w illustrations, 20 tables. US$49.99 (paperback. ISBN 9780521125710.

  7. Science Teacher Development through Collaborative Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Xavier; Melville, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the views and actions of four science teachers participating in a collaborative action research project. A qualitative case study approach was used to describe and analyze the development of these teachers. This development initially involved the teachers critically comparing their extant practices to current developments in…

  8. Chain and network science: A research framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omta, S.W.F.; Trienekens, J.H.; Beers, G.

    2001-01-01

    In this first article of the Journal on Chain and Network Science the base-line is set for a discussion on contents and scope of chain and network theory. Chain and network research is clustered into four main ‘streams’: Network theory, social capital theory, supply chain management and business

  9. Legal implications of genetics and crime research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denno, D W

    1996-01-01

    Two controversial topics dominate discussions of the legal implications of genetics and crime research; (1) the viability and politics of such research, which has sparked fervent debate in the USA; and (2) the current status of new or atypical criminal law defences, which would include a genetic-defect defence to criminal behaviour. This chapter begins by examining the scientifically discredited XYY chromosome syndrome defence, the major genetic-defect defence that defendants have attempted, albeit unsuccessfully. It then focuses on attorneys' efforts to test for evidence of genetic abnormality in the recent and highly publicized case involving convicted murderer Stephen Mobley, whose family history reveals four generations of violent, aggressive and behaviourally disordered men and women. Mobley is currently appealing his death sentence before the Georgia Supreme Court on the basis that the trial court denied his request both to have genetic testing performed and to have such testing allowed as evidence into court. This chapter concludes by emphasizing that the question is not whether genetic evidence will ever be admitted into court, but when and under what kinds of circumstances. No doubt, genetic evidence, and comparable kinds of biological evidence, will have a major impact on juries when such evidence is more fully accepted by the legal and scientific communities.

  10. Science, Space, and Scholarship: University Research and the Strategic Defense Initiative. ASHE 1987 Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Randall D.

    Issues concerning the federal role in financing research and development (R&D) and the impact of these policies on academic research are examined. Specific concerns are whether the Reagan Administration is militarizing research and implications of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) program. National Science Foundation data are examined,…

  11. Policy Sciences in Water Resources Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Ronald G.

    1984-07-01

    As the newly appointed Policy Sciences Editor for this journal, I would like to take this opportunity to introduce myself to WRR's readership as well as to offer a few comments concerning my views of policy sciences in water resources research. I am an economist working in the area of natural resources and environmental management. As such, I've spent a good part of my research career working with noneconomists. During 1969-1972, I worked in Mexico with hydrologists and engineers from Mexico's Water Resources Ministry in efforts to assess management/investment programs for reservoir systems and systems for interbasin water transfers. Between 1972 and 1975, while serving as Chairman of the Department of Resource Economics at the University of Rhode Island, my research involved collaborative efforts with biologists and soil scientists in studies concerning the conjunctive management of reservoirs for agricultural and lagoon systems and the control of salinity levels in soils and aquifers. Since 1975, at which time I joined the faculty at the University of New Mexico, I have worked with engineers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in developing operation/management models for hot, dry rock geothermal systems and, more recently, with legal scholars and hydrologists in analyses of water rights issues. Thus I am comfortable with and appreciative of research conducted by my colleagues in systems engineering, operations research, and hydrology, as well as those in economics, law, and other social sciences.

  12. Research Misconduct and the Physical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HM Kerch; JJ Dooley

    1999-10-11

    Research misconduct includes the fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism (FFP) of concepts or ideas; some institutions have expanded this concept to include ''other serious deviations (OSD) from accepted research practice.'' An action can be evaluated as research misconduct if it involves activities unique to the practice of science and could negatively affect the scientific record. Although the number of cases of research misconduct is uncertain (formal records are kept only by the NIH and the NSF), the costs are high in integrity of the scientific record, diversions from research to investigate allegations, ruined careers of those eventually exonerated, and erosion of public confidence in science. Currently, research misconduct policies vary from institution to institution and from government agency to government agency; some have highly developed guidelines that include OSD, others have no guidelines at ail. One result has been that the federal False Claims Act has been used to pursue allegations of research misconduct and have them adjudicated in the federal court, rather than being judged by scientific peers. The federal government will soon establish a first-ever research misconduct policy that would apply to all research funded by the federal government regardless of what agency funded the research or whether the research was carried out in a government, industrial or university laboratory. Physical scientists, who up to now have only infrequently been the subject or research misconduct allegations, must none-the-less become active in the debate over research misconduct policies and how they are implemented since they will now be explicitly covered by this new federal wide policy.

  13. Research into minorities: between science and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ingilæ Landsem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the interplay between science and politics in minority research in the period 1979 to mid-1980s at the University of Tromsø. Research was influenced by different conditions at the time, such as political events and policy priorities and ideological of streams in academia. Three factors influenced the choice of theme, priorities and approaches to minority research in North Norway. The first factor was the damming of the Alta-Kautokeino river, followed by Sami rights struggle and political changes towards the Sami population in Norway. What consequences did the political case for the research for the academic environment in the Northern Norway? The second factor was the research program run by the Norwegian general scientific Research (NAVF. An analysis on the relevant themes and focus areas within minority research is undertaken on basis of the research program. Finally I will use the methodological and research political discussions on emic and etic research positions that took place in the 1980s. Was it the Sami themselves, or also the researchers belonging to the majority that had the right to pursue research on the Sami? Sources consist of internal documents, reports, research papers and oral sources from the UiT.

  14. Building an mlearning research framework through design science research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ford, M

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide an explanation of how Design Science research has been applied in order to develop a mobile learning framework for the ICT4RED project which is currently in progress in Cofimvaba in the Eastern Cape Province...

  15. Habit formation: implications for alcoholism research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Tousa, David; Grahame, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    may be alleviated through the use of high-drinking rodent lines. Additionally, satiety, one common mechanism of devaluing reinforcers, is not recommended for alcohol research because the psychoactive effects of alcohol depress response rates, mimicking devaluation effects. Overall, further research of habit formation and potentially related perseverative behaviors could be invaluable in discovering genetic variance, traits that correlate with persistent alcohol seeking, implicated neural structures and processes of alcohol use, and eventually novel pharmacological treatment for alcoholism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Unique life sciences research facilities at NASA Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulenburg, G. M.; Vasques, M.; Caldwell, W. F.; Tucker, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Life Science Division at NASA's Ames Research Center has a suite of specialized facilities that enable scientists to study the effects of gravity on living systems. This paper describes some of these facilities and their use in research. Seven centrifuges, each with its own unique abilities, allow testing of a variety of parameters on test subjects ranging from single cells through hardware to humans. The Vestibular Research Facility allows the study of both centrifugation and linear acceleration on animals and humans. The Biocomputation Center uses computers for 3D reconstruction of physiological systems, and interactive research tools for virtual reality modeling. Psycophysiological, cardiovascular, exercise physiology, and biomechanical studies are conducted in the 12 bed Human Research Facility and samples are analyzed in the certified Central Clinical Laboratory and other laboratories at Ames. Human bedrest, water immersion and lower body negative pressure equipment are also available to study physiological changes associated with weightlessness. These and other weightlessness models are used in specialized laboratories for the study of basic physiological mechanisms, metabolism and cell biology. Visual-motor performance, perception, and adaptation are studied using ground-based models as well as short term weightlessness experiments (parabolic flights). The unique combination of Life Science research facilities, laboratories, and equipment at Ames Research Center are described in detail in relation to their research contributions.

  17. Game-based Research Collaboration adapted to Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Damgaard Hansen, Sidse; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents prospects for adapting scientific discovery games to science education. In the paper a prototype of The Quantum Computing Game is presented as a working example of adapting game-based research collaboration to physics education. The game concept is the initial result of a three......-year, inter-disciplinary project “Pilot Center for Community-driven Research” at Aarhus and Aalborg University in Denmark. The paper discusses how scientific discovery games can contribute to educating students in how to work with unsolved scientific problems and creation of new scientific knowledge. Based...... on a discussion of the concrete development of the Quantum Computing Game, the aim of this paper is to open a broader discussion of the potentials and implications of developing this class of games for new types of innovative science education....

  18. DOE - BES Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beecher, Cathy Jo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-14

    These are slides from a powerpoint shown to guests during tours of Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It shows the five DOE-BES nanoscale science research centers (NSRCs), which are located at different national laboratories throughout the country. Then it goes into detail specifically about the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies at LANL, including statistics on its user community and CINT's New Mexico industrial users.

  19. An open science cloud for scientific research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bob

    2016-04-01

    The Helix Nebula initiative was presented at EGU 2013 (http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2013/EGU2013-1510-2.pdf) and has continued to expand with more research organisations, providers and services. The hybrid cloud model deployed by Helix Nebula has grown to become a viable approach for provisioning ICT services for research communities from both public and commercial service providers (http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.16001). The relevance of this approach for all those communities facing societal challenges in explained in a recent EIROforum publication (http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.34264). This presentation will describe how this model brings together a range of stakeholders to implement a common platform for data intensive services that builds upon existing public funded e-infrastructures and commercial cloud services to promote open science. It explores the essential characteristics of a European Open Science Cloud if it is to address the big data needs of the latest generation of Research Infrastructures. The high-level architecture and key services as well as the role of standards is described. A governance and financial model together with the roles of the stakeholders, including commercial service providers and downstream business sectors, that will ensure a European Open Science Cloud can innovate, grow and be sustained beyond the current project cycles is described.

  20. Research Needs for Magnetic Fusion Energy Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilson, Hutch

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear fusion — the process that powers the sun — offers an environmentally benign, intrinsically safe energy source with an abundant supply of low-cost fuel. It is the focus of an international research program, including the ITER fusion collaboration, which involves seven parties representing half the world’s population. The realization of fusion power would change the economics and ecology of energy production as profoundly as petroleum exploitation did two centuries ago. The 21st century finds fusion research in a transformed landscape. The worldwide fusion community broadly agrees that the science has advanced to the point where an aggressive action plan, aimed at the remaining barriers to practical fusion energy, is warranted. At the same time, and largely because of its scientific advance, the program faces new challenges; above all it is challenged to demonstrate the timeliness of its promised benefits. In response to this changed landscape, the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) in the US Department of Energy commissioned a number of community-based studies of the key scientific and technical foci of magnetic fusion research. The Research Needs Workshop (ReNeW) for Magnetic Fusion Energy Sciences is a capstone to these studies. In the context of magnetic fusion energy, ReNeW surveyed the issues identified in previous studies, and used them as a starting point to define and characterize the research activities that the advance of fusion as a practical energy source will require. Thus, ReNeW’s task was to identify (1) the scientific and technological research frontiers of the fusion program, and, especially, (2) a set of activities that will most effectively advance those frontiers. (Note that ReNeW was not charged with developing a strategic plan or timeline for the implementation of fusion power.)

  1. Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor); Leiner, Barry M.

    2000-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) carries out basic research and technology development in computer science, in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's missions. RIACS is located at the NASA Ames Research Center. It currently operates under a multiple year grant/cooperative agreement that began on October 1, 1997 and is up for renewal in the year 2002. Ames has been designated NASA's Center of Excellence in Information Technology. In this capacity, Ames is charged with the responsibility to build an Information Technology Research Program that is preeminent within NASA. RIACS serves as a bridge between NASA Ames and the academic community, and RIACS scientists and visitors work in close collaboration with NASA scientists. RIACS has the additional goal of broadening the base of researchers in these areas of importance to the nation's space and aeronautics enterprises. RIACS research focuses on the three cornerstones of information technology research necessary to meet the future challenges of NASA missions: (1) Automated Reasoning for Autonomous Systems. Techniques are being developed enabling spacecraft that will be self-guiding and self-correcting to the extent that they will require little or no human intervention. Such craft will be equipped to independently solve problems as they arise, and fulfill their missions with minimum direction from Earth; (2) Human-Centered Computing. Many NASA missions require synergy between humans and computers, with sophisticated computational aids amplifying human cognitive and perceptual abilities; (3) High Performance Computing and Networking. Advances in the performance of computing and networking continue to have major impact on a variety of NASA endeavors, ranging from modeling and simulation to data analysis of large datasets to collaborative engineering, planning and execution. In addition, RIACS collaborates with NASA scientists to apply information technology research to a

  2. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group: Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    Information Sciences Research Group (ISRG) research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. Particular focus in on the needs of the remote sensing research and application science community which will be served by the Earth Observing System (EOS) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The areas of georeferenced information systems, machine assisted information extraction from image data, artificial intelligence and both natural and cultural vegetation analysis and modeling research will be expanded.

  3. Qualitative Descriptive Methods in Health Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorafi, Karen Jiggins; Evans, Bronwynne

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this methodology paper is to describe an approach to qualitative design known as qualitative descriptive that is well suited to junior health sciences researchers because it can be used with a variety of theoretical approaches, sampling techniques, and data collection strategies. It is often difficult for junior qualitative researchers to pull together the tools and resources they need to embark on a high-quality qualitative research study and to manage the volumes of data they collect during qualitative studies. This paper seeks to pull together much needed resources and provide an overview of methods. A step-by-step guide to planning a qualitative descriptive study and analyzing the data is provided, utilizing exemplars from the authors' research. This paper presents steps to conducting a qualitative descriptive study under the following headings: describing the qualitative descriptive approach, designing a qualitative descriptive study, steps to data analysis, and ensuring rigor of findings. The qualitative descriptive approach results in a summary in everyday, factual language that facilitates understanding of a selected phenomenon across disciplines of health science researchers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Research in medical education: balancing service and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mathieu; Hodges, Brian; Regehr, Glenn

    2007-02-01

    Since the latter part of the 1990's, the English-speaking medical education community has been engaged in a debate concerning the types of research that should have priority. To shed light on this debate and to better understand its implications for the practice of research, 23 semi-structured interviews were conducted with "influential figures" from the community. The results were analyzed using the concept of "field" developed by the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. The results reveal that a large majority of these influential figures believe that research in medical education continues to be of insufficient quality despite the progress that has taken place over the past 2 decades. According to this group, studies tend to be both redundant and opportunistic, and researchers tend to have limited understanding of both theory and methodological practice from the social sciences. Three factors were identified by the participants to explain the current problems in research: the working conditions of researchers, budgetary restraints in financing research in medical education, and the conception of research in the medical environment. Two principal means for improving research are presented: intensifying collaboration between PhD's and clinicians, and encouraging the diversification of perspectives brought to bear on research in medical education.

  5. Science - Society Relations Enhancement: Policy Implications and Some Scientometric Evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ivancheva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the significant transformations in the social dimensions of science in last decades. It is argued that science is no more “productive force” only, but it becomes a powerful factor for economic growth, enhancement of quality of life and social prosperity. Another tendency is the enhanced science-policy interactions, as well as the growing role of knowledge transfer and research ethics. New concepts, related to the increasing importance of the social functions of science, have occurred - “knowledge society, “knowledge-based economy, “sustainable development”. The scientometric study, presented in the paper, based on counting the publications on science-society relations and issuing new scientific journals on the considered topic, supports these statements.

  6. Chemistry and materials science research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-31

    The research reported here in summary form was conducted under the auspices of Weapons-Supporting Research (WSR) and Institutional Research and Development (IR D). The period covered is the first half of FY90. The results reported here are for work in progress; thus, they may be preliminary, fragmentary, or incomplete. Research in the following areas are briefly described: energetic materials, tritium, high-Tc superconductors, interfaces, adhesion, bonding, fundamental aspects of metal processing, plutonium, synchrotron-radiation-based materials science, photocatalysis on doped aerogels, laser-induced chemistry, laser-produced molecular plasmas, chemistry of defects, dta equipment development, electronic structure study of the thermodynamic and mechanical properties of Al-Li Alloys, and the structure-property link in sub-nanometer materials.

  7. Clinical research data sharing: what an open science world means for researchers involved in evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph S

    2016-09-20

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recently announced a bold step forward to require data generated by interventional clinical trials that are published in its member journals to be responsibly shared with external investigators. The movement toward a clinical research culture that supports data sharing has important implications for the design, conduct, and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. While data sharing is likely to enhance the science of evidence synthesis, facilitating the identification and inclusion of all relevant research, it will also pose key challenges, such as requiring broader search strategies and more thorough scrutiny of identified research. Furthermore, the adoption of data sharing initiatives by the clinical research community should challenge the community of researchers involved in evidence synthesis to follow suit, including the widespread adoption of systematic review registration, results reporting, and data sharing, to promote transparency and enhance the integrity of the research process.

  8. Basic Science Research and the Protection of Human Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiseman, Elisa

    2001-03-01

    Technological advances in basic biological research have been instrumental in recent biomedical discoveries, such as in the understanding and treatment of cancer, HIV/AIDS, and heart disease. However, many of these advances also raise several new ethical challenges. For example, genetic research may pose no physical risk beyond that of obtaining the initial blood sample, yet it can pose significant psychological and economic risks to research participants, such as stigmatization, discrimination in insurance and employment, invasion of privacy, or breach of confidentiality. These harms may occur even when investigators do not directly interact with the person whose DNA they are studying. Moreover, this type of basic research also raises broader questions, such as what is the definition of a human subject, and what kinds of expertise do Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) need to review the increasingly diverse types of research made possible by these advances in technology. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC), a presidentially appointed federal advisory committee, has addressed these and other ethical, scientific and policy issues that arise in basic science research involving human participants. Two of its six reports, in particular, have proposed recommendations in this regard. "Research Involving Human Biological Materials: Ethical and Policy Guidance" addresses the basic research use of human tissues, cells and DNA and the protection of human participants in this type of research. In "Ethical and Policy Issues in the Oversight of Human Research" NBAC proposes a definition of research involving human participants that would apply to all scientific disciplines, including physical, biological, and social sciences, as well as the humanities and related professions, such as business and law. Both of these reports make it clear that the protection of research participants is key to conducting ethically sound research. By ensuring that all participants in

  9. Toward a science of transdisciplinary action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokols, Daniel

    2006-09-01

    This paper offers a conceptual framework for establishing a science of transdisciplinary action research. Lewin's (1951) concept of action research highlights the scientific and societal value of translating psychological research into community problem-solving strategies. Implicit in Lewin's formulation is the importance of achieving effective collaboration among behavioral researchers, community members and policy makers. The present analysis builds on Lewin's analysis by outlining programmatic directions for the scientific study of transdisciplinary research and community action. Three types of collaboration, and the contextual circumstances that facilitate or hinder them, are examined: (1) collaboration among scholars representing different disciplines; (2) collaboration among researchers from multiple fields and community practitioners representing diverse professional and lay perspectives; and (3) collaboration among community organizations across local, state, national, and international levels. In the present analysis, transdisciplinary action research is viewed as a topic of scientific study in its own right to achieve a more complete understanding of prior collaborations and to identify strategies for refining and sustaining future collaborations (and their intended outcomes) among researchers, community members and organizations.

  10. A research program in empirical computer science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    During the grant reporting period our primary activities have been to begin preparation for the establishment of a research program in experimental computer science. The focus of research in this program will be safety-critical systems. Many questions that arise in the effort to improve software dependability can only be addressed empirically. For example, there is no way to predict the performance of the various proposed approaches to building fault-tolerant software. Performance models, though valuable, are parameterized and cannot be used to make quantitative predictions without experimental determination of underlying distributions. In the past, experimentation has been able to shed some light on the practical benefits and limitations of software fault tolerance. It is common, also, for experimentation to reveal new questions or new aspects of problems that were previously unknown. A good example is the Consistent Comparison Problem that was revealed by experimentation and subsequently studied in depth. The result was a clear understanding of a previously unknown problem with software fault tolerance. The purpose of a research program in empirical computer science is to perform controlled experiments in the area of real-time, embedded control systems. The goal of the various experiments will be to determine better approaches to the construction of the software for computing systems that have to be relied upon. As such it will validate research concepts from other sources, provide new research results, and facilitate the transition of research results from concepts to practical procedures that can be applied with low risk to NASA flight projects. The target of experimentation will be the production software development activities undertaken by any organization prepared to contribute to the research program. Experimental goals, procedures, data analysis and result reporting will be performed for the most part by the University of Virginia.

  11. Research frontiers in the physical sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. M. T.

    2002-12-01

    As a prestigious generalist journal with a high scholarly reputation and a long influential history, the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences), is an ideal vehicle for charting research frontiers across the physical sciences. It is the world's longest running scientific journal, and all issues since its foundation in 1665 are archived electronically by JSTOR in the USA (see http://www.jstor.org/) and are accessible through most university libraries. This archive gives facsimile access, and search facilities, to the works of many famous scientists. In this brief editorial I give first an introduction to the special Christmas issues by young scientists, followed by an overview of the fields covered.

  12. Research and Practical Trends in Geospatial Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpik, A. P.; Musikhin, I. A.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years professional societies have been undergoing fundamental restructuring brought on by extensive technological change and rapid evolution of geospatial science. Almost all professional communities have been affected. Communities are embracing digital techniques, modern equipment, software and new technological solutions at a staggering pace. In this situation, when planning financial investments and intellectual resource management, it is crucial to have a clear understanding of those trends that will be in great demand in 3-7 years. This paper reviews current scientific and practical activities of such non-governmental international organizations as International Federation of Surveyors, International Cartographic Association, and International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, analyzes and groups most relevant topics brought up at their scientific events, forecasts most probable research and practical trends in geospatial sciences, outlines topmost leading countries and emerging markets for further detailed analysis of their activities, types of scientific cooperation and joint implementation projects.

  13. RESEARCH AND PRACTICAL TRENDS IN GEOSPATIAL SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Karpik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years professional societies have been undergoing fundamental restructuring brought on by extensive technological change and rapid evolution of geospatial science. Almost all professional communities have been affected. Communities are embracing digital techniques, modern equipment, software and new technological solutions at a staggering pace. In this situation, when planning financial investments and intellectual resource management, it is crucial to have a clear understanding of those trends that will be in great demand in 3-7 years. This paper reviews current scientific and practical activities of such non-governmental international organizations as International Federation of Surveyors, International Cartographic Association, and International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, analyzes and groups most relevant topics brought up at their scientific events, forecasts most probable research and practical trends in geospatial sciences, outlines topmost leading countries and emerging markets for further detailed analysis of their activities, types of scientific cooperation and joint implementation projects.

  14. Molecular Science Research Center, 1991 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knotek, M.L.

    1992-03-01

    During 1991, the Molecular Science Research Center (MSRC) experienced solid growth and accomplishment and the Environmental, and Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) construction project moved forward. We began with strong programs in chemical structure and dynamics and theory, modeling, and simulation, and both these programs continued to thrive. We also made significant advances in the development of programs in materials and interfaces and macromolecular structure and dynamics, largely as a result of the key staff recruited to lead these efforts. If there was one pervasive activity for the past year, however, it was to strengthen the role of the EMSL in the overall environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM) mission at Hanford. These extended activities involved not only MSRC and EMSL staff but all PNL scientific and technical staff engaged in ER/WM programs.

  15. Using design science in educational technology research projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Chard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Design science is a research paradigm where the development and evaluation of a technology artefact is a key contribution. Design science is used in many domains and this paper draws on those domains to formulate a generic structure for design science research suitable for educational technology research projects. The paper includes guidelines for writing proposals using the design science research methodology for educational technology research and presents a generic research report structure. The paper presents ethical issues to consider in design science research being conducted in educational settings and contributes guidelines for assessment when the research contribution involves the creation of a technology artefact.

  16. Researching sustainable agriculture: The role of values in systemic science

    OpenAIRE

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a specific perspective on the science demarcation issue, the perspective of systemic science. A systemic science is a science that influences its own subject area. Agricultural science is an example of such a science - a point that is particularly evident in connection with research in organic farming, which forms the practical context of this paper. Far from the ideal of being 'value-free' and objective, the systemic science must, upon recognising itself as systemic, ack...

  17. Research engagement of health sciences librarians: a survey of research-related activities and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lessick, MA, MLS, AHIP, FMLA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The extent to which health sciences librarians are engaged in research is a little-studied question. This study assesses the research activities and attitudes of Medical Library Association (MLA members, including the influence of work affiliation. Methods: An online survey was designed using a combination of multiple-choice and open-ended questions and distributed to MLA members. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics, content analysis, and significance testing. The authors used statistical tools and categorized openended question topics by the constant comparative method, also applying the broad subject categories used in a prior study. Pearson’s chi-square analysis was performed on responses to determine significant differences among respondents employed in three different institutional environments. Results: Analysis showed that 79% of respondents read research articles at least once a month; 58% applied published research studies to practice; 44% had conducted research; 62% reported acting on research had enhanced their libraries; 38% had presented findings; and 34% had authored research articles. Hospital librarians were significantly less likely than academic librarians to have participated in research activities. Highly ranked research benefits, barriers, and competencies of health sciences librarians are described. Conclusions: Findings indicate that health sciences librarians are actively engaged in research activities. Practice implications for practitioners, publishers, and stakeholders are discussed. Results suggest that practitioners can use published research results and results from their own research to affect practice decisions and improve services. Future studies are needed to confirm and extend these findings, including the need for intervention studies to increase research and writing productivity.

  18. Research engagement of health sciences librarians: a survey of research-related activities and attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessick, Susan; Perryman, Carol; Billman, Brooke L.; Alpi, Kristine M.; De Groote, Sandra L.; Babin, Ted D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The extent to which health sciences librarians are engaged in research is a little-studied question. This study assesses the research activities and attitudes of Medical Library Association (MLA) members, including the influence of work affiliation. Methods An online survey was designed using a combination of multiple-choice and open-ended questions and distributed to MLA members. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics, content analysis, and significance testing. The authors used statistical tools and categorized open-ended question topics by the constant comparative method, also applying the broad subject categories used in a prior study. Pearson's chi-square analysis was performed on responses to determine significant differences among respondents employed in three different institutional environments. Results Analysis showed that 79% of respondents read research articles at least once a month; 58% applied published research studies to practice; 44% had conducted research; 62% reported acting on research had enhanced their libraries; 38% had presented findings; and 34% had authored research articles. Hospital librarians were significantly less likely than academic librarians to have participated in research activities. Highly ranked research benefits, barriers, and competencies of health sciences librarians are described. Conclusions Findings indicate that health sciences librarians are actively engaged in research activities. Practice implications for practitioners, publishers, and stakeholders are discussed. Results suggest that practitioners can use published research results and results from their own research to affect practice decisions and improve services. Future studies are needed to confirm and extend these findings, including the need for intervention studies to increase research and writing productivity. PMID:27076808

  19. The Role of Public Policy in K-12 Science Education. Research in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoer, George E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this volume of "Research in Science Education" is to examine the relationship between science education policy and practice and the special role that science education researchers play in influencing policy. It has been suggested that the science education research community is isolated from the political process, pays little attention…

  20. God, design, and naturalism: Implications of methodological naturalism in science for science-religion relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bylica

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the implications flowing from adopting methodological naturalism in science, with special emphasis on the relation between science and religion. Methodological naturalism, denying supernatural and teleological explanations, influences the content of scientific theories, and in practice leads to vision of science as compatible with ontological naturalism and in opposition to theism. Ontological naturalism in turn justifies the acceptance of methodological naturalism as the best method to know the reality. If we accept realistic interpretation of scientific theories, then methodological naturalism conflicts science with religion. Theistic evolution does not seem to be a proper way to reconcile Darwinism and methodological naturalism with theism. Many of such propositions are boiled down to deism. Although evolution can be interpreted theistically, it is not the way in which majority of modern scientists and respectable scientific institutions understand it.

