WorldWideScience

Sample records for science psychology sociology

  1. Sociological theory and Jungian psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    [[disenchantmentCarl JungpsychoanalysissociologyMax Weber ] In this article I seek to relate the psychology of Carl Jung to sociological theory, specifically Weber. I first present an outline of Jungian psychology. I then seek to relate this as psychology to Weber’s interpretivism. I point to basic methodological compatibilities within a Kantian frame, from which emerge central concerns with the factors limiting rationality. These generate the conceptual frameworks for parallel enquiries into the development and fate of rationality in cultural history. Religion is a major theme here: contrasts of eastern and western religion; the rise of prophetic religion and the disenchantment of modernity. Weber’s categories ‘ascetic’ and ‘mystic’ seem applicable to his own and Jung’s approaches and indeed temperaments, while a shared ironic view of rationality leads to similar visions of the disenchanted modern world. I conclude that Jung is sociologically coherent, but in an entirely different sense from Freud: rather than a constellation of family, socialization, ideology, social continuity, there is an analysis of cultural history against a background of adult normal psychology. I conclude that sociology should acknowledge Jung, but not in terms of over-arching theory. Rather Jungian insights might be used to orient new enquiries, and for reflexive analysis of sociology’s methodological debates.

  2. [Psychological theory and implicit sociology.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sévigny, R

    1983-01-01

    This text is based on the hypothesis that every theory on the psychology of personality must inevitably, in one manner or another, have a sociological referent, that is to say, it must refer to a body of knowledge which deals with a diversity of social contexts and their relations to individuals. According to this working hypothesis, such a sociology is implicit. This text then discusses a group of theoretical approaches in an effort to verify this hypothesis. This approach allows the extrication of diverse forms or diverse expressions of this implicit sociology within this context several currents are rapidly explored : psychoanalysis, behaviorism, gestalt, classical theory of needs. The author also comments on the approach, inspired by oriental techniques or philosophies, which employs the notion of myth to deepen self awareness. Finally, from the same perspective, he comments at greater length on the work of Carl Rogers, highlighting the diverse form of implicit sociology. In addition to Carl Rogers, this text refers to Freud, Jung, Adler, Reich, Perls, Goodman, Skinner as well as to Ginette Paris and various analysts of Taoism. In conclusion, the author indicates the significance of his analysis from double viewpoint of psychological theory and practice.

  3. Psychological and Sociological Determinants of Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the psychological and sociological determinants of academic achievement of school-going adolescents. Six self-report measures were administered randomly to 280 senior secondary III students in Ibadan. Results showed that the six psychological and sociological factors (motivation, anxiety, and ...

  4. New Biological Sciences, Sociology and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdell, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Since the Human Genome Project mapped the gene sequence, new biological sciences have been generating a raft of new knowledges about the mechanisms and functions of the molecular body. One area of work that has particular potential to speak to sociology of education, is the emerging field of epigenetics. Epigenetics moves away from the mapped…

  5. All about science philosophy, history, sociology & communication

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Liu

    2014-01-01

    There is a lot of confusion and misconception concerning science. The nature and contents of science is an unsettled problem. For example, Thales of 2,600 years ago is recognized as the father of science but the word science was introduced only in the 14th century; the definition of science is often avoided in books about philosophy of science. This book aims to clear up all these confusions and present new developments in the philosophy, history, sociology and communication of science. It also aims to showcase the achievement of China's top scholars in these areas. The 18 chapters, divided into five parts, are written by prominent scholars including the Nobel laureate Robin Warren, sociologist Harry Collins, and physicist-turned-historian Dietrich Stauffer.

  6. What is analytical sociology? Towards sociology as 'normal science'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekić Milovan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I analyze the basics of analytical sociology, relatively new and in our scientific community little known intellectual movement. In the introductory part I try to identify the general causes of its occurrence. In the second part I provide its preliminary definition. In the third part I reconstruct its prehistory. In the fourth and main part I discuss the basis of its scientific program. In the final part I try to establish implications of the adoption of this program as a guide for the sociological enterprise in the future.

  7. History, Science And The Dilemma Of Contemporary Sociology: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    History and natural sciences are two important fields of study that have informed and influenced sociology as a discipline. Traditionally common to these influences on sociology is the need to generalise. Today, however only the natural sciences can still lay claim to this principle. In generalising, the natural science ...

  8. The Influence of psychological-sociological factors on self-employment

    OpenAIRE

    Remeikienė, Rita; Startienė, Gražina; Vasauskaitė, Jovita

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with the influence of psychological-sociological factors on a self-employed person, which is little explored in business literature. Analysis of scientific literature revealed that the psychological-sociological factors of self-employment can be divided into groups based on certain personal characteristics and individual psychological states, and the influence of psychological-sociological factors of self-employment is threefold: positive, negative, and unclear (both positiv...

  9. Management of science policy, sociology of science policy and economics of science policy

    CERN Document Server

    Ruivo, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    'Management of science policy, sociology of science policy and economics of science policy' is a theoretical essay on the scientific foundation of science policy (formulation, implementation, instruments and procedures). It can be also used as a textbook.

  10. Psychological and sociological approaches to study risk perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renn, O [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Programmgruppe Technik und Gesellschaft; Swaton, E [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Joint IAEA-IIASA Risk Assessment Group

    1984-01-01

    Technological progress and its impacts on humankind has caused an increasing awareness of risk, and objective, statistical estimations are often inadequate to alleviate the public's fright and fear. Research on risk perception using psychological and sociological approaches is trying to bridge this gap. As a first step, a distinction must be made between the technical definition of risk (probability x consequences) and the social definition, in which additional parameters (source, dimensions, timeframe, exposure) need to be included. The methodology of risk assessment, though objective by design, is limited in the interpretability of its results, if the calculation of consequences does not take public perceptions and social effects into account. The problems and advantages of risk assessment are discussed, and the key questions for risk perception research are presented. Various techniques are available to study risk perception and attitudes towards risk; selection of a specific technique is determined by the objective of the research, namely sociological implications or psychological cognitions. Several empirical studies in both areas are presented and the results discussed.

  11. Psychological and sociological approaches to study risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.; Swaton, E.

    1984-01-01

    Technological progress and its impacts on humankind has caused an increasing awareness of risk, and objective, statistical estimations are often inadequate to alleviate the public's fright and fear. Research on risk perception using psychological and sociological approaches is trying to bridge this gap. As a first step, a distinction must be made between the technical definition of risk (probability x consequences) and the social definition, in which additional parameters (source, dimensions, timeframe, exposure) need to be included. The methodology of risk assessment, though objective by design, is limited in the interpretability of its results, if the calculation of consequences does not take public perceptions and social effects into account. The problems and advantages of risk assessment are discussed, and the key questions for risk perception research are presented. Various techniques are available to study risk perception and attitudes towards risk; selection of a specific technique is determined by the objective of the research, namely sociological implications or psychological cognitions. Several empirical studies in both areas are presented and the results discussed. (author)

  12. A sociological Analysis on the Modes of Science Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rabbani Khorasgani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article was sociological Analysis on the modes of science, survey of new Approaches in this context, description of available Approaches relevant to Application of Indigenous paradigm in prodvetion of knowledge and conclusion to attain imitated Approaches from Analysis and mentioned discussions for planning in space of science production in society of Iran. After Analysis of propound Approaches in sociology of science concreted that sociology of science three generation transitioned yet : classic sociology of science (OSS [ Theories of Merton ] , New sociology of science ( NSS [Theories of Thomas kuhn and others ] and Third generation sociology of science that consisted of non - Marxist composinal and processive Approaches for example: Actor - Network theory (ANT, Triple Helix Theory life eyeles, mode 2 and Mode 3. On the other hand , because science production is encompass process in social structures and social communications , allowance for Analysis of Recent Development in mode of science production , three paradigm Analysis and critiqued titles mode 1 , 2 , 3 production of knowledge . Also, Application of Indigenous paradigm studied in production of knowledge and introduced two groups: A - External Approaches B - Internal Approaches that each of two groups propounded Ideas relevant to Indigenous knowledge and Indigenization of knowledge. In the final section, mode an efforted to answered this question that what doctrines can be concluded from these discourse in order to improve the conditions in Iran.

  13. Fifty years of sociological leadership at Social Science and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Stefan; Tietbohl, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    In this review article, we examine some of the conceptual contributions of sociology of health and illness over the past fifty years. Specifically, we focus on research dealing with medicalization, the management of stigma, research on adherence and compliance, and patient-doctor interaction. We show how these themes that originated within sociology, diffused in other disciplines. Sociology in Social Science and Medicine started as an applied research tradition but morphed into a robust, stand-alone social science tradition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Is Psychology a Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 11. Is Psychology a Science ? Kamala V Mukunda. General Article Volume 2 Issue 11 November 1997 pp 59-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/11/0059-0066 ...

  15. Sociology and Complexity Science A New Field of Inquiry

    CERN Document Server

    Castellani, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This book is the first to identify and review the new field of study, sociology and complexity science—or SACS for short. SACS is comprised of five cutting-edge areas of research: computational sociology, the British-based School of Complexity (BBC), complex social network analysis (CSNA), sociocybernetics and the Luhmann School of Complexity (LSC). Together, these five areas represent the latest development in complexity science and sociological systems thinking, offering researchers a powerful, new set of tools for addressing the growing complexity of sociological inquiry. This book also showcases a new method for modeling social systems, called the SACS Toolkit. The SACS Toolkit comes with a theoretical framework (social complexity theory), procedural algorithm (assemblage) and recommended toolset for modeling social systems (qualitatively, historically or numerically) from the ground-up. In fact, this book uses the SACS Toolkit to review the new field of SACS. The third feature of this book is its compe...

  16. The challenge of the social sciences: The impact of Sociology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenge of the social sciences: The impact of Sociology among first year students. JF Graaff. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

  17. Sociology and the public understanding of science: from rationalization to rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, S

    2001-03-01

    This paper contributes to the reappraisal of sociological theories of modernity inspired by the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK). As much as these theories rely on received ideas about the nature of science that SSK has called into doubt, so do they rely on ideas about the public understanding of science. Public understanding of science has been assumed to conform to the monolithic logic and perception of science associated with rationalization, leading to an impoverished view of the cognitive outlook of the modern individual. Rationalization has become the basis for the construction of theoretical critique of science divorced from any clear reference to public understanding, with the result that theory has encountered considerable problems in accounting for public scepticism towards science. However, rather than question rationalization, the more typical strategy has been to propose radical changes in the modernization process, such as postmodernism and the risk society. Against this, an alternative view of public understanding is advanced drawn from SSK and rhetorical psychology. The existence of the sociological critique of science, and SSK in particular, suggests that the meaning of science in modernity is not monolithic but multiple, arising out of a central dilemma over the universal form of knowledge-claims and their necessarily particular, human and social grounding. This dilemma plays out not only in intellectual discourses about science, but also in the public's understanding of science. This argument is used to call for further sociological research into public understanding and to encourage sociologists to recognize the central importance of the topic to a proper understanding of modernity.

  18. The order of social sciences: sociology in dialogue with neighbouring disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Bögenhold

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparing sociology with economics, psychology or history shows that borderlines between disciplines have become fluent and always newly oscillating. Economists, especially prominent positions awarded with Nobel prizes, are increasingly discussing items as motivation, rationality, norms or culture which belong to the domain of sociology. Sociology should acknowledge this kind of ‘imperialism’ and claim own competencies.

  19. THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE TRIAD ECONOMICS, SOCIOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu\tSorin\tBAICU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Underground economy, in view of researchers, economists and jurists, is a theoretical complex construct, a phenomenon with profound social and economic reverberations. This study argues multidisciplinary integrative the sociological, psychological and socio-psychological approach of underground economy. The premises of this study are given by methodological individualism and rational choice theory through building in neoclassical version of Homo economicus able to interact in a multidisciplinary and multifaceted manner with the area of social sciences. For the nonce, we submit to analysis an integrative model of Homo Oeconimicus with Homo Sociologicus, aggregated with elements of social psychology. Synergistic effects of this integrative approach consist of the ability to give an answer as relevant on symptoms and forms of deviant behavior and thus to explain the development of underground economy. The finality of this paper, starting from the stated premises, resides in the explanation and analysis of deviant behavior in the framework of the morphology and causality of underground economy. Deviant behavior in the context of our analysis reveals the coherence perspective on the following issues: anatomy and etiology of underground economy (informal and underground activities, illegal labor, tax fraud, etc.; attitude towards rules, society and the state (tax mentality, tax morality, moral conscience; tax compliance or non-compliance (willingness to pay tax liabilities. This paper is intended to constitute a pleading for an interdependent approach, multi-causal and interdisciplinary of underground economy

  20. Innovation in science and organizational renewal historical and sociological perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Münch, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This book looks at the types of new research organizations that drive scientific innovation and how ground-breaking science transforms research fields and their organization. Based on historical case studies and comparative empirical data, the book presents new and thought-provoking evidence that improves our knowledge and understanding about how new research fields are formed and how research organizations adapt to breakthroughs in science. While the book is firmly based in science history, it discusses more general sociological and policy propositions regarding scientific innovations and organizational change. The volume brings together leading scholars both from the United States and Europe.

  1. Forensic culture as epistemic culture: the sociology of forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Simon A

    2013-03-01

    This paper explores whether we can interpret the notion of 'forensic culture' as something akin to what Knorr-Cetina called an 'epistemic culture'. Can we speak of a 'forensic culture', and, if so, how is it similar to, or different from, other epistemic cultures that exist in what is conventionally called 'science'? This question has important policy implications given the National Academy Science's (NAS) recent identification of 'culture' as one of the problems at the root of what it identified as 'serious deficiencies' in U.S. forensic science and 'scientific culture' as an antidote to those problems. Finding the NAS's characterisation of 'scientific culture' overly general and naïve, this paper offers a preliminary exploration of what might be called a 'forensic culture'. Specifically, the paper explores the way in which few of the empirical findings accumulated by sociologists of science about research science seem to apply to forensic science. Instead, forensic science seems to have developed a distinct culture for which a sociological analysis will require new explanatory tools. Faithful sociological analysis of 'forensic culture' will be a necessary prerequisite for the kind of culture change prescribed by external reformist bodies like the NAS. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Team Dynamics. Essays in the Sociology and Social Psychology of Sport Including Methodological and Epistemological Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Hans

    This document contains nine essays on the sociology and social psychology of team dynamics, including methodological and epistemological issues involved in such study. Essay titles are: (1) Conflict and Achievement in Top Athletic Teams--Sociometric Structures of Racing Eight Oar Crews; (2) Top Performance Despite Internal Conflict--An Antithesis…

  3. Understanding the Disproportionately Low Marriage Rate among African Americans: An Amalgam of Sociological and Psychological Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Anthony L.; Kravitz, Aliza

    2011-01-01

    African Americans have the lowest marriage rate of any racial and ethnic group in America. Although the low marriage rate among African Americans has been largely examined through a sociological lens by documenting structural barriers, which has important policy implications, researchers have not sufficiently examined the psychological and…

  4. Homo plastic and aloplastic communities sociological study from the science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruano, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    This sociological reflection tries to understand the differences between the view and the handling that the so-called culture societies have about technique opposite to the view and the handling they have in the so-called science societies. The author maintains that the present developed societies are halfway between these two kinds of societies. The use of technique in one or the other type of society leads the author to name homo plastic communities to those who adapt themselves to the environment and aloplastic communities to those who adapt the environment to their needs. (Author)

  5. Movie portrayals of juvenile delinquency: Part II--Sociology and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, S

    1995-01-01

    The visual media, especially movies, are appealing to youth with their rapid presentation of visual images of immediate gratification and unbridled pursuit of materialism. As social class differences in America widen, movies may serve both as a reflection of the social psychology of juvenile delinquency and as an etiologic factor in the development of such wayward youth. This paper examines some current aspects of the sociology and psychology of juvenile delinquency, and presents the historical significance of movies since the 1930s as both a visual representation and causative factor in the social psychology of delinquent youth.

  6. Psychology as a Moral Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    What does morality have to do with psychology in a value-neutral, postmodern world? According to a provocative new book, everything. Taking exception with current ideas in the mainstream (including cultural, evolutionary, and neuropsychology) as straying from the discipline’s ethical foundations,...... as a Moral Science contains enough controversial ideas to spark great interest among researchers and scholars in psychology and the philosophy of science.......What does morality have to do with psychology in a value-neutral, postmodern world? According to a provocative new book, everything. Taking exception with current ideas in the mainstream (including cultural, evolutionary, and neuropsychology) as straying from the discipline’s ethical foundations......, Psychology as a Moral Science argues that psychological phenomena are inherently moral, and that psychology, as prescriptive and interventive practice, reflects specific moral principles. The book cites normative moral standards, as far back as Aristotle, that give human thoughts, feelings, and actions...

  7. Revising laboratory work: sociological perspectives on the science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobér, Anna

    2017-09-01

    This study uses sociological perspectives to analyse one of the core practices in science education: schoolchildren's and students' laboratory work. Applying an ethnographic approach to the laboratory work done by pupils at a Swedish compulsory school, data were generated through observations, field notes, interviews, and a questionnaire. The pupils, ages 14 and 15, were observed as they took a 5-week physics unit (specifically, mechanics). The analysis shows that the episodes of laboratory work could be filled with curiosity and exciting challenges; however, another picture emerged when sociological concepts and notions were applied to what is a very common way of working in the classroom. Laboratory work is characterised as a social activity that is expected to be organised as a group activity. This entails groups becoming, to some extent, `safe havens' for the pupils. On the other hand, this way of working in groups required pupils to subject to the groups and the peer effect, sometimes undermining their chances to learn and perform better. In addition, the practice of working in groups when doing laboratory work left some pupils and the teacher blaming themselves, even though the outcome of the learning situation was a result of a complex interplay of social processes. This article suggests a stronger emphasis on the contradictions and consequences of the science subjects, which are strongly influenced by their socio-historical legacy.

