WorldWideScience

Sample records for science publications range

  1. Public Engagement with Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irwin, Alan

    2014-01-01

    ). The ‘deficit theory’ which still today characterize many scientific activities that address citizen can be criticized for ‘one-way communication’, ‘sanctity of expertise’, and treatment of the publics as ‘homogeneous’. When arguing for the need for public engagement with science it is question about...... for dialogue exercises look microscopic against the backdrop of global science and its governance. Maybe it has been over-promised what such public engagement exercises can deliver. We can safely conclude that, despite all the ‘from deficit to democracy’ talk, no such easy shift has been made. At best, partial...

  2. Science, Public Engagement with

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irwin, Alan

    2015-01-01

    regarding their definition in institutional practice. Science and technology studies scholars have been especially active in challenging prevailing policy assumptions in this area and in considering how science–public relations might be reinterpreted and reconstructed. This article presents some of the key...

  3. Opening science: New publication forms in science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheliga, Kaja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] Digital technologies change how scientists access and process information and consequently impact publication forms in science. Even though the core of scientific publications has remained the same, established publication formats, such as the scientific paper or book, are succumbing to the transitions caused by digital technologies. At the same time, new online tools enable new publication forms, such as blogs, microblogs or wikis, to emerge. This article explores the changing and emerging publications forms in science and also reflects upon the changing role of libraries. The transformations of publishing forms are discussed in the context of open science.

  4. Opening science: New publication forms in science

    OpenAIRE

    Scheliga, Kaja

    2014-01-01

    Digital technologies change how scientists access and process information and consequently impact publication forms in science. Even though the core of scientific publications has remained the same, established publication formats, such as the scientific paper or book, are succumbing to the transitions caused by digital technologies. At the same time, new online tools enable new publication forms, such as blogs, microblogs or wikis, to emerge. This article explores the changing and emerging p...

  5. African Journal of Range and Forage Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Range & Forage Science is the leading rangeland and pastoral journal in Africa. The Journal is dedicated to publishing quality original material that advances rangeland ecology and pasture management in Africa. Read more abou the journal here.

  6. Home on the Range. Science Safari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Louisa; And Others

    This program is the third in the Science Safari series produced by the Fairfax Network of the Fairfax County (Virginia) Public Schools. It focuses on animals and plants that are native to the continent of North America and highlights the importance of species interdependence. The aim of this program is to provide students with the knowledge…

  7. Selling science to the public

    CERN Document Server

    Catapano, Paola

    1997-01-01

    Science popularization is ÒtheÓ tool to bridge the gap between society at large and the world of science. Compared to formal science communication Ð science taught in schools Ð informal science communication, made by the TV, the press, Òscience centresÓ and visits to scientific laboratories, has an important advantage: it makes the public meet science in a direct, informal way and on its own terms. The public is given an opportunity to develop a personal relationship with science, according to the needs, interests and abilities of the individual. But selling science is a tough job. The object of the sale is not a consumer good, but rather ideas and concepts that are sometimes so complex and distant from common sense that translating them into a comprehensible language and creating interest in the public without betraying the scientific truth is almost impossible. In the research work conducted for the thesis the importance of adopting a marketing approach in science communication is presented. Any scien...

  8. Citizen Science for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Broeder, Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Van Oers, Hans; Schuit, A Jantine; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2016-12-23

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in knowledge production could enable inclusive health policy making. Building on non-health work fields, we describe different types of citizen engagement in scientific research, or 'Citizen Science'. We describe the challenges that Citizen Science poses for public health, and how these could be addressed. Despite these challenges, we expect that Citizen Science or similar approaches such as participatory action research and 'popular epidemiology' may yield better knowledge, empowered communities, and improved community health. We provide a draft framework to enable evaluation of Citizen Science in practice, consisting of a descriptive typology of different kinds of Citizen Science and a causal framework that shows how Citizen Science in public health might benefit both the knowledge produced as well as the 'Citizen Scientists' as active participants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Public's Knowledge of Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pew Research Center, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The public's knowledge of science and technology varies widely across a range of questions on current topics and basic scientific concepts, according to a new quiz by the Pew Research Center and "Smithsonian" magazine. About eight-in-ten Americans (83%) identify ultraviolet as the type of radiation that sunscreen protects against. Nearly…

  10. Materials Sciences Division long range plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    The intent of this document is to provide a framework for programmatic guidance into the future for Materials Sciences. The Materials Sciences program is the basic research program for materials in the Department of Energy. It includes a wide variety of activities associated with the sciences related to materials. It also includes the support for developing, constructing, and operating major facilities which are used extensively but not exclusively by the materials sciences

  11. Special Publications | Publications | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Journal of Chemical Sciences · Journal of Earth System Science · Journal of Genetics · Pramana – Journal of Physics ... Nuclear Tracks-Space Physics Geophysics and Nuclear Physics ... Recent Advances in Modelling and Control of Stochastic Systems ... Journey into Light - The Life and Science of C. V. Raman.

  12. THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION COMPARED TO PUBLIC MANAGEMENT AND OTHER SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAZAR IOAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to analyze the meaning of the public administration term. In our opinion it is necessary to be able to define exactly what public administration means but at the same time to clearly distinguish it from the other sciences. This is due to the fact that very often confusion is made between public administration and public management, public administration and bureaucracy or public administration and policy. Throughout this paper we hope to clarify some of the aspects related to what exactly distinguishes public administration from the above mentioned sciences and what are its own particularities.

  13. Public affairs events at Ocean Sciences Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2012-02-01

    AGU public affairs will be cohosting two special events at Ocean Sciences 2012 that offer scientists opportunities to expand their communication, policy, and media experience. Join the conversations that highlight two important topics to connect science to society.

  14. Amateur knowledge: public art and citizen science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    The science studies literatures on amateurs and citizen science have remained largely unconnected despite similarities between the two categories. The essay connects amateur knowledge and citizen science through examples from public art. Through an analysis of the use of the term "amateur" by contemporary artists working to engage the public in critiques of science, connections in the ideals of democratic knowledge making by amateurs and citizen scientists are further explored.

  15. Computer Science and Technology Publications. NBS Publications List 84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC. Inst. for Computer Sciences and Technology.

    This bibliography lists publications of the Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology of the National Bureau of Standards. Publications are listed by subject in the areas of computer security, computer networking, and automation technology. Sections list publications of: (1) current Federal Information Processing Standards; (2) computer…

  16. US Forest Service experimental forests and ranges: an untapped resource for social science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Charnley; Lee K. Cerveny

    2011-01-01

    For a century, US Forest Service experimental forests and ranges (EFRs) have been a resource for scientists conducting long-term research relating to forestry and range management social science research has been limited, despite the history of occupation and current use of these sites for activities ranging from resource extraction and recreation to public education....

  17. Writing about Science for Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astin, Christina; Harvey, Clare; Janusz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Can school students get their science research published? Here, we report on an exciting partnership between The Royal Society and "Young Scientists Journal" ("YSJ"), which is written and edited entirely by students aged 12-20. As background, we explore the history and importance of science publishing and the origin of YSJ. The…

  18. African Journals Online: General Science (broad subject range)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 86 of 86 ... The Journal of Science and Technology (JUST) aims principally at publishing articles ... basic sciences, public health, social medicine and medical politics. .... The SWJ is a peer review on-line international journal of broad ...

  19. Citizen Science for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, Den Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Oers, Van Hans; Schuit, A.J.; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in

  20. Citizen Science for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Broeder, Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Van Oers, J.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in

  1. Hype and public trust in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Zubin; Resnik, David B

    2013-06-01

    Social scientists have begun elucidating the variables that influence public trust in science, yet little is known about hype in biotechnology and its effects on public trust. Many scholars claim that hyping biotechnology results in a loss of public trust, and possibly public enthusiasm or support for science, because public expectations of the biotechnological promises will be unmet. We argue for the need for empirical research that examines the relationships between hype, public trust, and public enthusiasm/support. We discuss the complexities in designing empirical studies that provide evidence for a causal link between hype, public trust, and public enthusiasm/support, but also illustrate how this may be remedied. Further empirical research on hype and public trust is needed in order to improve public communication of science and to design evidence-based education on the responsible conduct of research for scientists. We conclude that conceptual arguments made on hype and public trust must be nuanced to reflect our current understanding of this relationship.

  2. African Journal of Range and Forage Science - Vol 17 (2000)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Range and Forage Science. ... Estimation of the herbaceous standing crop of the grassy plains of 01 Choro Oiroua in the Masai ... truthing method for determination of rangeland biomass using canopy reflectance properties.

  3. Science Center Public Forums: Engaging Lay-Publics in Resilience Deliberations Through Informal Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittenfeld, D.; Choi, F.; Farooque, M.; Helmuth, B.

    2017-12-01

    Because climate hazards present a range of potential impacts and considerations for different kinds of stakeholders, community responses to increase resilience are best considered through the inclusion of diverse, informed perspectives. The Science Center Public Forums project has created multifaceted modules to engage diverse publics in substantive deliberations around four hazards: heat waves, drought, extreme precipitation, and sea level rise. Using a suite of background materials including visualization and narrative components, each of these daylong dialogues engage varied groups of lay-participants at eight US science centers in learning about hazard vulnerabilities and tradeoffs of proposed strategies for building resilience. Participants listen to and consider the priorities and perspectives of fellow residents and stakeholders, and work together to formulate detailed resilience plans reflecting both current science and informed public values. Deliverables for the project include visualizations of hazard vulnerabilities and strategies through immersive planetarium graphics and Google Earth, stakeholder perspective narratives, and detailed background materials for each project hazard. This session will: communicate the process for developing the hazard modules with input from subject matter experts, outline the process for iterative revisions based upon findings from formative focus groups, share results generated by participants of the project's first two pilot forums, and describe plans for broader implementation. These activities and outcomes could help to increase the capacity of informal science education institutions as trusted conveners for informed community dialogue by educating residents about vulnerabilities and engaging them in critical thinking about potential policy responses to critical climate hazards while sharing usable public values and priorities with civic planners.

  4. Impotent science, omnipotent public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaume, Nathalie

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Nowadays public opinion has become prominent when political leaders have themselves to vote. Even scientific or economical decisions are often taken more in accordance to these trends than to rational reasons. For a long time it has been widely accepted that a clear and pedagogical explanation was enough to make scientific issues understandable. For nearly 20 years, a true scientific and professional communication has been developed in France towards the general public to make nuclear industry acceptable. Nevertheless today, we notice that the acceptance of the nuclear option has lost many points in public polls. An accident, in the nuclear fields or in another fields, in one point or another of the planet can ruin the work of many years in communication. 1) In order to draw a more precise picture of public opinion, to follow these trends and make them more understandable, the CEA communication direction has built a 'public opinion barometer' dealing with the following fields: - Information on nuclear fields; - The nuclear actors; - The future of nuclear option; - Radioactive waste; - Risks perception; - Nuclear energy and other sources of energy; - Economy and nuclear power; - Image of nuclear. 2) Come and visit our labs to make up your own opinion: As communication methods through the classical media has, up to now, failed in changing public opinion regarding nuclear, the decision was made to offer to people the opportunity to meet searchers at work.400 'Communicating researchers' to day are volunteers to receive the public .They are trained to be able to explain their work to non specialists; they receive documents dealing with current events to help them answer to questions and they are invited to an annual general meeting (last one in January 2001). 85 laboratories are opened (civil and military ones). In 2000, nearly 10,000 visitors have come to us. In 2001, new additional operations will be lead toward young people, teachers, associations. (author)

  5. Science Festivals: Grand Experiments in Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, K.

    2015-12-01

    Since the Cambridge Science Festival launched in 2007, communities across the United States have experimented with the science festival format, working out what it means to celebrate science and technology. What have we learned, and where might we go from here? The Science Festival Alliance has supported and tracked developments among U.S. festivals, and this presentation will present key findings from three years of independent evaluation. While science festivals have coalesced into a distinct category of outreach activity, the diversity of science festival initiatives reflects the unique character of the regions in which the festivals are organized. This symposium will consider how festivals generate innovative public programming by adapting to local conditions and spur further innovation by sharing insights into such adaptations with other festivals. With over 55 annual large scale science festivals in the US alone, we will discuss the implications of a dramatic increase in future festival activity.

  6. Can citizen science enhance public understanding of science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Rick; Phillips, Tina B; Ballard, Heidi L; Enck, Jody W

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, thousands of citizen science projects engaging millions of participants in collecting and/or processing data have sprung up around the world. Here we review documented outcomes from four categories of citizen science projects which are defined by the nature of the activities in which their participants engage - Data Collection, Data Processing, Curriculum-based, and Community Science. We find strong evidence that scientific outcomes of citizen science are well documented, particularly for Data Collection and Data Processing projects. We find limited but growing evidence that citizen science projects achieve participant gains in knowledge about science knowledge and process, increase public awareness of the diversity of scientific research, and provide deeper meaning to participants' hobbies. We also find some evidence that citizen science can contribute positively to social well-being by influencing the questions that are being addressed and by giving people a voice in local environmental decision making. While not all citizen science projects are intended to achieve a greater degree of public understanding of science, social change, or improved science -society relationships, those projects that do require effort and resources in four main categories: (1) project design, (2) outcomes measurement, (3) engagement of new audiences, and (4) new directions for research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Food Science for the Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cassandra

    If you are interested in food science, looking for a meaningful career path, and are motivated by the desire to make a difference, you may find that a career working for the public good can be very rewarding. Often, such opportunities address issues of social responsibility, sustainability, public health, and/or economic development. Food scientists who choose this path typically have an interest in social and public health issues, and are usually driven by the achievement of some sort of social, health, or societal gain. As food science in itself is a very broad discipline, applying this knowledge for the public good can also take a variety of paths. Whether you're interested in manufacturing, food safety, nutrition, food policy, product development, quality control, marketing and sales, or any other discipline that makes up the diverse field of food science, various opportunities exist to make a difference to society.

  8. Full-Range Public Health Leadership, Part 1: Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik L. Carlton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Workforce and leadership development are central to the future of public health. However, public health has been slow to translate and apply leadership models from other professions and to incorporate local perspectives in understanding public health leadership. Purpose. This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine public health leadership. Specifically, it sought to measure leadership styles among local health department directors and to understand the context of leadership local health departments.Methods. Leadership styles among local health department directors (n=13 were examined using survey methodology. Quantitative analysis methods included descriptive statistics, boxplots, and Pearson bivariate correlations using SPSS v18.0. Findings. Self-reported leadership styles were highly correlated to leadership outcomes at the organizational level. However, they were not related to county health rankings. Results suggest the preeminence of leader behaviors and providing individual consideration to staff as compared to idealized attributes of leaders, intellectual stimulation, or inspirational motivation. Implications. Holistic leadership assessment instruments, such as the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ can be useful in assessing public health leaders approaches and outcomes. Comprehensive, 360-degree reviews may be especially helpful. Further research is needed to examine the effectiveness of public health leadership development models, as well as the extent that public health leadership impacts public health outcomes.

  9. The Frontiers of Nuclear Science: A Long-Range Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-01

    In a letter dated July 17, 2006, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Science for Nuclear Physics and the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) Mathematical and Physical Sciences Directorate charged the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) to “conduct a study of the opportunities and priorities for U.S. nuclear physics research and recommend a long range plan that will provide a framework for coordinated advancement of the nation’s nuclear science research programs over the next decade.” This request set in motion a bottom-up review and forward look by the nuclear science community. With input from this community-wide process, a 59 member working group, which included the present NSAC members, gathered at the beginning of May, 2007, to develop guidance on how to optimize the future research directions for the field based on the projected resources outlined in the charge letter from DOE and NSF. A new long range plan—The Frontiers of Nuclear Science—grew out of this meeting. For the last decade, the top priority for nuclear science has been to utilize the flagship facilities that were built with investments by the nation in the 1980s and 1990s. Research with these facilities has led to many significant new discoveries that have changed our understanding of the world in which we live. But new discoveries demand new facilities, and the successes cannot continue indefinitely without new investment.

  10. Where civics meets science: building science for the public good through Civic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlick, J A; Levine, P

    2017-09-01

    Public understanding of science and civic engagement on science issues that impact contemporary life matter more today than ever. From the Planned Parenthood controversy, to the Flint water crisis and the fluoridation debate, societal polarization about science issues has reached dramatic levels that present significant obstacles to public discussion and problem solving. This is happening, in part, because systems built to support science do not often reward open-minded thinking, inclusive dialogue, and moral responsibility regarding science issues. As a result, public faith in science continues to erode. This review explores how the field of Civic Science can impact public work on science issues by building new understanding of the practices, influences, and cultures of science. Civic Science is defined as a discipline that considers science practice and knowledge as resources for civic engagement, democratic action, and political change. This review considers how Civic Science informs the roles that key participants-scientists, public citizens and institutions of higher education-play in our national science dialogue. Civic Science aspires to teach civic capacities, to inform the responsibilities of scientists engaged in public science issues and to inspire an open-minded, inclusive dialogue where all voices are heard and shared commitments are acknowledged. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Citizen Science Initiatives: Engaging the Public and Demystifying Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Van Vliet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet and smart phone technologies have opened up new avenues for collaboration among scientists around the world. These technologies have also expanded citizen science opportunities and public participation in scientific research (PPSR. Here we discuss citizen science, what it is, who does it, and the variety of projects and methods used to increase scientific knowledge and scientific literacy. We describe a number of different types of citizen-science projects. These greatly increase the number of people involved, helping to speed the pace of data analysis and allowing science to advance more rapidly. As a result of the numerous advantages of citizen-science projects, these opportunities are likely to expand in the future and increase the rate of novel discoveries.

  12. Communal range defence in primates as a public goods dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Erik P; Arseneau, T Jean M; Schleuning, Xenia; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-12-05

    Classic socio-ecological theory holds that the occurrence of aggressive range defence is primarily driven by ecological incentives, most notably by the economic defendability of an area or the resources it contains. While this ecological cost-benefit framework has great explanatory power in solitary or pair-living species, comparative work on group-living primates has always found economic defendability to be a necessary, but not sufficient condition to account for the distribution of effective range defence across the taxon. This mismatch between theory and observation has recently been ascribed to a collective action problem among group members in, what is more informatively viewed as, a public goods dilemma: mounting effective defence of a communal range against intrusions by outgroup conspecifics. We here further develop this framework, and report on analyses at three levels of biological organization: across species, across populations within a single lineage and across groups and individuals within a single population. We find that communal range defence in primates very rarely involves collective action sensu stricto and that it is best interpreted as the outcome of opportunistic and strategic individual-level decisions. Whether the public good of a defended communal range is produced by solitary, joint or collective action is thus the outcome of the interplay between the unique characteristics of each individual, local and current socio-ecological conditions, and fundamental life-history traits of the species. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Xenotransplantation: science, ethics, and public policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Xenograft, Transplantation Institute; Institute of Medicine

    ... Division of Health Sciences Policy Division of Health Care Services INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1996 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative the typesetting-specific created from the as publication files other XML and from this of recomp...

  14. .pdf | Volumes | public | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on the teaching of the theory of evolution more... Introducing: Summer Schools. Posted on 21 December 2017. ASTROPHYSICS: An Observational View of the ... Academy Public Lecture. Posted on 19 January 2018. Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza by Prof.

  15. Political Science Theory for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…

  16. Science in public communication, culture, and credibility

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Jane

    1998-01-01

    Does the general public need to understand science? And if so, is it scientists' responsibility to communicate? Critics have argued that, despite the huge strides made in technology, we live in a "scientifically illiterate" society--one that thinks about the world and makes important decisions without taking scientific knowledge into account. But is the solution to this "illiteracy" to deluge the layman with scientific information? Or does science news need to be focused around specific issues and organized into stories that are meaningful and relevant to people's lives? In this unprecedented, comprehensive look at a new field, Jane Gregory and Steve Miller point the way to a more effective public understanding of science in the years ahead.

  17. Public Access to NASA's Earth Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, J.; James, N.

    2013-12-01

    Many steps have been taken over the past 20 years to make NASA's Earth Science data more accessible to the public. The data collected by NASA represent a significant public investment in research. NASA holds these data in a public trust to promote comprehensive, long-term Earth science research. Consequently, NASA developed a free, open and non-discriminatory policy consistent with existing international policies to maximize access to data and to keep user costs as low as possible. These policies apply to all data archived, maintained, distributed or produced by NASA data systems. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a major core capability within NASA Earth Science Data System Program. EOSDIS is designed to ingest, process, archive, and distribute data from approximately 90 instruments. Today over 6800 data products are available to the public through the EOSDIS. Last year, EOSDIS distributed over 636 million science data products to the user community, serving over 1.5 million distinct users. The system supports a variety of science disciplines including polar processes, land cover change, radiation budget, and most especially global climate change. A core philosophy of EOSDIS is that the general user is best served by providing discipline specific support for the data. To this end, EOSDIS has collocated NASA Earth science data with centers of science discipline expertise, called Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs). DAACs are responsible for data management, archive and distribution of data products. There are currently twelve DAACs in the EOSDIS system. The centralized entrance point to the NASA Earth Science data collection can be found at http://earthdata.nasa.gov. Over the years, we have developed several methods for determining needs of the user community including use of the American Customer Satisfaction Index survey and a broad metrics program. Annually, we work with an independent organization (CFI Group) to send this

  18. Bringing computational science to the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonagh, James L; Barker, Daniel; Alderson, Rosanna G

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of computers in science allows for the scientific analyses of large datasets at an increasing pace. We provided examples and interactive demonstrations at Dundee Science Centre as part of the 2015 Women in Science festival, to present aspects of computational science to the general public. We used low-cost Raspberry Pi computers to provide hands on experience in computer programming and demonstrated the application of computers to biology. Computer games were used as a means to introduce computers to younger visitors. The success of the event was evaluated by voluntary feedback forms completed by visitors, in conjunction with our own self-evaluation. This work builds on the original work of the 4273π bioinformatics education program of Barker et al. (2013, BMC Bioinform. 14:243). 4273π provides open source education materials in bioinformatics. This work looks at the potential to adapt similar materials for public engagement events. It appears, at least in our small sample of visitors (n = 13), that basic computational science can be conveyed to people of all ages by means of interactive demonstrations. Children as young as five were able to successfully edit simple computer programs with supervision. This was, in many cases, their first experience of computer programming. The feedback is predominantly positive, showing strong support for improving computational science education, but also included suggestions for improvement. Our conclusions are necessarily preliminary. However, feedback forms suggest methods were generally well received among the participants; "Easy to follow. Clear explanation" and "Very easy. Demonstrators were very informative." Our event, held at a local Science Centre in Dundee, demonstrates that computer games and programming activities suitable for young children can be performed alongside a more specialised and applied introduction to computational science for older visitors.

  19. Bringing the Science of JWST to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joel D.; Smith, Denise A.; Lawton, Brandon L.; Meinke, Bonnie K.; Jirdeh, Hussein

    2017-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. STScI and the Office of Public Outreach are committed to bringing awareness of the technology, the excitement, and the future science potential of this great observatory to the public and to the scientific community, prior to its 2018 launch. The challenges in ensuring the high profile of JWST (understanding the infrared, the vast distance to the telescope's final position, and the unfamiliar science territory) requires us to lay the proper background, particularly in the area of spectroscopy. We currently engage the full range of the public and scientific communities using a variety of high impact, memorable initiatives, in combination with modern technologies to extend reach, linking the science goals of Webb to the ongoing discoveries being made by Hubble. Webbtelescope.org, the public hub for scientific information related to JWST, is now open. We have injected Webb-specific content into ongoing outreach programs: for example, partnering with high impact science communicators such as MinutePhysics to produce timely and concise content; partnering with musicians and artists to link science and art. Augmented reality apps showcase NASA’s telescopes in a format usable by anyone with a smartphone, and visuals from increasingly affordable 3D VR technologies.

  20. Dawn Mission Education and Public Outreach: Science as Human Endeavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, W. H.; Wise, J.; Schmidt, B. E.; Ristvey, J.

    2012-12-01

    Dawn Education and Public Outreach strives to reach diverse learners using multi-disciplinary approaches. In-depth professional development workshops in collaboration with NASA's Discovery Program, MESSENGER and Stardust-NExT missions focusing on STEM initiatives that integrate the arts have met the needs of diverse audiences and received excellent evaluations. Another collaboration on NASA ROSES grant, Small Bodies, Big Concepts, has helped bridge the learning sequence between the upper elementary and middle school, and the middle and high school Dawn curriculum modules. Leveraging the Small Bodies, Big Concepts model, educators experience diverse and developmentally appropriate NASA activities that tell the Dawn story, with teachers' pedagogical skills enriched by strategies drawn from NSTA's Designing Effective Science Instruction. Dawn mission members enrich workshops by offering science presentations to highlight events and emerging data. Teachers' awareness of the process of learning new content is heightened, and they use that experience to deepen their science teaching practice. Activities are sequenced to enhance conceptual understanding of big ideas in space science and Vesta and Ceres and the Dawn Mission 's place within that body of knowledge Other media add depth to Dawn's resources for reaching students. Instrument and ion engine interactives developed with the respective science team leads help audiences engage with the mission payload and the data each instrument collects. The Dawn Dictionary, an offering in both audio as well as written formats, makes key vocabulary accessible to a broader range of students and the interested public. Further, as Dawn E/PO has invited the public to learn about mission objectives as the mission explored asteroid Vesta, new inroads into public presentations such as the Dawn MissionCast tell the story of this extraordinary mission. Asteroid Mapper is the latest, exciting citizen science endeavor designed to invite the

  1. What does the UK public want from academic science communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, James; Illingworth, Sam; Verran, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of public academic science communication is to engage a non-scientist with a particular field of science and/or research topic, often driven by the expertise of the academic. An e-survey was designed to provide insight into respondent's current and future engagement with science communication activities. Respondents provided a wide range of ideas and concerns as to the 'common practice' of academic science communication, and whilst they support some of these popular approaches (such as open-door events and science festivals), there are alternatives that may enable wider engagement. Suggestions of internet-based approaches and digital media were strongly encouraged, and although respondents found merits in methods such as science festivals, limitations such as geography, time and topic of interest were a barrier to engagement for some. Academics and scientists need to think carefully about how they plan their science communication activities and carry out evaluations, including considering the point of view of the public, as although defaulting to hands-on open door events at their university may seem like the expected standard, it may not be the best way to reach the intended audience.

  2. Publics and vaccinomics: beyond public understanding of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einsiedel, Edna F

    2011-09-01

    Vaccines have been among the most effective tools for addressing global public health challenges. With the advent of genomics, novel approaches for vaccine discovery are opening up new opportunities for vaccine development and applications, particularly with the expectation of personalized vaccines and the possibility of addressing a broader range of infectious diseases. In this context, it is useful to reflect on the social contexts of vaccine development as these have been influenced by social, ethical, political challenges. This article discusses the historical context of vaccine controversies and factors that help explain public acceptance and resistance, illustrating that these challenges go well beyond simple public misunderstandings. The broader vaccine challenges evident along the innovation trajectory, from development to commercialization and implementation include problems in research and development, organizational issues, and legal and regulatory challenges that may collectively contribute to public resistance or confidence. The recent history of genomics provides further lessons that the developing field of vaccinomics can learn from.

  3. Scientists' understanding of public communication of science and technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt; Kjaer, Carsten Rahbæk; Dahlgaard, Jørgen

    Background Research into the field of science communication has tended to focus on public understanding of science or on the processes of science communication itself, e.g. by looking at science in the media. Few studies have explored how scientists understand science communication. At present...... and technical sciences see science communication. We wanted to map their general interest in using different media of science communication as well as their active participation in current science communication. Moreover, we wanted to find out what they think about future of science communication, and what...... science communication. Results Our respondents indicated interest in doing science communication through media aimed at a broader public. In particular, news media surfaced as the most attractive media of public communication. The respondents preferred to be in charge of science communication themselves...

  4. Science for Alaska: Public Understanding of University Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D.

    2015-12-01

    Science for Alaska: Public Understanding of Science D. L. Campbell11University of Alaska Fairbanks, USA Around 200 people brave 40-below-zero temperatures to listen to university researchers and scientists give lectures about their work at an event called the Science for Alaska Lecture Series, hosted by the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute. It is held once a week, for six weeks during the coldest part of a Fairbanks, Alaska, winter. The topics range from space physics to remote sensing. The lectures last for 45 minutes with 15 minutes for audience questions and answers. It has been popular for about 20 years and is one of many public outreach efforts of the institute. The scientists are careful in their preparations for presentations and GI's Public Relations staff chooses the speakers based on topic, diversity and public interest. The staff also considers the speaker's ability to speak to a general audience, based on style, clarity and experience. I conducted a qualitative research project to find out about the people who attended the event, why they attend and what they do with the information they hear about. The participants were volunteers who attended the event and either stayed after the lectures for an interview or signed up to be contacted later. I used used an interview technique with open-ended questions, recorded and transcribed the interview. I identified themes in the interviews, using narrative analysis. Preliminary data show that the lecture series is a form of entertainment for people who are highly educated and work in demanding and stressful jobs. They come with family and friends. Sometimes it's a date with a significant other. Others want to expose their children to science. The findings are in keeping with the current literature that suggests that public events meant to increase public understanding of science instead draws like-minded people. The findings are different from Campbell's hypothesis that attendance was based

  5. Public ecology: an environmental science and policy for global society

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. Robertson; R. Bruce Hull

    2003-01-01

    Public ecology exists at the interface of science and policy. Public ecology is an approach to environmental inquiry and decision making that does not expect scientific knowledge to be perfect or complete. Rather, public ecology requires that science be produced in collaboration with a wide variety of stakeholders in order to construct a body of knowledge that will...

  6. Public storage for the Open Science Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levshina, T; Guru, A

    2014-01-01

    The Open Science Grid infrastructure doesn't provide efficient means to manage public storage offered by participating sites. A Virtual Organization that relies on opportunistic storage has difficulties finding appropriate storage, verifying its availability, and monitoring its utilization. The involvement of the production manager, site administrators and VO support personnel is required to allocate or rescind storage space. One of the main requirements for Public Storage implementation is that it should use SRM or GridFTP protocols to access the Storage Elements provided by the OSG Sites and not put any additional burden on sites. By policy, no new services related to Public Storage can be installed and run on OSG sites. Opportunistic users also have difficulties in accessing the OSG Storage Elements during the execution of jobs. A typical users' data management workflow includes pre-staging common data on sites before a job's execution, then storing for a subsequent download to a local institution the output data produced by a job on a worker node. When the amount of data is significant, the only means to temporarily store the data is to upload it to one of the Storage Elements. In order to do that, a user's job should be aware of the storage location, availability, and free space. After a successful data upload, users must somehow keep track of the data's location for future access. In this presentation we propose solutions for storage management and data handling issues in the OSG. We are investigating the feasibility of using the integrated Rule-Oriented Data System developed at RENCI as a front-end service to the OSG SEs. The current architecture, state of deployment and performance test results will be discussed. We will also provide examples of current usage of the system by beta-users.

  7. Public storage for the Open Science Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levshina, T.; Guru, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Open Science Grid infrastructure doesn't provide efficient means to manage public storage offered by participating sites. A Virtual Organization that relies on opportunistic storage has difficulties finding appropriate storage, verifying its availability, and monitoring its utilization. The involvement of the production manager, site administrators and VO support personnel is required to allocate or rescind storage space. One of the main requirements for Public Storage implementation is that it should use SRM or GridFTP protocols to access the Storage Elements provided by the OSG Sites and not put any additional burden on sites. By policy, no new services related to Public Storage can be installed and run on OSG sites. Opportunistic users also have difficulties in accessing the OSG Storage Elements during the execution of jobs. A typical users' data management workflow includes pre-staging common data on sites before a job's execution, then storing for a subsequent download to a local institution the output data produced by a job on a worker node. When the amount of data is significant, the only means to temporarily store the data is to upload it to one of the Storage Elements. In order to do that, a user's job should be aware of the storage location, availability, and free space. After a successful data upload, users must somehow keep track of the data's location for future access. In this presentation we propose solutions for storage management and data handling issues in the OSG. We are investigating the feasibility of using the integrated Rule-Oriented Data System developed at RENCI as a front-end service to the OSG SEs. The current architecture, state of deployment and performance test results will be discussed. We will also provide examples of current usage of the system by beta-users.

  8. Strengthening public trust in science: how to.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarino, Stefano; Di Capua, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    possibly gain more confidence in science, again in terms of ethics. In summary, the recent developments of the relationship between science and society suggest a "new deal", with more information - less expectations kind of society and a scientific community more inclined to communication where talking in / to public is the result of a long and adequately trained experience.

  9. Public values and public failure in US science policy

    OpenAIRE

    Barry Bozeman; Daniel Sarewitz

    2005-01-01

    Domestic science policy in the United States is linked inextricably to economic thinking. We seek to develop a practical analytical framework that confronts the manifest problems of economic valuing for science and technology activities. We argue that pervasive use of market valuation, market-failure assumptions and economic metaphors shapes the structure of science policy in undesirable ways. In particular, reliance on economic reasoning tends to shift the discourse about science policy away...

  10. Investigating science communication in the information age implications for public engagement and popular media

    CERN Document Server

    Whitelegg, Elizabeth; Scanlon, Eileen; Smidt, Sam; Thomas, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    How are recent policy changes affecting how scientists engage with the public? How are new technologies influencing how scientists disseminate their work and knowledge? How are new media platforms changing the way the public interact with scientific information? Investigating Science Communication in the Information Age is a collection of newly-commissioned chapters by leading science communication scholars. It addresses current theoretical, practical and policy developments in science communication, including recent calls for greater openness and transparency; and engagement and dialogue on the part of professional scientists with members of the public. It provides a timely and wide-ranging review of contemporary issues in science communication, focusing on two broad themes. The first theme critically reviews the recent dialogic turn and ascendant branding of 'public engagement with science' It addresses contemporary theoretical and conceptual issues facing science communication researchers, and draws on a r...

  11. Exploring the Dialogic Space of Public Participation in Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    of public understanding of science and scientific literacy approaches: that scientific knowledge in some sense is privileged, that understanding the science will lead to appreciative attitudes toward science and technology in general, and that controversial issues involving science and the public are rooted...... in public misconceptions of science. This paper uses the dialogic space proposed by Callon et al. to explore relationships between public and science. The dialogic space spans collective versus scientific dimensions. The collective (or public) is constituted by aggregation (opinion polls) or by composition...... (organized groups of concerned citizens), whereas scientific research is characterized as either secluded research that is performed exclusively by expert scientists or as collaborative research that involves lay people in the production and communication of knowledge....

  12. A New Approach to Data Publication in Ocean Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Roy; Urban, Ed; Pissierssens, Peter

    2009-12-01

    Data are collected from ocean sciences activities that range from a single investigator working in a laboratory to large teams of scientists cooperating on big, multinational, global ocean research projects. What these activities have in common is that all result in data, some of which are used as the basis for publications in peer-reviewed journals. However, two major problems regarding data remain. First, many data valuable for understanding ocean physics, chemistry, geology, biology, and how the oceans operate in the Earth system are never archived or made accessible to other scientists. Data underlying traditional journal articles are often difficult to obtain. Second, when scientists do contribute data to databases, their data become freely available, with little acknowledgment and no contribution to their career advancement. To address these problems, stronger ties must be made between data repositories and academic journals, and a “digital backbone” needs to be created for data related to journal publications.

  13. 77 FR 4568 - Annual Computational Science Symposium; Public Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ...] Annual Computational Science Symposium; Public Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... with the Pharmaceutical Users Software Exchange (PhUSE), is announcing a public conference entitled ``The FDA/PhUSE Annual Computational Science Symposium.'' The purpose of the conference is to help the...

  14. Public Lectures | Events | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Public and special lectures. Academy Public Lectures · Public and special lectures in Mid-Year and Annual Meetings · Platinum Jubilee Lectures. Academy's annual and mid-year meetings include a special lecture by a senior Fellow in the morning of each meeting day and one public lecture by an eminent person, from ...

  15. Heisenberg in the atomic age science and the public sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Carson, Cathryn

    2010-01-01

    The end of the Second World War opened a new era for science in public life. Heisenberg in the Atomic Age explores the transformations of science's public presence in the postwar Federal Republic of Germany. It shows how Heisenberg's philosophical commentaries, circulating in the mass media, secured his role as science's public philosopher, and it reflects on his policy engagements and public political stands, which helped redefine the relationship between science and the state. With deep archival grounding, the book tracks Heisenberg's interactions with intellectuals from Heidegger to Habermas and political leaders from Adenauer to Brandt. It also traces his evolving statements about his wartime research on nuclear fission for the National Socialist regime. Working between the history of science and German history, the book's central theme is the place of scientific rationality in public life - after the atomic bomb, in the wake of the Third Reich.

  16. 75 FR 54628 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH... Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public teleconference of the SAB Polycyclic Aromatic... EPA Science Advisory Board can be found on the EPA Web site at http://www.epa.gov/sab . SUPPLEMENTARY...

  17. Preserving the positive functions of the public domain in science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Samuelson

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Science has advanced in part because data and scientific methodologies have traditionally not been subject to intellectual property protection. In recent years, intellectual property has played a greater role in scientific work. While intellectual property rights may have a positive role to play in some fields of science, so does the public domain. This paper will discuss some of the positive functions of the public domain and ways in which certain legal developments may negatively impact the public domain. It suggests some steps that scientists can take to preserve the positive functions of the public domain for science.

  18. Recognizing history in range ecology: 100 years of science and management on the Santa Rita Experimental Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan F. Sayre

    2003-01-01

    At the centennial of the Santa Rita Experimental Range, historical analysis is called for on two levels. First, as a major site in the history of range ecology, the Santa Rita illuminates past successes and failures in science and management and the ways in which larger social, economic, and political factors have shaped scientific research. Second, with the turn away...

  19. IRIS Public Science Meeting (June 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This June 2016 public meeting is made available to solicit comments on the public comment draft of the IRIS Assessment of tert-Butanol. The draft document was re-opened in the docket for a 60-day public comment period closing on July 16, 2016.

  20. The Role of Science and Discovery Centres in the Public Understanding of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Daniel B.; Weis, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The number of science and discovery centres has grown exponentially over the last two centuries. Science and discovery centres are one of the top five stimuli that influence a career choice in science. Their history, growth, impact and role in the public understanding of science are discussed. (Contains 2 tables, 7 figures, and 21 online…

  1. AGU Public Affairs: How to Get Involved in Science Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, E. A.; Hankin, E. R.; Uhlenbrock, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    AGU Public Affairs offers many ways for its members to get involved in science policy at different levels of participation, whether you would love to spend a year working as a resident science expert in a congressional office in Washington, D.C., or would rather simply receive email alerts about Earth and space science policy news. How you can get involved: Sign up for AGU Science Policy Alerts to receive the most relevant Earth and space science policy information delivered to your email inbox. Participate in one of AGU's Congressional Visits Days to speak with your legislators about important science issues. Attend the next AGU Science Policy Conference in spring 2013. Participate in events happening on Capitol Hill, and watch video of past events. Learn about AGU Embassy Lectures, where countries come together to discuss important Earth and space science topics. Learn how you can comment on AGU Position Statements. Apply to be an AGU Congressional Science Fellow, where you can work in a congressional office for one year and serve as a resident science expert, or to be an AGU Public Affairs Intern, where you can work in the field of science policy for three months. The AGU Public Affairs Team will highlight ways members can be involved as well as provide information on how the team is working to shape policy and inform society about the excitement of AGU science.

  2. Public Dialogue on Science in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyring, Annagreta

    1988-01-01

    Explains how Sweden has proceeded to popularize science. Addresses topics dealing with policy, the energy debate, booklets with large circulation, computers and society, contacts between schools and research, building up small science centers, mass media, literary quality, children's responsibility, and some of the challenges. (RT)

  3. Patrika | Publications | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patrika. Newsletter of the Indian Academy of Sciences. Patrika is a newsletter brought out by the Indian Academy of Sciences every year. It records all the major activities, events and initiatives of the academy. Issue 65. March 2017. In English | In Hindi. Issue 64. September 2016. In English | In Hindi. Issue 63. March 2016.

  4. Putting science on the public agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Jezeršek Turnes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The link between science and society is inevitable and becoming ever more important. Science is a relevant media content, but it needs to provide an interesting story in an attractive field. The question arises of how to get to the story and how to capture the momentum so that the audience or non-experts will understand the advantages, change their behaviour, and create a positive attitude to science. Being a communication expert, I explored the relationships between society, the media (journalists and science (scientists. I examined different contexts that are typical of each group and what is the potential to make these relationships work better in order to create acceptable and more broadly engaging science communication.

  5. African Journals Online: General Science (broad subject range)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 86 of 86 ... It also publishes topical reviews on science and technology in development, arts, humanities and culture. .... construction or performance evaluation of technological systems. ... Such works either demonstrate a significant new discovery or other ... Rwanda Journal, Series H: Economics and Management.

  6. Environmental protection belongs to the public: A vision for citizen science at EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, A.; Dosemagen, S.

    2017-12-01

    As a collaborative and open approach to science, citizen science has the potential make science more actionable, applicable, and usable, especially when designed with scientists, communities and decision-makers as partners. In response to recent interest in citizen science from the US Environmental Protection Agency, the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology provided EPA with advice and recommendations on how to integrate citizen science into the core work of EPA. The Council's 28 members—representatives of academia; business and industry; nongovernmental organizations; and state, local and tribal governments—identifies citizen science as an invaluable opportunity for EPA to strengthen public support for EPA's mission and the best approach for the Agency to connect with the public on environmental protection. The report recommends that EPA embrace citizen science as a core tenet of environmental protection, invest in citizen science for communities, partners, and the Agency, enable the use of citizen science data at the Agency, integrate citizen science into the full range of work of EPA. This presentation will outline principles and strategy for integrating citizen science into science and policy at the national level, increasing the usability of citizen science data for decision-making and policy, and leveraging citizen science for environmental protection.

  7. Time for the public to read science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This book deals with cover of scientific articles of newspaper and magazine, science journals, broadcasting news, scientists working for the public, freelancers, writing good stories, using sources, application of statistics, writing selected articles of science magazine, and science opinion. It adds cover of public health and government ministries, report of behavioral biology, cover of contagious diseases, report of neurology, report of poisons and dangerousness, environmental articles, cover of earth science and physics, articles of astronomy. It also introduces other places such as universities, non profitable institutes, companies and industries.

  8. The ascent of public health science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    health concepts have emerged parallel to the evolution of ideas in science such as the germ theory of disease ... emergence of newer technology has thrown up new conceptual challenges. .... Epidemiological research as it is practiced lacks.

  9. Public Lectures | Events | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sustainable materials based on aliphatic polyesters: Teaching old chemistry some new tricks. S. Sivaram ..... Planning for science and technology and its relevance to national security ... The world of elementary particles - Past and future

  10. report | Overview | Publications | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... part of a continuum, starting with education at the school level and going on to research ... of science education at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. ... Ramanujan Institute for Advanced Study in Mathematics, University of Madras

  11. Open science initiatives: challenges for public health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmeyer, Cheryl

    2018-03-07

    While academic open access, open data and open science initiatives have proliferated in recent years, facilitating new research resources for health promotion, open initiatives are not one-size-fits-all. Health research particularly illustrates how open initiatives may serve various interests and ends. Open initiatives not only foster new pathways of research access; they also discipline research in new ways, especially when associated with new regimes of research use and peer review, while participating in innovation ecosystems that often perpetuate existing systemic biases toward commercial biomedicine. Currently, many open initiatives are more oriented toward biomedical research paradigms than paradigms associated with public health promotion, such as social determinants of health research. Moreover, open initiatives too often dovetail with, rather than challenge, neoliberal policy paradigms. Such initiatives are unlikely to transform existing health research landscapes and redress health inequities. In this context, attunement to social determinants of health research and community-based local knowledge is vital to orient open initiatives toward public health promotion and health equity. Such an approach calls for discourses, norms and innovation ecosystems that contest neoliberal policy frameworks and foster upstream interventions to promote health, beyond biomedical paradigms. This analysis highlights challenges and possibilities for leveraging open initiatives on behalf of a wider range of health research stakeholders, while emphasizing public health promotion, health equity and social justice as benchmarks of transformation.

  12. Science Communication for the Public Understanding of Nuclear Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seongkyung [Myungji Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    Uncertainty, stigma, risk perception, and value judgment represent characteristics of nuclear issues in the public arena. Nuclear issue, in the public arena, is a kind of risk rather than technology that we are willing to use for good purpose. There are uncertainty, stigma, risk perception, and value judgment as characteristics of nuclear. The notion of the public, here is of active, sensitive, and sensible citizens, with power and influence. The public understands nuclear issues less through direct experience or education than through the filter of mass media. Trust has been a key issue on public understanding of nuclear issues. Trust belongs to human. The public understanding process includes perception, interpretation, and evaluation. Therefore, science communication is needed for public understanding. Unfortunately, science communication is rarely performed well, nowadays, There are three important actors-the public, experts, and media. Effective science communication means finding comprehensible ways of presenting opaque and complex nuclear issues. It makes new and strong demands on experts. In order to meet that requirement, experts should fulfill their duty about developing nuclear technology for good purpose, understand the public before expecting the public to understand nuclear issues, accept the unique culture of the media process, take the responsibility for any consequence which nuclear technologies give rise to, communicate with an access route based on sensibility and rationality, have a flexible angle in the science communication process, get creative leadership for the communication process with deliberation and disagreement, make efficient use of various science technologies for science communication. We should try to proceed with patience, because science communication makes for a more credible society.

  13. Science Communication for the Public Understanding of Nuclear Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seongkyung

    2006-01-01

    Uncertainty, stigma, risk perception, and value judgment represent characteristics of nuclear issues in the public arena. Nuclear issue, in the public arena, is a kind of risk rather than technology that we are willing to use for good purpose. There are uncertainty, stigma, risk perception, and value judgment as characteristics of nuclear. The notion of the public, here is of active, sensitive, and sensible citizens, with power and influence. The public understands nuclear issues less through direct experience or education than through the filter of mass media. Trust has been a key issue on public understanding of nuclear issues. Trust belongs to human. The public understanding process includes perception, interpretation, and evaluation. Therefore, science communication is needed for public understanding. Unfortunately, science communication is rarely performed well, nowadays, There are three important actors-the public, experts, and media. Effective science communication means finding comprehensible ways of presenting opaque and complex nuclear issues. It makes new and strong demands on experts. In order to meet that requirement, experts should fulfill their duty about developing nuclear technology for good purpose, understand the public before expecting the public to understand nuclear issues, accept the unique culture of the media process, take the responsibility for any consequence which nuclear technologies give rise to, communicate with an access route based on sensibility and rationality, have a flexible angle in the science communication process, get creative leadership for the communication process with deliberation and disagreement, make efficient use of various science technologies for science communication. We should try to proceed with patience, because science communication makes for a more credible society

  14. Life sciences. 1990-2001. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the IAEA dealing with life sciences: nuclear medicine, medical physics and radiation biology and issued during the period 1 January 1990 - 30 September 2001

  15. Precision Lunar Laser Ranging For Lunar and Gravitational Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkowitz, S. M.; Arnold, D.; Dabney, P. W.; Livas, J. C.; McGarry, J. F.; Neumann, G. A.; Zagwodzki, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    Laser ranging to retroreflector arrays placed on the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts and the Soviet Lunar missions over the past 39 years have dramatically increased our understanding of gravitational physics along with Earth and Moon geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics. Significant advances in these areas will require placing modern retroreflectors and/or active laser ranging systems at new locations on the lunar surface. Ranging to new locations will enable better measurements of the lunar librations, aiding in our understanding of the interior structure of the moon. More precise range measurements will allow us to study effects that are too small to be observed by the current capabilities as well as enabling more stringent tests of Einstein's theory of General Relativity. Setting up retroreflectors was a key part of the Apollo missions so it is natural to ask if future lunar missions should include them as well. The Apollo retroreflectors are still being used today, and nearly 40 years of ranging data has been invaluable for scientific as well as other studies such as orbital dynamics. However, the available retroreflectors all lie within 26 degrees latitude of the equator, and the most useful ones within 24 degrees longitude of the sub-earth meridian. This clustering weakens their geometrical strength.

  16. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    and providing it to environmental, natural resource, agricultural, and public-health managers. The USGS is a Federal science agency with a broad range of natural science expertise relevant to environmental health. USGS provides scientific information and tools as a scientific basis for management and policy decision making. USGS specializes in science at the environment-health interface, by characterizing the processes that affect the interaction among the physical environment, the living environment, and people, and the resulting factors that affect ecological and human exposure to disease agents. This report describes a 10-year strategy that encompasses the portfolio of USGS environmental health science. It summarizes national environmental health priorities that USGS is best suited to address, and will serve as a strategic framework for USGS environmental health science goals, actions, and outcomes for the next decade. Implementation of this strategy is intended to aid coordination of USGS environmental health activities and to provide a focal point for disseminating information to stakeholders. The "One Health" paradigm advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2011), and the American Veterinary Medicine Association (AVMA, 2008), among others, is based on a general recognition that the health of humans, animals, and the environment are inextricably linked. Thus, successful efforts to protect that health will require increased interdisciplinary research and increased communication and collaboration among the broader scientific and health community. This strategy is built upon that paradigm. The vision, mission, and five cornerstone goals of the USGS Environmental Health Science Strategy were developed with significant input from a wide range of stakeholders. Vision - The USGS is a premier source of the environmental health science needed to safeguard the health of the environment, fish, wildlife, and people. Mission - The mission of USGS in environmental

  17. Interplanetary laser ranging - an emerging technology for planetary science missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkx, D.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.

    2012-09-01

    Interplanetary laser ranging (ILR) is an emerging technology for very high accuracy distance determination between Earth-based stations and spacecraft or landers at interplanetary distances. It has evolved from laser ranging to Earth-orbiting satellites, modified with active laser transceiver systems at both ends of the link instead of the passive space-based retroreflectors. It has been estimated that this technology can be used for mm- to cm-level accuracy range determination at interplanetary distances [2, 7]. Work is being performed in the ESPaCE project [6] to evaluate in detail the potential and limitations of this technology by means of bottom-up laser link simulation, allowing for a reliable performance estimate from mission architecture and hardware characteristics.

  18. 77 FR 1956 - National Science Board; Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on the National Science Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION National Science Board; Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on the National Science Board Data Policies Report AGENCY: National Science Board (NSB), NSF. ACTION: Request for public comments. SUMMARY: The National Science Board seeks comments from the public on the...