  1. The Medical Science Research and Development Supported by the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Min, Tae-Sun; Han, Jin; Kim, Seong-Yong; Rhee, Byoung-Doo; Kim, Myung-Suk

    2005-01-01

    This study examined ways of promoting research in the medical sciences by evaluating trends in research funding, and the present status of research funding by the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF...

  2. Accelerator R&D: Research for Science - Science for Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The HEP Accelerator R& D Task Force: N.R. Holtkamp,S. Biedron, S.V. Milton, L. Boeh, J.E. Clayton, G. Zdasiuk, S.A. Gourlay, M.S. Zisman,R.W. Hamm, S. Henderson, G.H. Hoffstaetter, L. Merminga, S. Ozaki, F.C. Pilat, M. White

    2012-07-01

    In September 2011 the US Senate Appropriations Committee requested a ten-year strategic plan from the Department of Energy (DOE) that would describe how accelerator R&D today could advance applications directly relevant to society. Based on the 2009 workshop 'Accelerators for America's Future' an assessment was made on how accelerator technology developed by the nation's laboratories and universities could directly translate into a competitive strength for industrial partners and a variety of government agencies in the research, defense and national security sectors. The Office of High Energy Physics, traditionally the steward for advanced accelerator R&D within DOE, commissioned a task force under its auspices to generate and compile ideas on how best to implement strategies that would help fulfill the needs of industry and other agencies, while maintaining focus on its core mission of fundamental science investigation.

  3. Aquatic Sciences and Its Appeal for Expeditionary Research Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, C.; Cuhel, R. L.

    2016-02-01

    Our multi-program team studies aim to develop specific "hard" and "soft" STEM skills that integrate, literally, both disciplinary and socio-economic aspects of students lives to include peer mentoring, advisement, enabling, and professional mentorship, as well as honestly productive, career-developing hands-on research. Specifically, we use Interdependent, multidisciplinary research experiences; Development and honing of specific disciplinary skill (you have to have something TO network); Use of skill in a team to produce big picture product; Interaction with varied, often outside professionals; in order to Finish with self-confidence and a marketable skill. In a given year our umbrella projects involve linked aquatic science disciplines: Analytical Chemistry; Geology; Geochemistry; Microbiology; Engineering (Remotely Operated Vehicles); and recently Policy (scientist-public engagement). We especially use expeditionary research activities aboard our research vessel in Lake Michigan, during which (a dozen at a time, from multiple programs) students: Experience ocean-scale research cruise activities; Apply a learned skill in real time to characterize a large lake; Participate in interdisciplinary teamwork; Learn interactions among biology, chemistry, geology, optics, physics for diverse aquatic habitats; and, importantly, Experience leadership as "Chief Scientist-for-a-station". These team efforts achieve beneficial outcomes: Develop self-confidence in application of skills; Enable expression of leadership capabilities; Provide opportunity to assess "love of big water"; Produce invaluable long-term dataset for the studied region (our benefit); and they are Often voted as a top influence for career decisions. These collectively have led to some positive outcomes for "historical" undergraduate participants - more than half in STEM graduate programs, only a few not still involved in a STEM career at some level, or involved as for example a lawyer in environmental policy.

  4. Using action research for teacher professional development: Research in science and technology education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oostveen, Roland Harry

    Initial plans for this project called for collaborative action research to be used as a means of providing authenticity to the teacher development process by: (1) giving teacher opportunities to improve their understanding of their subject matter, (2) allowing teachers to improve their own practice, and (3) determining factors which may affect this type of professional development. After some time it became apparent that the collaborative nature of the action research engaged in by the participating teachers needed to be modified. The modified collaboration, termed purposeful action research, was employed through the remainder of the project. Purposeful action reaction can be viewed as a community of teachers who engage in professional development using 'purposeful' action research as a means of progressive knowledge building around science (and technology) education. Action research holds the promise of offering science and technology teachers more control of their growth as pedagogical practitioners. However, it appears that teachers need to be exposed to issues that extend beyond the reach of the government imposed curriculum guidelines. During the course of this research project it became clear that purposeful action research was necessary in order to address these issues. This thesis provides a detailed account and a description of the characteristics of purposeful action research in action. Two teams of elementary and secondary science and technology teachers were formed to work within collaborative communities. These teams identified common pedagogical problems that they agreed to use as the focus of their work. Over the four months duration of the project, the teachers worked together to prepare unit plans, organize lessons and share resources. The thesis concludes with a reiteration of the aims of the project and a brief discussion of the implications of the findings for science and technology education, teacher professional development, and educational

  5. Physical Sciences Research Priorities and Plans in OBPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of physical sciences research priorities and plans at the Office of Biological and Physical Sciences Research (OBPR). The topics include: 1) Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference; 2) Beneficial Characteristics of the Space Environment; 3) Windows of Opportunity for Research Derived from Microgravity; 4) Physical Sciences Research Program; 5) Fundamental Research: Space-based Results and Ground-based Applications; 6) Nonlinear Oscillations; and 7) Fundamental Research: Applications to Mission-Oriented Research.

  6. Archives: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 33 of 33 ... Archives: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. Journal Home > Archives: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal: About this journal. Journal Home > Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: About this journal. Journal Home > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Personal Science and its Implications for Science Education: Reflections Arising from a Combined Project in Science Education and Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brian E.

    1990-01-01

    A combined study in Astronomy and Science Education was undertaken to explore the personal dimension of science within research and science education. The term "personal science" has been introduced to embrace a host of personal factors unavoidably present in the pursuit of science. The primary goal of this thesis is to demonstrate the reality of personal science within my researching as an astronomer and to argue that the notion of personal science must play a significant role in our thinking about science education. The thesis develops in two sections:. Part A of the thesis, found in Chapters 1-7, focuses on the impact that personal science should have on science education. In this section the diversity implied by the term "science" as it is presently used within science education discourse is considered and it is argued that the idea of personal science should be an essential dimension of school portrayals of science. In developing the idea of personal science a number of influential philosophies of science have been considered in light of my own experience as an astronomer and teacher. Attention is given to Holton's thematic analysis of science and Polanyi's philosophy of personal knowledge and it is argued that Polanyi's conception of personal knowledge may be used to found a more effective epistemology for science education. The problem of fostering, communicating and sharing one's personal science is addressed. The suggestion is made that a curriculum focused on one's personal experiencing of the ideas will be more effective in portraying the personal dimension of science. Narrative and story-telling are explored as effective means of communicating and sharing one's personal science. Part B of the thesis presents the results of three research projects in astronomy. The first project is the observation and analysis of the ellipsoidal binary system 42 Persei and presents the first known model of this system. The second project describes participation in an

  11. 75 FR 57833 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit..., 2010......... Crowne Plaza Neurobiology-D November 19, 2010......... Crowne Plaza Pulmonary Medicine...

  12. 77 FR 64598 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services..., 2012...... *VA Central Office. Cellular and Molecular Medicine...... November 19, 2012...... Sheraton...

  13. Library and information sciences trends and research

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the development, trends and research of library and information sciences (LIS) in the digital age. Inside, readers will find research and case studies written by LIS experts, educators and theorists, most of whom have visited China, delivered presentations there and drafted their articles based on feedback they received. As a result, readers will discover the LIS issues and concerns that China and the international community have in common. The book first introduces the opportunities and challenges faced by the library and information literacy profession and discusses the key role of librarians in the future of information literacy education. Next, it covers trends in LIS education by examining the vision of the iSchool movement and detailing its practice in Syracuse University. The book then covers issues in information seeking and retrieval by showing how visual data mining technology can be used to detect the relationship and pattern between terms on the Q&A of a social media site....

  14. Architecture, systems research and computational sciences

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Winter 2012 (vol. 14 no. 1) issue of the Nexus Network Journal is dedicated to the theme “Architecture, Systems Research and Computational Sciences”. This is an outgrowth of the session by the same name which took place during the eighth international, interdisciplinary conference “Nexus 2010: Relationships between Architecture and Mathematics, held in Porto, Portugal, in June 2010. Today computer science is an integral part of even strictly historical investigations, such as those concerning the construction of vaults, where the computer is used to survey the existing building, analyse the data and draw the ideal solution. What the papers in this issue make especially evident is that information technology has had an impact at a much deeper level as well: architecture itself can now be considered as a manifestation of information and as a complex system. The issue is completed with other research papers, conference reports and book reviews.

  15. European Science Research Organisations forge closer ties

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Effective collaboration has always been one of the foundations of CERN's success. An essential ingredient for collaboration is communication and a new body EIROFORUM has just held its first meeting in Brussels with the aim of developing greater cross fertilization of ideas and projects. Seven organisations, CERN, EMBL (molecular biology), ESA (space activities), ESO (astronomy and astrophysics), ESRF (synchrotron radiation), ILL (neutron source) and EFDA (fusion) are currently members of EIROFORUM. Common interest between the organisations in computational grid development, materials science, instrumentation, public outreach and technology transfer has made EIROFRUM an essential group for maximising these European research organisations' resources. Increasing involvement in the Sixth Framework Programme, Europe's research guidelines for the next four years, is also one of the goals of the group. CERN takes over the chair of EIROFORUM in July 2001 and the next meeting will be held on site on 24 October .

  16. Constructive Synergy in Design Science Research: A Comparative Analysis of Design Science Research and the Constructive Research Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.

    2014-01-01

    Information systems research is focused on creating knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science research, which specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems, has been steadily gaining support in information systems research....... However, design science research is not the only design-oriented research framework available. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether there is something to learn between the different approaches. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing design science research...... with the constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are similar and compatible, save for details in practical requirements and partly underlying philosophical assumptions. The main finding that arises from the comparison is, however, that there is a potential problem in claiming knowledge...

  17. Network science and oral health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupome, Gerardo; McCranie, Ann

    2015-01-01

    The present overview of research methods describes a scientific enquiry paradigm that is well established in other disciplines, including health research, but that is fairly new to oral health research. Social networks analysis (SNA) or network science research is a set of relational methods purporting to identify and characterize the connections between members of a system or network, as well as the structure of the network. Persons and communities making up the members of networks have commonly been the focus of SNA studies but corporations or living organisms might just as well be organized in networks. SNA is grounded in both graphic imagery and computational models. SNA is based on the assumptions that features and structure of networks are amenable to characterization, that such information sheds light on the ways members of the network relate to each other (sharing information, diseases, norms, and so on), and that through these connections between members the overall network structure and characteristics are shaped. The overview resorts to examples specific to oral health themes and proposes a few general avenues for population-based research. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  18. Students' Risk Perceptions of Nanotechnology Applications: Implications for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Grant; Jones, Gail; Taylor, Amy; Forrester, Jennifer; Robertson, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Scientific literacy as a goal of a science education reform remains an important discourse in the research literature and is a key component of students' understanding and acceptance of emergent technologies like nanotechnology. This manuscript focuses on undergraduate engineering students' perceptions of the risks and benefits posed by…

  19. Indian Science & Technology Research: A scientometric Mapping Based on Science Citation Index

    OpenAIRE

    Kademani, B. S.; Anil, Sagar; Vijai, Kumar

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to analyse quantitatively the growth and development of Science and Technology research in India in terms of publication output as reflected in Science Citation Index (SCI) (1990-2004). Total of 182111 papers were published by the Indian scientists and engineers to various domains: Chemical Sciences (62856) (34.52%), Physical Sciences (53844) (29.57%), Medical Sciences (30143) (16.55%), Biological Sciences (18239) (10.02%), Multidisciplinary Sciences (8616) (4.73%), ...

  20. Intuitive Theories--A Researcher's Dilemma: Some Practical Methodological Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Maureen; Denicolo, Pam

    1986-01-01

    Examines the schism of values between qualitative and quantitative social science researchers. Focuses on some practical methodological issues which face researchers wishing to adopt a qualitative-interpretive approach. (JDH)

  1. Citizen science for water quality monitoring: Data implications of citizen perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jollymore, Ashlee; Haines, Morgan J; Satterfield, Terre; Johnson, Mark S

    2017-09-15

    Citizen science, where citizens play an active role in the scientific process, is increasingly used to expand the reach and scope of scientific research while also achieving engagement and educational goals. Despite the emergence of studies exploring data outcomes of citizen science, the process and experience of engaging with citizens and citizen-lead groups through participatory science is less explored. This includes how citizen perspectives alter data outcomes, a critical upshot given prevalent mistrust of citizen versus scientist data. This study uses a citizen science campaign investigating watershed impacts on water quality to interrogate the nature and implications of citizen involvement in producing scientifically and societally relevant data. Data representing scientific outcomes are presented alongside a series of vignettes that offer context regarding how, why, and where citizens engaged with the project. From these vignettes, six specific lessons are examined towards understanding how integration of citizen participation alters data outcomes relative to 'professional' science. In particular, elements of participant social identity (e.g., their motivation for participation), and contextual knowledge (e.g., of the research program itself) can shape participation and resulting data outcomes. Such scientific outcomes are particularly relevant given continued concerns regarding the quality of citizen data, which could hinder scientific acceptance of citizen sciences. Importantly, the potential for meaningful engagement with citizen and participants within citizen groups - given significant capacity within the community - represents a substantial and under-realized opportunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. On the Science of Consciousness: Epistemological Reflections and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facco, Enrico; Lucangeli, Daniela; Tressoldi, Patrizio

    Consciousness has been one of the most important and tantalizing issues ever since the origin of philosophy and medicine. The concept of consciousness and the so-called "hard problem" (i.e., the mind-brain relationship) are highly complex topics that have yet to be elucidated, involving the realms of both science and philosophy with profound epistemological implications. In the lively debate on the foundations of the science of consciousness there are several potential biases of an essentially philosophical nature, such as those related to the paradigm and axioms adopted, and the ostensible logical contradiction between monism and dualism. Their origin dates back largely to Descartes' thinking and the birth of the new sciences as a compromise with the Inquisition, but they have been handed down through the Enlightenment and Positivism. A proper investigation of consciousness and the world of subjectivity demands a careful reflection on the paradigm of scientific medicine to identify possible flaws and overcome the limits of the mechanistic-reductionist approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Science and Technology Research for Sustainable Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The global power play is focused on the levels of science and technology of nations. This has placed African countries at a disadvantage. There are also ethical implications of these vital aspects of man's endavour. Science and technology are human centered since they strive to make man to conquer, domesticate his ...

  4. Science Academies' Summer Research Fellowship Programme for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    2016-09-10

    Sep 10, 2016 ... Programme for Students and Teachers – 2017. Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru,. Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi. The National Academy of Sciences India, Allahabad. The three national science academies offer several two-month Summer Fellowships to enable students/teachers.

  5. Science Academies' Summer Research Fellowship Programme for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    2014-09-10

    Sep 10, 2014 ... Programme for Students and Teachers – 2015. Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore. Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi. The National Academy of Sciences, India, Allahabad. The three national science academies offer several two-month Summer Fellowships to enable students/teachers ...

  6. Science Academies' Summer Research Fellowship Programme for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    2015-09-10

    Sep 10, 2015 ... Programme for Students and Teachers – 2016. Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru. Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi. The National Academy of Sciences, India, Allahabad. The three national science academies offer several two-month Summer Fellowships to enable students/teachers ...

  7. COOPEUS - connecting research infrastructures in environmental sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop-Jakobsen, Ketil; Waldmann, Christoph; Huber, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The COOPEUS project was initiated in 2012 bringing together 10 research infrastructures (RIs) in environmental sciences from the EU and US in order to improve the discovery, access, and use of environmental information and data across scientific disciplines and across geographical borders. The COOPEUS mission is to facilitate readily accessible research infrastructure data to advance our understanding of Earth systems through an international community-driven effort, by: Bringing together both user communities and top-down directives to address evolving societal and scientific needs; Removing technical, scientific, cultural and geopolitical barriers for data use; and Coordinating the flow, integrity and preservation of information. A survey of data availability was conducted among the COOPEUS research infrastructures for the purpose of discovering impediments for open international and cross-disciplinary sharing of environmental data. The survey showed that the majority of data offered by the COOPEUS research infrastructures is available via the internet (>90%), but the accessibility to these data differ significantly among research infrastructures; only 45% offer open access on their data, whereas the remaining infrastructures offer restricted access e.g. do not release raw data or sensible data, demand user registration or require permission prior to release of data. These rules and regulations are often installed as a form of standard practice, whereas formal data policies are lacking in 40% of the infrastructures, primarily in the EU. In order to improve this situation COOPEUS has installed a common data-sharing policy, which is agreed upon by all the COOPEUS research infrastructures. To investigate the existing opportunities for improving interoperability among environmental research infrastructures, COOPEUS explored the opportunities with the GEOSS common infrastructure (GCI) by holding a hands-on workshop. Through exercises directly registering resources

  8. The impact of science shops on university research and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hende, Merete; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    This report discusses the impact from university-based science shops on curricula and research. Experience from science shops show that besides assisting citizen groups, science shops can also contribute to the development of university curricula and research. This impact has been investigated...... through the SCIPAS questionnaire sent out to science shops and through follow-up interviews with employees from nine different university-based science shops and one university researcher. Not all the cases call themselves science shops, but in the report the term 'science shop' will be used most...... way or the other has had impact on university curricula and/or research. The analysis and the case studies have theoretically been based on literature on universities and education and research as institutions and a few articles about the impact of science shops on education and research. The analysis...

  9. Learned-Helplessness Theory: Implications for Research in Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canino, Frank J.

    1981-01-01

    The application of learned helplessness theory to achievement is discussed within the context of implications for research in learning disabilities. Finally, the similarities between helpless children and learning disabled students in terms of problems solving and attention are discussed. (Author)

  10. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group, Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J. E.; Smith, T.; Star, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. The focus is on remote sensing and application for the Earth Observing System (Eos) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The remote sensing research activities are being expanded, integrated, and extended into the areas of global science, georeferenced information systems, machine assissted information extraction from image data, and artificial intelligence. The accomplishments in these areas are examined.

  11. Qualitative research in rehabilitation science: opportunities, challenges, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderKaay, Sandra; Moll, Sandra E; Gewurtz, Rebecca E; Jindal, Pranay; Loyola-Sanchez, Adalberto; Packham, Tara L; Lim, Chun Y

    2018-03-01

    Qualitative research has had a significant impact within rehabilitation science over time. During the past 20 years the number of qualitative studies published per year in Disability and Rehabilitation has markedly increased (from 1 to 54). In addition, during this period there have been significant changes in how qualitative research is conceptualized, conducted, and utilized to advance the field of rehabilitation. The purpose of this article is to reflect upon the progress of qualitative research within rehabilitation to date, to explicate current opportunities and challenges, and to suggest future directions to continue to strengthen the contribution of qualitative research in this field. Relevant literature searches were conducted in electronic data bases and reference lists. Pertinent literature was examined to identify current opportunities and challenges for qualitative research use in rehabilitation and to identify future directions. Six key areas of opportunity and challenge were identified: (a) paradigm shifts, (b) advancements in methodology, (c) emerging technology, (d) advances in quality evaluation, (e) increasing popularity of mixed methods approaches, and (f) evolving approaches to knowledge translation. Two important future directions for rehabilitation are posited: (1) advanced training in qualitative methods and (2) engaging qualitative communities of research. Qualitative research is well established in rehabilitation and has an important place in the continued growth of this field. Ongoing development of qualitative researchers and methods are essential. Implications for Rehabilitation Qualitative research has the potential to improve rehabilitation practice by addressing some of the most pervasive concerns in the field such as practitioner-client interaction, the subjective and lived experience of disability, and clinical reasoning and decision making. This will serve to better inform those providing rehabilitation services thereby benefiting

  12. Research trends and issues in informal science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinthong, Tanwarat; Faikhamta, Chatree

    2018-01-01

    Research in informal science education (ISE) become more interesting area in science education for a few decades. The main purpose of this research is to analyse research articles in 30 issues of top three international journals in science education; Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Science Education, and the International Journal of Science Education. The research articles during 2007 and 2016 were reviewed and analysed according to the authors' nationality, informal science education's research topics, research paradigms, methods of data collection and data analysis. The research findings indicated that there were 201 published papers related to informal science education, successfully submitted by 469 authors from 27 different countries. In 2008, there was no article related to informal science education. Statistical analyses showed that authors from USA are the most dominant, followed by UK and Israel. The top three ISE's research topics most frequently investigated by the researchers were regarding students' informal learning, public understanding in science, and informal perspectives, policies and paradigms. It is also found that theoretical framework used in informal science education which is becoming more strongly rooted is in a mix of the sociocultural and constructivist paradigms, with a growing acceptance of qualitative research methods and analyses.

  13. Does Styles Research Have Useful Implications for Educational Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews eight articles on the implications of styles research contained in this special issue of "Learning and Individual Differences". Three of the papers present original research on topics such as the nature of visualizer cognitive style and intuitive cognitive style. Five of the papers offer reviews or analyses of styles research,…

  14. Learning from Action Research about Science Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchener, Carole P.; Jackson, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a case study of a beginning science teacher's year-long action research project, during which she developed a meaningful grasp of learning from practice. Wendy was a participant in the middle grade science program designed for career changers from science professions who had moved to teaching middle grade science. An…

  15. What Is "Agency"? Perspectives in Science Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jenny; Clarke, David John

    2014-01-01

    The contemporary interest in researching student agency in science education reflects concerns about the relevance of schooling and a shift in science education towards understanding learning in science as a complex social activity. The purpose of this article is to identify problems confronting the science education community in the development…

  16. Implications of the Next Generation Science Standards for Earth and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, M. E.; Colson, M.; Duschl, R. A.; Huff, K.; Lopez, R. E.; Messina, P.; Speranza, P.; Matthews, T.; Childress, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), due to be released in 2013, set a new direction for K-12 science education in America. These standards will put forth significant changes for Earth and space sciences. The NGSS are based upon the recommendations of the National Research Council's 2011 report "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas." The standards are being written by a large group of authors who represent many different constituencies, including 26 participating states, in a process led by Achieve, Inc. The standards encourage innovative ways to teach science at the K-12 level, including enhanced integration between the content, practices, and crosscutting ideas of science and greater assimilation among the sciences and engineering, and among the sciences, mathematics, and English language arts. The NGSS presents a greater emphasis on Earth and space sciences than in previous standards, recommending a year at both the middle and high school levels. The new standards also present a greater emphasis on areas of direct impact between humans and the Earth system, including climate change, natural hazards, resource management, and sustainability.

  17. 76 FR 79273 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and... biomedical, behavioral, and clinical science research. The panel meeting will be open to the public for...

  18. Development of nature of science ideas through authentic scientific research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgin, Stephen Randall

    Understanding the ways in which scientific knowledge develops, or the epistemology of science, is believed to be a crucial component of scientific literacy. This construct is more formally known as Nature of Science (NOS) within the science education community. The merits of three different approaches to NOS teaching and learning in the context of authentic scientific research on high school student participants' NOS ideas were explored in this study. These approaches were an explicit/reflective approach, a reflective approach and an implicit approach. The effectiveness of explicit approaches over implicit approaches has been demonstrated in school contexts, but little is known regarding the merits of these approaches when the practices that learners engage in are highly authentic in the ways in which they model the work of professional scientists. If an implicit approach yields positive impacts in authentic contexts, then which specific factors within those contexts are influential in doing so? The Authentic Experiences in Science Program (AESP), a summer program designed for high school students offered at a major research university, offered a wonderful context for an investigation of these issues. In this program, high school students worked for an extended period of time in a research scientist's laboratory on an authentic research project. Additionally, seminars offered through the program provided a venue for the implementation of the three aforementioned NOS teaching and learning approaches. An open-ended questionnaire designed to assess respondent NOS ideas was administered to 30 participants of the AESP both at the beginning and again at the end of the program. From those thirty, six case study participants were selected, and through a series of observations and interviews, influential factors impacting their NOS ideas within their specific laboratory placements were identified. Results of categorical data analysis of the questionnaires revealed that the

  19. Climate Change Communication Research: Trends and Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the focus of this paper was to document trends in climate change communication research conducted among farmers, with a specific focus on the themes that have dominated current studies, major research methods in use, major theories that are applied, sampling techniques that are frequently used, media of ...

  20. Policy and Ethical Implications of Biosocial Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, J. Richard

    1995-01-01

    Social scientists are often concerned that research on biological causes of behavior will encourage biologically-based public policy. By simultaneously examining both social and biological causes of behavior, biosocial research models prevent simplistic biological thinking. Concludes that biosocial models clarify ethical problems rather than…

  1. Researching Lean: Methodological implications of loose definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännmark, Mikael; Langstrand, Jostein; Johansson, Stina

    2012-01-01

    organizations and stakeholders. This applies to both the interpretations of the Lean concept itself, but also of the operationalization of Lean and implementation design. Although the cases show great similarities in the Lean ideals, the concept takes on many different forms when operationalized, which makes...... practices seem to overlap with other popular management concepts, such as High Performance Work Systems, World Class Manufacturing and Total Quality Management. This confusion, combined with different methodological and theoretical traditions, has led to much debate and contradictory conclusions regarding...... it very difficult to study through a priori definitions. Practical implications/recommendations – The large variation in interpretations of Lean complicates metaanalyses regarding potential impact of Lean on the primary stakeholders of an organization, i.e. the customer, employees and employer. Based...

  2. Entering the Community of Practitioners: A Science Research Workshop Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitwieser, Bernhard; Light, Gregory; Pazos, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Science Research Workshop Program (SRW) and discusses how it provides students a legitimate science experience. SRW, which is funded by the National Science Foundation, is an apprenticeship-style program in which students write proposals requesting resources to research an original question. The program creates a…

  3. UNISWA Research Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The UNISWA Research Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology is a publication of the Faculties of Agriculture, Health Sciences and Science of the University of Swaziland. It publishes results of original research or continuations of previous studies that are reproducible. Review articles, short communications and ...

  4. UNISWA Research Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The UNISWA Research Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology is a publication of the Faculties of Agriculture, Health Sciences and Science of the University of Swaziland. It publishes results of original research or continuations of previous studies that are reproducible. Review articles, short communications and ...

  5. Evaluation of Research in Engineering Science in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Brussel, Hendrik Van Brussel; Lindberg, Bengt; Cederwall, Klas

    This report presents the conclusions of Panel 1: Construction engineering, Production and Operation. The Research Council of Norway (NFR) appointed three expert panels to evaluate Research in Engineering Science in Norway .......This report presents the conclusions of Panel 1: Construction engineering, Production and Operation. The Research Council of Norway (NFR) appointed three expert panels to evaluate Research in Engineering Science in Norway ....