  8. "It's Not Rocket Science!": High School Sociology Teachers' Conceptions of Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCesare, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Since academic sociology's birth in this country, sociologists have not been shy about publicly praising and ridiculing the discipline. Though sociologists have been the primary participants in the seemingly endless debates about sociology's proper subject matter, methods, and purpose, there is another group that has also struggled over the past…

  9. The psychological science of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Elizabeth; Humphreys, Keith

    2007-03-01

    To discuss the contributions and future course of the psychological science of addiction. The psychology of addiction includes a tremendous range of scientific activity, from the basic experimental laboratory through increasingly broad relational contexts, including patient-practitioner interactions, families, social networks, institutional settings, economics and culture. Some of the contributions discussed here include applications of behavioral principles, cognitive and behavioral neuroscience and the development and evaluation of addiction treatment. Psychology has at times been guilty of proliferating theories with relatively little pruning, and of overemphasizing intrapersonal explanations for human behavior. However, at its best, defined as the science of the individual in context, psychology is an integrated discipline using diverse methods well-suited to capture the multi-dimensional nature of addictive behavior. Psychology has a unique ability to integrate basic experimental and applied clinical science and to apply the knowledge gained from multiple levels of analysis to the pragmatic goal of reducing the prevalence of addiction.

  10. A conceptual framework of impression management: new insights from psychology, sociology, and critical perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Niamh; Merkl-Davies, Doris M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop a conceptual framework, based on the concepts of rationality and motivation, which uses theories and empirical research from psychology/behavioural finance, sociology and critical accounting to systematise, advance and challenge research on impression management. The paper focuses on research which departs from economic concepts of impression management as opportunistic managerial discretionary disclosure behaviour resulting in reporting bias or as ‘cheap talk’. Using...

  11. Psychology between science and profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Milorad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychology is powerful science, with great knowledge deposited for understanding the individual (his development and pathological outcomes, behavior and predicting behavior in different situations, groups, historical flows and historical characters, cultural and civilisation changes, artistic and other creations. Psychology, as it becomes to the science of soul, has covered all areas of human spirit. Discreprancy between potential and power of psychology and her use (in the work of psychologists author connects for positioning and realisation of psychology in university teachings. Whit the help of psychology we can, not just successes in life but we can also understand life itself. But, how many psychologists can contribute to that? Why is that so?.

  12. Perspectives of the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge and Science Education: a study of Education Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Aparecida Meglhioratti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that Science Teaching emphasizes the importance of researches in Epistemology and History of Science and also covers social aspects of the scientific construction, there are still relatively very few studies which are systematically based on perspectives from the Sociology of Science or from the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge. In this article, it has been outlined a brief history of the sociological perspectives of scientific knowledge, characterizing them as differentiationist, antidifferentiationist and tranversalist. Then, a bibliographical study was developed in journals Qualis A1 and A2 in the area of “Teaching” of CAPES, with emphasis in Science Teaching, from 2007 to 2016, aiming to understand how the sociological perspectives are present in science education. The search for articles which articulate sociological aspects and Science Education was done through use of search engines emerging from the accomplished historic, among them: Sociology of Science, Sociology of Scientific Knowledge, Ethnography, Laboratory Studies, Strong Program, Scientific Fields, Scientific Ethos, Actor-Network Theory, Social and Technical Networks, Latour, Bloor, Merton and Bourdieu. Through this research, we have identified 46 articles which have approaches with the subject. The articles were investigated by Content Analysis and were organized in the units of analysis: 1 Foundations of the sociology of knowledge; 2 Scientific Ethos; 3 Science Working System; 4 Sociogenesis of knowledge; 5 Strong Program of Sociology of Knowledge; 6 Laboratory studies and scientific practice; 7 Actor-Network Theory; 8 Bourdieusian Rationale; 9 Non-Bourdieusian tranversalist approaches; 10 Notes regarding the Sociology of Science. The units of analysis with the greatest number of articles were "Laboratory Studies and Scientific Practice" and "Actor-Network Theory", both closer to an antidifferentiationist perspective of the sociology of science, in which

  13. Trends in Funding for Dissertation Field Research: Why Do Political Science and Sociology Students Win so Few Awards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Rina; Teitelbaum, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Despite the size and growth of political science and sociology relative to other disciplines, political science and sociology graduate students have received a declining share of funding for dissertation field research in recent years. Specifically, political science and sociology students are losing out to competitive applicants from…

  14. PSYCHOLOGY. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Psychology, philosophy and nuclear science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, M.; Byrne, A. [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    At first glance, one might wonder what psychology has got to do with nuclear science. On closer inspection, it is clear that nuclear science and technology have historically attracted controversy, and still today public and political opposition cloud its future, perhaps even more so with recent tragic events in Japan. A key focus for psychology has been an attempt to explicate public opposition to nuclear power, and this has been largely carried out by examining attitudes and risk perception. But it is easy to demonstrate that this has not been enough. There are also other important psychological issues that warrant greater attention than has been given. In this paper, I will first give an overview of the 'discipline' of psychology, including some inherent philosophical problems, before outlining specific psychological issues of relevance to nuclear science. I will then discuss whether these issues have been adequately addressed to date, before finally suggesting ways in which psychology might better respond to the questions nuclear science and technology raise. (author)

  16. Psychology, philosophy and nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, M.; Byrne, A.

    2011-01-01

    At first glance, one might wonder what psychology has got to do with nuclear science. On closer inspection, it is clear that nuclear science and technology have historically attracted controversy, and still today public and political opposition cloud its future, perhaps even more so with recent tragic events in Japan. A key focus for psychology has been an attempt to explicate public opposition to nuclear power, and this has been largely carried out by examining attitudes and risk perception. But it is easy to demonstrate that this has not been enough. There are also other important psychological issues that warrant greater attention than has been given. In this paper, I will first give an overview of the 'discipline' of psychology, including some inherent philosophical problems, before outlining specific psychological issues of relevance to nuclear science. I will then discuss whether these issues have been adequately addressed to date, before finally suggesting ways in which psychology might better respond to the questions nuclear science and technology raise. (author)

  17. Contributions from sociology of science to mathematics education in Brazil: logic as a system of beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Thales Haddad Novaes; Vilela, Denise Silva

    2013-09-01

    In Brazil, mathematics education was associated with Jean Piaget's theory. Scholars in the field of education appropriated Piaget's work in different ways, but usually emphasized logical aspects of thought, which probably lead to an expansion of mathematics education influenced by psychology. This study attempts to extend the range of interlocutions and pose a dialogue between the field of mathematics education in Brazil and the sociology of science proposed by David Bloor. The main point of Bloor's theory is that logical-mathematical knowledge is far from being true and universal and is socially conditioned. In particular we will be discussing the first principle of the strong program, which deals with conditions that generate beliefs promoted by education policies in Brazil, such as the MEC/USAID treaties. In this case the "naturalization of logic" was stimulated by a widespread diffusion of both Piaget studies and the Modern Mathematics Movement.

  18. The psychological science of money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, E.H.; Aarts, H.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    The Psychological Science of Money brings together classic and current findings on the myriad ways money affects brain, mind, and behavior to satisfy not only our needs for material gain, but also for autonomy and self-worth. Leading experts trace the links between early concepts of value and modern

  19. The Psychology of Physical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Gregory J.

    2006-12-01

    Who becomes a physical scientist is not completely a coincidence. People with spatial talent and who are thing-oriented are most likely to be attracted to physical science, including astronomy. Additional lessons from the psychology of science suggest that compared with non-scientists and social scientists, physical scientists are most likely to be introverted, independent, self-confident, and yet somewhat arrogant. Understanding the physical and inanimate world is part of what physical scientists do, and understanding those who understand the physical world is part of what psychologists of science do.

  20. Psychology or Psychological Science?: A Survey of Graduate Psychology Faculty Regarding Program Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collisson, Brian; Rusbasan, David

    2018-01-01

    The question of renaming graduate psychology programs to psychological science is a timely and contentious issue. To better understand why some programs, but not others, are changing names, we surveyed chairpersons (Study 1) and faculty (Study 2) within graduate psychology and psychological science programs. Within psychology programs, a name…

  1. Defining the public, defining sociology: hybrid science-public relations and boundary-work in early American sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael S

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I examine how scientific disciplines define their boundaries by defining the publics with whom they engage. The case study is an episode in the development of early American sociology. In response to the dual challenge of credibility set up by the conflict between religious Baconian science and secular positivist science, key actors engaged in specific strategies of boundary-work to create their desired "sociological public"--a hybrid form of science-public relations that appealed to hostile university scientists while excluding a supportive religious audience from participation in the production of scientific knowledge. Using this case, I offer two specific insights. First I illustrate how, in the pursuit of scientific credibility, actors engage in boundary-work to differentiate audiences, not just practitioners. Such defining of publics is constitutive of scientific disciplines in their formative stage. Second, I demonstrate how audience boundaries can be redefined through the capture of existing boundary objects. Specifically, the removal of informational content in key boundary objects creates durable boundaries that are difficult to overcome.

  2. Sociology, Basis for the Secondary-School Subject of Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke Meijs

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reformulates the question of ‘sociology, who needs it’ in two ways, The first question we address is that of the reason why the educational system itself did not come to sociology for help in their long quest for a clear-cut content of the subject. The second question is why sociology did not adopt the orphaned subject of social studies back in 1960. The answer to the first question lies in the vulnerability of a subject that is dependent for its continued existence on the political leanings of the day. This led to a new goal for the subject almost every decade: from social education in the sixties and social and political education in the seventies, to a focus on citizenship education in the nineties. Although the objective was renamed on several occasions, the prescriptive viewpoint is recognizable in each. This perspective is difficult to reconcile with a social science content. The answer to the second questions points towards Dutch social scientists with a strong focus on academic sociology and not for critical, policy or public sociology. This choice was also made in order to win the competition with psychologists and for the discipline to get rid of the poor image it had acquired in the 1960s. The new subject social sciences, with a strong focus on science made it possible for sociology to become the pillar of this new subject.

  3. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN CROATIA AND BOSNIA & HERZEGOVINA: RESULTS OF EMPIRICAL RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Alfirević, Nikša; Petković, Saša; Gutović, Tea

    2017-01-01

    In this study, authors analyze the practices and effectiveness of educational management and leadership, according to the selected psychological and sociological characteristics of school principals in Croatia and Bosnia & Herzegovina. The selected psychological traits have been already analyzed in the case of entrepreneurial orientation and proved to be relevant for differentiation of schools and principals, according to their inclination to entrepreneurship. In this paper, more comprehensiv...

  4. The social construction of facts and artefacts: or How the sociology of science and the sociology of technology might benefit each other

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinch, Trevor J.; Bijker, Wiebe E.

    1984-01-01

    The need for an integrated social constructivist approach towards the study of science and technology is outlined. Within such a programme both scientific facts and technological artefacts are to be understood as social constructs. Literature on the sociology of science, the science-technology

  5. Philosophy, history and sociology of science: interdisciplinary relations and complex social identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, Hauke

    2014-12-01

    Sociology and philosophy of science have an uneasy relationship, while the marriage of history and philosophy of science has--on the surface at least--been more successful I will take a sociological look at the history of the relationships between philosophy and history as well as philosophy and sociology of science. Interdisciplinary relations between these disciplines will be analysed through social identity complexity theory in oider to draw out some conclusions on how the disciplines interact and how they might develop. I will use the relationships between the disciplines as a pointer for a more general social theory of interdisciplinarity which will then be used to sound a caution on how interdisciplinary relations between the three disciplines might be managed.

  6. POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: THE SCIENCE AND PRACTICE OF PSYCHOLOGY?

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    Julio Alfonso Piña López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology is not a science of psychology, because it lacks a specific subject matter as well as conceptual categories that theoretically represent it. Even more, it is not built on the foundations of a theory that would make it possible to translate scientific knowledge into technological knowledge, applicable to social problems in which the psychological dimension is relevant. We conclude that positive psychology is more than just a “good fashion” or “sympathetic magic”; it is, in essence, an unwarranted and fruitless attempt to give life to a new and very different psychology. In short, it is a conspicuous example of the illogic of logic.

  7. Integrating Climate Change Science and Sustainability in Environmental Science, Sociology, Philosophy and Business Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudrias, M. A.; Cantzler, J.; Croom, S.; Huston, C.; Woods, M.

    2015-12-01

    Courses on sustainability can be taught from multiple perspectives with some focused on specific areas (environmental, socio-cultural, economic, ethics) and others taking a more integrated approach across areas of sustainability and academic disciplines. In conjunction with the Climate Change Education Program efforts to enhance climate change literacy with innovative approaches, resources and communication strategies developed by Climate Education Partners were used in two distinct ways to integrate climate change science and impacts into undergraduate and graduate level courses. At the graduate level, the first lecture in the MBA program in Sustainable Supply Chain Management is entirely dedicated to climate change science, local and global impacts and discussions about key messages to communicate to the business community. Basic science concepts are integrated with discussions about mitigation and adaptation focused on business leaders. The concepts learned are then applied to the semester-long business plan project for the students. At the undergraduate level, a new model of comprehensive integration across disciplines was implemented in Spring 2015 across three courses on Sustainability each with a specific lens: Natural Science, Sociology and Philosophy. All three courses used climate change as the 'big picture' framing concept and had similar learning objectives creating a framework where lens-specific topics, focusing on depth in a discipline, were balanced with integrated exercises across disciplines providing breadth and possibilities for integration. The comprehensive integration project was the creation of the climate action plan for the university with each team focused on key areas of action (water, energy, transportation, etc.) and each team built with at least one member from each class ensuring a natural science, sociological and philosophical perspective. The final project was presented orally to all three classes and an integrated paper included

  8. Cyberbullying and Primary-School Aged Children: The Psychological Literature and the Challenge for Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley-Anne Ey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyberbullying is an international issue for schools, young people and their families. Whilst many research domains have explored this phenomenon, and bullying more generally, the majority of reported studies appear in the psychological and educational literatures, where bullying, and more recently, cyberbullying has been examined primarily at the individual level: amongst adolescents and young people, with a focus on the definition, its prevalence, behaviours, and impact. There also is growing evidence that younger children are increasingly accessing technology and engaging with social media, yet there is limited research dedicated to this younger age group. The purpose of this paper is to report on a systematic literature review from the psychological and educational research domains related to this younger age group, to inform future research across the disciplines. Younger children require different methods of engagement. This review highlights the methodological challenges associated with this age group present in the psychological literature, and argues for a greater use of sociological, child-centred approaches to data collection. This review examined studies published in English, between 2009 and 2014, and conducted with children aged 5–12 years, about their experiences with cyberbullying. Searches were conducted on seven key databases using keywords associated with cyberbullying and age of children. A Google Scholar search also examined published and unpublished reports. A total of 966 articles and reports were retrieved. A random peer review process was employed to establish inter-rater reliability and veracity of the review. Findings revealed 38 studies reported specifically on children aged 5–12 years. The dominant focus of these articles was on prevalence of cyberbullying, established through survey methodology. Few studies noted impacts, understanding and behaviours or engaged children’s independent voice. This review

  9. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  10. 2017 Hans O. Mauksch Address: Using the Science of Learning to Improve Student Learning in Sociology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messineo, Melinda

    2018-01-01

    The 2017 Mauksch Address invites readers to consider how the field of sociology might benefit from greater inclusion of the science of learning into its pedagogy. Results from a survey of 92 teaching and learning experts in sociology reveal the degree to which the discipline's understanding of teaching and learning is informed by the science of…

  11. Psychology in cognitive science: 1978-2038.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentner, Dedre

    2010-07-01

    This paper considers the past and future of Psychology within Cognitive Science. In the history section, I focus on three questions: (a) how has the position of Psychology evolved within Cognitive Science, relative to the other disciplines that make up Cognitive Science; (b) how have particular Cognitive Science areas within Psychology waxed or waned; and (c) what have we gained and lost. After discussing what's happened since the late 1970s, when the Society and the journal began, I speculate about where the field is going. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. Citation Behavior of Undergraduate Students: A Study of History, Political Science, and Sociology Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendley, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this analysis was to obtain local citation behavior data on undergraduates researching history, political science, and sociology papers. The study found that students cited books and journals even with the availability of web sources; however, usage varied by subject. References to specific websites' domains also varied across subject…

  13. Psyche, soma, and science studies: new directions in the sociology of mental health and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickersgill, Martyn D

    2010-08-01

    With the expanding scope of scientific and technological discourse within psychiatry, social scientists need new theoretical tools to grapple with the complex links between psychiatry, science and society. Benefit may be afforded through engagement with the discipline of science and technology studies (STS), which is concerned explicitly with the relationships between science and society. To highlight existing engagements between STS and the sociology of (mental) health, and to encourage researchers to consider ways in which insights from these traditions may be developed further through interdisciplinary debate and analysis. Some of the key works in STS and the sociology of mental illness that use the empirical or theoretical writings of the other were reviewed and appraised. Whilst it is clear that some research synthesizing insights from STS and the sociology of mental health exists, this is currently limited. Sociologists and others concerned with longstanding and emergent issues in mental health might usefully familiarize themselves with some work in STS. A new sociology of psychiatric knowledge production and application represents an important way forward.

  14. Is psychological science a-cultural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gone, Joseph P

    2011-07-01

    The history of psychological science, as it has intersected with ethnoracial, cultural, and other marginalized domains of group difference, is replete with disinterest, dismissal, or denigration of these diverse forms of psychological experience. This has led some to wonder whether psychological science is a-cultural, or even anti-cultural in orientation. Assessment of this provocative proposition first requires exploration of three composite questions: (1) What is culture?, (2) What is science?, and (3) What is psychological science? Based on brief consideration of these composite questions--which are remarkably complex in their own right--I argue that psychological science is not, has never been, and indeed cannot in principle be a-cultural. Instead, like all forms of knowing, psychological science emerges at particular historical moments to achieve particular goals that are motivated by particular interests. Throughout much of the history of psychological science, these goals and interests were tied to ideologically suspect agendas that contemporary psychologists are right to repudiate. The interesting question becomes whether psychology's knowledge practices can be disentangled from this earlier ideological contamination to furnish the discipline with viable methods. I propose that psychological science can in fact be so disentangled; nevertheless, the resulting methods are never adopted or deployed outside of culturally constituted interests, objectives, and motivations, thereby requiring ongoing critical engagement with the subtexts of disciplinary knowledge production. In fact, there seem to be important ways in which psychology's scientific aspirations hobble disciplinary inquiry into the human condition that has motivated multicultural psychologists to consider alternative paradigms of inquiry.