  19. Impact of regulatory science on global public health

    OpenAIRE

    Meghal Patel; Margaret Ann Miller

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory science plays a vital role in protecting and promoting global public health by providing the scientific basis for ensuring that food and medical products are safe, properly labeled, and effective. Regulatory science research was first developed for the determination of product safety in the early part of the 20th Century, and continues to support innovation of the processes needed for regulatory policy decisions. Historically, public health laws and regulations were enacted followi...

  20. Provenance Challenges for Earth Science Dataset Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2011-01-01

    Modern science is increasingly dependent on computational analysis of very large data sets. Organizing, referencing, publishing those data has become a complex problem. Published research that depends on such data often fails to cite the data in sufficient detail to allow an independent scientist to reproduce the original experiments and analyses. This paper explores some of the challenges related to data identification, equivalence and reproducibility in the domain of data intensive scientific processing. It will use the example of Earth Science satellite data, but the challenges also apply to other domains.

  1. Public communication of science 2.0

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Hans Peter; Dunwoody, Sharon; Allgaier, Joachim; Lo, Yin-Yueh; Brossard, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    he communication between scientists and the public is changing. Major drivers of this change are the rapid evolution of the Internet, now in its web 2.0 version with an abundance of video‐sharing websites, blogging platforms and social networks; the ubiquity of mobile devices; and the merging of individual and public communication. The new infrastructures allow nearly instantaneous access to information and make it much easier for communicators—both professionals and laypersons—to directly ad...

  2. Interplanetary laser ranging : Analysis for implementation in planetary science missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkx, D.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the motion of natural (and artificial) bodies in the solar system provide key input on their interior structre and properties. Currently, the most accurate measurements of solar system dynamics are performed using radiometric tracking systems on planetary missions, providing range

  3. Introduction: From "The Popularization of Science through Film" to "The Public Understanding of Science".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Fernando

    2018-03-01

    Science in film, and usual equivalents such as science on film or science on screen, refer to the cinematographic representation, staging, and enactment of actors, information, and processes involved in any aspect or dimension of science and its history. Of course, boundaries are blurry, and films shot as research tools or documentation also display science on screen. Nonetheless, they generally count as scientific film, and science in and on film or screen tend to designate productions whose purpose is entertainment and education. Moreover, these two purposes are often combined, and inherently concern empirical, methodological, and conceptual challenges associated with popularization, science communication, and the public understanding of science. It is in these areas that the notion of the deficit model emerged to designate a point of view and a mode of understanding, as well as a set of practical and theoretical problems about the relationship between science and the public.

  4. The Clam Trail: Blending Science Education, Public Art, and Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscio, Cara; Flimlin, Gef; Bushnell, Rick

    2011-01-01

    The Barnegat Bay Shellfish Restoration's Clam Trail is an award-winning scavenger hunt that combines science education, public art, and tourism. This family adventure has participants seeking out giant painted fiberglass clams, upweller clam nurseries, and points of interest in search of science facts to record on their forms. Upon returning these…

  5. Public lecture | "Science and society" by Bob Jones | 22 May

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Public lecture: "Science and society: the impact of computing at CERN on society" by Bob Jones 22 May at 7.30 p.m. Globe of Science and Innovation Lecture in English, translated in French. Entrance free. Limited number of seats. Reservation essential: +41 22 767 76 76 or cern.reception@cern.ch

  6. National Center for Mathematics and Science - publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Designing Statistics Instruction for Middle School Students Summer 2003: Algebraic Skills and Strategies for newsletter cover The National Center for Research in Mathematical Sciences Education (NCRMSE) (1987-1995 -Level Reform Fall 1993: Assessment Models Winter 1994: Reforming Geometry Spring 1994: Statistics and

  7. Annual Reports | Publications | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annual Reports. of the Indian Academy of Sciences. Our Annual Reports since 2000-2001 are freely downloadable. 2016 – 2017. In English. 2015 – 2016. In English. 2014 – 2015. In English | In Hindi. 2013 – 2014. In English | In Hindi. 2012 – 2013. In English | In Hindi. 2011 – 2012. In English | In Hindi. 2010 – 2011.

  8. Overview | Publications | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Decadal vision document - Towards Ayurvedic Biology, 2006, PDF. Dragonflies and Damselflies of Peninsular India - a field guide, 2005, HTML. Report of Academy committee on scientific value, 2005, PDF. Decadal vision document - Astronomy & Astrophysics, 2004, PDF. Report on university education in science, 1994 ...

  9. Science and social responsibility in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Douglas L; McKeown, Robert E

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologists and environmental health researchers have a joint responsibility to acquire scientific knowledge that matters to public health and to apply the knowledge gained in public health practice. We examine the nature and source of these social responsibilities, discuss a debate in the epidemiological literature on roles and responsibilities, and cite approaches to environmental justice as reflective of them. At one level, responsibility refers to accountability, as in being responsible for actions taken. A deeper meaning of responsibility corresponds to commitment to the pursuit and achievement of a valued end. Epidemiologists are committed to the scientific study of health and disease in human populations and to the application of scientific knowledge to improve the public's health. Responsibility is also closely linked to reliability. Responsible professionals reliably perform the tasks they set for themselves as well as the tasks society expects them to undertake. The defining axiom for our approach is that the health of the public is a social good we commit ourselves to pursue, thus assuming an obligation to contribute to its achievement. Epidemiologists cannot claim to be committed to public health as a social good and not accept the responsibility of ensuring that the knowledge gained in their roles as scientists is used to achieve that good. The social responsibilities of environmental health researchers are conspicuous in the environmental justice movement, for example, in community-based participatory research. Responsibility is an ethical concept particularly well suited to frame many key aspects of the ethics of our profession. PMID:14602514

  10. 76 FR 6784 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of Two Public Teleconferences of the Science...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... Two Public Teleconferences of the Science Advisory Board Dioxin Review Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces... concerning the EPA Science Advisory Board can be found on the EPA Web site at http://www.epa.gov/sab...

  11. 76 FR 22394 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconferences of the Science...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9298-6] Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconferences of the Science Advisory Board Panel for Review of Hydraulic Fracturing... EPA Science Advisory Board can be found at the EPA SAB Web site at http://www.epa.gov/sab . Any...

  12. 76 FR 4660 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board Lead Review Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces... information concerning the EPA Science Advisory Board can be found on the EPA Web site at http://www.epa.gov...

  13. 76 FR 50728 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of Public Teleconferences of the Science...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... Public Teleconferences of the Science Advisory Board Radiation Advisory Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces... the EPA Science Advisory Board can be found at the EPA SAB Web site at http// www.epa.gov/sab...

  14. The Contribution of Science-Rich Resources to Public Science Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, John H.; Pattison, Scott; Meier, David; Bibas, David; Livingston, Kathleen

    2018-01-01

    This preliminary study examined the effect that five major sources of public science education--schools, science centers, broadcast media, print media, and the Internet--had on adults' science interest "values" and "cognitive predispositions." Over 3,000 adults were sampled in three U.S. metropolitan areas: Los Angeles,…

  15. A Coalition on the Public Understanding of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, L.; Hehn, J.; Kass, J.; O'Grady, R.; Scotchmoor, J.; Stucky, R.

    2006-12-01

    For many of the problems facing contemporary societies, such as potential impacts of climate change, coastal degradation, reductions of fisheries stocks, volcanic and earthquake hazards in densely populated areas, quality and availability of water, and exploitation of hydrocarbon resources and development of alternative energy sources, formulation of wise public policy depends on evaluation of the state of geoscientific research in the relevant areas. In a democratic society, public discourse about and input to policy decisions on key issues affecting the public welfare requires a public that understands the scientific research process, values the contribution of science to society, and has a working knowledge of what science can and cannot yet say about specific issues. Arguably, that ideal falls short in contemporary American society. Disturbing trends in science education, low public scientific literacy, and increasing alarms about U.S. competitiveness have all been prominent national news topics in recent years. (1) A recent National Science Board report indicated that two-thirds of Americans do not understand what science is, how it is conducted, and what one can expect from it. (2) A recent Gallup poll reports widespread and increasingly prevalent belief in pseudoscience. (3) There is a growing public complacency about and disengagement from science at the very moment when the impact of science on public life is greater than ever. (4) The Business Roundtable of major U.S. companies notes that the scientific and technical building blocks of our economic leadership are eroding at a time when many other nations are gathering strength. In response, a Coalition on the Public Understanding of Science COPUS has been initiated. Essential to COPUS is the premise that public understanding of science and the scientific process and an awareness of the impacts of scientific advancements on our quality of life are necessary to increase student interest in science as a

  16. Gap between science and media revisited: scientists as public communicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Hans Peter

    2013-08-20

    The present article presents an up-to-date account of the current media relations of scientists, based on a comprehensive analysis of relevant surveys. The evidence suggests that most scientists consider visibility in the media important and responding to journalists a professional duty--an attitude that is reinforced by universities and other science organizations. Scientific communities continue to regulate media contacts with their members by certain norms that compete with the motivating and regulating influences of public information departments. Most scientists assume a two-arena model with a gap between the arenas of internal scientific and public communication. They want to meet the public in the public arena, not in the arena of internal scientific communication. Despite obvious changes in science and in the media system, the orientations of scientists toward the media, as well as the patterns of interaction with journalists, have their roots in the early 1980s. Although there is more influence on public communication from the science organizations and more emphasis on strategic considerations today, the available data do not indicate abrupt changes in communication practices or in the relevant beliefs and attitudes of scientists in the past 30 y. Changes in the science-media interface may be expected from the ongoing structural transformation of the public communication system. However, as yet, there is little evidence of an erosion of the dominant orientation toward the public and public communication within the younger generation of scientists.

  17. The Limitations of Quantitative Social Science for Informing Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrim, John; de Vries, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative social science (QSS) has the potential to make an important contribution to public policy. However it also has a number of limitations. The aim of this paper is to explain these limitations to a non-specialist audience and to identify a number of ways in which QSS research could be improved to better inform public policy.

  18. Public attitudes to genomic science: an experiment in information provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgis, Patrick; Brunton-Smith, Ian; Fife-Schaw, Chris

    2010-03-01

    We use an experimental panel study design to investigate the effect of providing "value-neutral" information about genomic science in the form of a short film to a random sample of the British public. We find little evidence of attitude change as a function of information provision. However, our results show that information provision significantly increased dropout from the study amongst less educated respondents. Our findings have implications both for our understanding of the knowledge-attitude relationship in public opinion toward genomic science and for science communication more generally.

  19. The public communication of science in public health graduate programs in Brazil: From the coordinators' perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, C. A.; Gallo, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Introduction - The elaboration process of public policies for science and technology in knowledge societies should include not only experts, but all society members. There are studies on lay people's perception of science and technology. However, what is the scientists' perspective on public communication of science? Objectives - To describe and characterize the concepts that coordinators of Brazilian public health graduate programs have about public communication of science. Methods - This is an analytical and descriptive report of an exploratory research (doctoral study). The answers of fifty-one coordinators to two questionnaires were submitted for content analysis. The categories were transformed into variables that allowed the data processing by the Hiérarchique Classificatoire et Cohésitive (CHIC®) software. Results - Similarity analysis strongly suggested (0,99) that coordinators understand public communication as a communication directed to academic peers and students, also as a form of participation in scientific events and communication by scientific papers. Likewise, the implication analysis suggested a strong implication (0,98) between scientific communication understood as public communication. Conclusion - The notion of public communication of science as a social right and as a commitment and responsibility of researchers and research centers is not explicitly present in the narrative of the coordinators, although in general the coordinators conceive it as a relevant activity. This study thus contributes to a reflection on the role of scientists, researchers and research centers in public communication of science and technology.

  20. Nudging Academic Science into the Public Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Researchers can be reluctant to work with fellow academics outside their disciplines or to engage the public in their research. Some will even hesitate to work with departmental colleagues or their own students if they perceive a disciplinary gap. Many of today's pressing social concerns, however, demand interdisciplinary solutions and benefit…

  1. Clinical science: prospects, payment and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raslavicus, P A

    1999-01-01

    The last several decades of this century have witnessed significant changes in health care financing and delivery. Similar changes have occurred within laboratory medicine. While government involvement has been principally in insurance and the control of costs through regulation, the demise of the Clinton Health Plan ushered in an era of deregulation and market competition. In this environment, clinical science and clinical scientists have a new challenge: to prove their worth by establishing methods in which their services and tests are more clinically efficient than competing approaches.

  2. Science For The Public: Collaboration and Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The transformation of all things media and information into a dynamic environment of user access has created what seems infinite possibilities to inform the public in many different ways - as well as seemingly infinite possibilities to confuse. This talk will describe a rather non-conventional collaboration between two different creative cultures and its significance to maintaining scientific accuracy and devising strategies important to audience engagement - among them, humor. While focusing on the award-winning effort ``When Things Get Small'' created by University of California Television producer R. Wargo in collaboration with condensed matter physicist I.K. Schuller and actor Adam J. Smith, with both NSF and private support, the case study provides insight into a model and modes which can be used successfully by other scientists to engage the public in what they do.

  3. Nuclear energy between science and public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobnar, B.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the presented research was to establish the presence and the structure of nuclear energy as a theme in Slovenian mass media and at the same time to answer the question what chances an active Slovenian reader had in the year 1991 to either strengthen or change his opinion on nuclear power. Measurement and analysis of chosen relevant variables in 252 contributions in six Slovenian mass media publications in the year 1991 showed that the most frequent nuclear theme was decommissioning and closing down of a nuclear power plant. Other themes followed in the order of the frequency of appearance: nuclear energy as an economic issue, waste disposal, NPP Krsko operation, influence on health, information about events, seismic questions. The scientific theme - nuclear energy, was intensely represented in chosen Slovenian mass media publications in 1991. Common to all nuclear themes is that they were being presented from the political point of view. (author) [sl

  4. publications.html | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; publications.html. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year meeting of the Academy will be held from ...

  5. Effect of science communication with the public on inference of risk perception of science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosugi, Motoko

    2006-01-01

    Our previous study showed a big difference between expert's own risk perception and experts' inference of the public risk perception about technologies. So, this study tried to clarify the effect of the perceived distance in risk perception between the public and experts themselves on forwardness in science communication to the public. The questionnaire survey results reaffirmed that experts were inclined to feel larger difference in risk perception between the public and themselves on the subject of their own specialty than of non-specialty. The result also suggested the tendency that the bigger experts recognized difference in risk perception from the public, the less they actually had experiences of science communication including communication with the public. Moreover, the result showed that experiences of science communication had positive effects on belief of the public's scientific literacy. (author)

  6. Space Culture: Innovative Cultural Approaches To Public Engagement With Astronomy, Space Science And Astronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years a number of cultural organizations have established ongoing programs of public engagement with astronomy, space science and astronautics. Many involve elements of citizen science initiatives, artists’ residencies in scientific laboratories and agencies, art and science festivals, and social network projects as well as more traditional exhibition venues. Recognizing these programs several agencies and organizations have established mechanisms for facilitating public engagement with astronomy and space science through cultural activities. The International Astronautics Federation has established an Technical Activities Committee for the Cultural Utilization of Space. Over the past year the NSF and NEA have organized disciplinary workshops to develop recommendations relating to art-science interaction and community building efforts. Rationales for encouraging public engagement via cultural projects range from theory of creativity, innovation and invention to cultural appropriation in the context of `socially robust science’ as advocated by Helga Nowotny of the European Research Council. Public engagement with science, as opposed to science education and outreach initiatives, require different approaches. Just as organizations have employed education professionals to lead education activities, so they must employ cultural professionals if they wish to develop public engagement projects via arts and culture. One outcome of the NSF and NEA workshops has been development of a rationale for converting STEM to STEAM by including the arts in STEM methodologies, particularly for K-12 where students can access science via arts and cultural contexts. Often these require new kinds of informal education approaches that exploit locative media, gaming platforms, artists projects and citizen science. Incorporating astronomy and space science content in art and cultural projects requires new skills in `cultural translation’ and `trans-mediation’ and new kinds

  7. Public Science Education and Outreach as a Modality for Teaching Science Communication Skills to Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arion, Douglas; OConnell, Christine; Lowenthal, James; Hickox, Ryan C.; Lyons, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The Alan Alda Center for Communicating Science at Stony Brook University is working with Carthage College, Dartmouth College, and Smith College, in partnership with the Appalachian Mountain Club, to develop and disseminate curriculum to incorporate science communication education into undergraduate science programs. The public science education and outreach program operating since 2012 as a partnership between Carthage and the Appalachian Mountain Club is being used as the testbed for evaluating the training methods. This talk will review the processes that have been developed and the results from the first cohort of students trained in these methods and tested during the summer 2017 education and outreach efforts, which reached some 12,000 members of the public. A variety of evaluation and assessment tools were utilized, including surveys of public participants and video recording of the interactions of the students with the public. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under grant number 1625316.

  8. Pharmaceutical science faculty publication records at research-intensive pharmacy colleges and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis F; Nahata, Milap C

    2012-11-12

    To determine yearly (phase 1) and cumulative (phase 2) publication records of pharmaceutical science faculty members at research-intensive colleges and schools of pharmacy. The publication records of pharmaceutical science faculty members at research-intensive colleges and schools of pharmacy were searched on Web of Science. Fifty colleges and schools of pharmacy were randomly chosen for a search of 1,042 individual faculty members' publications per year from 2005 to 2009. A stratified random sample of 120 faculty members also was chosen, and cumulative publication counts were recorded and bibliometric indices calculated. The median number of publications per year was 2 (range, 0-34). Overall, 22% of faculty members had no publications in any given year, but the number was highly variable depending on the faculty members' colleges or schools of pharmacy. Bibliometric indices were higher for medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutics, with pharmacology ranking third and social and administrative sciences fourth. Higher bibliometric indices were also observed for institution status (ie, public vs private) and academic rank (discipline chairperson vs non-chairperson and professor vs junior faculty member) (ppharmaceutical science disciplines and academic ranks within research-intensive colleges and schools of pharmacy. These data may be important for benchmarking purposes.

  9. Science, the public, and social elites: how the general public, scientists, top politicians and managers perceive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prpić, Katarina

    2011-11-01

    This paper finds that the Croatian public's and the social elites' perceptions of science are a mixture of scientific and technological optimism, of the tendency to absolve science of social responsibility, of skepticism about the social effects of science, and of cognitive optimism and skepticism. However, perceptions differ significantly according to the different social roles and the wider value system of the observed groups. The survey data show some key similarities, as well as certain specificities in the configuration of the types of views of the four groups--the public, scientists, politicians and managers. The results suggest that the well-known typology of the four cultures reveals some of the ideologies of the key actors of scientific and technological policy. The greatest social, primarily educational and socio-spatial, differentiation of the perceptions of science was found in the general public.

  10. Stem Cells, Science, and Public Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbut, J. Benjamin; Robert, Jason Scott

    2012-01-01

    These are interesting days in the scientific, social, and political debates about human embryonic stem cell research. Pluripotent stem cells--cells that can, in principle, give rise to the body's full range of cell types--were previously derivable only from human embryos that were destroyed in the process. Now, a variety of somatic cell types can…

  11. Public safety-a new science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Ernie Siddall of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Engineering Company has studied the social aspects of the risks of nuclear power. He has come to the conclusion that the increase in life expectancy in industrialized countries over the last few centuries is attributable to improvements in technology. Any excess mortality among plutonium workers is hidden by a strong healthy worker effect. He found that the escalation of nuclear construction costs through regulatory intervention makes the cost/benefit ratio of such intervention unreasonably high in comparison with other ways of protecting public health

  12. Misunderstood misunderstanding: social identities and public uptake of science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynne, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper draws general insights into the public reception of scientific knowledge from a case study of Cumbrian sheep farmers' responses to scientific advice about the restrictions introduced after the Chernobyl radioactive fallout. The analysis identifies several substantive factors which influence the credibility of scientific communication. Starting from the now-accepted point that public uptake of science depends primarily upon the trust and credibility public groups are prepared to invest in scientific institutions and representatives, the paper observes that these are contingent upon the social relationships and identities which people feel to be affected by scientific knowledge, which never comes free of social interests or implications. The case study shows laypeople capable of extensive informal reflection upon their social relationships towards scientific experts, and on the epistemological status of their own 'local' knowledge in relation to 'outside' knowledge. Public uptake of science might be improved if scientific institutions expressed an equivalent reflexive discourse in the public domain. (author)

  13. Political science, public administration, and natural hazards: contributions and connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, E.

    2009-04-01

    The connection between the natural and social sciences has become stronger, and has increasingly been recognized as a vital component in the area of natural hazards research. Moving applied natural hazards research into the public policy or administration realm is not often easy, or effective. An improved understanding of the connection between the natural and social sciences can assist in this process and result in better public policy, acceptance from the public for these policies, and a safer and better educated public. This paper will present initial findings from a larger data set on natural hazards and social science research. Specifically we will review the current contribution of the formal academic disciplines of political science and public administration within recent natural hazards-related scholarship. The general characteristics of the contributions (e.g. coauthored, interdisciplinary, etc.), specific theories and methods being applied, and the types of natural hazards being scrutinized by these related fields will be assessed. In conclusion we will discuss future contributions and areas for potential collaboration between the natural and social sciences in the area of natural hazards research.

  14. Gap between science and media revisited: Scientists as public communicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Hans Peter

    2013-01-01

    The present article presents an up-to-date account of the current media relations of scientists, based on a comprehensive analysis of relevant surveys. The evidence suggests that most scientists consider visibility in the media important and responding to journalists a professional duty—an attitude that is reinforced by universities and other science organizations. Scientific communities continue to regulate media contacts with their members by certain norms that compete with the motivating and regulating influences of public information departments. Most scientists assume a two-arena model with a gap between the arenas of internal scientific and public communication. They want to meet the public in the public arena, not in the arena of internal scientific communication. Despite obvious changes in science and in the media system, the orientations of scientists toward the media, as well as the patterns of interaction with journalists, have their roots in the early 1980s. Although there is more influence on public communication from the science organizations and more emphasis on strategic considerations today, the available data do not indicate abrupt changes in communication practices or in the relevant beliefs and attitudes of scientists in the past 30 y. Changes in the science–media interface may be expected from the ongoing structural transformation of the public communication system. However, as yet, there is little evidence of an erosion of the dominant orientation toward the public and public communication within the younger generation of scientists. PMID:23940312

  15. Science Under Attack Public Policy, Science Education, and the Emperor's New Clothes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    The popular debate about the teaching of intelligent design in public schools is but one quandary for scientists and policy makers. Given recent developments which have worked to breed a general distrust of science, it is evident that researchers and politicians alike should be wary of using popular opinion as a guide for policy and pedagogy when it comes to science in public education. Dr. Krauss will qualify this complex issue and will address how educators, policy makers and scientists can work effectively to prevent public misconceptions of science.

  16. Science Under Attack! Public Policy, Science Education, and the Emperor's New Clothes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Lawrence (Case Western Reserve University)

    2005-12-05

    The popular debate about the teaching of intelligent design in public schools is but one quandary for scientists and policy makers. Given recent developments which have worked to breed a general distrust of science, it is evident that researchers and politicians alike should be wary of using popular opinion as a guide for policy and pedagogy when it comes to science in public education. Dr. Krauss will qualify this complex issue and will address how educators, policy makers and scientists can work effectively to prevent public misconceptions of science.

  17. Decision science: a scientific approach to enhance public health budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honoré, Peggy A; Fos, Peter J; Smith, Torney; Riley, Michael; Kramarz, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The allocation of resources for public health programming is a complicated and daunting responsibility. Financial decision-making processes within public health agencies are especially difficult when not supported with techniques for prioritizing and ranking alternatives. This article presents a case study of a decision analysis software model that was applied to the process of identifying funding priorities for public health services in the Spokane Regional Health District. Results on the use of this decision support system provide insights into how decision science models, which have been used for decades in business and industry, can be successfully applied to public health budgeting as a means of strengthening agency financial management processes.

  18. Nuclear energy between science and public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobnar, B [Inst. Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the presented research was to establish the presence and the structure of nuclear energy as a theme in Slovenian mass media and at the same time to answer the question what chances an active Slovenian reader had in the year 1991 to either strengthen or change his opinion on nuclear power. Measurement and analysis of chosen relevant variables in 252 contributions in six Slovenian mass media publications in the year 1991 showed that the most frequent nuclear theme was decommissioning and closing down of a nuclear power plant. Other themes followed in the order of the frequency of appearance: nuclear energy as an economic issue, waste disposal, NPP Krsko operation, influence on health, information about events, seismic questions. The scientific theme - nuclear energy, was intensely represented in chosen Slovenian mass media publications in 1991. Common to all nuclear themes is that they were being presented from the political point of view. (author) [Slovenian] Prispevek s strani komunikoloskih raziskav osvetljuje nekatere dileme ob vstopanju stroke v svet mnozicnih medijev. Cilj raziskave je bil: ugotoviti prisotnost in strukturo jedrske energije kot teme v javnih pisnih medijih v letu 1991 ter oceniti, ali je imel povprecni bralec vsaj enega dnevnega casopisa moznost, da okrepi ali spremeni svoje mnenje o jedrski energiji. Merjenje in analiza relevantnih izbranih spremenljivk v 252 prispevkih v sestih slovenskih pisnih medijih sta pokazala, da je bila najpogostejsa jedrska tema zapiranje in razgradnja jedrskih elektrarn, sledili so ekonomski vidiki jedrske energije, vprasanja, povezana s skladiscenjem in odlagaliscem radioaktivnih odpadkov, delovanje NE Krsko, vpliv jedrske energije na zdravje, informacije o nezgodah, seizmoloska vprasanja. Strokovna tema - jedrska energija, je bila intenzivno predstavljena v slovenskih pisnih medijih v letu 1991, vendar prevladujoce s politicnega zornega kota. (author)

  19. Science Education and Public Outreach Forums (SEPOF): Providing Coordination and Support for NASA's Science Mission Directorate Education and Outreach Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, B. J.; Smith, D.; Shipp, S. S.; Schwerin, T. G.; Stockman, S. A.; Cooper, L. P.; Peticolas, L. M.

    2009-12-01

    NASA is working with four newly-formed Science Education and Public Outreach Forums (SEPOFs) to increase the overall coherence of the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program. SEPOFs support the astrophysics, heliophysics, planetary and Earth science divisions of NASA SMD in three core areas: * E/PO Community Engagement and Development * E/PO Product and Project Activity Analysis * Science Education and Public Outreach Forum Coordination Committee Service. SEPOFs are collaborating with NASA and external science and education and outreach communities in E/PO on multiple levels ranging from the mission and non-mission E/PO project activity managers, project activity partners, and scientists and researchers, to front line agents such as naturalists/interpreters, teachers, and higher education faculty, to high level agents such as leadership at state education offices, local schools, higher education institutions, and professional societies. The overall goal for the SEPOFs is increased awareness, knowledge, and understanding of scientists, researchers, engineers, technologists, educators, product developers, and dissemination agents of best practices, existing NASA resources, and community expertise applicable to E/PO. By coordinating and supporting the NASA E/PO Community, the NASA/SEPOF partnerships will lead to more effective, sustainable, and efficient utilization of NASA science discoveries and learning experiences.

  20. The alcohol industry and public interest science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenius, Kerstin; Babor, Thomas F

    2010-02-01

    This report argues that the growing involvement of the alcohol industry in scientific research needs to be acknowledged and addressed. It suggests a set of principles to guide ethical decision-making in the future. We review relevant issues with regard to relationships between the alcohol industry and the international academic community, especially alcohol research scientists. The guiding principles proposed are modelled after expert committee statements, and describe the responsibilities of governmental agencies, the alcohol industry, journal editors and the academic community. These are followed by recommendations designed to inform individuals and institutions about current 'best practices' that are consistent with the principles. Growing evidence from the tobacco, pharmaceutical and medical fields suggests that financial interests of researchers may compromise their professional judgement and lead to research results that are biased in favour of commercial interests. It is recommended that the integrity of alcohol science is best served if all financial relationships with the alcoholic beverage industry are avoided. In cases where research funding, consulting, writing assignments and other activities are initiated, institutions, individuals and the alcoholic beverage industry itself are urged to follow appropriate guidelines that will increase the transparency and ethicality of such relationships.

  1. Publications in biomedical and environmental sciences programs, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfuderer, H.A.; Moody, J.B.

    1981-07-01

    This bibliography contains 690 references to articles in journals, books, and reports published in the subject area of biomedical and environmental sciences during 1980. There are 529 references to articles published in journals and books and 161 references to reports. Staff members in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences divisions have other publications not included in this bibliography; for example, theses, book reviews, abstracts published in journals or symposia proceedings, pending journal publications and reports such as monthly and bimonthly progress reports, contractor reports, and reports for internal distribution. This document is sorted by the division, and then alphabetically by author. The sorting by divisions separates the references by subject area in a simple way. The divisions represented in the order that they appear in the bibliography are Analytical Chemistry, Biology, Chemical Technology, Information R and D, Health and Safety Research, Energy, Environmental Sciences, and Computer Sciences

  2. Publications in biomedical and environmental sciences programs, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfuderer, H.A.; Moody, J.B.

    1981-07-01

    This bibliography contains 690 references to articles in journals, books, and reports published in the subject area of biomedical and environmental sciences during 1980. There are 529 references to articles published in journals and books and 161 references to reports. Staff members in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences divisions have other publications not included in this bibliography; for example, theses, book reviews, abstracts published in journals or symposia proceedings, pending journal publications and reports such as monthly and bimonthly progress reports, contractor reports, and reports for internal distribution. This document is sorted by the division, and then alphabetically by author. The sorting by divisions separates the references by subject area in a simple way. The divisions represented in the order that they appear in the bibliography are Analytical Chemistry, Biology, Chemical Technology, Information R and D, Health and Safety Research, Energy, Environmental Sciences, and Computer Sciences.

  3. The marketing of dissolvable tobacco: social science and public policy research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Brian G; Kim, Annice E; Tessman, Greta K; MacMonegle, Anna J; Choiniere, Conrad J; Evans, Sarah E; Johnson, Robin D

    2012-01-01

    The latest generation of smokeless tobacco products encompasses a wide range of offerings, including what is commonly referred to as dissolvable tobacco. Designed to deliver nicotine upon dissolving or disintegrating in a user's mouth, dissolvable tobacco products currently appear in various United States markets as strips, orbs, sticks, and lozenges. The emergence of these new products poses distinct opportunities and challenges for social and behavioral science and public health research and raises important public policy questions.

  4. Human exposure to rabid free-ranging cats: a continuing public health concern in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnolo, E R; Lind, L R; Long, J M; Moll, M E; Rankin, J T; Martin, K F; Deasy, M P; Dato, V M; Ostroff, S M

    2014-08-01

    Rabid free-ranging cats have been a public health concern in Pennsylvania since raccoon variant rabies first was recognized in the state in the early 1980s. Over the last decade, between 1.5 and 2.5% of cats submitted to Pennsylvania's state laboratories for rabies testing have been positive. In this report, we describe the extent of rabies in free-ranging cats in Pennsylvania. We also present two examples of human exposure to rabid free-ranging cats that occurred in Pennsylvania during 2010-2011 and the public health actions taken to address rabies exposure in the humans and animals. We then describe the concerns surrounding the unvaccinated and free-ranging cat population in Pennsylvania and possible options in managing this public and animal health problem. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Nanoethics, Science Communication, and a Fourth Model for Public Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Andy

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a fourth model of public engagement with science, grounded in the principle of nurturing scientific agency through participatory bioethics. It argues that social media is an effective device through which to enable such engagement, as it has the capacity to empower users and transforms audiences into co-producers of knowledge, rather than consumers of content. Social media also fosters greater engagement with the political and legal implications of science, thus promoting the value of scientific citizenship. This argument is explored by considering the case of nanoscience and nanotechnology, as an exemplar for how emerging technologies may be handled by the scientific community and science policymakers.

  6. Earth sciences. 1990-2001. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Earth Sciences and issued during the period 1 January 1990 - 31 May 2001. Most publications are issued in English, though some are also available in other languages. This is noted as A for Arabic, C for Chinese, E for English, F for French, R for Russian and S for Spanish before the relevant ISBN number

  7. Science, news, and the public tackling the 'red shift' in science communication

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, An; Thompson, Shelley

    2019-01-01

    As the rate of scientific discoveries and developments accelerates, it becomes increasingly difficult to understand and relate these events to our everyday lives. The day-to-day activities of science now lie obscured behind an ever-thickening screen of corporate, civil and military secrecy, whilst the news media the only major space left for public engagement in science development represent it in a way that tends to drive people away from science rather than attract them to its issues and debates. This book explores this shift in science news communication. It demonstrates that journalism needs to change the way it deals with science altering its traditional mindsets and abandoning its much discredited techniques if it is to maintain or regain its role as a principal force that encourages discussion and understanding of science in the public sphere."

  8. 76 FR 4659 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9254-5] Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board Nutrient Criteria Review Panel Correction In notice document 2011-1014 beginning on page 3133 in the issue of Wednesday, January 19, 2011, make the...

  9. African Journal of Range and Forage Science - Vol 11, No 1 (1976)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Range and Forage Science. ... Changes of biomass in some perennial grass species. ... The use of shoot dimensions to estimate the leaf mass or shoot area of certain indigenous ... Italian ryegrass as a perennial fodder crop.

  10. Embedded Assessment as an Essential Method for Understanding Public Engagement in Citizen Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Becker-Klein

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Citizen science is an important way of engaging a broad range of audiences in science inquiry by participating in research that asks novel questions and unearths new knowledge and new questioning. Though citizen science projects are quite diverse in their scientific pursuits, all projects share the common element of involving volunteers directly in some aspect of science inquiry. Thus, it is essential for citizen science projects to determine their participants’ capacity to learn and successfully perform science inquiry skills, such as making scientific observations, collecting and analyzing data, and sharing findings. Such skill gains are essential to (a ensure high quality data that can be used in meaningful scientific research, and (b achieve broader goals such as developing a participant’s identity as a contributor to science. However, we do not yet fully understand how improvement in participants’ inquiry skills through citizen science advances our knowledge of public engagement with science. In this essay, we offer embedded assessment as an effective method to capture participant skill gains, and encourage citizen science leaders, evaluators, and researchers to develop authentic methods that address the complexities of measuring skill development within the context of citizen science.

  11. Entering new publication territory in chemoinformatics and chemical information science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The F1000Research publishing platform offers the opportunity to launch themed article collections as a part of its dynamic publication environment. The idea of article collections is further expanded through the generation of publication channels that focus on specific scientific areas or disciplines. This editorial introduces the Chemical Information Science channel of F1000Research designed to collate high-quality publications and foster a culture of open peer review. Articles will be selected by guest editor(s) and a group of experts, the channel Editorial Board, and subjected to open peer review.

  12. e-Books | Publications | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    e-Books. of the Indian Academy of Sciences. The following publications of the Academy are now available in e-Book (ePub) format. More details about the format can be seen here. Organic Chemistry Masterclasses Articles by Prof. S Ranganathan in Resonance Download ePub | Read online. Linear Algebra and Analysis ...

  13. Education, Communication, and Science in the Public Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Noah Weeth

    2015-01-01

    In the 1920s, John Dewey and Walter Lippmann both wrote important books examining whether the public was capable of playing a constructive role in policy, particularly when specialized knowledge was involved. This essay uses the Lippmann-Dewey debate to identify new challenges for science education and to explore the relationship between science…

  14. Do natural science experiments influence public attitudes towards environmental problems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, A.; Hunziker, M.; Kienast, F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the significance of risk assessment studies in the public discussion on CO 2 emissions. Politicians and representatives from the public were interviewed by using the social-science technique of qualitative in-depth interviews. Three different types of attitudes towards natural science were found among politicians. Depending on which attitude a politician holds, risk assessment studies can have an impact on his/her readiness to support environmental policy measures. Regarding lay people, key factors affecting the acceptance of environmental policy measures are knowledge of environmental problems, their impacts on ecosystems or human health as well as direct personal perception of those impacts. Since direct perception is not always possible in everyday life, natural science experiments might be a means for successfully mediating this lacking perception. (author)

  15. Impact of regulatory science on global public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghal Patel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory science plays a vital role in protecting and promoting global public health by providing the scientific basis for ensuring that food and medical products are safe, properly labeled, and effective. Regulatory science research was first developed for the determination of product safety in the early part of the 20th Century, and continues to support innovation of the processes needed for regulatory policy decisions. Historically, public health laws and regulations were enacted following public health tragedies, and often the research tools and techniques required to execute these laws lagged behind the public health needs. Throughout history, similar public health problems relating to food and pharmaceutical products have occurred in countries around the world, and have usually led to the development of equivalent solutions. For example, most countries require a demonstration of pharmaceutical safety and efficacy prior to marketing these products using approaches that are similar to those initiated in the United States. The globalization of food and medical products has created a shift in regulatory compliance such that gaps in food and medical product safety can generate international problems. Improvements in regulatory research can advance the regulatory paradigm toward a more preventative, proactive framework. These improvements will advance at a greater pace with international collaboration by providing additional resources and new perspectives for approaching and anticipating public health problems. The following is a review of how past public health disasters have shaped the current regulatory landscape, and where innovation can facilitate the shift from reactive policies to proactive policies.

  16. Ghosts in the machine: publication planning in the medical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sismondo, Sergio

    2009-04-01

    Publication of pharmaceutical company-sponsored research in medical journals, and its presentation at conferences and meetings, is mostly governed by 'publication plans' that extract the maximum amount of scientific and commercial value out of data and analyses through carefully constructed and placed papers. Clinical research is typically performed by contract research organizations, analyzed by company statisticians, written up by independent medical writers, approved and edited by academic researchers who then serve as authors, and the whole process organized and shepherded through to journal publication by publication planners. This paper reports on a conference of an international association of publication planners. It describes and analyzes their work in an ecological framework that relates it to marketing departments of pharmaceutical companies, medical journals and publishers, academic authors, and potential audiences. The medical research described here forms a new kind of corporate science, designed to look like traditional academic work, but performed largely to market products.

  17. Social science. Publication bias in the social sciences: unlocking the file drawer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Annie; Malhotra, Neil; Simonovits, Gabor

    2014-09-19

    We studied publication bias in the social sciences by analyzing a known population of conducted studies--221 in total--in which there is a full accounting of what is published and unpublished. We leveraged Time-sharing Experiments in the Social Sciences (TESS), a National Science Foundation-sponsored program in which researchers propose survey-based experiments to be run on representative samples of American adults. Because TESS proposals undergo rigorous peer review, the studies in the sample all exceed a substantial quality threshold. Strong results are 40 percentage points more likely to be published than are null results and 60 percentage points more likely to be written up. We provide direct evidence of publication bias and identify the stage of research production at which publication bias occurs: Authors do not write up and submit null findings. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Reaching out to the hard to reach: using a science centre model to deliver public engagement with research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagen, M.; Allton, C.; Bryan, W. A.; O'Leary, M.

    2017-12-01

    Science communication is at an all-time high but public faith in expertise is low. However, within this climate of suspicion, research scientists remain a publicly trusted expert group. While there is both academic and public appetite for Public Engagement with Research (PER), there are barriers to reaching a wide range of publics. Attempts to connect the public with research often end up targeting the `already engaged'; the hard-to-reach remain just that. Engaging scientific curiosity in a wider demographic is crucial to promote scientific curiosity, itself known to profoundly counter the politically motivated reasoning that threatens informed debate around contemporary environmental issues. This requires the creation of opportunities for the public to engage with research in places in which they feel they belong. We report here on an 8 month pilot of a science centre model for PER. Oriel Science (www.orielscience.co.uk) is a research-led science exhibition in Swansea city centre delivering Swansea University's PER and run by academics and student ambassadors. Oriel Science (Oriel is Gallery in Welsh) received 16,000 visitors in 8 months, 40% of whom had no previous interaction with the university or its research and >40% of whom came from socio-economically deprived areas. We report on the public engagement leadership we enabled, working with 18 research groups over 8 months and our achievements in giving a broad range of publics the most direct access to participate in contemporary science.

  19. 76 FR 13182 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board Committee on Science Integration for Decision Making... Agency (EPA or Agency) Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public meeting of the SAB Committee on Science Integration for Decision Making. DATES: The meeting dates are March 29, 2011 from 9 a.m...

  20. Herzl's Altneuland: Zionist utopia, medical science and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch, Nadav; Seidelman, Rhona

    In this article we explore how the vision uniting Zionism, science, medicine and public health is depicted in Herzl's novel Altneuland (Old-New Land). Altneuland, which belongs to the genre of fin-de-siècle utopian novels, presents a modernistic vision of progress, integrating science with a humanistic society of equals. The remedy for the "psychopathology of the Jew" was believed by many Zionists to be a return to Palestine, and the establishment there of a healthy national Jewish home. Yet, Herzl's utopia, as depicted in Altneuland, is homogeneous, not allowing for other voices to be expressed, such as those of women and Arabs. Moreover, the belief that science and technology could solve social problems did not take into account the tensions that they would create in the society and environment. This vision of science and society, with its inherent tensions, will continue to inform the Zionist discourse of our present day.

  1. Science leadership for tomorrow: The role of schools of public affairs and universities in meeting needs of public science agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, A. H.; Wilcox, R. F.; Marini, F.; Reeves, H. C.

    1973-01-01

    Recommendations and requirements for the preparation of personnel with some scientific or technological background to enter fields of public policy and administration are reported. University efforts to provide science administration graduate programs are outlined and increased cooperation between government and university resources is outlined.

  2. Why public dissemination of science matters: a manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleman, David M

    2013-07-24

    Communicating science to the public takes time away from busy research careers. So why would you do it? I here offer six reasons. First, we owe that understanding to the people who fund our experiments, the taxpaying public. Second, we can leverage our skills as scientists to inspire critical thinking in public and political dialog. Third, researchers are optimally positioned to stem the flow of scientific misinformation in the media. Fourth, we can explain the ways and the means by which science can (and cannot) improve law and social policy. Fifth, it is incumbent upon us to explain what science is and is not: while it is a way of thinking that upgrades our intuitions, it also comes with a deep understanding of (and tolerance for) uncertainty. Finally, we find ourselves in the pleasurable position of being able to share the raw beauty of the world around us-and in the case of neuroscience, the world inside us. I suggest that scientists are optimally stationed to increase their presence in the public sphere: our training positions us to synthesize large bodies of data, weigh the evidence, and communicate with nuance, sincerity and exactitude.

  3. New Public Management, science policy and the orchestration of university research – academic science the loser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aant Elzinga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In many countries - during the past three decades - there has been increasing alignment of public administration with neoliberal modes of governance driven by processes of globalization and privatization. Key is New Public Management (NPM as an instrument for applying private sector or market-based techniques to public services. The paper concerns the implications and impact of these developments as they relate to the university sector where we are seeing an influx of bibliometrics to assess performativity with measures that are frequently far from adequate. These changes are related to the broader context of a globalized privatization doctrine of science policy that has gained currency in many countries. The analysis presented here probes and discusses a nexus between NPM, bibliometric performance audits, and a new paradigm in science policy. As such the paper seeks to fill an important gap in science policy studies and the literature on New Public Management more generally. It summarizes various characteristics associated with NPM, and expl icates the connection with methods of research evaluation now being introduced in academic ins titutions . It also takes up varying responses evoked within academe by the use of bibliometrics and current methods of ranking of tertiary educational institutions. Apart from gaining a better understanding of significant changes in the higher educational and research landscapes or disciplines and the interplay of these with broader economic and political trends in society at large, the aim of the paper is also to stimulate discussion and debate on current priorities, perceptions and policies governing knowledge production. Keywords: New Public management; research policy; transdisciplinarity; postnormal science; Audit Society Agencification; Accountingization; peer review evaluation Disciplines:Public Management and Governance; Management Studies and Research Management. Science Policy; Science Studies

  4. A qualitative analysis of the information science needs of public health researchers in an academic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Shanda L; Bakker, Caitlin J

    2018-04-01

    The University of Minnesota (UMN) Health Sciences Libraries conducted a needs assessment of public health researchers as part of a multi-institutional study led by Ithaka S+R. The aims of the study were to capture the evolving needs, opportunities, and challenges of public health researchers in the current environment and provide actionable recommendations. This paper reports on the data collected at the UMN site. Participants (n=24) were recruited through convenience sampling. One-on-one interviews, held November 2016 to January 2017, were audio-recorded. Qualitative analyses were conducted using NVivo 11 Pro and were based on the principles of grounded theory. The data revealed that a broad range of skill levels among participants (e.g., literature searching) and areas of misunderstanding (e.g., current publishing landscape, open access options). Overall, data management was an afterthought. Few participants were fully aware of the breadth of librarian knowledge and skill sets, although many did express a desire for further skill development in information science. Libraries can engage more public health researchers by utilizing targeted and individualized marketing regarding services. We can promote open science by educating researchers on publication realities and enhancing our data visualization skills. Libraries might take an institution-wide leadership role on matters of data management and data policy compliance. Finally, as team science emerges as a research priority, we can offer our networking expertise. These support services may reduce the stresses that public health researchers feel in the current research environment.

  5. Earth sciences 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This catalogue lists sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Earth Sciences issued during the period 1969-1994. Most publications are published in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all these papers have abstracts in English. It should be noted that prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings. The prices do not include local taxes and are subject to change without notice. All books in this catalogue are 16 x 24 cm, paper-bound, unless otherwise stated

  6. National innovation policy and public science in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lyn

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, I have positioned myself with Kean Birch and explored some of the political-economic actors/actants of policy suites implicated in the biotechnologies and bioeconomy. In particular, I have considered Australia's recent National Innovation and Science Agenda and allied documents and entities (that is, Innovation and Science Australia, the National Science Statement and the 2016 National Research Infrastructure Roadmap) as one of the National Innovation Strategies in place now in OECD countries and beyond. In overview, these policy suites utilise the same high knowledge creation/low translation and commericalisation arguments as elsewhere to press for particular ideologically based `improvements' to public science. Mapping the terrain of these entities has revealed the innovation, biotechnology and bioeconomy policy space to be inordinately complex and challenging to navigate. Reviewing Australia's position enables the type of comparative work that contributes to a closer understanding of the largely neoliberal global economic imperatives shaping contemporaneity. Moreover, while these policy suites attempt to constitute and circulate particular visions of science education, their complex nature mitigates against science teachers/educators grappling with their implications.

  7. Progress, decline, and the public uptake of climate science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudiak-Gould, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Previous research has sought to explain public perception of climate change science in terms of individuals' "prior commitment" to such ideological stances as just-world belief, system justification, and liberalism/conservatism. One type of prior commitment that has received little formal attention in the literature is narratives of the moral trajectory of society. A theory of climate science uptake based on beliefs in societal progress or decline is more easily portable to non-Western settings; in a case study of global warming attitudes in the Marshall Islands, trajectory narratives indeed account for public belief, concern, blame, and response more aptly than existing theories, and accord well with qualitative analysis of Marshallese climate change discourse. In Western settings, progress/decline narratives may explain much of the variation in climate change attitudes previously accounted for by other ideological variables, promising a more penetrating explanation for the divergence of climate change attitudes within and between societies.

  8. Publications in biomedical and environmental sciences programs, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J.B.

    1983-04-01

    This bibliography contains 725 references to articles in journals, books, and reports published in the subject area of biomedical and environmental sciences during 1982. There are 553 references to articles published in journals and books and 172 references to reports. The citations appear once ordered by the first author's division or by the performing division. Staff members in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences divisions have other publications not included in this bibliography; for example, theses, book reviews, abstracts published in journals or symposia proceedings, pending journal publications and reports such as monthly, bimonthly, and quarterly progress reports, contractor reports, and reports for internal distribution. This document is sorted by the division, and then alphabetically by author. The sorting by divisions separates the references by subject area in a simple way. The divisions are represented alphabetically. Indexes are provided by author, title, and journal reference. Reprints of articles referenced in this bibliography can be obtained from the author or the author's division

  9. STEREO-IMPACT Education and Public Outreach: Sharing STEREO Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, N.; Peticolas, L. M.; Mendez, B. J.

    2005-12-01

    The Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) is scheduled for launch in Spring 2006. STEREO will study the Sun with two spacecrafts in orbit around it and on either side of Earth. The primary science goal is to understand the nature and consequences of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). Despite their importance, scientists don't fully understand the origin and evolution of CMEs, nor their structure or extent in interplanetary space. STEREO's unique 3-D images of the structure of CMEs will enable scientists to determine their fundamental nature and origin. We will discuss the Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program for the In-situ Measurement of Particles And CME Transients (IMPACT) suite of instruments aboard the two crafts and give examples of upcoming activities, including NASA's Sun-Earth day events, which are scheduled to coincide with a total solar eclipse in March. This event offers a good opportunity to engage the public in STEREO science, because an eclipse allows one to see the solar corona from where CMEs erupt. STEREO's connection to space weather lends itself to close partnerships with the Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF), The Exploratorium, and UC Berkeley's Center for New Music and Audio Technologies to develop informal science programs for science centers, museum visitors, and the public in general. We will also discuss our teacher workshops locally in California and also at annual conferences such as those of the National Science Teachers Association. Such workshops often focus on magnetism and its connection to CMEs and Earth's magnetic field, leading to the questions STEREO scientists hope to answer. The importance of partnerships and coordination in working in an instrument E/PO program that is part of a bigger NASA mission with many instrument suites and many PIs will be emphasized. The Education and Outreach Porgram is funded by NASA's SMD.

  10. Developing Science Games for use at Public Events to Better Inform Students and Citizen Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, P. M.; Chambers, L. H.; Bethea, K. L.; Crecelius, S.; Ruhlman, K.; Harte, T.

    2013-12-01

    At NASA's Langley Research Center, the Science Directorate participates in a wide range of public outreach events, from individual small-scale classroom visits, to the large-scale NASA events like Exploration Day at Busch Gardens Williamsburg. Despite the diversity of venues, one thing is certain: the public is hungry for science and ravenous for the materials and activities that NASA produces. However, designing and producing materials and activities to capture the attention of everyone from children to grandparents can be a challenging task. The NASA Langley Science Directorate Outreach and Communications Team has taken on the task to ensure that event participants have a worthwhile science experience through a series of educational tabletop games. This diverse group of educators, scientists, writers and graphic artists has been able to produce many games and activities perfect for public exposure and understanding. These games not only capture the imagination of the citizen scientists that visit the display, but they also allow them to learn the science behind many of the things that happen around them on a daily basis, many of which they take for granted. Teaching the public through games and short activities has proven to be a winning combination of efforts. In the development of any game or activity a great deal of consideration is given to "boiling down" the science concept or educational "take away." This step is where the diverse development group has proven to be invaluable. A final product developed by this team includes a review for science validity by a scientist, words written by a science writer, educational alignment by a science educator and design by a graphic designer. This process ensures that the game will attract the right group of people and have them leave understanding new science content. Games and activities generated in this fashion have been successful in the traditional classroom and informal education venues that this team routinely

  11. What does the UK public want from academic science communication? [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Redfern

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of public academic science communication is to engage a non-scientist with a particular field of science and/or research topic, often driven by the expertise of the academic. An e-survey was designed to provide insight into respondent’s current and future engagement with science communication activities. Respondents provided a wide range of ideas and concerns as to the ‘common practice’ of academic science communication, and whilst they support some of these popular approaches (such as open-door events and science festivals, there are alternatives that may enable wider engagement. Suggestions of internet-based approaches and digital media were strongly encouraged, and although respondents found merits in methods such as science festivals, limitations such as geography, time and topic of interest were a barrier to engagement for some. Academics and scientists need to think carefully about how they plan their science communication activities and carry out evaluations, including considering the point of view of the public, as although defaulting to hands-on open door events at their university may seem like the expected standard, it may not be the best way to reach the intended audience.