  6. Molecular Science Research Center annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knotek, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Chemical Structure and Dynamics group is studying chemical kinetics and reactions dynamics of terrestrial and atmospheric processes as well as the chemistry of complex waste forms and waste storage media. Staff are using new laser systems and surface-mapping techniques in combination with molecular clusters that mimic adsorbate/surface interactions. The Macromolecular Structure and Dynamics group is determining biomolecular structure/function relationships for processes the control the biological transformation of contaminants and the health effects of toxic substances. The Materials and Interfaces program is generating information needed to design and synthesize advanced materials for the analysis and separation of mixed chemical waste, the long-term storage of concentrated hazardous materials, and the development of chemical sensors for environmental monitoring of various organic and inorganic species. The Theory, Modeling, and Simulation group is developing detailed molecular-level descriptions of the chemical, physical, and biological processes in natural and contaminated systems. Researchers are using the full spectrum of computational techniques. The Computer and Information Sciences group is developing new approaches to handle vast amounts of data and to perform calculations for complex natural systems. The EMSL will contain a high-performance computing facility, ancillary computing laboratories, and high-speed data acquisition systems for all major research instruments.

  7. The NASA computer science research program plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A taxonomy of computer science is included, one state of the art of each of the major computer science categories is summarized. A functional breakdown of NASA programs under Aeronautics R and D, space R and T, and institutional support is also included. These areas were assessed against the computer science categories. Concurrent processing, highly reliable computing, and information management are identified.

  8. A Cross-cultural Exploration of Children's Everyday Ideas: Implications for science teaching and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Bryan

    2012-03-01

    Children's everyday ideas form critical foundations for science learning yet little research has been conducted to understand and legitimize these ideas, particularly from an international perspective. This paper explores children's everyday ideas about the environment across the US, Singapore and China to understand what they reveal about children's relationship to the environment and discuss its implications for science teaching and learning. A social constructivist lens guides research, and a visual methodology is used to frame children's realities. Participants' ages range from elementary to middle school, and a total of 210 children comprized mainly of Asians and Asian Americans were sampled from urban settings. Drawings are used to elicit children's everyday ideas and analyzed inductively using open coding and categorizing of data. Several categories support existing literature about how children view the environment; however, novel categories such as affect also emerged and lend new insight into the role that language, socio-cultural norms and perhaps ethnicity play in shaping children's everyday ideas. The findings imply the need for (a) a change in the role of science teachers from knowledge providers to social developers, (b) a science curriculum that is specific to learners' experiences in different socio-cultural settings, and (c) a shift away from inter-country comparisons using international science test scores.

  9. Barriers to Research and Implications for Training Counselors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Ruby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Research is an important part of quality clinical practice in the field of counseling. This study addresses the constraints that produce a gap in master’s level practitioner research among counselors in Illinois. Ninety-nine master’s level clinicians responded to surveys and answered a series of questions regarding what constrains them from being more involved in research. These respondents provided valuable feedback regarding possible recommendations for training that might encourage increased research activity for future master’s level counselors. Training improvements such as mentored research activity and training in less complex research methods were indicated. Keywords: Clinical practice, Implications, Barriers to research, less complex research

  10. Research in Applied Mathematics, Fluid Mechanics and Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period October 1, 1998 through March 31, 1999.

  11. [Research activities in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period April 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995.

  12. Research studies and their implications for social work practice in a multidisciplinary center for lupus care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Persad, Pretima; Erkan, Doruk; Kirou, Kyriakos; Horton, Roberta; Salmon, Jane E

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its psychosocial impact creates management challenges that require a multidisciplinary team approach for optimal patient care and outcomes. This article provides a brief report on current lupus-related research studies at the Mary Kirkland Center for Lupus Care at Hospital for Special Surgery. Studies and their social work implications highlight a comprehensive, integrated model for research, education, and patient care emphasizing interdisciplinary collaboration. Both basic science and clinical research are discussed, with a focus on the role of social workers as an integral part of the health care team in providing assessments and interventions and as support for patients in research studies.

  13. ENSAR, a Nuclear Science Project for European Research Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turzó, Ketel; Lewitowicz, Marek; Harakeh, Muhsin N.

    2015-01-01

    During the period from September 2010 to December 2014, the European project European Nuclear Science and Applications Research (ENSAR) coordinated research activities of the Nuclear Physics community performing research in three major subfields: Nuclear Structure, Nuclear Astrophysics, and Nuclear

  14. A Distinctive Analysis of Case Study, Action Research and Design Science Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Dresch

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This paper aims at analyzing the difference between research methods that are typical in operations management (case study and action research with design science research. Design/methodology/approach – The paper adopts a theoretical-conceptual methodological approach, based on an extensive literature review. The literature review focused on studies that discuss the use of Case Study, Action Research and Design Science/Design Science Research. Theoretical framework – This paper reveals the foundations of Case Study and Action Research. Due to its recent use as a research method, Design Science Research is presented in greater depth. Findings – Firstly, we present design science and design science research as paradigms and as research methods, respectively, in the field of management. Secondly, we present the difference between Natural Sciences, Social Sciences and Design Science. Thirdly, we carry out comparative analysis of research methods Case Study, Action Research and Design Science Research. Finally, we offer a set of suggestions for future research regarding the use of research methods in management, in general, and in operations management, inparticular. Contributions – The main contributions of this paper focus on reflecting about research methods used in the management field. An important contribution is expanding the repertoire of research methods for understanding and using Design Science Research. The use of this method can contribute to reduce the distance between rigor and relevance, which has been described by several authors.

  15. Space Research, Education, and Related Activities In the Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David

    2002-01-01

    The mission of this activity, known as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members. This paper is the final report from this now completed Cooperative Agreement.

  16. Crowd science user contribution patterns and their implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauermann, Henry; Franzoni, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research performed with the involvement of the broader public (the crowd) attracts increasing attention from scientists and policy makers. A key premise is that project organizers may be able to draw on underused human resources to advance research at relatively low cost. Despite a growing number of examples, systematic research on the effort contributions volunteers are willing to make to crowd science projects is lacking. Analyzing data on seven different projects, we quantify the financial value volunteers can bring by comparing their unpaid contributions with counterfactual costs in traditional or online labor markets. The volume of total contributions is substantial, although some projects are much more successful in attracting effort than others. Moreover, contributions received by projects are very uneven across time-a tendency toward declining activity is interrupted by spikes typically resulting from outreach efforts or media attention. Analyzing user-level data, we find that most contributors participate only once and with little effort, leaving a relatively small share of users who return responsible for most of the work. Although top contributor status is earned primarily through higher levels of effort, top contributors also tend to work faster. This speed advantage develops over multiple sessions, suggesting that it reflects learning rather than inherent differences in skills. Our findings inform recent discussions about potential benefits from crowd science, suggest that involving the crowd may be more effective for some kinds of projects than others, provide guidance for project managers, and raise important questions for future research.

  17. The ACRL framework for information literacy in higher education: implications for health sciences librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Maureen; Brower, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    The Association of College and Research Libraries is developing a new framework of information literacy concepts that will revise and replace the previously adopted standards. This framework consists of six threshold concepts that are more flexible than the original standards, and that work to identify both the function and the feelings behind information literacy education practices. This column outlines the new tentative framework with an eye toward its implications for health sciences libraries, and suggests ways the medical library community might work with this new document.

  18. Implications of Music and Brain Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the issue theme of Music Educators Journal on music and the brain summarizing the articles in this special focus. Offers an overview of neuromusical research and articulates some basic premises derived from the studies focusing on topics such as the resilience of the musical brain and that the musical brain operates at birth. (CMK)

  19. Research methods from social science can contribute much to the health sciences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensing, M.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research methods from social science, such as social network analysis, random coefficient modeling, and advanced measurement techniques, can contribute much to the health sciences. There is, however, a slow rate of transmission of social science methodology into the health sciences. This

  20. What is `Agency'? Perspectives in Science Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jenny; Clarke, David John

    2014-03-01

    The contemporary interest in researching student agency in science education reflects concerns about the relevance of schooling and a shift in science education towards understanding learning in science as a complex social activity. The purpose of this article is to identify problems confronting the science education community in the development of this new research agenda and to argue that there is a need for research in science education that attends to agency as a social practice. Despite increasing interest in student agency in educational research, the term 'agency' has lacked explicit operationalisation and, across the varied approaches, such as critical ethnography, ethnographies of communication, discourse analysis and symbolic interactionism, there has been a lack of coherence in its research usage. There has also been argument concerning the validity of the use of the term 'agency' in science education research. This article attempts to structure the variety of definitions of 'student agency' in science education research, identifies problems in the research related to assigning intentionality to research participants and argues that agency is a kind of discursive practice. The article also draws attention to the need for researchers to be explicit in the assumptions they rely upon in their interpretations of social worlds. Drawing upon the discursive turn in the social sciences, a definition of agency is provided, that accommodates the discursive practices of both individuals and the various functional social groups from whose activities classroom practice is constituted. The article contributes to building a focused research agenda concerned with understanding and promoting student agency in science.

  1. Gender and Leadership: The Implications of Small Group Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Linda Lyman

    1988-01-01

    Reviews selected literature from the small group communication research on gender and leadership emergence and suggests implications of this research for women seeking administrative positions. Hopes that, as men and women become sensitive to effects of sex-role stereotypes on group dynamics and leadership behaviors, there will be increase in…

  2. The Implications of Social Modeling Research for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Gregory C. R.; Yates, Shirley M.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews research on imitative learning, or social modeling, from the perspective of social learning theory that emphasizes the human capacity for higher-order rule learning to occur through modeling exposure. Educational implications are discussed, particularly through research into vicarious reinforcement, teacher modeling, and peer modeling.…

  3. Researching Lean: Methodological Implications of Loose Definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Brännmark

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Lean Production (Lean has become a prevailing management concept in Sweden. However, previous research seems to show that the Lean concept and the impact of Lean vary considerably between organizations. This paper illustrates some key methodological issues that need to be considered when researching loosely defined management concepts such as Lean. The paper is based on a review of the literature and five comparative Swedish cases studies. Our study indicates that Lean has changed over time and that operationalization and interpretations of the concept vary considerably. This study concludes that future Lean studies should include a thorough assessment of the Lean interventions, study settings, and in particular non-Lean factors mediating the outcomes of Lean-inspired change programs.

  4. Implicative Algebras | Kolluru | Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we introduce the concept of implicative algebras which is an equivalent definition of lattice implication algebra of Xu (1993) and further we prove that it is a regular Autometrized Algebra. Further we remark that the binary operation → on lattice implicative algebra can never be associative. Keywords: Implicative ...

  5. Making Research in Environmental Science Relevant to National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are many researches in different fields of study one of which is Environmental Science. This paper aims at showing how research in this science can be made relevant for national development. It reviews some of the researches on environmental pollution, environmental resources, climate change and others.

  6. Critical Debates in Teaching Research Methods in the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores some of the critical debates in social science research methods education and is set out in three parts. The first section introduces the importance and relevance of research methods to the social sciences. It then outlines the problems and challenges experienced in the teaching and learning of research methods, which are…

  7. A methodological review of computer science education research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Randolph, Justus; Sutinen, Erkki; Julnes, George; Lehman, Steve

    2008-01-01

    ..., Guzdial, & Petre, 2005). (In this methodological review, we use the term behavioral research as a synonym for what Guzdzial, in Almstrum et al. (2005, p. 192), calls "education, cognitive science, and learning sciences research.") Addressing this lack of connection with behavioral research, Guzdial, in Almstrum and colleagues (2005) wrote, The real challeng...

  8. Fiction as an Introduction to Computer Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Judy; Mattei, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    The undergraduate computer science curriculum is generally focused on skills and tools; most students are not exposed to much research in the field, and do not learn how to navigate the research literature. We describe how fiction reviews (and specifically science fiction) are used as a gateway to research reviews. Students learn a little about…

  9. Examining the Literacy Component of Science Literacy: 25 Years of Language Arts and Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yore, Larry D.; Bisanz, Gay L.; Hand, Brian M.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews literature in the theoretical views of language arts; perceived roles of language in science education; and research approaches used to investigate oral and written language in science, science teaching, and learning. Suggests future research directions in critical listening and reading of various sources, multi-media presentations,…

  10. Building a Cohesive Body of Design Knowledge: Developments from a Design Science Research Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Piirainen, Kalle A.

    2015-01-01

    researchers have identified difficulties in building on past works, and combining insights from across the field. This work starts to dissolve some of these issues by drawing on Design Science Research to propose an integrated approach for the development of design research knowledge, coupled with pragmatic......Design is an extremely diverse field where there has been widespread debate on how to build a cohesive body of scientific knowledge. To date, no satisfactory proposition has been adopted across the field – hampering scientific development. Without this basis for bringing research together design...... advice for design researchers. This delivers a number of implications for researchers as well as for the field as a whole....

  11. Muscle dysmorphia: methodological issues, implications for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffolk, Mark T; Dovey, Terence M; Goodwin, Huw; Meyer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Muscle dysmorphia is a male-dominated, body image-related psychological condition. Despite continued investigation, contention surrounds the nosological status of this disorder. The aim of this article was to review the literature on muscle dysmorphia to provide a qualitative account of methodological issues that may inhibit our understanding. Key areas relating to non-standardized participant groups, measuring instruments, and terminology were identified as potentially inhibiting symptom coherence and diagnostic reliability. New measuring instruments validated with clinical samples and carefully described participant groups, standardized terminology, and a greater emphasis on prospective longitudinal research with specific sub groups of the weight training community would be of interest to the field.

  12. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal covers technical and clinical studies related to health, ethical and social issues in field of all aspects of medicine (Basic and Clinical), Health Sciences, Nursing, Medical Laboratory Sciences, Medical Radiography and Rehabilitation, Pharmacy, Biomedical Engineering, etc. Articles with clinical interest and ...

  13. The implications of content versus item validity on science tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarroch, William L.

    The use of content validity as the primary assurance of the measurement accuracy for science assessment examinations is questioned. An alternative accuracy measure, item validity, is proposed. Item validity is based on research using qualitative comparisons between (a) student answers to objective items on the examination, (b) clinical interviews with examinees designed to ascertain their knowledge and understanding of the objective examination items, and (c) student answers to essay examination items prepared as an equivalent to the objective examination items. Calculations of item validity are used to show that selected objective items from the science assessment examination overestimated the actual student understanding of science content. Overestimation occurs when a student correctly answers an examination item, but for a reason other than that needed for an understanding of the content in question. There was little evidence that students incorrectly answered the items studied for the wrong reason, resulting in underestimation of the students' knowledge. The equivalent essay items were found to limit the amount of mismeasurement of the students' knowledge. Specific examples are cited and general suggestions are made on how to improve the measurement accuracy of objective examinations.

  14. Effects of an Integrated Science and Societal Implication Intervention on Promoting Adolescents' Positive Thinking and Emotional Perceptions in Learning Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zuway R.; Lin, Huann-Shyang; Lawrenz, Frances P.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of integrating science and societal implication on adolescents' positive thinking and emotional perceptions about learning science. Twenty-five eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (9 boys and 16 girls) volunteered to participate in a 12-week intervention and formed the experimental group.…

  15. Nursing informatics, ethics and decisions: implications for translational research

    OpenAIRE

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Dowie, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Nursing informatics, ethics and decisions: implications for translational research Objective: To introduce, in the multi-disciplinary contexts of clinical decision making and policy formation, a theory-based decision-analytic framework for the transparent forward translation of research into practice which can simultaneously identify and communicate the needs for backward translation from practice to research.Method:Web-based decision analytic software is used to demonstrate how the weights f...

  16. Mathematical research in materials science: opportunities and perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff

    1993-01-01

    ... Applied to Materials Science Board on Mathematical Sciences Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1993 i Copyrighttrue Please breaks inserted. are Page files. accidentally typesetting been have may original from the errors not typographic original retai...

  17. 76 FR 44593 - Identifying the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research's Science and Research Needs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Science and Research Needs; Availability of a Draft Report; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug... announcing the availability of a draft report entitled ``Identifying CDER's Science and Research Needs... efforts. Through external communication of the science and research needs outlined in the report, CDER...

  18. AIRPALYNOLOGY RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS IN ALLERGIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Faur

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a constant increase of the number of mediate IgE diseases worldwide, known as regain or atopic diseases. The inflammable substratum, which stands as their basis, is decoded at the cellular and molecular level, guiding the pharmaceutical research towards finding the most efficient treatments. In recent years, there is also a remarkable evolution of the diagnosis methods. Modern methods of knowing the impact of environment factors, including allergens, hasten to the allergenicity and the sick people’s assistance. One of these methods, extremely valuable in the medical practice is the volumetric method of sampling, identifying and quantifying the airborne pollenm which belongs to the category of inhaling allergens and which brings precious information in choosing the diagnosis and treatment methods of polinosis, diminishing their costs and being able to impose a new prophylactic conduct. The pollination calendar can draw allergologists attention to some plants producing allergen pollen, less known plant, adventives or expanding, as Ambrosia artemisifolia species, common to the South-West area of Romania. The pollination calendar can also be useful to extracts and allergenic vaccines producers, directing their production according to the local presence of some species of plants with allergen pollen.

  19. Ocean Sciences and Remote Sensing Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: A 52,000 ft 2 state-of-the-art buildig designed to house NRL's Oceanography Division, part of the Ocean and Atmospheric Science and Technology Directorate....

  20. Evolving protocols for research in equitation science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierard, M.; Hall, C.; Konig von Borstel, U.; Averis, A.; Hawson, L.; Mclean, A.; Nevison, C.; Visser, E.K.; McGreevy, P.

    2015-01-01

    Within the emerging discipline of Equitation Science, the application of consistent methodology, including robust objective measures, is required for sound scientific evaluation. This report aims to provide an evaluation of current methodology and to propose some initial guidelines for future

  1. The challenge of causal inference in gene-environment interaction research: leveraging research designs from the social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M; Conley, Dalton

    2013-10-01

    The integration of genetics and the social sciences will lead to a more complex understanding of the articulation between social and biological processes, although the empirical difficulties inherent in this integration are large. One key challenge is the implications of moving "outside the lab" and away from the experimental tools available for research with model organisms. Social science research methods used to examine human behavior in nonexperimental, real-world settings to date have not been fully taken advantage of during this disciplinary integration, especially in the form of gene-environment interaction research. This article outlines and provides examples of several prominent research designs that should be used in gene-environment research and highlights a key benefit to geneticists of working with social scientists.

  2. Kerlinger's Research Myths: An Overview with Implications for Educational Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Larry G.

    1997-01-01

    Gives an overview of three of the myths that F. N. Kerlinger (1959, 1960) identified as pervading educational research. Explores the myths of methods, practicality, and statistics, and analyzes the degree to which they have been overcome or still exist. (SLD)

  3. Development of a Structured Undergraduate Research Experience: Framework and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anne M.; Lewis, Stephanie N.; Bevan, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Participating in undergraduate research can be a pivotal experience for students in life science disciplines. Development of critical thinking skills, in addition to conveying scientific ideas in oral and written formats, is essential to ensuring that students develop a greater understanding of basic scientific knowledge and the research process.…

  4. Interim research assessment 2003-2005 - Computer Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, A.J.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    This report primarily serves as a source of information for the 2007 Interim Research Assessment Committee for Computer Science at the three technical universities in the Netherlands. The report also provides information for others interested in our research activities.

  5. The Perspective of Women Managing Research Teams in Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Marina; Castro, Diego

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a research study that focuses on how women manage research teams. More specifically, the study aims to ascertain the perception of female researchers who are leaders of research groups in social sciences with regard to the formation, operation and management of their research teams. Fifteen interviews were carried out, eight…

  6. 76 FR 11765 - Education Research and Special Education Research Grant Programs; Institute of Education Sciences...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Education Research and Special Education Research Grant Programs; Institute of Education Sciences; Overview Information; Education Research and Special Education Research Grant Programs; Notice Inviting Applications...

  7. Fundamental Science with Pulsed Power: Research Opportunities and User Meeting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Thomas Kjell Rene [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wootton, Alan James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sinars, Daniel Brian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spaulding, Dylan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Winget, Don [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The fifth Fundamental Science with Pulsed Power: Research Opportunities and User Meeting was held in Albuquerque, NM, July 20-­23, 2014. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together leading scientists in four research areas with active fundamental science research at Sandia’s Z facility: Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF), Planetary Science, Astrophysics, and Material Science. The workshop was focused on discussing opportunities for high-­impact research using Sandia’s Z machine, a future 100 GPa class facility, and possible topics for growing the academic (off-Z-campus) science relevant to the Z Fundamental Science Program (ZFSP) and related projects in astrophysics, planetary science, MagLIF- relevant magnetized HED science, and materials science. The user meeting was for Z collaborative users to: a) hear about the Z accelerator facility status and plans, b) present the status of their research, and c) be provided with a venue to meet and work as groups. Following presentations by Mark Herrmann and Joel Lash on the fundamental science program on Z and the status of the Z facility where plenary sessions for the four research areas. The third day of the workshop was devoted to breakout sessions in the four research areas. The plenary-­ and breakout sessions were for the four areas organized by Dan Sinars (MagLIF), Dylan Spaulding (Planetary Science), Don Winget and Jim Bailey (Astrophysics), and Thomas Mattsson (Material Science). Concluding the workshop were an outbrief session where the leads presented a summary of the discussions in each working group to the full workshop. A summary of discussions and conclusions from each of the research areas follows and the outbrief slides are included as appendices.

  8. NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION. Preliminary Observations on Indirect Costs for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-24

    NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Preliminary Observations on Indirect Costs for Research Statement of John Neumann, Director...on Science , Space, and Technology, House of Representatives For Release on Delivery Expected at 10:00 a.m. ET Wednesday, May 24th, 2017 GAO-17...testimony before the Subcommittee on Research and Technology and the Subcommittee on Oversight, Committee on Science , Space, and Technology, House of

  9. Contextualising the role of the gatekeeper in social science research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role and influence of gatekeepers in social science research has been the subject of some ... needs and vulnerabilities of both the gatekeeper and the researcher can improve the quality of the scientific data collected. Strategic planning in ..... International. Conference on Social Science Methodology, 2004. http://www.

  10. Interactive Whiteboards for Teaching and Learning Science: Ascertaining Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Liliana; Lazar, Gabriel; Lazar, Iuliana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze of latest research focused on the investigation of interactive whiteboards used in teaching and learning Science. In the theoretical framework the main objectives are: a) the identification of specific research regarding the integration of interactive whiteboards in teaching and learning Science and b) the…

  11. The research trends of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences departments play a fundamental role in university education and in promoting the vision and mission of the University of Zululand. This paper explores definitions of Humanities and the Social Sciences, and the terms 'research' and 'research output', and examines the status and ...

  12. Informing the Development of Science Exhibitions through Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laherto, Antti

    2013-01-01

    This paper calls for greater use of educational research in the development of science exhibitions. During the past few decades, museums and science centres throughout the world have placed increasing emphasis on their educational function. Although exhibitions are the primary means of promoting visitors' learning, educational research is not…

  13. Professor Barry Fraser's Contributions to Science Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Jill M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I endeavour to convey the depth of Barry Fraser's contributions to science education research, including his tireless endeavours to promote and advance research, especially the field of learning environments, the realisation of his vision to create one of the largest doctoral programs in science and mathematics education in the…

  14. Fire, Fuel, and Smoke Science Program: 2013 Research accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith Ann Heinsch; Robin J. Innes; Colin C. Hardy; Kristine M. Lee

    2014-01-01

    The Fire, Fuel, and Smoke Science Program (FFS) of the U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, focuses on fundamental and applied research in wildland fire, from fire physics and fire ecology to fuels management and smoke emissions. Located at the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory in Montana, the scientists, engineers, technicians, and support staff in...

  15. Critique and Fiction: Doing Science Right in Rural Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Craig

    2009-01-01

    This essay explains the relevance of fiction to the practice of rural education research, in so doing engaging questions about the nature and purposes of research and, therefore, of science itself. Although many may assume science and fiction (in this account, novels) harbor contrary purposes and devices, this essay argues that, to the contrary,…

  16. Shallow waters: social science research in South Africa's marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides an overview of social science research in the marine environment of South Africa for the period 1994–2012. A bibliography based on a review of relevant literature and social science projects funded under the SEAChange programme of the South African Network for Coastal and Oceanic Research ...

  17. The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durosinmi, Brenda Braxton

    2011-01-01

    The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal…

  18. 2014 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2015-01-01

    Communicating the scientific knowledge generated by the Pacific Northwest Research Station is integral to our mission. The 2014 Science Accomplishments reports highlights the breadth of the station’s research, the relevance of our science findings, and the application of these findings. The photographs throughout the report showcase the region where we work and how...

  19. 2013 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2014-01-01

    Communicating the scientific knowledge generated by the Pacific Northwest Research Station is integral to our mission. The 2013 Science Accomplishments reports highlights the breadth of the station’s research, the relevance of our science findings, and the application of these findings. The photographs throughout the report showcase the region where we work and how...

  20. Fire, Fuel, and Smoke Science Program 2015 Research Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith Ann Heinsch; Charles W. McHugh; Colin C. Hardy

    2016-01-01

    The Fire, Fuel, and Smoke Science Program (FFS) of the U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station focuses on fundamental and applied research in wildland fire, from fire physics and fire ecology to fuels management and smoke emissions. Located at the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory in Montana, the scientists, engineers, technicians, and support...

  1. Variable: Classification, Measurement and Importance in Social Science Research

    OpenAIRE

    Raiphea, Yow Peter

    2015-01-01

    Variable generally regarded as unit of analysis is defined by scholars in different ways. There is no fixed definition and classification of variable in research. In social science research variable played an important role in the formulation of hypothesis, increase clarity of research problem, in choosing what type of measurement scale to be used. Variable helped to avoid subjectivity and to bring about true picture of events or phenomena or behavior which the social science researchers are ...

  2. Research at Hanze university of Applied Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Remo Mombarg

    2015-01-01

    Introduction on research in Groningen: field and goals of research • Examples of research-projects (Mark-jan Mulder MBO (Fit for life), Simon Leistra (Selfdetermination project ), Ben Moolenaar en Wouter de Groot (Sport on primary schools)

  3. Trends of Science Education Research: An Automatic Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Chang, Chun-Yen; Tseng, Yuen-Hsien

    2010-08-01

    This study used scientometric methods to conduct an automatic content analysis on the development trends of science education research from the published articles in the four journals of International Journal of Science Education, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Research in Science Education, and Science Education from 1990 to 2007. The multi-stage clustering technique was employed to investigate with what topics, to what development trends, and from whose contribution that the journal publications constructed as a science education research field. This study found that the research topic of Conceptual Change & Concept Mapping was the most studied topic, although the number of publications has slightly declined in the 2000's. The studies in the themes of Professional Development, Nature of Science and Socio-Scientific Issues, and Conceptual Chang and Analogy were found to be gaining attention over the years. This study also found that, embedded in the most cited references, the supporting disciplines and theories of science education research are constructivist learning, cognitive psychology, pedagogy, and philosophy of science.

  4. Electronically Distributed Work Communities: Implications for Research on Telework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Bradford W.; Grantham, Charles E.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the concept of telework, or telecommuting, and its influence on the electronic community and organizational structures. The electronically distributed organization is discussed, and implications for research on telework are suggested in the areas of privacy regulation, self-efficacy, temporal aspects of employee behavior, communication…

  5. Conveying the Performance Appraisal: The Research and Its Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gerald L.