  15. A collective unconscious reconsidered: Jung's archetypal imagination in the light of contemporary psychology and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Harry T

    2012-02-01

    A needed rapprochement between Jung and the contemporary human sciences may rest less on the much debated relevance of a biologistic collective unconscious than on a re-inscribing of an archetypal imagination, as the phenomenological and empirical core of Jungian psychology. The most promising approaches in this regard in terms of theory and research in psychology come from combining the cognitive psychology of metaphor and synaesthesia, individual differences in imaginative absorption and openness to numinous experience and spirituality as a form of symbolic intelligence. On the socio-cultural side, this cognitive psychology of archetypal imagination is also congruent with Lévi-Strauss on the metaphoric roots of mythological thinking, and Durkheim on a sociology of collective consciousness. This conjoined perspective, while validating the cross cultural commonality of physical metaphor intuited by Jung and Hillman on alchemy, also shows Jung's Red Book, considered as the expressive source for his more formal psychology, to be far closer in spirit to a socio-cultural collective consciousness, based on metaphoric imagination, than to a phylogenetic or evolutionary unconscious. A mutual re-inscribing of Jung into congruent areas of contemporary psychology, anthropology, sociology, and vice versa, can help to further validate Jung's key observations and is fully consistent with Jung's own early efforts at synthesis within the human sciences. © 2012, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  16. Ciencias Sociales, Sociología y pobreza en Guatemala Social Sciences, Sociology, and poverty in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar S. G. Mendoza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde una perspectiva de la sociología del conocimiento de Karl Mannheim se puede comprender el estado del arte de los estudios de pobreza en Guatemala en un escenario entre 1980 y 2004. La justificación del trabajo se debe a la ausencia de una investigación que trate de entender el desarrollo del tema en las Ciencias Sociales en Guatemala y que demuestre su importancia a través de experiencias teóricas y metodológicas. Se puede decir que la investigación sobre la pobreza no ha sido sistemática ni continua debido al proceso social y político que ha vivido el país, no obstante se afirma con toda certeza que existe un corpus bibliográfico heterogéneo y considerable entre 1980-2004. La investigación tuvo como objetivo realizar un balance de las tendencias teóricas y metodológicas de los estudios en los últimos 20 años. Debo apuntar que la bibliografía sobre pobreza es bastante amplia e inevitablemente mereció seleccionar una muestra de los trabajos más representativos e innovadores, no sólo en las dos décadas analizadas, sino también en sus temas. No se puede entender los estudios de pobreza alejados de la Ciencias Sociales y de los procesos históricos, políticos, económicos y sociales de Guatemala y la relación con otros campos de conocimiento en Centroamérica y América Latina.From the perspective of Karl Mannheim's sociology of knowledge, it is possible to understand the state of the art of poverty studies in Guatemala between 1980 and 2004. This work is justified by the lack of investigations looking into the development of Social Sciences in Guatemala and it demonstrates its importance through theoretical and methodological experiences. Investigation on poverty can be said to have been neither systematic nor continued, due to the social and political process the country has undergone. Nevertheless, it can also be sustained that there is a heterogeneous and considerable bibliographic corpus between 1980-2004. This

  17. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.

    2015-01-01

    Discursive psychology was established in the United Kingdom by the end of the 1980s, mainly in response to the dominant cognitivist approach in social psychology. While it borrowed notions from poststructuralism and sociology of science, it is most akin to conversation analysis. Discursive

  18. Forensic psychology and correctional psychology: Distinct but related subfields of psychological science and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Tess M S

    2018-02-12

    This article delineates 2 separate but related subfields of psychological science and practice applicable across all major areas of the field (e.g., clinical, counseling, developmental, social, cognitive, community). Forensic and correctional psychology are related by their historical roots, involvement in the justice system, and the shared population of people they study and serve. The practical and ethical contexts of these subfields is distinct from other areas of psychology-and from one another-with important implications for ecologically valid research and ethically sound practice. Forensic psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the law to help resolve legal, contractual, or administrative matters. Correctional psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the justice system to inform the classification, treatment, and management of offenders to reduce risk and improve public safety. There has been and continues to be great interest in both subfields-especially the potential for forensic and correctional psychological science to help resolve practical issues and questions in legal and justice settings. This article traces the shared and separate developmental histories of these subfields, outlines their important distinctions and implications, and provides a common understanding and shared language for psychologists interested in applying their knowledge in forensic or correctional contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Reproducibility in Psychological Science: When Do Psychological Phenomena Exist?

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    Seppo E. Iso-Ahola

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific evidence has recently been used to assert that certain psychological phenomena do not exist. Such claims, however, cannot be made because (1 scientific method itself is seriously limited (i.e., it can never prove a negative; (2 non-existence of phenomena would require a complete absence of both logical (theoretical and empirical support; even if empirical support is weak, logical and theoretical support can be strong; (3 statistical data are only one piece of evidence and cannot be used to reduce psychological phenomena to statistical phenomena; and (4 psychological phenomena vary across time, situations and persons. The human mind is unreproducible from one situation to another. Psychological phenomena are not particles that can decisively be tested and discovered. Therefore, a declaration that a phenomenon is not real is not only theoretically and empirically unjustified but runs counter to the propositional and provisional nature of scientific knowledge. There are only “temporary winners” and no “final truths” in scientific knowledge. Psychology is a science of subtleties in human affect, cognition and behavior. Its phenomena fluctuate with conditions and may sometimes be difficult to detect and reproduce empirically. When strictly applied, reproducibility is an overstated and even questionable concept in psychological science. Furthermore, statistical measures (e.g., effect size are poor indicators of the theoretical importance and relevance of phenomena (cf. “deliberate practice” vs. “talent” in expert performance, not to mention whether phenomena are real or unreal. To better understand psychological phenomena, their theoretical and empirical properties should be examined via multiple parameters and criteria. Ten such parameters are suggested.

  20. Reproducibility in Psychological Science: When Do Psychological Phenomena Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso-Ahola, Seppo E.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific evidence has recently been used to assert that certain psychological phenomena do not exist. Such claims, however, cannot be made because (1) scientific method itself is seriously limited (i.e., it can never prove a negative); (2) non-existence of phenomena would require a complete absence of both logical (theoretical) and empirical support; even if empirical support is weak, logical and theoretical support can be strong; (3) statistical data are only one piece of evidence and cannot be used to reduce psychological phenomena to statistical phenomena; and (4) psychological phenomena vary across time, situations and persons. The human mind is unreproducible from one situation to another. Psychological phenomena are not particles that can decisively be tested and discovered. Therefore, a declaration that a phenomenon is not real is not only theoretically and empirically unjustified but runs counter to the propositional and provisional nature of scientific knowledge. There are only “temporary winners” and no “final truths” in scientific knowledge. Psychology is a science of subtleties in human affect, cognition and behavior. Its phenomena fluctuate with conditions and may sometimes be difficult to detect and reproduce empirically. When strictly applied, reproducibility is an overstated and even questionable concept in psychological science. Furthermore, statistical measures (e.g., effect size) are poor indicators of the theoretical importance and relevance of phenomena (cf. “deliberate practice” vs. “talent” in expert performance), not to mention whether phenomena are real or unreal. To better understand psychological phenomena, their theoretical and empirical properties should be examined via multiple parameters and criteria. Ten such parameters are suggested. PMID:28626435

  1. [Pierre Bourdieu and health: a sociological analysis of Actes de la Recherche en Sciences Sociales].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, Miguel Angelo

    2008-07-01

    This study aimed to highlight, illustrate, describe, and comment on the presence of the health category in the work of Pierre Bourdieu, by underlining the themes traditionally related to the sociology of the body. After a systematic analysis of his work in the sociology of medicine and health, the article also addresses the main vehicle for his line of thought, namely Actes de la Recherche en Sciences Sociales, viewed here as the prime channel for most of the research taking Bourdieu's "genetic structuralism" as the main theoretical reference. We analyze the articles published from 1975 to 2001, from the thematic and theoretical/conceptual perspective, by comparing the changes appearing in this journal in opposition to the model previously adopted by the Revue Française de Sociologie.

  2. Good science, bad science: Questioning research practices in psychological research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation we have questioned the current research practices in psychological science and thereby contributed to the current discussion about the credibility of psychological research. We specially focused on the problems with the reporting of statistical results and showed that reporting

  3. In search of the kingdom: the social gospel, settlement sociology, and the science of reform in America's progressive era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joyce E; Maclean, Vicky M

    2012-01-01

    This critical narrative history examines the development of sociology in the United States during what has come to be labeled as the Progressive Era, roughly the years from the 1890s to World War I. Despite the label, this era was defined as much by social problems associated with industrialization, urbanization, and immigration as by the growth of its cities and the wealth of its capitalists. We explore the roots of American sociology in the transition of protestant theology from Calvinism to its reformation in the social gospel, the simultaneous development of settlement houses, and the "creation" of sociology as the science of reform. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Political diversity will improve social psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, José L; Crawford, Jarret T; Stern, Charlotta; Haidt, Jonathan; Jussim, Lee; Tetlock, Philip E

    2015-01-01

    Psychologists have demonstrated the value of diversity--particularly diversity of viewpoints--for enhancing creativity, discovery, and problem solving. But one key type of viewpoint diversity is lacking in academic psychology in general and social psychology in particular: political diversity. This article reviews the available evidence and finds support for four claims: (1) Academic psychology once had considerable political diversity, but has lost nearly all of it in the last 50 years. (2) This lack of political diversity can undermine the validity of social psychological science via mechanisms such as the embedding of liberal values into research questions and methods, steering researchers away from important but politically unpalatable research topics, and producing conclusions that mischaracterize liberals and conservatives alike. (3) Increased political diversity would improve social psychological science by reducing the impact of bias mechanisms such as confirmation bias, and by empowering dissenting minorities to improve the quality of the majority's thinking. (4) The underrepresentation of non-liberals in social psychology is most likely due to a combination of self-selection, hostile climate, and discrimination. We close with recommendations for increasing political diversity in social psychology.

  5. Performative Social Science and Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Gergen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of "Performative Social Science," which is defined as the deployment of different forms of artistic performance in the execution of a scientific project. Such forms may include art, theater, poetry, music, dance, photography, fiction writing, and multi-media applications. Performative research practices are in their developmental stage, with most of the major work appearing in the last two decades. Frequently based on a social constructionist metatheory, supporters reject a realist, or mapping view of representation, and explore varieties of expressive forms for constructing worlds relevant to the social sciences. The performative orientation often relies on a dramaturgical approach that encompasses value-laden, emotionally charged topics and presentations. Social scientists invested in social justice issues and political perspectives have been especially drawn to this approach. Performative social science invites productive collaborations among various disciplinary fields and between the sciences and arts. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1101119

  6. The Sociology and Social Science of ‘Evil’: Is the Conception of Pedophilia ‘Evil’?

    OpenAIRE

    Javaid, A

    2015-01-01

    This paper approaches 'evil' from sociological and social science perspectives, using them to increase our insight into the concept of 'evil' since they have long neglected direct analyses of 'evil'. For example, sociology has focused on questions of the good, treating its other as an absence or a residual category. Durkheim suggested to avoid using common sense categorisations, without exploring their social construction as social fact. Therefore, because 'evil' is a common sense conception,...

  7. Agriculture vs. social sciences: subject classification and sociological conceptualization of rural tourism in Scopus and Web of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan HOČEVAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and consumptive function of countryside (rural areas are connected which should be reflected in scientific research. In order to test relationships, we selected the topic of rural tourism (also agritourism, agrotourism, agricultural tourism considering sociological conceptualization (social sciences, sociology and methodological approaches of information sciences (bibliometrics, scientometrics in describing fields of science or scientific disciplines. We ascertained scatter of information in citation databases (Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar. Functionalities were evaluated, affecting search precision and recall in information retrieval. We mapped documents to Scopus subject areas as well as Web of Science (WOS research areas and subject categories, and related publications (journals. Databases do not differ substantially in mapping this topic. Social sciences (including economics or business occupy by far the most important place. The strongest concentration was found in tourism-related journals (consistent with power laws. Agriculture-related publications are rare, accounting for some 10 % of documents. Interdisciplinarity seems to be weak. Results point to poor inclusion of emerging social topics in agricultural research whereby agriculture may lose out in possible venues of future research.

  8. Knowledge as a Cultural Product: From the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge to the Cultural Studies of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rabbani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main characteristic (feature of the sociology of knowledge and science is its emphasis on the culture and cultural analysis within the scientific and technological research. This study concerns with the study of two research fields in which new sociologists of science and technology have presented their cultural analysis. These two fields include: sociology of scientific knowledge and cultural studies of science.Sociology of scientific knowledge is the first school of thought which makes the content of scientific knowledge inclined to and compliant with the cultural and sociological analysis. In SSK, the main presupposition is that “the scientific knowledge is totally arbitrary.” Accordingly, the design and evaluation of scientific theories and claims are the consequence of social interests and cultural inclinations (trends, in a way that the scientific theories become a tool for the justification, legitimating, encouragement and contentment.At the early 1990s, with the rise of crisis (chaos within the explanations of sociology of scientific knowledge and a flood of criticism against it, the whole subjectivity of the field came to a standstill (reached an impasse and the initiatives in scientific research were replaced by different theoretical orientations like cultural studies. In contrast to the sociology of scientific knowledge, the cultural studies of science concerns with the rejection of “explanation” and, instead, focuses on the “meaning” and “understanding”. In other words, it has come back to an old dispute between explanatory and hermeneutic approaches and those  which pursue the regulative (legalistic comprehensiveness along the more positivistic lines.This emerging field emphasizes the issue that the uncertainty, instability, ambiguity (vagueness and difference must be given a more important role in sciences. Cultural studies of science gave rise to a change from the sociology of scientific knowledge to a new

  9. The Missing Memory of Canadian Sociology: Reflexive Government and "the Social Science".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Bruce

    2016-05-01

    The modest literature on the history of Canadian Sociology takes the appearance of a named academic discipline as its object. Canadian Sociology is held to have had some precursors in the 1880s, but really to appear only in the 1920s. It is described as a foreign import and as an activity first of intellectual speculation and moral reform. Observational and analytic practice are absent before 1880. The activities of state agents and government departments in the social field are not discussed. This article offers a richer account through an examination of the larger field from which Sociology was extracted, "the social science," which was practiced actively in colonial Canada from the early nineteenth century. The social science shaped and was itself shaped by colonial conditions. The article outlines three interrelated moments in social science to carry its claims: inventory-making, the emergence of "population-thinking," and "reflexive government." Attending to the social science underlines the complex and convoluted relations of sociology with state power. Les rares oeuvrages académiques portant sur l'histoire de la sociologie canadienne prend pour objet l'apparition du terme sociologie> dans le contexte universitaire. Dans cet optique, ils signalent certains précurseurs de la sociologie canadienne dès les années 1880, mais en fait ils affirment que cette discipline n'apparaît que dans les années 1920. Cette discipline est présentée comme une importation académique et, d'abord et avant tout, comme de la spéculation intellectuelle et comme un projet de réforme morale. D'après cette vision, les pratiques d'observation et d'analyse sociales ne semblent pas exister avant 1880, et les acteurs politiques et administratifs sont absents du terrain. Notre article propose un examen plus riche du vaste champ duquel la sociologie académique fut arrachée: activement pratiquée au Canada à l'époque coloniale dès le début du XIXe siècle. La science sociale

  10. An Early Psychology of Science in Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, José E.

    2016-01-01

    The psychology of science is a field of research emerged in the late 80's and its basic interest is the study of the conditions determining the rise and development of scientists and researchers. However, in spite of its apparent novelty, it is feasible to find background widely disseminated in the work of previous authors. One of them is R. Ross,…

  11. Reevaluating excess success in psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, Jeroen J A; Koch, Christof

    2016-10-01

    Francis (Psychonomic Bulletin Review, 21, 1180-1187, 2014) recently claimed that 82 % of articles with four or more experiments published in Psychological Science between 2009 and 2012 cannot be trusted. We critique Francis' analysis and point out the dependence of his approach on including the appropriate experiments and significance tests. We focus on one of the articles (van Boxtel & Koch, in Psychological Science, 23(4), 410-418, 2012) flagged by Francis and show that the inappropriate inclusion of experiments and tests have led Francis to mistakenly flag this article. We found that decisions about whether to include certain tests potentially affect 34 of the 44 articles analyzed by Francis. We further performed p-curve analyses on the articles discussed in Francis' analysis. We found that 9 of 44 studies showed significant evidential value, 11 studies showed insufficient evidential value, and 1 study showed evidence of p-hacking. Our reevaluation is important, because some researchers may have gained the false impression that none of the quoted articles in Psychological Science can be trusted (as stated by Francis). The analysis by Francis is most likely insufficient to warrant this conclusion for some articles and certainly is insufficient with respect to the study by van Boxtel and Koch (Psychological Science, 23, 410-418, 2012).