  12. Astro4Girls and Their Families: Sharing Science via Public Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.; Smith, D.; Eisenhamer, B.; Ryer, H.; Dussault, M.; Braswell, E.; Cominsky, L.; Apple, N.; Della, T.; Whiffen, P.; Harman, P.; Mitchell, S.; Eyermann, S.; Brandehoff, S.; Dominiak, J.

    2013-04-01

    The “Astro4Girls and Their Families” pilot program offered a variety of informal science events at nine public libraries nationwide in conjunction with Women's History Month (March) 2012. The goals were to engage girls and their families in science, by helping them discover the Universe for themselves and celebrating the contribution of women to astronomy and science. We offered a wide range of activities, from using robotic telescopes for “Do-It-Yourself (DIY) astrophotography” to making edible black holes, to exploring the infrared Universe. Our main target audience was middle-school aged girls, but students of all ages, their families and the public were welcome to participate in many of the activities. Five NASA Science Mission Directorate-funded Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach teams partnered with public libraries in this pilot program; each worked with 1 or 2 libraries to offer a total of about 15 events reaching over 300 people in both urban and rural areas. The American Library Association Public Programs Office identified participating libraries and facilitated their participation through its role in the SMD-funded “Visions of the Universe: Four Centuries of Discovery” traveling exhibit. The NASA Astrophysics Science Education and Public Outreach Forum coordinated the collaboration. The website is: http://www.ala.org/programming/astro4girls. This poster outlines the details of planning and implementing the 2012 pilot program, its successes, and lessons learned. The collaborators would like to engage the EPO community in a discussion of how to sustain Astro4Girls and engage additional public libraries nationwide during future Women's History Months.

  13. Impact of regulatory science on global public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Meghal; Miller, Margaret Ann

    2012-07-01

    Regulatory science plays a vital role in protecting and promoting global public health by providing the scientific basis for ensuring that food and medical products are safe, properly labeled, and effective. Regulatory science research was first developed for the determination of product safety in the early part of the 20th Century, and continues to support innovation of the processes needed for regulatory policy decisions. Historically, public health laws and regulations were enacted following public health tragedies, and often the research tools and techniques required to execute these laws lagged behind the public health needs. Throughout history, similar public health problems relating to food and pharmaceutical products have occurred in countries around the world, and have usually led to the development of equivalent solutions. For example, most countries require a demonstration of pharmaceutical safety and efficacy prior to marketing these products using approaches that are similar to those initiated in the United States. The globalization of food and medical products has created a shift in regulatory compliance such that gaps in food and medical product safety can generate international problems. Improvements in regulatory research can advance the regulatory paradigm toward a more preventative, proactive framework. These improvements will advance at a greater pace with international collaboration by providing additional resources and new perspectives for approaching and anticipating public health problems. The following is a review of how past public health disasters have shaped the current regulatory landscape, and where innovation can facilitate the shift from reactive policies to proactive policies. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Public Perception of Uncertainties Within Climate Change Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visschers, Vivianne H M

    2018-01-01

    Climate change is a complex, multifaceted problem involving various interacting systems and actors. Therefore, the intensities, locations, and timeframes of the consequences of climate change are hard to predict and cause uncertainties. Relatively little is known about how the public perceives this scientific uncertainty and how this relates to their concern about climate change. In this article, an online survey among 306 Swiss people is reported that investigated whether people differentiate between different types of uncertainty in climate change research. Also examined was the way in which the perception of uncertainty is related to people's concern about climate change, their trust in science, their knowledge about climate change, and their political attitude. The results of a principal component analysis showed that respondents differentiated between perceived ambiguity in climate research, measurement uncertainty, and uncertainty about the future impact of climate change. Using structural equation modeling, it was found that only perceived ambiguity was directly related to concern about climate change, whereas measurement uncertainty and future uncertainty were not. Trust in climate science was strongly associated with each type of uncertainty perception and was indirectly associated with concern about climate change. Also, more knowledge about climate change was related to less strong perceptions of each type of climate science uncertainty. Hence, it is suggested that to increase public concern about climate change, it may be especially important to consider the perceived ambiguity about climate research. Efforts that foster trust in climate science also appear highly worthwhile. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Publications in biomedical and environmental sciences programs, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, J.B. (comp.)

    1982-07-01

    This bibliography contains 698 references to articles in journals, books, and reports published in the subject area of biomedical and environmental sciences during 1981. There are 520 references to articles published in journals and books and 178 references to reports. Staff members in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences divisions have other publications not included in this bibliography; for example, theses, book reviews, abstracts published in journals or symposia proceedings, pending journal publications and reports such as monthly, bimonthly, and quarterly progress reports, contractor reports, and reports for internal distribution. This document is sorted by the division, and then alphabetically by author. The sorting by divisions separates the references by subject area in a simple way. The divisions represented in the order that they appear in the bibliography are Analytical Chemistry, Biology, Chemical Technology, Information R and D, Health and Safety Research, Instrumentation and Controls, Computer Sciences, Energy, Engineering Technology, Solid State, Central Management, Operations, and Environmental Sciences. Indexes are provided by author, title, and journal reference.

  16. Publications in biomedical and environmental sciences programs, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J.B.

    1982-07-01

    This bibliography contains 698 references to articles in journals, books, and reports published in the subject area of biomedical and environmental sciences during 1981. There are 520 references to articles published in journals and books and 178 references to reports. Staff members in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences divisions have other publications not included in this bibliography; for example, theses, book reviews, abstracts published in journals or symposia proceedings, pending journal publications and reports such as monthly, bimonthly, and quarterly progress reports, contractor reports, and reports for internal distribution. This document is sorted by the division, and then alphabetically by author. The sorting by divisions separates the references by subject area in a simple way. The divisions represented in the order that they appear in the bibliography are Analytical Chemistry, Biology, Chemical Technology, Information R and D, Health and Safety Research, Instrumentation and Controls, Computer Sciences, Energy, Engineering Technology, Solid State, Central Management, Operations, and Environmental Sciences. Indexes are provided by author, title, and journal reference

  17. 25 CFR 170.413 - What is the public role in developing the long-range transportation plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Roads Program Facilities Long-Range Transportation Planning § 170.413 What is the public role in developing the long-range transportation plan? BIA or the tribe must solicit public involvement. If there are... newspapers when the draft long-range transportation plan is complete. In the absence of local public...

  18. Systems science and systems thinking for public health: a systematic review of the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Gemma; Malbon, Eleanor; Carey, Nicole; Joyce, Andrew; Crammond, Brad; Carey, Alan

    2015-12-30

    This paper reports on findings from a systematic review designed to investigate the state of systems science research in public health. The objectives were to: (1) explore how systems methodologies are being applied within public health and (2) identify fruitful areas of activity. A systematic review was conducted from existing literature that draws on or uses systems science (in its various forms) and relates to key public health areas of action and concern, including tobacco, alcohol, obesity and the social determinants of health. 117 articles were included in the review. An inductive qualitative content analysis was used for data extraction. The following were systematically extracted from the articles: approach, methodology, transparency, strengths and weaknesses. These were then organised according to theme (ie, commonalities between studies within each category), in order to provide an overview of the state of the field as a whole. The assessment of data quality was intrinsic to the goals of the review itself, and therefore, was carried out as part of the analysis. 4 categories of research were identified from the review, ranging from editorial and commentary pieces to complex system dynamic modelling. Our analysis of each of these categories of research highlighted areas of potential for systems science to strengthen public health efforts, while also revealing a number of limitations in the dynamic systems modelling being carried out in public health. There is a great deal of interest in how the application of systems concepts and approach might aid public health. Our analysis suggests that soft systems modelling techniques are likely to be the most useful addition to public health, and align well with current debate around knowledge transfer and policy. However, the full range of systems methodologies is yet to be engaged with by public health researchers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under

  19. Educating the Public about Deep-Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, V. S.

    2010-12-01

    The nature of Earth’s interior is an active frontier of scientific research. Much of our current understanding of sub-crustal Earth is based on knowledge acquired in the last 2-3 decades, made possible by public funding and by dense seismic arrays, satellite remote sensing, increases in computer power that enable use of enhanced numerical techniques, improved theoretical and experimental knowledge of high PT mineral physics and chemistry, and a vigorous scientific community that has been trained to take advantage of these opportunities. An essential component of science is effective communication; therefore, providing for public education about science is a responsibility of the research community. Current public understanding of Earth’s interior is meager at best. In pre-college texts and in non-technical mass media, Earth's interior is typically visualized as an onion or baseball of concentric different-colored shells along whose upper surface "crustal" plates move like packages on conveyor belts of convecting mantle. Or the crust is thought to float on a molten mantle, as in the 19th century ideas of William Lowthian Green. Misconceptions about Earth that are brought to the undergraduate classroom must be confronted frankly and replaced by current understanding based on good science. Persistent ignorance has consequences. What do we want the public to know? First, the public should understand that knowledge of Earth's interior is important, not irrelevant. The public should know that deep-Earth processes result in Earth's dynamic magnetic field. Deep-Earth processes affect how radiation from the Sun reaches Earth, consequently affecting the atmosphere, the oceans, and the viability of life on Earth. The composition and differentiated structure of Earth's interior is a result of the early accretionary history of Earth and the Earth-Moon system. The public should also know that lithospheric tectonics, with all of its consequences (dynamic topography, volcanoes

  20. Galaxy Zoo: An Experiment in Public Science Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddick, Jordan; Lintott, C. J.; Schawinski, K.; Thomas, D.; Nichol, R. C.; Andreescu, D.; Bamford, S.; Land, K. R.; Murray, P.; Slosar, A.; Szalay, A. S.; Vandenberg, J.; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2007-12-01

    An interesting question in modern astrophysics research is the relationship between a galaxy's morphology (appearance) and its formation and evolutionary history. Research into this question is complicated by the fact that to get a study sample, researchers must first assign a shape to a large number of galaxies. Classifying a galaxy by shape is nearly impossible for a computer, but easy for a human - however, looking at one million galaxies, one at a time, would take an enormous amount of time. To create such a research sample, we turned to citizen science. We created a web site called Galaxy Zoo (www.galaxyzoo.org) that invites the public to classify the galaxies. New members see a short tutorial and take a short skill test where they classify galaxies of known types. Once they pass the test, they begin to work with the entire sample. The site's interface shows the user an image of a single galaxy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The user clicks a button to classify it. Each classification is stored in a database, associated with the galaxy that it describes. The site has become enormously popular with amateur astronomers, teachers, and others interested in astronomy. So far, more than 110,000 users have joined. We have started a forum where users share images of their favorite galaxies, ask science questions of each other and the "zookeepers," and share classification advice. In a separate poster, we will share science results from the site's first six months of operation. In this poster, we will describe the site as an experiment in public science outreach. We will share user feedback, discuss our plans to study the user community more systematically, and share advice on how to work with citizen science projects to the mutual benefit of both professional and citizen scientists.

  1. Partnering to Enhance Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, H.; Shipp, S. S.; Shupla, C. B.; Shaner, A. J.; LaConte, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in Houston, Texas utilizes many partners to support its multi-faceted Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program. The poster will share what we have learned about successful partnerships. One portion of the program is focused on providing training and NASA content and resources to K-12 educators. Teacher workshops are performed in several locations per year, including LPI and the Harris County Department of Education, as well as across the country in cooperation with other programs and NASA Planetary Science missions. To serve the public, LPI holds several public events per year called Sky Fest, featuring activities for children, telescopes for night sky viewing, and a short scientist lecture. For Sky Fest, LPI partners with the NASA Johnson Space Center Astronomical Society; they provide the telescopes and interact with members of the public as they are viewing celestial objects. International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN) is held annually and involves the same aspects as Sky Fest, but also includes partners from Johnson Space Center's Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science group, who provide Apollo samples for the event. Another audience that LPI E/PO serves is the NASA Planetary Science E/PO community. Partnering efforts for the E/PO community include providing subject matter experts for professional development workshops and webinars, connections to groups that work with diverse and underserved audiences, and avenues to collaborate with groups such as the National Park Service and the Afterschool Alliance. Additional information about LPI's E/PO programs can be found at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education. View a list of LPI E/PO's partners here: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/partners/.

  2. Partnering to Enhance Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Heather; Shipp, Stephanie; Shupla, Christine; Shaner, Andrew; LaConte, Keliann

    2015-11-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in Houston, Texas utilizes many partners to support its multi-faceted Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program. The poster will share what we have learned about successful partnerships. One portion of the program is focused on providing training and NASA content and resources to K-12 educators. Teacher workshops are performed in several locations per year, including LPI and the Harris County Department of Education, as well as across the country in cooperation with other programs and NASA Planetary Science missions.To serve the public, LPI holds several public events per year called Sky Fest, featuring activities for children, telescopes for night sky viewing, and a short scientist lecture. For Sky Fest, LPI partners with the NASA Johnson Space Center Astronomical Society; they provide the telescopes and interact with members of the public as they are viewing celestial objects. International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN) is held annually and involves the same aspects as Sky Fest, but also includes partners from Johnson Space Center’s Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science group, who provide Apollo samples for the event.Another audience that LPI E/PO serves is the NASA Planetary Science E/PO community. Partnering efforts for the E/PO community include providing subject matter experts for professional development workshops and webinars, connections to groups that work with diverse and underserved audiences, and avenues to collaborate with groups such as the National Park Service and the Afterschool Alliance.Additional information about LPI’s E/PO programs can be found at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education. View a list of LPI E/PO’s partners here: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/partners/.

  3. The APS Panel on Public Affairs and Federal Science Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Robert

    2013-03-01

    The Panel on Public Affairs (POPA) is the organ through which the APS seeks to provide high quality input to the Federal Government on issues with significant physics content, ranging from energy and environment to national security. I will describe POPA's evolving mission, some recent efforts and successes, and look at the agenda for the next few years.

  4. 75 FR 28018 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... nitrogen in the environment. At the global scale, reactive nitrogen from human activities now exceeds that... in the environment and that nitrogen cycling through biogeochemical pathways has a variety of... a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board Integrated Nitrogen Committee AGENCY...

  5. Our Light or Starlight? Citizen Science, Public Involvement and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.

    2010-10-01

    With half of the world's population now living in cities, many urban dwellers have never experienced the wonderment of pristinely dark skies and maybe never will. Light pollution is obscuring people's long-standing natural heritage to view stars. The GLOBE at Night program (www.globeatnight.org) is an international citizen-science campaign to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by encouraging everyone everywhere to measure local levels of night sky brightness and contribute observations online to a world map. In the last 5 years, GLOBE at Night has been the most productive public light pollution monitoring campaign, collecting over 52,000 observations in a two-week period annually. This year, during the moonless two weeks in March, the campaign set a record high of over 17,800 measurements from people in 86 countries. Foundational resources are available to facilitate the public's participation in promoting dark skies awareness. The GLOBE at Night website explains clearly the simple-to-participate-in 5 step program and offers background information and interactive games on key concepts. The program has been expanded to include trainings of the general public, but especially educators in schools, museums and science centers, in unique ways. Education kits for dark skies awareness have been distributed at the training workshops. The kit includes material for a light shielding demonstration, a digital Sky Quality Meter and ``Dark Skies Rangers'' activities. The activities are on how unshielded light wastes energy, how light pollution affects wildlife and how you can participate in a citizen-science star-hunt like GLOBE at Night. In addition, projects are being developed for what to do with the data once it is taken. The GLOBE at Night data from different years can be compared to look for trends over time or with population density maps. The data can also be used to search for dark sky oases or to monitor lighting ordinance compliance. Most recently

  6. Full-Range Public Health Leadership, Part 2: Qualitative Analysis and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Erik L.; Holsinger, James W.; Riddell, Martha C.; Bush, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Public health leadership is an important topic in the era of U.S. health reform, population health innovation, and health system transformation. This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine the public health leadership. We sought to understand local public health leadership from the perspective of local health department leaders and those who work with and for them. Public health leadership was explored through interviews and focus groups with directors (n = 4) and staff (n = 33) from local health departments. Qualitative analytic methods included reflexive journals, code-recode procedures, and member checking, with analysis facilitated by Atlas.ti v.6.0. Qualitative results supported and expanded upon previously reported quantitative findings. Leading by example and providing individual consideration to followers were found to be more important than other leader factors, such as intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, or idealized attributes of leaders. Having a clear and competent vision of public health, being able to work collaboratively with other community agencies, and addressing the current challenges to public health with creativity and innovation were also important findings. Idealized leadership behaviors and individual consideration should be the focus of student and professional development. Models that incorporate contextual considerations, such as the situational leadership model, could be utilized to ensure that optimal individual consideration is given to followers. PMID:26217654

  7. Full-Range Public Health Leadership, Part 2: Qualitative Analysis and Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Erik L; Holsinger, James W; Riddell, Martha C; Bush, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Public health leadership is an important topic in the era of U.S. health reform, population health innovation, and health system transformation. This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine the public health leadership. We sought to understand local public health leadership from the perspective of local health department leaders and those who work with and for them. Public health leadership was explored through interviews and focus groups with directors (n = 4) and staff (n = 33) from local health departments. Qualitative analytic methods included reflexive journals, code-recode procedures, and member checking, with analysis facilitated by Atlas.ti v.6.0. Qualitative results supported and expanded upon previously reported quantitative findings. Leading by example and providing individual consideration to followers were found to be more important than other leader factors, such as intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, or idealized attributes of leaders. Having a clear and competent vision of public health, being able to work collaboratively with other community agencies, and addressing the current challenges to public health with creativity and innovation were also important findings. Idealized leadership behaviors and individual consideration should be the focus of student and professional development. Models that incorporate contextual considerations, such as the situational leadership model, could be utilized to ensure that optimal individual consideration is given to followers.

  8. Public Hearing: Report of the Proceedings of a Public Hearing of the Task Force on Women, Minorities and the Handicapped in Science and Technology (Atlanta, Georgia, March 2, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology, Washington, DC.

    The Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology was established by the U.S. Congress in Public Law 99-383 with the purpose of developing a long-range plan for broadening participation in science and engineering. Public hearings were held in Albuquerque (New Mexico), Atlanta (Georgia), Baltimore (Maryland), Boston…

  9. Public Outreach Guerilla Style: Just Add Science to Existing Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We report on a campaign to use the visual appeal of astronomy as a gateway drug to inject public outreach into settings where people aren't expecting an encounter with science. Our inspiration came from the team at guerillascience.org, who have earned a reputation for creating, at sites around the world, "experiences and events that are unexpected, thought-provoking, but, above all, that delight and entertain." Our goal is to insert astronomy into existing festivals of music, culture, and art; county and state fairs; sporting events; and local farmer's markets. With volunteers and near-zero budgets, we have been able to meaningfully engage with audience members who would never willingly attend an event advertised as science related. By purposefully relating astronomy to the non-science aspects of the event that caused the audience members to attend, new learning experiences are created that alter the often negative pre-conceived notions about science that many of them held before our encounter.

  10. How can a research library support the communication of science to the general public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, F.; Gasperini, A.

    2008-06-01

    How can an observatory library support the communication of science to the general public? We will describe how a highly specialised astronomical library can also play a key role in disseminating astronomical knowledge, making scientific results available across a wide range of levels, from professional to public to educational. This outreach activity requires several steps, ranging from the preliminary identification and scrutiny of sources to the production of new information material (e.g. maps, brochures, and DVDs). In particular, we will describe some recent experiences in the dissemination of astronomical information to the general public, especially teachers and children, analysing some results of this activity, such as a bibliography of Italian Astronomical Books for Children, a review of scientific books and other multimedia products.

  11. Experiments in engagement: Designing public engagement with science and technology for capacity building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selin, Cynthia; Rawlings, Kelly Campbell; de Ridder-Vignone, Kathryn; Sadowski, Jathan; Altamirano Allende, Carlo; Gano, Gretchen; Davies, Sarah R; Guston, David H

    2017-08-01

    Public engagement with science and technology is now widely used in science policy and communication. Touted as a means of enhancing democratic discussion of science and technology, analysis of public engagement with science and technology has shown that it is often weakly tied to scientific governance. In this article, we suggest that the notion of capacity building might be a way of reframing the democratic potential of public engagement with science and technology activities. Drawing on literatures from public policy and administration, we outline how public engagement with science and technology might build citizen capacity, before using the notion of capacity building to develop five principles for the design of public engagement with science and technology. We demonstrate the use of these principles through a discussion of the development and realization of the pilot for a large-scale public engagement with science and technology activity, the Futurescape City Tours, which was carried out in Arizona in 2012.

  12. Handbook of public communication of science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Trench, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive yet accessible, this key handbook provides an up-to-date overview of the fast growing and increasingly important area of 'public communication of science and technology', from both research and practical perspectives. As well as introducing the main issues, arenas and professional perspectives involved, it presents the findings of earlier research and the conclusions previously drawn. Unlike most existing books on this topic, this unique volume couples an overview of the practical problems faced by practitioners with a thorough review of relevant literature and research. The practical handbook format ensures it is a student-friendly resource, but its breadth of scope and impressive contributors means that it is also ideal for practitioners and professionals working in the field. Combining the contributions of different disciplines (media and journalism studies, sociology and history of science), the perspectives of different geographical and cultural contexts, and by selecting key contributions ...

  13. Citizen voices performing public participation in science and environment communication

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, Anabela; Doyle, Julie

    2012-01-01

    How is "participation" ascribed meaning and practised in science and environment communication? And how are citizen voices articulated, invoked, heard, marginalised or silenced in those processes? Citizen Voices takes its starting point in the so-called dialogic or participatory turn in scientific and environmental governance in which practices claiming to be based on principles of participation, dialogue and citizen involvement have proliferated. The book goes beyond the buzzword of "participation" in order to give empirically rich, theoretically informed and critical accounts of how citizen participation is understood and enacted in mass mediation and public engagement practices. A diverse series of studies across Europe and the US are presented, providing readers with empirical insights into the articulation of citizen voices in different national, cultural and institutional contexts. Building bridges across media and communication studies, science and technology studies, environmental studies and urban pl...

  14. Controversy as a Blind Spot in Teaching Nature of Science. Why the Range of Different Positions Concerning Nature of Science Should Be an Issue in the Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, Mario; Hammann, Marcus

    2017-07-01

    In this article, the argument is put forth that controversies about the scope and limits of science should be considered in Nature of Science (NOS) teaching. Reference disciplines for teaching NOS are disciplines, which reflect upon science, like philosophy of science, history of science, and sociology of science. The culture of these disciplines is characterized by controversy rather than unified textbook knowledge. There is common agreement among educators of the arts and humanities that controversies in the reference disciplines should be represented in education. To teach NOS means to adopt a reflexive perspective on science. Therefore, we suggest that controversies within and between the reference disciplines are relevant for NOS teaching and not only the NOS but about NOS should be taught, too. We address the objections that teaching about NOS is irrelevant for real life and too demanding for students. First, we argue that science-reflexive meta-discourses are relevant for students as future citizens because the discourses occur publicly in the context of sociopolitical disputes. Second, we argue that it is in fact necessary to reduce the complexity of the above-mentioned discourses and that this is indeed possible, as it has been done with other reflexive elements in science education. In analogy to the German construct Bewertungskompetenz (which means the competency to make informed ethical decisions in scientific contexts), we suggest epistemic competency as a goal for NOS teaching. In order to do so, science-reflexive controversies must be simplified and attitudes toward science must be considered. Discourse on the scientific status of potential pseudoscience may serve as an authentic and relevant context for teaching the controversial nature of reflexion on science.

  15. Without blinders: Public values scholarship in Political Science, Economics, and Law—content and contribution to Public Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Gjalt; van der Wal, Z.

    2017-01-01

    How and why are public values studied within public administration’s cognate disciplines? This question is addressed through a qualitative analysis of 50 public values (PVs) publications in political science, economics, and law published between 1969 and 2014. The findings show that political

  16. A finite world, earth sciences, and public trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, T N

    2003-01-01

    The beginning of the 21st century has coincided with our recognition that life-sustaining earth cycles are remarkably fine-tuned, and that humans have developed technological abilities to perturb these cycles. Also, inspired bythe gifts of freedom and democracy, humans have given themselves laws to exploit nature for profit. The upshot is that nature's balance, governed by immutable physical laws, is being confronted by social laws driven by human aspirations. This conflict and its implications to the human relevance of the earth sciences are explored in the context of an extraordinary tradition of European culture known as public trust.

  17. Task Force on Women, Minorities and the Handicapped in Science and Technology: Public Hearing. Report of the Proceedings (Cambridge, Massachusetts, April 7, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology, Washington, DC.

    The Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology was established by the U.S. Congress in Public Law 99-383 with the purpose of developing a long-range plan for broadening participation in science and engineering. Public hearings were held in Albuquerque (New Mexico), Atlanta (Georgia), Baltimore (Maryland), Boston…

  18. "Everybody knows psychology is not a real science": Public perceptions of psychology and how we can improve our relationship with policymakers, the scientific community, and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    In a recent seminal article, Lilienfeld (2012) argued that psychological science is experiencing a public perception problem that has been caused by both public misconceptions about psychology, as well as the psychological science community's failure to distinguish itself from pop psychology and questionable therapeutic practices. Lilienfeld's analysis is an important and cogent synopsis of external problems that have limited psychological science's penetration into public knowledge. The current article expands upon this by examining internal problems, or problems within psychological science that have potentially limited its impact with policymakers, other scientists, and the public. These problems range from the replication crisis and defensive reactions to it, overuse of politicized policy statements by professional advocacy groups such as the American Psychological Association (APA), and continued overreliance on mechanistic models of human behavior. It is concluded that considerable problems arise from psychological science's tendency to overcommunicate mechanistic concepts based on weak and often unreplicated (or unreplicable) data that do not resonate with the everyday experiences of the general public or the rigor of other scholarly fields. It is argued that a way forward can be seen by, on one hand, improving the rigor and transparency of psychological science, and making theoretical innovations that better acknowledge the complexities of the human experience. (PsycINFO Database Record (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Publications in biomedical and environmental sciences programs, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, J.B. (comp.)

    1983-04-01

    This bibliography contains 725 references to articles in journals, books, and reports published in the subject area of biomedical and environmental sciences during 1982. There are 553 references to articles published in journals and books and 172 references to reports. The citations appear once ordered by the first author's division or by the performing division. Staff members in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences divisions have other publications not included in this bibliography; for example, theses, book reviews, abstracts published in journals or symposia proceedings, pending journal publications and reports such as monthly, bimonthly, and quarterly progress reports, contractor reports, and reports for internal distribution. This document is sorted by the division, and then alphabetically by author. The sorting by divisions separates the references by subject area in a simple way. The divisions are represented alphabetically. Indexes are provided by author, title, and journal reference. Reprints of articles referenced in this bibliography can be obtained from the author or the author's division.

  20. Big names in science for the public at large

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The ninth Wright Science Colloquium will be held in Geneva between 13 and 17 November 2000. The purpose of these biennial colloquia, founded by Dr H. Dudley Wright in 1984, is to bring recent progress in science to the attention of the general public. Each Colloquium consists of a series of lectures given by eminent scientists, this year including two Nobel Prize Winners, all of which are open to the general public. The 2000 series of Colloquium lectures is entitled “Time, Matter, Energy : from stars to our genes”, three familiar notions which nevertheless remain intangible for us. This series of five lectures will examine these notions in original ways. Thus the notion of time will be viewed from the perspective of the astronomer who, with the aid of telescopes, is able to go back in time and watch time expanding with the universe. The biologist has a different viewpoint since his notion of time is based on the biological clocks of the animal world. Matter will be addressed from the point of view of its ...

  1. The Europlanet Prize for Public Engagement with Planetary Science: three years of honouring outstanding achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouchet, T.; Chatzichristou, E.; Heward, A.

    2012-09-01

    Europlanet launched an annual Prize for Public Engagement with Planetary Sciences at the European Planetary Science Congress (EPSC) in 2009. At EPSC 2012, the prize will be presented for the third time. To date, the prize has been awarded to: • 2010 - Dr Jean Lilensten of the Laboratoire de Planétologie de Grenoble for his development and dissemination of his 'planeterrella' experiment; • 2011 - The Austrian Space Forum for their coordinated programme of outreach activities, which range from simple classroom presentations to space exhibitions reaching 15 000 visitors; • 2012 - Yaël Nazé, for the diverse outreach programme she has individually initiated over the years, carefully tailored to audiences across the spectrum of society, including children, artists and elderly people. These three prizes cover a spectrum of different approaches to outreach and provide inspiration for anyone wishing to become engaged in public engagement, whether at an individual and institutional level.

  2. Opportunities in Nuclear Science: A Long-Range Plan for the Next Decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-04-01

    The DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee of the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation is charged with providing advice on a continuing basis regarding the management of the national basic nuclear science research program. In July 2000, the Committee was asked to study the opportunities and priorities for U.S. nuclear physics research, and to develop a long-range plan that will serve as a frame-work for the coordinated advancement of the field for the next decade. The plan contained here is the fifth that has been pre-pared since the Committee was established. Each of the earlier plans has had substantial impact on new directions and initiatives in the field.

  3. Space science public outreach at Louisiana State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, T.; Babin, E.; Cooney, W.; Giammanco, J.; Hartman, D.; McNeil, R.; Slovak, M.; Stacy, J.

    Over the last seven years the Astronomy / Astrophysics group in the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Louisiana State University has developed an exten- sive Space Science education and public outreach program. This program includes the local park district (the Recreation and Park Commission for the Parish of East Baton Rouge, BREC), the local amateur astronomer group (the Baton Rouge As- tronomical Society, BRAS), the Louisiana Arts and Science Museum (LASM), and Southern University (SU, part of the largest HBCU system in the nation). Our effort has directly led to the development of the Highland Road Park Observatory (HRPO, http://www.bro.lsu.edu/hrpo) that supports student astronomy training at LSU and SU, amateur observations and a public program for adults and children, establishment of a series of teacher professional development workshops in astronomy and physics, and the "Robots for Internet Experiences (ROBIE)" project (http://www.bro.lsu.edu/) where we have several instruments (e.g. HAM radio, radio telescope, optical tele- scopes) that can be controlled over the internet by students and teachers in the class- room along with associated lessons developed by a teacher group. In addition, this year the LASM, will be opening a new planetarium / space theater in downtown Baton Rouge, Louisiana. We are currently working to bring live views of the heavens from the HRPO telescope to audiences attending planetarium shows and will be working closely with planetarium staff to develop shows that highlight LSU astronomy / space science research. During the presentation we will provide some details about our in- dividual projects, the overall structure of our program, establishing community links and some of the lessons we learned along the way. Finally, we would like to acknowl- edge NASA, Louisiana State University, the Louisiana Systemic Initiatives Program and the Louisiana Technology Innovation Fund for their support.

  4. Does the public deserve free access to climate system science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Ivo

    2010-05-01

    Some time ago it was the lack of public access to medical research data that really stirred the issue and gave inertia for legislation and a new publishing model that puts tax payer-funded medical research in the hands of those who fund it. In today's age global climate change has become the biggest socio-economic challenge, and the same argument resonates: climate affects us all and the publicly-funded science quantifying it should be freely accessible to all stakeholders beyond academic research. Over the last few years the ‘Open Access' movement to remove as much as possible subscription, and other on-campus barriers to academic research has rapidly gathered pace, but despite significant progress, the climate system sciences are not among the leaders in providing full access to their publications and data. Beyond the ethical argument, there are proven and tangible benefits for the next generation of climate researchers to adapt the way their output is published. Through the means provided by ‘open access', both data and ideas can gain more visibility, use and citations for the authors, but also result in a more rapid exchange of knowledge and ideas, and ultimately progress towards a sought solution. The presentation will aim to stimulate discussion and seek progress on the following questions: Should free access to climate research (& data) be mandatory? What are the career benefits of using ‘open access' for young scientists? What means and methods should, or could, be incorporated into current European graduate training programmes in climate research, and possible ways forward?

  5. Techniques for Engaging the Public in Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupla, Christine; Shaner, Andrew; Smith Hackler, Amanda

    2017-10-01

    Public audiences are often curious about planetary science. Scientists and education and public engagement specialists can leverage this interest to build scientific literacy. This poster will highlight research-based techniques the authors have tested with a variety of audiences, and are disseminating to planetary scientists through trainings.Techniques include:Make it personal. Audiences are interested in personal stories, which can capture the excitement, joy, and challenges that planetary scientists experience in their research. Audiences can learn more about the nature of science by meeting planetary scientists and hearing personal stories about their motivations, interests, and how they conduct research.Share relevant connections. Most audiences have very limited understanding of the solar system and the features and compositions of planetary bodies, but they enjoy learning about those objects they can see at night and factors that connect to their culture or local community.Demonstrate concepts. Some concepts can be clarified with analogies, but others can be demonstrated or modeled with materials. Demonstrations that are messy, loud, or that yield surprising results are particularly good at capturing an audience’s attention, but if they don’t directly relate to the key concept, they can serve as a distraction.Give them a role. Audience participation is an important engagement technique. In a presentation, scientists can invite the audience to respond to questions, pause to share their thoughts with a neighbor, or vote on an answer. Audiences can respond physically to prompts, raising hands, pointing, or clapping, or even moving to different locations in the room.Enable the audience to conduct an activity. People learn best by doing and by teaching others; simple hands-on activities in which the audience is discovering something themselves can be extremely effective at engaging audiences.This poster will cite examples of each technique, resources that

  6. Science Policy in Spain: National Programs and Public Perception of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica M. Novikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the organization and financing of the Spanish state policy in the field of scientific and technological research and innovation, its institutional basic and the legal and regulatory framework, as well as analyzes the problem of Spanish public opinion on research and work of scientists. The author uses the methods of texts analysis, interviews and expert assessments. First, the author examines the legislative framework of scientific and technical policy of the Kingdom of Spain, the theoretical basis of its development and implementation Then, we study the institutional characteristics of scientific policy in the country, in particular the principal organs of coordination, financing and implementation, including their functional powers. Finally, we investigate the Spanish people perception of the science as a whole, the introduction of new technologies and the sources of material support to scientific research. In conclusion, the past 10years have seen active steps of the Spanish authorities improve the legislation in the field of science in order to ensure the effective implementation of innovation and enhance the overall competitiveness of the country in the international arena. An important finding was also positive changes in the public attitude towards science and the intensification of the dialogue between the scientific community and the public.

  7. A qualitative analysis of the information science needs of public health researchers in an academic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Shanda L.; Bakker, Caitlin J.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The University of Minnesota (UMN) Health Sciences Libraries conducted a needs assessment of public health researchers as part of a multi-institutional study led by Ithaka S+R. The aims of the study were to capture the evolving needs, opportunities, and challenges of public health researchers in the current environment and provide actionable recommendations. This paper reports on the data collected at the UMN site. Methods Participants (n=24) were recruited through convenience sampling. One-on-one interviews, held November 2016 to January 2017, were audio-recorded. Qualitative analyses were conducted using NVivo 11 Pro and were based on the principles of grounded theory. Results The data revealed that a broad range of skill levels among participants (e.g., literature searching) and areas of misunderstanding (e.g., current publishing landscape, open access options). Overall, data management was an afterthought. Few participants were fully aware of the breadth of librarian knowledge and skill sets, although many did express a desire for further skill development in information science. Conclusions Libraries can engage more public health researchers by utilizing targeted and individualized marketing regarding services. We can promote open science by educating researchers on publication realities and enhancing our data visualization skills. Libraries might take an institution-wide leadership role on matters of data management and data policy compliance. Finally, as team science emerges as a research priority, we can offer our networking expertise. These support services may reduce the stresses that public health researchers feel in the current research environment. PMID:29632441

  8. Science Projects | Akron-Summit County Public Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hours & Locations Main Library Science & Technology Division Science Projects Science Projects Have fun with science experiments. Whether you need to do a project for a school science fair or you want to be a mad scientist, our Science Project Index and other resources can get you started. Find how

  9. Using Storytelling to Communicate Science to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderazzo, J.

    2014-12-01

    "Science is the greatest of all adventure stories," says physicist Brian Greene, author of The Elegant Universe. "It's been unfolding for thousands of years as we have sought to understand ourselves and our surroundings . . . and needs to be communicated in a manner that captures this drama." Carl Sagan and Neil deGrasse Tyson, the old and new storytelling hosts of Cosmos, would agree. So would Rachel Carson, who used one of the oldest and simplest of all story forms, the fable, to coax her readers into a complicated tale of pesticides, chemistry, and ecological succession. Silent Spring may well be the most influential science book of the last fifty years. More than ever, scientists need to communicate clearly and passionately to the public, the media, and decision-makers. Not everyone can be as articulate as a Jane Goodall or an Alan Rabinowitz. But humans are storytelling animals, and recent communications research suggests that information conveyed in story form activates more parts of the brain than when it is conveyed by bullet point or other non-narrative ways. Even a shy and retiring researcher can easily learn to use, at minimum, small and subtle techniques to find common ground with an audience who will not forget the message. Additionally, much recent communications research suggests strongly that the most memorable and effective way to coomunicate with the public is by conveying shared values or common ground. Stories--common to virtually every human society over time--inherently do that. As a literary and nonfiction writer for 40 years, and a university teacher of nonfiction and science/nature wiritng for the last 30, I know this first hand as well as through core scholarship about literature and narrative theory. Among other things, my talk will explore how some of the above science communication stars have used these sometimes-buried communication strategies--and how others can, too. Not crucial, but a brief interactive excerise I could conduct would

  10. 76 FR 7199 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9264-5] Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board Panel for the Review of EPA's Hydraulic Fracturing...-2098 or via e-mail at [email protected] . General information concerning the EPA Science Advisory...

  11. 76 FR 40355 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9431-7] Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board Panel for the Review of Great Lakes Restoration... information concerning the EPA Science Advisory Board can be found at the EPA SAB Web site at http://www.epa...

  12. 75 FR 33616 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board Exposure and Human Health Committee (EHHC) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff... Science Advisory Board can be found on the SAB Web site at http://www.epa.gov/sab . SUPPLEMENTARY...

  13. 75 FR 11883 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9126-2] Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board (SAB) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff...

  14. Darwin and the origin of life: public versus private science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, James E

    2009-12-01

    In the first twenty years after the publication of Darwin's On the Origin of Species, an intense debate took place within the ranks of Darwin's supporters over exactly what his theory implied about the means by which the original living organism formed on Earth. Many supporters of evolutionary science also supported the doctrine of spontaneous generation: life forming from nonliving material not just once but many times up to the present day. Darwin was ambivalent on this topic. He feared its explosive potential to drive away liberal-minded Christians who might otherwise be supporters. His ambivalent wording created still more confusion, both among friends and foes, about what Darwin actually believed about the origin of life. A famous lecture by Thomas H. Huxley in 1870 set forth what later became the 'party line' Darwinian position on the subject.

  15. Expanding the horizons of soil science to the public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindbo, David L.; Hopmans, Jan; Olson, Carolyn; Fisk, Susan; Chapman, Susan

    2015-04-01

    Soils are critical to all life on the planet yet most individuals treat soil like dirt. As soil scientist we have long recognized this and have struggled to find ways to communicate the importance of soils to the public. The goal is not purely altruistic as we recognize that society funds or research and provides the workforce in soils that we need to continue to gain knowledge and expertise in soil science. In 2006 the Soil Science Society of America took a bold move and created its K12 Committee in part to compliment the Dig It! The Secrets of Soil exhibit that opened in July 2008 at the Smithsonian's Institution's Nation Museum of Natural History (of which SSS was a founding sponsor). The committee's work began quickly with a website designed to provide resources for K12 teachers (primary and school teachers). The first accomplishments included reviewing and posting links to web based information already available to teachers. These links were sorted by subject and grade level to make it easier for teachers to navigate the web and find what they needed quickly. Several presentations and lessons designed for K12 teachers were also posted at this time. Concurrent with this effort a subcommittee review and organized the national teaching standards to show where soils could fit into the overall K12 curriculum. As the website was being developed another subcommittee developed a soils book (Soil! Get the Inside Scoop, 2008) to further compliment the Dig It! exhibit. This was a new endeavor for SSSA having never worked with the non-academic audience in developing a book. Peer-reviews of this book included not only scientist but also students in order to make sure the book was attractive to them. Once the book was published and the website developed it became clear more outreach was needed. SSSA K12 Committee has attended both the National Science Teachers Association (since 2008) the USA Science and Engineering Festival (since 2010) with exhibits and workshops. It has

  16. Square Pegs in Round Holes: Montessori Principals' Perceptions of Science Education in Texas Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the perceptions of Texas public Montessori school principals as instructional leaders in science. Twelve public Montessori school principals were interviewed for this study. Two research questions were used: How do public Montessori principals perceive Texas science standards in public…

  17. Comparative analysis of knowledge representation and reasoning requirements across a range of life sciences textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhri, Vinay K; Elenius, Daniel; Goldenkranz, Andrew; Gong, Allison; Martone, Maryann E; Webb, William; Yorke-Smith, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Using knowledge representation for biomedical projects is now commonplace. In previous work, we represented the knowledge found in a college-level biology textbook in a fashion useful for answering questions. We showed that embedding the knowledge representation and question-answering abilities in an electronic textbook helped to engage student interest and improve learning. A natural question that arises from this success, and this paper's primary focus, is whether a similar approach is applicable across a range of life science textbooks. To answer that question, we considered four different textbooks, ranging from a below-introductory college biology text to an advanced, graduate-level neuroscience textbook. For these textbooks, we investigated the following questions: (1) To what extent is knowledge shared between the different textbooks? (2) To what extent can the same upper ontology be used to represent the knowledge found in different textbooks? (3) To what extent can the questions of interest for a range of textbooks be answered by using the same reasoning mechanisms? Our existing modeling and reasoning methods apply especially well both to a textbook that is comparable in level to the text studied in our previous work (i.e., an introductory-level text) and to a textbook at a lower level, suggesting potential for a high degree of portability. Even for the overlapping knowledge found across the textbooks, the level of detail covered in each textbook was different, which requires that the representations must be customized for each textbook. We also found that for advanced textbooks, representing models and scientific reasoning processes was particularly important. With some additional work, our representation methodology would be applicable to a range of textbooks. The requirements for knowledge representation are common across textbooks, suggesting that a shared semantic infrastructure for the life sciences is feasible. Because our representation overlaps

  18. Translational science matters: forging partnerships between biomedical and behavioral science to advance the public's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, George A; Czajkowski, Susan M

    2018-03-29

    The prevention and effective treatment of many chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes are dependent on behaviors such as not smoking, adopting a physically-active lifestyle, eating a healthy diet, and adhering to prescribed medical and behavioral regimens. Yet adoption and maintenance of these behaviors pose major challenges for individuals, their families and communities, as well as clinicians and health care systems. These challenges can best be met through the integration of the biomedical and behavioral sciences that is achieved by the formation of strategic partnerships between researchers and practitioners in these disciplines to address pressing clinical and public health problems. The National Institutes of Health has supported a number of clinical trials and research initiatives that demonstrate the value of biomedical and behavioral science partnerships in translating fundamental discoveries into significant improvements in health outcomes. We review several such examples of collaborations between biomedical and behavioral researchers, describe key initiatives focused on advancing a transdisciplinary translational perspective, and outline areas which require insights, tools and findings from both the biomedical and behavioral sciences to advance the public's health.

  19. 76 FR 40726 - Notification of Public Teleconferences of the Science Advisory Board Radiation Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9435-3] Notification of Public Teleconferences of the Science... Protection Agency (EPA), Science Advisory Board Staff Office. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Science... information concerning the EPA Science Advisory Board can be found at the EPA SAB Web site at http// www.epa...

  20. Public Communication of Science in Blogs: Recontextualizing Scientific Discourse for a Diversified Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzón, María José

    2013-01-01

    New media are having a significant impact on science communication, both on the way scientists communicate with peers and on the dissemination of science to the lay public. Science blogs, in particular, provide an open space for science communication, where a diverse audience (with different degrees of expertise) may have access to science…

  1. Homo Politicus meets Homo Ludens: Public participation in serious life science games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchuk, Olga; Kerbe, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Markus

    2017-07-01

    Public participation in science and gamification of science are two strong contemporary trends, especially in the area of emerging techno-sciences. Involvement of the public in research-related activities is an integral part of public engagement with science and technologies, which can be successfully achieved through a participatory game design. Focusing on the participatory dimension of educational games, we have reviewed a number of existing participation heuristics in light of their suitability to characterize available mobile and browser science games. We analyzed 87 games with respect to their participatory and motivational elements and demonstrated that the majority of mobile games have only basic participative features. This review of the landscape of participative science games in the domain of life sciences highlights a number of major challenges present in the design of such applications. At the same time, it reveals a number of opportunities to enhance public engagement using science games.

  2. 77 FR 64335 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board; Perchlorate Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL--9743-2] Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board; Perchlorate Advisory Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office...

  3. Bringing Terra Science to the People: 10 years of education and public outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebeek, H.; Chambers, L. H.; Yuen, K.; Herring, D.

    2009-12-01

    The default image on Apple's iPhone is a blue, white, green and tan globe: the Blue Marble. The iconic image was produced using Terra data as part of the mission's education and public outreach efforts. As far-reaching and innovative as Terra science has been over the past decade, Terra education and public outreach efforts have been equally successful. This talk will provide an overview of Terra's crosscutting education and public outreach projects, which have reached into educational facilities—classrooms, museums, and science centers, across the Internet, and into everyday life. The Earth Observatory web site was the first web site designed for the public that told the unified story of what we can learn about our planet from all space-based platforms. Initially conceived as part of Terra mission outreach in 1999, the web site has won five Webby awards, the highest recognition a web site can receive. The Visible Earth image gallery is a catalogue of NASA Earth imagery that receives more than one million page views per month. The NEO (NASA Earth Observations) web site and WMS (web mapping service) tool serves global data sets to museums and science centers across the world. Terra educational products, including the My NASA Data web service and the Students' Cloud Observations Online (S'COOL) project, bring Terra data into the classroom. Both projects target multiple grade levels, ranging from elementary school to graduate school. S'COOL uses student observations of clouds to help validate Terra data. Students and their parents have puzzled over weekly "Where on Earth" geography quizzes published on line. Perhaps the most difficult group to reach is the large segment of the public that does not seek out science information online or in a science museum or classroom. To reach these people, EarthSky produced a series of podcasts and radio broadcasts that brought Terra science to more than 30 million people in 2009. Terra imagery, including the Blue Marble, have

  4. The global nutrient challenge. From science to public engagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M.A.; Howard, C.M. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Bleeker, A. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands); Datta, A. [United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2013-04-15

    Among the many environment and development challenges facing humanity, it is fair to say that nutrients do not currently feature so regularly in the newspapers, radio and television. The media tends to prefer easy single issues which affect our daily lives in a clear-cut way. The role of carbon in climate change is a good example. We all depend on climate. Burning fossil fuels makes more carbon dioxide, tending to change temperature and rainfall patterns, to which we can easily relate. The science is complex, but it is a simple message for the public to understand. It does not take long to think of several other easily grasped threats, like urban air pollution, poor drinking water, or even the occurrence of horsemeat in food chains. It is perhaps for these reasons that the role of nutrients in environmental change has received much less public attention. After all, nutrients - including nitrogen, phosphorus and many micronutrients - play multiple roles in our world; they affect many biogeochemical processes and they lead to a plethora of interacting threats. If we are not careful, we can quickly get buried in the complexity of the different ways in which our lives are affected by these elements. The outcome is that it can become hard to convey the science of global nutrient cycles in a way that the public can understand. These are points about which we have given substantial thought as we contributed to a recently launched report Our Nutrient World: The challenge to produce more food and energy with less pollution (Sutton et al., 2013). The report was commissioned by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and conducted by the Global Partnership on Nutrient Management in cooperation with the International Nitrogen Initiative. The commission was not to provide a full scientific assessment, but rather to develop a global overview of the challenges associated with nutrient management. Drawing on existing knowledge, the aim was to distill the nature of the

  5. 77 FR 45604 - Notification of Two Public Teleconferences of the Science Advisory Board; Environmental Economics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Science Advisory Board; Environmental Economics Advisory Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...) Staff Office announces two public teleconferences of the SAB Environmental Economics Advisory Committee...., notice is hereby given that the SAB Environmental Economics Advisory Committee (EEAC) will hold public...

  6. Life sciences: Nuclear medicine, radiation biology, medical physics, 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The catalogue lists all sales publications of the IAEA dealing with Life Sciences issued during the period 1980-1994. The publications are grouped in the following chapters: Nuclear Medicine (including Radiopharmaceuticals), Radiation Biology and Medical Physics (including Dosimetry)

  7. Attitudes and perceptions of Conacyt researchers towards public communication of science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Merino, Noemí; Tarhuni Navarro, Daniela H

    2018-06-01

    This study aims to explore the perceptions and attitudes toward Public Communication of Science and Technology of the researchers of the National Council of Science and Technology (Conacyt), in order to provide a diagnosis about the ways the Mexican scientists are involved in public communication and to contribute to the visibility of researchers' needs in being able to popularize science. The results show significant differences among the researchers' opinions with respect to their perceptions about science communication, the ways they participate in PUS activities and their identified needs. In general, the researchers of Conacyt perceived public communication as very important. However, lack of time and of academic recognition stood out as determining factors in their low contribution to science popularization. We conclude that, to achieve a culture of Public Engagement in public communication of science and technology among R&D institutions, the Mexican Administration should address the above-mentioned unfavorable professional circumstances.