    Results of an examination of research literature on performance-appraisal interviewing and its implications are presented in this report. The appraisal interview functions to (1) provide feedback on performance, (2) counsel and provide help, (3) discover what the employee is thinking, (4) teach the employee to solve problems, (5) help the employee…

  6. Implications of Some Australian Research for Future Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, R. J.

    The paper reviews research studies on school provision for mildly intellectually handicapped children, the evaluation of services for the handicapped, language and communication in Down's syndrome children, and the educational needs of spina bifida and hydrocephalic children. Implications from the findings are discussed in relation to the…

  7. Researchers' Night: science at the shops

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2015-01-01

    On 25 September, as part of European Researchers’ Night, CERN and POPScience joined forces to welcome the public at the Balexert shopping centre in Geneva. The Bulletin presents its gallery of photographs from the exciting and educational event.   Science through comic strips, games, cinema and television: POPScience approaches scientific questions through popular culture, with great success! Around 500 children attended the sessions for schools at Balexert's multiplex cinema, and 600 spectators flocked to the public screenings.  Using the big screen, scientists, directors and authors were on hand to disentangle truth from untruths and science from science fiction. The guests, some of whom appeared in person and others via video link, included Jorge Cham, author of PhD Comics and the spin-off film; David Saltzberg, physicist at CMS and scientific consultant for the television series The Big Bang Theory; Kip Thorne, scientific consultant for the film Interstellar; Lawrence ...

  8. Managing science developing your research, leadership and management skills

    CERN Document Server

    Peach, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Managing science, which includes managing scientific research and, implicitly, managing scientists, has much in common with managing any enterprise, and most of these issues (e.g. annual budget planning and reporting) form the background. Equally, much scientific research is carried in universities ancient and modern, which have their own mores, ranging from professorial autocracy to democratic plurality, as well as national and international with their missions and styles. But science has issues that require a somewhat different approach if it is to prosper and succeed. Society now expects science, whether publicly or privately funded, to deliver benefits, yet the definition of science presumes no such benefit. Managing the expectations of the scientist with those of society is the challenge of the manager of science. The book addresses some issues around science and the organizations that do science. It then deals with leadership, management and communication, team building, recruitment, motivation, managin...

  9. Recommendations for sex/gender neuroimaging research: key principles and implications for research design, analysis, and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippon, Gina; Jordan-Young, Rebecca; Kaiser, Anelis; Fine, Cordelia

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging (NI) technologies are having increasing impact in the study of complex cognitive and social processes. In this emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience, a central goal should be to increase the understanding of the interaction between the neurobiology of the individual and the environment in which humans develop and function. The study of sex/gender is often a focus for NI research, and may be motivated by a desire to better understand general developmental principles, mental health problems that show female-male disparities, and gendered differences in society. In order to ensure the maximum possible contribution of NI research to these goals, we draw attention to four key principles-overlap, mosaicism, contingency and entanglement-that have emerged from sex/gender research and that should inform NI research design, analysis and interpretation. We discuss the implications of these principles in the form of constructive guidelines and suggestions for researchers, editors, reviewers and science communicators.

  10. Recommendations for sex/gender neuroimaging research: key principles and implications for research design, analysis, and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippon, Gina; Jordan-Young, Rebecca; Kaiser, Anelis; Fine, Cordelia

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging (NI) technologies are having increasing impact in the study of complex cognitive and social processes. In this emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience, a central goal should be to increase the understanding of the interaction between the neurobiology of the individual and the environment in which humans develop and function. The study of sex/gender is often a focus for NI research, and may be motivated by a desire to better understand general developmental principles, mental health problems that show female-male disparities, and gendered differences in society. In order to ensure the maximum possible contribution of NI research to these goals, we draw attention to four key principles—overlap, mosaicism, contingency and entanglement—that have emerged from sex/gender research and that should inform NI research design, analysis and interpretation. We discuss the implications of these principles in the form of constructive guidelines and suggestions for researchers, editors, reviewers and science communicators. PMID:25221493

  11. The second workshop of neutron science research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Hideshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Tone, Tatsuzo [eds.

    1997-11-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute(JAERI) has been proposing the Neutron Science Research Program to explore a broad range of basic research and the nuclear technology including actinide transmutation with use of powerful spallation neutron sources. For this purpose, the JAERI is conducting the research and development of an intense proton linac, the development of targets, as well as the conceptual design study of experimental facilities required for applications of spallation neutrons and secondary particle beams. The Special Task Force for Neutron Science Initiative was established in May 1996 to promote aggressively and systematically the Neutron Science Research Program. The second workshop on neutron science research program was held at the JAERI Tokai Research Establishment on 13 and 14 March 1997 for the purpose of discussing the results obtained since the first workshop in March 1996. The 27 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  12. Book Review Tour Guiding Research Insights, Issues and Implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meged, Jane Widtfeldt

    2017-01-01

    The book Tour guiding research – insights, issues and implications by Betty Weiler and Rosemary Black is a most welcome contribution to the specific research field of guided tours within tourism studies. It sets forth to “give an authoritative state-of-art review of the scholarly literature on tour...... guiding theory and practice to stimulate further research […] and to foster quality tour guiding” (p. 177). The authors provide an excellent review, and the book is a must read for researchers and academic practitioners, for whom it will become a necessary point of reference...

  13. Culture Bound: Science, Teaching and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblit, George W.

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary, the author first examines how culture is being used in the articles in this special issue, points to the venerable histories being deployed in these usages, and explores a sense of what could be in the sociocultural and cultural analysis of science education for each article. His review of these articles led to a trope, a…

  14. Researchers fear 'Putin's Academy of Sciences'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvitch, Katia

    2013-11-01

    Scientists have voiced concerns about the future of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) after the country's president, Vladimir Putin, signed a law that will make the 289-year-old body come under the direct control of a new government agency.

  15. Meeting global health challenges through operational research and management science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royston, Geoff

    2011-09-01

    This paper considers how operational research and management science can improve the design of health systems and the delivery of health care, particularly in low-resource settings. It identifies some gaps in the way operational research is typically used in global health and proposes steps to bridge them. It then outlines some analytical tools of operational research and management science and illustrates how their use can inform some typical design and delivery challenges in global health. The paper concludes by considering factors that will increase and improve the contribution of operational research and management science to global health.

  16. 76 FR 19188 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... DC/Silver Spring. Oncology June 9-10, 2011........ L'Enfant Plaza Hotel. ] Immunology June 9, 2011 L...

  17. 78 FR 66992 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... Medicine........ November 25, 2013 *VA Central Office. Neurobiology-F November 26, 2013 *VA Central Office...

  18. A comparison of readability in science-based texts: Implications for elementary teachers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallagher, Tiffany; Fazio, Xavier; Ciampa, Katia

    2017-01-01

    .... Online texts were the most disparate with respect to text difficulty. These findings suggest implications for elementary teachers to support students who learn through reading online, science-based resources...

  19. Administrative social science data: The challenge of reproducible research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Playford

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Powerful new social science data resources are emerging. One particularly important source is administrative data, which were originally collected for organisational purposes but often contain information that is suitable for social science research. In this paper we outline the concept of reproducible research in relation to micro-level administrative social science data. Our central claim is that a planned and organised workflow is essential for high quality research using micro-level administrative social science data. We argue that it is essential for researchers to share research code, because code sharing enables the elements of reproducible research. First, it enables results to be duplicated and therefore allows the accuracy and validity of analyses to be evaluated. Second, it facilitates further tests of the robustness of the original piece of research. Drawing on insights from computer science and other disciplines that have been engaged in e-Research we discuss and advocate the use of Git repositories to provide a useable and effective solution to research code sharing and rendering social science research using micro-level administrative data reproducible.

  20. Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory 2002 Science Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, P. A. (Editor); Robinson, M. B. (Editor); Murphy, K. L. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    With the International Space Station Program approaching core complete, our NASA Headquarters sponsor, the new Code U Enterprise, Biological and Physical Research, is shifting its research emphasis from purely fundamental microgravity and biological sciences to strategic research aimed at enabling human missions beyond Earth orbit. Although we anticipate supporting microgravity research on the ISS for some time to come, our laboratory has been vigorously engaged in developing these new strategic research areas.This Technical Memorandum documents the internal science research at our laboratory as presented in a review to Dr. Ann Whitaker, MSFC Science Director, in July 2002. These presentations have been revised and updated as appropriate for this report. It provides a snapshot of the internal science capability of our laboratory as an aid to other NASA organizations and the external scientific community.

  1. FEDS : A Framework for Evaluation in Design Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venable, John; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of design artefacts and design theories is a key activity in Design Science Research (DSR), as it provides feedback for further development and (if done correctly) assures the rigour of the research. However, the extant DSR literature provides insufficient guidance on evaluation...... to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...

  2. Large-Scale Science Education Intervention Research We Can Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penuel, William R.; Fishman, Barry J.

    2012-01-01

    This article develops an argument that the type of intervention research most useful for improving science teaching and learning and leading to scalable interventions includes both research to develop and gather evidence of the efficacy of innovations and a different kind of research, "design-based implementation research" (DBIR). DBIR…

  3. Business development - the function, research propositions, and managerial implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe

    and executives from high-tech firms and venture capitalists in North America, Asia, and Europe to provide a foundation for future research. Business development is an emerging staff function providing an added level of sophistication to the firms' overall strategic management with interesting performance......  The management literature reflects remarkable little effort to investigate the nature and consequences of firms' business development activities. This exploratory research aims at synthesizing the scholarly knowledge on the subject with field interviews with senior business developers...... implications. The business development function is typically found in progressive firms especially within high-tech industries, but is argued to become critical for all types of firms across industries wishing to grow and accumulate wealth. Research propositions and managerial implications are discussed....

  4. Nursing informatics, ethics and decisions: implications for translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Dowie, Jack

    , satisfaction, Quality of Life), organization-related (staff and work environment, internal and external communication and relationships) and economics-related (start-up costs, financial implications and externalities)). Conclusion: Web-based decision support can provide nursing with a template, technique......Nursing informatics, ethics and decisions: implications for translational research Objective: To introduce, in the multi-disciplinary contexts of clinical decision making and policy formation, a theory-based decision-analytic framework for the transparent forward translation of research...... into practice which can simultaneously identify and communicate the needs for backward translation from practice to research. Method: Web-based decision analytic software is used to demonstrate how the weights for multiple person/patient-important criteria can be combined in an expected value...

  5. How Does One “Open” Science? Questions of Value in Biological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Open Science policies encourage researchers to disclose a wide range of outputs from their work, thus codifying openness as a specific set of research practices and guidelines that can be interpreted and applied consistently across disciplines and geographical settings. In this paper, we argue that this “one-size-fits-all” view of openness sidesteps key questions about the forms, implications, and goals of openness for research practice. We propose instead to interpret openness as a dynamic and highly situated mode of valuing the research process and its outputs, which encompasses economic as well as scientific, cultural, political, ethical, and social considerations. This interpretation creates a critical space for moving beyond the economic definitions of value embedded in the contemporary biosciences landscape and Open Science policies, and examining the diversity of interests and commitments that affect research practices in the life sciences. To illustrate these claims, we use three case studies that highlight the challenges surrounding decisions about how––and how best––to make things open. These cases, drawn from ethnographic engagement with Open Science debates and semistructured interviews carried out with UK-based biologists and bioinformaticians between 2013 and 2014, show how the enactment of openness reveals judgments about what constitutes a legitimate intellectual contribution, for whom, and with what implications. PMID:28232768

  6. How Does One "Open" Science? Questions of Value in Biological Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Nadine; Leonelli, Sabina

    2017-03-01

    Open Science policies encourage researchers to disclose a wide range of outputs from their work, thus codifying openness as a specific set of research practices and guidelines that can be interpreted and applied consistently across disciplines and geographical settings. In this paper, we argue that this "one-size-fits-all" view of openness sidesteps key questions about the forms, implications, and goals of openness for research practice. We propose instead to interpret openness as a dynamic and highly situated mode of valuing the research process and its outputs, which encompasses economic as well as scientific, cultural, political, ethical, and social considerations. This interpretation creates a critical space for moving beyond the economic definitions of value embedded in the contemporary biosciences landscape and Open Science policies, and examining the diversity of interests and commitments that affect research practices in the life sciences. To illustrate these claims, we use three case studies that highlight the challenges surrounding decisions about how--and how best--to make things open. These cases, drawn from ethnographic engagement with Open Science debates and semistructured interviews carried out with UK-based biologists and bioinformaticians between 2013 and 2014, show how the enactment of openness reveals judgments about what constitutes a legitimate intellectual contribution, for whom, and with what implications.

  7. Social Science Research and School Diversity Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sheneka M.; McDermott, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, policy makers, advocates, and researchers have been engaged in efforts to make educational opportunity more equal for students from different racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. A great deal of research has been conducted on their efforts; however, there is some disagreement on the extent to which the research has been…

  8. Teacher research experiences, epistemology, and student attitudes toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Diana L.

    This concurrent mixed methods research study examined the impact of a Teacher Research Experience (TRE) on science teacher beliefs about science, scientific research, science teaching, and student attitudes toward science. Surveys, interviews, reflective journals, and classroom observations of six teachers involved in a TRE were utilized to examine changes in beliefs as a result of participation in the TRE. Student attitudes were measured with a pre and post survey. An analysis of qualitative data from the teachers' interviews, journals, and pre and post TRE surveys indicated that some change occurred in their beliefs about science and scientists for all six teachers, and that teachers' beliefs about science teaching were affected in a variety of ways after participating in the TRE. The quantitative results of the study using Science Teachers' Beliefs About Science (STBAS) instrument suggest that the change from the beginning to the end of the school year, if any, was minimal. However, interviews with and observations of teachers identified valuable components of the TRE, such as the advanced resources (e.g., DVD, samples), a feeling of rejuvenation in teaching, a new perspective on science and scientific research, and first hand experiences in science. Results from the classroom observations using the Science Classroom Practice Record (SCPR) were mixed. Some differences may be explained, however, as relating to content taught in the pre and post classes observed or simply to inherent differences in student dynamics and behavior from class to class. There were no significant differences from pre to post TRE regarding student attitudes toward science as measured by paired samples t-tests on the modified Attitudes Toward Science (mATSI) instrument. Attitudes and beliefs are not easily changed, and change is more likely to result from direct experience and education rather than an indirect experience. Although the results are generalizable only to the participants in

  9. Meeting global health challenges through operational research and management science

    OpenAIRE

    Royston, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers how operational research and management science can improve the design of health systems and the delivery of health care, particularly in low-resource settings. It identifies some gaps in the way operational research is typically used in global health and proposes steps to bridge them. It then outlines some analytical tools of operational research and management science and illustrates how their use can inform some typical design and delivery challenges in global health. ...

  10. Examining the literacy component of science literacy: 25 years of language arts and science research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yore, Larry D.; Bisanz, Gay L.; Hand, Brian M.

    2003-06-01

    This review, written to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the International Journal of Science Education, revealed a period of changes in the theoretical views of the language arts, the perceived roles of language in science education, and the research approaches used to investigate oral and written language in science, science teaching, and learning. The early years were dominated by behavioralist and logico-mathematical interpretations of human learning and by reductionist research approaches, while the later years reflected an applied cognitive science and constructivist interpretations of learning and a wider array of research approaches that recognizes the holistic nature of teaching and learning. The early years focus on coding oral language into categories reflecting source of speech, functional purpose, level of question and response, reading research focused on the readability of textbooks using formulae and the reader's decoding skills, and writing research was not well documented since the advocates for writing in service of learning were grass roots practitioners and many science teachers were using writing as an evaluation technique. The advent of applied cognitive science and the constructivist perspectives ushered in interactive-constructive models of discourse, reading and writing that more clearly revealed the role of language in science and in science teaching and learning. A review of recent research revealed that the quantity and quality of oral interactions were low and unfocused in science classrooms; reading has expanded to consider comprehension strategies, metacognition, sources other than textbooks, and the design of inquiry environments for classrooms; and writing-to-learn science has focused on sequential writing tasks requiring transformation of ideas to enhance science learning. Several promising trends and future research directions flow from the synthesis of this 25-year period of examining the literacy component of science literacy

  11. Integration of Social Sciences in Nuclear Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovy, M.; Eggermont, G

    2002-04-01

    In 1998, SCK-CEN initiated a programme to integrate social sciences into its scientific and technological projects. Activities were started on the following issues: (1) sustainable development; (2) ethics and decision making in nuclear waste management (transgenerational ethics/retrievability; socio-psychological aspect and local involvement); (3) law and liability (medical applications and the basic safety standards implementation); (4) decision making (emergency management); safety culture; ALARA and ethical choices in protection). Two working groups were created to discuss two broad items: (1) ethical choices in radiation protection; and (2) the role and culture of the expert. Progress and major achievements in SCK-CEN's social science programme in 2001 are summarised.

  12. Research methods from social science can contribute much to the health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensing, Michel

    2008-06-01

    Research methods from social science, such as social network analysis, random coefficient modeling, and advanced measurement techniques, can contribute much to the health sciences. There is, however, a slow rate of transmission of social science methodology into the health sciences. This paper identifies some of the barriers for adoption and proposes ideas for the future. Commentary. Contributions of social science to the health sciences are not always recognized as such. It may help if the professional profile of social science in the health sciences would be higher and if its focus would be more on making useful predictions. Clinical epidemiologists may assume that their discipline includes all relevant methods and that social science is largely based on qualitative research. These perceptions need to be challenged in order to widen the scope of clinical epidemiology and include relevant methods from other sciences. New methods help to ask new research questions and to provide better to old questions. This paper has sketched challenges for both social science researchers and clinical epidemiologists.

  13. A guide to understanding social science research for natural scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Katie; Blackman, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    Natural scientists are increasingly interested in social research because they recognize that conservation problems are commonly social problems. Interpreting social research, however, requires at least a basic understanding of the philosophical principles and theoretical assumptions of the discipline, which are embedded in the design of social research. Natural scientists who engage in social science but are unfamiliar with these principles and assumptions can misinterpret their results. We developed a guide to assist natural scientists in understanding the philosophical basis of social science to support the meaningful interpretation of social research outcomes. The 3 fundamental elements of research are ontology, what exists in the human world that researchers can acquire knowledge about; epistemology, how knowledge is created; and philosophical perspective, the philosophical orientation of the researcher that guides her or his action. Many elements of the guide also apply to the natural sciences. Natural scientists can use the guide to assist them in interpreting social science research to determine how the ontological position of the researcher can influence the nature of the research; how the epistemological position can be used to support the legitimacy of different types of knowledge; and how philosophical perspective can shape the researcher's choice of methods and affect interpretation, communication, and application of results. The use of this guide can also support and promote the effective integration of the natural and social sciences to generate more insightful and relevant conservation research outcomes. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Planetary Sciences: American and Soviet Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Thomas M. (Editor); Trivers, Kathleen Kearney (Editor); Abramson, David M. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented at the US-USSR Workshop on Planetary Sciences are compiled. The purpose of the workshop was to examine the current state of theoretical understanding of how the planets were formed and how they evolved to their present state. The workshop assessed the types of observations and experiments that are needed to advance understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system based on the current theoretical framework.

  15. School desegregation and social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Janet Ward; Hausmann, Leslie R M

    2004-09-01

    Research on the effects of school desegregation, once quite common in psychology and related fields, has declined considerably since the mid-1980s. Factors contributing to changes in the quantity and focus of such research since the Brown v. Board of Education (1954) decision are discussed, with an emphasis on those related to the decline of this research in the last 2 decades. These factors include the nation's retreat from the policy of school desegregation and the associated decline in research funding. Changing perspectives regarding desegregation, the outcomes of desegregation that merit study, and the desirable composition of research teams studying desegregation have also played a role. Demographic changes in our society and its schools that have made salient other research topics and the development of effective research paradigms for studying intergroup relations in the laboratory have also contributed to this decline. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  16. Greater sage-grouse science (2015–17)—Synthesis and potential management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, Steven E.; Deibert, Patricia A.; Tull, John C.; Carr, Natasha B.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Bargsten, Travis D.; Christiansen, Thomas J.; Coates, Peter S.; Crist, Michele R.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Ellsworth, Ethan A.; Foster, Lee J.; Herren, Vicki A.; Miller, Kevin H.; Moser, Ann; Naeve, Robin M.; Prentice, Karen L.; Remington, Thomas E.; Ricca, Mark A.; Shinneman, Douglas J.; Truex, Richard L.; Wiechman , Lief A.; Wilson, Dereck C.; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2018-02-15

    Strategy Actionable Science Plan Team, 2016).In October 2017, after a review of the 2015 Federal plans relative to State sage-grouse plans, in accordance with Secretarial Order 3353, the BLM issued a notice of intent to consider whether to amend some, all, or none of the 2015 land use plans. At that time, the BLM requested the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to inform this effort through the development of an annotated bibliography of sage-grouse science published since January 2015 and a report that synthesized and outlined the potential management implications of this new science. Development of the annotated bibliography resulted in the identification and summarization of 169 peer-reviewed scientific publications and reports. The USGS then convened an interagency team (hereafter referred to as the “team”) to develop this report that focuses on the primary topics of importance to the ongoing management of sage-grouse and their habitats.The team developed this report in a three-step process. First, the team identified six primary topic areas for discussion based on the members’ collective knowledge regarding sage-grouse, their habitats, and threats to either or both. Second, the team reviewed all the material in the “Annotated Bibliography of Scientific Research on Greater Sage-Grouse Published since January 2015” to identify the science that addressed the topics. Third, team members discussed the science related to each topic, evaluated the consistency of the science with existing knowledge before 2015, and summarized the potential management implications of this science. The six primary topics identified by the team were:Multiscale habitat suitability and mapping toolsDiscrete anthropogenic activitiesDiffuse activitiesFire and invasive speciesRestoration effectivenessPopulation estimation and genetics

  17. Misinformation in eating disorder communications: Implications for science communication policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Benjamin

    Though eating disorders are a serious public health threat, misinformation about these potentially deadly diseases is widespread. This study examines eating disorder information from a wide variety of sources including medical journals, news reports, and popular social activist authors. Examples of misinformation were identified, and three aspects of eating disorders (prevalence, mortality, and etiology) were chosen as key indicators of scientific illiteracy about those illnesses. A case study approach was then adopted to trace examples of misinformation to their original sources whenever possible. A dozen examples include best-selling books, national eating disorder information clearinghouses; the news media; documentary feature films; and a PBS television Nova documentary program. The results provide an overview of the ways in which valid information becomes flawed, including poor journalism, lack of fact-checking, plagiarism, and typographical errors. Less obvious---and perhaps even more important---much of the misinformation results from scientific research being co-opted to promote specific sociopolitical agendas. These results highlight a significant gap in science communication between researchers, the medical community, and the public regarding these diseases, and recommendations to address the problem are offered.

  18. Key issues in European food science research: a review of the European Food Science Day 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spichtinger, D.; Pongratz, I.; Jonsson, J.; Braun, S.; Colmer, C.; Poms, R.; Smith, R.; Ashwell, M.; Demeneix, B.; Skerfving, S.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Laag, van der P.; Kuck, M.; Warkup, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a report on the European Food Science Day (Brussels, 18 November 2009, organized by the CommNet network of food science communicators) and its outcomes. The article presents FP 7 as a key funding mechanism in European food and nutrition research and it puts research in this sector in a

  19. What Constitutes High-Quality Discussion in Science? Research from the Perspectives on Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Ralph; Hand, Michael; Amos, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Perspectives on Science (POS) is a unique research-based post-16 course that addresses the history, philosophy and ethical aspects of science. Our central research question was to what extent is POS successful in promoting high-quality discussion in class and what factors influence this. Through questionnaires, interviews and observations of…

  20. Tables of contextual cognition: a proposal for intercultural research in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Geilsa Costa Santos

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this paper is to propose tables of contextual cognition as a tool for research and a model to facilitate the intercultural dialogue on science education in schools. The proposal arose from a qualitative case study, involving the use of tables of compared cognition in biology classes in a Brazilian public school. The results indicate that these tables helped students to understand relationships of similarities and differences between their previous knowledge and scientific knowledge and, equally, to delimit the original context and applicability of each of these ways of knowing. However, I perceived the need to expand these tables to gain a new meaning for the practical purposes of research and culturally sensitive science teaching. Finally, tables of contextual cognition considering these changes are proposed and I discuss the possible implications for teaching and research in science education.

  1. Seeking Constructive Synergy: Design Science and the Constructive Research Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.

    2013-01-01

    Information systems research and management science create knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems and has been steadily gaining support in information systems research...... and partly underlying philosophical assumptions, but both have something to teach each other about how to define and execute design-oriented research in information systems and management science........ However, design science is not the only design-oriented framework. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether it is possible to compare the results obtained from different brands of design-oriented research. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing two research approaches...

  2. Art in Science Promoting Interest in Research and Exploration (ASPIRE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingim, M.; Zevin, D.; Thrall, L.; Croft, S.; Raftery, C.; Shackelford, R.

    2015-11-01

    Led by U.C. Berkeley's Center for Science Education at the Space Sciences Laboratory in partnership with U.C. Berkeley Astronomy, the Lawrence Hall of Science, and the YMCA of the Central Bay Area, Art in Science Promoting Interest in Research and Exploration (ASPIRE) is a NASA EPOESS-funded program mainly for high school students that explores NASA science through art and highlights the need for and uses of art and visualizations in science. ASPIRE's aim is to motivate more diverse young people (especially African Americans) to learn about Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) topics and careers, via 1) Intensive summer workshops; 2) Drop-in after school workshops; 3) Astronomy visualization-focused outreach programming at public venues including a series of free star parties where the students help run the events; and 5) A website and a number of social networking strategies that highlight our youth's artwork.

  3. NASA Earth Science Research and Applications Using UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Anthony R.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Earth Science Enterprise sponsored the UAV Science Demonstration Project, which funded two projects: the Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) and the UAV Coffee Harvest Optimization experiment. These projects were intended to begin a process of integrating UAVs into the mainstream of NASA s airborne Earth Science Research and Applications programs. The Earth Science Enterprise is moving forward given the positive science results of these demonstration projects to incorporate more platforms with additional scientific utility into the program and to look toward a horizon where the current piloted aircraft may not be able to carry out the science objectives of a mission. Longer duration, extended range, slower aircraft speed, etc. all have scientific advantages in many of the disciplines within Earth Science. The challenge we now face are identifying those capabilities that exist and exploiting them while identifying the gaps. This challenge has two facets: the engineering aspects of redesigning or modifying sensors and a paradigm shift by the scientists.

  4. Proceedings of the 1st symposium on advanced science research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The 1st symposium on advanced science research was held in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken, on 23-24 March, 1995, under the auspices of JAERI. Two hundred and sixty scientists attended the symposium; over 40% of the attendants were from universities and laboratories outside JAERI. This proceedings consists of 6 oral presentations of the research activities in the Advanced Science Research Center, 70 poster presentations on the field of basic science from both the inside and outside of JAERI and 2 panel discussions on the actinide physics and biocrystallography. (author).

  5. Research in the chemical sciences: Summaries of FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This summary book is published annually on research supported by DOE`s Division of Chemical Sciences in the Office of Energy Research. Research in photochemical and radiation sciences, chemical physics, atomic physics, chemical energy, separations and analysis, heavy element chemistry, chemical engineering sciences, and advanced batteries is arranged according to national laboratories, offsite institutions, and small businesses. Goal is to add to the knowledge base on which existing and future efficient and safe energy technologies can evolve. The special facilities used in DOE laboratories are described. Indexes are provided (topics, institution, investigator).