  12. Psychological Implications of Discovery Learning in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Barry A

    1971-01-01

    Describes five aspects of learning as applied to science instruction. Learning readiness, meaningfulness of material, activity and passivity, motivation, and transfer of training are presented in relation to psychological views stated by Ausubel, Bruner, Gagne, Hendrix, Karplus, Piaget, and Suchman. Views given by Gagne and Karplus are considered…

  13. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Joanna E.; Aarts, Alexander A.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Attridge, Peter R.; Attwood, Angela; Axt, Jordan; Babel, Molly; Bahník, Štěpán; Baranski, Erica; Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Bartmess, Elizabeth; Beer, Jennifer; Bell, Raoul; Bentley, Heather; Beyan, Leah; Binion, Grace; Borsboom, Denny; Bosch, Annick; Bosco, Frank A.; Bowman, Sara D.; Brandt, Mark J.; Braswell, Erin; Brohmer, Hilmar; Brown, Benjamin T.; Brown, Kristina; Brüning, Jovita; Calhoun-Sauls, Ann; Callahan, Shannon P.; Chagnon, Elizabeth; Chandler, Jesse; Chartier, Christopher R.; Cheung, Felix; Christopherson, Cody D.; Cillessen, Linda; Clay, Russ; Cleary, Hayley; Cloud, Mark D.; Conn, Michael; Cohoon, Johanna; Columbus, Simon; Cordes, Andreas; Costantini, Giulio; Alvarez, Leslie D Cramblet; Cremata, Ed; Crusius, Jan; DeCoster, Jamie; DeGaetano, Michelle A.; Penna, Nicolás Delia; Den Bezemer, Bobby; Deserno, Marie K.; Devitt, Olivia; Dewitte, Laura; Dobolyi, David G.; Dodson, Geneva T.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Donohue, Ryan; Dore, Rebecca A.; Dorrough, Angela; Dreber, Anna; Dugas, Michelle; Dunn, Elizabeth W.; Easey, Kayleigh; Eboigbe, Sylvia; Eggleston, Casey; Embley, Jo; Epskamp, Sacha; Errington, Timothy M.; Estel, Vivien; Farach, Frank J.; Feather, Jenelle; Fedor, Anna; Fernández-Castilla, Belén; Fiedler, Susann; Field, James G.; Fitneva, Stanka A.; Flagan, Taru; Forest, Amanda L.; Forsell, Eskil; Foster, Joshua D.; Frank, Michael C.; Frazier, Rebecca S.; Fuchs, Heather; Gable, Philip; Galak, Jeff; Galliani, Elisa Maria; Gampa, Anup; Garcia, Sara; Gazarian, Douglas; Gilbert, Elizabeth; Giner-Sorolla, Roger; Glöckner, Andreas; Goellner, Lars; Goh, Jin X.; Goldberg, Rebecca; Goodbourn, Patrick T.; Gordon-McKeon, Shauna; Gorges, Bryan; Gorges, Jessie; Goss, Justin; Graham, Jesse; Grange, James A.; Gray, Jeremy; Hartgerink, Chris; Hartshorne, Joshua; Hasselman, Fred; Hayes, Timothy; Heikensten, Emma; Henninger, Felix; Hodsoll, John; Holubar, Taylor; Hoogendoorn, Gea; Humphries, Denise J.; Hung, Cathy O Y; Immelman, Nathali; Irsik, Vanessa C.; Jahn, Georg; Jäkel, Frank; Jekel, Marc; Johannesson, Magnus; Johnson, Larissa G.; Johnson, David J.; Johnson, Kate M.; Johnston, William J.; Jonas, Kai; Joy-Gaba, Jennifer A.; Kappes, Heather Barry; Kelso, Kim; Kidwell, Mallory C.; Kim, Seung Kyung; Kirkhart, Matthew; Kleinberg, Bennett; Knežević, Goran; Kolorz, Franziska Maria; Kossakowski, Jolanda J.; Krause, Robert Wilhelm; Krijnen, Job; Kuhlmann, Tim; Kunkels, Yoram K.; Kyc, Megan M.; Lai, Calvin K.; Laique, Aamir; Lakens, Daniël|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298811855; Lane, Kristin A.; Lassetter, Bethany; Lazarević, Ljiljana B.; Le Bel, Etienne P.; Lee, Key Jung; Lee, Minha; Lemm, Kristi; Levitan, Carmel A.; Lewis, Melissa; Lin, Lin; Lin, Stephanie; Lippold, Matthias; Loureiro, Darren; Luteijn, Ilse; MacKinnon, Sean; Mainard, Heather N.; Marigold, Denise C.; Martin, Daniel P.; Martinez, Tylar; Masicampo, E. J.; Matacotta, Josh; Mathur, Maya; May, Michael; Mechin, Nicole; Mehta, Pranjal; Meixner, Johannes; Melinger, Alissa; Miller, Jeremy K.; Miller, Mallorie; Moore, Katherine; Möschl, Marcus; Motyl, Matt; Müller, Stephanie M.; Munafo, Marcus; Neijenhuijs, Koen I.; Nervi, Taylor; Nicolas, Gandalf; Nilsonne, Gustav; Nosek, Brian A.; Nuijten, Michèle B.; Olsson, Catherine; Osborne, Colleen; Ostkamp, Lutz; Pavel, Misha; Penton-Voak, Ian S.; Perna, Olivia; Pernet, Cyril; Perugini, Marco; Pipitone, R. Nathan; Pitts, Michael; Plessow, Franziska; Prenoveau, Jason M.; Rahal, Rima Maria; Ratliff, Kate A.; Reinhard, David; Renkewitz, Frank; Ricker, Ashley A.; Rigney, Anastasia; Rivers, Andrew M.; Roebke, Mark; Rutchick, Abraham M.; Ryan, Robert S.; Sahin, Onur; Saide, Anondah; Sandstrom, Gillian M.; Santos, David; Saxe, Rebecca; Schlegelmilch, René; Schmidt, Kathleen; Scholz, Sabine; Seibel, Larissa; Selterman, Dylan Faulkner; Shaki, Samuel; Simpson, William B.; Sinclair, H. Colleen; Skorinko, Jeanine L M; Slowik, Agnieszka; Snyder, Joel S.; Soderberg, Courtney; Sonnleitner, Carina; Spencer, Nick; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Steegen, Sara; Stieger, Stefan; Strohminger, Nina; Sullivan, Gavin B.; Talhelm, Thomas; Tapia, Megan; Te Dorsthorst, Anniek; Thomae, Manuela; Thomas, Sarah L.; Tio, Pia; Traets, Frits; Tsang, Steve; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Turchan, Paul; Valášek, Milan; Van't Veer, Anna E.; Van Aert, Robbie; Van Assen, Marcel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/407629971; Van Bork, Riet; Van De Ven, Mathijs; Van Den Bergh, Don; Van Der Hulst, Marije; Van Dooren, Roel; Van Doorn, Johnny; Van Renswoude, Daan R.; Van Rijn, Hedderik; Vanpaemel, Wolf; Echeverría, Alejandro Vásquez; Vazquez, Melissa; Velez, Natalia; Vermue, Marieke; Verschoor, Mark; Vianello, Michelangelo; Voracek, Martin; Vuu, Gina; Wagenmakers, Eric Jan; Weerdmeester, Joanneke; Welsh, Ashlee; Westgate, Erin C.; Wissink, Joeri; Wood, Michael; Woods, Andy; Wright, Emily; Wu, Sining; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Zuni, Kellylynn

    2015-01-01

    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available.

  14. Sociology as a Vocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Frank J.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the meaning of practicing sociology, claiming to "commit a social science" still makes sense. Accepts Max Weber's arguments that sociology clarifies human affairs and is oriented to certain virtues. Suggests, however, that sociology is a passion as well as a profession, something Weber recognized but did not elaborate. (NL)

  15. Rhetoric of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. Allen

    1991-01-01

    Places rhetoric of science in context with sociology, psychology, history, and philosophy of science. Generates a typology of concerns for rhetoric of science. Characterizes the central issues of the field. (RS)

  16. APPLICATION OF THE BATTERY OF TESTS IN EVALUATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL, SOCIOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOMOTOR STATUS OF THE WATER POLO PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A huge international success of the Montenegrin national water polo team incre- ased the interest rate for this sport among the young people in our country. Announced construction of at least five pools in Podgorica, as well as reconstruction of already exi- sting ones in Niksic and some of the coastal cities will offer a new perspective for the de- velopment of this sport in Montenegro. Water Polo World League Super Final which is, according to announcements, to be held at the pools in Podgorica will probably enhance the interest in this sport even more. Due to the reasons mentioned above, the intensifying of the expert selection is more popular than ever. This paper lists some of the tests for the evaluation of psychological, sociological and anthropomotor status of younger age categories that are adequate in the process of systematic selection for doing water polo

  17. The sociology of big science | Public Lecture by Ulrike Felt | 15 July

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    "The sociology of big science" Public Lecture by Prof. Ulrike Felt Tuesday 15 July 2014 - 7.30 p.m. Globe of Science and Innovation Lecture in English, translated in French. Entrance free. Limited number of seats. Reservation essential: +41 22 767 76 76 or cern.reception@cern.ch What science for what kind of society? Reflecting the development of big science Without any doubt, CERN can be described as being among the most ambitious scientific enterprises ever undertaken. For 60 years, the Member States have not only invested considerable financial means into this institution, but have also supported the creation of a highly visionary research programme. And this has led to a change in the way science is done, as captured by the idea of "big science". Yet this naturally also raises a number of quite fundamental questions: How did the meaning of "doing science" change? What justifies societal engagement with and support for such a cost-intensive long-t...

  18. Modern psychological science to sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem I. Kovalev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In April 2015 the 7th All-Russian Festival of Student Sport took place. It was established seven years ago by the decision of the Academician V.A. Sadovnichy, rector of Lomonosov Moscow State University. This year the sports festival has embraced more than two hundreds of higher education institutions of the Russian Federation. A variety of sporting events with the participation of undergraduate and graduate students, performances by famous athletes, delivery standards and other sport events allowed to attract both participants and spectators of all ages, professional sports facilities and the degree of preparedness. A distinctive feature of the Festival’2015 was the fact of timing the celebration of the 70th anniversary of Victory in the 1941-1945Great Patriotic War in Russia. As a result, the program of the festival in addition to traditional sports and competitive events also includes sports and patriotic elements, i.e. trips to places of military glory, lectures and discussion clubs devoted to the development of sport and athletes during the war. Another innovation this year was held in the framework of the festival of scientific-practical conference “Fundamental science – sport”. The interdisciplinary nature of the conference allowed to unite representatives of different areas of knowledge, e.g. psychologists, biologists, doctors, philosophers and educators. The wide coverage of the audience and the speakers allowed to hold the conference in the format of online video simultaneously with the Tomsk State University, St. Petersburg State University, Southern Federal University and Perm State Humanitarian Teacher-Training University. To emphasize the importance of both fundamental and practical research, the conference was divided into two parts: the plenary session which highlighted the important methodological issues of interaction between science and sport, and the youth section of the conference that included reports on the

  19. College Student Perceptions of Psychology as a Science as a Function of Psychology Course Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Pettijohn, Terry F.; Brenneman, Miranda M.; Glass, Jamie N.; Brito, Gabriela R.; Terranova, Andrew M.; Kim, JongHan; Meyersburg, C. A.; Piroch, Joan

    2015-01-01

    College students (N = 297) completed a perceptions of psychology as a science survey before and after completion of psychology courses. Psychology as a science scores increased significantly from the beginning to the end of the research methods courses, but scores in introductory psychology courses did not change and scores for students in…

  20. Sociology of scientific knowledge and science education part 2: Laboratory life under the microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Peter

    1994-10-01

    This article is the second of two that examine some of the claims of contemporary sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) and the bearing of these claims upon the rationale and practice of science teaching. In the present article the celebrated work Laboratory Life of Latour and Woolgar is critically examined. Its radical, iconoclastic view of science is shown to be not merely without foundation but an extravagant deconstructionist nihilism according to which all science is fiction and the world is said to be socially constructed by negotiation. On this view, the success of a theory is not due to its intellectual merits or explanatory plausibility but to the capacity of its proponents to “extract compliance” from others. If warranted, such views pose a revolutionary challenge to the entire Western tradition of science and the goals of science education which must be misguided and unrealizable in principle. Fortunately, there is little reason to take these views seriously, though their widespread popularity is cause for concern among science educators.

  1. A Website System for Communicating Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed

    2017-07-01

    The peer review and journal system have shortcomings, and both computers and the Internet have made complementary or alternative systems attractive. In this article, I recommend that we implement a new platform for open communication of psychological science on a dedicated website to complement the current review and journal system, with reader reviews of the articles and with all behavioral scientists being eligible to publish and review articles. The judged merit of articles would be based on the citations and the ratings of the work by the whole scientific community. This online journal will be quicker, more democratic, and more informative than the current system. Although the details of the system should be debated and formulated by a committee of scientists, adding this online journal to the existing publications of a society such as the Association for Psychological Science has few risks and many possible gains. An online journal deserves to be tried and assessed.

  2. Technology and Science in Classroom and Interview Talk with Swiss Lower Secondary School Students: A Marxist Sociological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2013-01-01

    In much of science education research, the content of talk tends to be attributed to the persons who produce the sound-words in a speech situation. A radically different, sociological perspective on language-in-use grounded in Marxism derives from the work of L. S. Vygotsky and the members of the circle around M. M. Bakhtin. Accordingly, each word…

  3. Syringe sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitellone, Nicole

    2015-06-01

    In this article I consider the impact of social epistemologies for understanding the object of the syringe. My aim is to examine the process through which the syringe transforms from an injecting device to a tool of social and political inquiry. Paying particular attention to the uses of Foucault, Becker, Bourdieu, Freud and Latour in empirical studies of injecting heroin use, I examine the sociology of the syringe through the lens of habit and habitus, discourse and deviance, mourning and melancholia, attachment and agencement. In pursuing the theory behind the object my goal is to address a sociological object in the making. In so doing I show how the syringe has been significant for social research, social theory, and sociology. It is the difference the object makes that this article seeks to describe. In tracing the epistemology of the syringe I show how the object is important not just for knowledge of addiction but sociology itself. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  4. Psychological training of German science astronauts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzey, D; Schiewe, A

    1992-07-01

    Although the significance of psychosocial issues of manned space flights has been discussed very often in recent literature, up to now, very few attempts have been made in North-America or Europe to provide astronaut candidates or spacecrew members with some kind of psychological training. As a first attempt in this field, a psychological training program for science astronauts is described, which has been developed by the German Aerospace Research Establishment and performed as part of the mission-independent biomedical training of the German astronauts' team. In contrast to other training concepts, this training program focused not only on skills needed to cope with psychosocial issues regarding long-term stays in space, but also on skills needed to cope with the different demands during the long pre-mission phase. Topics covered in the training were "Communication and Cooperation", "Stress-Management", "Coping with Operational Demands", "Effective Problem Solving in Groups", and "Problem-Oriented Team Supervision".

  5. Local Environmental Grassroots Activism: Contributions from Environmental Psychology, Sociology and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaylov, Nikolay L.; Perkins, Douglas D.

    2015-01-01

    Local environmental grassroots activism is robust and globally ubiquitous despite the ebbs and flows of the general environmental movement. In this review we synthesize social movement, environmental politics, and environmental psychology literatures to answer the following questions: How does the environment emerge as a topic for community action and how a particular environmental discourse (preservation, conservation, public health, Deep Ecology, justice, localism and other responses to modernization and development) becomes dominant? How does a community coalesce around the environmental issue and its particular framing? What is the relationship between local and supralocal (regional, national, global) activism? We contrast “Not in My Back Yard” (NIMBY) activism and environmental liberation and discuss the significance of local knowledge and scale, nature as an issue for activism, place attachment and its disruption, and place-based power inequalities. Environmental psychology contributions to established scholarship on environmental activism are proposed: the components of place attachment are conceptualized in novel ways and a continuous dweller and activist place attachment is elaborated. PMID:25806672

  6. Local environmental grassroots activism: contributions from environmental psychology, sociology and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaylov, Nikolay L; Perkins, Douglas D

    2015-03-23

    Local environmental grassroots activism is robust and globally ubiquitous despite the ebbs and flows of the general environmental movement. In this review we synthesize social movement, environmental politics, and environmental psychology literatures to answer the following questions: How does the environment emerge as a topic for community action and how a particular environmental discourse (preservation, conservation, public health, Deep Ecology, justice, localism and other responses to modernization and development) becomes dominant? How does a community coalesce around the environmental issue and its particular framing? What is the relationship between local and supralocal (regional, national, global) activism? We contrast "Not in My Back Yard" (NIMBY) activism and environmental liberation and discuss the significance of local knowledge and scale, nature as an issue for activism, place attachment and its disruption, and place-based power inequalities. Environmental psychology contributions to established scholarship on environmental activism are proposed: the components of place attachment are conceptualized in novel ways and a continuous dweller and activist place attachment is elaborated.

  7. Toward Psychoinformatics: Computer Science Meets Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Duke, Éilish; Markowetz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The present paper provides insight into an emerging research discipline called Psychoinformatics. In the context of Psychoinformatics, we emphasize the cooperation between the disciplines of psychology and computer science in handling large data sets derived from heavily used devices, such as smartphones or online social network sites, in order to shed light on a large number of psychological traits, including personality and mood. New challenges await psychologists in light of the resulting "Big Data" sets, because classic psychological methods will only in part be able to analyze this data derived from ubiquitous mobile devices, as well as other everyday technologies. As a consequence, psychologists must enrich their scientific methods through the inclusion of methods from informatics. The paper provides a brief review of one area of this research field, dealing mainly with social networks and smartphones. Moreover, we highlight how data derived from Psychoinformatics can be combined in a meaningful way with data from human neuroscience. We close the paper with some observations of areas for future research and problems that require consideration within this new discipline.

  8. An Early Psychology of Science in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. García

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The psychology of science is a field of research emerged in the late 80’s and its basic interest is the study of the conditions determining the rise and development of scientists and researchers. However, in spite of its apparent novelty, it is feasible to find background widely disseminated in the work of previous authors. One of them is R. Ross, who wrote an article in the Paraguayan journal Letras in 1915. Ross argued that geniuses’ production is one of the most valuable potentials to which a nation can aspire and has a relevance degree higher than any kind of wealth. His argument agrees with considerations related to the subjective processes leading creative inspiration, the generation of new ideas and the relations between genius and insanity, a view that fits the ideas of the Italian physician Cesare Lombroso. The article concludes that Ross’ ideas may be identified as a distant background for the psychology of science, although it has not reached a later continuity in the work of other Paraguayan authors. The methodology adopted is both descriptive and critical, with a contextual analysis of the primary sources that are relevant to the problem.

  9. Toward a Psychological Science for a Cultural Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Steven J; Norenzayan, Ara

    2006-09-01

    Humans are a cultural species, and the study of human psychology benefits from attention to cultural influences. Cultural psychology's contributions to psychological science can largely be divided according to the two different stages of scientific inquiry. Stage 1 research seeks cultural differences and establishes the boundaries of psychological phenomena. Stage 2 research seeks underlying mechanisms of those cultural differences. The literatures regarding these two distinct stages are reviewed, and various methods for conducting Stage 2 research are discussed. The implications of culture-blind and multicultural psychologies for society and intergroup relations are also discussed. © 2006 Association for Psychological Science.

  10. Perspectives on Psychological Science: Right Way/Wrong Way Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnar, Megan R

    2017-07-01

    In unpredictable times, it is perhaps even more important to contemplate the direction different fields of science are headed. In this article, I contemplate two directions of psychological science: the increasing integration of the study of psychology with other sciences and the concern of many sciences, including ours, with improving the reproducibility of our findings. Both of these are argued to be "right ways," but these directions also have challenges that, unless carefully addressed, could detract from our ability to move the science of psychology forward. I detail these challenges along with a consideration of how to chart our science through the unpredictable waters we face at this point in history.

  11. Sociology of the Sciences Yearbook Conference : "What is International in Science?"

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Terry; Sörlin, Sverker; Denationalizing science : the contexts of international scientific practice

    1993-01-01

    Present trends indicate that in the years to come transnational science, whether basic or applied and involving persons, equipment or funding, will grow considerably. The main purpose of this volume is to try to understand the reasons for this denationalization of science, its historical contexts and its social forms. The Introduction to the volume sets out the socio-political, intellectual, and economic contexts for the nationalization and denationalization of the sciences, processes that have extended over four centuries. The articles examine the specific conditions that have given rise to the growth of transnational science in the 20th century. Among these are: the need for cognitive and technical standardization of scientific knowledge-products, pressure toward cost-sharing of large installations such as CERN, the voluntary and involuntary migration of scientists, and the global market for R&D products that has emerged at the end of the century. The volume raises many new questions for research by his...