  8. Integrating social science knowledge into natural resource management public involvement practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stummann, Cathy Brown

    This PhD study explores the long-recognized challenge of integrating social science knowledge into NRM public involvement practice theoretically and empirically. Theoretically, the study draws on research from adult learning, continuing rofessional education and professional knowledge development...... to better understand how social science knowledge can benefit NRM public involvement practice. Empirically, the study explores the potential of NRM continuing professional education as a means for introducing social science knowledge to public NRM professionals. The study finds social science knowledge can...... be of value to NRM public involvement prospectively and retrospectively; and that continuing professional education can be an effective means to introducing social science knowledge to public NRM professionals. In the design of NRM continuing professional education focused on social science knowledge...

  9. Popularization of Science in Brazil: getting onto the public agenda, but how?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Tait Lima

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance the Brazilian government has given in the last few years to the dissemination of science points out the necessity of a more discerning analysis about the establishment of this subject on the public agenda and the related public policies undertaken. This work tries to contribute to the debate as an inquiry about the policies to popularize and disseminate Science and Technology (S&T established by the Science and Technology Popularization and Dissemination Department, which was created in 2004. In order to do so, theoretical references from Public Policy Analysis, the Studies of Science, Technology and Society (SSTS, and Public Communication of Science are used. Furthermore, we analyze some of the results from research on Science and Technology Understanding carried out in Brazil in 2006. As a final point, this associated approach aims at identifying some of the limiting factors related to science dissemination actions in Brazil.

  10. Popularization of Science in Brazil: getting onto the public agenda, but how? (Portuguese original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Tait Lima

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance the Brazilian government has given in the last few years to the dissemination of science points out the necessity of a more discerning analysis about the establishment of this subject on the public agenda and the related public policies undertaken. This work tries to contribute to the debate as an inquiry about the policies to popularize and disseminate Science and Technology (S&T established by the Science and Technology Popularization and Dissemination Department, which was created in 2004. In order to do so, theoretical references from Public Policy Analysis, the Studies of Science, Technology and Society (SSTS, and Public Communication of Science are used. Furthermore, we analyze some of the results from research on Science and Technology Understanding carried out in Brazil in 2006. As a final point, this associated approach aims at identifying some of the limiting factors related to science dissemination actions in Brazil.

  11. 26 CFR 1.167(l)-4 - Public utility property; election to use asset depreciation range system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... depreciation range system. 1.167(l)-4 Section 1.167(l)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(l)-4 Public utility property; election to use asset depreciation range system. (a) Application of section 167(l) to certain property subject to asset depreciation range system...

  12. How to achieve public participation in nuclear waste decisions: Public relations or transparent adversary science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treichel, J.

    1999-01-01

    The current US nuclear waste disposal program began with passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and was modified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The Amendments Act made many major changes to the original Act, the most significant of which was the singling out of Yucca Mountain as the only site to be studied for a deep geologic high-level nuclear waste repository. While that decision appeared to simplify and streamline the program, it vastly increased the levels of public resistance and protest, particularly in Nevada. To counter the lack of public acceptance of its programs, the Department of Energy has embarked on countless efforts purportedly aimed at creating public participation. However, nuclear proponents portray a Yucca Mountain repository as inevitable. With this a foregone conclusion, it is apparent to the public that opportunities for meaningful participation do not exist - the only allowable change is in their attitudes. This is purely paternalism and, as such, it is an insult to concerned citizens. Intelligent citizens believe that they cannot play a meaningful role in the current program. Their participation amounts to joining a game or contest that is rigged. All rules, regulations and standards governing the Yucca Mountain project are either changing or proposed to be changed. In a game of golf, players cannot determine their handicap midway through the course. While there are jokes told about such actions in sports, a nuclear waste policy is no laughing matter. In this case, the game, or site characterization program, is now referred to by many as 'advocacy science'. With Yucca Mountain as the only site, and the frantic cries of the commercial nuclear utilities that the lack of a disposal site is a national crisis, the investigations of the site appear to watchful citizens to be aimed at proving its suitability, rather than an objective study. Risk Assessment and risk communication, while very useful when applied

  13. How to achieve public participation in nuclear waste decisions: Public relations or transparent adversary science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treichel, J. [Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The current US nuclear waste disposal program began with passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and was modified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The Amendments Act made many major changes to the original Act, the most significant of which was the singling out of Yucca Mountain as the only site to be studied for a deep geologic high-level nuclear waste repository. While that decision appeared to simplify and streamline the program, it vastly increased the levels of public resistance and protest, particularly in Nevada. To counter the lack of public acceptance of its programs, the Department of Energy has embarked on countless efforts purportedly aimed at creating public participation. However, nuclear proponents portray a Yucca Mountain repository as inevitable. With this a foregone conclusion, it is apparent to the public that opportunities for meaningful participation do not exist - the only allowable change is in their attitudes. This is purely paternalism and, as such, it is an insult to concerned citizens. Intelligent citizens believe that they cannot play a meaningful role in the current program. Their participation amounts to joining a game or contest that is rigged. All rules, regulations and standards governing the Yucca Mountain project are either changing or proposed to be changed. In a game of golf, players cannot determine their handicap midway through the course. While there are jokes told about such actions in sports, a nuclear waste policy is no laughing matter. In this case, the game, or site characterization program, is now referred to by many as 'advocacy science'. With Yucca Mountain as the only site, and the frantic cries of the commercial nuclear utilities that the lack of a disposal site is a national crisis, the investigations of the site appear to watchful citizens to be aimed at proving its suitability, rather than an objective study. Risk Assessment and risk communication, while very useful when

  14. Celebrating 24 years of Public Outreach of Science and Engineering in Portland Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristol, Terry

    2012-02-01

    There have been several core strategies in our highly successful 24-year Science, Technology and Society outreach program. However, the strategy for each season is also dynamic, requiring innovation and novel coalitions. As Bob Dylan put it so succinctly, ``He not busy being born is busy dying.'' Public outreach programs - as the Chautauquas of the past - should be positioned in the cultural milieu along with the opera, symphony and theatre. Support for the enterprise needs to be a broad and diverse coalition, based ideally on the creative formation of win-win relationship. You want people to see your success as their success: ``Together we can enhance the intellectual environment in ways that none of us could do alone.'' Being multi-disciplinary presents challenges but has considerable advantages. For instance, enlightened managers of established organizations recognize the value of exposing their employees to a diversity of problem solving approaches. Instead of inviting speakers for one large lecture we now invite them to be Resident Scholars for two-three days and develop a range of additional smaller public engagements. Science and engineering topics must be relevant - placed in the broader Science, Technology and Society framework. We avoid ``gee-whiz'' in favor of what stimulates reflection on who we are, where we came from, and our role in the universe. I will briefly review how we have survived and thrived and, finally, what I see as future trends and opportunities.

  15. The Ethics of Translational Science: Imagining Public Benefit in Gene-Environment Interaction Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Ackerman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical research is increasingly informed by expectations of “translation,” which call for the production of scientific knowledge that can be used to create services and products that improve health outcomes. In this paper, we ask how translation, in particular the idea of social responsibility, is understood and enacted in the post-genomic life sciences. Drawing on theories examining what constitutes “good science,” and interviews with 35 investigators who study the role of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, we describe the dynamic and unsettled ethics of translational science through which the expected social value of scientific knowledge about complex disease causation is negotiated. To describe how this ethics is formed, we first discuss the politics of knowledge production in interdisciplinary research collectives. Researchers described a commitment to working across disciplines to examine a wide range of possible causes of disease, but they also pointed to persistent disciplinary and ontological divisions that rest on the dominance of molecular conceptions of disease risk. The privileging of molecular-level causation shapes and constrains the kinds of knowledge that can be created about gene-environment interactions. We then turn to scientists’ ideas about how this knowledge should be used, including personalized prevention strategies, targeted therapeutics, and public policy interventions. Consensus about the relative value of these anticipated translations was elusive, and many scientists agreed that gene-environment interaction research is part of a shift in biomedical research away from considering important social, economic, political and historical causes of disease and disease disparities. We conclude by urging more explicit engagement with questions about the ethics of translational science in the post-genomic life sciences. This would include a consideration

  16. Swiss Life Sciences - a science communication project for both schools and the wider public led by the foundation Science et Cité.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röthlisberger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The foundation Science et Cité was founded 1998 with the aim to inform the wider Swiss public about current scientific topics and to generate a dialogue between science and society. Initiated as an independent foundation by the former State Secretary for Science and Research, Dr. Charles Kleiber, Science et Cité is now attached to the Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences as a competence center for dialogue with the public. Due to its branches in all language regions of the country, the foundation is ideally suited to initiate and implement communication projects on a nationwide scale. These projects are subdivided into three categories: i) science communication for children/adolescents, ii) establishing a dialogue between science and the wider public, and iii) conducting the role of a national center of competence and networking in science communication. Swiss Life Sciences is a project that fits into all of these categories: a year-round program for schools is complemented with an annual event for the wider public. With the involvement of most of the major Swiss universities, the Swiss National Science Foundation, the foundation Gen Suisse and many other partners, Swiss Life Sciences also sets an example of national networking within the science communication community.

  17. Accuracy, Authenticity, Fidelity: Aesthetic Realism, the "Deficit Model," and the Public Understanding of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Fernando

    2018-03-01

    Argument "Deficit model" designates an outlook on the public understanding and communication of science that emphasizes scientific illiteracy and the need to educate the public. Though criticized, it is still widespread, especially among scientists. Its persistence is due not only to factors ranging from scientists' training to policy design, but also to the continuance of realism as an aesthetic criterion. This article examines the link between realism and the deficit model through discussions of neurology and psychiatry in fiction film, as well as through debates about historical movies and the cinematic adaptation of literature. It shows that different values and criteria tend to dominate the realist stance in different domains: accuracy for movies concerning neurology and psychiatry, authenticity for the historical film, and fidelity for adaptations of literature. Finally, contrary to the deficit model, it argues that the cinema is better characterized by a surplus of meaning than by informational shortcomings.

  18. report | 1-Overview | 5-Publications | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Report on University Science Education. 1. Introduction. In recent years the Academy has felt increasingly concerned with the state of university education in science in the country. It has been widely realized that without a proper base in education it will not be possible to promote progress in science to attain the excellence ...

  19. Laser Ranging in Solar System: Technology Developments and New Science Measurement Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Mcgarry, J.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.

    2015-12-01

    Laser Ranging has played a major role in geodetic studies of the Earth over the past 40 years. The technique can potentially be used in between planets and spacecrafts within the solar system to advance planetary science. For example, a direct measurement of distances between planets, such as Mars and Venus would make significant improvements in understanding the dynamics of the whole solar system, including the masses of the planets and moons, asteroids and their perturbing interactions, and the gravity field of the Sun. Compared to the conventional radio frequency (RF) tracking systems, laser ranging is potentially more accurate because it is much less sensitive to the transmission media. It is also more efficient because the laser beams are much better focused onto the targets than RF beams. However, existing laser ranging systems are all Earth centric, that is, from ground stations on Earth to orbiting satellites in near Earth orbits or lunar orbit, and to the lunar retro-reflector arrays deployed by the astronauts in the early days of lunar explorations. Several long distance laser ranging experiments have been conducted with the lidar in space, including a two-way laser ranging demonstration between Earth and the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) on the MESSENGER spacecraft over 24 million km, and a one way laser transmission and detection experiment over 80 million km between Earth and the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on the MGS spacecraft in Mars orbit. A one-way laser ranging operation has been carried out continuously from 2009 to 2014 between multiple ground stations to LRO spacecraft in lunar orbit. The Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) on the LADEE mission has demonstrated that a two way laser ranging measurements, including both the Doppler frequency and the phase shift, can be obtained from the subcarrier or the data clocks of a high speed duplex laser communication system. Plans and concepts presently being studied suggest we may be

  20. 78 FR 33416 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board Environmental Justice Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL--9819-3] Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science... Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public meeting of the SAB Environmental Justice Technical Guidance Review Panel to provide advice through...

  1. 78 FR 14299 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board Chemical Assessment Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9786-6] Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science...: Notice. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or agency) Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public meeting of the SAB Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) to receive a...

  2. Scientists' motivation to communicate science and technology to the public: surveying participants at the Madrid Science Fair

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Sempere , María José; Garzón-García , Belén; Rey-Rocha , Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper investigates what motivates scientists to communicate science and technology in a science event involving a direct relationship and interaction with the public. A structured questionnaire survey was administered through face-to-face interviews to 167 research practitioners (researchers, technicians, support staff and fellows) at the Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC) who part...

  3. Public procurement of innovation in construction : A design science approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenderink, B.; Halman, J. I.M.; Voordijk, J.T.

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of innovation as a policy objective in public procurement has increased significantly at public organizations over the last years. However, public organizations often struggle with how they should stimulate innovation through public procurement as there are many different ways possible

  4. Does Controversial Science Call For Public Participation? The Case Of Gmo Skepticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Christiansen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many instances of new and emerging science and technology are controversial. Although a number of people, including scientific experts, welcome these developments, a considerable skepticism exists among members of the public. The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs is a case in point. In science policy and in science communication, it is widely assumed that such controversial science and technology require public participation in the policy-making process. We examine this view, which we call the Public Participation Paradigm, using the case of GMOs as an example. We suggest that a prominent reason behind the call for public participation is the belief that such participation is required for democratic legitimacy. We then show that the most prominent accounts of democratic legitimacy do not, in fact, entail that public participation is required in cases of controversial science in general, or in the case of GMOs in particular.

  5. Communicating the science of the 11-year sunspot cycle to the general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhuri, A. R.

    2015-03-01

    Astrophysics is one branch of science which excites the imagination of the general public. Pioneer science popularizers like George Gamow and Fred Hoyle wrote on different aspects of astrophysics. However, of late, we see a trend which I find disturbing. While it has become extremely fashionable to write popular science books on cosmology, other areas of astrophysics are grossly neglected.

  6. 76 FR 22100 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board; Drinking Water Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Science Advisory Board; Drinking Water Committee Augmented for the Review of the Effectiveness of Partial...: The EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public teleconference of the SAB... EPA Science Advisory Board can be found on the EPA Web site at http://www.epa.gov/sab . SUPPLEMENTARY...

  7. 77 FR 41185 - Notification of Public Teleconferences of the Science Advisory Board Animal Feeding Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9699-7] Notification of Public Teleconferences of the Science...). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) Science Advisory Board (SAB... concerning the EPA Science Advisory Board can be found at the EPA SAB Web site at http://www.epa.gov/sab...

  8. Analytical Study of Self-Motivations among a Southwest Public University Nonpolitical Science Major Students in Required Political Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasim, Gamal; Stevens, Tara; Zebidi, Amira

    2012-01-01

    All undergraduate students are required by state law to take six credited hours in political science. This study will help us identify if differences exist in self-determination among students enrolled in American Public Policy and American Government at a large, Southwestern public university. Because some types of motivation are associated with…

  9. A qualitative analysis of the information science needs of public health researchers in an academic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanda L. Hunt

    2018-04-01

    Conclusions: Libraries can engage more public health researchers by utilizing targeted and individualized marketing regarding services. We can promote open science by educating researchers on publication realities and enhancing our data visualization skills. Libraries might take an institution-wide leadership role on matters of data management and data policy compliance. Finally, as team science emerges as a research priority, we can offer our networking expertise. These support services may reduce the stresses that public health researchers feel in the current research environment.

  10. The four cultures: Public engagement with science only, art only, neither, or both museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shein, Paichi Pat; Li, Yuh-Yuh; Huang, Tai-Chu

    2015-11-01

    This study uses an art-and-science comparative lens to understand the science culture, particularly the public engagement with science museums. A representational Taiwanese sample of 1863 subjects was categorized into "four cultures," who visit science only, art only, neither, or both museums, resulting in six multivariate logistic regression models. Knowledge of science, interests in scientific and social issues, and socio-demographic variables were considered in the models. Adults with children and males prefer science museums, females prefer art museums, and the young and urban intellects show no strong preference, appearing to be open to both science and art museums. The findings show the complex decisions the public make in visiting museums. It is no longer a strictly science or art decision, as framed by Snow's "The Two Cultures" argument; rather, the possibility of visiting both museums has emerged, a phenomenon we describe as cognitive polyphasia. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. The AIRInforma experiment: peer-reviewed public dissemination of science in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forneris, Federico; Cassetta, Luca; Gravina, Teresita

    2015-04-01

    Public dissemination of science to the public is often negatively affected by biased, incorrect information distributed over the world wide web through social networks and weblogs. In Italy, the lack of correct scientific information has generated several important issues, raising concerns by the international scientific community in several occasions over the past five years. Our association AIRIcerca (International Association of Italian Researchers, http://www.airicerca.org) has recently started a novel scientific dissemination initiative to the general public in Italy. The project is based on 1) direct involvement of researchers (with accademic or industrial affiliation) in article preparation and publication and 2) introduction of a peer-reviewing system similar to that applied in conventional scientific publishing. Our initiative, named AIRInforma (http://informa.airicerca.org) has already published more than 10 original articles and 3 meeting reports, in Italian language, about various fields of scientific research, ranging from social sciences to evolutionary biology , mathematics and medicine . The editorial board is composed of approximately 20 Italian scientists working all over the world and voluntarily contributing to the AIRInforma initiative. Submitted manuscripts are initially evaluated by the editorial board and, if suitable, they are assigned to four non-anonymous reviewers selected by the editorial board for accurate evaluation. Two reviewers are selected based on their specific expertise on the topic presented in the manuscript (expert reviewers), and two are specifically selected as working on distant fields (naive reviewers). The purpose of naive reviewers is to provide feedback on the efficacy and clarity of the information for the general public. So far, AIRInforma has established a novel channel of scientific communication in Italy, receiving excellent feedback and reaching more than 8000 new unique visitors every month on our website and

  12. A comparison of the Web of Science with publication-level classification systems of science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perianes-Rodriguez, A.; Ruiz-Castillo, J.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we propose a new criterion for choosing between a pair of classification systems of science that assign publications (or journals) to a set of scientific fields. Consider the standard normalization procedure in which field mean citations are used as normalization factors. We recommend system A over system B whenever the standard normalization procedure based on A performs better than the when it is based on B. Since the evaluation can be made in terms of either system, the performance assessment requires a double test. In addition, since the assessment of two normalization procedures would be generally biased in favor of the one based on the classification system used for evaluation purposes, ideally a pair of classification systems must be compared using a third, independent classification system for evaluation purposes. We illustrate this strategy by comparing a Web of Science journal-level classification system, consisting of 236 journal subject categories, with two publication-level algorithmically constructed classification systems consisting of 1,363 (G6) and 5,119 (G8) clusters. There are two main findings. (1) The G8 system is found to dominate the G6 system. Therefore, when we have a choice between two classification systems at different granularity levels, we should use the system at the higher level because it typically exhibits a better standard normalization performance. (2) The G8 system and the Web of Science (WoS) journal-level system are found to be non-comparable. Nevertheless, the G8-normalization procedure performs better using the WoS system for evaluation purposes than the WoS-normalization procedure using the G8 system for evaluation purposes. Furthermore, when we use the G6 system for evaluation purposes, the G8-normalization procedure performs better than the WoS-normalization procedure. We conclude that algorithmically constructed classification systems constitute a credible alternative to the WoS system and, by extension, to

  13. A surfeit of science: The "CSI effect" and the media appropriation of the public understanding of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Simon A

    2015-02-01

    Over the past decade, popular media has promulgated claims that the television program CSI and its spinoffs and imitators have had a pernicious effect on the public understanding of forensic science, the so-called "CSI effect." This paper analyzes those media claims by documenting the ways in which the media claims that CSI "distorts" an imagined "reality." It shows that the media appropriated the analytic stance usually adopted by science advocates, portraying the CSI effect as a social problem in science communication. This appropriation was idiosyncratic in that it posited, as a social problem, a "surfeit" of knowledge and positive imagery about science, rather than the more familiar "deficits." In addition, the media simultaneously appropriated both "traditional" and "critical" PUS discourses. Despite this apparent contradiction, the paper concludes that, in both discourses, the media and its expert informants insist upon their hegemony over "the public" to articulate the "reality" of forensic science. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Controversy as a Blind Spot in Teaching Nature of Science: Why the Range of Different Positions Concerning Nature of Science Should Be an Issue in the Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, Mario; Hammann, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the argument is put forth that controversies about the scope and limits of science should be considered in Nature of Science (NOS) teaching. Reference disciplines for teaching NOS are disciplines, which reflect upon science, like philosophy of science, history of science, and sociology of science. The culture of these disciplines…

  15. Opportunities for Scientists to Engage the Public & Inspire Students in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Worssam, J.; Vaughan, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, research scientists are learning that communicating science to broad, non-specialist audiences, particularly students, is just as important as communicating science to their peers via peer-reviewed scientific publications. This presentation highlights opportunities that scientists in Flagstaff, AZ have to foster public support of science & inspire students to study STEM disciplines. The goal here is to share ideas, personal experiences, & the rewards, for both students & research professionals, of engaging in science education & public outreach. Flagstaff, AZ, "America's First STEM Community," has a uniquely rich community of organizations engaged in science & engineering research & innovation, including the Flagstaff Arboretum, Coconino Community College, Gore Industries, Lowell Observatory, Museum of Northern Arizona, National Weather Service, National Park Service, National Forest Service, Northern Arizona University, Northern Arizona Center for Entrepreneurship & Technology, US Geological Survey, US Naval Observatory, & Willow Bend Environmental Education Center. These organizations connect with the Northern Arizona community during the yearly Flagstaff Festival of Science - the third oldest science festival in the world - a 10 day long, free, science festival featuring daily public lectures, open houses, interactive science & technology exhibits, field trips, & in-school speaker programs. Many research scientists from these organizations participate in these activities, e.g., public lectures, open houses, & in-school speaker programs, & also volunteer as mentors for science & engineering themed clubs in local schools. An example of a novel, innovative program, developed by a local K-12 science teacher, is the "Scientists-in-the-Classroom" mentor program, which pairs all 7th & 8th grade students with a working research scientist for the entire school year. Led by the student & guided by the mentor, they develop a variety of science / technology

  16. Lost in translation: Discourses, boundaries and legitimacy in the public understanding of science in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Simon Jay

    2008-07-01

    This thesis documents the historical development of debates around the public understanding of science in the UK from 1985 until 2005. Testimonies from key actors involved in the evolution of the recent public understanding of science arena, and an examination of documentary evidence, have been used to map out how this issue was problematised by scientists in the mid-1980s, and how it has developed into a contested field of activity, political interest and academic research. I propose that this historical period can be broadly understood in four phases each characterised by a dominant discourse of the public understanding of science. I examine how, within each phase, the various groups involved have engaged in boundary work: rhetorically constructing, and mobilising, ideas of 'science', 'the public', and the perceived 'problem' in the relationship between the two, in the pursuit of defining and legitimating themselves and these definitions of the relationship between science and public. Phase I is characterised as a rhetorical re-framing of earlier 'problems' of the public understanding of science by scientists and scientific institutions in the context of the 1980s. Phase II is dominated by the boundary work between scientists and social scientists as they contended for legitimacy and authority over competing discourses of public understanding of science and the institutionalisation of PUS activity and research. Phase III is characterised by a variety of discursive formulations of the 'problem' of PUS following the House of Lords report (2000) and a subsequent change in the rhetoric of public understanding of science to one of public engagement. Phase IV is dominated by the language of 'upstream engagement' and identifies the political interest in managing science's relationship with the public and the social scientific responses to this.

  17. In science communication, why does the idea of the public deficit always return? Exploring key influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suldovsky, Brianne

    2016-05-01

    Despite mounting criticism, the deficit model remains an integral part of science communication research and practice. In this article, I advance three key factors that contribute to the idea of the public deficit in science communication, including the purpose of science communication, how communication processes and outcomes are conceptualized, and how science and scientific knowledge are defined. Affording science absolute epistemic privilege, I argue, is the most compelling factor contributing to the continued use of the deficit model. In addition, I contend that the deficit model plays a necessary, though not sufficient, role in science communication research and practice. Areas for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Validating a Scale That Measures Scientists' Self-Efficacy for Public Engagement with Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson Evia, Jane; Peterman, Karen; Cloyd, Emily; Besley, John

    2018-01-01

    Self-efficacy, or the beliefs people hold about their ability to succeed in certain pursuits, is a long-established construct. Self-efficacy for science communication distinguishes scientists who engage with the public and relates to scientists' attitudes about the public. As such, self-efficacy for public engagement has the potential to serve as…

  19. report dim | 1-Overview | 5-Publications | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Report on University Science Education. 2. DIMENSIONS AND COMMON PERCEPTIONS OF THE PROBLEM. Although the main focus of this document is university science education particularly at the undergraduate level, it is realized that undergraduate education is part of a continuum, starting with education at the ...

  20. The role by scientific publications in science communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Fabbri

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In their contributions to this special issue, the British science writer Jon Turney and the American scholar Bruce Lewenstein discuss the validity of the book as a means for science communication in the era of the Internet, whereas the article by Vittorio Bo deals with scientific publishing in a broader sense.

  1. report intro | Overview | Publications | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has been widely realized that without a proper base in education it will not be ... the Academy on policy issues concerning science and technology in the country. ... to improve the quality of education in science through the combined efforts of ...

  2. Internet-Based Science Learning: A Review of Journal Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Wu, Ying-Tien; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Liu, Tzu-Chien; Hwang, Fu-Kwun; Lai, Chih-Hung; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Wu, Huang-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2011-01-01

    Internet-based science learning has been advocated by many science educators for more than a decade. This review examines relevant research on this topic. Sixty-five papers are included in the review. The review consists of the following two major categories: (1) the role of demographics and learners' characteristics in Internet-based science…

  3. Sciences literacy on nutrition program for improving public wellness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, C.; Nasrudin, D.; Helsy, I.; Rokayah; Kusbudiah, Y.

    2018-05-01

    Increased wellness for a person becomes a necessity now and for the future. Various ways people do to get fit include following and understanding nutrition. This review will inventory the concepts of science involved to understand the nutritional program and its impact on fitness levels. The method used is a quantitative and qualitative descriptive mixed method based on treatment to a number of nutrition group participants in a nutrition group in Bandung. The concepts of science that are the subject of study are the concepts of physics, chemistry, and biology. The results showed that the ability of science literacy and respondent's wellness level varies and there is a relationship between science literacy with one's wellness level. The implications of this research are the need for science literacy and wellness studies for community based on educational level and more specific scientific concepts.

  4. Mathematical Model of the Public Understanding of Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisniakov, V.; Prisniakova, L.

    The success in deployment of the space programs now in many respects depends on comprehension by the citizens of necessity of programs, from "space" erudition of country. Purposefulness and efficiency of the "space" teaching and educational activity depend on knowledge of relationships between separate variables of such process. The empirical methods of ``space'' well-information of the taxpayers should be supplemented by theoretical models permitting to demonstrate a ways of control by these processes. Authors on the basis of their experience of educational activity during 50- years of among the students of space-rocket profession obtain an equation of ``space" state of the society determining a degree of its knowledge about Space, about achievements in its development, about indispensable lines of investigations, rates of informatization of the population. It is supposed, that the change of the space information consists of two parts: (1) - from going of the information about practical achievements, about development special knowledge requiring of independent financing, and (2) from intensity of dissemination of the ``free" information of a general educational line going to the population through mass-media, book, in family, in educational institutions, as a part of obligatory knowledge of any man, etc. In proposed model the level space well-information of the population depends on intensity of dissemination in the society of the space information, and also from a volume of financing of space-rocket technology, from a part of population of the employment in the space-rocket programs, from a factor of education of the population in adherence to space problems, from welfare and mentality of the people, from a rate of unemployment and material inequality. Obtained in the report on these principles the equation of a space state of the society corresponds to catastrophe such as cusp, the analysis has shown which one ways of control of the public understanding of space

  5. Increasing Geoscience Literacy and Public Support for the Earthscope National Science Initiative Through Informal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubele, J. C.

    2005-12-01

    Geology and geophysics are frequently perceived by the student, teacher, or adult non-geologist as "difficult to understand"; however, most non-geologists of all ages appreciate geological landforms such as mountains, volcanoes and canyons, and are interested in phenomena such as earthquakes and natural resources. Most people are also interested in local connections and newsworthy programs and projects. Therefore, the EarthScope Project is a perfect opportunity to excite and educate the public about solid-Earth geoscience research and to increase the non-geologist's understanding of Earth's dynamic processes. As the EarthScope Project sweeps across the country, the general public must be made aware of the magnitude, scope, excitement, and achievements of this national initiative. However, EarthScope science is difficult for the non-scientist to understand. The project is large-scale and long-term, and its data sets consist of maps, structural graphics, 3D and 4D visualizations, and the integration of many different geophysical instruments, all elements that are difficult for the non-scientist to understand. Targeted programs for students, teachers, and visitors to the National Parks will disseminate EarthScope information; in addition, museums and other informal science education centers can also play an important role in translating scientific research for the general public. Research on learning in museums has shown that museums educate an audience that is self-selected and self-directed (non-captive), includes family/groups, multigenerational, and repeat visitors, and requires presentation of information for a variety of learning styles. Informal science centers have the following advantages in geoscience-related education: (1) graphics/display expertise; (2) flexibility in approach and programming; (3) ability to quickly produce exhibits, educational programming, and curricula themed to specific topics of interest; (4) inclusion of K-12 teachers in the

  6. Science literacy programs for K-12 teachers, public officials, news media and the public. Final report, 1994--1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    On 12 July 94, The Institute for Science and Society received the above titled grant for $300,000 with an additional $323,000 awarded 14 August 95. The Institute completed the programs provided by the Department of Energy grant on 28 February 97. These programs for teachers, public officials, news media and the public will continue through 31 December 97 with funding from other sources. The Institute is a non-profit 501-c-3 corporation. It was organized {open_quotes}... to help increase science literacy in all segments of the population and contribute to a more rational atmosphere than now exists for the public consideration of societal issues involving science and technology, both regional and national.{close_quotes} Institute personnel include the Honorable Mike McCormack, Director; Joan Harris, Associate Director; Kim Freier, Ed.D, Program Manager; and Sharon Hunt, Executive Secretary.

  7. Summary of the Geocarto International Special Issue on "NASA Earth Science Satellite Data for Applications to Public Health" to be Published in Early 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2013-01-01

    At the 2011 Applied Science Public Health review held in Santa Fe, NM, it was announced that Dr. Dale Quattrochi from the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, John Haynes, Program Manager for the Applied Sciences Public Health program at NASA Headquarters, and Sue Estes, Deputy Program Manager for the NASA Applied Sciences Public Health Program located at the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) at the National Space Science and Technology Center (NSSTC) in Huntsville, AL, would edit a special issue of the journal Geocarto International on "NASA Earth Science Satellite Data for Applications to Public Health". This issue would be focused on compiling research papers that use NASA Earth Science satellite data for applications to public health. NASA's Public Health Program concentrates on advancing the realization of societal and economic benefits from NASA Earth Science in the areas of infectious disease, emergency preparedness and response, and environmental health (e.g., air quality). This application area as a focus of the NASA Applied Sciences program, has engaged public health institutions and officials with research scientists in exploring new applications of Earth Science satellite data as an integral part of public health decision- and policy-making at the local, state and federal levels. Of interest to this special issue are papers submitted on are topics such as epidemiologic surveillance in the areas of infectious disease, environmental health, and emergency response and preparedness, national and international activities to improve skills, share data and applications, and broaden the range of users who apply Earth Science satellite data in public health decisions, or related focus areas.. This special issue has now been completed and will be published n early 2014. This talk will present an overview of the papers that will be published in this special Geocarto International issue.

  8. Social science and the public agenda: reflections on the relation of knowledge to policy in the United States and abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilensky, H L

    1997-10-01

    It is tempting to oversell the practical value of applied research. A hard look at the effects of U.S. social science on public policy in areas such as active labor market policies (training, job creation, placement, etc.), crime prevention, fiscal policy, poverty reduction, and health care reform suggests an inverse relationship between social science consensus and policy and budgetary decisions. Fragmented and decentralized political economies (e.g., the United States) foster policy segmentation and isolated, short-run single-issue research--often politicized and misleading. More corporatist democracies (such as Sweden, Norway, Austria, and Germany) evidence a tighter relation between knowledge and power in which a wider range of issues is connected, longer-range effects are sometimes considered, and research is more often actually used for planning and implementation. Even in less hospitable societies, however, social science does make its way in the long run. Favorable conditions and examples are discussed.

  9. We Engage, Therefore They Trust? A Study of Social Media Engagement and Public Trust in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwong, Y. L.; Oliver, C.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Our society relies heavily on the trust that the public places in science to work. Given science's importance, the growing distrust in science is a cause for concern. Thanks to their participatory nature, social media have been touted as the promising tool for public engagement to restore public trust in science. These digital platforms have transformed the landscape of science communication yet little is known about their impact on public trust in science. This study probed several aspects of public trust in science as expressed on Twitter, focusing on two related science issues: space science and climate change. Our datasets comprised of 10,000 randomly sampled tweets over a month's period in 2016. We used human annotation and machine learning as our approach. Results indicated that the perceived contentiousness of a science issue has a significant impact on public trust. The level of distrust is higher in the climate change tweets than in the space science tweets, despite climate scientists being almost four times as active as space scientists in engaging with sceptics. However, people who engaged with scientists in the climate change network displayed a higher level of trust in science compared with those who did not. This effect was not observed in the space science network - in this network, there is no significant difference in trust levels between people who engaged with scientists and those who did not. Additionally, our machine learning study revealed that trust in science (as conveyed by tweets) can be predicted. The supervised learning algorithm that we developed was able to predict the trust labels of tweets in our sample with an accuracy of 84%. A further feature analysis indicated that similarity, presence of URL and authenticity are the properties of trust-inspiring tweets. Based on these findings, we argue that social media science communication is not as straightforward as `we engage, therefore they trust'. Public attitude towards science is often

  10. Climate Change and Public Health Policy: Translating the Science

    OpenAIRE

    Braks, Marieta; van Ginkel, Rijk; Wint, William; Sedda, Luigi; Sprong, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible i...

  11. The Art and Science of Long-Range Space Weather Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, David H.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Long-range space weather forecasts are akin to seasonal forecasts of terrestrial weather. We don t expect to forecast individual events but we do hope to forecast the underlying level of activity important for satellite operations and mission pl&g. Forecasting space weather conditions years or decades into the future has traditionally been based on empirical models of the solar cycle. Models for the shape of the cycle as a function of its amplitude become reliable once the amplitude is well determined - usually two to three years after minimum. Forecasting the amplitude of a cycle well before that time has been more of an art than a science - usually based on cycle statistics and trends. Recent developments in dynamo theory -the theory explaining the generation of the Sun s magnetic field and the solar activity cycle - have now produced models with predictive capabilities. Testing these models with historical sunspot cycle data indicates that these predictions may be highly reliable one, or even two, cycles into the future.

  12. report earlier | Overview | Publications | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... for positive action made by responsible and concerned academic groups in the country. ... A Working Group to suggest ways and means of improving university science ... Each college would admit 240 students per year, based on a locally ...

  13. 78 FR 4838 - Science Advisory Board; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) science programs are of the highest quality and provide optimal support to...) Presentation of the final report from Research and Development Portfolio Review Task Force; and (2) Review of...

  14. report general | Overview | Publications | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The importance of science education of high quality, especially at the high school ... Perhaps too, much emphasis is being paid to the improved prospects for ... by participating in and contributing to scientific and technological endeavours in ...

  15. Public Land Survey System (PLSS) Township Range Polygons, California, 2015, Bureau of Land Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PLSSTownship: This dataset represents the GIS Version of the Public Land Survey System including both rectangular and non-rectangular surveys. The primary source for...

  16. Sociology and the public understanding of science: from rationalization to rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, S

    2001-03-01

    This paper contributes to the reappraisal of sociological theories of modernity inspired by the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK). As much as these theories rely on received ideas about the nature of science that SSK has called into doubt, so do they rely on ideas about the public understanding of science. Public understanding of science has been assumed to conform to the monolithic logic and perception of science associated with rationalization, leading to an impoverished view of the cognitive outlook of the modern individual. Rationalization has become the basis for the construction of theoretical critique of science divorced from any clear reference to public understanding, with the result that theory has encountered considerable problems in accounting for public scepticism towards science. However, rather than question rationalization, the more typical strategy has been to propose radical changes in the modernization process, such as postmodernism and the risk society. Against this, an alternative view of public understanding is advanced drawn from SSK and rhetorical psychology. The existence of the sociological critique of science, and SSK in particular, suggests that the meaning of science in modernity is not monolithic but multiple, arising out of a central dilemma over the universal form of knowledge-claims and their necessarily particular, human and social grounding. This dilemma plays out not only in intellectual discourses about science, but also in the public's understanding of science. This argument is used to call for further sociological research into public understanding and to encourage sociologists to recognize the central importance of the topic to a proper understanding of modernity.

  17. Science to Action: Thoughts on Convincing a Skeptical Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, William

    2016-01-01

    Acceptance by the public of findings widely accepted by scientists varies dramatically, issue by issue. The danger of smoking, for example, readily achieved public acceptance, while the arguably greater danger of climate change has, thus far, not. What are the relevant variables that make some public issues more difficult than others? A hypothesis consistent with the historical data is that, in communicating to the public, scientists fail to adequately distinguish two different types of messages, the first relating to the nature of scientific evidence, and the second relating to the rational choice of evidence-based decision-making. As scientists we take both for granted, but the public often may not. Different kinds of communication are required for the two different messages.

  18. 78 FR 56952 - Notice of Meetings: Public Meetings of the National Science and Technology Council; Committee on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... Science and Technology Council; Committee on Technology; Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology Subcommittee; National Nanotechnology Coordination Office AGENCY: Office of Science and Technology Policy. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The National Nanotechnology Coordination Office (NNCO), on...

  19. Risk and society: The interaction of science, technology and public policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterstone, M.

    1992-01-01

    Risk and Society is the sixth volume in Kluwer's Technology, Risk, and Society series, and like the previous volumes in this series, it is made up of papers presented at a symposium convened in 1989 to discuss the changing interactions of technology and society and definitions of risk. The papers presented all center around risk as a constructed phenomenon. The first paper is a general overview of concepts of risk in society and the changing emphasis on risk in the last two decades. The papers represent four main topic areas: Risk, science and public policy; Allocating scarce medical resources; Nuclear power and nuclear waste disposal; and Setting standards for air quality. Three papers, representing three different points of view, are presented in each topic area. The contributors cover a range of issues in this format, and the combined effect is a good overview of the issues with which risk assessors, risk managers, and public policymakers must grapple if constructive use is to be made of risk in public decision-making

  20. Citizen Science: Data Sharing For, By, and With the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, A.

    2017-12-01

    Data sharing in citizen science is just as challenging as it is for any other type of science, except that there are more parties involved, with more diverse needs and interests. This talk provides an overview of the challenges and current efforts to advance data sharing in citizen science, and suggests refocusing data management activities on supporting the needs of multiple audiences. Early work on data sharing in citizen science advocated applying the standards and practices of academia, which can only address the needs of one of several audiences for citizen science data, and academics are not always the primary audience. Practitioners still need guidance on how to better share data other key parties, such as participants and policymakers, and which data management practices to prioritize for addressing the needs of multiple audiences. The benefits to the project of investing scarce resources into data products and dissemination strategies for each target audience still remain variable, unclear, or unpredictable. And as projects mature and change, the importance of data sharing activities and audiences are likely to change as well. This combination of multiple diverse audiences, shifting priorities, limited resources, and unclear benefits creates a perfect storm of conditions to suppress data sharing. Nonetheless, many citizen science projects make the effort, with exemplars showing substantial returns on data stewardship investments, and international initiatives are underway to bolster the data sharing capacity of the field. To improve the state of data sharing in citizen science, strategic use of limited resources suggests prioritizing data management activities that support the needs of multiple audiences. These may include better transparency about data access and usage, and standardized reporting of broader impacts from secondary data users, to both reward projects and incentivize further data sharing.

  1. To Trust or Not to Trust? What Drives Public Trust in Science in Social Media Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwong, Y. L.; Oliver, C.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The erosion of public trust in science is a serious concern today. This climate of distrust has real consequences, from the anti-vaccination movement to climate change denials. The age of social media promises opportunities for improved interactivity between scientists and the public, which experts hope will help improve public confidence in science. However, evidence linking social media engagement and public attitude towards science is scarce. Our study aimed to help fill this gap. We examined Twitter engagement and its impact on public trust in science, focusing on two related science issues: space science and climate change. Our datasets comprised of 10,000 randomly sampled tweets over a month's period in 2016. We used human annotation and machine learning to analyse the tweets. Results revealed the level of distrust was significantly higher in the climate change tweets. However, in the climate change network, people who engaged with science personalities trust science more than those who did not. This difference in trust levels was not present in the space science network. There the two clusters of people displayed similar levels of trust in science. Additionally, we used machine learning to predict the trust labels of tweets and conducted feature analysis to find the properties of trust-inspiring tweets. Our supervised learning algorithm was able to predict trust in science in our sample tweets with 84% accuracy. The strongest predictors of trust in science (as conveyed by tweets) were similarity, presence of URL and authenticity. Contrast this with the findings of our previous study investigating the features of highly engaging space science related social media messages, authenticity is the only feature that also inspires trust. This indicates that what works to promote engagement (e.g. `retweets', `Likes') does not necessarily build trust in science. Social media science communication is not as simple as `we engage, therefore they trust'. We suggest that

  2. The role of Facilities in Engaging and Informing the Public of EarthScope Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlevoix, D. J.; Taber, J. J.; Berg, M.; Dorr, P. M.; McQuillan, P.; Olds, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The IRIS and UNAVCO facilities play an important role in support of EarthScope through joint and independent education and outreach activities. These activities are focused on providing data and data products to a wide range of audiences, disseminating EarthScope science results through formal and informal venues, and informing the public of the broader impacts of EarthScope. The facilities are particularly well-suited for sustained engagement of multiple audiences over the decade-long course of EarthScope. One such example of a long-term effort was the Transportable Array student siting program, where over an 8 year period, students from about 55 institutions across the US and Canada conducted site reconnaissance and talked to landowners about EarthScope. Another activity focused on students was the development of a student intern program to support field engineering efforts during the construction of the Plate Boundary Observatory. Other ongoing activities include developing and maintaining relationships with media representatives and annual training of National Parks staff throughout the western U.S. The UNAVCO-IRIS partnership has been particularly valuable for EarthScope-related activities, where UNAVCO and IRIS work closely with the EarthScope National Office (ESNO) to bring EarthScope science to national, regional and local audiences within the EarthScope footprint. Collaborations have ranged across each group's products and services, including: EarthScope-focused teacher workshops, participation in EarthScope interpretive workshops for informal educators (led by ESNO), development of content for the IRIS Active Earth Monitor, preparing PBO-, USArray- and EarthScope-focused materials on topics such as Episodic Tremor and Slip for wider distribution through print, web, and mobile information technologies, and organizing research experiences for undergraduates on EarthScope-related topics. Other collaborations have focused on social media, and the development

  3. Publication ethics from the perspective of PhD students of health sciences: a limited experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arda, Berna

    2012-06-01

    Publication ethics, an important subtopic of science ethics, deals with determination of the misconducts of science in performing research or in the dissemination of ideas, data and products. Science, the main features of which are secure, reliable and ethically obtained data, plays a major role in shaping the society. As long as science maintains its quality by being based on reliable and ethically obtained data, it will be possible to maintain its role in shaping the society. This article is devoted to the presentation of opinions of PhD candidate students in health sciences in Ankara concerning publication ethics. The data obtained from 143 PhD students from the fields of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and veterinary reveal limited but unique experiences. It also shows that plagiarism is one of the worst issues in the publication ethics from the perspective of these young academics.

  4. Science meets public service in Washington, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    Same planet, different worlds—that's how many scientists see the relationship between science and government. Yet science and technology have become so infused into society that those worlds are colliding. Today, a number of national issues share a strong connection to science, from stem cells to climate change and energy to bioterrorism. For scientists who can adapt to the culture of politics, working in the collision zone can be an exciting and rewarding way to spend a year or even a career.This past year, I was one of 35 scientists in Washington serving as Congressional Science and Technology Fellows, sponsored by a number of scientific societies, including AGU. The Fellows vary widely in age and carry resumes listing Ph.D.s in not only physics, biology, and chemistry but also in Earth science, food safety, psychology, and veterinary medicine. With a group like that, weekly lunches and happy hours become the kind of broadening experience that one rarely gets in focused academic departments. And then there's the politics.

  5. Stimulating Public Interest in Lunar Exploration and Enhancing Science Literacy Through Library Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, S.; Nelson, B.; Stockman, S.; Weir, H.; Carter, B.; Bleacher, L.

    2008-07-01

    Libraries are vibrant learning places, seeking partners in science programming. LPI's Explore! program offers a model for public engagement in lunar exploration in libraries, as shown by materials created collaboratively with the LRO E/PO team.

  6. A quantitative evaluation of the relative status of journal and conference publications in computer science.

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, Lorcan; Freyne, Jill; Smyth, Barry; Cunningham, Padraig

    2010-01-01

    While it is universally held by computer scientists that conference publications have a higher status in computer science than in other disciplines there is little quantitative evidence in support of this position. The importance of journal publications in academic promotion makes this a big issue since an exclusive focus on journal papers will miss many significant papers published at conferences in computer science. In this paper we set out to quantify the relative importance of journ...

  7. Science in the public sphere a history of lay knowledge and expertise

    CERN Document Server

    Nieto-Galan, Agusti

    2016-01-01

    Science in the Public Sphere presents a broad yet detailed picture of the history of science popularization from the Renaissance to the twenty-first century. Global in focus, it provides an original theoretical framework for analysing the political load of science as an instrument of cultural hegemony and giving a voice to expert and lay protagonists throughout history. Organised into a series of thematic chapters spanning diverse periods and places, this book covers subjects such as the representations of science in print, the media, classrooms and museums, orthodox and heterodox practices, the intersection of the history of science with the history of technology, and the ways in which public opinion and scientific expertise have influenced and shaped one another across the centuries. It concludes by introducing the "participatory turn" of the twenty-first century, a new paradigm of science popularization and a new way of understanding the construction of knowledge. Highly illustrated throughout and coveri...

  8. Climate Change and Public Health Policy: Translating the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braks, Marieta; van Ginkel, Rijk; Wint, William; Sedda, Luigi; Sprong, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible impact on public health and discuss their different roles and functions in unraveling the complexity of the subject. It is not our objective to review the available literature or to make predictions for certain diseases or countries, but rather to evaluate the applicability of scientific research articles on climate change to evidence-based public health decisions. In the context of mosquito borne diseases, we identify common pitfalls to watch out for when assessing scientific research on the impact of climate change on human health. We aim to provide guidance through the plethora of scientific papers and views on the impact of climate change on human health to those new to the subject, as well as to remind public health experts of its multifactorial and multidisciplinary character. PMID:24452252

  9. Climate change and public health policy: translating the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braks, Marieta; van Ginkel, Rijk; Wint, William; Sedda, Luigi; Sprong, Hein

    2013-12-19

    Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible impact on public health and discuss their different roles and functions in unraveling the complexity of the subject. It is not our objective to review the available literature or to make predictions for certain diseases or countries, but rather to evaluate the applicability of scientific research articles on climate change to evidence-based public health decisions. In the context of mosquito borne diseases, we identify common pitfalls to watch out for when assessing scientific research on the impact of climate change on human health. We aim to provide guidance through the plethora of scientific papers and views on the impact of climate change on human health to those new to the subject, as well as to remind public health experts of its multifactorial and multidisciplinary character.

  10. Climate Change and Public Health Policy: Translating the Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta Braks

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible impact on public health and discuss their different roles and functions in unraveling the complexity of the subject. It is not our objective to review the available literature or to make predictions for certain diseases or countries, but rather to evaluate the applicability of scientific research articles on climate change to evidence-based public health decisions. In the context of mosquito borne diseases, we identify common pitfalls to watch out for when assessing scientific research on the impact of climate change on human health. We aim to provide guidance through the plethora of scientific papers and views on the impact of climate change on human health to those new to the subject, as well as to remind public health experts of its multifactorial and multidisciplinary character.

  11. Using science centers to expose the general public to the microworld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, E. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)]|[Science and Technology Interactive Center, Aurora, IL (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Despite the remarkable progress in the past decades in understanding our Universe, we particle physicists have failed to communicate the wonder, excitement, and beauty of these discoveries to the general public. I am sure all agree there is a need, if our support from public funds is to continue at anywhere approximating the present level, for us collectively to educate and inform the general public of what we are doing and why. Informal science education and especially science and technology centers can play an important role in efforts to raise public awareness of particle physics in particular and of basic research in general. Science Centers are a natural avenue for particle physicists to use to communicate with and gain support from the general public.

  12. Using science centers to expose the general public to the microworld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malamud, E.

    1994-08-01

    Despite the remarkable progress in the past decades in understanding our Universe, we particle physicists have failed to communicate the wonder, excitement, and beauty of these discoveries to the general public. I am sure all agree there is a need, if our support from public funds is to continue at anywhere approximating the present level, for us collectively to educate and inform the general public of what we are doing and why. Informal science education and especially science and technology centers can play an important role in efforts to raise public awareness of particle physics in particular and of basic research in general. Science Centers are a natural avenue for particle physicists to use to communicate with and gain support from the general public

  13. 77 FR 37886 - Notice of Public Meetings for the Barry M. Goldwater Range, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... and BMGR East, respectively. Both meetings will be an open house format with presentation boards and... cultural resources of the BMGR, and for sustainable use by the public of such resources to the extent... conservation and rehabilitation of natural resources on military installations; (b) the sustainable...

  14. 77 FR 31329 - Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Woods, Hole, MA; Public Meeting/Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Woods, Hole, MA; Public Meeting/Workshop AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.../workshop. SUMMARY: NOAA's Northeast Fisheries Science Center will sponsor a workshop to address the stock...

  15. 77 FR 21772 - Notification of Two Public Teleconferences of the Science Advisory Board Biogenic Carbon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ...). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) Science Advisory Board ([email protected] . General information concerning the EPA Science Advisory Board can be found at the EPA... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9658-7] Notification of Two Public Teleconferences of the...

  16. 77 FR 30528 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board; Libby Amphibole Asbestos...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ...). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) Science Advisory Board (SAB... information concerning the EPA Science Advisory Board can be found at the EPA SAB Web site at http://www.epa... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9675-4] Notification of a Public Teleconference of the...

  17. 77 FR 18808 - Notification of Two Public Teleconferences of the Science Advisory Board; Libby Amphibole...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ...). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) Science Advisory Board (SAB... Science Advisory Board can be found at the EPA SAB Web site at http://www.epa.gov/sab . SUPPLEMENTARY... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9653-1] Notification of Two Public Teleconferences of the...