  6. How open science helps researchers succeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKiernan, Erin C; Bourne, Philip E; Brown, C Titus; Buck, Stuart; Kenall, Amye; Lin, Jennifer; McDougall, Damon; Nosek, Brian A; Ram, Karthik; Soderberg, Courtney K; Spies, Jeffrey R; Thaney, Kaitlin; Updegrove, Andrew; Woo, Kara H; Yarkoni, Tal

    2016-07-07

    Open access, open data, open source and other open scholarship practices are growing in popularity and necessity. However, widespread adoption of these practices has not yet been achieved. One reason is that researchers are uncertain about how sharing their work will affect their careers. We review literature demonstrating that open research is associated with increases in citations, media attention, potential collaborators, job opportunities and funding opportunities. These findings are evidence that open research practices bring significant benefits to researchers relative to more traditional closed practices.

  7. Summaries of FY 1993 research in the chemical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The summaries in photochemical and radiation sciences, chemical physics, atomic physics, chemical energy, separations and analysis, heavy element chemistry, chemical engineering sciences, and advanced battery technology are arranged according to national laboratories and offsite institutions. Small business innovation research projects are also listed. Special facilities supported wholly or partly by the Division of Chemical Sciences are described. Indexes are provided for selected topics of general interest, institutions, and investigators.

  8. Diversity and equity in science education research, policy, and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Okhee

    2010-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-field analysis of current trends in the research, policy, and practice of science education. It offers valuable insights into why gaps in science achievement among racial, ethnic, cultural, linguistic, and socioeconomic groups persist, and points toward practical means of narrowing or eliminating these gaps. Lee and Buxton examine instructional practices, science-curriculum materials, assessment, teacher education, school organization, and home-school connections.

  9. Second-Order Science of Interdisciplinary Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2014-01-01

    Context: The problems that are most in need of interdisciplinary collaboration are “wicked problems,” such as food crises, climate change mitigation, and sustainable development, with many relevant aspects, disagreement on what the problem is, and contradicting solutions. Such complex problems bo...... perspectivist approach to science is based on the second-order cybernetics and systems theories of von Foerster, Maruyama, Maturana & Varela, and Luhmann, coupled with embodied theories of cognition and semiotics as a general theory of meaning from von Uexküll and Peirce....

  10. Qualitative Research Interviews of Children with Communication Disorders: Methodological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoin, D.; Scelles, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the qualitative research interview, an essential tool frequently used in the human and social sciences, conducted with children having communication disorders. Two distinct populations are addressed--children with intellectual disability and deaf children without related disabilities--with the aim of identifying the main…

  11. Research in the aerospace physical sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    Research efforts are reported in various areas including dynamics of thin films, polymer chemistry, mechanical and chemical properties of materials, radar system engineering, stabilization of lasers, and radiation damage of organic crystals. Brief summaries of research accomplished and literature citations are included.

  12. Remote sensing information sciences research group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1988-01-01

    Research conducted under this grant was used to extend and expand existing remote sensing activities at the University of California, Santa Barbara in the areas of georeferenced information systems, matching assisted information extraction from image data and large spatial data bases, artificial intelligence, and vegetation analysis and modeling. The research thrusts during the past year are summarized. The projects are discussed in some detail.

  13. Stepping up Open Science Training for European Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Schmidt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Open science refers to all things open in research and scholarly communication: from publications and research data to code, models and methods as well as quality evaluation based on open peer review. However, getting started with implementing open science might not be as straightforward for all stakeholders. For example, what do research funders expect in terms of open access to publications and/or research data? Where and how to publish research data? How to ensure that research results are reproducible? These are all legitimate questions and, in particular, early career researchers may benefit from additional guidance and training. In this paper we review the activities of the European-funded FOSTER project which organized and supported a wide range of targeted trainings for open science, based on face-to-face events and on a growing suite of e-learning courses. This article reviews the approach and experiences gained from the first two years of the project.

  14. Dual use research: investigation across multiple science disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmann, Shannon

    2015-04-01

    Most recent studies of dual use research have focused on the life sciences, although some researchers have suggested that dual use research occurs across many disciplines. This research is an initial investigation into the prevalence of dual use research in other scientific disciplines by surveying senior editors of scientific journals, drawn from Journal Citation Reports. The survey was emailed to 7,500 journal editors with a response rate of 10.1 %. Approximately 4.8 % of life science editors reported they had to consider whether to publish dual use research and 38.9 % said they decided to not publish the research in question. In disciplines other than the life sciences, 7.2 % of editors from other science disciplines reported that they had to consider whether to publish dual use research, and 48.4 % declined to publish it. The survey investigated relationships between dual use and the journal's source of funding and place of publication, but no relationships were found. Further research is needed to better understand the occurrence of dual use research in other science disciplines.

  15. Science youth action research: Promoting critical science literacy through relevance and agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Elizabeth R.

    This three-article dissertation presents complementary perspectives on Science Youth Action Research (Sci-YAR), a K-12 curriculum designed to emphasize relevance and agency to promote youth's science learning. In Sci-YAR, youth conduct action research projects to better understand science-related issues in their lives, schools, or communities, while they simultaneously document, analyze, and reflect upon their own practices as researchers. The first article defines Sci-YAR and argues for its potential to enhance youth's participation as citizens in a democratic society. The second article details findings from a case study of youth engaged in Sci-YAR, describing how the curriculum enabled and constrained youth's identity work in service of critical science agency. The third article provides guidance to science teachers in implementing student-driven curriculum and instruction by emphasizing Sci-YAR's key features as a way to promote student agency and relevance in school science.

  16. Framework for Empirical Research on Science Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Hans Ernst; Klemm, Klaus; Leutner, Detlev; Sumfleth, Elke; Tiemann, Rüdiger; Wirth, Joachim

    2005-12-01

    In view of the research on education—and subject-related education in particular—that has been conducted in recent years, it would seem useful to describe the current state and future trends of research on science teaching and learning. In the present article, research findings are described, the deficits of science education are analyzed, and medium- and long-term research goals are specified from the perspective of an interdisciplinary cooperative effort between specialists in the fields of empirical educational research; the psychology of learning and instruction; and biology, chemistry, and physics education.

  17. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed research in sport science: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research was to examine: (1) the nature of scientific thought in sport science (elite sport); (2) methodological aspects of sport science; (3) the relationship between philosophical-theoretical postulates and elite sport practice. The comparative method, as well as descriptive and theoretical analysis method was ...

  18. Strengthening the research management capacity of Africa's science ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Science granting councils are central to funding and catalyzing research and innovation. A recent scoping study supported by IDRC underscored the important role of these councils in national science systems in sub-Saharan Africa. However, that study also identified several challenges facing these councils, including a ...

  19. Recent developments in life sciences research: Role of bioinformatics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... discovery, biological databases, bioinformatic tools, bioinformatic tasks and its application in life sciences research. Key words: ... Bioinformatics and computational biology are rooted in life sciences as well as computer and ... Several updates are publishing to support this draft version to understand the ...

  20. Summaries of FY 1980 research in the chemical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    Brief summaries are given of research programs being pursued by DOE laboratories and offsite facilities in the fields of photochemical and radiation sciences, chemical physics, atomic physics, chemical energy, separations, analysis, and chemical engineering sciences. No actual data is given. Indexes of topics, offsite institutions, and investigators are included. (DLC)

  1. Computer - based modeling in extract sciences research -I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling has come of age as a research tool in the basic sciences, especially the exact sciences. Specifically, in the discipline of chemistry, it has been of great utility. Its use dates back to the 17th Century and includes such wide areas as computational chemistry, chemoinformatics, molecular mechanics, chemical ...

  2. Earth Sciences Division, collected abstracts-1977. [Research programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quitiquit, W.A.; Ledbetter, G.P.; Henry, A.L.

    1978-05-24

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, internal reports, and talks presented during 1977 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. It is arranged alphabetically by author and includes a cross-reference by subject indicating the areas of research interest of the Earth Sciences Division.

  3. 60m pounds research funds to boost technical science

    CERN Multimedia

    Radford, T

    2002-01-01

    A 60m science research package was announced yesterday by the trade and industry secretary, Patricia Hewitt.The extra money comes from the chancellor's spending review. It will accelerate growth in science spending from 7% to 10% a year in real terms, and take the total budget to pounds 2.9bn by 2005-06 (1 page).

  4. ESTEST: An Open Science Platform for Electronic Structure Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Open science platforms in support of data generation, analysis, and dissemination are becoming indispensible tools for conducting research. These platforms use informatics and information technologies to address significant problems in open science data interoperability, verification & validation, comparison, analysis, post-processing,…

  5. Studying Science Teacher Identity: Current Insights and Future Research Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10?years an increasing number of articles have been published in leading science education journals that report on research about teacher identity and describe interventions that support teacher identity development. My purpose in this review paper is to examine how the construct of science teacher identity has been conceptualised…

  6. EPA's Research at the Cutting Edge of Exposure Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) serves as the lead for exposure science across U.S. Federal agencies. Exposure science has gained importance with increased appreciation of environmental influences on population disease burden. At a time when population ...

  7. 76 FR 24974 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... following four panels of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science... 5, 2011..... 6 p.m.-10 p.m.... Crowne Plaza DC/Silver Spring. Medicine. June 6, 2011..... 8 a.m.-5 p...

  8. Measuring and Maximising Research Impact in Applied Social Science Research Settings. Good Practice Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanwick, John; Hargreaves, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This guide describes the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) approach to measuring impact using examples from its own case studies, as well as showing how to maximise the impact of applied social science research. Applied social science research needs to demonstrate that it is relevant and useful both to public policy and…

  9. The Problem of Pseudoscience in Science Education and Implications of Constructivist Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugaloglu, Ebru Z.

    2014-01-01

    The intrusion of pseudoscience into science classrooms is a problem in science education today. This paper discusses the implications of constructivist pedagogy, which relies on the notions of viability and inter-subjectivity, in a context favourable to the acceptance of pseudoscience. Examples from written statements illustrate how prospective…

  10. Male Contraception: Research, New Methods, and Implications for Marginalized Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plana, Olivia

    2017-07-01

    The majority of research on contraception has focused on manipulating the female reproductive system. Recent studies have identified novel contraceptives for males, including hormonal- and nonhormonal-based therapeutics. Although these new contraceptives are still undergoing clinical trials, their development and potential future use in society necessitate serious consideration of their implications for reproductive health. Through my analysis of the research conducted on male contraception over time and the current therapeutics available, it is clear that male contraception has the potential to shift societal gender dynamics and provide males with greater control over their own reproduction. This article also identifies the implications of these novel contraceptives for marginalized populations, especially men of color and men of lower socioeconomic positions. To overcome barriers to contraception among these populations, public policy efforts are needed in order to motivate the development of programs that facilitate coverage of these new male contraceptives by health plans and to increase their availability to underserved communities. Health care providers will be responsible for educating patients about these novel male contraception options and the need to continue using existing methods (e.g., condoms) in order to prevent sexually transmitted infections. This article analyzes the research conducted on male contraception and identifies the implications of these novel therapeutics for marginalized groups of men in the United States to identify the interventions that will be necessary to help ensure that all men have access to these promising scientific innovations.

  11. Contextualising the role of the gatekeeper in social science research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gatekeepers' permission which is the focus of this paper. The role and influence of gatekeepers in social science research has been the subject of some debate and remains a challenge for many researchers.[5,6] Despite most research ethics guidance emphasising the necessity of prior community engagement, including.

  12. Priors & prejudice : using existing knowledge in social science research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wesel, F.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers in the social sciences usually start their research with the formulation of research goals and questions, which, together with studying the existing literature, lead to the formulation of hypotheses. Next, data is collected using experiments or questionnaires and is subsequently

  13. Historical Research: A Lens for Family and Consumer Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickols, Sharon Y.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes various historical research methods and presents examples of their application in family and consumer sciences (FCS). Historical research preserves the heritage of FCS through greater understanding of the development of the field and practitioners of the profession. Furthermore, historical research can revitalize…

  14. Publication of Research Article: An Art or Science?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research is essential to carry science forward. However, equally important is dissemination of the research findings.[1] An original article is the backbone of a scientific journal but more important is to present the real and original research in a fair manner. Various parameters have been introduced for identifying original ...

  15. A Methodological Review of Computer Science Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Justus; Julnes, George; Sutinen, Erkki; Lehman, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Methodological reviews have been used successfully to identify research trends and improve research practice in a variety of academic fields. Although there have been three methodological reviews of the emerging field of computer science education research, they lacked reliability or generalizability. Therefore, because of the capacity for a…

  16. Shaping Social Work Science: What Should Quantitative Researchers Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shenyang

    2015-01-01

    Based on a review of economists' debates on mathematical economics, this article discusses a key issue for shaping the science of social work--research methodology. The article describes three important tasks quantitative researchers need to fulfill in order to enhance the scientific rigor of social work research. First, to test theories using…

  17. Managing Research Is Both an Art and a Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoon, Koh Aik; Radiman, Shahidan; Daud, Abdul Razak; Shukor, R. Abd; Talib, Ibrahim Abu; Puaad, Ahmad; Samat, Supian

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a model for effective research management. Since research demands time, manpower and money it is imperative that we do it right to achieve success and at the same time avoid encumbrances and pitfalls. Managing research is both an art and a science. (Contains 1 table.)

  18. Research Output of Academics in the Science and Engineering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analysed the research output of academics in the science and engineering faculties of Federal Government-owned universities in Nigeria. It explored their level of research output during 1997-2006 in terms of the publication of journal articles and linked research and publication trends with place of publication ...

  19. Gender in population research: Confusing implications for health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Alaka Malwade

    2000-01-01

    In this paper I discuss some of the health policy implications of an increasing trend in population research and in its interpretation and presentation - a trend to 'political correctness' - defined not in the popular, often derogatory, sense, but as an ideological commitment to certain principles. For one of these commitments, that to the notion of gender equality, greater strength and legitimacy is today commonly sought by tying it to other less controversial goals such as that of better health. But straining for connections between gender equality and positive health outcomes often unduly constrains the research question, the research methods, and the interpretation of the research. When health policy seeks guidance from this research, it can receive signals which are too often incomplete, silent on the many trade-offs of specific policy measures, and, ultimately, perhaps even detrimental to the very goals of gender equity and social justice from which they are derived. Examples of all these possibilities are discussed.

  20. UNLV Information Science Research Institute. Quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nartker, T.A.

    1994-12-31

    This document summarizes the activities and progress for the 1994 Fall quarter for the UNLV Information Science Research Institute. Areas covered include: Symposium activity, Staff activity, Document analysis program, Text-retrieval program, and Institute activity.

  1. Publication of Research Article: An Art or Science? | Kapoor | Annals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 1 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Public attitudes to science in South Africa : research article

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juan, Andrea; Reddy, Vijay; Roberts, Benjamin; Gastrow, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In a global environment characterised by the growing role of science and technology in our economic, social, and political lives, an international research agenda has arisen to measure and understand...

  3. Why do science in space? Researchers' Night at CERN 2017

    CERN Multimedia

    Nellist, Clara

    2017-01-01

    Space topic and debate "Why do science in space?" With the special presence of Matthias Maurer, European Space Agency astronaut, and Mercedes Paniccia, PhD, Senior Research Associate for space experiment AMS.

  4. What conceptions of science communication are espoused by science research funding bodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Sarah E; Schibeci, Renato A

    2014-07-01

    We examine the conceptions of science communication, especially in relation to "public engagement with science" (PES), evident in the literature and websites of science research funding bodies in Europe, North America, South America, Asia and Oceania, and Africa. The analysis uses a fourfold classification of science communication to situate these conceptions: professional, deficit, consultative and deliberative. We find that all bodies engage in professional communication (within the research community); however, engagement with the broader community is variable. Deficit (information dissemination) models still prevail but there is evidence of movement towards more deliberative, participatory models.

  5. Priors & prejudice : using existing knowledge in social science research

    OpenAIRE

    Van Wesel, F.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers in the social sciences usually start their research with the formulation of research goals and questions, which, together with studying the existing literature, lead to the formulation of hypotheses. Next, data is collected using experiments or questionnaires and is subsequently analyzed. Finally, conclusions are drawn based on the research findings. Although this procedure is a logical one, more scientific knowledge can be gained by starting a research project with a sharper focu...

  6. Digital Science Poster: A New 'Research Data Mechanics'

    OpenAIRE

    Science, Digital; Porter, Simon

    2016-01-01

    A summary poster version presented by Simon Porter at Vivo 2016 of his white paper: A New 'Research Data Mechanics'. Full white paper here: https://figshare.com/articles/Digital_Science_White_Paper_A_New_Research_Data_Mechanics_/3514859The research community has been building towards a new understanding of research information management. It is time to conceive of a new Research Data Mechanics that brings to the fore the ways in which information travels through systems and, in the process...

  7. Good and Bad Research Collaborations: Researchers' Views on Science and Ethics in Global Health Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Parker

    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic rise in the scale and scope of collaborative global health research. A number of structural and scientific factors explain this growth and there has been much discussion of these in the literature. Little, if any, attention has been paid, however, to the factors identified by scientists and other research actors as important to successful research collaboration. This is surprising given that their decisions are likely to play a key role in the sustainability and effectiveness of global health research initiatives. In this paper, we report on qualitative research with leading scientists involved in major international research collaborations about their views on good and bad collaborations and the factors that inform their decision-making about joining and participating actively in research networks. We identify and discuss eight factors that researchers see as essential in judging the merits of active participation in global health research collaborations: opportunities for active involvement in cutting-edge, interesting science; effective leadership; competence of potential partners in and commitment to good scientific practice; capacity building; respect for the needs, interests and agendas of partners; opportunities for discussion and disagreement; trust and confidence; and, justice and fairness in collaboration. Our findings suggest that the sustainability and effectiveness of global health research collaborations has an important ethical or moral dimension for the research actors involved.

  8. Good and Bad Research Collaborations: Researchers' Views on Science and Ethics in Global Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Michael; Kingori, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the scale and scope of collaborative global health research. A number of structural and scientific factors explain this growth and there has been much discussion of these in the literature. Little, if any, attention has been paid, however, to the factors identified by scientists and other research actors as important to successful research collaboration. This is surprising given that their decisions are likely to play a key role in the sustainability and effectiveness of global health research initiatives. In this paper, we report on qualitative research with leading scientists involved in major international research collaborations about their views on good and bad collaborations and the factors that inform their decision-making about joining and participating actively in research networks. We identify and discuss eight factors that researchers see as essential in judging the merits of active participation in global health research collaborations: opportunities for active involvement in cutting-edge, interesting science; effective leadership; competence of potential partners in and commitment to good scientific practice; capacity building; respect for the needs, interests and agendas of partners; opportunities for discussion and disagreement; trust and confidence; and, justice and fairness in collaboration. Our findings suggest that the sustainability and effectiveness of global health research collaborations has an important ethical or moral dimension for the research actors involved.

  9. Partners in Science: A Suggested Framework for Inclusive Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    Public participation in scientific research, also known as citizen science, is effective on many levels: it produces sound, publishable science and data, helps participants gain scientific knowledge and learn about the methods and practices of modern science, and can help communities advance their own priorities. Unfortunately, the demographics of citizen science programs do not reflect the demographics of the US; in general people of color and less affluent members of society are under-represented. To understand the reasons for this disparity, it is useful to look to the broader research about participation in science in a variety of informal and formal settings. From this research, the causes for unequal participation in science can be grouped into three broad categories: accessibility challenges, cultural differences, and a gap between scientific goals and community priorities. Many of these challenges are addressed in working with communities to develop an integrated program of scientific research, education, and community action that addresses community priorities and invites community participation at every stage of the process from defining the question to applying the results. In the spectrum of ways to engage the public in scientific research, this approach of "co-creation" is the most intensive. This talk will explore several examples of co-creation of science, including collaborations with tribal communities around climate change adaptation, work in the Louisiana Delta concerning land loss, and the link between weather and disease in Africa. We will articulate some of the challenges of working this intensively with communities, and suggest a general framework for guiding this kind of work with communities. This model of intensive collaboration at every stage is a promising one for adding to the diversity of citizen science efforts. It also provides a powerful strategy for science more generally, and may help us diversify our field, ensure the use and

  10. Integrated Earth Science Research in Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. S.; Hazen, T. C.; Conrad, M. E.; Johnson, L. R.; Salve, R.

    2004-12-01

    spatially extensive, from sub-room-size scale to ten-kilometer scale. The DUSEL sites with vertical depth and lateral extent can accommodate many different experiments. Hydrologic studies can characterize the in-flow along drifts, ramps, and shafts. Geophysical and rock mechanics studies can have seismic and electromagnetic sensors stationed on site, for both local monitoring of excavations and long-term stability, and mine-scale network of sensors to form a large aperture for tomography imaging. The geo-biochemical studies can include the ecological evaluation of the effects of introduced materials and the search for the origin of life in isolated fluid pockets at depth. The muon flux can be measured underground to detect empty space (or lack of it) above detectors, as demonstrated at the Chephren pyramid, Egypt, in the 1970s and currently at the Pyramid of the Sun, Mexico. Conventional geophysical tomography, with wave propagation through rock mass, can be extended to include particle rays, with high-energy muon flux as an example. Muons interacting with atoms have implications for both geochemical and biological processes. This type of research can further promote collaboration between earth scientists with physicists. A deep laboratory can accommodate a deep campus for suites of physics detectors, and several campuses at different depths within the same site for earth science experiments in rock mechanics, hydrology, geochemistry, ecology, geo-microbiology, coupled processes, and many other branches of earth and planetary sciences.

  11. 76 FR 65781 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service... Research and Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical Science Research and Development...

  12. Ricoeur's hermeneutic phenomenology: an implication for nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, Andreas; Papadopoulos, I Rena; Beadsmoore, Alan

    2008-12-01

    Researchers and educators are increasingly implementing qualitative research methods to investigate issues of concern and interest. Hermeneutics has risen as an option for the qualitative research paradigm particularly after the 1970s. The precedence of the sciences that have applied hermeneutics as their approach to investigation is provided with special reference to nursing. In the nursing science, hermeneutics have been used extensively as a qualitative research method to investigate a variety of issues, through the lived experiences of the participants. In this paper, we introduce important aspects of the philosophy of Paul Ricoeur and we discuss the reasons why we have applied this approach in our study titled 'Quality Nursing Care: perspectives of patients with cancer and the nursing response'. The arguments that are presented here can be generalised to fit other areas of Nursing Science. Through this paper our aim is not only to familiarise the reader with Ricoeur's work, but also to arrive at an appreciation of his philosophy as a methodological approach for future nursing research.

  13. Field Research in Political Science Practices and Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravier, Magali

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: Kapiszewski (Diana), Maclean (Lauren M.), Read (Benjamin L.) ­ Field Research in Political Science. Practices and Principles. ­ Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2015 (Strategies for Social Inquiry). XIV + 456 p. Figures. Annexe. Bibliogr. Index.......Book review of: Kapiszewski (Diana), Maclean (Lauren M.), Read (Benjamin L.) ­ Field Research in Political Science. Practices and Principles. ­ Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2015 (Strategies for Social Inquiry). XIV + 456 p. Figures. Annexe. Bibliogr. Index....

  14. Bridging the Gap: The Role of Research in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. L.; Michael, P. J.

    2001-12-01

    Teaching in K-12 science classrooms across the country does not accurately model the real processes of science. To fill this gap, programs that integrate science education and research are imperative. Teachers Experiencing Antarctica and the Arctic (TEA) is a program sponsored and supported by many groups including NSF, the Division of Elementary, Secondary, and Informal Education (ESIE), and the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH). It places teachers in partnerships with research scientists conducting work in polar regions. TEA immerses K-12 teachers in the processes of scientific investigation and enables conveyance of the experience to the educational community and public at large. The TEA program paired me with Dr. Peter Michael from the University of Tulsa to participate in AMORE (Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge Expedition) 2001. This international mission, combining the efforts of the USCGC Healy and RV Polarstern, involved cutting-edge research along the geologically and geophysically unsampled submarine Gakkel Ridge. While in the field, I was involved with dredge operations, CTD casts, rock cataloging/ processing, and bathymetric mapping. While immersed in these aspects of research, daily journals documented the scientific research and human aspects of life and work on board the Healy. E-mail capabilities allowed the exchange of hundreds of questions, answers and comments over the course of our expedition. The audience included students, numerous K-12 teachers, research scientists, NSF personnel, strangers, and the press. The expedition interested and impacted hundreds of individuals as it was proceeding. The knowledge gained by science educators through research expeditions promotes an understanding of what research science is all about. It gives teachers a framework on which to build strong, well-prepared students with a greater awareness of the role and relevance of scientific research. Opportunities such as this provide valauble partnerships that bridge

  15. Editorial: The researcher and the research in criminal sciences in contemporaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caíque Ribeiro Galícia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This editorial presents a general analysis of the contemporary reality of the researcher and research in criminal sciences in Brazil. The researcher's profile is sought as an important component to understand the choices of criminal science research guidelines, with a focus on overcoming the false claim of impartiality of the subject-researcher. In this panorama, an analysis of legal research in Brazil is made, highlighting the most important role in the better understanding of legal science, but also as a factor of social, cultural, political and economic development.

  16. Citizen science: a new direction in canine behavior research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Julie; Spicer Rice, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Researchers increasingly rely on members of the public to contribute to scientific projects-from collecting or identifying, to analyzing and disseminating data. The "citizen science" model proves useful to many thematically distinctive fields, like ornithology, astronomy, and phenology. The recent formalization of citizen science projects addresses technical issues related to volunteer participation--like data quality--so that citizen scientists can make longstanding, meaningful contributions to scientific projects. Since the late 1990s, canine science research has relied with greater frequency on the participation of the general public, particularly dog owners. These researchers do not typically consider the methods and technical issues that those conducting citizen science projects embrace and continue to investigate. As more canine science studies rely on public input, an in-depth knowledge of the benefits and challenges of citizen science can help produce relevant, high-quality data while increasing the general public's understanding of canine behavior and cognition as well as the scientific process. We examine the benefits and challenges of current citizen science models in an effort to enhance canine citizen science project preparation, execution, and dissemination. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Research Training in the Biomedical, Behavioral, and Clinical Research Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive research and a highly-trained workforce are essential for the improvement of health and health care both nationally and internationally. During the past 40 years the National Research Services Award (NRSA) Program has played a large role in training the workforce responsible for dramatic advances in the understanding of various…

  18. ANOVA for the behavioral sciences researcher

    CERN Document Server

    Cardinal, Rudolf N

    2013-01-01

    This new book provides a theoretical and practical guide to analysis of variance (ANOVA) for those who have not had a formal course in this technique, but need to use this analysis as part of their research.From their experience in teaching this material and applying it to research problems, the authors have created a summary of the statistical theory underlying ANOVA, together with important issues, guidance, practical methods, references, and hints about using statistical software. These have been organized so that the student can learn the logic of the analytical techniques but also use the

  19. Sports-science roundtable: does sports-science research influence practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David; Burnett, Angus; Farrow, Damian; Gabbett, Tim; Newton, Robert

    2006-06-01

    As sports scientists, we claim to make a significant contribution to the body of knowledge that influences athletic practice and performance. Is this the reality? At the inaugural congress of the Australian Association for Exercise and Sports Science, a panel of well-credentialed academic experts with experience in the applied environment debated the question, Does sports-science research influence practice? The first task was to define "sports-science research," and it was generally agreed that it is concerned with providing evidence that improves sports performance. When practices are equally effective, sports scientists also have a role in identifying practices that are safer, more time efficient, and more enjoyable. There were varying views on the need for sports-science research to be immediately relevant to coaches or athletes. Most agreed on the importance of communicating the results of sports-science research, not only to the academic community but also to coaches and athletes, and the need to encourage both short- and long-term research. The panelists then listed examples of sports-science research that they believe have influenced practice, as well as strategies to ensure that sports-science research better influences practice.