  12. Towards a Cultural Psychology of Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marco Carre Benzi, David

    The present thesis is an enquiry about two distinct but complementary issues: the personal dimension of scientific activity, and the influential role that economists have had during the last decades in Chile. Regarding the former, this work complements existing philosophical, social, and psycholo......The present thesis is an enquiry about two distinct but complementary issues: the personal dimension of scientific activity, and the influential role that economists have had during the last decades in Chile. Regarding the former, this work complements existing philosophical, social......, and psychological studies of science with a cultural psychology perspective. This perspective aims to be sensitive to the personal nature of the scientific activity but also to the cultural conditions in which scientific knowledge is constructed, without subsuming any of these dimensions into the other. At the same...... time, this work offers a novel perspective on the notorious role that economists have had in contemporary Chilean society, a topic that has been mostly addressed as exclusively social and institutional. By focusing on economists’ experiences and views, this thesis shows that, while inserted...

  13. School Psychology Research: Combining Ecological Theory and Prevention Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    The current article comments on the importance of theoretical implications within school psychological research, and proposes that ecological theory and prevention science could provide the conceptual framework for school psychology research and practice. Articles published in "School Psychology Review" should at least discuss potential…

  14. Sociological Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Charles; Middleton, Mike

    This monograph examines sociological perspectives and their applications. It is intended to help the college student coming to sociology for the first time to recognize that there are several perspectives within sociology and to disentangle the mass of terms associated with each. The first distinctive sociological perspective came from the work of…

  15. L'idée de `science sociales' | Mbembe | African Sociological Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (1999) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Kierkegaard and psychology as the science of the "multifarious life".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the actuality of some considerations around psychology made by the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855). According to him psychology is about the "multifarious" life, which is a term that pinpoints the challenges psychology still have when it comes to including changes and genetic perspectives on its understanding of actual living. Yet Kierkegaard discusses psychology in relationship to metaphysics, which is an almost forgotten perspective. His understanding opens up for narrowing the definition of psychology down to the science of subjectivity, which at the same time elevates psychology to being the only science that focuses on the actual human life. Yet Kierkegaard's most important contribution to psychology is to maintain a radical distinction between subjectivity and objectivity, and in this respect the psychology of today is challenged.

  17. Let's consider 'structural disaster' lying behind the Fukushima nuclear accident. From the viewpoint of sociology of science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Miwao

    2015-01-01

    As for the relationship between 'science and technology' and society, a huge gap exists between the question and expectation toward sociology given by ordinary people and the actual state of sociology. Sociology of science tries to provide a platform for transforming this kind of situation. What is currently talked about the Fukushima nuclear accident would be required to be revised according to the revealed fact in the future. Although there is such a limitation, what should be done at present is described from the viewpoint of sociology of science. The structure disaster is taken up from the viewpoint for not alienating the Fukushima accident, and the following five characteristics are involved in a complex manner. (1) To preserve precedent problems even if the precedents are wrong. (2) The complexity and mutual dependency of system amplify problems. (3) The informal norms of small groups hollow the official norms over a long term. (4) Stopgap measures based on ad hock presumption proliferate in face of measures against problems. (5) The secrecy principle obscures the whereabouts of responsibility throughout sectors. As for the way to operate SPEEDI (system for prediction of environmental emergency dose information) immediately after the Fukushima accident, this paper discusses the ideal way of responsibility attribution in consideration of the implication of structural disaster. In order not to invite such social conditions again as causing a serious accident due to the easy belief of unsafe conditions as safe, it is essential to create a mechanism that everyone publicly shares the issues associated with unlimited liability by means of the re-designing of the system. (A.O.)

  18. Just truth? Carefully applying history, philosophy and sociology of science to the forensic use of CCTV images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmond, Gary

    2013-03-01

    Using as a case study the forensic comparison of images for purposes of identification, this essay considers how the history, philosophy and sociology of science might help courts to improve their responses to scientific and technical forms of expert opinion evidence in ways that are more consistent with legal system goals and values. It places an emphasis on the need for more sophisticated models of science and expertise that are capable of helping judges to identify sufficiently reliable types of expert evidence and to reflexively incorporate the weakness of trial safeguards and personnel into their admissibility decision making. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Technology and science in classroom and interview talk with Swiss lower secondary school students: a Marxist sociological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2013-06-01

    In much of science education research, the content of talk tends to be attributed to the persons who produce the sound-words in a speech situation. A radically different, sociological perspective on language-in-use grounded in Marxism derives from the work of L. S. Vygotsky and the members of the circle around M. M. Bakhtin. Accordingly, each word belongs to speaker and recipient simultaneously. It represents collective consciousness and, therefore, shared ideology, which can no longer be attributed to the individual. The purpose of this study is to develop a sociological perspective on language in science education, a perspective in which language continuously changes. I articulate this position in the context of classroom and interview talk with 14-year-old Swiss non-academically streamed lower secondary students about technology and science. In this context, science classrooms and interviews are shown to be microcosms of Swiss (German) culture and society reproduced in and through the situated talk about science and technology.

  20. Psychology as science and as discipline: the case of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundlach, Horst

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the history of psychology in Germany. It directs attention to the salient role played by examination regulations in the development of psychology. To highlight this, the term "discipline" is employed not as a synonym of "science" but according to its original meaning, as denoting a social entity consisting of teachers, disciples, more or less canonised subject matters, examinations, and resulting changes of the social status of the examinee. In the early nineteenth century a succession of state rescripts and regulations introduced to university curricula an examination subject named psychology, thereby making psychology an obligatory subject of university lectures, and creating a discipline of psychology next to the science of psychology. The two were far from being identical. This situation, thus far neglected in historiography, profoundly influenced the further development of psychology in Germany.

  1. Consumer Psychology: Not necessarily a manipulative science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølander, Folke

    1990-01-01

    Although definitions and discussion of disciplinary borderlines are tedious and often not that useful, it has to be mentioned that in this paper, a distinction is made between consumer psychology and economic psychology, with the former regarded as a subfield of the latter. Traditionally, economic...... psychology has indeed to a large extent been identified with consumer behavior research (for an account of the historical development of economic psychology, see Wärneryd, 1988). But what most writers seem to agree about today is to regard not only consumer behavior proper, but also the way individuals...... of worker/producer as in the role of consumer. Thus, although such phenomena are undoubtedly relevant topics of economic psychology, it seems appropriate to restict the term consumer psychology, as a subfield of economic psychology, to studies of the determinants and impacts of (a) saving/spending patterns...

  2. Consumer Psychology: Not necessarily a manipulative science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølander, Folke

    1990-01-01

    psychology has indeed to a large extent been identified with consumer behavior research (for an account of the historical development of economic psychology, see Wärneryd, 1988). But what most writers seem to agree about today is to regard not only consumer behavior proper, but also the way individuals......Although definitions and discussion of disciplinary borderlines are tedious and often not that useful, it has to be mentioned that in this paper, a distinction is made between consumer psychology and economic psychology, with the former regarded as a subfield of the latter. Traditionally, economic...... of worker/producer as in the role of consumer. Thus, although such phenomena are undoubtedly relevant topics of economic psychology, it seems appropriate to restict the term consumer psychology, as a subfield of economic psychology, to studies of the determinants and impacts of (a) saving/spending patterns...

  3. Who is to Blame on July 22, 2011? Psychological and Sociological Blame Frames in the Reporting of Anders Breivik in the Dutch Speaking Broadsheet Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mertens Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On July 22, 2011 Anders Breivik murdered a large amount of people in Norway. In this study we investigate a sample of articles that were published about Breivik and his deeds in the Flemish and Dutch press. We will investigate these articles looking for the so-called “attribution of responsibility frame.” The murders from Breivik could be explained psychologically (“he is insane” as well as sociologically (far-right political parties are responsible because of having spread hate speech. We present a typology of subtypes of frames. We will furthermore investigate how many times these types of frames occur in different media outlets.

  4. The Psychology of Simonton's Science: Commentary on Simonton (2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Gregory J

    2009-09-01

    One key assumption of the psychology of science is that psychological factors make certain interests, talents, and abilities more likely and others less likely (Feist, 2006). The line of argument that Simonton (2009, this issue) puts forth-integrating and uniting the meta-literatures on dispositional and developmental influences on scientific and artistic creativity-is not only consistent with this assumption from the psychology of science, but it is also a breeding ground for a host of testable hypotheses and calls for future empirical investigations. Given Simonton's own extraordinary levels of scientific creativity, indeed it would be interesting to turn his ideas back on him to see how his science is a product of his own developmental and dispositional experiences. We'll leave that, however, for future biographers and psychologists of science. © 2009 Association for Psychological Science.

  5. Public Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    by the media? Does the choice of public sociology mean the relinquishment of scientific integrity and critical conviction? These questions will also be addressed in this book - together with a host of others related to the topic of public sociology.   The chapters included in this book are all manuscripts......What is the role of sociology in society? How can - and should - sociology contribute with insights relevant and useful to the outside world? Is sociology attuned to accommodate the demands of the wider public and of surrounding society? Who benefits from the knowledge produced and provided...... by sociology? What are the social implications and cultural effects of the knowledge sociology provides and creates? All of these questions, and many others, concern and centre on sociology's relationship to the surrounding society, in short to the ‘public'. All of these questions - and many others...

  6. Science, a Psychological versus a Logical Approach in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2015-01-01

    Under which approach do pupils attain more optimally, a logical versus a psychological procedure of instruction? Pupils do need to achieve well in a world of science. Science is all around us and pupils need to understand various principles and laws of science. Thus, teachers in the school curriculum must choose carefully objectives for pupil…

  7. Reflexivity and the Sociology of Science and Technology: The Invention of "Eryc" the Antibiotic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Fran

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, the social-technical process of invention has fallen between sociological investigation of the genesis of a new idea (an ideational phenomenon) and the production of a new technology (a material phenomenon). The advent of post-modernism and post-structuralism offered new avenues for theorising invention, accounting for, on the one…

  8. Neo-Pluralist Political Science, Economic Sociology and the Conceptual Foundations of the Comparative Capitalisms Literatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruff, Ian; Hartmann, Eva

    2014-01-01

    the strengths of neo-pluralism and economic sociology – their attention to detail in considering the huge range of ‘types’ of capitalism that exist across the world – come at a high price. Put briefly, the redefinition of ‘capitalism’ as ‘the economy’ concentrates research agendas on the specific political...

  9. The opposition to nuclear energy: spychology, sociology, ethnology and psychoanalysis: four convergent approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timbal-Duclaux, Louis

    1979-01-01

    After tracing the psychological and social history of nuclear energy, the author analyzes the diverse approaches used by the social sciences to study the psychosocial repercussions of nuclear achievement. Psychology, sociology, ethnology and psychoanalysis, the four approaches cited, are complementary, not exclusive [fr

  10. Methodology of 'The Sociology of Science' through analysis of nuclear power plant accidents. Social practice activity in 13 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Kiyoshi

    2002-01-01

    The technology of light water reactor will continue as a realistic energy technology for about half century at least from now on. The social agreement is necessary to continue nuclear power generation. Nuclear community must renew the conventional thought partially and have to approach the thought close to the value judgment in another social coordinate. 'The Sociology of Science' on the atomic energy shall be such contents that be able to contribute to the unify or to attaches both coordinates as near as possible. (author)

  11. Decolonizing Psychological Science: Introduction to the Special Thematic Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Adams

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite unprecedented access to information and diffusion of knowledge across the globe, the bulk of work in mainstream psychological science still reflects and promotes the interests of a privileged minority of people in affluent centers of the modern global order. Compared to other social science disciplines, there are few critical voices who reflect on the Euro-American colonial character of psychological science, particularly its relationship to ongoing processes of domination that facilitate growth for a privileged minority but undermine sustainability for the global majority. Moved by mounting concerns about ongoing forms of multiple oppression (including racialized violence, economic injustice, unsustainable over-development, and ecological damage, we proposed a special thematic section and issued a call for papers devoted to the topic of "decolonizing psychological science". In this introduction to the special section, we first discuss two perspectives—liberation psychology and cultural psychology—that have informed our approach to the topic. We then discuss manifestations of coloniality in psychological science and describe three approaches to decolonization—indigenization, accompaniment, and denaturalization—that emerge from contributions to the special section. We conclude with an invitation to readers to submit their own original contributions to an ongoing effort to create an online collection of digitally linked articles on the topic of decolonizing psychological science.

  12. Phenomenological approaches in psychology and health sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, A.

    2013-01-01

    and Critical Narrative Analysis, methods which are theoretically founded in phenomenology. This methodological development and the inevitable contribution of interpretation are illustrated by a case from my own research about psychological interventions and the process of understanding in general practice....

  13. Perceptions of psychology as a science among university students: the influence of psychology courses and major of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Jared M; Hinds, Ryan M; Glass, Laura A; Ryan, Joseph J

    2009-10-01

    The goal was to examine the relationship between the number of psychology courses students have taken and their perceptions of psychology as a science. Additionally, differences in perceptions of psychology among psychology, education, and natural science majors were examined. Results indicated that students who had taken four or more psychology courses had more favorable perceptions of psychology as a science compared to those who had taken no courses or one course and those who had taken two to three courses. No significant differences in overall perceptions of psychology emerged among students in the three majors.

  14. History, Philosophy and Sociology of Science in Science Education: Results from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsingchi A.; Sshmidt, William H.

    Throughout the history of enhancing the public scientific literacy, researchers have postulated that since every citizen is expected to have informal opinions on the relationships among government, education, and issues of scientific research and development, it is imperative that appreciation of the past complexities of science and society and the nature of scientific knowledge be a part of the education of both scientists and non-scientists. HPSS inclusion has been found to be an effective way to reach the goal of enhancing science literacy for all citizens. Although reports stated that HPSS inclusion is not a new educational practice in other part of the world, nevertheless, no large scale study has ever been attempted to report the HPSS educational conditions around the world. This study utilizes the rich data collected by TIMSS to unveil the current conditions of HPSS in the science education of about forty TIMSS countries. Based on the analysis results, recommendations to science educators of the world are provided.

  15. Inter-level relations in computer science, biology, and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, F.; Bruggeman, F.; Jonker, C.M.; Looren de Jong, H.; Tamminga, A.; Treur, J.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigations into inter-level relations in computer science, biology and psychology call for an empirical turn in the philosophy of mind. Rather than concentrate on a priori discussions of inter-level relations between 'completed' sciences, a case is made for the actual study of the way

  16. Inter-level relations in computer science, biology and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, F.C.; Bruggeman, F.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Looren De Jong, H.; Tamminga, A.M.; Treur, J.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigations into inter-level relations in computer science, biology and psychology call for an empirical turn in the philosophy of mind. Rather than concentrate on a priori discussions of inter-level relations between "completed" sciences, a case is made for the actual study of the way

  17. Inter-level relations in computer science, biology, and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, Fred; Bruggeman, Frank; Jonker, Catholijn; Looren de Jong, Huib; Tamminga, Allard; Treur, Jan; Westerhoff, Hans; Wijngaards, Wouter

    2002-01-01

    Investigations into inter-level relations in computer science, biology and psychology call for an *empirical* turn in the philosophy of mind. Rather than concentrate on *a priori* discussions of inter-level relations between “completed” sciences, a case is made for the actual study of the way

  18. Psychological Challenges Confronting Women in the Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Ruth

    1979-01-01

    A woman psychiatrist points out the internal psychological challenges that threaten to undermine a woman's effectiveness to fight for her rights because of inner fears of which she may not be aware. Four intrapsychic conflicts of women scientists are discussed, described briefly, and illustrated by specific case examples. (Author/MK)

  19. Jung's "Psychology with the Psyche" and the Behavioral Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Raya A

    2013-09-01

    The behavioral sciences and Jung's analytical psychology are set apart by virtue of their respective histories, epistemologies, and definitions of subject matter. This brief paper identifies Jung's scientific stance, notes perceptions of Jung and obstacles for bringing his system of thought into the fold of the behavioral sciences. The impact of the "science versus art" debate on Jung's stance is considered with attention to its unfolding in the fin de siècle era.

  20. A POINT OF VIEW ON PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AUGUSTO PÉREZ GÓMEZ

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with two questions: Is Psychology a profession? Is Psychology a science? The answerto the first one is that it should not be a profession; to the second, that we are still far from becoming ascience. On the basis of 19 statements, a series of queries and doubts on the scientific status of contemporaryPsychology are suggested. It is proposed that Psychology must necessarily consider neurosciencesand ethology as sources of knowledge; that philosophical reflection allowing conceptual definitionsmust be a priority; that the abusive glorification of experimental method has to come to an end becausethe tool cannot solve the conceptual difficulties; that the traditional emphasis on the factual dimension ofresearch and the minute attention to the theoretical and conceptual dimensions are detrimental to Psychology;and that it is urgent to create new research methods allowing access to the most refined forms ofhuman behavior, such as art.

  1. The Practice of Psychological Science: Searching for Cronbach's Two Streams in Social-Personality Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy, JL; Robins, RW; Sherman, JW

    2009-01-01

    The present research surveyed a group of editors and editorial board members of personality and social psychology journals to examine the practice of psychological science in their field. Findings demonstrate that (a) although personality and social researchers tend to use many of the same approaches, methods, and procedures, they nonetheless show average differences in each of these domains, as well as in their overarching theoretical aims and perspectives; (b) these average differences larg...