  18. The Online Public Access Catalogue at the Cite des Sciences Mediatheque in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Maria

    1990-01-01

    Provides background on the holdings, services, and layout of the mediatheque (multimedia library) at the Cite des Sciences et de l'Industrie (originally the Museum of Science, Technology, and Industry) in Paris. The library's online public access catalog and use of the catalog by children and the visually handicapped are described. (four…

  19. NASA Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach: The Impact of the Space Telescope Science Institute Office of Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Denise Anne; Jirdeh, Hussein; Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Villard, Ray; Green, Joel David

    2015-08-01

    As the science operations center for the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope, the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is uniquely positioned to captivate the imagination and inspire learners of all ages in humanity’s quest to understand fundamental questions about our universe and our place in it. This presentation will provide an overview of the impact of the STScI’s Office of Public Outreach’s efforts to engage students, educators, and the public in exploring the universe through audience-based news, education, and outreach programs.At the heart of our programs lies a tight coupling of scientific, education, and communications expertise. By partnering scientists and educators, we assure current, accurate science content and education products and programs that are classroom-ready and held to the highest pedagogical standards. Likewise, news and outreach programs accurately convey cutting-edge science and technology in a way that is attuned to audience needs. The combination of Hubble’s scientific capabilities, majestic imagery, and our deep commitment to create effective programs to share Hubble science with the education community and the public, has enabled the STScI Office of Public Outreach programs to engage 6 million students and ½ million educators per year, and 24 million online viewers per year. Hubble press releases generate approximately 5,000 online news articles per year with an average circulation of 125 million potential readers per press release news story. We will also share how best practices and lessons learned from this long-lived program are already being applied to engage a new generation of explorers in the science and technology of the James Webb Space Telescope.

  20. report reco | 1-Overview | 5-Publications | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An important aspect is continuous teacher training and upgradation of ... a wide variety of options of a more vocational or practical nature are available; we are ... programmes in selected institutions, the Academy also urges the introduction of .... the Three Science Academies of India on the teaching of the theory of evolution

  1. Intelligent Design in the Public School Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Wesley D.

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing battle to insert intelligent causes into the science classrooms has been met with political approval and scientific rejection. Administrators in the United States need to be aware of the law related to creationism and intelligent design in order to lead in local curricular battles. Although unlikely to appease the ID proponents, there…

  2. 1-Overview | 5-Publications | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Decadal vision document - Towards Ayurvedic Biology, 2006, PDF. Dragonflies and Damselflies of Peninsular India - a field guide, 2005, HTML. Report of Academy committee on scientific value, 2005, PDF. Decadal vision document - Astronomy & Astrophysics, 2004, PDF. Report on university education in science, 1994 ...

  3. report reco | Overview | Publications | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The editorial, intellectual and financial backing of the Academy will be available to sustain such an effort. The journal will contain expository articles, descriptions of new teaching methods and innovative experiments, science news, historical notes etc. Information on course openings and facilities in various institutions might ...

  4. Program on Public Conceptions of Science, Newsletter 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanpied, William A., Ed.; Shelanski, Vivien, Ed.

    This newsletter is divided into six sections: an introduction; general news items and communications from readers; news items and communications more specifically in the ethical and human values areas; an annotated, selective checklist of imaginative literature concerning the relationship between science, technology and human values; and a general…

  5. National Innovation Policy and Public Science in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lyn

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, I have positioned myself with Kean Birch and explored some of the political-economic actors/actants of policy suites implicated in the biotechnologies and bioeconomy. In particular, I have considered Australia's recent National Innovation and Science Agenda and allied documents and entities (that is, Innovation and Science…

  6. report dim | Overview | Publications | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Even worse, the access of young motivated students to leaders in various fields of science - natural in a ... countries and so essential to creative work at a young age - has become virtually impossible. ... YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog ...

  7. Merging long range transportation planning with public health: a case study from Utah's Wasatch Front.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbidge, Shaunna K

    2010-01-01

    US transportation systems have been identified as a problem for public health, as they often encourage automobile transportation and discourage physical activity. This paper provides a case study examination of the Public Health Component of the Wasatch Front Regional Council's Regional Transportation Plan. This plan provides an example of what transportation planners at Utah's largest metropolitan planning organization (MPO) are doing to encourage physical activity through transportation. Existing active living research was used to guide recommendations using a process that included a comprehensive literature review and a review of existing state programs, advisory group and stakeholder meetings, and policy recommendations based on existing local conditions. Stakeholders from a diversity of background and interests came together with one common goal: to improve public health. Based on this collaborative process, nine policy approaches were specifically recommended for approval and integration in the Wasatch Front Regional Transportation Plan. By using current research as a guide and integrating a variety of interests, the Wasatch Front Regional Council is setting a new standard for a collaborative multi-modal focus in transportation planning, which can be replicated nationwide.

  8. Science and the Public: Debate, Denial, and Skepticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Lewandowsky

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available When the scientific method yields discoveries that imperil people’s lifestyle or worldviews or impinge on corporate vested interests, the public and political response can be anything but favorable. Sometimes the response slides into overt denial of scientific facts, although this denial is often claimed to involve “skepticism”. We outline the distinction between true skepticism and denial with several case studies. We propose some guidelines to enable researchers to differentiate legitimate critical engagement from bad-faith harassment, and to enable members of the public to pursue their skeptical engagement and critique without such engagement being mistaken for harassment.

  9. Systems Science: A Good Investment for the Public's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry, Patricia L.; Kaplan, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    This supplement of "Health Education & Behavior" showcases the current state of the field of systems science applications in health promotion and public health. Behind this work lies a steady stream of public dollars at the federal level. This perspective details nearly a decade of investment by the National Institutes of…

  10. How Do Business and Government Interact? Combining Perspectives from Economics, Political Science, Public Administration, and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Patrick B.; Harsell, Dana Michael

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe the theoretical preparation provided to students in advance of a limited-duration experiential learning experience in Washington DC in a Master's level course for students in Business or Public Administration. The students consider theoretical perspectives from economics, political science, and public administration with…

  11. The public and wildland fire management: social science findings for managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. McCaffrey

    2006-01-01

    Presents key social science findings from three National Fire Plan-sponsored research projects. Articles highlight information of likely interest to individuals working to decrease wildfire hazards on both private and public lands. Three general topic areas are addressed: (1) public views and acceptance of fuels management, (2) working with homeowners and communities,...

  12. Language -- the barrier and the bridge between science and public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, T

    2001-08-01

    What does modern science tell people? That life is ultimately DNA, and DNA is genes, and genes are just so many bits of Lego, little building blocks manipulated by Nature for 3.8 thousand billion years, rather economically, so that much the same genes pop up in a nematode worm, a fruit fly, a lettuce, and a thriller writer. And that genes can be transferred from one species, or genus, or phylum, or even one kingdom to another. That is why there is unease, and newspapers reflect that unease, they do not create it. By helping people confront that unease, they probably help people come to terms with it. In the course of history, people have felt pretty uneasy about blood transfusion, heart transplants, test tube babies, and AIDS, and over the years, have calmed down considerably about each, to the advantage of both society and science. It will be the same for the human genome project, in a while.

  13. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Engaging K-12 Educators, Students, and the General Public in Space Science Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Engaging K-12 Educators, Students, and the General Public in Space Science Exploration" included the following reports:Training Informal Educators Provides Leverage for Space Science Education and Public Outreach; Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education: K-12 Teacher Retention, Renewal, and Involvement in Professional Science; Telling the Tale of Two Deserts: Teacher Training and Utilization of a New Standards-based, Bilingual E/PO Product; Lindstrom M. M. Tobola K. W. Stocco K. Henry M. Allen J. S. McReynolds J. Porter T. T. Veile J. Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets: Space Science Applications of Physics and Chemistry for High School and College Classes -- Update; Utilizing Mars Data in Education: Delivering Standards-based Content by Exposing Educators and Students to Authentic Scientific Opportunities and Curriculum; K. E. Little Elementary School and the Young Astronaut Robotics Program; Integrated Solar System Exploration Education and Public Outreach: Theme, Products and Activities; and Online Access to the NEAR Image Collection: A Resource for Educators and Scientists.

  14. Semantic integration of scientific publications and research data: proposal of model of expanded publication for the area of nuclear sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, Luana Farias

    2014-01-01

    This research takes place under the conditions of an arising scientific paradigm, known as e-Science or 4 th Scientific Paradigm. This new way of doing science is characterized by intensive use of computer networks, distributed digital repositories and by extraordinary generation of research data, which is a consequence of the heavy use of information and simulation technologies and advancing of scientific instrumentation. The information environment that is established as a result of these transformations significantly impacts the patterns of scientific communication, especially regarding to cooperative research, the sharing and reuse of information resources and ways to communicate and to disseminate research results. In order to create a context for their field of study, the thesis contributes to delineate new and renewed concepts for Information Science such as e-Science, curation of research data, complex digital objects, data repository, CRIS (Current Research Information System Model ) and others key infrastructures for the management of research and also of new conceptions of academic and scientific publications. The research is based on two assumptions: first raises the need for a model of scientific publication that would reflect the new standard for generating scientific knowledge characterized by data richness, and being able to integrate these data to publications; the second highlights that this can be performed according to the technological possibilities and standards arising from the Semantic Web. These two assumptions embody the formulation of the hypothesis raised by this thesis: a scientific publication can be enriched and be closer to new ways of generating knowledge, which characterizes contemporary science, if it is configured according to a model that links through semantic relations the research data and datasets to conventional publication. The method adopted was the deductive one, starting from general concepts of Information Science

  15. In science communication, why does the idea of a public deficit always return? The eternal recurrence of the public deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortassa, Carina

    2016-05-01

    After several years of loud and clear rejection, the idea of a public cognitive deficit insistently reappears in the agenda of Science Communication and Public Understanding of Science studies. This essay addresses two different kinds of reason - practical and epistemic - converging at that point. In the first part, it will be argued that the hypothesis of the lack of knowledge among laypeople and its controversial relationships with their interests and attitudes towards science prevails because it is an intuitive and optimistic way to frame the gap between science and society and, therefore, to cope with its causes and consequences. In the second part, a deeper level of reasons will be examined, in order to show that the persistence of the idea has its roots in the objective epistemic asymmetry between scientists and the public, the scope of which is not always properly judged. To recognize this asymmetry as a previous condition for their interactions may help to surpass the byzantine debate: deficit yes or no and open up original questions for the field, summarized in the closing remarks. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Should Intelligent Design Be Taught in Public School Science Classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plutynski, Anya

    2010-01-01

    A variety of different arguments have been offered for teaching "both sides" of the evolution/ID debate in public schools. This article reviews five of the most common types of arguments advanced by proponents of Intelligent Design and demonstrates how and why they are founded on confusion and misunderstanding. It argues on behalf of teaching…

  17. Assessment of Scholarly Publications of Nigerian Health Sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, 17 articles were published in four international multidisciplinary journals namely: British Medical Journal (BMJ), Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Lancet and New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM). Approximately 80% of the publications were Original Research Articles. Nigerian health ...

  18. Fundamentalism in Psychological Science. The Publication Manual as "Bible."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh-Bowers, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the content of the fourth edition of the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association" (1994) as if it were a biblical text. Draws on socio-historical studies and critical feminist perspectives to discuss the manual's function as a fundamentalist "bible" in relation to psychologists' culture. (SLD)

  19. Teaching science for public understanding: Developing decision-making abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Marcelle A.

    One of the most important challenges educators have is teaching students how to make decisions about complex issues. In this study, methods designed to enhance students' decision-making skills and attitudes were investigated. An issue-oriented science curriculum was partly replaced with activities designed by the experimenter. The first objective of the study was to examine the effects of an instructional method to increase students' use of relevant scientific evidence in their decisions. The second goal of the research was to test whether the instructional activities could promote students' beliefs that science is relevant to them, because attitudes have been shown to affect students' performance and persistence (Schommer, 1994). Third, the study was designed to determine whether the instructional activities would affect students' beliefs that their intelligence is not fixed but can grow; this question is based on Dweck and Leggett's (1988) definition of two orientations toward intelligence---entity theorists and incremental theorists (Dweck & Leggett, 1988; Dweck & Henderson, 1989). Two urban high-school classrooms participated in this study. Tenth graders examined scientific materials about current issues involving technology and society. Instructional materials on decision making were prepared for one class of students to enhance their regular issue-oriented course, Science and Sustainability. A computer program, called Convince Me (Schank, Ranney & Hoadley, 1996), provided scaffolding for making an evidence-based decision. The experimental group's activities also included pen-and-paper lessons on decision making and the effect of experience on the structure of the brain. The control class continued to engage in Science and Sustainability decision-making activities during the time the experimental class completed the treatment. The control group did not show significant improvement on decision-making tasks, and the experimental group showed marginally

  20. Dissemination, Implementation, and Improvement Science Research in Population Health: Opportunities for Public Health and CTSAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tony; Gase, Lauren N; Inkelas, Moira

    2015-12-01

    The complex, dynamic nature of health systems requires dissemination, implementation, and improvement (DII) sciences to effectively translate emerging knowledge into practice. Although they hold great promise for informing multisector policies and system-level changes, these methods are often not strategically used by public health. More than 120 stakeholders from Southern California, including the community, federal and local government, university, and health services were convened to identify key priorities and opportunities for public health departments and Clinical and Translational Science Awards programs (CTSAs) to advance DII sciences in population health. Participants identified challenges (mismatch of practice realities with narrowly focused research questions; lack of iterative learning) and solutions (using methods that fit the dynamic nature of the real world; aligning theories of change across sectors) for applying DII science research to public health problems. Pragmatic steps that public health and CTSAs can take to facilitate DII science research include: employing appropriate study designs; training scientists and practicing professionals in these methods; securing resources to advance this work; and supporting team science to solve complex-systems issues. Public health and CTSAs represent a unique model of practice for advancing DII research in population health. The partnership can inform policy and program development in local communities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Why and How Political Science Can Contribute to Public Health? Proposals for Collaborative Research Avenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, France; Bergeron, Pierre; Clavier, Carole; Fafard, Patrick; Martin, Elisabeth; Blouin, Chantal

    2017-04-05

    Written by a group of political science researchers, this commentary focuses on the contributions of political science to public health and proposes research avenues to increase those contributions. Despite progress, the links between researchers from these two fields develop only slowly. Divergences between the approach of political science to public policy and the expectations that public health can have about the role of political science, are often seen as an obstacle to collaboration between experts in these two areas. Thus, promising and practical research avenues are proposed along with strategies to strengthen and develop them. Considering the interdisciplinary and intersectoral nature of population health, it is important to create a critical mass of researchers interested in the health of populations and in healthy public policy that can thrive working at the junction of political science and public health. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  2. NASA Citizen Science: Putting Real Data, Observations, and Analysis Methods in the Hands of the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L.

    2014-12-01

    The ability for the general public, science attentive public, educators, and amateur scientists to obtain and use data from remote instrumentation in authentic research / citizen science activities has grown enormously in the past decade due to the internet, increasing bandwidths, easy translation of data formats, and an expanding population of web based acquisition, display, analysis, and publishing tools. The impact of this new and rapidly growing capability is both evolutionary and paradigm changing. At no other time in history have we had the ability to marshal planetary scale resources to educate large populations across socio economic and geographical boundaries and to push the envelope of science discovery through long baseline observing campaigns, crowd sourcing, and the like. This talk will focus on some of NASA's authentic research and citizen science campaigns and discuss opportunities for future public collaborations.

  3. Time, science and consensus: the different times involving scientific research, political decision and public opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido de

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyses the asymmetrical relationship between the time of scientific research and the time of the different segments interested in their results, focusing mainly on necessity to establish technical consensus about the fields of science that require rigorous investigations and texts. In the last years, civil society sectors - mainly scientific journalism, legislative power, and public opinion - has shown growing interest in participating of the decision making process that regulates science routes. In this study, we analyzed the decision making process of the Biosafety Law, as it allows research with embryonic stem cells in Brazil. The results allow us to conclude that this asymmetrical relationship between the different times (of science, scientific disclosure, public opinion, and public power contribute to the maturing of the dialog on scientific policies, as well as to the establishment of a consensus concerning science routes, which aims at the democratization of scientific work.

  4. The Art Of Planetary Science: An Exhibition - Bringing Together The Art And Science Communities To Engage The Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaro, Jamie; Keane, Jamies; Peacock, Sarah; Schaefer, Ethan; Tanquary, Hannah

    2014-11-01

    The University of Arizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (LPL) presents the 2nd Annual The Art of Planetary Science: An Exhibition (TAPS) on 17-19 October 2014. This art exhibition and competition features artwork inspired by planetary science, alongside works created from scientific data. It is designed to connect the local art and science communities of Tucson, and engage the public together in celebration of the beauty and elegance of the universe. The exhibition is organized by a team of volunteer graduate students, with the help of LPL’s Space Imaging Center, and support from the LPL administration. Last year’s inaugural event featured over 150 works of art from 70 artists and scientists. A variety of mediums were represented, including paintings, photography, digital prints, sculpture, glasswork, textiles, film, and written word. Over 300 guests attended the opening. Art submission and event attendance are free, and open to anyone.The primary goal of the event is to present a different side of science to the public. Too often, the public sees science as dull or beyond their grasp. This event provides scientists the opportunity to demonstrate the beauty that they find in their science, by creating art out of their scientific data. These works utilized, for example, equations, simulations, visual representations of spacecraft data, and images of extra-terrestrial material samples. Viewing these works alongside more traditional artwork inspired by those same scientific ideas provided the audience a more complex, multifaceted view of the content that would not be possible viewing either alone. The event also provides a way to reach out specifically to the adult community. Most science outreach is targeted towards engaging children in STEM fields. While this is vital for the long term, adults have more immediate control over the perception of science and public policy that provides funding and research opportunities to scientists. We hope this event raises

  5. Defining the public, defining sociology: hybrid science-public relations and boundary-work in early American sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael S

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I examine how scientific disciplines define their boundaries by defining the publics with whom they engage. The case study is an episode in the development of early American sociology. In response to the dual challenge of credibility set up by the conflict between religious Baconian science and secular positivist science, key actors engaged in specific strategies of boundary-work to create their desired "sociological public"--a hybrid form of science-public relations that appealed to hostile university scientists while excluding a supportive religious audience from participation in the production of scientific knowledge. Using this case, I offer two specific insights. First I illustrate how, in the pursuit of scientific credibility, actors engage in boundary-work to differentiate audiences, not just practitioners. Such defining of publics is constitutive of scientific disciplines in their formative stage. Second, I demonstrate how audience boundaries can be redefined through the capture of existing boundary objects. Specifically, the removal of informational content in key boundary objects creates durable boundaries that are difficult to overcome.

  6. Questionable, Objectionable or Criminal? Public Opinion on Data Fraud and Selective Reporting in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Justin T; Roche, Sean Patrick

    2018-02-01

    Data fraud and selective reporting both present serious threats to the credibility of science. However, there remains considerable disagreement among scientists about how best to sanction data fraud, and about the ethicality of selective reporting. The public is arguably the largest stakeholder in the reproducibility of science; research is primarily paid for with public funds, and flawed science threatens the public's welfare. Members of the public are able to make meaningful judgments about the morality of different behaviors using moral intuitions. Legal scholars emphasize that to maintain legitimacy, social control policies must be developed with some consideration given to the public's moral intuitions. Although there is a large literature on popular attitudes toward science, there is no existing evidence about public opinion on data fraud or selective reporting. We conducted two studies-a survey experiment with a nationwide convenience sample (N = 821), and a follow-up survey with a representative sample of US adults (N = 964)-to explore community members' judgments about the morality of data fraud and selective reporting in science. The findings show that community members make a moral distinction between data fraud and selective reporting, but overwhelmingly judge both behaviors to be immoral and deserving of punishment. Community members believe that scientists who commit data fraud or selective reporting should be fired and banned from receiving funding. For data fraud, most Americans support criminal penalties. Results from an ordered logistic regression analysis reveal few demographic and no significant partisan differences in punitiveness toward data fraud.

  7. Earth Science and Public Health: Proceedings of the Second National Conference on USGS Health-Related Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Griffin, Dale W.; Pierce, Brenda S.

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is to serve the Nation by providing reliable scientific information to describe and understand the earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life. As the Nation?s largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping agency, the USGS can play a significant role in providing scientific knowledge and information that will improve our understanding of the relations of environment and wildlife to human health and disease. USGS human health-related research is unique in the Federal government because it brings together a broad spectrum of natural science expertise and information, including extensive data collection and monitoring on varied landscapes and ecosystems across the Nation. USGS can provide a great service to the public health community by synthesizing the scientific information and knowledge on our natural and living resources that influence human health, and by bringing this science to the public health community in a manner that is most useful. Partnerships with health scientists and managers are essential to the success of these efforts. USGS scientists already are working closely with the public health community to pursue rigorous inquiries into the connections between natural science and public health. Partnering agencies include the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Registry, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Food and Drug Administration, Mine Safety and Health Administration, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Public Health Service, and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. Collaborations between public

  8. Public science policy and administration. [cooperation of government industry, foundations, and educational institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, A. H. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Science, the overwhelming concern of our time, is no longer a matter of private research and development but one of public policy and administration, in which government, industry, foundations, and educational institutions must all work together as never before. Few other single tasks are of such decisive importance to the collective and individual welfare of American citizens as the formulation of public science policy and the administration of scientific programs. Eleven national authorities of varied background in science, education, and government administration contribute their experience and their judgment in an effort to deal with the major aspects of the subject. Their focus is on the meeting of actual problems; they consider the decision making process in both public and public-private organizations. Topics are grouped in three general categories: personnel needs and resources, organizational problems and techniques, and the administrative role in policy leadership.

  9. Public health policy research: making the case for a political science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Nicole F; Clavier, Carole

    2011-03-01

    The past few years have seen the emergence of claims that the political determinants of health do not get due consideration and a growing demand for better insights into public policy analysis in the health research field. Several public health and health promotion researchers are calling for better training and a stronger research culture in health policy. The development of these studies tends to be more advanced in health promotion than in other areas of public health research, but researchers are still commonly caught in a naïve, idealistic and narrow view of public policy. This article argues that the political science discipline has developed a specific approach to public policy analysis that can help to open up unexplored levers of influence for public health research and practice and that can contribute to a better understanding of public policy as a determinant of health. It describes and critiques the public health model of policy analysis, analyzes political science's specific approach to public policy analysis, and discusses how the politics of research provides opportunities and barriers to the integration of political science's distinctive contributions to policy analysis in health promotion.

  10. Public outreach: Multitudes attend the Night of Science

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Night of Science, which took place in the parc de la Perle du Lac in Geneva last weekend, was a great success, with 30000 visitors attending according to the organisers. Many curious people flocked to the stands and animations until late on Saturday night and all afternoon on Sunday. The CERN stand (photo) received a great amount of interest from participants. Both kids and adults discovered the activities of the Laboratory and the data-processing revolution initiated by CERN, from the Web to the Computing Grid. Hats off to the CERN collaborators in the Communication Group and IT Department who made this event a success.

  11. Science for the Public Through Collaboration and Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Richard

    2013-03-01

    The transformation of all things media and information into a dynamic environment of user access has created what seems infinite possibilities to inform the public in many different ways - as well as seemingly infinite possibilities to confuse. This talk will describe a rather non-conventional collaboration between two different creative cultures and its significance to maintaining scientific accuracy and devising strategies important to audience engagement - among them humor. While focusing on the award-winning effort ``When Things Get Small'' created by University of California Television producer R. Wargo in collaboration with condensed matter physicist I.K. Schuller and actor Adam J. Smith, with both NSF and private support, the case study provides insight into a model and modes which can be used successfully by other scientists to engage the public in what they do.

  12. Public Engagement in Planetary Science through Europlanet Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenatigala, T.

    2017-09-01

    From 'Save the Hubble' campaign to ESA's Rosetta mission, social media has played a major role in public engagement and continues to grow. However, with this growing number of social media platforms and the amount of content that goes public daily, the 'noise' level is high - making it difficult to reach a good, relevant audience. Hence, it's important to use different strategies with the content created, from launching a video to live session to issue a press release. Under the Horizon 2020, the Europlanet Media Centre[1] identifies the importance of using social media for outreach. Europlanet uses primary and secondary social media platforms strategically to engage with the followers and a new audience.

  13. Program for advanced study in public science policy and administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, A. H.

    1976-01-01

    The results and conclusions of the six-year effort concerned with the development and implementation of a university educational program intended to prepare scientists and engineers for upper-level management and administrative positions (as distinct from senior technical positions) were presented. This interdisciplinary program is at the graduate level, leading to a Master of Arts degree, and is given within a Division of Public Administration.

  14. Making sense of science: Meeting the public's information needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abalkina, I.

    2005-01-01

    The study aimed at better understanding of specific information needs as well as of how the public perceives the issue of radioactive contamination. Main conclusions of the study:1. Information is lacking 2. Great concern for health effects of radiation 3. Poverty is a worry. Study results are very much consistent with the ideas of 2002 UN Report: Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident: A Strategy for Recovery

  15. Enhancing Public Participation to Improve Natural Resources Science and its Use in Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P. D.; Shapiro, C. D.; Liu, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    The need for broader understanding and involvement in science coupled with social technology advances enabling crowdsourcing and citizen science have created greater opportunities for public participation in the gathering, interpretation, and use of geospatial information. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is developing guidance for USGS scientists, partners, and interested members of the public on when and how public participation can most effectively be used in the conduct of scientific activities. Public participation can provide important perspectives and knowledge that cannot be obtained through traditional scientific methods alone. Citizen engagement can also provide increased efficiencies to USGS science and additional benefits to society including enhanced understanding, appreciation, and interest in geospatial information and its use in decision making.The USGS guidance addresses several fundamental issues by:1. Developing an operational definition of citizen or participatory science.2. Identifying the circumstances under which citizen science is appropriate for use and when its use is not recommended. 3. Describing structured processes for effective use of citizen science. 4. Defining the successful application of citizen science and identifying useful success metrics.The guidance is coordinated by the USGS Science and Decisions Center and developed by a multidisciplinary team of USGS scientists and managers. External perspectives will also be incorporated, as appropriate to align with other efforts such as the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Citizen Science and Crowdsourcing Toolkit for the Federal government. The guidance will include the development of an economic framework to assess the benefits and costs of geospatial information developed through participatory processes. This economic framework considers tradeoffs between obtaining additional perspectives through enhanced participation with costs associated from obtaining

  16. Governing GMOs in the USA: science, law and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y Tony; Chen, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Controversy surrounds the production and consumption of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Proponents argue that GMO food sources represent the only viable solution to food shortages in an ever-growing global population. Science reports no harm from GMO use and consumption so far. Opponents fear the potentially negative impact that GMO development and use could have on the environment and consumers, and are concerned about the lack of data on the long-term effects of GMO use. We discuss the development of GMO food sources, the history of legislation and policy for the labeling requirements of GMO food products, and the health, environmental, and legal rationale for and against GMO food labeling. The Food and Drug Administration regulates food with GMOs within a coordinated framework of federal agencies. Despite mounting scientific evidence that GMO foods are substantially equivalent to traditionally bred food sources, debate remains over the appropriateness of GMO food labeling. In fact, food manufacturers have mounted a First Amendment challenge against Vermont's passage of a law that requires GMO labeling. Mandatory GMO labeling is not supported by science. Compulsory GMO labels may not only hinder the development of agricultural biotechnology, but may also exacerbate the misconception that GMOs endanger people's health. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Public Participation in Earth Science from the Iss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2010-12-01

    The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth (GAPE) is an online database (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov) of terrestrial astronaut photography that enables the public to experience the astronaut’s view from orbit. This database of imagery includes all NASA human-directed missions from the Mercury program of the early 1960’s to the current International Space Station (ISS). To date, the total number of images taken by astronauts is 1,025,333. Of the total, 621,316 images have been “cataloged” (image geographic center points determined and descriptive metadata added). The remaining imagery provides an opportunity for the citizen-scientist to become directly involved with NASA through cataloging of astronaut photography, while simultaneously experiencing the wonder and majesty of our home planet as seen by astronauts on board the ISS every day. We are currently developing a public cataloging interface for the GAPE website. When complete, the citizen-scientist will be able to access a selected subset of astronaut imagery. Each candidate will be required to pass a training tutorial in order to receive certification as a cataloger. The cataloger can then choose from a selection of images with basic metadata that is sorted by difficulty levels. Some guidance will be provided (template/pull down menus) for generation of geographic metadata required from the cataloger for each photograph. Each cataloger will also be able to view other contributions and further edit that metadata if they so choose. After the public inputs their metadata the images will be posted to an internal screening site. Images with similar geographic metadata and centerpoint coordinates from multiple catalogers will be reviewed by NASA JSC Crew Earth Observations (CEO) staff. Once reviewed and verified, the metadata will be entered into the GAPE database with the contributors identified by their chosen usernames as having cataloged the frame.

  18. The Importance of Computer Science for Public Health Training: An Opportunity and Call to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkle, Sarah; Christie, Gillian; Yach, Derek; El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M

    2016-01-01

    A century ago, the Welch-Rose Report established a public health education system in the United States. Since then, the system has evolved to address emerging health needs and integrate new technologies. Today, personalized health technologies generate large amounts of data. Emerging computer science techniques, such as machine learning, present an opportunity to extract insights from these data that could help identify high-risk individuals and tailor health interventions and recommendations. As these technologies play a larger role in health promotion, collaboration between the public health and technology communities will become the norm. Offering public health trainees coursework in computer science alongside traditional public health disciplines will facilitate this evolution, improving public health's capacity to harness these technologies to improve population health.

  19. System of Interactions of Social Actors in Public Communication of Science and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Graciela Miquilena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research aimed at explaining the system of interactions of social actors in Public Communication of Science and Technology (PCST, in the context of a social web defined by the novel systems of communication sustained on informational and communication technologies. The study’s theoretical framework highlights the strategic importance of a Public Communication  which focuses on promoting public appropriation of Science and Technology, going beyond the role of Journalism and Science Communication that informs a qualified public, to one that stablishes a bond with policies and decision making in the area, made with participation of international agencies, governments, producers of science and technology, journalists’ associations, educational institutions, and citizens. The research relies on Explicative Methodology. A revision of pertinent bibliography leads to the conclusion that the system of social interactions mediated by personal, interpersonal and grupal global communications, define the relationships in the communicational exchange of the social actor with regard to public communication of science and technology and policies aimed at its appropriation.

  20. Mars Public Mapping Project: Public Participation in Science Research; Providing Opportunities for Kids of All Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, L. D.; Valderrama Graff, P.; Bandfield, J. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Klug, S. L.; Deva, B.; Capages, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Mars Public Mapping Project is a web-based education and public outreach tool developed by the Mars Space Flight Facility at Arizona State University. This tool allows the general public to identify and map geologic features on Mars, utilizing Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) visible images, allowing public participation in authentic scientific research. In addition, participants are able to rate each image (based on a 1 to 5 star scale) to help build a catalog of some of the more appealing and interesting martian surface features. Once participants have identified observable features in an image, they are able to view a map of the global distribution of the many geologic features they just identified. This automatic feedback, through a global distribution map, allows participants to see how their answers compare to the answers of other participants. Participants check boxes "yes, no, or not sure" for each feature that is listed on the Mars Public Mapping Project web page, including surface geologic features such as gullies, sand dunes, dust devil tracks, wind streaks, lava flows, several types of craters, and layers. Each type of feature has a quick and easily accessible description and example image. When a participant moves their mouse over each example thumbnail image, a window pops up with a picture and a description of the feature. This provides a form of "on the job training" for the participants that can vary with their background level. For users who are more comfortable with Mars geology, there is also an advanced feature identification section accessible by a drop down menu. This includes additional features that may be identified, such as streamlined islands, valley networks, chaotic terrain, yardangs, and dark slope streaks. The Mars Public Mapping Project achieves several goals: 1) It engages the public in a manner that encourages active participation in scientific research and learning about geologic features and processes. 2) It helps to

  1. Conversations between scientists and the public in radio phone-ins: an experimental approach to analyse public perception of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merzagora Matteo

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available “Il ciclotrone” is the weekly science programme of “Radio Popolare - Popolare Network”, the most important independent news radio network in Italy, based in Milan. During the last 12 years, once or twice a month listeners have been able to directly ask questions to the guest scientists in the studios, or to express their point of view on some controversial scientific issue. Among mass-media, the radio has several characteristics which tend to enhance the sense of friendliness and belonging - essential to any true communication. Phone-ins at Radio Popolare are not filtered; regular and occasional listeners are used to communicate with or through the radio, and in doing so they contribute to the sense of spontaneity which characterise the programmes. During “Il ciclotrone”, very often the ''anchor'' tends to disappear, and phone-ins become a lively conversation between the scientists and the public (whose members seldom agree with each other. In this presentation, phone-ins on science - over the years they involved internationally famous scientists (such as Lewontin, Damasio, Amaldi, Rotblat, Di Chiara, …, and less well-known but reputed Italian researchers - are analysed in terms of their capabilities of providing a tool to understand public perception of science. Moreover, the authors believe that science journalism shouldn't only inform or educate the public on the work of scientists, but also inform or educate the scientists on how their work is perceived. Indeed, scientists seldom have a chance to hear the criticism (positive or negative of a large, unselected audience and to have a first-hand grasp of public feelings concerning their work.

  2. Transdisciplinary Higher Education—A Challenge for Public Health Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Krettek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights and discusses issues associated with transdisciplinary teaching and suggests ways to overcome the challenges posed by different epistemologies, methods, and ethical positions. Our own transdisciplinary teaching experience in public health helped us identify some important questions including (i what is transdisciplinary research in practice, and does methods triangulation yield more valid results?, (ii from a teaching perspective, how do biopsychosocial and medical research differ?, (iii what is the difference between deductive and inductive research, and does each discipline represent a different ethical position?, and (iv does pure inductive research lack theories, and does it require a hypothesis—a “rule of thumb”—on how to proceed? We also suggest ways to facilitate and enhance transdisciplinary teaching, focusing on what unites us and not on what sets us apart, openly underlining and highlighting our differences. Using diverse methodologies, a newly educated transdisciplinary workforce will likely extend current knowledge and facilitate solutions for complex public health issues.

  3. Science communication in transition: genomics hype, public engagement, education and commercialization pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubela, T

    2006-11-01

    This essay reports on the final session of a 2-day workshop entitled 'Genetic Diversity and Science Communication', hosted by the CIHR Institute of Genetics in Toronto, April 2006. The first speaker, Timothy Caulfield, introduced the intersecting communities that promulgate a 'cycle of hype' of the timelines and expected outcomes of the Human Genome Project (HGP): scientists, the media and the public. Other actors also contribute to the overall hype, the social science and humanities communities, industry and politicians. There currently appears to be an abatement of the overblown rhetoric of the HGP. As pointed out by the second speaker, Sharon Kardia, there is broad recognition that most phenotypic traits, including disease susceptibility are multi-factorial. That said, George Davey-Smith reminded us that some direct genotype-phenotype associations may be useful for public health issues. The Mendelian randomization approach hopes to revitalize the discipline of epidemiology by strengthening causal influences about environmentally modifiable risk factors. A more realistic informational environment paves the way for greater public engagement in science policy. Two such initiatives were presented by Kardia and Jason Robert, and Peter Finegold emphasized that science education and professional development for science teachers are important components of later public engagement in science issues. However, pressures on public research institutions to commercialize and seek industry funding may have negative impacts in both encouraging scientists to inappropriately hype research and on diminishing public trust in the scientific enterprise. The latter may have a significant effect on public engagement processes, such as those proposed by Robert and Kardia.

  4. The how and why of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Arnold J. H.; Bron, Wichertje A.; Mulder, Sara

    2014-05-01

    In the scientific community, the importance of communication to society is often underestimated. Scientists and scientific organisations often lack the skills to organise such communication effectively. The Dutch citizen science phenology network Nature's Calendar has been successful in communicating to the general public via numerous newspaper articles, television appearances, presentations, websites and social media. We refer to these publications as societal publications. Due to active communication to mass media, we frequently reach millions of people. This communication helped us to involve thousands of volunteers in recording the timing of phenological events like the start of flowering, leaf unfolding and bird migration, but also several health-related events like hay fever symptoms and tick bites. In this paper, we analyse and present our experiences with the Nature's Calendar project regarding societal publications. Based on this analysis, we explain the importance of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists in general, and we show how scientists can increase the newsworthiness of scientific information and what factors and activities can increase the chances of media paying attention to this news. We show that societal publications help phenological networks by facilitating the recruitment, retention and instruction of observers. Furthermore, they stimulate the generation of new ideas and partners that lead to an increase in knowledge, awareness and behavioural change of the general public or specific stakeholders. They make projects, and scientists involved, better known to the public and increase their credibility and authority. Societal publications can catalyse the production of new publications, thereby enforcing the previous mentioned points.

  5. Publication Rates of Social and Administrative Sciences Pharmacy Faculty in Non-Research Intensive Pharmacy Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Trenna; Unni, Elizabeth

    2018-04-01

    Objective. To assess the level of publication rates from 2011 through 2015 by Social and Administrative Sciences (SAS) faculty at non-research intensive pharmacy schools. Methods. The Web of Science database was searched using faculty names identified from the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) faculty and professional staff roster. Publication rates of SAS faculty were calculated and compared using several demographic subcategories such as public/private school, part of an academic health center, schools with PhD program, funding status, etc. Results. The 208 SAS faculty members from 59 colleges contributed to 478 publications with a mean of 95.6 publications per year and 1.62 publications per institution per year. The number of publications increased 45% over the five years from 67 publications in 2011 to 122 in 2015.The average number of publications was 0.92 per year per SAS faculty compared to 0.82 publications per year per faculty from other basic pharmaceutical sciences divisions. The most commonly published research was research articles in the area of scholarship of teaching and learning. The significant predictors of publications were being part of an academic health center, having a PhD program, and higher percent of faculty members who are SAS faculty. Conclusion. Despite being affiliated with institutions with missions less targeted on research, this study showed SAS faculty members at non-research intensive institutions consistently contribute to published literature. Further studies are needed to examine reasons for the lack of publishing by almost half of the SAS faculty and ways to increase research and publication in the field of SAS.

  6. Competition on the range: science vs. perception in a bison-cattle conflict in the western USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranglack, Dustin H; Durham, Susan; du Toit, Johan T

    2015-04-01

    1. Competition between livestock and wild ungulates is commonly perceived to occur on shared rangelands. In the Henry Mountains (HM) of Utah, a free-ranging population of bison Bison bison has raised concerns among ranchers holding grazing permits on these public lands. Bison are the most conspicuous potential competitors with cattle, but lagomorphs (mainly jackrabbits Lepus californicus ) are also abundant in this area. The local ranching community is applying political pressure on state and federal agencies to resolve 'the bison problem', but the relative grazing impacts of bison, cattle and lagomorphs have not previously been quantified. 2. We constructed 40 grazing exclosures (each 5·95 m 2 ) in the conflict area: 20 excluded bison + cattle ('partial') and 20 excluded bison + cattle + lagomorphs ('full'). All exclosures, each with a paired open reference plot, were monitored for 1 year, and above-ground plant production was measured. GPS telemetry (bison) and scheduled grazing (cattle) allowed visitation to be quantified for each ungulate species based on the number of 'animal days' in the area. Rancher perceptions of wildlife-cattle interactions were recorded in a questionnaire survey. 3. Ranchers perceived bison as a high-level competitor with cattle, whereas lagomorphs were perceived as low-level competitors. 4. Grazed reference plots yielded an average (±SE) of 22·7 g m -2 (±5·16) of grass, compared to 36·5 g m -2 (±7·33) in the partial exclosures and 43·7 g m -2 (±7·61) in the full exclosures. Exclusion of large herbivores thus resulted in a 13·8 g m -2 increase in grass biomass relative to the reference plots ( P = 0·005), with the additional exclusion of lagomorphs resulting in a further 7·18 g m -2 increase ( P = 0·048). 5. Overall, lagomorphs accounted for 34·1%, bison 13·7% and cattle 52·3% of the total grass biomass removed by all herbivores on the shared range. 6. Synthesis and applications . Cattle face a greater competitive

  7. Connecting the Public to Scientific Research Data - Science On a Sphere°

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, M. A.; Russell, E. L.; Science on a Sphere Datasets

    2011-12-01

    Connecting the Public to Scientific Research Data - Science On a Sphere° Maurice Henderson, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Elizabeth Russell, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, University of Colorado Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences Science On a Sphere° is a six foot animated globe developed by the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA, as a means to display global scientific research data in an intuitive, engaging format in public forums. With over 70 permanent installations of SOS around the world in science museums, visitor's centers and universities, the audience that enjoys SOS yearly is substantial, wide-ranging, and diverse. Through partnerships with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA, the SOS Data Catalog (http://sos.noaa.gov/datasets/) has grown to a collection of over 350 datasets from NOAA, NASA, and many others. Using an external projection system, these datasets are displayed onto the sphere creating a seamless global image. In a cross-site evaluation of Science On a Sphere°, 82% of participants said yes, seeing information displayed on a sphere changed their understanding of the information. This unique technology captivates viewers and exposes them to scientific research data in a way that is accessible, presentable, and understandable. The datasets that comprise the SOS Data Catalog are scientific research data that have been formatted for display on SOS. By formatting research data into visualizations that can be used on SOS, NOAA and NASA are able to turn research data into educational materials that are easily accessible for users. In many cases, visualizations do not need to be modified because SOS uses a common map projection. The SOS Data Catalog has become a "one-stop shop" for a broad range of global datasets from across NOAA and NASA, and as a result, the traffic on the site is more than just SOS users. While the target audience for this site is SOS users, many

  8. Developing a taxonomy for the science of improvement in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, William; Lownik, Beth; Halverson, Paul; Parrotta, Carmen; Godsall, Jonathan R; Gyllstrom, Elizabeth; Gearin, Kimberly J; Mays, Glen

    2012-11-01

    Quality improvement (QI) methods have been used for almost a decade in public health departments to increase effectiveness and efficiency. Although results are rapidly accumulating, the evidence for the science of improvement is shallow and limited. To advance the use and effectiveness of QI in public health, it is important to develop a science of improvement using practice-based research to build an evidence base for QI projects. This purpose of this study is to advance the science of improvement in public health departments with 3 objectives: (1) establish a taxonomy of QI projects in public health, (2) categorize QI projects undertaken in health departments using the taxonomy, and (3) create an opportunity modes and effects analysis. This study is a qualitative analysis of archival data from 2 separate large databases consisting of 51 QI projects undertaken in public health departments over the last 5 years. The study involves 2 separate QI collaboratives. One includes Minnesota health departments; the other is a national collaborative. We propose a standardized case definition, common metrics, and a taxonomy of QI projects to begin building the evidence base for QI in public health and to advance the science of continuous quality improvement. All projects created an aim statement and used metrics while 53% used a specific QI model with an average of 3.25 QI techniques per project. Approximately 40% of the projects incorporated a process control methodology, and 60% of the projects identified the process from beginning to end, while 11 of 12 PHAB (Public Health Accreditation Board) domains were included. The findings provide a baseline for QI taxonomy to operationalize a science of improvement for public health departments.

  9. Publication patterns in the social sciences and humanities: evidence from eight European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulczycki, Emanuel; Engels, Tim; Polonen, Janne

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates patterns in the language and type of social sciences and humanities (SSH) publications in non-English speaking European countries to demonstrate that such patterns are related not only to discipline but also to each country’s cultural and historic heritage. We investigate...... publication patterns that occur across SSH publications of the whole of the SSH and of economics and business, law, and philosophy and theology publications in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Flanders (Belgium), Norway, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia. We use data from 74,022 peer-reviewed publications...... from 2014registered in at least one of the eight countries’ national databases and for 272,376 peer- reviewed publications from the period of 2011–2014 registered in at least one of the seven countries’ national databases (for all countries except Slovakia). Our findings show that publication patterns...

  10. Nanotechnology and the public: Effectively communicating nanoscale science and engineering concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellini, O. M.; Walejko, G. K.; Holladay, C. E.; Theim, T. J.; Zenner, G. M.; Crone, W. C.

    2007-01-01

    Researchers are faced with challenges when addressing the public on concepts and applications associated with nanotechnology. The goal of our work was to understand the public's knowledge of nanotechnology in order to identify appropriate starting points for dialog. Survey results showed that people lack true understanding of concepts associated with atoms and the size of the nanoscale regime. Such gaps in understanding lead to a disappointing lack of communication between researchers and the public concerning fundamental concepts in nanoscale science and engineering. Strategies are offered on how scientists should present their research when engaging the public on nanotechnology topics

  11. Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Public Lecture Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandinga, S.O

    2001-01-01

    The monograph is subdivided into eight chapters each devoted to specific theme focusing on environmental aspects. The first four chapters are devoted to water management and how it enhances the life, the character of water resources, relevant legal and equity related to the obligation to share, maintenance of water quality and standards and especially the consequences of polluting water. The second part of the publication is devoted to the problems of drought and desertification. The issues discussed include the limitation of the deserts in social-economic development. The interactions of desertification and climate and human activities is given emphases. In addressing the status of drought in Kenya, the presenters recognizes the significations of agriculture, meteorology and geology as methods of predicting drought

  12. Communicating science: Reflections of an AGU public affairs intern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Tyler

    2012-10-01

    This past summer, I read a biography of the geologist and anthropologist John Wesley Powell. Among his many important accomplishments, Powell was a legendary explorer of the then largely unknown American West, a leader in the founding of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its second director, and the founder of the Cosmos Club in Washington, D. C. He was a student of the Earth from an early age, fought and lost an arm for the Union during the Civil War, advanced to the rank of major, led the first successful expedition down the entirety of the Grand Canyon, and then spent the rest of his life coupling scientific knowledge with public policy.

  13. From Scientists to the Public: Communicating Science through Blogs on oceanbites.org and envirobites.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, M. G.; McDonough, C. A.; Schifman, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    Science communication is increasingly important. Our world is facing difficult environmental challenges that can only be addressed if an understanding of the basic scientific principles exists. With this in mind, we founded oceanbites.org in 2013, and recently (August 2017) also started envirobites.org. For both blogs, graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and science professionals come together to write and edit easy-to-read, compelling summaries of recent, cutting-edge research papers in environmental science or oceanography and make them accessible to non-experts. We want to share our passion for research with all non-scientists who are interested to learn more about the environment and our oceans: This ranges in scale from identifying science problems and solutions in cities to explaining the complex environmental challenges facing our planet as a whole. Because science is also about identifying and applying technologies to address these challenges, we also cover some success stories! For envirobites.org, topics of posts include science in and for cities, global transport of pollutants, toxic effects of pollution, climate change, and environmental remediation. Oceanbites.org covers topics ranging from chemical, to biological, and physical oceanography. Currently, oceanbites.org has 24 writers and publishes posts daily, whereas envirobites.org has 26 writers and we publish posts on our blog three times per week. We hope to recruit more members and editors, but most of all, increase our readership to make a big splash in the communication of science to the public, whether we reach K-12 classrooms or living rooms.

  14. Training Informal Educators Provides Leverage for Space Science Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K. W.; Betrue, R.

    2004-01-01

    How do we reach the public with the exciting story of Solar System Exploration? How do we encourage girls to think about careers in science, math, engineering and technology? Why should NASA scientists make an effort to reach the public and informal education settings to tell the Solar System Exploration story? These are questions that the Solar System Exploration Forum, a part of the NASA Office of Space Science Education (SSE) and Public Outreach network, has tackled over the past few years. The SSE Forum is a group of education teams and scientists who work to share the excitement of solar system exploration with colleagues, formal educators, and informal educators like museums and youth groups. One major area of the SSE Forum outreach supports the training of Girl Scouts of the USA (GS) leaders and trainers in a suite of activities that reflect NASA missions and science research. Youth groups like Girl Scouts structure their activities as informal education.

  15. Involvement of scientists in the NASA Office of Space Science education and public outreach program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck-Winchatz, Bernhard

    2005-01-01

    Since the mid-1990's NASA's Office of Space Science (OSS) has embarked on an astronomy and space science education and public outreach (E/PO) program. Its goals are to share the excitement of space science discoveries with the public, and to enhance the quality of science, mathematics and technology education, particularly at the precollege level. A key feature of the OSS program is the direct involvement of space scientists. The majority of the funding for E/PO is allocated to flight missions, which spend 1%-2% of their total budget on E/PO, and to individual research grants. This paper presents an overview of the program's goals, objectives, philosophy, and infrastructure

  16. Podcasting as an Effective Medium for Direct Science Communication and Outreach to the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, R. J.; Padilla, A. J.; Wheatley, P.; Barnhart, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    A podcast is an audio program distributed online typically freely available through an RSS feed (essentially an on-demand internet radio show). This medium has grown steadily in listenership and popularity since its inception in the early 2000s, especially thanks to popular distribution platforms such as iTunes, and web-enabled listening devices (i.e. smart phones). In terms of science reporting, many high impact journals now produce podcasts to supplement their publications (e.g. Nature, Science, etc.). However, smaller and/or more specialized journals often can't afford to promote their content via podcasts, thus limiting their authors to rely on traditional media and press releases supplied by their colleges and universities. This is where independent or unaffiliated podcasts can fill an open niche: providing a platform for scientists to discuss their research in their own words aimed at a general audience. Traditional press releases often follow a similar pattern, and many science news outlets essentially report the press releases verbatim with little additional content or reporting from primary sources. Podcasts suffer from no such restrictions, and they can be as long and in-depth as the subject matter necessitates. Furthermore, many news outlets no longer employ dedicated science reporters. Science is covered, if at all, by reporters without specialized scientific knowledge or training. This deficit leads to a much higher potential for science news stories to be incorrectly reported, or misinterpreted by the general public. A podcast allows a lab group or department the opportunity to edit the content for brevity and clarity, affording scientists a better chance of getting their research presented to the public in an accurate and representative way. Finally, podcasts allow the public to hear the voice of the scientist, humanizing the hard work they do, and potentially positively influencing the way the public reacts to science as a discipline.

  17. Nudging all over the world:Assessing the Impacts of the Behavioural Sciences on Public Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehead, Mark; Jones, Rhys; Howell, Rachel; Lilley, Rachel; Pykett, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This report is the first of its kind. It provides a global overview of the emerging influence of the behavioural sciences (and nudging practices) on the design and implementation of public policy. While previous research (see Ly and Soman 2013) has reported on the influence of the behavioural sciences (such as behavioural economics, behavioural psychology, and neuroscience) on the activities of governments in different places around the world, none has provided a systematic global survey. Ref...