  20. The pivotal role of the social sciences in environmental health sciences research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Symma; Collman, Gwen

    2016-09-06

    Environmental health sciences research seeks to elucidate environmental factors that put human health at risk. A primary aim is to develop strategies to prevent or reduce exposures and disease occurrence. Given this primary focus on prevention, environmental health sciences research focuses on the populations most at risk such as communities of color and/or low socioeconomic status. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences research programs incorporate the principles of Community-Based Participatory Research to study health disparities. These programs promote community engagement, culturally appropriate communications with a variety of stakeholders, and consideration of the social determinants of health that interact with environmental factors to increase risk. Multidisciplinary research teams that include social and behavioral scientists are essential to conduct this type of research. This article outlines the history of social and behavioral research funding at National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and offers examples of National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences-funded projects that exemplify the value of social science to the environmental health sciences. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. The impact of science shops on university research and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2000-01-01

    on their daily life; to give students opportunities for real life project work; to renew research and education at the university by drawing attention to new social topics and needs. Based on a case study of the Science Shop at the Technical University of Denmark potentials, prerequisites and limits......Science shops are mediating agencies at universities that give citizens and citizen groups access to the resources of the university through co-operation with students and researchers. Science shops have three aims: to support citizens and citizen groups in their efforts getting influence...... to the impact of science shops on universities and on society are discussed. A typology for the different types of knowledge requested by citizens and citizen groups through science shops is presented (documentation, knowledge building, development of new perspectives). As important aspects of the potentials...

  2. Research in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science is summarized and abstracts of published reports are presented. The major categories of the ICASE research program are: (1) numerical methods, with particular emphasis on the development and analysis of basic numerical algorithms; (2) control and parameter identification; (3) computational problems in engineering and the physical sciences, particularly fluid dynamics, acoustics, and structural analysis; and (4) computer systems and software, especially vector and parallel computers.

  3. Scaling Science | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... The scaling of research and innovation that creates social impact is a priority for IDRC and the development community broadly, but how best to achieve impact at scale is far from straightforward. While we can learn a great deal from standard private sector models, these paradigms are designed to achieve ...

  4. Scaling science | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-12-07

    Dec 7, 2017 ... Scaling our impact IDRC is committed to supporting the generation, identification, and testing of scalable ideas and innovation, as highlighted in Objective 1 of the Centre's Strategic Plan. With this agenda in mind, we're focussed on advancing our understanding of how scaling up research and innovation ...

  5. Computer Science Research Review 1974-75

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    mwmmmimmm^m^mmmrm. : i i 1 Faculty and Visitors Mario Barbaccl Research Associate B.S., Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria , Lima, Peru (1966...Engineer, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria , Lima, Peru (1968) Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon University (1974) Carnegie. 1969: Design Automation

  6. Research Journal of Health Sciences: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  7. Science Funding cuts threaten scientific research

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Page 1 of 3 Researchers are in uproar after a recently established quango unveiled a series of cuts and abandoned some projects altogether because of an estimated 80m funding shortfall. Martin Rees, the Astronomer Royal, argues that Britain will pay a far higher price if it scraps vital projects now

  8. Research Journal of Health Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acquisition of funding, the collection of data, or general supervision of the research group, by themselves, do not justify authorship. In the case of ... The use of trade names is unacceptable for medicinal products. 7. Manuscript .... Licensor means the individual(s) or entity(ies) granting rights under this Public License.

  9. A Science Cloud for Smart Cities Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred; Liu, Xiufeng; Gianniou, Panagiota

    2017-01-01

    , amongst many other things, the whole lifecycle of big data management and analytics for research activities. At the Centre for IT-Intelligent Smart Energy for Cities, we have therefore been developing a flexible infrastructure, based on open sourcetechnologies. This paper presents this solution and its...

  10. Austria announces new money for research infrastructure and social sciences

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Austria's Minister for Science and Research, Johannes Hahn, has announced funding for research infrastructures and the social sciences, amounting to EUR 6.9 million in total. The largest chunk of the money will go to a new data processing centre for the analysis of data from the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN). The idea is that the new centre will provide Austria with access to the key technology for solving highly complex scientific and technological problems, while strengthening Austria's domestic research infrastructure in the field of 'advanced communication networks'.

  11. Behavioural science at work for Canada: National Research Council laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Jennifer A

    2007-03-01

    The National Research Council is Canada's principal research and development agency. Its 20 institutes are structured to address interdisciplinary problems for industrial sectors, and to provide the necessary scientific infrastructure, such as the national science library. Behavioural scientists are active in five institutes: Biological Sciences, Biodiagnostics, Aerospace, Information Technology, and Construction. Research topics include basic cellular neuroscience, brain function, human factors in the cockpit, human-computer interaction, emergency evacuation, and indoor environment effects on occupants. Working in collaboration with NRC colleagues and with researchers from universities and industry, NRC behavioural scientists develop knowledge, designs, and applications that put technology to work for people, designed with people in mind.

  12. Science communication in the field of fundamental biomedical research (editorial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Sam; Prokop, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this special issue on science communication is to inspire and help scientists who are taking part or want to take part in science communication and engage with the wider public, clinicians, other scientists or policy makers. For this, some articles provide concise and accessible advice to individual scientists, science networks, or learned societies on how to communicate effectively; others share rationales, objectives and aims, experiences, implementation strategies and resources derived from existing long-term science communication initiatives. Although this issue is primarily addressing scientists working in the field of biomedical research, much of it similarly applies to scientists from other disciplines. Furthermore, we hope that this issue will also be used as a helpful resource by academic science communicators and social scientists, as a collection that highlights some of the major communication challenges that the biomedical sciences face, and which provides interesting case studies of initiatives that use a breadth of strategies to address these challenges. In this editorial, we first discuss why we should communicate our science and contemplate some of the different approaches, aspirations and definitions of science communication. We then address the specific challenges that researchers in the biomedical sciences are faced with when engaging with wider audiences. Finally, we explain the rationales and contents of the different articles in this issue and the various science communication initiatives and strategies discussed in each of them, whilst also providing some information on the wide range of further science communication activities in the biomedical sciences that could not all be covered here. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Science system path-dependencies and their influences: nanotechnology research in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaulova, Maria; Gök, Abdullah; Shackleton, Oliver; Shapira, Philip

    In this paper, we study the influence of path dependencies on the development of an emerging technology in a transitional economy. Our focus is the development of nanotechnology in Russia in the period between 1990 and 2012. By examining outputs, publication paths and collaboration patterns, we identify a series of factors that help to explain Russia's limited success in leveraging its ambitious national nanotechnology initiative. The analysis highlights four path-dependent tendencies of Russian nanotechnology research: publication pathways and the gatekeeping role of the Russian Academy of Sciences; increasing geographical and institutional centralisation of nanotechnology research; limited institutional diffusion; and patterns associated with the internationalisation of Russian research. We discuss policy implications related to path dependence, nanotechnology research in Russia and to the broader reform of the Russian science system.

  14. More Declassified Evidence Implicates CIA Physicians in Unethical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanusa-Cestero, Renée

    2017-01-01

    In 2010, in an article in this journal, I argued that declassified documents implicated Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) physicians in the conduct of unethical research on enhanced interrogation using detainee subjects. The focus, then as now, is upon physicians at the Office of Medical Services (OMS). The 2010 article highlighted the heavily redacted "Draft OMS Guidelines on Medical and Psychological Support to Detainee Interrogations" (the Draft). This commentary focuses upon the recently declassified final version of that document revealing further culpable evidence of unethical human subject research. The commentary locates that unethical research in historical context and the development of the Nuremberg Code. The commentary also locates enhanced interrogation in contemporary political context and considers how to hold OMS physicians accountable for the conduct of unethical human research using detainee subjects.

  15. Community research in other contexts: learning from sustainability science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silka, Linda

    2010-12-01

    In health research, community based participatory research (CBPR) has seen remarkable growth as an approach that overcomes many of the ethical concerns raised by traditional approaches. A community of CBPR scholars is now sharing ideas and devising new approaches to collaborative research. Yet, this is occurring in isolation from similar efforts using different nomenclature and occurring outside of health research areas. There is much to be gained by bringing these parallel discussions together. In sustainability science, for example, scholars are struggling with the question of how stakeholders and scientists can coproduce knowledge that offers useful solutions to complex and urgent environmental problems. Like CBPR in health, sustainability science is denigrated for perceived lack of rigor because of its applied problem focus and lack of positivist approach. Approaches to knowledge creation in sustainability science involve "new" ideas such as wicked problems and agent-based modeling, which would be equally applicable to CBPR. Interestingly, sustainability research is motivated less by recognition of the corrosive effects of the inequality of power than from frustration at how limited the impact of research has been, a perspective that might be useful in CBPR, particularly in conjunction with the use of some borrowed tools of sustainability science such as wicked problem analysis and agent-based modeling. Importantly, the example of sustainability science has the potential to keep CBPR from entering into a new orthodoxy of how research should be done.

  16. Health sciences research and Aboriginal communities: pathway or pitfall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smylie, Janet; Kaplan-Myrth, Nili; Tait, Caroline; Martin, Carmel Mary; Chartrand, Larry; Hogg, William; Tugwell, Peter; Valaskakis, Gail; Macaulay, Ann C

    2004-03-01

    To provide health researchers and clinicians with background information and examples regarding Aboriginal health research challenges, in an effort to promote effective collaborative research with Aboriginal communities. An interdisciplinary team of experienced Aboriginal-health researchers conducted a thematic analysis of their planning meetings regarding a community-based Aboriginal health research training project and of the text generated by the meetings and supplemented the analysis with a literature review. Four research challenges are identified and addressed: (1) contrasting frameworks of Western science and indigenous knowledge systems; (2) the impact of historic colonialist processes upon the interface between health science research and Aboriginal communities; (3) culturally relevant frameworks and processes for knowledge generation and knowledge transfer; and (4) Aboriginal leadership, governance, and participation. Culturally appropriate and community-controlled collaborative research can result in improved health outcomes in Aboriginal communities and contribute new insights and perspectives to the fields of public health and medicine in general.

  17. Scientific thinking in young children: theoretical advances, empirical research, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopnik, Alison

    2012-09-28

    New theoretical ideas and empirical research show that very young children's learning and thinking are strikingly similar to much learning and thinking in science. Preschoolers test hypotheses against data and make causal inferences; they learn from statistics and informal experimentation, and from watching and listening to others. The mathematical framework of probabilistic models and Bayesian inference can describe this learning in precise ways. These discoveries have implications for early childhood education and policy. In particular, they suggest both that early childhood experience is extremely important and that the trend toward more structured and academic early childhood programs is misguided.

  18. An Emerging New Risk Analysis Science: Foundations and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aven, Terje

    2017-09-07

    To solve real-life problems-such as those related to technology, health, security, or climate change-and make suitable decisions, risk is nearly always a main issue. Different types of sciences are often supporting the work, for example, statistics, natural sciences, and social sciences. Risk analysis approaches and methods are also commonly used, but risk analysis is not broadly accepted as a science in itself. A key problem is the lack of explanatory power and large uncertainties when assessing risk. This article presents an emerging new risk analysis science based on novel ideas and theories on risk analysis developed in recent years by the risk analysis community. It builds on a fundamental change in thinking, from the search for accurate predictions and risk estimates, to knowledge generation related to concepts, theories, frameworks, approaches, principles, methods, and models to understand, assess, characterize, communicate, and (in a broad sense) manage risk. Examples are used to illustrate the importance of this distinct/separate risk analysis science for solving risk problems, supporting science in general and other disciplines in particular. © 2016 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Research opportunities in corrosion science and engineering: Committee on Research Opportunities in Corrosion Science and Engineering, National Materials Advisory Board, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, National Research Council of the National Academies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

    "[This book] identifies grand challenges for the corrosion research community, highlights research opportunities in corrosion science and engineering, and posits a national strategy for corrosion research...

  20. Political implications of science popularisation strategies: Frontiers of S cience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Maureen

    2016-07-01

    This examination of the mediation strategies of a very popular factual science comic strip series from the 1960s and 1970s illustrates, in this case by highlighting the ways in which women were targeted as an audience, that science popularisations are always political. For that reason, they should not be evaluated merely in terms of scientific accuracy. I demonstrate tensions between the dissemination model of communication used in the distribution of science popularisations, on the one hand, with the advocacy of a dialogue model in their content, on the other. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. A different interpretation of science-society relations: the socialization of scientific and technological research (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano d'Andrea

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent data delivered by Eurobarometer show how Europeans tend not to perceive science and technology as important factors for the Europe’s future. While showing the scarce development of scientific culture in Europe, these data allow to understand how science and technology are exposed to risk of social marginalization, notwithstanding the results they are attaining. In order to interpret this quite contradictory picture, an analytical framework revolving around the notion of “science and technology socialization” is proposed and developed. Implications of such an approach on research policies, on citizens’ participation and on the role of social sciences are also briefly examined.

  2. The Viability of Portraiture for Science Education Research: Learning from Portraits of Two Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cassie; Trauth-Nare, Amy; Beeman-Cadwallader, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the relevance of a qualitative methodology called portraiture for science education. Portraiture is a method of inquiry that blends art and science by combining the empirical aspects of inquiry with beauty and aesthetic properties. This method encompasses all aspects of a research study, including protocol,…

  3. The Visibility of Information Science and Library Science Research in Bibliometric Mapping of the LIS Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrom, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    The relation between information science and library science has been debated for decades, and even attempts at utilizing methods generally acknowledged as robust for the purpose of mapping research fields have yielded results with large variations. Therefore, a set of citation analyses was performed, comparing the results of analyses on…

  4. Network Science Research Laboratory (NSRL) Telemetry Warehouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Collection, Storage, and Retrieval 3 3.2 Comparative Analysis 4 3.3 Data Processing 4 4. Architecture 4 4.1 NTW Database 6 4.2 NTW Server 6 4.4...efforts between ARL and the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). The primary emulation tools used by ARL are the Extendable Mobile Ad -Hoc Network...procedure call (gRPC) system. The gRPC system uses the Google protocol buffers compiler to generate the code for the server . gRPC handles many of the basic

  5. Research and Education in Basic Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naimy, H. M. K.; Celebre, C. P.; Chamcham, K.; de Alwis, H. S. P.; de Carias, M. C. P.; Haubold, H. J.; Troche Boggino, A. E.

    The UN/ESA workshops have been held in the regions of Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, Western Asia, and Europe. Additional to the scientific benefits of the workshops and the strengthening of international cooperation, the workshops lead to the establishment of astronomical telescope facilities in Colombia, Egypt, Honduras, Jordan, Paraguay, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. The annual UN/ESA Workshops continue to pursue an agenda to network these astronomical telescope facilities through similar research and education programmes. Teaching material and hands-on astrophysics material has been developed for the operation of such astronomical telescope facilities in an university environment.

  6. Social Capital and Library and Information Science Research: Definitional Chaos or Coherent Research Enterprise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This paper presents a review of research framed within the concept of social capital and published by library and information science researchers. Method: Ninety-nine papers fitting the criteria of having a specific library and information science orientation were identified from two periodical databases: "Library and…

  7. Promoting Science Outdoor Activities for Elementary School Children: Contributions from a research laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Diana; Faria, Cláudia; Chagas, Isabel; Galvão, Cecília

    2013-03-01

    The purposes of the study were to analyse the promotion of scientific literacy through practical research activities and to identify children's conceptions about scientists and how they do science. Elementary school children were engaged in two scientific experiments in a marine biology research laboratory. A total of 136 students answered a questionnaire about their previous habits towards science and carried out the following actions: (1) a guided visit to the laboratory, (2) a brief presentation of the research theme, (3) the development of two experiments, and (4) a questionnaire about the experiments and science conceptions. The research methods included observation, document analysis, and content analysis of the answers to the questionnaires. Additionally, each visit was video recorded in order to design learning materials. The results revealed that most of the pupils were able to follow every stage of experimentation. However, some of them misinterpreted results and conclusions. One implication of the study is that this type of outdoor activity is extremely important to promote meaningful science learning in children, but more care should be taken in practical science activities so that children can overcome some common difficulties when performing scientific inquiry.

  8. The politics of suffering: implications for nursing science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Jane M

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on newly emergent conceptualizations of suffering in the social sciences that emphasize political dimensions, this article uses a critical-feminist, self-reflective approach to propose a reconceptualization of suffering for nursing science. Discourse analysis of local narratives and metanarratives is undertaken as a basis for proposing alternative methods, including a critical humanities approach, for nurse scholars to use in creating a transformed, politicized epistemology of suffering.

  9. Research in the chemical sciences. Summaries of FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This summary book is published annually to provide information on research supported by the Department of Energy`s Division of Chemical Sciences, which is one of four Divisions of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the Office of Energy Research. These summaries provide the scientific and technical public, as well as the legislative and executive branches of the Government, information, either generally or in some depth, about the Chemical Sciences program. Scientists interested in proposing research for support will find the publication useful for gauging the scope of the present basic research program and it`s relationship to their interests. Proposals that expand this scope may also be considered or directed to more appropriate offices. The primary goal of the research summarized here is to add significantly to the knowledge base in which existing and future efficient and safe energy technologies can evolve. As a result, scientific excellence is a major criterion applied in the selection of research supported by the Division of Chemical Sciences, but another important consideration is emphasis on science that is advancing in ways that will produce new information related to energy.

  10. CSU Science Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program: Developing "Teacher-Researchers" Through Paid Summer Research Experiences for Pre-Service and Early Career Science and Math Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J.; Rebar, B.; Elrod, S.

    2011-09-01

    The Science Teacher and Researcher (STAR) program aims to enhance the recruitment, preparation, and retention of science and math teachers by providing pre-service and early career science and math teachers with a "teacher-researcher" experience. With the guidance of a research mentor, STAR Fellows work on original science projects in national laboratories and other research facilities for eight to ten weeks. Weekly education workshops and an opening and closing conference provide context and opportunities for STAR Fellows to consider how the "doing of science" may be translated into the "teaching of science." This model has allowed for considerable growth over the first four years from 16 participants in its first year to 71 in the most recent year. Early indications suggest that, as a result of the program, STAR Fellows have increased interest in teaching, feel more prestige about teaching careers, and feel more included in the teacher-researcher community.

  11. Environmental Sciences Division: Summaries of research in FY 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This document describes the Fiscal Year 1996 activities and products of the Environmental Sciences Division, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research. The report is organized into four main sections. The introduction identifies the basic program structure, describes the programs of the Environmental Sciences Division, and provides the level of effort for each program area. The research areas and project descriptions section gives program contact information, and provides descriptions of individual research projects including: three-year funding history, research objective and approach used in each project, and results to date. Appendixes provide postal and e-mail addresses for principal investigators and define acronyms used in the text. The indexes provide indexes of principal investigators, research institutions, and keywords for easy reference. Research projects are related to climatic change and remedial action.

  12. Brazilian science communication research: national and international contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Germana; Caldas, Graça; Gascoigne, Toss

    2017-08-31

    Science communication has emerged as a new field over the last 50 years, and its progress has been marked by a rise in jobs, training courses, research, associations, conferences and publications. This paper describes science communication internationally and the trends and challenges it faces, before looking at the national level. We have documented science communication activities in Brazil, the training courses, research, financial support and associations/societies. By analyzing the publication of papers, dissertations and theses we have tracked the growth of this field, and compared the level of activity in Brazil with other countries. Brazil has boosted its national research publications since 2002, with a bigger contribution from postgraduate programs in education and communication, but compared to its national research activity Brazil has only a small international presence in science communication. The language barrier, the tradition of publishing in national journals and the solid roots in education are some of the reasons for that. Brazil could improve its international participation, first by considering collaborations within Latin America. International publication is dominated by the USA and the UK. There is a need to take science communication to the next level by developing more sophisticated tools for conceptualizing and analyzing science communication, and Brazil can be part of that.

  13. ITK: enabling reproducible research and open science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Matthew; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Jomier, Julien; Marion, Charles; Ibanez, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Reproducibility verification is essential to the practice of the scientific method. Researchers report their findings, which are strengthened as other independent groups in the scientific community share similar outcomes. In the many scientific fields where software has become a fundamental tool for capturing and analyzing data, this requirement of reproducibility implies that reliable and comprehensive software platforms and tools should be made available to the scientific community. The tools will empower them and the public to verify, through practice, the reproducibility of observations that are reported in the scientific literature. Medical image analysis is one of the fields in which the use of computational resources, both software and hardware, are an essential platform for performing experimental work. In this arena, the introduction of the Insight Toolkit (ITK) in 1999 has transformed the field and facilitates its progress by accelerating the rate at which algorithmic implementations are developed, tested, disseminated and improved. By building on the efficiency and quality of open source methodologies, ITK has provided the medical image community with an effective platform on which to build a daily workflow that incorporates the true scientific practices of reproducibility verification. This article describes the multiple tools, methodologies, and practices that the ITK community has adopted, refined, and followed during the past decade, in order to become one of the research communities with the most modern reproducibility verification infrastructure. For example, 207 contributors have created over 2400 unit tests that provide over 84% code line test coverage. The Insight Journal, an open publication journal associated with the toolkit, has seen over 360,000 publication downloads. The median normalized closeness centrality, a measure of knowledge flow, resulting from the distributed peer code review system was high, 0.46.

  14. ITK: Enabling Reproducible Research and Open Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Michael McCormick

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reproducibility verification is essential to the practice of the scientific method. Researchers report their findings, which are strengthened as other independent groups in the scientific community share similar outcomes. In the many scientific fields where software has become a fundamental tool for capturing and analyzing data, this requirement of reproducibility implies that reliable and comprehensive software platforms and tools should be made available to the scientific community. The tools will empower them and the public to verify, through practice, the reproducibility of observations that are reported in the scientific literature.Medical image analysis is one of the fields in which the use of computational resources, both software and hardware, are an essential platform for performing experimental work. In this arena, the introduction of the Insight Toolkit (ITK in 1999 has transformed the field and facilitates its progress by accelerating the rate at which algorithmic implementations are developed, tested, disseminated and improved. By building on the efficiency and quality of open source methodologies, ITK has provided the medical image community with an effective platform on which to build a daily workflow that incorporates the true scientific practices of reproducibility verification.This article describes the multiple tools, methodologies, and practices that the ITK community has adopted, refined, and followed during the past decade, in order to become one of the research communities with the most modern reproducibility verification infrastructure. For example, 207 contributors have created over 2400 unit tests that provide over 84% code line test coverage. The Insight Journal, an open publication journal associated with the toolkit, has seen over 360,000 publication downloads. The median normalized closeness centrality, a measure of knowledge flow, resulting from the distributed peer code review system was high, 0.46.

  15. Transcultural theory and its implications for humanities research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niedziałek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to grasp the essence of transcultural theory, locate its roots and situate it within the framework of previous cultural research. This enables the influence of this theory on the projected future significance of humanistic research. The author makes use of the theoretical approaches of Arianna Dagnino and Mikhail Epstein. Although looking at this theory fromdifferent angles, in both cases the transcultural perspective translates into a unique perception of humanities (“transcultural” or “transformative” humanities, as a field of key importance for the future of science.

  16. A Research and Management Agenda for Chain and Network Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omta, S.W.F.; Trienekens, J.H.; Beers, G.

    2002-01-01

    In the present editorial we address key issues and research questions in the field of chain and network science. Theoretical approaches discussed in this editorial include Network Theory, Supply Chain Management and Industrial Organisation Theory. Major research themes derived from these approaches

  17. [Research progress on the phenotype informative SNP in forensic science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Xuan; Hu, Qing-Qing; Ma, Hong-Du; Huang, Dai-Xin

    2014-10-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) refers to the single base sequence variation in specific location of the human genome. Phenotype informative SNP has gradually become one of the research hot spots in forensic science. In this paper, the forensic research situation and application prospect of phenotype informative SNP in the characteristics of hair, eye and skin color, height, and facial feature are reviewed.

  18. Handbook of Research on Science Teaching and Learning Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Dorothy L., Ed.

    This uniquely comprehensive and current survey of the research in science education has been compiled by the most prominent experts in the field. More than a summary of findings, the content of this comprehensive single volume provides an assessment of the significance of research; evaluates new developments; and examines current conflicts,…

  19. Relevance of Researches in Physical Science for National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research is carefully planned and performed investigation, searching for previously unknown facts. It's the bedrock of all national developments. This paper explain the role of research in physical sciences in national building arguing that Nigeria is blessed with human and natural resources' which if properly utilized will ...

  20. The Schematic Structure of Computer Science Research Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posteguillo, Santiago

    1999-01-01

    Presents a linguistic description of the schematic organization of 40 journal articles from three academic journals in computing research. Results indicate the introduction-methods-results-discussion research reporting pattern can not be applied to computer science articles, with the central part (methods- results) departing most from the…

  1. Reconceptualising Science Education Practices from New Literacies Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    In light of profound socio-economic and technological changes, the research from New Literacies has raised fundamental questions on the nature of literacy in the way we read, write, and communicate. Yet, in science education, research in literacy has been largely restricted to the domain of print-oriented academic language. This paper aims to set…

  2. Outreach to Science Faculty and Students through Research Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tina; Hebblethwaite, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Penfield Library at the State University of New York at Oswego (SUNY Oswego) has a gallery exhibit space near the front entrance that is used to showcase student-faculty research and art class projects. This article features the library's outreach efforts to science faculty and students through research exhibitions. The library held an exhibition…

  3. Integrating Research into an Undergraduate Family Sciences Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelifa, Maher; Sonleitner, Nancy; Wooldridge, Deborah; Mayers, Gloysis

    2004-01-01

    The authors report the outcomes of introducing undergraduate research to family science majors at Zayed University, United Arab Emirates. The program has enriched students' educational experiences and has had tangible benefits. In addition to acquiring research skills, students improved in critical analysis, originality, independent learning,…

  4. Author Impact Metrics in Communication Sciences and Disorder Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Andrew; Faucette, Sarah P.; Thomas, William Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to examine author-level impact metrics for faculty in the communication sciences and disorder research field across a variety of databases. Method: Author-level impact metrics were collected for faculty from 257 accredited universities in the United States and Canada. Three databases (i.e., Google Scholar, ResearchGate,…

  5. Rhetorical Structure of Research Articles in Agricultural Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huimin; Wannaruk, Anchalee

    2014-01-01

    Although the rhetorical structure of research articles (RA) has been extensively examined from individual sections to complete IMRD sections regarding different disciplines, no research has been addressed to the overall rhetorical structure of RAs as a whole entity in the field of agricultural science. In this study, we analyzed 45 agricultural…

  6. Bibliometric mapping as a science policy and research management tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noyons, Everard Christiaan Marie

    1999-01-01

    Bibliometric maps of science are landscapes of scientific research fields created by quantitative analysis of bibliographic data. In such maps the 'cities' are, for instance, research topics. Topics with a strong cognitive relation are in each other's vicinity and topics with a weak relation are

  7. Learning from Longitudinal Research in Criminology and the Health Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderstaay, Steven L.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews longitudinal research within criminology and the health sciences on the relationship between reading and criminal, delinquent, or antisocial behavior. Longitudinal research in criminology, medicine, and psychology examines the role of reading within a broad set of interactive processes, connecting literacy to public health via…

  8. Networks of Practice in Science Education Research: A Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sonya N.; Siry, Christina

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we employ cultural sociology and Braj Kachru's model of World Englishes as theoretical and analytical tools for considering English as a form of capital necessary for widely disseminating research findings from local networks of practice to the greater science education research community. We present a brief analysis of recent…

  9. Library and information science research in Botswana: An analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analysed library and information science research in Botswana that has been published since 1979, when the library school at the University of Botswana was established. The period considered is from 1980 to 2006, a period of 27 years. The paper linked research and publication trends with the historical, social ...