  2. The fruits of a functional approach for psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ian

    2016-02-01

    The current paper introduces relational frame theory (RFT) as a functional contextual approach to complex human behaviour and examines how this theory has contributed to our understanding of several key phenomena in psychological science. I will first briefly outline the philosophical foundation of RFT and then examine its conceptual basis and core concepts. Thereafter, I provide an overview of the empirical findings and applications that RFT has stimulated in a number of key domains such as language development, linguistic generativity, rule-following, analogical reasoning, intelligence, theory of mind, psychopathology and implicit cognition. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  3. Social Climate Science: A New Vista for Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Adam R; Schuldt, Jonathon P; Romero-Canyas, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    The recent Paris Agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions, adopted by 195 nations at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, signaled unprecedented commitment by world leaders to address the human social aspects of climate change. Indeed, climate change increasingly is recognized by scientists and policymakers as a social issue requiring social solutions. However, whereas psychological research on intrapersonal and some group-level processes (e.g., political polarization of climate beliefs) has flourished, research into other social processes-such as an understanding of how nonpartisan social identities, cultural ideologies, and group hierarchies shape public engagement on climate change-has received substantially less attention. In this article, we take stock of current psychological approaches to the study of climate change to explore what is "social" about climate change from the perspective of psychology. Drawing from current interdisciplinary perspectives and emerging empirical findings within psychology, we identify four distinct features of climate change and three sets of psychological processes evoked by these features that are fundamentally social and shape both individual and group responses to climate change. Finally, we consider how a more nuanced understanding of the social underpinnings of climate change can stimulate new questions and advance theory within psychology. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Using a Social Science--Fictional Play to Teach about Global Capitalism and Macro-Structural Systems in Introduction to Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelak, Cynthia Fabrizio; Duncan, Stacey

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the use of a social science-fictional play to teach macro-structural concepts related to global capitalism and surplus labor in a small and large Introduction to Sociology course. Relying on a cross-disciplinary and critical pedagogical approach that combines theory and practice to empower students to develop a critical…

  5. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology: Marcia K. Johnson

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the…

  6. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Alexander A.; Anderson, Joanna E.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Attridge, Peter R.; Attwood, Angela; Axt, Jordan; Babel, Molly; Bahnik, Stepan; Baranski, Erica; Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Bartmess, Elizabeth; Beer, Jennifer; Bell, Raoul; Bentley, Heather; Beyan, Leah; Binion, Grace; Borsboom, Denny; Bosch, Annick; Bosco, Frank A.; Bowman, Sara D.; Brandt, Mark J.; Braswell, Erin; Brohmer, Hilmar; Brown, Benjamin T.; Brown, Kristina; Bruening, Jovita; Calhoun-Sauls, Ann; Chagnon, Elizabeth; Callahan, Shannon P.; Chandler, Jesse; Chartier, Christopher R.; Cheung, Felix; Cillessen, Linda; Christopherson, Cody D.; Clay, Russ; Cleary, Hayley; Cloud, Mark D.; Cohn, Michael; Cohoon, Johanna; Columbus, Simon; Cordes, Andreas; Costantini, Giulio; Hartgerink, Chris; Krijnen, Job; Nuijten, Michele B.; van 't Veer, Anna E.; Van Aert, Robbie; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Wissink, Joeri; Zeelenberg, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. Scientific claims should not gain credence because of the status or authority of their originator but by the replicability of their supporting evidence. Even research

  7. Increasing Vaccination: Putting Psychological Science Into Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Noel T; Chapman, Gretchen B; Rothman, Alexander J; Leask, Julie; Kempe, Allison

    2017-12-01

    Vaccination is one of the great achievements of the 20th century, yet persistent public-health problems include inadequate, delayed, and unstable vaccination uptake. Psychology offers three general propositions for understanding and intervening to increase uptake where vaccines are available and affordable. The first proposition is that thoughts and feelings can motivate getting vaccinated. Hundreds of studies have shown that risk beliefs and anticipated regret about infectious disease correlate reliably with getting vaccinated; low confidence in vaccine effectiveness and concern about safety correlate reliably with not getting vaccinated. We were surprised to find that few randomized trials have successfully changed what people think and feel about vaccines, and those few that succeeded were minimally effective in increasing uptake. The second proposition is that social processes can motivate getting vaccinated. Substantial research has shown that social norms are associated with vaccination, but few interventions examined whether normative messages increase vaccination uptake. Many experimental studies have relied on hypothetical scenarios to demonstrate that altruism and free riding (i.e., taking advantage of the protection provided by others) can affect intended behavior, but few randomized trials have tested strategies to change social processes to increase vaccination uptake. The third proposition is that interventions can facilitate vaccination directly by leveraging, but not trying to change, what people think and feel. These interventions are by far the most plentiful and effective in the literature. To increase vaccine uptake, these interventions build on existing favorable intentions by facilitating action (through reminders, prompts, and primes) and reducing barriers (through logistics and healthy defaults); these interventions also shape behavior (through incentives, sanctions, and requirements). Although identification of principles for changing

  8. A science of meaning. Can behaviorism bring meaning to psychological science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrandpre, R J

    2000-07-01

    An argument is presented for making meaning a central dependent variable in psychological science. Principles of operant psychology are then interpreted as providing a basic foundation for a science of meaning. The emphasis here is on the generality of basic operant concepts, where learning is a process of meaning making that is governed largely by natural contingencies; reinforcement is an organic process in which environment-behavior relations are selected, defined here as a dialectical process of meaning making; and reinforcers are experiential consequences with acquired, ecologically derived meanings. The author concludes with a call for a more interdisciplinary science of psychology, focusing on the individual in society.

  9. Tales of sociology and the nursing curriculum: revisiting the debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Kay; Law, Kate

    2007-08-01

    . Sociology and the nursing curriculum; editorial. Nurse Education in Practice 4, 81-82; Mowforth, G., Harrison, J., Morris, M., 2005. An investigation into adult nursing students' experience of the relevance and application of behavioural sciences (biology, psychology and sociology) across two different curricula. Nurse Education Today 25, 41-48]. Much attention has been given to the role, utility and value of sociology mostly within pre-registration but also post-registration nursing curricula. Through an initial analysis of a series of letters appearing in The Nursing Times over a 12 week period in 2004, and using an analytical framework of four tales (realist, critical, deconstructive and reflexive) we revisit this relationship. Unlike previous debates our argument is that this relationship is more usefully viewed as emblematic of the legitimation crisis inherent in all modern projects. We argue that in order to move beyond the 'utility' discussion, an interrogation of the knowledge claims of both nursing and sociology is required.

  10. The rise of a science in the early twentieth century: the forgotten voice of Gualtiero Sarfatti and the first "social psychology" volumes in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensales, Gilda; Dal Secco, Alessandra

    2014-02-01

    Establishing social psychology as a distinct field of study has been the object of heated debate over the first decades of the 20th century. Entrenched in different theoretical traditions, such as philosophy, sociology, psychology, and criminology, the development of the conceptual boundaries of social psychology as an autonomous science was the result of a historic effort. Resulting from a negotiation process between competing stances, some voices relevant to the identity construction of social psychology have been lost over time. Within the framework of a "polycentric" historical perspective valorizing local histories, the present study aims to scrutinize those early voices, which were later marginalized. To this scope, we conducted a narrative analysis on the first volumes explicitly naming social psychology in their titles and identified the main themes, conceptual frameworks, and scientific advancements. The analysis illustrates the work of Gualtiero Sarfatti and articulates his forgotten contribution to drawing social psychology as a distinct discipline, built on the scientific method and positioned within the psychological sociocentric tradition. Our analysis reveals the leading role of Sarfatti in the disciplinary foundation of social psychology as a psychological science based on the concept of social psyche. Yet despite the fact his contribution was influential in the scholarly community of his time, our work highlights how his voice vanished from the subsequent disciplinary developments to date, and suggests some explanations behind this neglect.

  11. Christianity's Response to the Discovery of Extraterrestrial Intelligent Life: Insights from Science and Religion and the Sociology of Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertka, Constance M.

    The question of whether or not extraterrestrial life exists and its potential impact for religions, especially Christianity, is an ancient one addressed in numerous historical publications. The contemporary discussion has been dominated by a few notable scientists from the SETI and astrobiology communities, and by a few Christian theologians active in the science and religion field. This discussion amounts to scientists outside of the faith tradition predicting the demise of Christianity if extraterrestrial intelligent life is discovered and theologians within the tradition predicting the enrichment and reformulation of Christian doctrine. Missing from this discussion is insight drawn more broadly from the science and religion field and from the sociology of religion. A consideration of how possibilities for relating science and religion are reflected in the US public's varied acceptance of the theory of evolution; the growth of Christianity in the Global South; and a revised theory of secularization which inversely correlates religiosity to existential security, gives credence to the proposal that the response from those outside of academia would be much more varied and uncertain.

  12. L’IDENTITÉ: DE LA SOCIOLOGIE AUX SCIENCES SOCIALES / LA IDENTIDAD: DE LA SOCIOLOGÍA A LAS CIENCIAS SOCIALES / IDENTITY: FROM SOCIOLOGY TO SOCIAL SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine Alaoui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to explore the notion of identity from different angles: ethnography, sociology, psychology, psychoanalysis, anthropology, geography and urbanism. The aim of this article is not to list the aspects of identity exhaustively, but to give an overview of the main areas that have dealt with territorial identity and propose a typology ranging from personal identity to the territorial identity through the individual and the collective. At the genesis of this paper many questions: What does one mean by identity? What is the relation between identity and territory and can it be a lever of territorial attractiveness? The desire to develop this notion has been spiced up by the sense of urgency manifested by the majority of territories in the continuous search for the valorization of their suffering identity of the”disease" of the century: globalization.

  13. Cultural psychology as a bridge between anthropology and cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryberg, Stephanie A

    2012-07-01

    The theory and methods of cultural psychology begin with the assumption that psychological processes are socioculturally and historically grounded. As such, they offer a new approach for understanding the diversity of human functioning because they (a) question the presumed neutrality of the majority group perspective; (b) take the target's point-of-view (i.e., what it means to be a person in a particular context); (c) assume that there is more than one viable way of being a competent or effective person; and (d) provide a road map for understanding and reducing social inequities. As illustrated in this essay, a cultural psychological approach provides a bridge between anthropology and the cognitive sciences, and in so doing it offers an alternative set of explanations and interventions for group differences. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  14. Psychology, Social Science and the Management of Violent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the salient aspects of an eight – year experience in the Institute for Peace and Conflict Resolution, Abuja – Nigeria, where the author ... matter of psychology and rivalry emanating from subtle competition among sub disciplines of the social science for hegemonic role in conflict management, (b) many of ...

  15. An Alternative to Piagetian Psychology for Science and Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Joseph D.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews the basic precepts of the learning theories of Piaget and Ausubel. Although Piaget is credited for his contributions to educational psychology, the author supports Ausubel's theory of meaningful learning as more significant for future contributions in science and mathematics education. (CP)

  16. Psychological jurisprudence as an interdisciplinary science and the area of psychological practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozdnyakov V. M.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article convincingly demonstrates that Russia is increasingly began to publish monographs lawyers on key legal and psychological phenomena, and in dissertations in the formulation of the provisions on the protection of delatsya criticism of "Westernization" of the state legislation and upheld psychologicaland position. At the same time, critically, it is noted that in the field of legal ideology and policies, and in making innovations in the law still, as in Soviet period, dominated by legal dogma, and psychological realities are taken into account in fragments. The reason for this state of Affairs is that still within the framework of University training and further education of local lawyers, in contrast to international practice, insufficient attention is paid to the development of psychological culture, but in the end no full-fledged dialogue between lawyers and psychologists. Taking into account possibilities of integrative methodology justified the subject of psychological law as an interdisciplinary science and the field of psychological practice focused on the identification of regularities and mechanisms of development of legal awareness and legal existence of various actors in the legal activity aimed at the development of psychologically informed interventions for the improvement of legal ideology and politics, systems of law-making, law enforcement and crime prevention, psycho-technical methods and techniques in activities of law enforcement officials. For constructive development of psychological jurisprudence identified the key areas of research and nodal practicerelevant problems.

  17. The idea of philosophical sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernilo, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    This article introduces the idea of philosophical sociology as an enquiry into the relationships between implicit notions of human nature and explicit conceptualizations of social life within sociology. Philosophical sociology is also an invitation to reflect on the role of the normative in social life by looking at it sociologically and philosophically at the same: normative self-reflection is a fundamental aspect of sociology's scientific tasks because key sociological questions are, in the last instance, also philosophical ones. For the normative to emerge, we need to move away from the reductionism of hedonistic, essentialist or cynical conceptions of human nature and be able to grasp the conceptions of the good life, justice, democracy or freedom whose normative contents depend on more or less articulated conceptions of our shared humanity. The idea of philosophical sociology is then sustained on three main pillars and I use them to structure this article: (1) a revalorization of the relationships between sociology and philosophy; (2) a universalistic principle of humanity that works as a major regulative idea of sociological research, and; (3) an argument on the social (immanent) and pre-social (transcendental) sources of the normative in social life. As invitations to embrace posthuman cyborgs, non-human actants and material cultures proliferate, philosophical sociology offers the reminder that we still have to understand more fully who are the human beings that populate the social world. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  18. Contributions from Sociology of Science to Mathematics Education in Brazil: Logic as a System of Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes de Andrade, Thales Haddad; Vilela, Denise Silva

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, mathematics education was associated with Jean Piaget's theory. Scholars in the field of education appropriated Piaget's work in different ways, but usually emphasized logical aspects of thought, which probably lead to an expansion of mathematics education influenced by psychology. This study attempts to extend the range of…

  19. Distinguishing science from pseudoscience in school psychology: science and scientific thinking as safeguards against human error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Ammirati, Rachel; David, Michal

    2012-02-01

    Like many domains of professional psychology, school psychology continues to struggle with the problem of distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific and otherwise questionable clinical practices. We review evidence for the scientist-practitioner gap in school psychology and provide a user-friendly primer on science and scientific thinking for school psychologists. Specifically, we (a) outline basic principles of scientific thinking, (b) delineate widespread cognitive errors that can contribute to belief in pseudoscientific practices within school psychology and allied professions, (c) provide a list of 10 key warning signs of pseudoscience, illustrated by contemporary examples from school psychology and allied disciplines, and (d) offer 10 user-friendly prescriptions designed to encourage scientific thinking among school psychology practitioners and researchers. We argue that scientific thinking, although fallible, is ultimately school psychologists' best safeguard against a host of errors in thinking. Copyright © 2011 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Can psychology walk the walk of open science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Bradford W

    2018-01-01

    An "open science movement" is gaining traction across many disciplines within the research enterprise but is also precipitating consternation among those who worry that too much disruption may be hampering professional productivity. Despite this disruption, proponents of open data collaboration have argued that some of the biggest problems of the 21st century need to be solved with the help of many people and that data sharing will be the necessary engine to make that happen. In the United States, a national strategic plan for data sharing encouraged the federally funded scientific agencies to (a) publish open data for community use in discoverable, machine-readable, and useful ways; (b) work with public and civil society organizations to set priorities for data to be shared; (c) support innovation and feedback on open data solutions; and (d) continue efforts to release and enhance high-priority data sets funded by taxpayer dollars. One of the more visible open data projects in the psychological sciences is the presidentially announced "Brain Research Through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies" (BRAIN) initiative. Lessons learned from initiatives such as these are instructive both from the perspective of open science within psychology and from the perspective of understanding the psychology of open science. Recommendations for creating better pathways to "walk the walk" in open science include (a) nurturing innovation and agile learning, (b) thinking outside the paradigm, (c) creating simplicity from complexity, and (d) participating in continuous learning evidence platforms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Excess Success for Psychology Articles in the Journal Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory; Tanzman, Jay; Matthews, William J.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a systematic analysis of the relationship between empirical data and theoretical conclusions for a set of experimental psychology articles published in the journal Science between 2005–2012. When the success rate of a set of empirical studies is much higher than would be expected relative to the experiments' reported effects and sample sizes, it suggests that null findings have been suppressed, that the experiments or analyses were inappropriate, or that the theory does not properly follow from the data. The analyses herein indicate such excess success for 83% (15 out of 18) of the articles in Science that report four or more studies and contain sufficient information for the analysis. This result suggests a systematic pattern of excess success among psychology articles in the journal Science. PMID:25474317

  2. The sociology of scientific work the fundamental relationship between science and society

    CERN Document Server

    Vinck, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    More than ever before, science and technology play a significant role in modern society as evidenced by the development of nanotechnologies and the controversies surrounding GMOs and climate change. This book comprehensively explores the flourishing field of science and technology studies and examines its creation, development and interaction with contemporary society. Dominique Vinck examines the various relationships between science and society including the emergence of sciences, the dynamics of innovation and technical democracy. He also investigates the principal social mechanisms of science and technology such as institutions, organizations, exchanges between researchers and the construction of scientific knowledge, expertise and innovation. The book provides a thorough overview of the field and reviews the major theoretical and methodological approaches as well as the current state of research on a range of topics. This original book will strongly appeal to students and researchers in the social scie...

  3. Psychological Science within a Three-Dimensional Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Lars-Gunnar

    2018-03-01

    The present paper outlines the nature of a three-dimensional ontology and the place of psychological science within this ontology, in a way that is partly similar to and partly different from that of Pérez-Álvarez. The first dimension is the material realities, and involves different levels (physical, chemical, biological, psychological, etc.), where each level builds on a lower level but also involves the development of new emergent properties, in accordance with Bunge's emergent materialism. Each level involves systems, with components, structures and mechanisms, and an environment. This dimension can be studied with natural scientific methods. The second dimension is the subjective-experiential realities, and refers to our subjective perspective on the world. In accordance with Husserl's phenomenology, it is argued that this subjectivity does not exist in the world (i.e., should not be reified as an object among other objects), but represents a perspective on the world that we enter in our capacity as conscious human beings. Essential characteristics of this subjectivity (such as intentionality, temporality, embodiment, and intersubjectivity) can be explored by phenomenological methods. The third dimension is the social-constructional realities, and includes social institutions, norms, categories, theories, and techniques. It is argued that psychological science spans over all three dimensions. Although almost all psychological research by necessity starts from a problem formulation where the subjective-experiential dimension plays an essential role (either explicitly or implicitly), most of present-day psychological research clearly emphasizes the material dimension. It is argued that a mature psychological science needs to integrate all three dimensions.

  4. Violence in soccer: a socio-psychological review

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Christiano Barreto Fensterseifer; Nivia Marcia Velho; Mário Luiz C. Barroso

    2005-01-01

    Violence in Soccer has been worrying specialists in Physical Education, Psychology, Sociology, Law and Press for many years. Despite their best efforts to reduce it, violence continues to increase. The purpose of this review study is to verify what the above-mentioned sciences have to say about violence in soccer. The literature suggests that there are two big theories about this problem: an internal and psychological one, and an external and sociological one. Therefore, data analyses suggest...

  5. Sociological and communication-theoretical perspectives on the commercialization of the sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.

    2013-01-01

    Both self-organization and organization are important for the further development of the sciences: the two dynamics condition and enable each other. Commercial and public considerations can interact and "interpenetrate" in historical organization; different codes of communication are then

  6. Evolutionary psychology as a metatheory for the social sciences: How to gather interdisciplinary evidence for a psychological adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, A.; van der Hoort, B.