  18. Landslides in Flanders (Belgium): Where science meets public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Eeckhaut, M.; Poesen, J.; Vandekerckhove, L.

    2009-04-01

    Although scientific research on landslides in the Flemish Ardennes (710 km²; Belgium), has been conducted over the last decades, the Flemish Government only took account of slope failure as a soil degradation process after the occurrence of several damaging landslides in the beginning of the 21st century. Here we aim to present the successful collaboration between the Physical and Regional Geography Research Group (FRG; Dept. Earth and Environmental Sciences K.U.Leuven) and the Environment, Nature and Energy Department (LNE; Flemish Government) in landslide management. We will demonstrate how geomorphologists produced practical tools for landslide management which can be directly applied by LNE as well as other local and regional authorities and planners. Since 2004 three projects on landslide inventory mapping and susceptibility assessment in the Flemish Ardennes have been funded by LNE, and a fourth one on landslide susceptibility assessment in remaining hilly regions in Flanders west of Brussels recently started. Together with a steering committee composed of stakeholders, persons from LNE supervise the research carried out by geomorphologists experienced in landslide studies. For the establishment of the landslide inventory map of the Flemish Ardennes we combined the analysis of LIDAR-derived hillshade and contour line maps with detailed field controls. Additional information was collected through interviews with local authorities and inhabitants and from analysis of newspaper articles and technical reports. Then, a statistical model, logistic regression, was applied to produce a high quality classified landslide susceptibility map. The unique part of this collaboration is that all end products are online available at user-friendly websites designed by LNE. The scientific report containing (1) general information on landslides, (2) a description of the study area, (3) an explanation of the materials and methods used, (4) a presentation of the resulting

  19. Public Knowledge, Private Minds: Meaning Making on the Pathways of Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Pryce R.

    Every day people are inundated with news reports about the latest scientific research. The ways in which these texts enlighten or misinform the general public is a central question in both the research literature and discussions in popular culture. However, both research and popular discussion often take on deficit views of these texts, and the capabilities of readers to critically engage with them, and treat them as static, one-way conduits that transfer information to a passive audience. In contrast, I advocate treating popular science texts as the result of a chain of consumption and production that are actively shaped by the varied perspectives of scientists, communicators, and members of the general public. My work envisions all of these actors as science learners who simultaneously act as both producers and consumers of science, and who interact with one another through in-the-moment meaning making. This dissertation examines how the meaning of scientific research is filtered and transformed in moments of interaction and knowledge construction as it moves along this pathway of science communication from scientists to the general public. I present the results of a study that attempts to follow pieces of recent scientific research as they work their way from scientists to publication as popular science news stories, and ultimately to the public. To that end, I collected data from three types of actors involved in the paths of science communication, as well as the texts they read and generate. These actors include (1) the scientists who performed the research, (2) the reporters tasked with writing about it for popular dissemination, and (3) members of the public who must read and interpret the research. The texts I analyze include: peer-reviewed scientific journal articles, university-produced news briefs, popular press science stories, and various text-based conversations between scientists and reporters. Through an analysis of texts, individual interviews, and

  20. Staying Safe While Doing Science in Public: Emerging Best Practices for Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, A.; McKinnon, M.

    2016-12-01

    Doing science in public has incalculable benefits for professional networking, science advocacy, and public outreach, but it also carries significant risks. Online harassment related to social media use can pose significant emotional hardship, negatively impact professional standing, and even threaten physical welfare. Women, people of color, and other underrepresented people in science are disproportionately targeted for anonymous online harassment. We analyzed our experiences with online harassment, and tactics for managing this harassment. While anecdotal, our experiences cover scientists with differing identities and fields, demonstrating that while the details change the overarching patterns remain the same. Fear of becoming a target poses a significant barrier to engaging in public discourse about science. But it is possible to mitigate this risk. Successful strategies for social media to promote science while staying safe are slowly creating a body of emerging best practices. These tactics include proactively restricting access to personal information, developing strategies for identifying and responding to deliberate antagonists (trolls), and choosing when and how to participate in volatile topics. They also require full-community engagement from creating support networks, partnering with allies to manage sudden floods of hostility, and educating on security practices for protecting colleagues' potentially sensitive personal information. It is our hope that frank and open discussion of the realistic threat passed by harassment and strategies for mitigating that threat will jump start a culture of online safety amongst geoscientists, and encourage our most vulnerable and underrepresented scientists to participate in the public sphere.

  1. Facilities available for biomedical science research in the public universities in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, T A

    2010-03-01

    Across the world, basic medical scientists and physician scientists work on common platforms in state-of-the-arts laboratories doing translational research that occasionally results in bedside application. Biotechnology industries capitalise on useful findings for colossal profit.1 In Nigeria and the rest of Africa, biomedical science has not thrived and the contribution of publications to global high impact journals is low.2 This work investigated facilities available for modern biomedical research in Lagos public universities to extract culprit factors. The two public universities in Lagos, Nigeria were investigated by a cross sectional questionnaire survey of the technical staff manning biomedical science departments. They were asked about availability of 47 modern biomedical science research laboratory components such as cold room and microscopes and six research administration components such as director of research and grants administration. For convenient basic laboratory components such as autoclaves and balances, 50% responses indicated "well maintained and always functional" whereas for less convenient complex, high maintenance, state-of-the-arts equipment 19% responses indicated "well maintained and always functional." Respondents indicated that components of modern biomedical science research administration were 44% of expectation. The survey reveal a deficit in state-of the-arts research equipment and also a deficit in high maintenance, expensive equipment indicating that biomedical science in the investigated environment lacks the momentum of global trends and also lacks buoyant funding. In addition, administration supporting biomedical science is below expectation and may also account for the low contributions of research articles to global high impact journals.

  2. Science Hack Day: an opportunity for public engagement, art/science mash-ups, and inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Matthew

    2013-04-01

    The idea of a Science Hack Day (http://sciencehackday.com/) is to put non-scientists (designers, web developers, artists, interested enthusiasts) in a room with scientists and some good ideas, and see what science-themed project they can create in a weekend (about 24 hours of real hacking). The motto of the organizers is ``Get Excited and Make Things with Science!'' I have participated in several of these events including the first one held in the United State in Palo Alto in 2010 and as a remote advisor to participants in Nairobi, Kenya. To these events I have brought particle physics data from both the BaBar and the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiments, data from the CoGeNT dark matter direct-detection experiment, and my expertise and enthusiasm. The experience has been transformative for me as both a scientist and a science advocate. This talk will recount my experiences with Science Hack Day events in general and detail some projects that have come out of these days, including the Particle Physics Wind Chime (http://www.mattbellis.com/windchime/) and the Standard Model of Cocktail Physics (http://www.physicsdavid.net/2012/11/standard-model-of-cocktail-physics/). Opportunities for other scientists to take part in similar events will be discussed.

  3. Effects of performance-based research funding on publication patterns in the social sciences and humanities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guns, R.; Engels, T.C.E.

    2016-07-01

    Publishing in the social sciences and humanities (SSH) and research evaluation practices are co-evolving. In this paper we present an analysis on how in Flanders the PRFS has shaped and influenced publication practices in the SSH. Our analysis is based on the VABB-SHW, a comprehensive database of research output in the SSH in Flanders. We find that a strong emphasis on WoS publications since 2003 has caused a growth in WoS publications, that is greater than what can be observed in other countries and other fields of science in Flanders. Other mechanisms appear to exist for book publications, which are not indexed in the WoS databases used for the PRFS. (Author)

  4. 75 FR 27777 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference and Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    .... (Eastern time). ADDRESSES: The teleconference will be conducted by phone only. The face-to-face meeting on... (PAH) Mixtures Review Panel: A teleconference and a face-to-face meeting to review EPA's draft..., 2010 from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. (Eastern Time). The public meeting will be held on June 21, 2010 from 9 a.m...

  5. Reflections on the challenges and possibilities of journal publication in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Catherine; Siry, Christina; Mueller, Michael

    2015-12-01

    In this editorial we reflect on the intersections between the review and publishing policies of Cultural Studies of Science Education (CSSE) and the challenges and possibilities in global science education publishing. In particular we discuss the tensions associated with open or closed review policies, the hegemony of English as a language of publication, and reflect on some of the common challenges experienced by editors and authors from different contexts. We draw on the paper set in this issue consisting of five papers focused on publishing in various contexts, and elaborate several central questions for the field of science education and the dissemination of knowledges.

  6. Innovations in Delta Differential One-Way Range: from Viking to Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Border, James S.

    2009-01-01

    The Deep Space Network has provided the capability for very-long-baseline interferometry measurements in support of spacecraft navigation since the late 1970s. Both system implementation and the importance of such measurements to flight projects have evolved significantly over the past three decades. Innovations introduced through research and development programs have led to much better performance. This paper provides an overview of the development and use of interferometric tracking techniques in the DSN starting with the Viking era and continuing with a description of the current system and its planned use to support Mars Science Laboratory.

  7. A qualitative analysis of the information science needs of public health researchers in an academic setting

    OpenAIRE

    Shanda L. Hunt; Caitlin J. Bakker

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The University of Minnesota (UMN) Health Sciences Libraries conducted a needs assessment of public health researchers as part of a multi-institutional study led by Ithaka S+R. The aims of the study were to capture the evolving needs, opportunities, and challenges of public health researchers in the current environment and provide actionable recommendations. This paper reports on the data collected at the UMN site. Methods: Participants (n=24) were recruited through convenience ...

  8. Are Science Comics a Good Medium for Science Communication? The Case for Public Learning of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang; Lee, Ling; Yore, Larry D.

    2015-01-01

    Comic books possessing the features of humour, narrative, and visual representation are deemed as a potential medium for science communication; however, empirical studies exploring the effects of comics are scarce. The purposes of this study were to examine and compare the impacts of a comic book and a text booklet on conveying the concepts of…

  9. Internal evaluation of public health department of Semnan university of medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrad Pour- Mohammadi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Internal evaluation is a fundamental determinant to quality development in teachingdepartments and faculties. The purpose of this study was an internal departmental evaluation in the publichealth department of Semnan university of medical sciences (SUMS.Materials and Methods: This work was performed (during 2008-2009 in department of public health ofSUMS utilizing an accreditation model. The assessment covered 9 areas, namely: educational missions andobjectives, management and organization, educational programs, scientific board, students, educationalresources, research activities, assessment and evaluation, and graduates. Questionnaires were developed bythe scientific members of the department. After collecting the data, results were categorized according toGourman scoring scale, from unsatisfied class to very strong class, with the range of 1-5 scores.Results: The mean scores in the 9 evaluation areas were obtained and the rankings were as below:Educational programs area was in strong ranking; educational missions and objectives, scientific board,and assessment and evaluation areas were in good ranking; management and organization area was in morethan satisfied ranking; students area was in satisfied ranking; educational resources and research activitiesareas were in borderline ranking; and finally, the department was ranked as unsatisfied in the graduatesarea.Conclusions: Results showed that by achieved mean of 3.19 in whole of the evaluation areas, the publichealth department has placed in "more than satisfied" class. Although the overall status is acceptable, thereis a need to modify the weak points in the suboptimal areas to improve the educational quality in thisdepartment.

  10. Regional and global science: Publications from Latin America and the Caribbean in the SciELO Citation Index and the Web of Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vélez-Cuartas, G.; Lucio-Arias, D.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors compare the visibility of Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) publications in the Core Collection indexes of the Web of Science (WoS) inlcuding Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, and Arts & Humanities Citation Index, and the SciELO Citation

  11. Science and Public Understanding: The Role of the Historian of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    In this article, questions of public education in both environmental issues and science, more broadly, are examined in an effort to respond to Richard Aldrich's call for historians of education to use their skills and understanding both to inform the present and to shape a more enlightened future. In particular, the lives and work of three women…

  12. Study Habit, Self-Concept and Science Achievement of Public and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compared study habit, self-concept and science achievement of students in public and private junior secondary schools in Ogun State, Nigeria. Twelve secondary schools were randomly selected from Egba and Ijebu divisions of the state. A sample of three hundred and sixty (360) students participated in the ...

  13. The Role of Emotional Factors in Building Public Scientific Literacy and Engagement with Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huann-shyang; Hong, Zuway-R.; Huang, Tai-Chu

    2012-01-01

    This study uses the database from an extensive international study on 15-year-old students (N = 8,815) to analyze the relationship between emotional factors and students' scientific literacy and explore the potential link between the emotions of the students and subsequent public engagement with science. The results revealed that students'…

  14. Assessing Earth and Environmental Science Enrollment Trends in Texas Public High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Joan G.

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: This study assesses the status of Earth and environmental sciences education in Texas Public High Schools by analyzing enrollment proportions of 11th and 12th grade students in 607 Independent School Districts (ISD) for the 2010-2011 academic school year using a quantitative, non-experimental alpha research design. This…

  15. Successful Women Researchers in the Social Sciences: A Case Study of Catalan Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Georgeta; Duran Belloch, Maria del Mar

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the factors which contribute to the success of female academics engaging in research in social sciences. The data were obtained through a series of interviews carried out at public universities in Catalonia with women, all of whom were the heads of research groups recognized by the Generalitat de Catalunya (Catalan…

  16. Using Digital Globes to Explore the Deep Sea and Advance Public Literacy in Earth System Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Stace E.; Emery, Emery; Brickley, Annette; Spargo, Abbey; Patterson, Kathleen; Joyce, Katherine; Silva, Tim; Madin, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Digital globes are new technologies increasingly used in informal and formal education to display global datasets and show connections among Earth systems. But how effective are digital globes in advancing public literacy in Earth system science? We addressed this question by developing new content for digital globes with the intent to educate and…

  17. [Bogdan Suchodolski--initiator and editor-in-chief of the publication History of Polish Science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuźnicka, Barbara; Kuźnicki, Leszek

    2011-01-01

    Among numerous and distinguished author's and editorial works of Bogdan Suchodolski a particular value presents a publication in eight volumes entitled 'History of Polish Science' (including two biographical and bibliographic volumes), which was published in the years 1970-1992 on Professor's own initiative and edited by himself. This is the first synthesis of the history of science in Poland, from the beginning of the Middle Ages till the present time (to 1952). In the conception of the initiator and editor the work presents the development of scientific thought and achievements of the scholars in relation to national culture and in connexions with the trends in science in the world. 'History of Polish Science' is the work written by several dozen authors, representing different domains of the knowledge. Scientific, organizational and editorial patronate was possible by dint of History of Science and Technology Establishment of Polish Academy of Sciences (presently the Institute for the History of Science of Polish Academy of Sciences), which was managed by Bogdan Suchodolski.

  18. Engaging Students, Teachers, and the Public with NASA Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, P. V.; Foxworth, S.; Kascak, A.; Luckey, M. K.; Mcinturff, B.; Runco, S.; Willis, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Engaging students, teachers, and the public with NASA Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) assets, including Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) experts and NASA curation astromaterial samples, provides an extraordinary opportunity to connect citizens with authentic aspects unique to our nation's space program. Effective engagement can occur through both virtual connections such as webcasts and in-person connections at educator workshops and public outreach events. Access to NASA ARES assets combined with adaptable resources and techniques that engage and promote scientific thinking helps translate the science and research being facilitated through NASA exploration, elicits a curiosity that aims to carry over even after a given engagement, and prepares our next generation of scientific explorers.

  19. Enabling the Public to Experience Science from Beginning to End (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouille, L.; Chen, Y.; Lintott, C.; Lynn, S.; Simmons, B.; Smith, A.; Tremonti, C.; Whyte, L.; Willett, K.; Zevin, M.; Science Team; Moderator Team, G.

    2013-12-01

    In this talk we present the results of an experiment in collaborative research and article writing within the citizen science context. During July-September 2013, astronomers and the Zooniverse team ran Galaxy Zoo Quench (quench.galaxyzoo.org), investigating the mechanism(s) that recently and abruptly shut off star formation in a sample of post-quenched galaxies. Through this project, the public had the opportunity to experience the entire process of science, including galaxy classification, reading background literature, data analysis, discussion, debate, drawing conclusions, and writing an article to submit to a professional journal. The context was galaxy evolution, however, the lessons learned are applicable across the disciplines. The discussion will focus on how to leverage online tools to authentically engage the public in the entire process of science.

  20. Creating the Public Connection: Interactive Experiences with Real-Time Earth and Space Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, Patricia H.; Ledley, Tamara S.; Sumners, Carolyn; Wyatt, Ryan

    1995-01-01

    The Houston Museum of Natural Sciences is less than two miles from Rice University, a major hub on the Internet. This project links these two institutions so that NASA real-time data and imagery can flow via Rice to the Museum where it reaches the public in the form of planetarium programs, computer based interactive kiosks, and space and Earth science problem solving simulation. Through this program at least 200,000 visitors annually (including every 4th and 7th grader in the Houston Independent School District) will have direct exposure to the Earth and space research being conducted by NASA and available over the Internet. Each information conduit established between Rice University and the Houston Museum of Natural Science will become a model for public information dissemination that can be replicated nationally in museums, planetariums, Challenger Centers, and schools.

  1. “Second Language Writing” Publications in Web of Science: A Bibliometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beril T. Arik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several indicators that distinguish an academic discipline, including journals, conferences, and graduate programs. One of them is the presence of academic publications in well-regarded citation indices such as Web of Science (WoS. This study explored the bibliometric characteristics of publications on “second language writing” (SLW covered in the Social Sciences Citation Index and the Arts & Humanities Citation Index of WoS. We found that, while the first appeared in 1992 with a steady increase in recent years, there were a total of 266 SLW publications, mostly in the linguistics research area (92%, in the WoS between 1900 and 2013. The publications included articles, book reviews, and bibliographies written by 1.64 authors per publication, suggesting a low level of collaborations among SLW scholars. They cited 31.44 publications and received citations from 5.90 publications on average. An average SLW title had 2.49 different words and a total of 10.85 words, with an abstract of about five sentences and about six keywords and diverse topics including second language writing, writing, academic writing, error correction, and plagiarism. Our findings will be of value to second language writing scholars, graduate students, and practitioners for examining the status of their field.

  2. [Insert Your Science Here] Week: Creating science-driven public awareness campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Barbara; Mitchell, Sara; McElvery, Raleigh; Reddy, Francis; Wiessinger, Scott; Skelly, Clare; Saravia, Claire; Straughn, Amber N.; Washington, Dewayne

    2018-01-01

    NASA Goddard’s in-house Astrophysics Communications Team is responsible for facilitating the production of traditional and social media products to provide understanding and inspiration about NASA’s astrophysics missions and discoveries. Our team is largely driven by the scientific news cycle of launches, mission milestones, anniversaries, and discoveries, which can leave a number of topics behind, waiting for a discovery to be highlighted. These overlooked topics include compelling stories about ongoing research, underlying science, and science not tied to a specific mission. In looking for a way to boost coverage of these unsung topics, we struck upon an idea of creating “theme weeks” which bring together the broader scientific community around a topic, object, or scientific concept. This poster will present the first two of our Goddard-led theme weeks: Pulsar Week and Dark Energy Week. We will describe the efforts involved, our metrics, and the benefits and challenges we encountered. We will also suggest a template for doing this for your own science based on our successes.

  3. 76 FR 28224 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ... held on June 9, 2011 from 1 p.m. to 4 p.m. (Eastern Daylight Time). ADDRESSES: The public...: The SAB was established pursuant to the Environmental Research, Development and Demonstration..., and human health effects. The Deep Water Horizon spill identified the need for additional research on...

  4. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J; Bellingham, Jim R; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H Charles J; Good, David A; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J; Guilliams, Tim T; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A; Lueshi, Leila M; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P; Watkinson, Andrew R; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K A; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security.

  5. Beautiful Science: The Public and Private History of Astronomy at the Huntington Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel

    2009-05-01

    The history of astronomy has a long tradition within research libraries. The rare collections at the Huntington Library (encompassing American and British history from around 1000 CE to the present, in many different subject areas) are among the most heavily-used in the United States, The history of astronomy holdings are a cornerstone within the library's history of science holdings. This talk will present the two faces of the history of astronomy holdings at the Huntington Library. The first of these is the research end of operations: what the collections consist of, how the scholarly public uses the collections, and what the implications are for modern astronomical practice. The second element concerns the public exhibit face of the history of astronomy holdings at The Huntington. Of the 600,000 people who visit the Huntington each year, the majority visit public displays and rare book and manuscript exhibits. "Beautiful Science: Ideas That Changed the World” is a new permanent history of science exhibit. One quarter of the exhibit relates to the history of astronomy. Public exhibits require a particular kind of planning and bring a specific set of values to the history of astronomy. Public exhibits also have their own concerns, and this talk will cover a number of those issues as well as the research issues.

  6. Identifying the Science and Technology Dimensions of Emerging Public Policy Issues through Horizon Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J.; Bellingham, Jim R.; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C.; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D.; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A.; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Good, David A.; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J.; Guilliams, Tim T.; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C.; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A.; Lueshi, Leila M.; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J.; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A.; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P.; Watkinson, Andrew R.; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K. A.; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique [1]. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security. PMID:24879444

  7. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles Parker

    Full Text Available Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security.

  8. Outlaw, hackers, victorian amateurs: diagnosing public participation in the life sciences today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Kelty

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay reflects on three figures that can be used to make sense of the changing nature of public participation in the life sciences today: outlaws, hackers and Victorian gentlemen. Occasioned by a symposium held at UCLA (Outlaw Biology: Public Participation in the Age of Big Bio, the essay introduces several different modes of participation (DIY Bio, Bio Art, At home clinical genetics, patient advocacy and others and makes three points: 1 that public participation is first a problem of legitimacy, not legality or safety; 2 that public participation is itself enabled by and thrives on the infrastructure of mainstream biology; and 3 that we need a new set of concepts (other than inside/outside for describing the nature of public participation in biological research and innovation today.

  9. Science on the net: an analysis of the websites of the European public research institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Massoli

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a study on the websites of several European public research institutions that aims at identifying the science communication model chosen and implemented online with the purpose of reaching different target publics. The analytical approach takes into account a number of indicators: from the institutional identity to the scientific features, from the interactive services to the internationalisation level, in order to evaluate whether the web provides an added value in the adopted communication model and in building a relation with the users. Lights and shades emerge from this study in which good practices side examples of a much weaker science communication approach, outlining a general context where a public research institution website has been still used as a presentation tool and its interactive opportunities have not been capitalised.

  10. Lunar Laser Ranging Science: Gravitational Physics and Lunar Interior and Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James G.; Turyshev, Slava G.; Boggs, Dale H.; Ratcliff, J. Todd

    2004-01-01

    Laser pulses fired at retroreflectors on the Moon provide very accurate ranges. Analysis yields information on Earth, Moon, and orbit. The highly accurate retroreflector positions have uncertainties less than a meter. Tides on the Moon show strong dissipation, with Q=33+/-4 at a month and a weak dependence on period. Lunar rotation depends on interior properties; a fluid core is indicated with radius approx.20% that of the Moon. Tests of relativistic gravity verify the equivalence principle to +/-1.4x10(exp -13), limit deviations from Einstein's general relativity, and show no rate for the gravitational constant G/G with uncertainty 9x10(exp -13)/yr.

  11. The how and why of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Arnold J H; Bron, Wichertje A; Mulder, Sara

    2014-05-01

    In the scientific community, the importance of communication to society is often underestimated. Scientists and scientific organisations often lack the skills to organise such communication effectively. The Dutch citizen science phenology network Nature's Calendar has been successful in communicating to the general public via numerous newspaper articles, television appearances, presentations, websites and social media. We refer to these publications as societal publications. Due to active communication to mass media, we frequently reach millions of people. This communication helped us to involve thousands of volunteers in recording the timing of phenological events like the start of flowering, leaf unfolding and bird migration, but also several health-related events like hay fever symptoms and tick bites. In this paper, we analyse and present our experiences with the Nature's Calendar project regarding societal publications. Based on this analysis, we explain the importance of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists in general, and we show how scientists can increase the news worthiness of scientific information and what factors and activities can increase the chances of media paying attention to this news. We show that societal publications help phenological networks by facilitating the recruitment, retention and instruction of observers. Furthermore, they stimulate the generation of new ideas and partners that lead to an increase in knowledge, awareness and behavioural change of the general public or specific stakeholders. They make projects, and scientists involved, better known to the public and increase their credibility and authority. Societal publications can catalyse the production of new publications, thereby enforcing the previous mentioned points.

  12. Does the public communication of science influence scientific vocation? Results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stekolschik, Gabriel; Draghi, Cecilia; Adaszko, Dan; Gallardo, Susana

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine if public communication of science and technology (PCST) has any influence on people's decision to become dedicated to scientific research. For this reason, a national survey involving 852 researchers from all disciplines was conducted in Argentina. The results showed that the factors affecting scientific vocation are many, and that, regardless of differences in gender, age or discipline, the greatest influence on the decision to go into scientific research is exerted by teachers. The analysis also demonstrated that different manifestations of PCST (science books, press articles, audiovisual material, and activities such as visits to science museums) play a significant role in awakening the vocation for science. From these results it may be stated that PCST--in addition to its function of informing and forming citizens--exerts a significant influence in fostering scientific vocation.

  13. NASA SMD Science Education and Public Outreach Forums: A Five-Year Retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Denise A.; Peticolas, Laura; Schwerin, Theresa; Shipp, Stephanie

    2014-06-01

    NASA’s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) created four competitively awarded Science Education and Public Outreach Forums (Astrophysics, Heliophysics, Planetary Science, Earth Science) in 2009. The objective is to enhance the overall coherence of SMD education and public outreach (E/PO), leading to more effective, efficient, and sustainable use of SMD science discoveries and learning experiences. We summarize progress and next steps towards achieving this goal with examples drawn from Astrophysics and cross-Forum efforts. Over the past five years, the Forums have enabled leaders of individual SMD mission and grant-funded E/PO programs to work together to place individual science discoveries and learning resources into context for audiences, conveying the big picture of scientific discovery based on audience needs. Forum-organized collaborations and partnerships extend the impact of individual programs to new audiences and provide resources and opportunities for educators to engage their audiences in NASA science. Similarly, Forum resources support scientists and faculty in utilizing SMD E/PO resources. Through Forum activities, mission E/PO teams and grantees have worked together to define common goals and provide unified professional development for educators (NASA’s Multiwavelength Universe); build partnerships with libraries to engage underserved/underrepresented audiences (NASA Science4Girls and Their Families); strengthen use of best practices; provide thematic, audience-based entry points to SMD learning experiences; support scientists in participating in E/PO; and, convey the impact of the SMD E/PO program. The Forums have created a single online digital library (NASA Wavelength, http://nasawavelength.org) that hosts all peer-reviewed SMD-funded education materials and worked with the SMD E/PO community to compile E/PO program metrics (http://nasamissionepometrics.org/). External evaluation shows the Forums are meeting their objectives. Specific examples

  14. Building a middle-range theory of free public healthcare seeking in sub-Saharan Africa: a realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Emilie; Samb, Oumar Mallé; Marchal, Bruno; Ridde, Valéry

    2017-09-01

    Realist reviews are a new form of knowledge synthesis aimed at providing middle-range theories (MRTs) that specify how interventions work, for which populations, and under what circumstances. This approach opens the 'black box' of an intervention by showing how it triggers mechanisms in specific contexts to produce outcomes. We conducted a realist review of health user fee exemption policies (UFEPs) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This article presents how we developed both the intervention theory (IT) of UFEPs and a MRT of free public healthcare seeking in SSA, building on Sen's capability approach. Over the course of this iterative process, we explored theoretical writings on healthcare access, services use, and healthcare seeking behaviour. We also analysed empirical studies on UFEPs and healthcare access in free care contexts. According to the IT, free care at the point of delivery is a resource allowing users to make choices about their use of public healthcare services, choices previously not generally available to them. Users' ability to choose to seek free care is influenced by structural, local, and individual conversion factors. We tested this IT on 69 empirical studies selected on the basis of their scientific rigor and relevance to the theory. From that analysis, we formulated a MRT on seeking free public healthcare in SSA. It highlights three key mechanisms in users' choice to seek free public healthcare: trust, risk awareness and acceptability. Contextual elements that influence both users' ability and choice to seek free care include: availability of and control over resources at the individual level; characteristics of users' and providers' communities at the local level; and health system organization, governance and policies at the structural level. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  15. The sociology of big science | Public Lecture by Ulrike Felt | 15 July

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    "The sociology of big science" Public Lecture by Prof. Ulrike Felt Tuesday 15 July 2014 - 7.30 p.m. Globe of Science and Innovation Lecture in English, translated in French. Entrance free. Limited number of seats. Reservation essential: +41 22 767 76 76 or cern.reception@cern.ch What science for what kind of society? Reflecting the development of big science Without any doubt, CERN can be described as being among the most ambitious scientific enterprises ever undertaken. For 60 years, the Member States have not only invested considerable financial means into this institution, but have also supported the creation of a highly visionary research programme. And this has led to a change in the way science is done, as captured by the idea of "big science". Yet this naturally also raises a number of quite fundamental questions: How did the meaning of "doing science" change? What justifies societal engagement with and support for such a cost-intensive long-t...

  16. Middle school science curriculum design and 8th grade student achievement in Massachusetts public schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Betsey A.

    The Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (DESE) released proposed Science and Technology/Engineering standards in 2013 outlining the concepts that should be taught at each grade level. Previously, standards were in grade spans and each district determined the method of implementation. There are two different methods used teaching middle school science: integrated and discipline-based. In the proposed standards, the Massachusetts DESE uses grade-by-grade standards using an integrated approach. It was not known if there is a statistically significant difference in student achievement on the 8th grade science MCAS assessment for students taught with an integrated or discipline-based approach. The results on the 8th grade science MCAS test from six public school districts from 2010 -- 2013 were collected and analyzed. The methodology used was quantitative. Results of an ANOVA showed that there was no statistically significant difference in overall student achievement between the two curriculum models. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant difference for the various domains: Earth and Space Science, Life Science, Physical Science, and Technology/Engineering. This information is useful for districts hesitant to make the change from a discipline-based approach to an integrated approach. More research should be conducted on this topic with a larger sample size to better support the results.

  17. Problems with traditional science publishing and finding a wider niche for post-publication peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Dobránszki, Judit

    2015-01-01

    Science affects multiple basic sectors of society. Therefore, the findings made in science impact what takes place at a commercial level. More specifically, errors in the literature, incorrect findings, fraudulent data, poorly written scientific reports, or studies that cannot be reproduced not only serve as a burden on tax-payers' money, but they also serve to diminish public trust in science and its findings. Therefore, there is every need to fortify the validity of data that exists in the science literature, not only to build trust among peers, and to sustain that trust, but to reestablish trust in the public and private academic sectors that are witnessing a veritable battle-ground in the world of science publishing, in some ways spurred by the rapid evolution of the open access (OA) movement. Even though many science journals, traditional and OA, claim to be peer reviewed, the truth is that different levels of peer review occur, and in some cases no, insufficient, or pseudo-peer review takes place. This ultimately leads to the erosion of quality and importance of science, allowing essentially anything to become published, provided that an outlet can be found. In some cases, predatory OA journals serve this purpose, allowing papers to be published, often without any peer review or quality control. In the light of an explosion of such cases in predatory OA publishing, and in severe inefficiencies and possible bias in the peer review of even respectable science journals, as evidenced by the increasing attention given to retractions, there is an urgent need to reform the way in which authors, editors, and publishers conduct the first line of quality control, the peer review. One way to address the problem is through post-publication peer review (PPPR), an efficient complement to traditional peer-review that allows for the continuous improvement and strengthening of the quality of science publishing. PPPR may also serve as a way to renew trust in scientific

  18. Research perspectives on the public and fire management: a synthesis of current social science on eight essential questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. McCaffrey; Christine S. Olsen

    2012-01-01

    As part of a Joint Fire Science Program project, a team of social scientists reviewed existing fire social science literature to develop a targeted synthesis of scientific knowledge on the following questions: 1. What is the public's understanding of fire's role in the ecosystem? 2. Who are trusted sources of information about fire? 3. What are the public...

  19. 77 FR 6795 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board (SAB) Animal Feeding Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9629-4] Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science... Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public meeting of the SAB Panel to conduct a peer review on the EPA documents, ``Draft--Development of...

  20. Nanotechnology in Dutch science cafés: Public risk perceptions contextualised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Anne M; Critchley, Christine R

    2016-01-01

    Understanding public perceptions of and attitudes to nanotechnology is important in order to understand and facilitate processes of dialogue and public participation. This research quantitatively analysed risk perceptions and attitudes of Dutch science café participants (n = 233) and compared these with members of the Dutch public (n = 378) who had not attended a café but were interested in science and technology as well. A qualitative analysis of the meetings contextualised and enriched the quantitative findings. Both groups shared similar key attitudes and were positive about nanotechnology while the Dutch café participants were even more positive about nanotechnology than the group of non-participants. The perception that nanotechnology would lead to risk applications was only predictive of attitudes for the non-participants. The qualitative analysis showed that café participants and speakers considered discussion of the risks, benefits and related issues important. Further research could investigate how science cafés can play a role in the science-society debate. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. In science communication, why does the idea of a public deficit always return?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gitte

    2016-05-01

    For centuries, science communication has been widely perceived, irrespective of context, as a didactic enterprise. That understanding does not accommodate a political category of science communication, featuring citizens on an equal footing - some of them scientists - who share responsibility for public affairs and represent different points of view and ways of reasoning. That may harm, at the same time and for the same reasons, democratic knowledge societies as political entities and science as a body of knowledge and rational methodology. Scientists are discursively excluded from the public. The public is perceived in terms of knowledge deficiency. The latter perception has survived decades of critique, accompanied by attempts, along an everyman-as-scientist logic, to include all citizens in the scientific endeavour. But why should all be scientists? With respect to practical-political issues - as distinct from technical-scientific ones - the acknowledgement of the citizenship of scientists seems more relevant. Only, this would challenge the widespread understanding of science as an all-purpose problem solver and the consequent ideas of politics. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Big Science, co-publication and collaboration: getting to the core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, M.

    2016-07-01

    International collaboration in science has risen considerably in the last two decades (UNESCO, 2010). In the same period Big Science collaborations have proliferated in physics, astronomy, astrophysics, and medicine. Publications that use Big Science data draw on the expertise of those who design and build the equipment and software, as well as the scientific community. Over time a set of ‘rules of use’ has emerged that protects their intellectual property but that may have the unintended consequence of enhancing co-publication counts. This in turn distorts the use of co-publication data as a proxy for collaboration. The distorting effects are illustrated by means of a case study of the BRICS countries that recently issued a declaration on scientific and technological cooperation with specific fields allocated to each country. It is found that with a single exception the dominant research areas of collaboration are different to individual country specializations. The disjuncture between such ‘collaboration’ and the intent of the declaration raises questions of import to science policy, for the BRICS in particular and the measurement of scientific collaboration more generally. (Author)

  3. Communicating climate science to a suspicious public: How best to explain what we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, E. M.; Jackson, R.

    2014-12-01

    In 2007, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory decided to establish a climate science website aimed at explaining what scientists know about climate science, and what they don't, to the English-speaking public. Because of my prior work in the history of atmospheric and climate sciences, I was asked to help choose the data that would be displayed on the site and to write the basic text. Our site went "live" in 2008, and quickly attracted both widespread media attention and sponsorship from NASA, which funded us to expand it into the NASA Climate Change website, climate.nasa.gov. It's now generally the 3rd or 4th ranked climate change website in Google rankings. A perusal of the NASA Climate Change website will reveal that the word "uncertainty" does not appear in its explanatory essays. "Uncertainty," in science, is a calculated quantity. To calculate it, one must know quite a bit about the phenomenon in question. In vernacular use, "uncertainty" means something like "stuff we don't know." These are radically different meanings, and yet scientists and their institutions routinely use both meanings without clarification. Even without the deliberate disinformation campaigns that Oreskes and Conway have documented in Merchants of Doubt, scientists' own misuse of this one word would produce public confusion. We chose to use other words to overcome this one communications problem. But other aspects of the climate communications problem cannot be so easily overcome in a context of Federal agency communications. In this paper, we'll review recent research on ways to improve public understanding of science, and set it against the restrictions that exist on Federal agency communications—avoidance of political statements and interpretation, focusing on fact over storytelling, narrowness of context—to help illuminate the difficulty of improving public understanding of complex, policy-relevant phenomenon like climate change.

  4. Locally-sourced: How climate science can collaborate with arts & humanities museums to achieve widespread public trust and communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C. G.

    2017-12-01

    Local history, art and culture museums have a large role to play in climate science communication. Unfortunately, in our current society, scientific evidence and logic is not universally accepted as truth. These messages can be dispersed through trusted institutional allies like humanities and arts museums. There are many reasons for scientific institutions to work with humanities and arts museums of all sizes, especially local museums that have personal, trusted relationships with their communities. First, museums (by definition) are public educators; the work that they do is to disperse challenging information in an understandable way to a wide array of audiences. Museums are located in every state, with over 35,000 museums in the nation; 26% of those are located in rural areas. These museums serve every demographic and age range, inspiring even those with difficulty accepting climate change information to act. Second, in a recent public opinion survey commissioned by the American Alliance of Museums, museums - especially history museums - are considered the most trustworthy source of information in America, rated higher than newspapers, nonprofit researchers, the U.S. government, or academic researchers. Scientific institutions must collaborate with local museums to improve science communication going forward. Not only will important climate and sustainability research be dispersed via trusted sources, but the public will engage with this information in large numbers. In 2012 alone, over 850 million people visited museums - more than the attendance for all major league sports and theme parks combined. A recent impact study shows that history and art museums, especially, are not seen as "having a political agenda," with over 78% of the public seeing these museums as trusted institutions. There are many ways in which the scientific community can collaborate with "the arts." This presentation will speak to the larger benefit of working with sister arts & humanities

  5. 76 FR 80368 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board Libby Amphibole Asbestos Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9610-8] Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science...: Notice. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) Science Advisory Board (SAB) [email protected] . General information concerning the EPA Science Advisory Board can be found at the EPA SAB...

  6. 76 FR 51364 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board Panel for the Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Science Advisory Board Panel for the Review of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Action Plan AGENCY... Agency) Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public teleconference of the SAB Panel to... information concerning the EPA Science Advisory Board can be found at the EPA SAB Web site at http://www.epa...

  7. Get Involved in Education and Public Outreach! The Science Mission Directorate Science E/PO Forums Are Here to Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, S. S.; Buxner, S.; Schwerin, T. G.; Hsu, B. C.; Peticolas, L. M.; Smith, D.; Meinke, B. K.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forums help to engage, extend, support, and coordinate the efforts of the community of E/PO professionals and scientists involved in Earth and space science education activities. This work is undertaken to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of the overall national NASA science education and outreach effort made up of individual efforts run by these education professionals. This includes facilitating scientist engagement in education and outreach. The Forums have been developing toolkits and pathways to support planetary, Earth, astrophysics, and heliophysics scientists who are - or who are interested in becoming - involved in E/PO. These tools include: 1) Pathways to learn about SMD and E/PO community announcements and opportunities, share news about E/PO programs, let the E/PO community know you are interested in becoming involved, and discover education programs needing scientist input and/or support. These pathways include weekly e-news, the SMD E/PO online community workspace, monthly community calls, conferences and meetings of opportunity. 2) Portals to help you find out what education resources already exist, obtain resources to share with students of all levels - from K-12 to graduate students, - and disseminate your materials. These include E/PO samplers and toolkits (sampling of resources selected for scientists who work with students, teachers, and the public), the one-stop shop of reviewed resources from the NASA Earth and space science education portfolio NASAWavelength.org, and the online clearinghouse of Earth and space science higher education materials EarthSpace (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace). 3) Connections to education specialists who can help you design and implement meaningful E/PO programs - small to large. Education specialists can help you understand what research says about how people learn and effective practices for achieving your goals, place your

  8. Mapping and sequencing the human genome: Science, ethics, and public policy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, J.D.

    1993-03-31

    Development of Mapping and Sequencing the Human Genome: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy followed the standard process of curriculum development at the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS), the process is described. The production of this module was a collaborative effort between BSCS and the American Medical Association (AMA). Appendix A contains a copy of the module. Copies of reports sent to the Department of Energy (DOE) during the development process are contained in Appendix B; all reports should be on file at DOE. Appendix B also contains copies of status reports submitted to the BSCS Board of Directors.

  9. Public communication of science in Mexico: past, present and future of a profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Mora, Carmen; Reynoso-Haynes, Elaine; Sánchez Mora, Ana María; Tagüeña Parga, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we offer an analysis of the evolution of the professional field of public communication of science in Mexico, particularly at the National Autonomous University of Mexico, the influences it has received from other countries, the impact it has on Mexican society and some of its relationships with other Latin American countries. We present examples of successful programmes in different mass media and an analysis of the evolution and diversification of science communicators over the last four decades. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Earth sciences: Uranium geology, exploration and mining, hydrology, 1986-1996. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with earth sciences and issued during the period of 1986-1996. These topics are mainly in the field of uranium geology, exploration and mining, isotope applications in hydrology, IAEA Yearbook 1996 on the developments in nuclear science and technology and meetings on atomic energy. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English but all of these papers have English abstracts. The prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings

  11. Helix Nebula - the Science Cloud: a public-private partnership to build a multidisciplinary cloud platform for data intensive science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bob; Casu, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    The feasibility of using commercial cloud services for scientific research is of great interest to research organisations such as CERN, ESA and EMBL, to the suppliers of cloud-based services and to the national and European funding agencies. Through the Helix Nebula - the Science Cloud [1] initiative and with the support of the European Commission, these stakeholders are driving a two year pilot-phase during which procurement processes and governance issues for a framework of public/private partnership will be appraised. Three initial flagship use cases from high energy physics, molecular biology and earth-observation are being used to validate the approach, enable a cost-benefit analysis to be undertaken and prepare the next stage of the Science Cloud Strategic Plan [2] to be developed and approved. The power of Helix Nebula lies in a shared set of services for initially 3 very different sciences each supporting a global community and thus building a common e-Science platform. Of particular relevance is the ESA sponsored flagship application SuperSites Exploitation Platform (SSEP [3]) that offers the global geo-hazard community a common platform for the correlation and processing of observation data for supersites monitoring. The US-NSF Earth Cube [4] and Ocean Observatory Initiative [5] (OOI) are taking a similar approach for data intensive science. The work of Helix Nebula and its recent architecture model [6] has shown that is it technically feasible to allow publicly funded infrastructures, such as EGI [7] and GEANT [8], to interoperate with commercial cloud services. Such hybrid systems are in the interest of the existing users of publicly funded infrastructures and funding agencies because they will provide "freedom of choice" over the type of computing resources to be consumed and the manner in which they can be obtained. But to offer such freedom-of choice across a spectrum of suppliers, various issues such as intellectual property, legal responsibility

  12. Automatic jargon identifier for scientists engaging with the public and science communication educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapnik, Noam; Yosef, Roy; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2017-01-01

    Scientists are required to communicate science and research not only to other experts in the field, but also to scientists and experts from other fields, as well as to the public and policymakers. One fundamental suggestion when communicating with non-experts is to avoid professional jargon. However, because they are trained to speak with highly specialized language, avoiding jargon is difficult for scientists, and there is no standard to guide scientists in adjusting their messages. In this research project, we present the development and validation of the data produced by an up-to-date, scientist-friendly program for identifying jargon in popular written texts, based on a corpus of over 90 million words published in the BBC site during the years 2012–2015. The validation of results by the jargon identifier, the De-jargonizer, involved three mini studies: (1) comparison and correlation with existing frequency word lists in the literature; (2) a comparison with previous research on spoken language jargon use in TED transcripts of non-science lectures, TED transcripts of science lectures and transcripts of academic science lectures; and (3) a test of 5,000 pairs of published research abstracts and lay reader summaries describing the same article from the journals PLOS Computational Biology and PLOS Genetics. Validation procedures showed that the data classification of the De-jargonizer significantly correlates with existing frequency word lists, replicates similar jargon differences in previous studies on scientific versus general lectures, and identifies significant differences in jargon use between abstracts and lay summaries. As expected, more jargon was found in the academic abstracts than lay summaries; however, the percentage of jargon in the lay summaries exceeded the amount recommended for the public to understand the text. Thus, the De-jargonizer can help scientists identify problematic jargon when communicating science to non-experts, and be implemented

  13. Automatic jargon identifier for scientists engaging with the public and science communication educators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzipora Rakedzon

    Full Text Available Scientists are required to communicate science and research not only to other experts in the field, but also to scientists and experts from other fields, as well as to the public and policymakers. One fundamental suggestion when communicating with non-experts is to avoid professional jargon. However, because they are trained to speak with highly specialized language, avoiding jargon is difficult for scientists, and there is no standard to guide scientists in adjusting their messages. In this research project, we present the development and validation of the data produced by an up-to-date, scientist-friendly program for identifying jargon in popular written texts, based on a corpus of over 90 million words published in the BBC site during the years 2012-2015. The validation of results by the jargon identifier, the De-jargonizer, involved three mini studies: (1 comparison and correlation with existing frequency word lists in the literature; (2 a comparison with previous research on spoken language jargon use in TED transcripts of non-science lectures, TED transcripts of science lectures and transcripts of academic science lectures; and (3 a test of 5,000 pairs of published research abstracts and lay reader summaries describing the same article from the journals PLOS Computational Biology and PLOS Genetics. Validation procedures showed that the data classification of the De-jargonizer significantly correlates with existing frequency word lists, replicates similar jargon differences in previous studies on scientific versus general lectures, and identifies significant differences in jargon use between abstracts and lay summaries. As expected, more jargon was found in the academic abstracts than lay summaries; however, the percentage of jargon in the lay summaries exceeded the amount recommended for the public to understand the text. Thus, the De-jargonizer can help scientists identify problematic jargon when communicating science to non-experts, and

  14. Automatic jargon identifier for scientists engaging with the public and science communication educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakedzon, Tzipora; Segev, Elad; Chapnik, Noam; Yosef, Roy; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2017-01-01

    Scientists are required to communicate science and research not only to other experts in the field, but also to scientists and experts from other fields, as well as to the public and policymakers. One fundamental suggestion when communicating with non-experts is to avoid professional jargon. However, because they are trained to speak with highly specialized language, avoiding jargon is difficult for scientists, and there is no standard to guide scientists in adjusting their messages. In this research project, we present the development and validation of the data produced by an up-to-date, scientist-friendly program for identifying jargon in popular written texts, based on a corpus of over 90 million words published in the BBC site during the years 2012-2015. The validation of results by the jargon identifier, the De-jargonizer, involved three mini studies: (1) comparison and correlation with existing frequency word lists in the literature; (2) a comparison with previous research on spoken language jargon use in TED transcripts of non-science lectures, TED transcripts of science lectures and transcripts of academic science lectures; and (3) a test of 5,000 pairs of published research abstracts and lay reader summaries describing the same article from the journals PLOS Computational Biology and PLOS Genetics. Validation procedures showed that the data classification of the De-jargonizer significantly correlates with existing frequency word lists, replicates similar jargon differences in previous studies on scientific versus general lectures, and identifies significant differences in jargon use between abstracts and lay summaries. As expected, more jargon was found in the academic abstracts than lay summaries; however, the percentage of jargon in the lay summaries exceeded the amount recommended for the public to understand the text. Thus, the De-jargonizer can help scientists identify problematic jargon when communicating science to non-experts, and be implemented by

  15. Beyond "implementation strategies": classifying the full range of strategies used in implementation science and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Jennifer; Birken, Sarah A; Powell, Byron J; Rohweder, Catherine; Shea, Christopher M

    2017-11-03

    Strategies are central to the National Institutes of Health's definition of implementation research as "the study of strategies to integrate evidence-based interventions into specific settings." Multiple scholars have proposed lists of the strategies used in implementation research and practice, which they increasingly are classifying under the single term "implementation strategies." We contend that classifying all strategies under a single term leads to confusion, impedes synthesis across studies, and limits advancement of the full range of strategies of importance to implementation. To address this concern, we offer a system for classifying implementation strategies that builds on Proctor and colleagues' (2013) reporting guidelines, which recommend that authors not only name and define their implementation strategies but also specify who enacted the strategy (i.e., the actor) and the level and determinants that were targeted (i.e., the action targets). We build on Wandersman and colleagues' Interactive Systems Framework to distinguish strategies based on whether they are enacted by actors functioning as part of a Delivery, Support, or Synthesis and Translation System. We build on Damschroder and colleague's Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to distinguish the levels that strategies target (intervention, inner setting, outer setting, individual, and process). We then draw on numerous resources to identify determinants, which are conceptualized as modifiable factors that prevent or enable the adoption and implementation of evidence-based interventions. Identifying actors and targets resulted in five conceptually distinct classes of implementation strategies: dissemination, implementation process, integration, capacity-building, and scale-up. In our descriptions of each class, we identify the level of the Interactive System Framework at which the strategy is enacted (actors), level and determinants targeted (action targets), and outcomes used to

  16. Enrichment of Data Publications in Earth Sciences - Data Reports as a Missing Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elger, Kirsten; Bertelmann, Roland; Haberland, Christian; Evans, Peter L.

    2015-04-01

    During the past decade, the relevance of research data stewardship has been rising significantly. Preservation and publication of scientific data for long-term use, including the storage in adequate repositories has been identified as a key issue by the scientific community as well as by bodies like research agencies. Essential for any kind of re-use is a proper description of the datasets. As a result of the increasing interest, data repositories have been developed and the included research data is accompanied with at least a minimum set of metadata. This metadata is useful for data discovery and a first insight to the content of a dataset. But often data re-use needs more and extended information. Many datasets are accompanied by a small 'readme file' with basic information on the data structure, or other accompanying documents. A source of additional information could be an article published in one of the newly emerging data journals (e.g. Copernicus's ESSD Earth System Science Data or Nature's Scientific Data). Obviously there is an information gap between a 'readme file', that is only accessible after data download (which often leads to less usage of published datasets than if the information was available beforehand) and the much larger effort to prepare an article for a peer-reviewed data journal. For many years, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences publishes 'Scientific Technical Reports (STR)' as a report series which is electronically persistently available and citable with assigned DOIs. This series was opened for the description of parallel published datasets as 'STR Data'. These are internally reviewed and offer a flexible publication format describing published data in depth, suitable for different datasets ranging from long-term monitoring time series of observatories to field data, to (meta-)databases, and software publications. STR Data offer a full and consistent overview and description to all relevant parameters of a linked published

  17. Assessing Lead, Nickel, and Zinc Pollution in Topsoil from a Historic Shooting Range Rehabilitated into a Public Urban Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Goyes, Ricardo; Argyraki, Ariadne; Ornelas-Soto, Nancy

    2017-06-30

    Soil contamination is a persistent problem in the world. The redevelopment of a site with a historical deposition of metals might conceal the threat of remaining pollution, especially when the site has become a public place. In this study, human health risk assessment is performed after defining the concentrations of Pb, Ni, and Zn in the topsoil of a former shooting range rehabilitated into a public park in the Municipality of Kesariani (Athens, Greece). A methodology that uses inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, 13 samples), another that uses portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) following a dense sample design (91 samples), and a hybrid approach that combines both, were used to obtain the concentrations of the trace elements. The enrichment factor and geoacummulation index were calculated to define the degree of pollution of the site. The hazard quotient and cancer risk indicators were also computed to find the risk to which the population is exposed. The present study reveals high non-carcinogenic health risk due to Pb pollution with ingestion as the main exposure pathway. The carcinogenic risk for Pb is within tolerable limits, but the definition of land use might alter such a statement. Lastly, regarding Ni and Zn, the site is unpolluted and there is insignificant carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks.