  10. Purposeful Action Research: Reconsidering Science and Technology Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanOostveen, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Initial plans for this project arose from a need to address issues of professional development of science and technology teachers that went beyond the norm available within school board settings. Two teams of 4 teachers responded to an invitation to participate in a collaborative action research project. Collaborative action research was chosen in…

  11. A role for first-person science in recreation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert Schroeder

    2008-01-01

    Most if not all recreation researchers are also recreationists. This paper explores the possibility that recreation researchers could use their own recreation experiences as a source of insight into the phenomena they are trying to understand. Such a strategy of "first-person science" is embraced by practitioners of phenomenological psychology, experiential...

  12. Political communication science as a research area: history and contemporaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekunova Marina A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents main markers of the research line named political communication science. The analysis of the foreign literature has allowed the author not only to establish the stages and the current status of the mentioned research field but to demonstrate the current level of knowledge of political communication. This article reveals the tight interrelation between genesis of political communication science and the theoretical understanding of state administration, efficiency and legitimacy of administrative authority decisions. The research area of the western political system was shown restricted up to the solution of particular issues, whereby the author considers the problem how to move the political сcommunication science to a new level by means of expansion of research interest in media sphere, political advertizing, PR and even awareness campaign.

  13. Student science publishing: an exploratory study of undergraduate science research journals and popular science magazines in the US and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mico Tatalovic

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Science magazines have an important role in disseminating scientific knowledge into the public sphere and in discussing the broader scope affected by scientific research such as technology, ethics and politics. Student-run science magazines afford opportunities for future scientists, communicators, politicians and others to practice communicating science. The ability to translate ‘scientese’ into a jargon-free discussion is rarely easy: it requires practice, and student magazines may provide good practice ground for undergraduate and graduate science students wishing to improve their communication skills.

  14. Rethinking the Way We Do Research: The Benefits of Community-Engaged, Citizen Science Approaches and Nontraditional Collaborators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Danielle M

    2017-11-01

    There is tremendous opportunity for basic scientists to enhance the impact of our research by engaging more deeply with nontraditional partners and expanding the way we think about interdisciplinary research teams. These efforts can include more deeply engaging our participants, and the broader public, in our research; working with individuals from other fields to take a more active role in the dissemination and translation of our research; and working with collaborators from the arts and communication sciences to make our research more engaging and understandable. In this review, I provide an overview of our efforts along these lines in a project called Spit for Science (https://spit4science.vcu.edu/). This project draws from concepts central to community-engaged participatory research and citizen science. Although conducting research in this way involves a considerable time commitment, it has many potential benefits, including raising awareness about our research areas and findings; creating a public that is more connected to and aware of the importance of research, which can have potential implications for funding for science; creating new job opportunities for students; and increasing participation rates in our studies. By thinking creatively about how we conduct our research, and more broadly engaging diverse groups of individuals in the research process, we have the potential to significantly increase the reach and impact of our science. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Science and Faith: Discussing Astronomy Research with Religious Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.

    2006-12-01

    An important component of our outreach as research astronomers involves interaction with the religious community. From my personal perspective, being an active research astronomer who is also a practicing Christian, I am sometimes invited to present the latest astronomical research to church audiences and other religious groups; belonging to both communities thereby provides a valuable means of contributing to the dialogue between science and religion. These opportunities can be used to explain that science and religion are not necessarily in conflict but can be considered to be quite complementary. For instance, an important aspect of religion deals with the purpose of our existence, while science is more focussed on providing physical explanations for what we observe in the world, using a well-defined scientific process. Hence, religious believers need not necessarily abandon their faith in order to accept mainstream scientific research; these address very different and complementary aspects of our existence. Recent ideas such as Intelligent Design attempt to address the scientific method, but do not address the ultimate religious question of purpose and do not contribute towards reconciling science and religion in this sense. Ultimately, every individual arrives at their own understanding of this rather complex interplay; I will present some personal reflections on general approaches for discussing mainstream astronomical research with religious audiences, aimed at helping to advance the dialogue between religion and science in general.

  16. Research Experiences for Science Teachers: The Impact On Their Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubner, J.

    2005-12-01

    Deficiencies in science preparedness of United States high school students were recognized more than two decades ago, as were some of their underlying causes. Among the primary causes are the remoteness of the language, tools, and concepts of science from the daily experiences of teachers and students, and the long-standing national shortage of appropriately prepared science teachers. Secondary school science teachers are challenged each school year by constantly changing content, new technologies, and increasing demands for standards-based instruction. A major deficiency in the education of science teachers was their lack of experience with the practice of science, and with practicing scientists. Providing teachers with opportunities to gain hands-on experience with the tools and materials of science under the guidance and mentorship of leading scientists in an environment attuned to professional development, would have many beneficial effects. They would improve teachers' understanding of science and their ability to develop and lead inquiry- and standards-based science classes and laboratories. They would enable them to communicate the vitality and dynamism of science to their students and to other teachers. They would enhance their ability to motivate and guide students. From its inception, Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Science Teacher's goal has been to enhance interest and improve performance in science of students in New York City area schools. The program seeks to achieve this goal by increasing the professional competence of teachers. Our ongoing program evaluation shows that following completion of the program, the teachers implement more inquiry-based classroom and laboratory exercises, increase utilization of Internet resources, motivate students to participate in after school science clubs and Intel-type science projects; and create opportunities for students to investigate an area of science in greater depth and for longer periods

  17. Capacity Building Partnership for Research and Education in Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, A.; Danagoulian, S.; James, F.; Craft, B.

    2005-05-01

    The goals of the Capacity Building Partnership for Research and Education in Space Science (CB-PRESS) project include 1) establish a viable partnership to develop model education, research outreach programs in space science 2) to enhance existing STEM curricula using space science content 3) to develop a BS/MS space science track or full programs 4) to promote the value of space science within the "underserved" communities 5) to increase STEM majors 6) to develop adequate infrastructure for outreach and observation 7) to conduct ABET accreditation of the Engineering Physics Program. We report the following (1) Courses and programs: We are developing courses in astrophysics, Earth and Space Science, Solar Physics, and Space Radiation. We will begin offering these courses beginning Spring or Fall 2005. The BS/MS space science tracks will be offered beginning Fall 2005 pending approval. (2) Student training: Two students participated directly in NASA related research at Goddard Space Flight Center, and The National Radio Astronomy Observatory. (3) Public and K12 Outreach: We participated in one Teacher's workshop, and we made several trips to several elementary schools with our shows "Colors are Everywhere" We conducted outreach on "Venus Transit" for the public and NASA Sharp students. (4) Infrastructure: We are developing a robotic telescope for public outreach, and astronomy laboratory which non-existent at this time. We are also building the first robotic telescope on campus. (5) The draft proposal for the ABET accreditation of the Engineering Physics program is being studied. This work is supported by Minority University and College Education and Research Partnership Initiative (MUCERPI) in Space Science (NRA 03-OSS-03)

  18. Physical sciences research plans for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, E. H.

    2003-01-01

    The restructuring of the research capabilities of the International Space Station has forced a reassessment of the Physical Sciences research plans and a re-targeting of the major scientific thrusts. The combination of already selected peer-reviewed flight investigations with the initiation of new research and technology programs will allow the maximization of the ISS scientific and technological potential. Fundamental and applied research will use a combination of ISS-based facilities, ground-based activities, and other experimental platforms to address issues impacting fundamental knowledge, industrial and medical applications on Earth, and the technology required for human space exploration. The current flight investigation research plan shows a large number of principal investigators selected to use the remaining planned research facilities. c2003 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Strategic science for eating disorders research and policy impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Christina A; Brownell, Kelly D

    2017-03-01

    Scientific research often fails to have relevance and impact because scientists do not engage policy makers and influencers in the process of identifying information needs and generating high priority questions. To address this scholarship-policy gap, we have developed a model of Strategic Science. This research approach involves working with policy makers and influencers to craft research questions that will answer important and timely policy-related questions. The goal is to create tighter links between research and policy and ensure findings are communicated efficiently to change agents best positioned to apply the research to policy debates. In this article, we lay out a model for Strategic Science and describe how this approach may help advance policy research and action for eating disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Sexual health and older adults: suggestions for social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliff, Sharron

    2016-11-01

    The body of evidence on older adults' sexual health is beginning to grow. However, it remains an under-researched area particularly within the social sciences. This viewpoint outlines four considerations for those who carry out social science research in this area: 1. defining the age category "older adults"; 2. being clear about the types of sex under research; 3. capturing a range of diverse voices; and 4. considering the use of qualitative research methods to explore the topic in depth. These suggestions are aimed at helping researchers to avoid some of the pitfalls of research in this area, as well as improving the evidence base in order to advance recognition of the issues and drive change in service provision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Advancing global health through regulatory science research: summary of the Global Summit on Regulatory Science Research and Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slikker, William; Miller, Margaret Ann; Lou Valdez, Mary; Hamburg, Margaret A

    2012-04-01

    As a first step in the implementation of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Pathway to Global Product Safety and Quality (Anonymous, 2011), FDA's Office of International Programs (OIP) and the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) sponsored a Global Summit on Regulatory Science Research and Innovation. Through a series of presentations and panel discussions, the Global Summit participants explored how research could be used more effectively as a tool for advancing regulatory science, food safety, medical technologies, and public health. Speakers provided an overview of each of the components in the global regulatory-science research initiative, including scientific innovation and modernizing toxicology; and discussed how the integration of these components is needed to achieve the promise of regulatory science at the global level. All participants agreed with the formation of a Global Coalition of Regulatory Research Scientists who will work collaboratively to build knowledge, promote the development of regulatory science, discover novel ways to clearly define research needs, and improve public health. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The Space Science Lab: High School Student Solar Research Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelaz, Michael W.; Whitworth, C.; Harris, B.; David, C.

    2007-12-01

    Native American, Hispanic, African American, and other underrepresented high school students in rural Western North Carolina have the unprecedented opportunity as researchers in the Space Science Lab to conduct visible and radio observations of the Sun. The program involves 90 students over a three year period. The primary goal is to reach students who otherwise would not have this opportunity, and motivate them to develop the critical thinking skills necessary for objective scientific inquiry. Students develop skills in electronics, computer sciences, astronomy, physics and earth sciences. Equally important is the hope that the students will become interested in pursuing careers in research or other science-related areas. We expect their enthusiasm for science will increase by experiencing research investigations that are fun and relevant to their understanding of the world around them. The students conduct their own research, and also interact with scientists around the world. A total of 54 students have spent a week at the Space Science Lab located on the campus of the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) during the Summers of 2006 and 2007. Students construct their own JOVE radio telescopes that they bring home to continue their observations during the academic year. They share their results during four follow-up sessions throughout the school year. The students also have Internet access to radio telescopes and solar monitoring equipment at PARI. We report on results from student evaluations from the first year in 2006 and current session student experiences. We gratefully acknowledge support from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund - Student Science Enrichment Program

  3. Novel Network Services for Supporting Big Data Science Research

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Joaquin; Donovan, Sean; Bezerra, Jeronimo; Morgan, Heidi; Ibarra, Julio; Clark, Russ; Owen, Henry

    2017-01-01

    To interconnect research facilities across wide geographic areas, network operators deploy science networks, also referred to as Research and Education (R&E) networks. These networks allow experimenters to establish dedicated network connections between research facilities for transferring large amounts of data. Recently, R&E networks have started using Software-Defined Networking (SDN) and Software-Defined Exchanges (SDX) for deploying these connections. AtlanticWave/SDX is a response to the...

  4. Information-seeking behavior of nursing students and clinical nurses: implications for health sciences librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Cheryl; Stanley, Ellen E

    2005-04-01

    This research was conducted to provide new insights on clinical nurses' and nursing students' current use of health resources and libraries and deterrents to their retrieval of electronic clinical information, exploring implications from these findings for health sciences librarians. Questionnaires, interviews, and observations were used to collect data from twenty-five nursing students and twenty-five clinical nurses. Nursing students and clinical nurses were most likely to rely on colleagues and books for medical information, while other resources they frequently cited included personal digital assistants, electronic journals and books, and drug representatives. Significantly more nursing students than clinical nurses used online databases, including CINAHL and PubMed, to locate health information, and nursing students were more likely than clinical nurses to report performing a database search at least one to five times a week. Nursing students made more use of all available resources and were better trained than clinical nurses, but both groups lacked database-searching skills. Participants were eager for more patient care information, more database training, and better computer skills; therefore, health sciences librarians have the opportunity to meet the nurses' information needs and improve nurses' clinical information-seeking behavior.

  5. Brain Research: Implications for the Education of Exceptional Children. Abstract XV: Research & Resources on Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    The one-page abstract summarizes "Brain Research: Implications for the Education of Exceptional Children," an ERIC Computer Search Reprint containing bibliographic information and abstracts of 115 documents. Citations are described in five sections: learning disabilities, autism, other learning handicaps, assessment techniques, and instructional…

  6. Implementation science perspectives and opportunities for HIV/AIDS research: integrating science, practice, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Russell E; Eckstein, Erin T; Elzarrad, M Khair

    2013-06-01

    Disparities in the incidence and mortality of HIV/AIDS persist, challenging researchers, practitioners, and communities to develop improved strategies to reach vulnerable and marginalized populations. The emerging field of Implementation Science, with its focus on context, external validity, and innovative design approaches, is well suited to respond to this challenge. We provide an overview of Implementation Science, including its frameworks, tools, and strategies, and how they can inform the response to HIV/AIDS. We summarize pioneering Implementation Science frameworks, and then present examples using newer models, including RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness/Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) and the Evidence Integration Triangle, a framework for combining research and practice using participatory and adaptive processes in a multilevel context. Although still developing, the international field of Implementation Science can offer helpful perspectives for facilitating the more rapid integration of HIV/AIDS research, practice, and policy.

  7. Student Science Research Associates (SSRA) 1996 Research Journal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezovich, J. [ed.

    1996-12-01

    The following student projects are reported: SSRA water research projects, various effects on polliwogs` growth and development, effects of Willow Park Golf Course on nitrate and phosphate levels in San Leandro Creek, water quality evaluation using color infrared photography, biochemical analysis of aquatic insects, effects of miracid/calcium chloride/liquid plant food on stringless bush beans, effects of vegetable oil on bean growth, effect of river water on lima beans, effect of storm water runoff on pH and phosphate levels of Dry Creek, acid rain in Modesto, use of random amplified polymorphic DNA to study Egeria Densa, and effect of marination on formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in cooked chicken meat.

  8. Nanotechnology applications and implications research supported by the US Environmental Protection Agency STAR grants program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Nora; Thomas, Treye A; Duncan, Jeremiah S

    2007-10-01

    Since 2002, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been funding research on the environmental aspects of nanotechnology through its Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grants program. In total, more than $25 million has been awarded for 86 research projects on the environmental applications and implications of nanotechnology. In the applications area, grantees have produced promising results in green manufacturing, remediation, sensors, and treatment using nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Although there are many potential benefits of nanotechnology, there has also been increasing concern about the environmental and health effects of nanomaterials, and there are significant gaps in the data needed to address these concerns. Research performed by STAR grantees is beginning to address these needs.

  9. Interviewing children in custody cases: implications of research and policy for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saywitz, Karen; Camparo, Lorinda B; Romanoff, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Research on child interviewing has burgeoned over the past 25 years as expectations about children's agency, competence, and participation in society have changed. This article identifies recent trends in research, policy, and theory with implications for the practice of interviewing children in cases of contested divorce and for the weight to be given the information children provide. A number of fields of relevant research are identified, including studies of families who have participated in the family law system, studies of child witnesses in the field, experimental studies of the effects of interview techniques on children's memory and suggestibility, and ethnographic methods that elicit children's views of their own experiences. Finally, a set of 10 principles for practice are delineated based on the best available science. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Computer science security research and human subjects: emerging considerations for research ethics boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Elizabeth; Aycock, John; Dexter, Scott; Dittrich, David; Hvizdak, Erin

    2011-06-01

    This paper explores the growing concerns with computer science research, and in particular, computer security research and its relationship with the committees that review human subjects research. It offers cases that review boards are likely to confront, and provides a context for appropriate consideration of such research, as issues of bots, clouds, and worms enter the discourse of human subjects review.

  11. Promoting Quality for Teacher Action Research: Lessons Learned from Science Teachers' Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, Brenda M.; Feldman, Allan

    2006-01-01

    In this article we explore the concept of quality in teacher action research by re-examining our participation with science teachers in several different collaborative action research projects. We conducted second-order action research and generated a series reflexive conditions for promoting and ensuring quality action research. We assert that a…

  12. Human Research Program Science Management: Overview of Research and Development Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of research and development activities of NASA's Human Research Science Management Program is presented. The topics include: 1) Human Research Program Goals; 2) Elements and Projects within HRP; 3) Development and Maintenance of Priorities; 4) Acquisition and Evaluation of Research and Technology Proposals; and 5) Annual Reviews

  13. U.S. Institutional Research Productivity in Major Science Education Research Journals: Top 30 for 2000's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Tang, Nai-en

    2013-01-01

    VonAalst (2010) used Google Scholar to identify the top four science education research journals: "Journal of Research in Science Teaching," "Science Education," "International Journal of Science Education," and "Journal of Science Teacher Education." U.S. institutional productivity for 2000-2009 for the…

  14. Theoretical Implications of Contemporary Brain Science for Japanese EFL Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, John Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in brain science show that adult native Japanese speakers utilize a different balance of language processing routes in the brain as compared to native English speakers. Biologically this represents the remarkable flexibility of the human brain to adapt universal human cognitive processes to fit the specific needs of linguistic and…

  15. Disciplinary schizophrenia implication for graduate education in political science

    OpenAIRE

    Keohane, Robert

    2003-01-01

    I believe that to analyze the key issues of graduate education in political science we have to begin with the basic intellectual issues of our discipline. This mini-essay begins, therefore, with a discussion of fundamental divisions in the discipline, then turns to observations about how these divisions affect graduate programs.

  16. Sexual Harassment in Tertiary Science: Implications for Gender Equity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper focuses on the incidence of sexual harassment in tertiary science education and its attendant effects on students and academics. Data from a survey of six higher institutions comprising two universities, two colleges of education and two polytechnics was used. Results indicate high rate of sexual harassment of ...

  17. PISA 2015: Findings and Some Implications for UK Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jonathan; Millar, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the main findings for the countries of the UK from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in 2015, where science was the major focus. The nature of the tests, the key findings and how they might be interpreted are discussed--in…

  18. Academic and Research Programs in Exercise Science, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Shin; Song, Wook

    We appreciate the opportunity to review academic curriculum and current research focus of Exercise Science programs in South Korea. The information of this paper was collected by several different methods, including e-mail and phone interviews, and a discussion with Korean professors who attended the 2009 ACSM annual conference. It was agreed that exercise science programming in South Korea has improved over the last 60 years since being implemented. One of distinguishable achievement is that exercise science programs after the 1980's has been expanded to several different directions. It does not only produce physical education teachers but also attributes more to research, sports medicine, sports, leisure and recreation. Therefore, it has produced various jobs in exercise-related fields. Some of exercise science departments do not require teacher preparation course work in their curriculum which allows students to focus more on their specialty. Secondly, we believe we South Korea has caught up with advanced countries in terms of research quality. Many Korean researchers have recently published and presented their investigations in international journals and conferences. The quality and quantity of these studies introduced to international societies indicate that Exercise Science programs in South Korea is continuing to develop and plays an important part in the world.

  19. Summaries of the FY 1981 applied mathematical sciences research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    Applied Mathematical Sciences serves as the DOE focal point for monitoring and advancing the state of the art in mathematics, statistics, and computer science. Several DOE mission programs develop and refine specific techniques from the applied mathematical sciences applicable to their immediate needs. In contrast, Applied Mathematical Sciences concentrates on more broadly based, continuing needs throughout the DOE community. Emphasis is placed on research basic to the analysis, development, and use of large-scale computational models; the management and analysis of large, complex collections of information; and the effective use of DOE computing resources. The purpose of this research is not to improve existing technologies and methodologies, but rather to render them obsolete. Each part of the Applied Mathematical Sciences activity has been designed with the help and advice of leading mathematicians and computer scientists from universities, industry, and DOE laboratories to assure the broadest and greatest impact on the nation's energy R and D enterprise. Many of them are expert in industry's needs in the relevant areas. Close liaison is maintained with other federal agencies in the selection of areas of emphasis and of individual research tasks. This is high leverage research. In favorable cases, the results may be of great benefit simultaneously to a number of different energy technologies. The requested increase will be an exceptionally sound investment.

  20. The "art" of science communication in undergraduate research training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, F. R.; Stockwell, J.; Pinheiro, V.; White, B.

    2016-12-01

    Student creation of well-designed and engaging visuals in science communication can enhance their deep learning while streamlining the transmission of information to their audience. However, undergraduate research training does not frequently emphasize the design aspect of science communication. We devised and implemented a new curricular component to the Lake Champlain NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program in Vermont. We took a holistic approach to communication training, with a targeted module in "art and science". Components to the module included: 1) an introduction to environmental themes in fine art, 2) a photography assignment in research documentation, 3) an overview of elements of design (e.g., color, typography, hierarchy), 4) a graphic design workshop using tools in Powerpoint, and 5) an introduction to scientific illustration. As part of the REU program, students were asked to document their work through photographs, and develop an infographic or scientific illustration complementary to their research. The "art and science" training culminated with a display and critique of their visual work. We report on student responses to the "art and science" training from exit interviews and survey questions. Based on our program, we identify a set of tools that mentors can use to enhance their student's ability to engage with a broad audience.

  1. Summaries of FY 1979 research in the chemical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to help those interested in research supported by the Department of Energy's Division of Chemical Sciences, which is one of six Divisions of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the Office of Energy Research. Chemists, physicists, chemical engineers and others who are considering the possibility of proposing research for support by this Division wll find the booklet useful for gauging the scope of the program in basic research, and the relationship of their interests to the overall program. These smmaries are intended to provide a rapid means for becoming acquainted with the Chemical Sciences program for members of the scientific and technological public, and interested persons in the Legislative and Executive Branches of the Government, in order to indicate the areas of research supported by the Division and energy technologies which may be advanced by use of basic knowledge discovered in this program. Scientific excellence is a major criterion applied in the selection of research supported by Chemical Sciences. Another important consideration is the identifying of chemical, physical and chemical engineering subdisciplines which are advancing in ways which produce new information related to energy, needed data, or new ideas.

  2. Organizing intelligence: development of behavioral science and the research based model of business education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottom, William P

    2009-01-01

    Conventional history of the predominant, research-based model of business education (RBM) traces its origins to programs initiated by the Ford Foundation after World War II. This paper maps the elite network responsible for developing behavioral science and the Ford Foundation agenda. Archival records of the actions taken by central nodes in the network permit identification of the original vision statement for the model. Analysis also permits tracking progress toward realizing that vision over several decades. Behavioral science was married to business education from the earliest stages of development. The RBM was a fundamental promise made by advocates for social science funding. Appraisals of the model and recommendations for reform must address its full history, not the partial, distorted view that is the conventional account. Implications of this more complete history for business education and for behavioral theory are considered.

  3. Nursing intellectual capital theory: implications for research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Christine L; Sidani, Souraya

    2013-05-31

    Due to rising costs of healthcare, determining how registered nurses and knowledge resources influence the quality of patient care is critical. Studies that have investigated the relationship between nursing knowledge and outcomes have been plagued with conceptual and methodological issues. This has resulted in limited empirical evidence of the impact of nursing knowledge on patient or organizational outcomes. The nursing intellectual capital theory was developed to assist with this area of inquiry. Nursing intellectual capital theory conceptualizes the sources of nursing knowledge available within an organization and delineates its relationship to patient and organizational outcomes. In this article, we review the nursing intellectual capital theory and discuss its implications for research and practice. We explain why the theory shows promise for guiding research on quality work environments and how it may assist with administrative decision-making related to nursing human resource management and continuing professional development.

  4. Changes in science classrooms resulting from collaborative action research initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Phil Seok

    Collaborative action research was undertaken over two years between a Korean science teacher and science education researchers at the University of Iowa. For the purpose of realizing science learning as envisioned by constructivist principles, Group-Investigations were implemented three or five times per project year. In addition, the second year project enacted Peer Assessments among students. Student perceptions of their science classrooms, as measured by the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES), provided evidence that the collaborative action research was successful in creating constructivist learning environments. Student attitudes toward science lessons, as examined by the Enjoyment of Science Lessons Scale (ESLS), indicated that the action research also contributed to developing more positive attitudes of students about science learning. Discourse analysis was conducted on video-recordings of in-class presentations and discussions. The results indicated that students in science classrooms which were moving toward constructivist learning environments engaged in such discursive practices as: (1) Communicating their inquiries to others, (2) Seeking and providing information through dialogues, and (3) Negotiating conflicts in their knowledge and beliefs. Based on these practices, science learning was viewed as the process of constructing knowledge and understanding of science as well as the process of engaging in scientific inquiry and discourse. The teacher's discursive practices included: (1) Wrapping up student presentations, (2) Addressing misconceptions, (3) Answering student queries, (4) Coaching, (5) Assessing and advising, (6) Guiding students discursively into new knowledge, and (7) Scaffolding. Science teaching was defined as situated acts of the teacher to facilitate the learning process. In particular, when the classrooms became more constructivist, the teacher intervened more frequently and carefully in student activities to fulfill a

  5. Virtual research environments from portals to science gateways

    CERN Document Server

    Allan, Robert N

    2009-01-01

    Virtual Research Environments examines making Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) usable by researchers working to solve "grand challenge” problems in many disciplines from social science to particle physics. It is driven by research the authors have carried out to evaluate researchers' requirements in using information services via web portals and in adapting collaborative learning tools to meet their more diverse needs, particularly in a multidisciplinary study.This is the motivation for what the authors have helped develop into the UK Virtual Research Environments (VRE)

  6. Computer science research. Computation and Information Services Directorate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGraw, J.R.; Van Dyke, P.T. (eds.)