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology has been proposed as a new metatheory for the social sciences (Buss, 1995). Evolutionary psychology is an approach that emphasizes the evolutionary background of psychological phenomena (e.g., cognition, motivation, perception), with the expectation that knowledge about this

  7. Some Lessons From a Symposium on Cultural Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    In this concluding essay, I summarize some of the main points of each of the contributors and attempt to highlight their importance for psychological science and for everyday life. I bring in some examples of research from my own research group over the years that reinforce many of the conclusions reached by the contributors. The purpose of this symposium on cultural psychological science is, we hope, to teach some lessons that could not easily be learned except through cultural research. My goal in this final essay is to consider what I believe to be a primary lesson of each contribution. I attempt to illustrate the considerable relevance of each of these contributions to contemporary society. The views expressed here are solely my own, and of course readers may find much to disagree with; hopefully, they will find some things to agree with as well!

  8. Laudan's normative naturalism: a useful philosophy of science for psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldi, E J; Proctor, R W

    2000-01-01

    Logical positivism, widely regarded as the received epistemology of psychology in the first half of the 20th century, was supplanted in the 1960s by various postpositivistic, relativistic philosophies of science, most notably that of Kuhn. Recently, Laudan, a major figure in the philosophy of science, developed a novel approach called normative naturalism that provides an alternative to positivism and relativism. His central thesis is that the two are not always on opposite ends of a continuum but rather have many assumptions in common. This article brings Laudan's important views to the attention of psychologists and describes some of the unique implications of these views for the conduct of research and theory in psychology. These implications, which follow from a number of closely reasoned pragmatic arguments, include more realistic and appropriate evaluation of theory and methodology than has been suggested by logical positivism or relativism.

  9. Sociological and Communication-Theoretical Perspectives on the Commercialization of the Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2013-01-01

    Both self-organization and organization are important for the further development of the sciences: the two dynamics condition and enable each other. Commercial and public considerations can interact and "interpenetrate" in historical organization; different codes of communication are then "recombined". However,…

  10. Sociological and Communication-Theoretical Perspectives on the Commercialization of the Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2013-10-01

    Both self-organization and organization are important for the further development of the sciences: the two dynamics condition and enable each other. Commercial and public considerations can interact and "interpenetrate" in historical organization; different codes of communication are then "recombined". However, self-organization in the symbolically generalized codes of communication can be expected to operate at the global level. The Triple Helix model allows for both a neo-institutional appreciation in terms of historical networks of university-industry-government relations and a neo-evolutionary interpretation in terms of three functions: (1) novelty production, (2) wealth generation, and (3) political control. Using this model, one can appreciate both subdynamics. The mutual information in three dimensions enables us to measure the trade-off between organization and self-organization as a possible synergy. The question of optimization between commercial and public interests in the different sciences can thus be made empirical.

  11. Disciplinarity and sport science in Europe: A statistical and sociological study of ECSS conference abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champely, Stéphane; Fargier, Patrick; Camy, Jean

    2017-02-01

    Abstracts of European College of Sports Science conferences (1995-2014) are studied. The number of abstracts has been increasing regularly (+90 per year). This rise is in recent years largely due to extra-European countries. The magnitude and accumulation of the different topics of discussion are examined. An operational criterion determines four stages of evolution of a topic: social network, cluster, specialty, and discipline. The scientific production can, therefore, be classified as disciplinary or non-disciplinary. The disciplinary part is more important but has been less dynamic recently. The cognitive content of sport science is then explored through a multidimensional scaling of the topics based on the keywords used in the abstracts. Three areas are visible: social sciences and humanities, sports medicine and physiology, and biomechanics and neurophysiology. According to the field theory of Bourdieu ( 1975 ), three scientific habitus are distinguished. The logic of academic disciplinary excellence is the consequence of the autonomy of this scientific field, its closure, peer-review process, and barriers to entry. The distribution of scientific capital and professional capital is unequal across the three areas. Basically, conservation strategies of academic disciplinary excellence are predicted in biomechanics and neurophysiology, subversion strategies of interdisciplinarity based on professional concerns can appear in the sports medicine and physiology area, and critical strategies of interdisciplinarity based on social utility in social sciences and humanities. Moreover, additional tensions within these areas are depicted. Lastly methods based on co-citations of disciplines and boundary objects are proposed to find tangible patterns of multidisciplinarity confirming these strategies.

  12. Another sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carleheden, Mikael

    1998-01-01

    contributing dianostics of the social pathologies of the modern state. Such an approach can find inspiration in classical sociology, but it is also important to realize that, today, we are living in another modernity. A liberation from social technology must thus include a liberation from objectivistic methods....

  13. On the Knowledge-sociological Problems in using Philosophy of Science Methods to solve Transdisciplinary Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    in information science. Suddenly there was research money to upgrade your position by making a PhD I was looking for a supervisor. But who would support such a project falling outside all professional areas and without any formal PhD study and any economic compensation for the work? Andur of course. We had deep....... After a couple of years I managed to finish and a year after it was published as a book. "Information er sølv ...: om muligheden for en pragmatisk informationsteori baseret på anden ordens kybernetik, semiotik og sprogspilsteori" Forlaget Biblioteksarbejde 1994. It saved my possibility of having...

  14. The Evolution of Psychology as a Basic Bio-behavioral Science in Healthcare Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, John E

    2017-12-01

    For over a century, researchers and educators have called for the integration of psychological science into medical school curricula, but such efforts have been impeded by barriers within medicine and psychology. In addressing these barriers, Psychology has re-examined its relationship to Medicine, incorporated psychological practices into health care, and redefined its parameters as a science. In response to interdisciplinary research into the mechanisms of bio-behavioral interaction, Psychology evolved from an ancillary social science to a bio-behavioral science that is fundamental to medicine and health care. However, in recent medical school curriculum innovations, psychological science is being reduced to a set of "clinical skills," and once again viewed as an ancillary social science. These developments warrant concern and consideration of new approaches to integrating psychological science in medical education.

  15. Conference Essay: Interiors and Exteriors in Discourse Analysis and the Sociology of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Fein

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The following report summarizes the discussions and a number of the central substantive points put forward by the participants of the Franco-German workshop—held in Paris during the summer of 2005—on recent developments and future perspectives of discourse related research in France and Germany. Discourse analysis in France can be traced back to structuralist theorizing as it has developed inside linguistics since SAUSSURE and further elaborated by theorists such as FOUCAULT, DERRIDA, ALTHUSSER and LACAN. Currently, the field is characterized by well established linguistic research networks and methodologies. Discourse analysis in Germany, in contrast, gained academic status only in the 1990s, and this was the case mainly in social science disciplines. Against this background, the workshop not only shed light on the respective underlying assumptions of German qualitative social science and the "French School" of discourse analysis, it also theoretically located and methodologically systematized the existed "pool of tools." The workshop thereby helped to clarify the contours of the field of discourse analysis from the perspectives of the respective target groups on both sides of the Rhine. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701222

  16. Using the Psychology of Language to Effectively Communicate Actionable Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The words used to articulate science can have as significant a psychological impact on public perception as the data itself. It is therefore essential to utilize language that not only accurately relates the scientific information, but also effectively conveys a message that is congruent with the presenter's motivation for expressing the data. This is especially relevant for environmental subjects that are surrounded by emotionally charged, political discourses. For example are terms like catastrophe and disaster; while these words may accurately illustrate impartial scientific data, they will likely trigger psychological responses in audiences such as fear or denial that have a detrimental impact on the human decision making process. I propose a set of 5 key principles to assist in communicating data to the general public that both support the transfer of ideas and the presenter's intended psychological impact. 1) Articulate the underlying intentions that motivate the communication of data in a transparent manner 2) Use language congruent with the presenter's stated intentions 3) Maintain a neutral, non-judgmental attitude towards the complex human psychological and emotional dynamics present in a target audience 4) Demonstrate acceptance and compassion when analyzing past and present human actions that adversely affect the environment 5) Develop a perspective of non-attachment when proposing future actions and/or consequences of current human behaviors. The application of these 5 principles provides a framework to move from our current understanding of problems and solutions to effective physical action that allows us to gracefully adapt with our ever changing planet.

  17. The transition from pediatric to adult care for youth with epilepsy: Basic biological, sociological, and psychological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfield, Peter; Camfield, Carol; Busiah, Kanetee; Cohen, David; Pack, Alison; Nabbout, Rima

    2017-04-01

    Transition from pediatric to adult health care for adolescents with epilepsy is challenging for the patient, family, and health care workers. This paper is the first of three that summarize the main findings from the 2nd Symposium on Transition in Epilepsies, held in Paris from June 14-25, 2016. In this paper we describe five basic themes that have an important effect on transition. First, there are important brain changes in adolescence that leave an imbalance between risk taking and pleasure seeking behaviors and frontal executive function compared with adults. Second, puberty is a major change during the transition age. The three most important but separate neuroendocrine axes involved in puberty are gonadarche (activation of the gonads), adrenarche (activation of adrenal androgen production), and activation of the growth hormone-insulin like growth factor. Third, sexual debut occurs during the transition years, and at an earlier age in adolescents with epilepsy than controls. Adult sexual performance is often unsatisfactory. Although AED-induced alterations in sexual hormones and temporal lobe epilepsy may play a role in hyposexuality, depression, anxiety, and other social factors appear most important. Fourth, psychological development is very important with an evolution from an early stage (ages 10-13years) with concrete thinking, to a middle stage (ages 14-17) with analytic and more abstract introspective thinking, and then to a late stage (ages 18-21) with at least the beginnings of adult reasoning. Epilepsy may derail this relatively orderly progression. Adolescents with autistic spectrum disorder may present with severe behavior problems that are sometimes related to undiagnosed epilepsy. Fifth, bone health in adolescence is critical to establish adequate mineralization for all of adult life. While AED interference with Vitamin D metabolism is important, there is evidence that the effects of AEDs on bone are more complex and involve changes in remodeling

  18. The practice of psychological science: searching for Cronbach's two streams in social-personality psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Jessica L; Robins, Richard W; Sherman, Jeffrey W

    2009-06-01

    The present research surveyed a group of editors and editorial board members of personality and social psychology journals to examine the practice of psychological science in their field. Findings demonstrate that (a) although personality and social researchers tend to use many of the same approaches, methods, and procedures, they nonetheless show average differences in each of these domains, as well as in their overarching theoretical aims and perspectives; (b) these average differences largely conform to social and personality researchers' stereotypes about each subgroup; (c) despite their methodological and philosophical differences, the 2 subgroups study many of the same research topics; and (d) the structure of social-personality research practices can be characterized as having 2 independent factors, which closely correspond to L. J. Cronbach's (1957) correlational and experimental "streams of research."

  19. The interpretation of quantum mechanics: a case-study in the sociology of science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, W.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of social processes in scientific investigation, and to relate the products of scientific activity to particular features of the social context in which that activity took place. The group of scientists under examination shared a common interest in the interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. This is not a typical scientific speciality; it lacks both a cohesive social structure and an agreed set of theories and practices. It is argued that social and cognitive factors interact in a complex way to bring about and maintain this fragmented state. In particular, methodological differences are identified as a major cause of disputes in this field. A sub-group of physicists performed experimental tests of Quantum Mechanics. Accounts of the behavior of these physicists in terms of general codes of scientific conduct (norms) seem to be unsatisfactory; instead, we must refer to many specific features of their local social context. The construction and evaluation of knowledge-claims can also be best described by referring to the cultural context of this work. These conclusions support a relativist view, in which the outcome of scientific activity is not uniquely determined by empirical data, but is flexible, and can reflect social pressures from inside or outside science. (author)

  20. "The casual cruelty of our prejudices": on Walter Lippmann's theory of stereotype and its "obliteration" in psychology and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottom, William P; Kong, Dejun Tony

    2012-01-01

    Reflecting on his wartime government service, Walter Lippmann (1922) developed a theory of policy formulation and error. Introducing the constructs of stereotype, mental model, blind spots, and the process of manufacturing consent, his theory prescribed interdisciplinary social science as a tool for enhancing policy making in business and government. Lippmann used his influence with the Rockefeller foundations, business leaders, Harvard and the University of Chicago to gain support for this program. Citation analysis of references to "stereotype" and Lippmann reveals the rapid spread of the concept across the social sciences and in public discourse paralleled by obliteration by incorporation of the wider theory in behavioral science. "Stereotype" is increasingly invoked in anthropology, economics, and sociology though Lippmann and his wider theory ceased being cited decades ago. In psychology, citations are increasing but content analysis revealed blind spots and misconceptions about the theory and prescription. Studies of heuristics, biases, and organizational decision substantiate Lippmann's theory of judgment and choice. But his model for social science failed to consider the bounded rationality and blind spots of its practitioners. Policy formulation today is supported by research from narrow disciplinary silos not interdisciplinary science that reflects an awareness of history. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Piketty's challenge for sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Mike

    2014-12-01

    This paper argues that Piketty's book should not simply be seen as that of an economist, but that it contains significant resources for sociologists to draw upon. These are firstly, this approach to social science and his use of visualizations which chime closely with recent claims about the power of description. Secondly I consider his conceptualization of time and history - which in rebutting epochal arguments about the speed of contemporary change allows for a much better appreciation of the 'long durée'; and finally his conceptualization of social classes and privilege through his elaboration of a sociology of accumulation and inheritance. In all these ways, Piketty's work assists in developing an account of elites and wealth which should be highly productive for future sociology. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  2. Empirical evaluation and justification of methodologies in psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, R W; Capaldi, E J

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a relatively new movement in the history and philosophy of science, naturalism, a form of pragmatism emphasizing that methodological principles are empirical statements. Thus, methodological principles must be evaluated and justified on the same basis as other empirical statements. On this view, methodological statements may be less secure than the specific scientific theories to which they give rise. The authors examined the feasibility of a naturalistic approach to methodology using logical and historical analysis and by contrasting theories that predict new facts versus theories that explain already known facts. They provide examples of how differences over methodological issues in psychology and in science generally may be resolved using a naturalistic, or empirical, approach.

  3. Implications of research staff demographics for psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Does, Serena; Ellemers, Naomi; Dovidio, John F; Norman, Jasmine B; Mentovich, Avital; van der Lee, Romy; Goff, Phillip Atiba

    2018-03-01

    Long-standing research traditions in psychology have established the fundamental impact of social categories, such as race and gender, on people's perceptions of themselves and others, as well as on the general human cognition and behavior. However, there is a general tendency to ignore research staff demographics (e.g., researchers' race and gender) in research development and research reports. Variation in research staff demographics can exert systematic and scientifically informative influences on results from psychological research. Consequently, research staff demographics need to be considered, studied, and/or reported, along with how these demographics were allowed to vary across participants or conditions (e.g., random assignment, matched with participant demographics, or included as a factor in the experimental design). In addition to providing an overview of multidisciplinary evidence of research staff demographics effects, we discuss how research staff demographics might influence research findings through (a) ingroup versus outgroup effects, (b) stereotype and (implicit) bias effects, and (c) priming and social tuning effects. Finally, an overview of recommended considerations is included (see the Appendix) to help illustrate how to systematically incorporate relevant research staff demographics in psychological science. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Imagine the Feeling: An Aesthetic Science of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigua, Fernando; Clegg, Joshua W

    2015-09-01

    We claim that static trait models have dominated contemporary personality psychology but fail to reflect adequately the persons they depict. Beginning from, but moving well beyond, this critique of the five factor model (and the personality psychology field over which it reigns), we shine an aesthetic and critical light on psychology's wider failings. We review the linguistic and methodological features that have undermined the discipline's faithful understandings of human beings and their experience. In its place, we champion an aesthetic (as opposed to an an-esthetic) science of the person, one that is responsive in spirit and in practice to the emotional and imaginative life of participants and to the contexts in which they move. Specifically, we suggest that the images of fantasy and of ordinary metaphor may afford poetic understandings of participant experience that surpass those produced by literal, discursive description. We also hold that these images may offer us the most sensitive and faithful expressions of how social and environmental contexts-and so-called structural and discursive realities-are felt. The paper concludes by sketching several methodological trajectories that may stimulate researcher imagination and empathy, making research more faithful to participants and the reaches of their experience. Research practices informed by feeling and image in this way may generate new knowledge as well as new obligations.

  5. Connecting Life Span Development with the Sociology of the Life Course: A New Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleard, Chris; Higgs, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The life course has become a topic of growing interest within the social sciences. Attempts to link this sub-discipline with life span developmental psychology have been called for but with little sign of success. In this paper, we seek to address three interlinked issues concerning the potential for a more productive interchange between life course sociology and life span psychology. The first is to try to account for the failure of these two sub-disciplines to achieve any deepening engagement with each other, despite the long-expressed desirability of that goal; the second is to draw attention to the scope for enriching the sociology of the life course through Erik Erikson's model of life span development; and the last is the potential for linking Eriksonian theory with current debates within mainstream sociology about the processes involved in 'individualisation' and 'self-reflexivity' as an alternative entry point to bring together these two fields of work.

  6. Herding, social influence and economic decision-making: socio-psychological and neuroscientific analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Baddeley, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Typically, modern economics has steered away from the analysis of sociological and psychological factors and has focused on narrow behavioural assumptions in which expectations are formed on the basis of mathematical algorithms. Blending together ideas from the social and behavioural sciences, this paper argues that the behavioural approach adopted in most economic analysis, in its neglect of sociological and psychological forces and its simplistically dichotomous categorization of behaviour ...

  7. «Psychology is becoming a truly efficient science of studying a person»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Asmolov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The author emphasizes the increasing role of psychology in the life of modern society, entering into the social life in a variety of forms. Psychology is a truly «effective» science of studying a person. The most significant achievements of modern psychology are considered: the development of practical educational psychology, the creation of system activity approach to cognition, the occurrence of psychology in the world of cognitive science, psychology of emergencies, etc. Psychology has become a reality and its various areas are treated as «the architect» of mental and economic life throughout the world, including Russia, psychology turns into a efficient reconstructing science that can be observed not only in the construction program standards of modern education, but also in the programs of tolerance development in the society as a support of diversity standards. Considerable attention is paid to the activities of the Department of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, as a center of psychological science with all its increasing diversity and development. On the eve of the 50th anniversary of the Department of Psychology, A.G. Asmolov, whose life was closely connected with the educational and research center, examines successes and accomplishments of the Department, contribution to the world of psychology. A.G. Asmolov lists the names of the most outstanding graduates of the Department who have achieved impressive results in various branches of psychology and are now in different parts of the Russian Federation and of the world working in the sphere of psychology. The Department is said to be a «trendsetter» in psychology. Such interesting areas as psychology of uncertainty, psychology of complexity, psychology of diversity, etc. are being developed. The ideas that emerge at the Department of psychology are becoming the ideas known in the whole world.