  18. Quality of publication ethics in the instructions to the authors of Iranian journals of medical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Fatemeh; Sobhani, Abdol-Rasoul; Mallaei, Mahin

    2013-03-01

    Providing a perfect instruction to authors can prevent most potential publication ethics errors. This study was conducted to determine the quality of ethical considerations in the instructions to the authors of Iranian research scientific journals of medical sciences (accredited by the Commission for Accreditation and Improvement of Iranian Medical Journals) in October 2011. Checklist items (n=15) were extracted from the national manual of ethics in medical research publications, and the validity of the manual of ethics was assessed. All the accredited Iranian journals of medical sciences (n=198) were entered into the study. The instructions to the authors of 160 accredited Iranian journals were available online and were reviewed. The ANOVA and Kendall Correlation coefficient were performed to analyze the results. A total of 76 (47.5%) of the 160 journals were in English and 84 (52.5%) were in Farsi. The most frequently mentioned items related to publication ethics comprised "commitment not to send manuscripts to other journals and re-publish manuscripts" (85%, 83.8%), "aim and scope" of the journal (81.9%), "principles of medical ethics in the use of human samples" (74.4%), and "review process" (74.4%). On the other hand, the items of "principles of advertising" (1.2%), "authorship criteria" (15%), and "integrity in publication of clinical trial results" (30.6%) were the least frequently mentioned ones. Based on the study findings, the quality of publication ethics, as instructed to the authors, can improve the quality of the journals.

  19. Public health as a catalyst for interprofessional education on a health sciences campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uden-Holman, Tanya M; Curry, Susan J; Benz, Loretta; Aquilino, Mary Lober

    2015-03-01

    Although interprofessional education (IPE) has existed in various formats for several decades, the need for IPE recently has taken on renewed interest and momentum. Public health has a critical role to play in furthering IPE, yet schools of public health are often underrepresented in IPE initiatives. The University of Iowa College of Public Health is serving as a catalyst for IPE activities on our health sciences campus, which includes colleges of dentistry, medicine, nursing, pharmacy, and public health. IPE-related activities have included campus visit by IPE leaders, administration of the Survey of Critical Elements for Implementing IPE, administration of the Interprofessional Learning Opportunities Inventory survey, the development of a comprehensive strategic plan, and the pilot of an IPE course for all first-year prelicensure students and Master of Health Administration students. Although more work is needed to more fully integrate IPE into the curriculum, success to date of the University of Iowa IPE initiative demonstrates that public health can play a critical role as a convener and catalyst for IPE curricular innovations on a health sciences campus.

  20. Evidence of public engagement with science: visitor learning at a zoo-housed primate research centre.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget M Waller

    Full Text Available Primate behavioural and cognitive research is increasingly conducted on direct public view in zoo settings. The potential of such facilities for public engagement with science is often heralded, but evidence of tangible, positive effects on public understanding is rare. Here, the effect of a new zoo-based primate research centre on visitor behaviour, learning and attitudes was assessed using a quasi-experimental design. Zoo visitors approached the primate research centre more often when a scientist was present and working with the primates, and reported greater awareness of primates (including conservation compared to when the scientist was not present. Visitors also reported greater perceived learning when the scientist was present. Installation of information signage had no main effect on visitor attitudes or learning. Visitors who interacted with the signage, however, demonstrated increased knowledge and understanding when asked about the specific information present on the signs (which was related to the ongoing facial expression research at the research centre. The findings show that primate behaviour research centres on public view can have a demonstrable and beneficial effect on public understanding of science.

  1. Evidence of public engagement with science: visitor learning at a zoo-housed primate research centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Bridget M; Peirce, Kate; Mitchell, Heidi; Micheletta, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    Primate behavioural and cognitive research is increasingly conducted on direct public view in zoo settings. The potential of such facilities for public engagement with science is often heralded, but evidence of tangible, positive effects on public understanding is rare. Here, the effect of a new zoo-based primate research centre on visitor behaviour, learning and attitudes was assessed using a quasi-experimental design. Zoo visitors approached the primate research centre more often when a scientist was present and working with the primates, and reported greater awareness of primates (including conservation) compared to when the scientist was not present. Visitors also reported greater perceived learning when the scientist was present. Installation of information signage had no main effect on visitor attitudes or learning. Visitors who interacted with the signage, however, demonstrated increased knowledge and understanding when asked about the specific information present on the signs (which was related to the ongoing facial expression research at the research centre). The findings show that primate behaviour research centres on public view can have a demonstrable and beneficial effect on public understanding of science.

  2. Earth sciences uranium geology, exploration and mining, hydrology, 1986-1998. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    This catalogue lists sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Earth Sciences issued during the period 1986-1998. Most publications are published in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all these papers have abstracts in English. It should be noted that prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings. The prices do not include local taxes and are subject to change without notice. All books in this catalogue are 16 x 24 cm, paper-bound, unless otherwise stated

  3. App-lifying USGS Earth Science Data: Engaging the public through Challenge.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    With the goal of promoting innovative use and applications of USGS data, USGS Core Science Analytics and Synthesis (CSAS) launched the first USGS Challenge: App-lifying USGS Earth Science Data. While initiated before the recent Office of Science and Technology Policy's memorandum 'Increasing Access to the Results of Federally Funded Scientific Research', our challenge focused on one of the core tenets of the memorandum- expanding discoverability, accessibility and usability of CSAS data. From January 9 to April 1, 2013, we invited developers, information scientists, biologists/ecologists, and scientific data visualization specialists to create applications for selected USGS datasets. Identifying new, innovative ways to represent, apply, and make these data available is a high priority for our leadership. To help boost innovation, our only constraint on the challengers stated they must incorporate at least one of the identified datasets in their application. Winners were selected based on the relevance to the USGS and CSAS missions, innovation in design, and overall ease of use of the application. The winner for Best Overall App was TaxaViewer by the rOpenSci group. TaxaViewer is a Web interface to a mashup of data from the USGS-sponsored interagency Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) and other data from the Phylotastic taxonomic Name service, the Global Invasive Species Database, Phylomatic, and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. The Popular Choice App award, selected through a public vote on the submissions, went to the Species Comparison Tool by Kimberly Sparks of Raleigh, N.C., which allows users to explore the USGS Gap Analysis Program habitat distribution and/or range of two species concurrently. The application also incorporates ITIS data and provides external links to NatureServe species information. Our results indicated that running a challenge was an effective method for promoting our data products and therefore improving

  4. Public understanding of science and the perception of nanotechnology: the roles of interest in science, methodological knowledge, epistemological beliefs, and beliefs about science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retzbach, Andrea; Marschall, Joachim; Rahnke, Marion; Otto, Lukas; Maier, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report data from an online questionnaire study with 587 respondents, representative for the adult U.S. population in terms of age, gender, and level of education. The aim of this study was to assess how interest in science and knowledge as well as beliefs about science are associated with risk and benefit perceptions of nanotechnology. The findings suggest that the U.S. public is still rather unfamiliar with nanotechnology. Those who have some knowledge mainly have gotten it from TV and the Internet. The content of current media reports is perceived as fairly positive. Knowledge of scientific methods is unrelated to benefit and risk perceptions, at least when other predictors are controlled. In contrast, positive beliefs about science (e.g., its impact on economy or health) and more sophisticated epistemological beliefs about the nature of scientific knowledge are moderately linked to more positive perceptions of nanotechnology. The only exception is the perception of scientific uncertainty: This is associated with less positive evaluations. Finally, higher engagement with science is associated with higher risk perceptions. These findings show that laypersons who are engaged with science and who are aware of the inherent uncertainty of scientific evidence might perceive nanotechnology in a somewhat more differentiated way, contrary to how it is portrayed in the media today.

  5. Best practice in communications training for public engagement with science, technology, engineering and mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Bultitude

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective training in key communications skills is critical for successful public engagement. However, what are the secrets to designing and delivering an effectual training course? This paper outlines key findings from a research study into communication training programmes for public engagement with STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics. The research focused on training in direct communication methods, (as separate from media training and encompassed both trainers and trainees, the latter group spanning across both scientists and explainers. The findings indicated that training courses are effective at increasing involvement in science communication events and trainees feel more confident and able to engage due to training. An interactive style was found to be a key element of training courses. Demonstrations of good practice followed by own performance with feedback were also important, preferably involving a ‘real’ audience. A list of guidelines on best practice has been developed which offers practical advice.

  6. Atom pictures. Iconography of the atom in science and public of the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, Jochen; Bigg, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    The 20th century can be described as century of the atom. From the development of molecular models until nanotechnology, from Becquerel's discovery of the radioactivity until the reactor accident in Chernobyl was and remains the atom subject of the research as well as of the discussion in culture and politics. Thereby the concept and the imagination of the ''atom'' have been subjected to manifold changes, which were essentially generated by pictures. The volume summarizes famous as well as less famous pictures from laboratories, exhibitions, publications, and films. It gives both a contribution to the history of science and culture and a summarizing of different disciplinary approaches to the circulation of pictures between science and public

  7. Scientists: Get Involved in Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach! Here’s How!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Dalton, H.; Shipp, S.; CoBabe-Ammann, E.; Scalice, D.; Bleacher, L.; Wessen, A.

    2013-10-01

    The Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forum is a team of educators, scientists, and outreach professionals funded by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) that supports SMD scientists currently involved in E/PO - or interested in becoming involved in E/PO efforts - to find ways to do so through a variety of avenues. There are many current and future opportunities and resources for scientists to become engaged in E/PO. The Forum provides tools for responding to NASA SMD E/PO funding opportunities (webinars and online proposal guides), a one-page Tips and Tricks guide for scientists to engage in education and public outreach, and a sampler of activities organized by thematic topic and NASA’s Big Questions in planetary science. Scientists can also locate resources for interacting with diverse audiences through a number of online clearinghouses, including: NASA Wavelength, a digital collection of peer-reviewed Earth and space science resources for educators of all levels (http://nasawavelength.org); the Year of the Solar System website (http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss), a presentation of thematic resources that includes background information, missions, the latest in planetary science news, and educational products, for use in the classroom and out, for teaching about the solar system organized by topic - volcanism, ice, astrobiology, etc.; and EarthSpace (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace), a community website where faculty can find and share resources and information about teaching Earth and space sciences in the undergraduate classroom, including class materials, news, funding opportunities, and the latest education research. Also recently developed, the NASA SMD Scientist Speaker’s Bureau (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/speaker) offers an online portal to connect scientists interested in getting involved in E/PO projects - giving public talks, classroom visits, and virtual connections - with audiences. Learn more about the

  8. When scientists turn to the public alternative routes in science communication

    CERN Document Server

    Bucchi, M

    1998-01-01

    In the days of global warming and BSE, science is increasingly a public issue. But what should scientists communicate to the general public? To what extent can the public understand and be involved in scientific debate? How does this involvement affect the shaping and organisation of scientific activity? Why do scientists sometime turn to the media and publicize their findings rather than communicating their findings only with their peers? In this presentation, Massimiano Bucchi reviews the existing literature in this field and highlights the pitfalls of current approaches. He then develops his core argument that turning to the public is not simply a response to inaccurate reporting by journalists or to public curiosity, nor a wish to gain recognition and additional funding. Rather, it is a tactic to which the scientific community are pushed by certain ÒinternalÓ crisis situations. Three cases of scientists turning to the public are examined: the cold fusion case, the COBE/Big Bang issue and Louis PasteurÕ...

  9. Science Outreach and the Religious Public: The Source Makes All the Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, G. R.; Hill, C.; Wolgemuth, K.

    2017-12-01

    Public resistance to well established scientific understanding has been a persistent problem in the US. Decades of improved educational materials, upgraded K-12 standards, and several successful court battles to curb anti-science influences did little to change the percentage of Americans resistant to even considering the evidence for subjects such as evolution or ancient Earth history. Research in the social sciences suggests that one reason has been a failure to recognize the importance of the source of information. Studies have documented that people are more receptive to challenging viewpoints when the advocate (the source) is recognized as a member of their own group or "tribe." The personal worldview or group-identity of an expert can determine how willing an audience is to consider the argument, much more so than the expert's scientific credentials. For a religious audience, this means that the quality of educational materials and the strength of an argument may be irrelevant if delivered by someone known to be dismissive of fundamental religious beliefs. In contrast, significant inroads have been realized with the religious public when scientists of faith have taken a pro-science message to members of their own religious affiliations. Encouraging stories are coming from outreach efforts of organizations and programs such as BioLogos, American Scientific Affiliation, Solid Rock Lectures, and AAAS Dialogue on Science, Ethics, and Religion. Secular scientists interested in outreach can benefit greatly by keeping a short list of resources (blogs, books, speakers) by religious scientists advocating for the legitimacy of modern science, or by directly teaming with scientists of faith. A recent example from our own efforts includes an 11 author book, The Grand Canyon, Monument to an Ancient Earth, aimed primarily at the Christian public to explain why Noah's flood does not explain the planet's complex geology. Eight authors are Christians and three are not.

  10. [Geography of science makes a difference: an appeal for public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Maria Cristina Soares

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a perspective for analyzing the relationship between geographic space and scientific practice and the possible contribution by the geography of science to understanding and developing strategies in favor of public health. Contributions by the field of social studies of science, specifically from the Actor-Network Theory and its concept of translation, and the geography of Milton Santos, form the theoretical framework that allows exploring the spatial dimensions of the production and circulation of scientific knowledge. The article discusses how this approach both enriches and challenges the recent international policies in favor of knowledge translation. The article identifies a possible contribution by the field of Information Science to favor the movement of knowledge, aiming to help minimize the imbalance between what is known in theory and what is applied in practice in health, or the so-called 'know-do gap'.

  11. Teaching authorship and publication practices in the biomedical and life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrina, Francis L

    2011-06-01

    Examination of a limited number of publisher's Instructions for Authors, guidelines from two scientific societies, and the widely accepted policy document of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) provided useful information on authorship practices. Three of five journals examined (Nature, Science, and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) publish papers across a variety of disciplines. One is broadly focused on topics in medical research (New England Journal of Medicine) and one publishes research reports in a single discipline (Journal of Bacteriology). Similar elements of publication policy and accepted practices were found across the policies of these journals articulated in their Instructions for Authors. A number of these same elements were found in the professional society guidelines of the Society for Neuroscience and the American Chemical Society, as well as the ICMJE Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. Taken together, these sources provide the basis for articulating best practices in authorship in scientific research. Emerging from this material is a definition of authorship, as well as policy statements on duplicative publication, conflict of interest disclosure, electronic access, data sharing, digital image integrity, and research requiring subjects' protection, including prior registration of clinical trials. These common elements provide a foundation for teaching about scientific authorship and publication practices across biomedical and life sciences disciplines.

  12. Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) on public lands: estimating density, activity, and diet in the Florida Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cove, Michael V.; Gardner, Beth; Simons, Theodore R.; Kays, Roland; O'Connell, Allan F.

    2017-01-01

    Feral and free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) can have strong negative effects on small mammals and birds, particularly in island ecosystems. We deployed camera traps to study free-ranging cats in national wildlife refuges and state parks on Big Pine Key and Key Largo in the Florida Keys, USA, and used spatial capture–recapture models to estimate cat abundance, movement, and activities. We also used stable isotope analyses to examine the diet of cats captured on public lands. Top population models separated cats based on differences in movement and detection with three and two latent groups on Big Pine Key and Key Largo, respectively. We hypothesize that these latent groups represent feral, semi-feral, and indoor/outdoor house cats based on the estimated movement parameters of each group. Estimated cat densities and activity varied between the two islands, with relatively high densities (~4 cats/km2) exhibiting crepuscular diel patterns on Big Pine Key and lower densities (~1 cat/km2) exhibiting nocturnal diel patterns on Key Largo. These differences are most likely related to the higher proportion of house cats on Big Pine relative to Key Largo. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from hair samples of free-ranging cats (n = 43) provided estimates of the proportion of wild and anthropogenic foods in cat diets. At the population level, cats on both islands consumed mostly anthropogenic foods (>80% of the diet), but eight individuals were effective predators of wildlife (>50% of the diet). We provide evidence that cat groups within a population move different distances, exhibit different activity patterns, and that individuals consume wildlife at different rates, which all have implications for managing this invasive predator.

  13. Beyond the usual suspects: using political science to enhance public health policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafard, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    That public health policy and practice should be evidence based is a seemingly uncontroversial claim. Yet governments and citizens routinely reject the best available evidence and prefer policies that reflect other considerations and concerns. The most common explanations of this paradox emphasise scientific disagreement, the power of 'politics', or the belief that scientists and policymakers live in two separate communities that do not communicate. However, another explanation may lie in the limits of the very notion of evidence-based policy making. In fact, the social science discipline of political science offers a rich body of theory and empirical evidence to explain the apparent gap between evidence and policy. This essay introduces this literature with a particular emphasis on a recent book by Katherine Smith, Beyond evidence-based policy in public health: the interplay of ideas. As the title suggests, Smith argues that what matters for public health policy is less scientific evidence and much more a more complex set of ideas. Based on detailed case studies of UK tobacco and health inequality policy, Smith offers a richly textured alternative account of what matters for policy making. This excellent book is part of a small but growing body of political science research on public health policy that draws on contemporary theories of policy change and governance more generally. This essay provides a window on this research, describes some examples, but emphasises that public health scholars and practitioners too often retain a narrow if not naive view of the policy-making process. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Prior Publication and Redundancy in Contemporary Science: Are Authors and Editors at the Crossroads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Sonia Maria Ramos; Roig, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    We discuss prior publication and redundancy in contemporary science in the context of changing perceptions of originality in the communication of research results. These perceptions have been changing in the publication realm, particularly in the last 15 years. Presenting a brief overview of the literature, we address some of the conflicts that are likely to arise between authors and editors. We illustrate our approach with conference presentations that are later published as journal articles and focus on a recent retraction of an article that had been previously published as a conference proceedings. Although we do not make definitive pronouncements on the matter-as many concepts are evolving-we do argue that conference papers that contain sufficient details for others to attempt a replication and are indexed in scientific databases such as PubMed, challenge some currently held assumptions of prior publication and originality in the sciences. Our view is that these important issues are in need of further clarification and harmonization within the science publishing community. This need is more evident when we consider current notions of research integrity when it comes to communication to peers. Revisiting long-standing views about what constitutes prior publication and developing a clearer set of guidelines for authors and editors to follow should reduce conflicts in the research environment, which already exerts considerable pressure, especially on newcomers in academia. However, while clearer guidelines are timely, developing them is only part of the challenge. The present times seem to call for deeper changes in the research and publication systems.

  15. Avenues for Scientist Involvement in Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, S. S.; Buxner, S.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.; Dalton, H.; Bleacher, L.; Scalice, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forum is charged by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) with engaging, extending, and supporting the community of E/PO professionals and scientists involved in planetary science education activities in order to help them more effectively and efficiently share NASA science with all learners. A number of resources and opportunities for involvement are available for planetary scientists involved in - or interested in being involved in - E/PO. The Forum provides opportunities for community members to stay informed, communicate, collaborate, leverage existing programs and partnerships, and become more skilled education practitioners. Interested planetary scientists can receive newsletters, participate in monthly calls, interact through an online community workspace, and attend annual E/PO community meetings and meetings of opportunity at science and education conferences. The Forum also provides professional development opportunities on a myriad of topics, from common pre-conceptions in planetary science to program evaluation, to delivering effective workshops. Thematic approaches, such as the Year of the Solar System (http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss), are coordinated by the Forum; through these efforts resources are presented topically, in a manner that can be easily ported into diverse learning environments. Information about the needs of audiences with which scientists interact - higher education, K-12 education, informal education, and public - currently is being researched by SMD's Audience-Based Working Groups. Their findings and recommendations will be made available to inform the activities and products of E/PO providers so they are able to better serve these audiences. Also in production is a "one-stop-shop" of SMD E/PO products and resources that can be used in conjunction with E/PO activities. Further supporting higher-education efforts, the Forum coordinates a network of planetary science

  16. Avenues for Scientist Involvement in Earth and Space Science Education and Public Outreach (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peticolas, L. M.; Gross, N. A.; Hsu, B. C.; Shipp, S. S.; Buxner, S.; Schwerin, T. G.; Smith, D.; Meinke, B. K.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forums are charged with engaging, extending, supporting, and coordinating the community of E/PO professionals and scientists involved in Earth and space science education activities. This work is undertaken to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of the overall national NASA science education and outreach effort made up of individual efforts run by these education professionals. This includes facilitating scientist engagement in education and outreach. A number of resources and opportunities for involvement are available for scientists involved in - or interested in being involved in - education or outreach. The Forums provide opportunities for earth and space scientists to stay informed, communicate, collaborate, leverage existing programs and partnerships, and become more skilled education practitioners. Interested scientists can receive newsletters, participate in monthly calls, interact through an online community workspace, and attend E/PO strategic meetings. The Forums also provide professional development opportunities on a myriad of topics, from common pre-conceptions in science, to program evaluation, to delivering effective workshops. Thematic approaches, such as Earth Science Week (http://www.earthsciweek.org), and the Year of the Solar System (http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss) are coordinated by the Forums; through these efforts resources are presented topically, in a manner that can be easily ported into diverse learning environments. Information about the needs of audiences with which scientists interact - higher education, K-12 education, informal education, and public - are provided by SMD's Audience-Based Working Groups. Their findings and recommendations are made available to inform the activities and products of E/PO providers so they are able to better serve these audiences. Also available is a 'one-stop shop' of SMD E/PO products and resources that can be

  17. The Specification of Science Education Programs in the Local Public Library: Focusing on the Programs In G-city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Ja Ahn*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of 'G' has been made a number of achievements with its science program as a part of public library's cultural program during the last 5 years. Recently, the national science centre has been established in the same city, the debate is now needed whether the science program in the public library have reasons to be maintained or to be reduced. The aim of this research is on the operating strategies of the science program in the public library. The research methods include case studies of operational strategies in domestic and foreign science centre, the level of satisfaction of local citizen on the science program, the vision of science program in the advancement of public library in the century. In results, the research proposes that the science program in public library should be maintained, but with locally characterised programs. In addition, the study also advised on the provision of scientific information, the strengthened search functions, and the development of user-centred services for those in science fields.

  18. Engaging academia to advance the science and practice of environmental public health tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strosnider, Heather; Zhou, Ying; Balluz, Lina; Qualters, Judith

    2014-10-01

    Public health agencies at the federal, state, and local level are responsible for implementing actions and policies that address health problems related to environmental hazards. These actions and policies can be informed by integrating or linking data on health, exposure, hazards, and population. The mission of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention׳s National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program (Tracking Program) is to provide information from a nationwide network of integrated health, environmental hazard, and exposure data that drives actions to improve the health of communities. The Tracking Program and federal, state, and local partners collect, integrate, analyze, and disseminate data and information to inform environmental public health actions. However, many challenges exist regarding the availability and quality of data, the application of appropriate methods and tools to link data, and the state of the science needed to link and analyze health and environmental data. The Tracking Program has collaborated with academia to address key challenges in these areas. The collaboration has improved our understanding of the uses and limitations of available data and methods, expanded the use of existing data and methods, and increased our knowledge about the connections between health and environment. Valuable working relationships have been forged in this process, and together we have identified opportunities and improvements for future collaborations to further advance the science and practice of environmental public health tracking. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Life science-based neuroscience education at large Western Public Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Volkan; Carpenter, Ellen M

    2016-12-01

    The last 40 years have seen a remarkable increase in the teaching of neuroscience at the undergraduate level. From its origins as a component of anatomy or physiology departments to its current status as an independent interdisciplinary field, neuroscience has become the chosen field of study for many undergraduate students, particularly for those interested in medical school or graduate school in neuroscience or related fields. We examined how life science-based neuroscience education is offered at large public universities in the Western United States. By examining publicly available materials posted online, we found that neuroscience education may be offered as an independent program, or as a component of biological or physiological sciences at many institutions. Neuroscience programs offer a course of study involving a core series of courses and a collection of topical electives. Many programs provide the opportunity for independent research, or for laboratory-based training in neuroscience. Features of neuroscience programs at Western universities closely matched those seen at the top 25 public universities, as identified by U.S. News & World Report. While neuroscience programs were identified in many Western states, there were several states in which public universities appeared not to provide opportunities to major in neuroscience. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Online medical books: their availability and an assessment of how health sciences libraries provide access on their public Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCall, Steven L

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the number and topical range of available online medical books and to assess how health sciences libraries were providing access to these resources on their public Websites. The collection-based evaluative technique of list checking was used to assess the number and topical range of online medical books of the six largest publishers. Publisher inventory lists were downloaded over a two-day period (May 16-17, 2004). Titles were counted and compared with the 2003 Brandon/Hill list. A sample of health sciences libraries was subsequently derived by consulting the 2004 "Top Medical Schools-Research" in U.S. News & World Report. Bibliographic and bibliothecal access methods were evaluated based on an inspection of the publicly available Websites of the sample libraries. Of 318 currently published online medical books, 151 (47%) were Brandon/Hill titles covering 42 of 59 Brandon/Hill topics (71%). These 151 titles represented 22% (N = 672) of the Brandon/Hill list, which further broke down as 52 minimal core, 41 initial purchase, and 58 other recommended Brandon/Hill titles. These numbers represented 50%, 28%, and 12%, respectively, of all Brandon/Hill titles corresponding to those categories. In terms of bibliographic access, 20 of 21 of sampled libraries created catalog records for their online medical books, 1 of which also provided analytical access at the chapter level, and none provided access at the chapter section level. Of the 21 libraries, 19 had library Website search engines that provided title-level access and 4 provided access at the chapter level and none that at the chapter section level. For bibliothecal access, 19 of 21 libraries provided title-level access to medical books, 8 of which provided classified and alphabetic arrangements, 1 provided a classified arrangement only, and 10 provided an alphabetic arrangement only. No library provided a bibliothecal arrangement for medical book chapters or chapter

  1. A comparison of 17 author-level bibliometric indicators for researchers in Astronomy, Environmental Science, Philosophy and Public Health in Web of Science and Google Scholar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildgaard, Lorna Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    were calculated for 512 researchers in Astronomy, Environmental Science, Philosophy and Public Health. Indicator scores and scholar rankings calculated in Web of Science (WoS) and Google Scholar (GS) were analyzed. The indexing policies of WoS and GS were found to have a direct effect on the amount...

  2. Examining the Gap between Science and Public Opinion about Genetically Modified Food and Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Brandon R

    2016-01-01

    There is great uncertainty due to challenges of escalating population growth and climate change. Public perception that diverges from the scientific community may decrease the effectiveness of scientific inquiry and innovation as tools to solve these challenges. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with the divergence of public opinion from scientific consensus regarding the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods and human involvement in global warming (GW). Results indicate that the effects of knowledge on public opinion are complex and non-uniform across types of knowledge (i.e., perceived and actual) or issues. Political affiliation affects agreement with science; Democrats were more likely to agree that GM food is safe and human actions cause GW. Respondents who had relatively higher cognitive function or held illusionary correlations about GM food or GW were more likely to have an opinion that differed from the scientific community.

  3. Getting the Word Out: New Approaches for Disseminating Public Health Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyler, Amy A.; Harris, Jenine K.; Moore, Justin B.; Tabak, Rachel G.

    2018-01-01

    The gap between discovery of public health knowledge and application in practice settings and policy development is due in part to ineffective dissemination. This article describes (1) lessons related to dissemination from related disciplines (eg, communication, agriculture, social marketing, political science), (2) current practices among researchers, (3) key audience characteristics, (4) available tools for dissemination, and (5) measures of impact. Dissemination efforts need to take into account the message, source, audience, and channel. Practitioners and policy makers can be more effectively reached via news media, social media, issue or policy briefs, one-on-one meetings, and workshops and seminars. Numerous “upstream” and “midstream” indicators of impact include changes in public perception or awareness, greater use of evidence-based interventions, and changes in policy. By employing ideas outlined in this article, scientific discoveries are more likely to be applied in public health agencies and policy-making bodies. PMID:28885319

  4. Examining the Gap between Science and Public Opinion about Genetically Modified Food and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Brandon R.

    2016-01-01

    There is great uncertainty due to challenges of escalating population growth and climate change. Public perception that diverges from the scientific community may decrease the effectiveness of scientific inquiry and innovation as tools to solve these challenges. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with the divergence of public opinion from scientific consensus regarding the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods and human involvement in global warming (GW). Results indicate that the effects of knowledge on public opinion are complex and non-uniform across types of knowledge (i.e., perceived and actual) or issues. Political affiliation affects agreement with science; Democrats were more likely to agree that GM food is safe and human actions cause GW. Respondents who had relatively higher cognitive function or held illusionary correlations about GM food or GW were more likely to have an opinion that differed from the scientific community. PMID:27829008

  5. Examining the Gap between Science and Public Opinion about Genetically Modified Food and Global Warming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon R McFadden

    Full Text Available There is great uncertainty due to challenges of escalating population growth and climate change. Public perception that diverges from the scientific community may decrease the effectiveness of scientific inquiry and innovation as tools to solve these challenges. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with the divergence of public opinion from scientific consensus regarding the safety of genetically modified (GM foods and human involvement in global warming (GW. Results indicate that the effects of knowledge on public opinion are complex and non-uniform across types of knowledge (i.e., perceived and actual or issues. Political affiliation affects agreement with science; Democrats were more likely to agree that GM food is safe and human actions cause GW. Respondents who had relatively higher cognitive function or held illusionary correlations about GM food or GW were more likely to have an opinion that differed from the scientific community.

  6. Public Understanding of Science in turbulent times III: Deficit to dialogue, champions to critics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallman, Melanie

    2016-02-01

    As part of the 20th Anniversary of the Public Understanding of Science journal, the journal has been reflecting on how the field and journal have developed. This research note takes a closer look at some of the trends, considering the journal's 50 most cited papers and using IRaMuTeQ, an open-source computer text analysis technique. The research note presents data that show that the move within public engagement from deficit to dialogue has been followed by a further shift from championing dialogue to criticising its practice. This shift has taken place alongside a continued, but changing, interest in media coverage, surveys and models of public understanding. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Communication of emergency public warnings: A social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mileti, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Sorensen, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    More than 200 studies of warning systems and warning response were reviewed for this social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment of communication of emergency public warnings. The major findings are as follows. First, variations in the nature and content of warnings have a large impact on whether or not the public heeds the warning. Relevant factors include the warning source; warning channel; the consistency, credibility, accuracy, and understandability of the message; and the warning frequency. Second, characteristics of the population receiving the warning affect warning response. These include social characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age, social setting characteristics such as stage of life or family context, psychological characteristics such as fatalism or risk perception, and knowledge characteristics such as experience or training. Third, many current myths about public response to emergency warning are at odds with knowledge derived from field investigations. Some of these myths include the keep it simple'' notion, the cry wolf'' syndrome, public panic and hysteria, and those concerning public willingness to respond to warnings. Finally, different methods of warning the public are not equally effective at providing an alert and notification in different physical and social settings. Most systems can provide a warning given three or more hours of available warning time. Special systems such as tone-alert radios are needed to provide rapid warning. 235 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. IPY 2007-2008 and Scientists, Science Organisations, and the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D. J.

    2006-12-01

    An initial burst of enthusiasm resulted in more than 1000 expressions of interest and nearly 500 internationally coordinated proposals for polar research during IPY. An international committee has endorsed more than 200 of these proposals, and most other proposals and nearly all expressions of interest have found ways to join the endorsed programme. Ten nations have announced new IPY science funding totalling in excess of 300M USD for the two years of operations; several nations will make announcements soon. Most on-going funding for polar research, coming from at least 30 nations, approximately 1.6B USD over two years, will also support IPY activities. What should the thousands of scientists hoping to participate expect, personally and collectively? What should the overall science entity expect, during and after IPY? And, finally, what should the public expect, after much attention and the expenditure of 2B USD, not to mention the on-going and future costs of ice breakers and ice-monitoring satellites and polar bases? Many IPY scientists will initially experience disappointment. Funding, even with IPY infusions, will fall short of need, and initial proposal success rates will stay below 50% in almost every nation, far below in some nations. In many nations, however, a catch-up effect will occur, leading to more funds in 2008 or 2009 than in 2006 and 2007. A step-up effect will also occur, leading to increased on-going funds for polar research, although perhaps in smaller steps and in fewer countries than we might hope. Scientists should expect increased public attention to their work and increased demand for their cooperation and contribution to international data management and to public outreach. Individually and collectively, IPY scientists have the opportunity to interact with an amazing array of fellow scientists, exchanging experience and enthusiasm on topics from gravitational variations to genomic sequences to Gwich'in cultures. Science as an entity will

  9. CosmoQuest: Training Students, Teachers and the Public to do NASA Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, S.; Bracey, G.; Noel-Storr, J.; Murph, S.; Francis, M. R.; Strishock, L.; Cobb, W. H.; Lebofsky, L. A.; Jones, A. P.; Finkelstein, K.; Gay, P.

    2016-12-01

    Engaging individuals in science who have not been formally trained as research scientists can both capture a wider audiences in the process of science as well as crowdsource data analysis that gets more science done. CosmoQuest is a virtual research facility that leverages these benefits through citizen science projects that has community members to analyze NASA data that contributes to publishable science results. This is accomplished through an inviting experience that recruits members of the public (including students), meets their needs and motivations, and provides them the education they want so they can to be contributing members of the community. Each research project in CosmoQuest presents new training opportunities that are designed to meet the personal needs of the engaged individuals, while also leading to the production of high-quality data that meets the needs of the research teams. These educational opportunities extend into classrooms, where both teachers and students engage in analysis. Training for teachers is done through in-person and online professional development, and through conference workshops for both scientists and educators. Curricular products are available to support students' understanding of citizen science and how to engage in CosmoQuest projects. Professional development for all audiences is done through online tutorials and courses, with social media support. Our goal is to instill expertise in individuals not formally trained as research scientists. This allows them to work with and provide genuine scientific support to practicing experts in a community that benefits all stakeholders. Training focuses on increasing and supporting individuals' core content knowledge as well as building the specific skills necessary to engage in each project. These skills and knowledge are aligned with the 3-dimensional learning of the Next Generation Science Standards, and support lifelong learning opportunities for those in and out of school.

  10. Tools for Engaging Scientists in Education and Public Outreach: Resources from NASA's Science Mission Directorate Forums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, S.; Grier, J.; Meinke, B. K.; Gross, N. A.; Woroner, M.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forums support the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and its E/PO community by enhancing the coherency and efficiency of SMD-funded E/PO programs. The Forums foster collaboration and partnerships between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogy expertise. We will present tools to engage and resources to support scientists' engagement in E/PO efforts. Scientists can get connected to educators and find support materials and links to resources to support their E/PO work through the online SMD E/PO community workspace (http://smdepo.org) The site includes resources for scientists interested in E/PO including one page guides about "How to Get Involved" and "How to Increase Your Impact," as well as the NASA SMD Scientist Speaker's Bureau to connect scientists to audiences across the country. Additionally, there is a set of online clearinghouses that provide ready-made lessons and activities for use by scientists and educators: NASA Wavelength (http://nasawavelength.org/) and EarthSpace (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace/). The NASA Forums create and partner with organizations to provide resources specifically for undergraduate science instructors including slide sets for Earth and Space Science classes on the current topics in astronomy and planetary science. The Forums also provide professional development opportunities at professional science conferences each year including AGU, LPSC, AAS, and DPS to support higher education faculty who are teaching undergraduate courses. These offerings include best practices in instruction, resources for teaching planetary science and astronomy topics, and other special topics such as working with diverse students and the use of social media in the classroom. We are continually soliciting ways that we can better support scientists' efforts in effectively engaging in E/PO. Please contact Sanlyn Buxner (buxner@psi.edu) or Jennifer Grier (jgrier@psi.edu) to

  11. Mundane science use in a practice theoretical perspective: Different understandings of the relations between citizen-consumers and public communication initiatives build on scientific claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkier, Bente

    2015-08-13

    Public communication initiatives play a part in placing complicated scientific claims in citizen-consumers' everyday contexts. Lay reactions to scientific claims framed in public communication, and attempts to engage citizens, have been important subjects of discussion in the literatures of public understanding and public engagement with science. Many of the public communication initiatives, however, address lay people as consumers rather than citizens. This creates specific challenges for understanding public engagement with science and scientific citizenship. The article compares five different understandings of the relations between citizen-consumers and public issue communication involving science, where the first four types are widely represented in the Public Understanding of Science discussions. The fifth understanding is a practice theoretical perspective. The article suggests how the public understanding of and engagement in science literature can benefit from including a practice theoretical approach to research about mundane science use and public engagement. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Quality of Publication Ethics in the Instructions to the Authors of Iranian Journals of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Salamat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Providing a perfect instruction to authors can prevent most potential publication ethics errors. This study was conducted to determine the quality of ethical considerations in the instructions to the authors of Iranian research scientific journals of medical sciences (accredited by the Commission for Accreditation and Improvement of Iranian Medical Journals in October 2011. Checklist items (n=15 were extracted from the national manual of ethics in medical research publications, and the validity of the manual of ethics was assessed. All the accredited Iranian journals of medical sciences (n=198 were entered into the study. The instructions to the authors of 160 accredited Iranian journals were available online and were reviewed. The ANOVA and Kendall Correlation coefficient were performed to analyze the results. A total of 76 (47.5% of the 160 journals were in English and 84 (52.5% were in Farsi. The most frequently mentioned items related to publication ethics comprised “commitment not to send manuscripts to other journals and re-publish manuscripts” (85%, 83.8%, “aim and scope” of the journal (81.9%, “principles of medical ethics in the use of human samples” (74.4%, and “review process” (74.4%. On the other hand, the items of “principles of advertising” (1.2%, “authorship criteria” (15%, and “integrity in publication of clinical trial results” (30.6% were the least frequently mentioned ones. Based on the study findings, the quality of publication ethics, as instructed to the authors, can improve the quality of the journals.

  13. National advisory bodies in the system of public governance in science and higher education: european practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Degtyarova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the analysis of organizational and legal conditions for the functioning of the highest advisory bodies in the fields of research and higher education, created at the state level at the central governing institutions in Ukraine and selected European countries. The article is aimed at the research of the model of formation and functioning of the national advisory bodies on research and higher education in Poland, Germany, and Czech Republic in the system of science management, based on the national legislation. The following national bodies are studied in the paper: National Council of Science and Higher Education of Poland, the Committee of Science Policy of Poland, the Council for Research, Development and Innovation of Czech Republic, National Council for Research, Innovation and Science Policy of Hungary, the German Research Council and others. It is proved that advisory bodies are an important element of the system of public governance, as well as actors in shaping of the national science and higher education policy. They are formed in a democratic way due to the principle of shared governance and mostly of institutional representation. The article considered selected aspects of the establishment of the National R&D Council of Ukraine, as stated in the Law of Ukraine «On Scientific and R&D Activity» comparing with the relevant European institutions. The analysis of the concept for the National Council for Science and Technologies (R&D of Ukraine along with the administrative and management risks could be considered while implementation of the Law of Ukraine «On Scientific and R&D Activity».

  14. Public attention to science and political news and support for climate change mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, P. Sol; Nisbet, Erik C.; Myers, Teresa A.

    2015-06-01

    We examine how attention to science and political news may influence public knowledge, perceived harm, and support for climate mitigation policies. Previous research examining these relationships has not fully accounted for how political ideology shapes the mental processes through which the public interprets media discourses about climate change. We incorporate political ideology and the concept of motivated cognition into our analysis to compare and contrast two prominent models of opinion formation, the scientific literacy model, which posits that disseminating scientific information will move public opinion towards the scientific consensus, and the motivated reasoning model, which posits that individuals will interpret information in a biased manner. Our analysis finds support for both models of opinion formation with key differences across ideological groups. Attention to science news was associated with greater perceptions of harm and knowledge for conservatives, but only additional knowledge for liberals. Supporting the literacy model, greater knowledge was associated with more support for climate mitigation for liberals. In contrast, consistent with motivated reasoning, more knowledgeable conservatives were less supportive of mitigation policy. In addition, attention to political news had a negative association with perceived harm for conservatives but not for liberals.

  15. Improving Public Engagement With Climate Change: Five "Best Practice" Insights From Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Sander; Maibach, Edward; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    Despite being one of the most important societal challenges of the 21st century, public engagement with climate change currently remains low in the United States. Mounting evidence from across the behavioral sciences has found that most people regard climate change as a nonurgent and psychologically distant risk-spatially, temporally, and socially-which has led to deferred public decision making about mitigation and adaptation responses. In this article, we advance five simple but important "best practice" insights from psychological science that can help governments improve public policymaking about climate change. Particularly, instead of a future, distant, global, nonpersonal, and analytical risk that is often framed as an overt loss for society, we argue that policymakers should (a) emphasize climate change as a present, local, and personal risk; (b) facilitate more affective and experiential engagement; (c) leverage relevant social group norms; (d) frame policy solutions in terms of what can be gained from immediate action; and (e) appeal to intrinsically valued long-term environmental goals and outcomes. With practical examples we illustrate how these key psychological principles can be applied to support societal engagement and climate change policymaking. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Science and Society: Public History in the Context of Historical Culture of the Globalization Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorina P. Repina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the XIX century known as the „historical age”, a high degree of trust to history and social prestige of historical science relied on the entrenched in public consciousness the idea of continuity of historical development of a human civilization and, respectively, of the unique opportunities of the use of the past experience as a means to solve the problems of the present and to build „the bright future”. But the understanding of the dramatic experi-ence of the XX century undermined the belief in the “use of history”, and this situation has been greatly aggravated with intensification of the processes of globalization on the bor-der of XX and XXI centuries. The problems of interaction between “academic (professional history” and the wide public in the concrete societies and the changes in their relations in the context of deep social transformations proved to take place at the center of many re-searchers’ attention. Public history is purposefully overcoming the typical for historical science of the XX century alienation from „the uninitiated”; it strives to restore the interest of the consumer to the historians’ production, to propagate professional standards, histor-ical knowledge and proper understanding of the specific character of “historian’s craft” among the wide circles of the non-professionals.

  17. Proceedings of the public meeting to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda. Volume 2. Science projection papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 14 science projection papers presented at a public meeting on March 10-11, 1980 to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda into the biological effects of ionizing radiation

  18. Wired to freedom: Life science, public politics, and the case of Cochlear Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Kim Sune; Bertilsson, T Margareta

    2017-02-01

    Cochlear Implantation is now regarded as the most successful medical technology. It carries promises to provide deaf/hearing impaired individuals with a technological sense of hearing and an access to participate on a more equal level in social life. In this article, we explore the adoption of cochlear implantations among Danish users in order to shed more light on their social and political implications. We situate cochlear implantation in a framework of new life science advances, politics, and user experiences. Analytically, we draw upon the notion of social imaginary and explore the social dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being "wired to freedom" that involves new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as "wired to freedom," we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear Implantation. As our empirical observations are largely based in the Scandinavian countries (notably Denmark), we also provide some reflections on the character of the technology-friendly Scandinavian welfare states and the unintended consequences that may follow in the wake of rapid technology implementation of life science in society.

  19. Building the capacity for public engagement with science in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guston, David H

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews efforts of the Center for Nanotechnology in Society at Arizona State University (CNS-ASU) to begin to build capacity for public engagement with science in the United States. First, the paper sets a context in the US of the current challenges to democracy and for science. It then reviews the literature on the accomplishments of the National Citizens' Technology Forum (NCTF) on nanotechnology and human enhancement, held in 2008, as well as some caveats that emerged from that enterprise. It concludes with a brief discussion of two kinds of activities - participation in the World Wide Views process organized by the Danish Board of Technology, and methodological innovations that include more concrete and experiential modes of engagement - that have spun off from the NCTF.

  20. Costa Rica Publications in the Science Citation Index Expanded:: A bibliometric analysis for 1981-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Monge-Nájera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite of its small size, the Central American country of Costa Rica is internationally recognized as one of the world leaders in conservation and as the Central American leader in science. There have been no recent studies on the country’s scientific production. The objective of this study was to analyze the Costa Rican scientific output as represented in the Science Citation Index Expanded. All documents with “Costa Rica” in the address field from 1981 to 2010 were included (total 6 801 publications. Articles (79% were more frequent than other types of publication and were mostly in English (83%. Revista de Biología Tropical published the most articles (17%, followed by Toxicon and Turrialba (2.5%. The New England Journal of Medicine had the highest impact factor (53.484 with nine articles. Of 5 343 articles with known institutional address, 63%were internationally collaborative articles (most with the USA with h index 91 and citation per publication 18. A total of 81% of all articles were inter-institutionally collaborative articles, led by the Universidad de Costa Rica. This reflects research and education agreements among these countries. Universidad de Costa Rica ranked top one in inter-institutionally collaborative articles, the rank of the total inter-institutionally collaborative articles, and the rank of first author articles and corresponding author articles. Studied subjects and journals in our sample are in agreement with dominant science fields and journals in Costa Rica. Articles with the highest citation were published in New England Journal of Medicine. The largest citation of medical articles reflects the general interest and wider readership of this subject. All corresponding and first authors of the high impact articles were not from Costa Rica. In conclusion, the scientific output of Costa Rican authors is strong in the areas related to conservation but the impact is higher for biomedical articles, and Costa Rican

  1. Costa Rica publications in the Science Citation Index Expanded: a bibliometric analysis for 1981-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2012-12-01

    Despite of its small size, the Central American country of Costa Rica is internationally recognized as one of the world leaders in conservation and as the Central American leader in science. There have been no recent studies on the country's scientific production. The objective of this study was to analyze the Costa Rican scientific output as represented in the Science Citation Index Expanded. All documents with "Costa Rica" in the address field from 1981 to 2010 were included (total 6 801 publications). Articles (79%) were more frequent than other types of publication and were mostly in English (83%). Revista de Biología Tropical published the most articles (17%), followed by Toxicon and Turrialba (2.5%). The New England Journal of Medicine had the highest impact factor (53.484) with nine articles. Of 5 343 articles with known institutional address, 63%were internationally collaborative articles (most with the USA) with h index 91 and citation per publication 18. A total of 81% of all articles were inter-institutionally collaborative articles, led by the Universidad de Costa Rica. This reflects research and education agreements among these countries. Universidad de Costa Rica ranked top one in inter-institutionally collaborative articles, the rank of the total inter-institutionally collaborative articles, and the rank of first author articles and corresponding author articles. Studied subjects and journals in our sample are in agreement with dominant science fields and journals in Costa Rica. Articles with the highest citation were published in New England Journal of Medicine. The largest citation of medical articles reflects the general interest and wider readership of this subject. All corresponding and first authors of the high impact articles were not from Costa Rica. In conclusion, the scientific output of Costa Rican authors is strong in the areas related to conservation but the impact is higher for biomedical articles, and Costa Rican authors need to

  2. Citizen expectations of 'academic entrepreneurship' in health research: public science, practical benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Fiona A; Painter-Main, Michael; Axler, Renata; Lehoux, Pascale; Giacomini, Mita; Slater, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Responsiveness to citizens as users of technological innovation helps motivate translational research and commercial engagement among academics. Yet, retaining citizen trust and support for research encourages caution in pursuit of commercial science. We explore citizen expectations of the specifically academic nature of commercial science [i.e. academic entrepreneurship (AE)] and the influence of conflict of interest concerns, hopes about practical benefits and general beliefs. We conducted a cross-sectional national opinion survey of 1002 Canadians online in 2010. Approval of AE was moderate (mean 3.2/5, SD 0.84), but varied by entrepreneurial activity. Concern about conflict of interests (COI) was moderate (mean 2.9/5, SD 0.86) and varied by type of concern. An ordinary least-squares regression showed that expectations of practical benefits informed support for AE, specifically that academic-industry collaboration can better address real-world problems; conflict of interest concerns were insignificant. These findings suggest that citizens support AE for its potential to produce practical benefits, but enthusiasm varies and is reduced for activities that may prioritize private over public interests. Further, support exists despite concern about COI, perhaps due to trust in the academic research context. For user engagement in research priority setting, these findings suggest the need to attend to the commercial nature of translational science. For research policy, they suggest the need for governance arrangements for responsible innovation, which can sustain public trust in academic research, and realize the practical benefits that inform public support for AE. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Developing Web-based Tools for Collaborative Science and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, A.; Pizarro, O.; Williams, S. B.

    2016-02-01

    With the advances in high bandwidth communications and the proliferation of social media tools, education & outreach activities have become commonplace on ocean-bound research cruises. In parallel, advances in underwater robotics & other data collecting platforms, have made it possible to collect copious amounts of oceanographic data. This data then typically undergoes laborious, manual processing to transform it into quantitative information, which normally occurs post cruise resulting in significant lags between collecting data and using it for scientific discovery. This presentation discusses how appropriately designed software systems, can be used to fulfill multiple objectives and attempt to leverage public engagement in order to compliment science goals. We will present two software platforms: the first is a web browser based tool that was developed for real-time tracking of multiple underwater robots and ships. It was designed to allow anyone on board to view or control it on any device with a web browser. It opens up the possibility of remote teleoperation & engagement and was easily adapted to enable live streaming over the internet for public outreach. While the tracking system provided context and engaged people in real-time, it also directed interested participants to Squidle, another online system. Developed for scientists, Squidle supports data management, exploration & analysis and enables direct access to survey data reducing the lag in data processing. It provides a user-friendly streamlined interface that integrates advanced data management & online annotation tools. This system was adapted to provide a simplified user interface, tutorial instructions and a gamified ranking system to encourage "citizen science" participation. These examples show that through a flexible design approach, it is possible to leverage the development effort of creating science tools to facilitate outreach goals, opening up the possibility for acquiring large volumes of

  4. Social media connecting ocean sciences and the general public: the @OceanSeaIceNPI experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. K.; Granskog, M. A.; Gerland, S.; Meyer, A.; Hudson, S. R.; Rösel, A.; King, J.; Itkin, P.; Cohen, L.; Dodd, P. A.; de Steur, L.