    1985-01-01

    Research activities in computer science and numerical analysis carried out within the Computation and Information Services Directorate of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are highlighted. A technical introduction to current areas of study is given, and recent progress is reported. Current research features a heavy emphasis on multiprocessing, which plays a major role in nearly every proposed new supercomputer system. In addition to multiprocessing, strong efforts continue in some of the more traditional areas of computer science, particularly numerical methods. Specific content of the report includes chapters on numerical algorithms, software interfaces, architectures and networks, future directions, project funding, and project contacts. (DWL)

  7. Political Science: Witchcraft or Craftsmanship? Standards for Good Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne

    2008-01-01

    is systematically determined by society. Good political science ought to be grounded in two questions: What do we know, and what are we going to learn? Research question and theory are decisive, while all discussion about methodology and design is about subjecting our prejudices and expectations to the most......Scientific debate requires a common understanding of what constitutes good research. The purpose of this article is to establish such an understanding. The purpose of political science is to uncover, understand and explain the conformist aspect of social behavior, well aware that not all behavior...

  8. Supporting Scientific Research with the Energy Sciences Network

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Monga, Inder

    2016-01-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is a high-performance, unclassified national network built to support scientific research. Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science (SC) and managed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, ESnet provides services to more than 40 DOE research sites, including the entire National Laboratory system, its supercomputing facilities, and its major scientific instruments. ESnet also connects to 140 research and commercial networks, permitting DOE-funded scientists to productively collaborate with partners around the world. ESnet Division Director (Interim) Inder Monga and ESnet Networking Engineer David Mitchell will present current ESnet projects and research activities which help support the HEP community. ESnet  helps support the CERN community by providing 100Gbps trans-Atlantic network transport for the LHCONE and LHCOPN services. ESnet is also actively engaged in researching connectivity to cloud computing resources for HEP workflows a...

  9. Health trajectory research: a call to action for nursing science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henly, Susan J; Wyman, Jean F; Gaugler, Joseph E

    2011-01-01

    The focus of health trajectory research is study of health over time for individual persons, families, or communities. The person-focused, time-based perspective reflects health as it is experienced over the life course and maps directly onto processes of care, contributing to ease in translation of results to practice. The agenda focuses on theoretical and empirical components needed to (a) build health trajectory science; (b) develop the scientific workforce to conduct health trajectory research; (c) integrate health trajectory research with other critical, emerging areas of nursing science (genomics and genetics, informatics, dynamic systems and communication); and (d) apply health trajectory research across the life span and continuum of care. Agenda items point the way toward a reorientation of nursing research that incorporates and emphasizes understanding of individual health trajectories.

  10. Integral methodological pluralism in science education research: valuing multiple perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nancy T.; Callihan, Laurie P.

    2013-09-01

    This article examines the multiple methodologies used in educational research and proposes a model that includes all of them as contributing to understanding educational contexts and research from multiple perspectives. The model, based on integral theory (Wilber in a theory of everything. Shambhala, Boston, 2000) values all forms of research as true, but partial. Consideration of objective (exterior) forms of research and data and subjective (interior) forms of research and data are further divided into individual and collective domains. Taking this categorization system one step further reveals eight indigenous perspectives that form a framework for considering research methodologies. Each perspective has unique questions, data sources, methods and quality criteria designed to reveal what is "true" from that view. As science educators who guide our students' research, this framework offers a useful guide to explain differences in types of research, the purpose and validity of each. It allows professional science educators to appreciate multiple forms of research while maintaining rigorous quality criteria. Use of this framework can also help avoid problems of imposing quality criteria of one methodology on research data and questions gathered using another methodology. This model is explored using the second author's dissertation research. Finally a decision chart is provided to use with those who are starting inquiries to guide their thinking and choice of appropriate methodologies to use when conducting research.

  11. Reimagining Human Research Protections for 21st Century Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloss, Cinnamon; Nebeker, Camille; Bietz, Matthew; Bae, Deborah; Bigby, Barbara; Devereaux, Mary; Fowler, James; Waldo, Ann; Weibel, Nadir; Patrick, Kevin; Klemmer, Scott; Melichar, Lori

    2016-12-22

    Evolving research practices and new forms of research enabled by technological advances require a redesigned research oversight system that respects and protects human research participants. Our objective was to generate creative ideas for redesigning our current human research oversight system. A total of 11 researchers and institutional review board (IRB) professionals participated in a January 2015 design thinking workshop to develop ideas for redesigning the IRB system. Ideas in 5 major domains were generated. The areas of focus were (1) improving the consent form and process, (2) empowering researchers to protect their participants, (3) creating a system to learn from mistakes, (4) improving IRB efficiency, and (5) facilitating review of research that leverages technological advances. We describe the impetus for and results of a design thinking workshop to reimagine a human research protections system that is responsive to 21st century science.

  12. Activities of the Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliger, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) was established by the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) on June 6, 1983. RIACS is privately operated by USRA, a consortium of universities with research programs in the aerospace sciences, under contract with NASA. The primary mission of RIACS is to provide research and expertise in computer science and scientific computing to support the scientific missions of NASA ARC. The research carried out at RIACS must change its emphasis from year to year in response to NASA ARC's changing needs and technological opportunities. Research at RIACS is currently being done in the following areas: (1) parallel computing; (2) advanced methods for scientific computing; (3) high performance networks; and (4) learning systems. RIACS technical reports are usually preprints of manuscripts that have been submitted to research journals or conference proceedings. A list of these reports for the period January 1, 1994 through December 31, 1994 is in the Reports and Abstracts section of this report.

  13. Socialization into science: An ethnographic study in a field research station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calovini, Theresa Ann

    While the place of language in building the tasks and activities of the science classroom has received attention in the education literature, how students do the work of affiliation building through language remains poorly understood. This dissertation is based on ethnographic research in an apprenticeship learning situation at a biological field research station. I carried out this research with five undergraduates apprentices. I focus on how the language used in this apprenticeship situation positioned the apprentices with science. Issues of access and diversity in science education have motivated this research but this point can be missed because the five apprentices were all fairly successful in university science. They had all secured their job for the summer as paid research assistants. Yet, even with these successful students, science had a complicated place in their lives. I draw on Gee's (1999) notion of Discourse to understand this complexity. I focus on four Discourses--- Science, Knowing about the Animals, Senior Projects and RAships, and Relationships ---which were important in the apprentices' learning about and socialization with science. I try to understand the inter-workings of these four Discourses through a detailed analysis of three conversations involving one of the participants, Michelle. Michelle's use of narrative emerged as a linguistic resource which she used to explore dilemmas she experienced in the tensions between these four Discourses. Michelle was in many ways an ideal apprentice. She did her job well and she sought and received expert advice on her Senior project. Nonetheless, Michelle faced obstacles in her pursuit of a career in science and these obstacles related to language use and her use of narrative. I show how her use of narrative either facilitated or impeded her learning, depending on the context of the interaction. My analysis of Discourse points to important issues in language use by both students and teachers, with

  14. Field Research in the Teaching of Undergraduate Soil Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Senturklu, Songul; Landblom, Douglas

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that undergraduate students benefit from research experiences. Benefits of undergraduate research include 1) personal and intellectual development, 2) more and closer contact with faculty, 3) the use of active learning techniques, 4) creation of high expectations, 5) development of creative and problem-solving skills, 6) greater independence and intrinsic motivation to learn, and 7) exposure to practical skills. The scientific discipline also benefits, as studies have shown that undergraduates who engage in research experiences are more likely to remain science majors and finish their degree program (Lopatto, 2007). Research experiences come as close as possible to allowing undergraduates to experience what it is like to be an academic or research member of their profession working to advance their discipline. Soils form in the field, therefore, field experiences are very important in developing a complete and holistic understanding of soil science. Combining undergraduate research with field experiences can provide extremely beneficial outcomes to the undergraduate student, including increased understanding of and appreciation for detailed descriptions and data analysis as well as an enhanced ability to see how various parts of their undergraduate education come together to understand a complex problem. The experiences of the authors in working with undergraduate students on field-based research projects will be discussed, along with examples of some of the undergraduate research projects that have been undertaken. In addition, student impressions of their research experiences will be presented. Reference Lopatto, D. 2007. Undergraduate research experiences support science career decisions and active learning. CBE -- Life Sciences Education 6:297-306.

  15. Science teachers' perceptions of the effectiveness of technology in the laboratories: Implications for science education leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Niveen K.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify science teachers' perceptions concerning the use of technology in science laboratories and identify teachers' concerns and recommendations for improving students' learning. Survey methodology with electronic delivery was used to gather data from 164 science teachers representing Texas public schools. The data confirmed that weaknesses identified in the 1990s still exist. Lack of equipment, classroom space, and technology access, as well as large numbers of students, were reported as major barriers to the implementation of technology in science laboratories. Significant differences were found based on gender, grade level, certification type, years of experience, and technology proficiency. Females, elementary teachers, traditionally trained teachers, and less experienced teachers revealed a more positive attitude toward the use of technology in science laboratories. Participants in this study preferred using science software simulations to support rather than replace traditional science laboratories. Teachers in this study recommended professional development programs that focused on strategies for a technology integrated classroom.

  16. Integrating Bioethics into Clinical and Translational Science Research: A Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Robyn S.; Layde, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Recent initiatives to improve human health emphasize the need to effectively and appropriately translate new knowledge gleaned from basic biomedical and behavioral research to clinical and community application. To maximize the beneficial impact of scientific advances in clinical practice and community health, and to guard against potential deleterious medical and societal consequences of such advances, incorporation of bioethics at each stage of clinical and translational science research is essential. At the earliest stage, bioethics input is critical to address issues such as whether to limit certain areas of scientific inquiry. Subsequently, bioethics input is important to assure not only that human subjects trials are conducted and reported responsibly, but also that results are incorporated into clinical and community practices in a way that promotes and protects bioethical principles. At the final stage of clinical and translational science research, bioethics helps to identify the need and approach for refining clinical practices when safety or other concerns arise. The framework we present depicts how bioethics interfaces with each stage of clinical and translational science research, and suggests an important research agenda for systematically and comprehensively assuring bioethics input into clinical and translational science initiatives. PMID:20443821

  17. Open science versus commercialization: a modern research conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy; Harmon, Shawn He; Joly, Yann

    2012-02-27

    Efforts to improve research outcomes have resulted in genomic researchers being confronted with complex and seemingly contradictory instructions about how to perform their tasks. Over the past decade, there has been increasing pressure on university researchers to commercialize their work. Concurrently, they are encouraged to collaborate, share data and disseminate new knowledge quickly (that is, to adopt an open science model) in order to foster scientific progress, meet humanitarian goals, and to maximize the impact of their research. We present selected guidelines from three countries (Canada, United States, and United Kingdom) situated at the forefront of genomics to illustrate this potential policy conflict. Examining the innovation ecosystem and the messages conveyed by the different policies surveyed, we further investigate the inconsistencies between open science and commercialization policies. Commercialization and open science are not necessarily irreconcilable and could instead be envisioned as complementary elements of a more holistic innovation framework. Given the exploratory nature of our study, we wish to point out the need to gather additional evidence on the coexistence of open science and commercialization policies and on its impact, both positive and negative, on genomics academic research.

  18. Authentic Science Research Opportunities: How Do Undergraduate Students Begin Integration into a Science Community of Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Grant E.; Forrester, Jennifer H.; Jeffrey, Penny Shumaker; Ferzli, Miriam; Shea, Damian

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study described was to understand the process and degree to which an undergraduate science research program for rising college freshmen achieved its stated objectives to integrate participants into a community of practice and to develop students' research identities.

  19. The science of patient safety: implications for oncology nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Carol A

    2013-12-01

    Patient safety is one of the most frequent terms used in health care today. Patients and their families are, first and foremost, focused on receiving effective and safe care, and oncology nurses strive to incorporate clinical evidence into day-to-day practice. This article provides a road map on how to incorporate emerging patient safety science into daily clinical practice to best serve patients and their families.

  20. Summaries of FY 1982 research in the chemical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this booklet is to help those interested in research supported by the Department of Energy's Division of Chemical Sciences, which is one of six Divisions of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the Office of Energy Research. These summaries are intended to provide a rapid means for becoming acquainted with the Chemical Sciences program to members of the scientific and technological public and interested persons in the Legislative and Executive Branches of the Government. Areas of research supported by the Division are to be seen in the section headings, the index and the summaries themselves. Energy technologies which may be advanced by use of the basic knowledge discovered in this program can be seen in the index and again (by reference) in the summaries. The table of contents lists the following: photochemical and radiation sciences; chemical physics; atomic physics; chemical energy; separation and analysis; chemical engineering sciences; offsite contracts; equipment funds; special facilities; topical index; institutional index for offsite contracts; investigator index.

  1. Science and Observation Recommendations for Future NASA Carbon Cycle Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Charles R.; Collatz, G. J.; Kawa, S. R.; Gregg, W. W.; Gervin, J. C.; Abshire, J. B.; Andrews, A. E.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Demaio, L. D.; Knox, R. G.

    2002-01-01

    Between October 2000 and June 2001, an Agency-wide planning, effort was organized by elements of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to define future research and technology development activities. This planning effort was conducted at the request of the Associate Administrator of the Office of Earth Science (Code Y), Dr. Ghassem Asrar, at NASA Headquarters (HQ). The primary points of contact were Dr. Mary Cleave, Deputy Associate Administrator for Advanced Planning at NASA HQ (Headquarters) and Dr. Charles McClain of the Office of Global Carbon Studies (Code 970.2) at GSFC. During this period, GSFC hosted three workshops to define the science requirements and objectives, the observational and modeling requirements to meet the science objectives, the technology development requirements, and a cost plan for both the science program and new flight projects that will be needed for new observations beyond the present or currently planned. The plan definition process was very intensive as HQ required the final presentation package by mid-June 2001. This deadline was met and the recommendations were ultimately refined and folded into a broader program plan, which also included climate modeling, aerosol observations, and science computing technology development, for contributing to the President's Climate Change Research Initiative. This technical memorandum outlines the process and recommendations made for cross-cutting carbon cycle research as presented in June. A separate NASA document outlines the budget profiles or cost analyses conducted as part of the planning effort.

  2. A Call for Action (Research): Applying Science Education Research to Computer Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, John M.

    2004-01-01

    In educational research, investigators in one field are often ignorant of similar research in other fields. Physics education in particular has undergone dramatic reforms in recent years, all based on insights gained from conducting educational research. Often, pedagogical methods resulting from research in one field can be revised and transferred…

  3. Research objectives, opportunities, and facilities for microgravity science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuzick, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    Microgravity Science in the U.S.A. involves research in fluids science, combustion science, materials science, biotechnology, and fundamental physics. The purpose is to achieve a thorough understanding of the effects of gravitational body forces on physical phenomena relevant to those disciplines. This includes the study of phenomena which are usually overwhelmed by the presence of gravitational body forces and, therefore, chiefly manifested when gravitational forces are weak. In the pragmatic sense, the research involves gravity level as an experimental parameter. Calendar year 1992 is a landmark year for research opportunities in low earth orbit for Microgravity Science. For the first time ever, three Spacelab flights will fly in a single year: IML-1 was launched on January 22; USML-1 was launched on June 25; and, in September, SL-J will be launched. A separate flight involving two cargo bay carriers, USMP-1, will be launched in October. From the beginning of 1993 up to and including the Space Station era (1997), nine flights involving either Spacelab or USMP carriers will be flown. This will be augmented by a number of middeck payloads and get away specials flying on various flights. All of this activity sets the stage for experimentation on Space Station Freedom. Beginning in 1997, experiments in Microgravity Science will be conducted on the Space Station. Facilities for doing experiments in protein crystal growth, solidification, and biotechnology will all be available. These will be joined by middeck-class payloads and the microgravity glove box for conducting additional experiments. In 1998, a new generation protein crystal growth facility and a facility for conducting combustion research will arrive. A fluids science facility and additional capability for conducting research in solidification, as well as an ability to handle small payloads on a quick response basis, will be added in 1999. The year 2000 will see upgrades in the protein crystal growth and

  4. Abstracts of the International Congress of Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences & Human Development (2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Reis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The papers published in this book of abstracts / proceedings were submitted to the Scientific Commission of the International Congress of Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences & Human Development, held on 11 and 12 November 2016, at the University of Évora, Évora, Portugal, under the topic of Exercise and Health, Sports and Human Development. The content of the abstracts is solely and exclusively of its authors responsibility. The editors and the Scientific Committee of the International Congress of Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences & Human Development do not assume any responsibility for the opinions and statements expressed by the authors. Partial reproduction of the texts and their use without commercial purposes is allowed, provided the source / reference is duly mentioned.

  5. Globalized research and "national science": the case of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Carlos F; Mendoza, Walter

    2009-10-01

    Issues in the area of international health research are insufficiently discussed in Latin America. We examine the practices of stakeholders such as the state and the academic community regarding research policy processes and funding sources in Peru. Our findings showed that research policy development and evaluation processes are poor in Peru, most of the country's academic research is published in English only, and researchers' access to funding is limited. Given that the relationship between local academic institutions and foreign research centers is key in developing a "national science," there is a clear need to reinforce the state's capacities for management and research oversight and implementation and to encourage the academic community to improve their institutional policies and research frameworks.

  6. Can patents prohibit research? On the social epistemology of patenting and licensing in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Justin B

    2014-03-01

    A topic of growing importance within philosophy of science is the epistemic implications of the organization of research. This paper identifies a promising approach to social epistemology--nonideal systems design--and uses it to examine one important aspect of the organization of research, namely the system of patenting and licensing and its role in structuring the production and dissemination of knowledge. The primary justification of patenting in science and technology is consequentialist in nature. Patenting should incentivize research and thereby promote the development of knowledge, which in turn facilitates social progress. Some have disputed this argument, maintaining that patenting actually inhibits knowledge production. In this paper, I make a stronger argument; in some areas of research in the US--in particular, research on GM seeds--patents and patent licenses can be, and are in fact being, used to prohibit some research. I discuss three potential solutions to this problem: voluntary agreements, eliminating patents, and a research exemption. I argue against eliminating patents, and I show that while voluntary agreements and a research exemption could be helpful, they do not sufficiently address the problems of access that are discussed here. More extensive changes in the organization of research are necessary.

  7. Research status and development of medical science in cold regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-hai SUN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To propose the concept, objects of study,tasks and roles of military medical sciences in cold regions(CM, and provide a theoretical basis and academic reference for its establishment anddevelopment. Methods  Literature concerning medical sciences in cold regions were retrieved with infomatics method to analyze the research status and development of medical sciences in cold regions in the military,domestic and abroad, and venture to propose the strategy and direction of development of medical sciences in cold regions. Results CM is a comprehensive medical science composing of multiple speciaties.A large area of Chinese territory is situated in frigid area, where the garrison servicemen have to take up onerous duties, so that the establishment anddevelopment of CM should be considered as a special subject and an important specialty in military medical support. Conclusion Research work on CM in PLA is in preliminary stage.For developing CM in the future,it is suggested to integrate medical resources of CM, with the aim of gathering and rectifying interrelated medical resources,improving related medical equipment,in order to establish abasic and clinical research platform for improving the health level of garrison forces both at peacetime and during military conflicts, and also in prevention of organic and psychological diseases.Therefore,it is important to emphasize the establishment of such specialty, with an effort to accelerate team construction of science and technology of medicine of cold regions, with an increase in funding for research andimprovement in improve the scientific innovation, with a purpose of safeguarding andimproving the combat effectiveness of troops in cold regions.

  8. Ground-Based Research within NASA's Materials Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald C.; Curreri, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ground-based research in Materials Science for NASA's Microgravity program serves several purposes, and includes approximately four Principal Investigators for every one in the flight program. While exact classification is difficult. the ground program falls roughly into the following categories: (1) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Theoretical Studies; (2) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Bringing to Maturity New Research; (3) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Enabling Characterization; (4) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Thermophysical Property Determination; (5) Radiation Shielding; (6) Preliminary In Situ Resource Utilization; (7) Biomaterials; (8) Nanostructured Materials; (9) Materials Science for Advanced Space Propulsion. It must be noted that while the first four categories are aimed at using long duration low gravity conditions, the other categories pertain more to more recent NASA initiatives in materials science. These new initiatives address NASA's future materials science needs in the realms of crew health and safety, and exploration, and have been included in the most recent NASA Research Announcements (NRA). A description of each of these nine categories will be given together with examples of the kinds of research being undertaken.

  9. Research and Science Today Supplement No. 3/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamfir-Radu IONESCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RESEARCH AND SCIENCE TODAY is a biannual science journal established in 2011. The journal is an informational platform that publishes assessment articles and the results of various scientific research carried out by academics. We provide the authors with the opportunity to create and/or perfect their science writing skills. Thus, each issue of the journal (two per year and at least two supplements will contain professional articles from any academic field, authored by domestic and international academics. The goal of this journal is to pass on relevant information to undergraduate, graduate, and post-graduate students as well as to fellow academics and researchers; the topics covered are unlimited, considering its multi-disciplinary profile. Regarding the national and international visibility of Research and Science Today, it is indexed in over 30 international databases (IDB and is present in over 200 online libraries and catalogues; therefore, anybody can easily consult the articles featured in each issue by accessing the databases or simply the website.

  10. Research and Science Today Supplement No. 1/2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Todor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESEARCH AND SCIENCE TODAY is a biannual science journal established in 2011. The journal is an informational platform that publishes assessment articles and the results of various scientific research carried out by academics. We provide the authors with the opportunity to create and/or perfect their science writing skills. Thus, each issue of the journal (two per year and at least two supplements will contain professional articles from any academic field, authored by domestic and international academics. The goal of this journal is to pass on relevant information to undergraduate, graduate, and post-graduate students as well as to fellow academics and researchers; the topics covered are unlimited, considering its multi-disciplinary profile. Regarding the national and international visibility of Research and Science Today, it is indexed in over 30 international databases (IDB and is present in over 200 online libraries and catalogues; therefore, anybody can easily consult the articles featured in each issue by accessing the databases or simply the website.

  11. Research and Science Today No. 2(4/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VĂIDEAN Amelia-Liana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available RESEARCH AND SCIENCE TODAY is a biannual science journal established in 2011. The journal is an informational platform that publishes assessment articles and the results of various scientific research carried out by academics. We provide the authors with the opportunity to create and/or perfect their science writing skills. Thus, each issue of the journal (two per year and at least two supplements will contain professional articles from any academic field, authored by domestic and international academics. The goal of this journal is to pass on relevant information to undergraduate, graduate, and post-graduate students as well as to fellow academics and researchers; the topics covered are unlimited, considering its multi-disciplinary profile. Regarding the national and international visibility of Research and Science Today, it is indexed in over 30 international databases (IDB and is present in over 200 online libraries and catalogues; therefore, anybody can easily consult the articles featured in each issue by accessing the databases or simply the website.

  12. Research and Science Today No. 1(5/2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VĂIDEAN Amelia-Liana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available RESEARCH AND SCIENCE TODAY is a biannual science journal established in 2011. The journal is an informational platform that publishes assessment articles and the results of various scientific research carried out by academics. We provide the authors with the opportunity to create and/or perfect their science writing skills. Thus, each issue of the journal (two per year and at least two supplements will contain professional articles from any academic field, authored by domestic and international academics. The goal of this journal is to pass on relevant information to undergraduate, graduate, and post-graduate students as well as to fellow academics and researchers; the topics covered are unlimited, considering its multi-disciplinary profile. Regarding the national and international visibility of Research and Science Today, it is indexed in over 30 international databases (IDB and is present in over 200 online libraries and catalogues; therefore, anybody can easily consult the articles featured in each issue by accessing the databases or simply the website.

  13. Important techniques in today's biomedical science research that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for best evidence has driven researchers into multidisciplinary, collaborative approaches which have become mainstay in today's biomedical science. The multidisciplinary and collaborative ... The GraphPad Prism software was the most frequently used statistic software. Keywords: Techniques, Biomedical ...

  14. History and Social Science: Complementary Approaches to Adult Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Robert A.

    The author expresses the view that historical and social science research in adult education should be complementary but separate. He asserts that interpretive, humanistic adult education history should be oriented toward "the unique, the particular, and the individual," with statistical analysis and other scientific methodology preferably…

  15. Recent developments in life sciences research: Role of bioinformatics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Life sciences research and development has opened up new challenges and opportunities for bioinformatics. The contribution of bioinformatics advances made possible the mapping of the entire human genome and genomes of many other organisms in just over a decade. These discoveries, along with current efforts to ...

  16. Conceptual Model of Artifacts for Design Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We present a conceptual model of design science research artifacts. The model views an artifact at three levels. At the artifact level a selected artifact is viewed as a combination of material and immaterial aspects and a set of representations hereof. At the design level the selected artifact...

  17. Information Science Research: The Search for the Nature of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochen, Manfred

    1984-01-01

    High-level scientific research in the information sciences is illustrated by sampling of recent discoveries involving adaptive information processing strategies, computer and information systems, centroid scaling, economic growth of computer and communication industries, and information flow in biological systems. Relationship of information…

  18. Research Microcultures as Socialization Contexts for Underrepresented Science Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoman, Dustin B; Muragishi, Gregg A; Smith, Jessi L

    2017-06-01

    How much does scientific research potentially help people? We tested whether prosocial-affordance beliefs (PABs) about science spread among group members and contribute to individual students' motivation for science. We tested this question within the context of research experience for undergraduates working in faculty-led laboratories, focusing on students who belong to underrepresented minority (URM) groups. Longitudinal survey data were collected from 522 research assistants in 41 labs at six institutions. We used multilevel modeling, and results supported a socialization effect for URM students: The aggregate PABs of their lab mates predicted the students' own initial PABs, as well as their subsequent experiences of interest and their motivation to pursue a career in science, even after controlling for individual-level PABs. Results demonstrate that research labs serve as microcultures of information about the science norms and values that influence motivation. URM students are particularly sensitive to this information. Efforts to broaden participation should be informed by an understanding of the group processes that convey such prosocial values.

  19. Research and Science Today Supplement No. 2/2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Cosmin CIOCAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available RESEARCH AND SCIENCE TODAY is a biannual science journal established in 2011. The journal is an informational platform that publishes assessment articles and the results of various scientific research carried out by academics. We provide the authors with the opportunity to create and/or perfect their science writing skills. Thus, each issue of the journal (two per year and at least two supplements will contain professional articles from any academic field, authored by domestic and international academics. The goal of this journal is to pass on relevant information to undergraduate, graduate, and post-graduate students as well as to fellow academics and researchers; the topics covered are unlimited, considering its multi-disciplinary profile. Regarding the national and international visibility of Research and Science Today, it is indexed in over 30 international databases (IDB and is present in over 200 online libraries and catalogues; therefore, anybody can easily consult the articles featured in each issue by accessing the databases or simply the website.

  20. Laying the Foundations for Scientometric Research: A Data Science Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Brian E.; Victor, Bryan G.; Hodge, David R.; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Scientometric studies of social work have stagnated due to problems with the organization and structure of the disciplinary literature. This study utilized data science to produce a set of research tools to overcome these methodological challenges. Method: We constructed a comprehensive list of social work journals for a 25-year time…