    2016-02-01

    As researchers we are constantly being encouraged by funding agencies, policy-makers and journalists to conduct effective outreach and to communicate our latest research findings. As environmental scientists we also understand the necessity of communicating our research to the general public. Many of us wish to become better science communicators but have little time and limited funding available to do so. How can we expend our science communication past project-based efforts that have a limited lifetime? Most critically, how can a small research groups do it without additional resources such as funds and communication officers? Social media is one answer, and has become a powerful and inexpensive tool for communicating science to different target audiences. Many research institutions and researchers are exploring the full breadth of possibilities brought by social media for reaching out to the general public, journalists, policy-makers, stake-holders, and research community. However, smaller research groups and labs are still underrepresented in social media. When it comes to practice, some essential difficulties can be encountered: identifying key target groups, defining the framework for sharing responsibilities and interaction within the research group, and finally, choosing a currently up-to-date social medium as a technical solution for communicating your research. Here, a group of oceanography and sea ice researchers (@OceanSeaIceNPI) share the positive experience of developing and maintaining for more than one year a researcher-driven outreach effort currently implemented through Instagram, Twitter and Facebook. We will present potential pitfalls and challenges that small research groups could face, and how to better overcome them. This will hopefully inspire and help other research groups and labs to conduct their own effective ocean science communication.

  5. Communicating the Future: Best Practices for Communication of Science and Technology to the Public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Gail

    2002-09-30

    To advance the state of the art in science and technology communication to the public a conference was held March 6-8, 2002 at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, MD. This report of the conference proceedings includes a summary statement by the conference steering committee, transcripts or other text summarizing the remarks of conference speakers, and abstracts for 48 "best practice" communications programs selected by the steering committee through an open competition and a formal peer review process. Additional information about the 48 best practice programs is available on the archival conference Web site at www.nist.gov/bestpractices.

  6. Publications and geothermal sample library facilities of the Earth Science Laboratory, University of Utah Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Phillip M.; Ruth, Kathryn A.; Langton, David R.; Bullett, Michael J.

    1990-03-30

    The Earth Science Laboratory of the University of Utah Research Institute has been involved in research in geothermal exploration and development for the past eleven years. Our work has resulted in the publication of nearly 500 reports, which are listed in this document. Over the years, we have collected drill chip and core samples from more than 180 drill holes in geothermal areas, and most of these samples are available to others for research, exploration and similar purposes. We hope that scientists and engineers involved in industrial geothermal development will find our technology transfer and service efforts helpful.

  7. GLOBE at Night: Raising Public Awareness and Involvement through Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R. T.

    2010-12-01

    With half of the world’s population now living in cities, many urban dwellers have never experienced the wonderment of pristinely dark skies and maybe never will. Light pollution is obscuring people’s long-standing natural heritage to view stars. The GLOBE at Night program (www.globeatnight.org) is an international citizen-science campaign to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by encouraging everyone everywhere to measure local levels of night sky brightness and contribute observations online to a world map. In the last 5 years, GLOBE at Night has been the most productive public light pollution monitoring campaign, collecting over 52,000 observations in a two-week period annually. This year, during the moonless two weeks in March, the campaign set a record high of over 17,800 measurements from people in 86 countries. Foundational resources are available to facilitate the public’s participation in promoting dark skies awareness. The GLOBE at Night website explains clearly the simple-to-participate-in 5 step program and offers background information and interactive games on key concepts. The program has been expanded to include trainings of the general public, but especially educators in schools, museums and science centers, in unique ways. Education kits for dark skies awareness have been distributed at the training workshops. The kit includes material for a light shielding demonstration, a digital Sky Quality Meter and “Dark Skies Rangers” activities. The activities are on how unshielded light wastes energy, how light pollution affects wildlife and how you can participate in a citizen-science star-hunt like GLOBE at Night. In addition, projects are being developed for what to do with the data once it is taken. The GLOBE at Night data from different years can be compared to look for trends over time or with population density maps. The data can also be used to search for dark sky oases or to monitor lighting ordinance compliance. Most

  8. Gender and Public Understanding of Science: Darwinism in the 19th Century Brazilian Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moema de Rezende Vergara

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In the recent works about Brazilian public understanding of science, gender has been poorly used as an analytical category. This paper has as its main goal to bridge this gap by analyzing a section called ‘Letters for a Lady‘, in the journal O Vulgarizador that sought to teach all about Darwinism to women in the Brazil of the 19th century. So the notion of gender will help us understand the tension between masculinity and femininity in the text written by the literary critic Rangel S. Paio.

  9. The status of environmental education in Illinois public high school science and social studies classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jill F.

    Examines relationships among the levels of pre-service and inservice teacher preparation in various topic areas within environmental education (EE) and the levels of implementation of those topic areas in public high school science and social studies classrooms in Illinois. Measures teacher attitudes toward EE. Findings indicate that teachers who had received pre-service/inservice teacher education in EE implemented significantly more EE topics into the curriculum than did teachers who reported receiving no pre-service/inservice teacher education in EE. Findings also indicate that beginning teachers do not implement the EE topics nearly as much as veteran teachers.

  10. Understanding public opinion in debates over biomedical research: looking beyond political partisanship to focus on beliefs about science and society.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Nisbet

    Full Text Available As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed.

  11. Understanding public opinion in debates over biomedical research: looking beyond political partisanship to focus on beliefs about science and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Matthew; Markowitz, Ezra M

    2014-01-01

    As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed.

  12. Understanding Public Opinion in Debates over Biomedical Research: Looking beyond Political Partisanship to Focus on Beliefs about Science and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Matthew; Markowitz, Ezra M.

    2014-01-01

    As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed. PMID:24558393

  13. "Publish SCI Papers or No Degree": Practices of Chinese Doctoral Supervisors in Response to the Publication Pressure on Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongyan

    2016-01-01

    Publishing English papers in journals listed in Science Citation Index (SCI) has become a requirement for degree conferment for doctoral science students at many universities in China. The publication requirement engenders high pressure for doctoral students and their supervisors and shapes the politics of the relationship between the two parties.…

  14. 78 FR 58536 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board Panel for the Review of the EPA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL--9901-26-OA] Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board Panel for the Review of the EPA Water Body Connectivity Report AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces...

  15. Gender Equality in Public Higher Education Institutions of Ethiopia: The Case of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egne, Robsan Margo

    2014-01-01

    Ensuring gender equality in higher education system is high on the agenda worldwide particularly in science disciplines. This study explores the problems and prospects of gender equality in public higher education institutions of Ethiopia, especially in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Descriptive survey and analytical research…

  16. The Science of Pizza: The Molecular Origins of Cheese, Bread, and Digestion Using Interactive Activities for the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowat, Amy C.; Rosenberg, Daniel; Hollar, Kathryn A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a presentation on the science of pizza, which is designed for the general public including children ages 6 and older. The presentation focuses on the science of making and digesting cheese and bread. We highlight 4 major scientific themes: (1) how macromolecules such as carbohydrates and proteins are composed of atoms and small…

  17. Nuclear science public education - ANS at the onramp to the Information Superhighway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, E.N. [SCE, San Onofre, CA (United States); Swenson, L.; Slone, B. III

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to alert public communicators to the new opportunity provided by Internet. Beginning in the late 1950s, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission public information program included a motion picture loan library, an excellent set of booklets, and a set of vans, each based at a college or university. The driver-teacher and van could be booked to make presentations at schools to explain the new nuclear science and to demonstrate the use of scarce and expensive radiation-measuring equipment. This national program was canceled in the mid-1970s because of Congressional pressure for the federal government to stop {open_quotes}promoting nuclear energy.{close_quotes} Remaining were local information centers at nuclear power plants and national programs at the American Nuclear Society (ANS) and the Atomic Industrial Forum (AIF) - fragmented and weak by comparison.

  18. In science "there is no bad publicity": papers criticized in comments have high scientific impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    Comments are special types of publications whose aim is to correct or criticize previously published papers. For this reason, comments are believed to make commented papers less worthy or trusty to the eyes of the scientific community, and thus predestined to have low scientific impact. Here, we show that such belief is not supported by empirical evidence. We consider thirteen major publication outlets in science, and perform systematic comparisons between the citations accumulated by commented and non commented articles. We find that (i) commented papers are, on average, much more cited than non commented papers, and (ii) commented papers are more likely to be among the most cited papers of a journal. Since comments are published soon after criticized papers, comments should be viewed as early indicators of the future impact of criticized papers.

  19. Applying social science and public health methods to community-based pandemic planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danforth, Elizabeth J; Doying, Annette; Merceron, Georges; Kennedy, Laura

    2010-11-01

    Pandemic influenza is a unique threat to communities, affecting schools, businesses, health facilities and individuals in ways not seen in other emergency events. This paper aims to outline a local government project which utilised public health and social science research methods to facilitate the creation of an emergency response plan for pandemic influenza coincidental to the early stages of the 2009 H1N1 ('swine flu') outbreak. A multi-disciplinary team coordinated the creation of a pandemic influenza emergency response plan which utilised emergency planning structure and concepts and encompassed a diverse array of county entities including schools, businesses, community organisations, government agencies and healthcare facilities. Lessons learned from this project focus on the need for (1) maintaining relationships forged during the planning process, (2) targeted public health messaging, (3) continual evolution of emergency plans, (4) mutual understanding of emergency management concepts by business and community leaders, and (5) regional coordination with entities outside county boundaries.

  20. Complete data lifecycles and citizen science integration via The Public Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, A.; Dosemagen, S.; Warren, J.

    2012-04-01

    The collection, communication, and sharing of data relating to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill proved to be a case study in the lack of data transparency and poor collaboration on a variety of levels. British Petroleum and the government worked together to keep the public out of the spill area while collecting over 31,000 water and sediment samples from the Gulf of Mexico after the initial explosion in April, 2010. Although thousands of images were immediately collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the US Geological Survey, some of those raw data sets still remain inaccessible, are in difficult to use formats, or have been modified for public release. The lack of sharing of information by federal agencies and BP was particularly frustrating given the use of publicly funded resources. Discrepancies between information posted on federal and state websites and conditions in the field were apparent and a key factor in the poor relations between authorities and local residents. The conditions under which data is collected, the affiliation of the authors, and the intended use, vastly impacts how well we trust those data. The solution, we believe, is for local communities to produce their own high-quality data through collaboration with organizations such as The Public Laboratory for Open Technology and Science. The Public Laboratory community worked with Gulf Coast residents in the field to document the effects of oil on shorelines with do-it-yourself aerial photography. For less than 100 in parts, we used helium balloons and kites to send cameras to over a thousand feet, and stitched the resulting images into high-resolution maps using our free, open-source software. Over a hundred volunteers hit the beaches to take tens of thousands of photos, depicting slicks, oiled wetlands, and the birds, fish, and plants threatened by the disaster. Our efforts resulted in the largest repository of publicly archived oil spill data to date and it is

  1. Research publications of the Cascade Head Experimental Forest and Scenic Research Area, Oregon Coast Range, 1934 to 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah E. Greene; Tawny Blinn

    1991-01-01

    A list of publications resulting from research at the Cascade Head Experimental Forest and Scenic Research Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Oregon, from 1934 to 1990 is presented. Over 200 publications are listed, including papers, theses, and reports. An index is provided that cross-references the listings under appropriate keywords.

  2. The Public Good and Academic Capitalism: Science and Engineering Doctoral Students and Faculty on the Boundary of Knowledge Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelényi, Katalin; Bresonis, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the research-related experiences of 48 doctoral students and 22 faculty in science and engineering fields at three research universities, with specific emphasis on the intersection of the public good and academic capitalism. Identifying an expansive, intersecting organizational space between the public good and academic…

  3. 77 FR 52025 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board; Exposure and Human Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... Science Advisory Board; Exposure and Human Health Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Office announces a public teleconference of the SAB Exposure and Human Health Committee to discuss its... hereby given that the SAB Exposure and Human Health Committee (EHHC) will hold a public teleconference to...

  4. List of publications resulting from the Neutron Beam Scattering Programme supported by the Science and Engineering Research Council for 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    The paper lists the references of publications resulting from the Neutron Beam Scattering Programme supported by the Science and Engineering Research Council, covering the year 1984, but also including publications from 1983 not given in the previous issue of this listing. (author)

  5. 78 FR 20666 - Food and Drug Administration/National Institutes of Health/National Science Foundation Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0345] Food and Drug Administration/National Institutes of Health/ National Science Foundation Public Workshop... public workshop; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing its...

  6. 75 FR 48731 - Notice of Availability for Public Comment on the Draft Joint Subcommittee on Ocean Science and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ..., the academic community and the private sector in providing IOOS environmental information, products...-Private Use Policy is available for review at Web site URL: http://www.iooc.us . For the public unable to... Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology--Interagency Ocean Observation Committee Public-Private Use Policy...

  7. Public and private science at home and abroad: networks among chemists, physicians and industrialists in the 1780s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levere, Trevor H

    2002-09-01

    The tensions between public and private science, so familiar to us today, were alive in the science of the industrial revolution. These tensions confronted the members of a society of chemists and natural philosophers, physicians, industrialists and instrument makers who met in London from 1780 to 1787. Their meetings, held in private rooms in coffee houses, provided an ideal forum for their blend of public and private science, reinforced by a vital international network of scientific intelligence. The records of those meetings tell us a good deal about communication among natural philosophers in the 1780s, and show that some, at least in Britain, were well-informed about the latest foreign developments.

  8. A survey on publications in fusion research and technology science and technology indicators in fusion R and T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillebrand, C.D.

    1999-01-01

    Scientific publications disseminate research results and are therefore an interesting subject for science and technology analysis. Bibliographic databases contain scientific publications which are indexed and structured. The paper considers Fusion Research and Technology records which are stored in the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) bibliographic database. For the first time, all scientometric and bibliometric information specific to a selected field of science and technology contained in a bibliographic database, using INIS records, is analysed and quantified. A variety of new science and technology indicators which can be used for assessing research and development activities are also presented. (author)

  9. A survey on publications in fusion research and technology science and technology indicators in fusion R and T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillebrand, C.-D.

    2001-01-01

    Scientific publications disseminate research results and are therefore an interesting subject for science and technology analysis. Bibliographic databases contain scientific publications which are indexed and structured. The paper considers Fusion Research and Technology records which are stored in the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) bibliographic database. For the first time, all scientometric and bibliometric information specific to a selected field of science and technology contained in a bibliographic database, using INIS records, is analysed and quantified. A variety of new science and technology indicators which can be used for assessing research and development activities are also presented. (author)

  10. A strategy for systemic toxicity assessment based on non-animal approaches: The Cosmetics Europe Long Range Science Strategy programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desprez, Bertrand; Dent, Matt; Keller, Detlef; Klaric, Martina; Ouédraogo, Gladys; Cubberley, Richard; Duplan, Hélène; Eilstein, Joan; Ellison, Corie; Grégoire, Sébastien; Hewitt, Nicola J; Jacques-Jamin, Carine; Lange, Daniela; Roe, Amy; Rothe, Helga; Blaauboer, Bas J; Schepky, Andreas; Mahony, Catherine

    2018-03-02

    When performing safety assessment of chemicals, the evaluation of their systemic toxicity based only on non-animal approaches is a challenging objective. The Safety Evaluation Ultimately Replacing Animal Test programme (SEURAT-1) addressed this question from 2011 to 2015 and showed that further research and development of adequate tools in toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic are required for performing non-animal safety assessments. It also showed how to implement tools like thresholds of toxicological concern (TTCs) and read-across in this context. This paper shows a tiered scientific workflow and how each tier addresses the four steps of the risk assessment paradigm. Cosmetics Europe established its Long Range Science Strategy (LRSS) programme, running from 2016 to 2020, based on the outcomes of SEURAT-1 to implement this workflow. Dedicated specific projects address each step of this workflow, which is introduced here. It tackles the question of evaluating the internal dose when systemic exposure happens. The applicability of the workflow will be shown through a series of case studies, which will be published separately. Even if the LRSS puts the emphasis on safety assessment of cosmetic relevant chemicals, it remains applicable to any type of chemical. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. [Forum: legitimacy, expansion, and sustainability of Social and Human Sciences in Public Health. Introduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    The Forum debates current trends and challenges for teaching and research in this subfield and the prevailing criteria for evaluation of its academic output. The authors wager on the hypothesis that we are currently experiencing a clash between the consolidation of Social and Human Sciences in Public Health (with a well-defined identity, undeniable vigor in their research and proposals, and an important number of practitioners) and a bottleneck in training processes and iniquity and inadequacy in the institutional mechanisms for recognition of merit. The Forum presents four articles. The first, by Minayo, discusses the basic forms of knowledge for this training and those needed to analyze contemporary challenges in a globalized world, besides debating the interfaces and mediations between the biological and the social in a teaching proposal. The second, by Trad, provides a current portrait of the subfield's output. The third, by Deslandes & Iriart, presents theoretical and methodological trends in recently published studies, identifying their gaps and characteristics. Bosi, author of the fourth article, fuels the debate on the criteria for evaluation of academic output in the field and analyzes their consequences. The Postscript, by Nunes, reclaims and updates the debate on the construction of identities in the social and Human Sciences in Public Health.

  12. Sustainability Initiatives and Organizational Performance: An Analysis of Publications in the WEB of SCIENCE DATABASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luís Hepper

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is going through a time of reflection about the preservation of natural resources, an issue that is increasingly considered in its agenda. The search for balance between environmental, social and economic aspects has been a challenge for business survival over the years and has led companies to adopt initiatives focused on sustainability. The objective of this article is to analyse how the international scientific production addresses sustainable practices and initiatives and their relationship with organizational performance. Considering this scope, a bibliometric study of the publications located on Web of Science - Social Sciences Citation Index (WoS-SSCI was developed. There were 33 articles identified and selected on the subject. Journals that stand out in quantity of articles and number of citations are the Journal of Cleaner Production and Strategic Management Journal, respectively. Analysing the results, a growing concern about this issue and the increase in publications was noticed after the 2000s. The results found, in general, associate sustainable practices to positive organizational performance, such as increased profit on the product sold, quality improvement, improved reputation, and waste reduction, among others gains identified.

  13. Does Reality Matter? Social and Science Bases of Public Beliefs about Arctic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. A.; Schaefer, K. M.; Schaeffer, K. P.; Schaefer, K. M.; Hamilton, L.

    2015-12-01

    Surveys of public perceptions about trends in Arctic sea ice find that over two-thirds are aware of the multi-decade decrease. This awareness differs sharply across ideological and educational subgroups, however. It does not appear to shift in response to scientific and media discussion following a September with unusually low (2012) or somewhat higher (2013) sea ice extent. Other perceptions about Arctic change, such as impacts on mid-latitude weather, follow similar patterns with sharp ideological difference and limited response to external events, including science reports. On the other hand, public accuracy on basic factual questions that do not by themselves imply directional change (such as location of the North Pole) may be very low, and among some subgroups accurate knowledge shows an oddly negative correlation with self-confidence about understanding of climate change. These results from 13 surveys over 2011-2015 suggest that biased assimilation filters the acceptance of information about Arctic change, with implications for science communication.

  14. Art and science interactions - First Collide @CERN public lecture by Julius Von Bismarck

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Creative collisions between the arts and science have begun at CERN with the first Collide@CERN artist, Julius Von Bismarck starting his digital arts residency at the world's largest particle physics laboratory outside Geneva. He was chosen from 395 entries from 40 countries around the world from the Prix Ars Electronica Collide@CERN competition launched last September 2011. To mark this special occasion, the first Collide@CERN public lecture open to everyone will take place on March 21st 2012 at CERN's Globe of Science and Innovation, with a drinks reception at 18.45 and with presentations starting at 19.30. The event is free and will be opened by the Director General of CERN, Professor Rolf-Dieter Heuer and Gerfried Stocker, the Artistic Director of Ars Electronica, Linz, - CERN's international cultural partners for the digital arts Collide@CERN award known as Prix Ars Electronica Collide@CERN in recognition of our joint partnership. Julius Von Bismarck and his CERN science inspiration partner, the physic...

  15. YouTube videos of 'research in action' foster diverse public interest in science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Gil

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Globally, scientific enterprises seek to diversify interest and participation in STEM fields, to both provide equitable opportunities and to push research forward. However, diversity in STEM remains low in many institutions. Internet-based video has emerged as a dominant communication medium that scientists can use to communicate the motivations, process, and products of their work to a diverse, mass audience. Here I describe my use of internet-based video about my research and career as a marine biologist as a tool to inspire broad public interest in science. With my YouTube videos, I have reached a diverse and growing global viewership, amassing >10,000 hours of watch time at the time of this writing. Viewer surveys revealed that my videos have improved individual perceptions about science and science careers, particularly among women and minority groups. I conclude that the emergence of internet-based video as a dominant, ever-expanding communication medium provides an unprecedented but largely untapped opportunity for scientists to broadly communicate their research and to inspire diverse interest in STEM careers.

  16. Incidence of Data Duplications in a Randomly Selected Pool of Life Science Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksvold, Morten P

    2016-04-01

    Since the solution to many public health problems depends on research, it is critical for the progress and well-being for the patients that we can trust the scientific literature. Misconduct and poor laboratory practice in science threatens the scientific progress, leads to loss of productivity and increased healthcare costs, and endangers lives of patients. Data duplication may represent one of challenges related to these problems. In order to estimate the frequency of data duplication in life science literature, a systematic screen through 120 original scientific articles published in three different cancer related journals [journal impact factor (IF) 20] was completed. The study revealed a surprisingly high proportion of articles containing data duplication. For the IF 20 journals, 25% of the articles were found to contain data duplications. The IF 5-10 journal showed a comparable proportion (22.5%). The proportion of articles containing duplicated data was comparable between the three journals and no significant correlation to journal IF was found. The editorial offices representing the journals included in this study and the individual authors of the detected articles were contacted to clarify the individual cases. The editorial offices did not reply and only 1 out of 29 cases were apparently clarified by the authors, although no supporting data was supplied. This study questions the reliability of life science literature, it illustrates that data duplications are widespread and independent of journal impact factor and call for a reform of the current peer review and retraction process of scientific publishing.

  17. A Citizen Empowered Online Platform for Communicating Climate Science to the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourqui, Michel

    2014-05-01

    This presentation introduces a project, currently in development, of a new online platform for the interaction between climate scientists and citizen. It consists of an open-access, multi-lingual, and peer-reviewed journal publishing climate articles in non-scientific language. It follows three main long-term objectives. The first objective is to establish an ever-growing, multi-lingual library of climate articles providing a knowledge base on climate sciences accessible for free to everyone. The targeted public includes journalists, teachers, students, local actors (e.g. in politics, economy, agriculture), and any other citizen from around the world with an interest in climate sciences. The second goal is to offer a simple and direct channel for scientists wishing to disseminate their research to the general public. A high standard of climate articles is enforced through: a) requiring that the main author is an active climate scientist, and b) an innovative peer-review process involving scientific and non-scientific referees with distinct roles. The third objective is to engage citizen into the climate science. To this aim, the journal proposes three channels. Firstly, citizens are invited to contribute to the dissemination of climate knowledge to the general public by co-authoring, peer-reviewing or translating articles. Secondly, they are offered the capacity to stimulate scientific enquiry by posting invitations for manuscripts to be written on a citizen-inspired topic. Thirdly, a match-up tool is being developed for scientists to gather non-scientists teams for conducting citizen-involving research projects. This platform is scientist-initiated and is meant to be ruled and managed by the participating individuals themselves (scientists and non-scientists) as an international association. It will be financed through country-varying flat memberships. The project is now starting. The basic ideas are drawn; a prototype internet platform has been developed and is

  18. INTERNATIONAL SURVEY OF PUBLICATIONS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS: RISING THROUGH THE BASE OF WEB SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aletéia de Moura Carpes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization is an alternative to business growth, allowing its exposure to international standards of products, technologies and management methods, generating significant returns for domestic transactions (STAL, 2010. The evolution of commercial transactions between the countries have brought a lot of issues to be understood, that seek to check the reflection of international activity in the individual, company and nation experiencing this context of globalization. This article was developed from the perspective of a bibliometric research, aiming to increase awareness in the study area related to International Business (International Business and determine which topics studied by the administration on this issue are being investigated further and which are most relevant (hot topics. Analysis of data held on the approaches of qualitative and quantitative research. Qualitatively analyzed the issues addressed in the publications surveyed regarding the content, keywords and relevance of topics. As regards the figures sought to investigate the following variables: total number of publications, authors, subject areas, types of documents, the sources title, year of publications, institutions, funding agencies, languages, countries and analysis of the number of times each publication was cited by the hb index and the index m. According to Hirsch (2005, the total number of articles published measures the productivity of the author, but does not measure the importance and / or impact of their publications. Already the impact of publications is measured by the number of citations that each one receives can be measured by the h-index. The survey of publications housed in the Web of Science citation index with the ISI Citation Indexes from 1997 to 2010 (14 years resulted in 5,355 jobs related to international business, which were entered, especially in the areas of business (business and management (management and the studies analyzed showed a

  19. [Productivity and academic assessment in the Brazilian public health field: challenges for Human and Social Sciences research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães

    2012-12-01

    This article analyzes some challenges for knowledge output in the human and social sciences in the public health field, under the current academic assessment model in Brazil. The article focuses on the qualitative research approach in human and social sciences, analyzing its status in comparison to the other traditions vying for hegemony in the public health field, conjugating the dialogue with the literature, especially the propositions pertaining to the social fields present in the work of Pierre Bourdieu, with elements concerning the field's dynamics, including some empirical data. Challenges identified in the article include hurdles to interdisciplinary dialogue and equity in the production of knowledge, based on recognition of the founding place of human and social sciences in the public health field. The article discusses strategies to reshape the current correlation of forces among centers of knowledge in public health, especially those capable of impacting the committees and agendas that define the accumulation of symbolic and economic capital in the field.

  20. The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: a bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Eriksen, Mette L; Ellegaard, Ole; Wallin, Johan A

    2011-11-10

    While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009. The Web of Science was used to conduct title searches to determine long-term trends for prominent substances and substances considered in need of research attention. The 119,636 journal articles found had 760,056 CAS number links during 2000-2009. The top-20 environmental chemicals consisted of metals, (chlorinated) biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, and ethanol and contributed 12% toward the total number of links- Each of the top-20 substances was covered by 2,000-10,000 articles during the decade. The numbers for the 10-year period were similar to the total numbers of pre-2000 articles on the same chemicals. However, substances considered a high priority from a regulatory viewpoint, due to lack of documentation, showed very low publication rates. The persistence in the scientific literature of the top-20 chemicals was only weakly related to their publication in journals with a high impact factor, but some substances achieved high citation rates. The persistence of some environmental chemicals in the scientific literature may be due to a 'Matthew' principle of maintaining prominence for the very reason of having been well researched. Such bias detracts from the societal needs for documentation on less well known environmental hazards, and it may also impact negatively on the potentials for innovation and discovery in research.

  1. The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: A bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. Methods In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract Chemical Abstract Service (CAS numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009. The Web of Science was used to conduct title searches to determine long-term trends for prominent substances and substances considered in need of research attention. Results The 119,636 journal articles found had 760,056 CAS number links during 2000-2009. The top-20 environmental chemicals consisted of metals, (chlorinated biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, and ethanol and contributed 12% toward the total number of links- Each of the top-20 substances was covered by 2,000-10,000 articles during the decade. The numbers for the 10-year period were similar to the total numbers of pre-2000 articles on the same chemicals. However, substances considered a high priority from a regulatory viewpoint, due to lack of documentation, showed very low publication rates. The persistence in the scientific literature of the top-20 chemicals was only weakly related to their publication in journals with a high impact factor, but some substances achieved high citation rates. Conclusions The persistence of some environmental chemicals in the scientific literature may be due to a 'Matthew' principle of maintaining prominence for the very reason of having been well researched. Such bias detracts from the societal needs for documentation on less well known environmental hazards, and it may also impact negatively on the potentials for innovation and discovery in research.

  2. Providing health information to the general public: a survey of current practices in academic health sciences libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, S M

    2000-01-01

    A questionnaire was mailed to 148 publicly and privately supported academic health sciences libraries affiliated with Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC-accredited medical schools in the United States and Canada to determine level of access and services provided to the general public. For purposes of this study, "general public" was defined as nonaffiliated students or health care professionals, attorneys and other nonhealth-related professionals, patients from affiliated or other hospitals or clinics, and general consumers. One hundred five (71%) libraries responded. Results showed 98% of publicly supported libraries and 88% of privately supported libraries provided access to some or all of the general public. Publicly supported libraries saw greater numbers of public patrons, often provided more services, and were more likely to circulate materials from their collections than were privately supported libraries. A significant number of academic health sciences libraries housed a collection of consumer-oriented materials and many provided some level of document delivery service, usually for a fee. Most allowed the public to use some or all library computers. Results of this study indicated that academic health sciences libraries played a significant role in serving the information-seeking public and suggested a need to develop written policies or guidelines covering the services that will be provided to minimize the impact of this service on primary clientele.

  3. Leo Szilard Lecturship Award: How can physicists help the public make better decisions about science and technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Joel

    2016-03-01

    For more than 40 years the APS has worked to improve governmental decision-making, mainly through the Congressional Science and Technology Fellowship program and through occasional studies of important science and technology issues. How productive have these been? How can the APS and other professional societies more effectively combat anti-science propaganda and help the public develop better-informed views about science and technology? How can individual scientists communicate scientific concepts in a more understandable and engaging way? How can we encourage young scientists and students to participate in creating a scientifically responsible future?

  4. Taking Advantage of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) Popularity to Enhance Student/Public Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    For a student group on campus, "the public" can refer to other students on campus or citizens from the community (including children, parents, teenagers, professionals, tradespeople, older people, and others). All of these groups have something to offer that can enrich the experiences of a student group. Our group focuses on science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education in K-12 schools, university courses, and outreach activities with the general public. We will discuss the experiences of "All Things STEM" on the University of Colorado-Boulder campus and outreach in Boulder and Weld County, CO. Our experiences include (1) tours and events that offer an opportunity for student/public interaction, (2) grant requests and projects that involve community outreach, and (3) organizing conferences and events with campus/public engagement. Since our group is STEM-oriented, tours of water treatment plants, recycling centers, and science museums are a great way to create connections. Our most successful campus/public tour is our annual tour of the Valmont Station coal power plant near Boulder. We solicit students from all over campus and Boulder public groups with the goal to form a diverse and intimate 8 person group (students, school teachers, mechanics, hotel managers, etc.) that takes a 1.5 hr tour of the plant guided by the Chief Engineer. This includes a 20 minute sit-down discussion of anything the group wants to talk about including energy policy, plant history, recent failures, coal versus other fuels, and environmental issues. The tour concludes with each member placing a welding shield over their face and looking at the flames in the middle of the boiler, a little excitement that adds to the connections the group forms with each other. We have received over 11,000 to work with local K-12 schools and CU-Boulder undergraduate and graduate classes to develop a platform to help students learn and explain water quality concepts in a more practical manner

  5. New institutional mechanisms to bridge the information gap between climate science and public policy decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, W.; Gulledge, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Many decision makers lack actionable scientific information needed to prepare for future challenges associated with climate change. Although the scope and quality of available scientific information has increased dramatically in recent years, this information does not always reach - or is not presented in a form that is useful to - decision makers who need it. The producer (i.e. scientists) community tends to be stovepiped, even though consumers (i.e. decision makers) often need interdisciplinary science and analysis. Consumers, who may also be stovepiped in various agencies or subject areas, may lack familiarity with or access to these separate communities, as well as the tools or time to navigate scientific information and disciplines. Closing the communication gap between these communities could be facilitated by institutionalizing processes designed for this purpose. We recommend a variety of mainstreaming policies within the consumer community, as well as mechanisms to generate a strong demand signal that will resonate more strongly with the producer community. We also recommend institutional reforms and methods of incentivizing policy-oriented scientific analysis within the producer community. Our recommendations focus on improving information flow to national security and foreign policy decision makers, but many are relevant to public policy writ large. Recommendations for Producers 1. The scientific community should formally encourage collaborations between natural and social scientists and reward publications in interdisciplinary outlets Incentives could include research funding and honorary awards recognizing service to public policy. 2. Academic merit review should reward research grants and publications targeted at interdisciplinary and/or policy-oriented audiences. Reforms of merit review may require new policies and engaged institutional leadership. Recommendations for Consumers 1. Congress should amend Title VI of the National Defense Education Act

  6. Celebrity Climate Contrarians: Understanding a keystone species in contemporary climate science-policy-public interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykoff, M. T.

    2012-12-01

    Since the 1980s, a keystone species called 'climate contrarians' has emerged and thrived. Through resistance to dominant interpretations of scientific evidence, and often outlier views on optimal responses to climate threats, contrarians have raised many meta-level questions: for instance, questions involve to what extent have their varied interventions been effective in terms of sparking a new and wise Copernican revolution; or do their amplified voices instead service entrenched carbon-based industry interests while they blend debates over 'climate change' with other culture wars? While the value of their influence has generated numerous debates, there is no doubt that climate contrarians have had significant influence on climate science, policy and public communities in ways that are larger than would be expected from their relative abundance in society. As such, a number of these actors have achieved 'celebrity status' in science-policy circles, and, at times, larger public spaces. This presentation focuses on how - particularly through amplified mass media attention to their movements - various outlier interventions have demonstrated themselves to be (often deliberately) detrimental to efforts that seek to enlarge rather than constrict the spectrum of possibility for mobilizing appropriate responses to ongoing climate challenges. Also, this work analyses the growth pathways of these charismatic megafauna through interview data and participant observations completed by the author at the 2011 Heartland Institute's Sixth International Conference on Climate Change. This provides detail on how outlier perspectives characterized as climate contrarians do work in these spaces under the guise of public intellectualism to achieve intended goals and objectives. The research undertaken and related in the presentation here seeks to better understand motivations that prop up these contrarian stances, such as possible ideological or evidentiary disagreement to the orthodox

  7. The Joint Front Range Climate Change Vulnerability Study: Closing the Gap between Science and Water Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatz, L.; Yates, D.; Woodbury, M.

    2008-12-01

    There is increasing concern among metropolitan water providers in Colorado's Front Range about the possible impacts of global and regional climate changes on their future water supply. This is of particular worry given that recent studies indicate global warming may lead to unprecedented drought conditions in the Southwest U.S. (IPCC 2007). The City of Aurora, City of Boulder, Colorado Springs Utilities, Denver Water, City of Ft. Collins, and Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District, along with additional water agencies including the Colorado Water Conservation Board, the Water Research Foundation (formerly AwwaRF), and the NOAA-CIRES Western Water Assessment, have come together to participate in a study intended to provide the education, tools, and methodology necessary to examine possible effects of climate change on several common watersheds. The central objective of this project is to assess possible changes in the timing and volume of hydrologic runoff from selected climate change scenarios centered about the years 2040 and 2070. Two hydrologic models will be calibrated and implemented in the study for this purpose. The future temperature and precipitation scenarios used to generate corresponding future streamflow are based on regionally downscaled temperature and precipitation projections. The projected streamflow obtained by running varied sequences of temperature and precipitation through the hydrologic models, will be compared to historic streamflow to estimate the sensitivity of water supplies to climate change. This regional unified approach is intended to help Colorado water providers communicate with their customers and the media cohesively, by working with the same historic and projected hydrometeorological data, historic natural streamflow, and methodology. Lessons learned from this collaborative approach can be used to encourage and establish other regional efforts throughout the country. Furthermore, this study will set the stage for future

  8. The National Space Science and Technology Center's Education and Public Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, G. N.; Denson, R. L.

    2004-12-01

    The objective of the National Space Science and Technology Center's (NSSTC) Education and Public Outreach program (EPO) is to support K-20 education by coalescing academic, government, and business constituents awareness, implementing best business/education practices, and providing stewardship over funds and programs that promote a symbiotic relationship among these entities, specifically in the area of K-20 Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education. NSSTC EPO Program's long-term objective is to showcase its effective community-based integrated stakeholder model in support of STEM education and to expand its influence across the Southeast region for scaling ultimately across the United States. The Education and Public Outreach program (EPO) is coordinated by a supporting arm of the NSSTC Administrative Council called the EPO Council (EPOC). The EPOC is funded through federal, state, and private grants, donations, and in-kind contributions. It is comprised of representatives of NSSTC Research Centers, both educators and scientists from the Alabama Space Science and Technology Alliance (SSTA) member institutions, the Alabama Space Grant Consortium and the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Education Office. Through its affiliation with MSFC and the SSTA - a consortium of Alabama's research universities that comprise the NSSTC, EPO fosters the education and development of the next generation of Alabama scientists and engineers by coordinating activities at the K-20 level in cooperation with the Alabama Department of Education, the Alabama Commission on Higher Education, and Alabama's businesses and industries. The EPO program's primary objective is to be Alabama's premiere organization in uniting academia, government, and private industry by way of providing its support to the State and Federal Departments of Education involved in systemic STEM education reform, workforce development, and innovative uses of technology. The NSSTC EPO

  9. Measuring risk/benefit perceptions of emerging technologies and their potential impact on communication of public opinion toward science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Andrew R; Cacciatore, Michael A; Scheufele, Dietram A; Shaw, Bret R; Corley, Elizabeth A

    2012-10-01

    This study presents a systematic comparison of two alternative measures of citizens' perceptions of risks and benefits of emerging technologies. By focusing on two specific issues (nanotechnology and biofuels), we derive several insights for the measurement of public views of science. Most importantly, our analyses reveal that relying on global, single-item measures may lead to invalid inferences regarding external influences on public perceptions, particularly those related to cognitive schema and media use. Beyond these methodological implications, this analysis suggests several reasons why researchers in the area of public attitudes toward science must revisit notions of measurement in order to accurately inform the general public, policymakers, scientists, and journalists about trends in public opinion toward emerging technologies.

  10. Providing health information to the general public: a survey of current practices in academic health sciences libraries*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Sue M.

    2000-01-01

    A questionnaire was mailed to 148 publicly and privately supported academic health sciences libraries affiliated with Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC)–accredited medical schools in the United States and Canada to determine level of access and services provided to the general public. For purposes of this study, “general public” was defined as nonaffiliated students or health care professionals, attorneys and other nonhealth-related professionals, patients from affiliated or other hospitals or clinics, and general consumers. One hundred five (71%) libraries responded. Results showed 98% of publicly supported libraries and 88% of privately supported libraries provided access to some or all of the general public. Publicly supported libraries saw greater numbers of public patrons, often provided more services, and were more likely to circulate materials from their collections than were privately supported libraries. A significant number of academic health sciences libraries housed a collection of consumer-oriented materials and many provided some level of document delivery service, usually for a fee. Most allowed the public to use some or all library computers. Results of this study indicated that academic health sciences libraries played a significant role in serving the information-seeking public and suggested a need to develop written policies or guidelines covering the services that will be provided to minimize the impact of this service on primary clientele. PMID:10658965

  11. Public Attitudes to Nuclear Power - It's Not (just) About Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimston, M.

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear industry frequently accuses the public of having an 'irrational' fear of radiation, and sees it as a mission to 'educate' the public in order to improve their attitudes towards atomic energy. In fact there is little evidence that facts per se affect attitudes: in forming opinions people apply a 'common sense' rationality based on a range of factors, of which information is only one. 'Public information' campaigns may actually contribute to fears of radiation in the nuclear power context. Better communication - e.g. not banging on so much about safety - would undoubtedly help to put nuclear power into a proper perspective. But while the industry and its regulators continue to do silly things and treat nuclear power and radiation as if they are vastly more dangerous than they actually are - in the bizarre hope that this will put people's minds at rest rather than inevitably doing precisely the opposite - then only truly irrational members of the public will be convinced. Krsko may be a test case - can the waste debate be brought back onto a 'rational' footing. (author).

  12. The development of a virtual science museum for the public understanding of science in eastern China and in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delello, Julie Anne

    2009-12-01

    In 1999, the Chinese Academy of Sciences realized that there was a need for a better public understanding of science. For the public to have better accessibility and comprehension of China's significance to the world, the Computer Network Information Center (CNIC), under the direction of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, combined resources from thousands of experts across the world to develop online science exhibits housed within the Virtual Science Museum of China. Through an analysis of historical documents, this descriptive dissertation presents a research project that explores a dimension of the development of the Giant Panda Exhibit. This study takes the reader on a journey, first to China and then to a classroom within the United States, in order to answer the following questions: (1) What is the process of the development of a virtual science exhibit; and, (2) What role do public audiences play in the design and implementation of virtual science museums? The creation of a virtual science museum exhibition is a process that is not completed with just the building and design, but must incorporate feedback from public audiences who utilize the exhibit. To meet the needs of the museum visitors, the designers at CNIC took a user-centered approach and solicited feedback from six survey groups. To design a museum that would facilitate a cultural exchange of scientific information, the CNIC looked at the following categories: visitor insights, the usability of the technology, the educational effectiveness of the museum exhibit, and the cultural nuances that existed between students in China and in the United States. The findings of this study illustrate that the objectives of museum designers may not necessarily reflect the needs of the visitors and confirm previous research studies which indicate that museum exhibits need a more constructivist approach that fully engages the visitor in an interactive, media-rich environment. Even though the world has moved forwards

  13. MRO's HiRISE Education and Public Outreach during the Primary Science Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, V. C.; Davatzes, A. K.; Deardorff, G.; Kanefsky, B.; Conrad, L. B.; HiRISE Team

    2008-12-01

    Looking back over one Mars year, we report on the accomplishments of the HiRISE EPO program during the primary science phase of MRO. A highlight has been our student image suggestion program, conducted in association with NASA Quest as HiRISE Image Challenges (http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/challenges/hirise/). During challenges, students, either individually or as part of a collaborative classroom or group, learn about Mars through our webcasts, web chats and our educational material. They use HiWeb, HiRISE's image suggestion facility, to submit image suggestions and include a short rationale for why their target is scientifically interesting. The HiRISE team gives priority to obtaining a sampling of these suggestions as quickly as possible so that the acquired images can be examined by the students. During the challenge, a special password-protected web site allows participants to view their returned images before they are released to the public (http://marsoweb.nas.nasa.gov/hirise/quest/). Students are encouraged to write captions for the returned images. Finished captions are then posted and highlighted on the HiRISE web site (http://hirise.lpl.arizona.edu) along with their class, teacher's name and the name of their school. Through these HiRISE challenges, students and teachers become virtual science team members, participating in the same process (selecting and justifying targets, analyzing and writing captions for acquired images), and using the same software tools as the HiRISE team. Such an experience is unique among planetary exploration EPO programs. To date, we have completed three HiRISE challenges and a fourth is currently ongoing. More than 200 image suggestions were submitted during the previous challenges and over 85 of these image requests have been acquired so far. Over 675 participants from 45 states and 42 countries have registered for the previous challenges. These participants represent over 8000 students in grades 2 through 14 and consist

  14. Application of neutron activation analysis for determination of elements in field of public health science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Ikuyo

    2010-01-01

    Outline of neutron activation analysis (NAA) and application examples of this method to ensure safety of food and environment are explained. It consists of four chapters such as introduction, what is NAA, quality control of NAA, application examples of NAA for determination of the elements in the field of public health science. The quality control of NAA is carried out by using certified reference materials, identification of individual difference of sample, and homogeneity of samples. Some application examples of NAA for determination Cd in rice, Hg and As in fish, U in soil, food and aerosol, 128 I and 129 I in environment, Cs and 133 Cs in mushroom, the essential elements and trace elements in food are reported. Analytical results of elements in certified reference materials, content of elements in ashed samples (carrots and bamboo shoots), average use frequency of ingredients in a sample, and correlation between Cs and 137 Cs in mushroom are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  15. Investigating the Potential Range Expansion of the Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti in Mexico with NASA Earth Science Remote Sensing Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosson, W. L.; Eisen, L.; Estes, M. G.; Estes, S. M.; Hayden, M.; Lozano-Fuentes, S.; Monaghan, A. J.; Moreno Madriñán, M. J.; Ochoa, C.; Quattrochi, D.; Tapia, B.; Welsh-Rodriguez, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    In tropical and sub-tropical regions, the mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector for the virus causing dengue, a serious public health issue in these areas. Through ongoing NSF- and NASA-funded studies, field surveys of Aedes aegypti and an integrated modeling approach are being used to improve our understanding of the potential range of the mosquito to expand toward heavily populated high elevation areas such as Mexico City under various climate change and socio-economic scenarios. This work serves three primary objectives: (1) Employ NASA remotely-sensed data to supplement the environmental monitoring and modeling component of the project. These data -- for example, surface temperature, precipitation, vegetation indices, soil moisture and elevation -- are critical for understanding the habitat necessary for mosquito survival and abundance; (2) Implement training sessions to instruct scientists and students from Mexico and the U.S. on how to use remote sensing and implement the NASA SERVIR Regional Visualization and Monitoring System; (3) Employ the SERVIR framework to optimize the dissemination of key project results in order to increase their societal relevance and benefits in developing climate adaptation strategies. Field surveys of larval, pupal and adult Aedes aegypti, as well as detailed physical and social household characteristics, were conducted in the summers of 2011and 2012 at geographic scales from the household to the community along a transect from sea level to 2400 m ASL. These data are being used in models to estimate Aedes aegypti habitat suitability. In 2011, Aedes aegypti were identified at an elevation of over 2150 m in Puebla, the highest elevation at which this species has been observed.

  16. Improving public health by respecting autonomy: using social science research to enfranchise vulnerable prison populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David; Elger, Bernice

    2015-05-01

    It is widely recognised that prisoners constitute a vulnerable population that is subject to numerous health inequalities and merits special protection. Improving prisoners' access to healthcare by ensuring adherence to the principle of equivalence has been the main focus of efforts to ensure that their health is not jeopardised. However, another means of respecting prisoners' autonomy and improving their health is to involve them (and prison staff) in social science research within prisons. Such research not only produces valuable data which can be used to assess whether the principle of equivalence is being respected; it also enfranchises prisoners by allowing them to air concerns about perceived ill-treatment and influence their environment. If prison authorities enable such research and adjust policy accordingly, both they and prisoners will benefit from the increased level of respect for prisoners' autonomy, and the improvements in individual and public health that flow from this. Conducting social science research in prisons enables the creation of a virtuous cycle of respect that makes prisons safer and healthier places. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Discussing Climate Change with the Public: Presenting the Science is Necessary but Insufficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincelli, P.; Humble, J.

    2012-12-01

    Social science literature shows that the topic of climate change is imbued with cultural meaning for most Americans, such that sound scientific information alone is likely to be unpersuasive to people already doubtful about climate change. A current educational program on climate change emphasizes the following: *Less reliance on geophysical data *Positive messages as frequently as possible *Making the subject personal and concrete *Focusing on scientific aspects of climate change while refraining from promotion of particular policy solutions *Seeking ways to speak to core identities of diverse audiences *Assuring that communication efforts on this highly divisive topic are based on sensitivity to, and respect for, the diversity of worldviews present in citizens *To the extent possible, emphasizing optimism as well as our personal and collective capability to solve the problem of climate change. While this may seem self-evident, we also remind ourselves of the importance of avoiding criticism, blame, demonization, or arrogance in building a more inclusive community of public leaders on climate literacy.; Citing the recognition of climate-change science by trusted organizations is probably more convincing than showing reams of geophysical data. In particular, citing the Department of Defense may speak to the values of many who remain skeptical. ; This image is intended to speak to people that deeply value passing on a way of life to their descendants. Although nationalism can be carried to an extreme, this imagery can convey the notion that protecting our world from climate change is actually patriotic, something few Americans may realize.

  18. Climate science and the transfer of knowledge to public and political realms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, D. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik; Storch, H. von

    1999-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of the perspectives of climate scientists on the topic of global warming. It addresses both internal and external elements of the science. A total of 412 responses from climate scientists in Canada. USA and Germany are analyzed. Differences among those groups with higher levels of involvement with policy makers, with the media, and the less vocal members of the scientific community are the focus of this paper. Statistically significant differences were found among these three groups on a number of pertinent issues. These differences were more often among those areas which were beyond the areas of the scientists` areas of expertise. More precisely differences were found in: The assessment that global warming is a process already underway, the nature of the impacts of climate change, the knowledge transfer process, and the conduct of the climate sciences. These perspectives are of considerable importance for they relate to the transfer of scientific knowledge to the public and political realms. In short, this paper contributes to the discussion of the socio-scientific construction of the climate change issue. (orig.) 11 refs.

  19. End-of-the-World: Using Science to Dispel Public Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, David

    2013-10-01

    Polls taken in mid-2012 indicated that 10% of Americans did not expect to survive the “end of the world” on 12/21/12. Children were especially vulnerable, and some contemplated suicide. Comets Elenin and ISON also attracted apocalyptic fears. Elenin was blamed for the several earthquakes, including the Fukushima mega-quake of 03/11/11. Such fears, which seem to harp back to earlier centuries, are now widely promulgated by the Internet and cable TV, where dozens of “documentaries” are shown every week dealing with UFOs, aliens, astrology, and a variety of cosmic threats. In this talk I recount some of my experiences and those of other scientists leading up to the 12/21/12 doomsday. We made a big effort to defuse these fears, and to warn teachers and parents that a substantial fraction of their children were in danger of being taken in by the 2012 hoax. This experience is just one example of an anti-science trend that seems to be growing in the U.S. and around the world. Prime examples are the creationist efforts to deny evolution, the similar tactics of the global warming denialists, and health hoaxes such as homeopathy and the anti-vaccination movement. As scientists, we should consider how best to communicate real science to the public, and when to “go negative” to fight against pseudoscience. We must recognize the presence of powerful anti-science forces that are well funded and skillful at exploiting new communication tools enabled by the Internet. This is a challenge for all of us.

  20. The publication of scientific data by World Data Centers and the National Library of Science and Technology in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Brase

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In its 2004 report "Data and information", the International Council for Science (ICSU strongly recommended a new strategic framework for scientific data and information. On an initiative from a working group from the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA, the German Research Foundation (DFG has started the project "Publication and Citation of Scientific Primary Data" as part of the program "Information-infrastructure of network -based scientific-cooperation and digital publication" in 2004. Starting with the field of earth science, the German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB is now established as a registration agency for scientific primary data as a member of the International DOI Foundation (IDF.