  8. Development of relative body mass (BMI of students from Łódź, depending on the selected environmental, psychological and sociological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruszkowska-Przybylska Paulina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The human height-to-weight ratio is an important parameter of the body homeostasis. Currently, the most popular measurement determining the relationship between body mass and height is the Quetelet II indicator, called Body Mass Index (BMI. The aim of this study is an evaluation of the differences in the height-to-weight ratios, depending on selected environmental, psychological and sociological factors in people studying at higher education institutions in Łódź. The research was conducted among students of higher education institutions in Łódź, by electronic means or with the use of an anonymous survey. It consisted of 28 closed single or multiple choice questions. Statistical analysis was made of complete results of the research involving 135 people, both males and females, aged between 19-26. It was revealed that the factors related to higher BMI values in students are the following: the presence of a tendency in the students to gain weight themselves, and a tendency to gain weight present in their mothers, an evaluation of their own body mass as excessive, regularly smoking cigarettes and rarely undergoing medical check-ups. Among the factors connected with lower BMI values are: regular coffee consumption, perception of their own body mass as being too low, and also obtaining systolic pressure values below 110 mm Hg. Additionally, a positive correlation between taking up physical activity and higher values of systolic blood pressure (p<0.05 was shown. Among the subjects, it was found that 92% of the underweight women declared that their body mass and figure were normal. In the case of women with optimal BMI values, 40% stated that their body mass was excessive. In the case of men the problem was reverse: 50% of the subjects who were either overweight or obese claimed that their body mass was within the norm. The factors that significantly influence body proportion differences among students include the subject’s and the subject

  9. Psychology as an Evolving, Interdisciplinary Science: Integrating Science in Sensation and Perception from Fourier to Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, Tela M.; Kelty-Stephen, Damian G.

    2017-01-01

    This article outlines the theoretical rationale and process for an integrated-science approach to teaching sensation and perception (S&P) to undergraduate psychology students that may also serve as an integrated-science curriculum. The course aimed to introduce the interdisciplinary evolution of this psychological field irrespective of any…

  10. 3. THE NATIONAL ACADEMIC UNCONSCIOUS IN QUESTION. HISTORY OF CONCEPTS, HISTORICAL SEMANTICS, CRITICAL SOCIOLOGY OF LEXICAL USAGE WITHIN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Christin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A few years ago, together with Franz Schultheis, of the University of Saint-Gallen and coordinator of the social sciences network ESSE, we chose to study the international circulation of the categories and concepts that are in use in European social sciences. With the publication of the Dictionnaire des concepts  nomades (“Dictionary of nomadic concepts”, that includes only a small number of quite lengthy entries, what we tried to propose were not ready-made solutions, or vademecums for the comparative academic, but a series of questions, or rather the means to ask crucial questions for anyone who practises history, political science, history of economic ideas, or comparative sociology. We did so with two considerations in mind: one political, and the other academic, both of which I will evoke in turn in this paper.

  11. Information security: where computer science, economics and psychology meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ross; Moore, Tyler

    2009-07-13

    Until ca. 2000, information security was seen as a technological discipline, based on computer science but with mathematics helping in the design of ciphers and protocols. That perspective started to change as researchers and practitioners realized the importance of economics. As distributed systems are increasingly composed of machines that belong to principals with divergent interests, incentives are becoming as important to dependability as technical design. A thriving new field of information security economics provides valuable insights not just into 'security' topics such as privacy, bugs, spam and phishing, but into more general areas of system dependability and policy. This research programme has recently started to interact with psychology. One thread is in response to phishing, the most rapidly growing form of online crime, in which fraudsters trick people into giving their credentials to bogus websites; a second is through the increasing importance of security usability; and a third comes through the psychology-and-economics tradition. The promise of this multidisciplinary research programme is a novel framework for analysing information security problems-one that is both principled and effective.

  12. On sociological catastrophe analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, L.

    1974-01-01

    The present paper deals with standard terms of sociological catastrophe theory hitherto existing, collective behaviour during the catastrophe, and consequences for the empiric catastrophe sociology. (RW) [de

  13. Psychology as a Science of Subject and Comportment, beyond the Mind and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Álvarez, Marino

    2018-03-01

    The turn of qualitative inquiry suggests a more open, plural conception of psychology than just the science of the mind and behavior as it is most commonly defined. Historical, ontological and epistemological binding of this conception of psychology to the positivist method of natural science may have exhausted its possibilities, and after having contributed to its prestige as a science, has now become an obstacle. It is proposed that psychology be reconceived as a science of subject and comportment in the framework of a contextual hermeneutic, social, human behavioral science. Thus, without rejecting quantitative inquiry, psychology recovers territory left aside like introspection and pre-reflective self-awareness, and reconnects with traditions marginalized from the main stream. From this perspective psychology might also recover its credibility as a human science in view of current skepticism.

  14. Connecting Psychological Science with Climate Change: A Persuasion and Social Influence Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Geoffrey D.; Behlen, Margaret M.

    2017-01-01

    Students often have little understanding of the role psychological science plays in informing us about the impact of human behavior when addressing climate change. We designed an assignment for a social psychology course based on Frantz and Mayer's use of the decision tree model of helping behavior to identify the psychological barriers that…

  15. An Interdisciplinary Team Project: Psychology and Computer Science Students Create Online Cognitive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Kathleen A.; Malita, Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    We present our case study of an interdisciplinary team project for students taking either a psychology or computer science (CS) course. The project required psychology and CS students to combine their knowledge and skills to create an online cognitive task. Each interdisciplinary project team included two psychology students who conducted library…

  16. Regional Sociological Research Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Vladimirovich Morev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the experience of the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of RAS in conducting sociological research on the territory of the Vologda Oblast and the Northwestern Federal District. It describes the historical aspects of formation of the system for public opinion monitoring and examines its theoretical and methodological foundations. The author of the article analyzes the structure of monitoring indicators and provides a brief interpretation of research findings that reflect social wellbeing and social perception trends. In addition, the paper analyzes people’s attitude toward the activities of federal and regional authorities, trends in social well-being, consumer sentiment and also the complex indicator – the index of public sentiment in the region – developed by ISEDT RAS researchers. The results of sociological studies carried out at ISEDT RAS correlate with the dynamics of the all-Russian public opinion polls conducted by the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VCIOM, Levada-Center, etc. They indicate that Russian society gradually adapts to new conditions of life after the collapse of the USSR. Besides, opinion polls show the most important features of the post-Soviet Russian history at its present stage; they are associated with the intensification of international political relations, the consequences of the “Crimean spring” and the new challenges Russia’s economy is facing now. The article concludes that as global community, of which Russian society is part, is evolving, sociological knowledge begins to play an increasingly important role in administration and national security; this is associated with the greater importance attached to intangible development factors. Therefore, a necessary prerequisite for administration effectiveness in all its stages is to implement the results of sociological research on social

  17. Broadening Participation in the Life Sciences with Social-Psychological Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Yoi; Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Priniski, Stacy J.; Canning, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have recently documented the positive effects of social-psychological interventions on the performance and retention of underrepresented students in the life sciences. We review two types of social-psychological interventions that address either students' well-being in college science courses or students'…

  18. Can Programming Frameworks Bring Smartphones into the Mainstream of Psychological Science?

    OpenAIRE

    Piwek, Lukasz; Ellis, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones continue to provide huge potential for psychological science and the advent of novel research frameworks brings new opportunities for researchers who have previously struggled to develop smartphone applications. However, despite this renewed promise, smartphones have failed to become a standard item within psychological research. Here we consider the key issues that continue to limit smartphone adoption within psychological science and how these barriers might be diminishing in li...

  19. [Where are we in general sociology ?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, history and social sciences have experienced a kind of merging, and a vast number of specialized domains have emerged. Yet the durkheim - ian register of "general sociology" seems somehow neglected. Firstly, this article analyzes the reasons for this neglect, and secondly, it indicates how, through a long-term reflexivity, one can formulate a new agenda for general sociology.

  20. Hal in the Classroom: Science Fiction Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelio, Ralph J.

    The articles in this book provide political, social, sociological, psychological, sexual, mythical, literary, and filmic approaches to the study of science fiction film. "Journey into Science Fiction" by W. Johnson and "The Imagination of Disaster" by S. Sontag treat broadly the essentials of science fiction films. "For the Future: The Science…

  1. Types of Generalization: Introduction to Special Section of Perspectives on Psychological Science on Cultural Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    Cultural psychology represents one of the broadest types of generalization of psychological findings. We all need to pay attention to cultural findings because many of our most treasured "truisms" fail to generalize when looked at across cultural contexts.

  2. Translating psychological science: Highlighting the media's contribution to contagion in mass shootings: Comment on Kaslow (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    In her presidential address, N. J. Kaslow (see record 2015-33530-002) argued that psychologists have a responsibility to translate psychological science to the public and identifies various platforms for doing so. In this comment on her article, I advocate that psychology as a field immediately heed her call in the area of psychological science highlighting the media's contribution to contagion in mass shootings. I point out the psychological science documenting media contagion for suicide and mass shootings, the World Health Organization's (2008) guidelines for media in reporting suicide deaths to prevent that contagion, and discuss ways-based on Dr. Kaslow's suggestions-that psychologists can disseminate psychological science to prevent similar tragedies in the future. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Spatial abilities, Earth science conceptual understanding, and psychological gender of university non-science majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Alice A. (Jill)

    Research has shown the presence of many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties that may impede concept understanding, and has also identified a number of categories of spatial ability. Although spatial ability has been linked to high performance in science, some researchers believe it has been overlooked in traditional education. Evidence exists that spatial ability can be improved. This correlational study investigated the relationship among Earth science conceptual understanding, three types of spatial ability, and psychological gender, a self-classification that reflects socially-accepted personality and gender traits. A test of Earth science concept understanding, the Earth Science Concepts (ESC) test, was developed and field tested from 2001 to 2003 in 15 sections of university classes. Criterion validity was .60, significant at the .01 level. Spearman/Brown reliability was .74 and Kuder/Richardson reliability was .63. The Purdue Visualization of Rotations (PVOR) (mental rotation), the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (spatial perception), the Differential Aptitude Test: Space Relations (DAT) (spatial visualization), and the Bem Inventory (BI) (psychological gender) were administered to 97 non-major university students enrolled in undergraduate science classes. Spearman correlations revealed moderately significant correlations at the .01 level between ESC scores and each of the three spatial ability test scores. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that PVOR scores were the best predictor of ESC scores, and showed that spatial ability scores accounted for 27% of the total variation in ESC scores. Spatial test scores were moderately or weakly correlated with each other. No significant correlations were found among BI scores and other test scores. Scantron difficulty analysis of ESC items produced difficulty ratings ranging from 33.04 to 96.43, indicating the percentage of students who answered incorrectly. Mean score on the ESC was 34

  4. Successful Massive Open Online Climate Course on Climate Science and Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccitelli, D. A.; Cook, J.

    2015-12-01

    In 2015, the University of Queensland and edX launched a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC), 'Making Sense of Climate Science Denial.' The MOOC debunked approximately 50 common climate myths using elements of both physical science and psychology. Students learned how to recognise the social and psychological drivers of climate science denial, how to better understand climate change, how to identify the techniques and fallacies that climate myths employ to distort climate science, and how to effectively debunk climate misinformation. Contributors to the website Skeptical Science delivered the lectures, which were reinforced via interviews with climate science and psychology experts. Over 15,000 students from 167 countries enrolled in the course, and student feedback was overwhelmingly positive. This MOOC provides a model for effective climate science education.

  5. Scientific Discovery in Deep Social Space: Sociology without Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Michalski

    2008-01-01

    Globalization affords an excellent opportunity to develop a genuinely universal, scientific sociology. In recent decades the politicization of the discipline has undermined the central mission of sociology: scientific discovery and explanation. The paper identifies several intellectual shifts that will facilitate the expansion and communication of such a science in an emerging global village of sociological analysts: 1) breaking with classical sociology to build upon innovative theoretical id...

  6. In Praise of Sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Raewyn

    2017-08-01

    This reflection on the relevance of sociology starts with the different forms of social knowledge, and some autobiographical reflection on my engagement with the discipline. A research-based social science is made urgent by the prevalence of distortion and pseudoscience in the public realm. However, the research-based knowledge formation is embedded in a global economy of knowledge that centers on a privileged group of institutions and produces major imbalances on a world scale. Sociological data collection has important uses in policy and public discussion. But data need to be embedded in a larger project of understanding the world; this is what gives excitement to the work. Sociology has a potential future of marginality or triviality in the neoliberal economy and its university system. There are better trajectories into the future-but they have to be fought for. Cette réflexion sur l'utilité de la sociologie commence avec les différentes formes de savoir social, ainsi que quelques réflexions biographiques sur mon engagement avec la discipline. Le besoin d'une science sociale orientée vers la recherche est devenue nécessaire suite à la prédominance de la distorsion et de la pseudoscience dans la sphère publique. Par contre, ce savoir centré sur la recherche est lié à une économie globale de la connaissance qui est proche d'un groupe privilégié d'institutions et produit des déséquilibres majeurs au niveau mondial. La collecte de données sociologiques a une grande utilité en politique et dans les discussions publiques. Mais ces données doivent être liées à un projet plus large de compréhension du monde ; c'est ce qui rend ce travail excitant. La sociologie risque la marginalisation ou la trivialité dans une économie néo-libérale et son système universitaire. Il existe de meilleures trajectoires pour l'avenir - mais elles doivent être défendues. © 2017 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  7. Medical sociology as a vocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosk, Charles L

    2014-12-01

    This article extends Weber's discussion of science as a vocation by applying it to medical sociology. Having used qualitative methods for nearly 40 years to interpret problems of meaning as they arise in the context of health care, I describe how ethnography, in particular, and qualitative inquiry, more generally, may be used as a tool for understanding fundamental questions close to the heart but far from the mind of medical sociology. Such questions overlap with major policy questions such as how do we achieve a higher standard for quality of care and assure the safety of patients. Using my own research, I show how this engagement takes the form of showing how simple narratives of policy change fail to address the complexities of the problems that they are designed to remedy. I also attempt to explain how I balance objectivity with a commitment to creating a more equitable framework for health care. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  8. Sociological analysis and comparative education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woock, Roger R.

    1981-12-01

    It is argued that comparative education is essentially a derivative field of study, in that it borrows theories and methods from academic disciplines. After a brief humanistic phase, in which history and philosophy were central for comparative education, sociology became an important source. In the mid-50's and 60's, sociology in the United States was characterised by Structural Functionalism as a theory, and Social Survey as a dominant methodology. Both were incorporated into the development of comparative education. Increasingly in the 70's, and certainly today, the new developments in sociology are characterised by an attack on Positivism, which is seen as the philosophical position underlying both functionalism and survey methods. New or re-discovered theories with their attendant methodologies included Marxism, Phenomenological Sociology, Critical Theory, and Historical Social Science. The current relationship between comparative education and social science is one of uncertainty, but since social science is seen to be returning to its European roots, the hope is held out for the development of an integrated social theory and method which will provide a much stronger basis for developments in comparative education.

  9. Theorizing political psychology: Doing integrative social science under the condition of postmodernity

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Shawn W.

    2003-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, the field of political psychology; like the social sciences more generally, is being challenged. New theoretical direction is being demanded from within and a greater epistemological sophistication and ethical relevance is being demanded from without. In response, direction for a reconstructed political psychology is offered here. To begin, a theoretical framework for a truly integrative political psychology is sketched. This is done in light of the appar...

  10. Introductory Psychology: How Student Experiences Relate to Their Understanding of Psychological Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Thomas; Richardson, Deborah; Hammock, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    Many students who declare a psychology major are unaware that they are studying a scientific discipline, precipitating a need for exercises and experiences that help students understand the scientific nature of the discipline. The present study explores aspects of an introductory psychology class that may contribute to students' understanding of…

  11. A Mental Model of the Learner: Teaching the Basic Science of Educational Psychology to Future Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, Daniel T.

    2017-01-01

    Although most teacher education programs include instruction in the basic science of psychology, practicing teachers report that this preparation has low utility. Researchers have considered what sort of information from psychology about children's thinking, emotion, and motivation would be useful for teachers' practice. Here, I take a different…

  12. Psychological Distress and Sources of Stressors amongst Medical and Science Undergraduate Students in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali S Radeef

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to compare the prevalence of psychological distress between medical and science undergraduate students and to assess the sources of stressors that are attributing to it. Methods: A sample of 697 undergraduate students participated in this study, in which 501 were medical students and the remaining 196 were Science students. Psychological distress was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The students were given a list of possible sources of stress which were chosen depending on previous studies. Results: The overall prevalence of psychological distress was 32.6%. Science students showed a significantly higher rate and mean score of psychological distress than medical students, and the mean score was significantly higher during the clinical phase rather than the pre-clinical phase in medical students. Overall, female students had a significantly higher mean score than males, however although the mean score was higher in females it was only significant in the pre-clinical phase. In addition to academic and psychological stressors, factors such as reduced holidays, lack of time for relaxation, and limitation of leisure/entertainment time were among the top ten stressors reported by the students. Conclusions: Psychological distress is common among university students, and it is higher among science students than medical students. Academic and psychological factors can be considered as sources of stressors which may precipitate psychological distress among college students.

  13. Impacts of Psychological Science on National Security Agencies Post-9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Psychologists have been an integral part of national security agencies since World War I, when psychological science helped in personnel selection. A robust infrastructure supporting wider applications of psychology to military and intelligence problems developed further during World War II and the years following, primarily in the areas of…

  14. Big Data, Computational Science, Economics, Finance, Marketing, Management, and Psychology: Connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); W.-K. Wong (Wing-Keung)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThe paper provides a review of the literature that connects Big Data, Computational Science, Economics, Finance, Marketing, Management, and Psychology, and discusses some research that is related to the seven disciplines. Academics could develop theoretical models and subsequent

  15. Racism, empire and sociology

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Reviews of Gurminder K Bhambra, Connected Sociologies; Peo Hansen and Stefan Jonsson, Eurafrica: The Untold History of European Integration and Colonialism; Wulf D. Hund, Alana Lentin (eds) Racism and Sociology

  16. Introduktion til klassisk sociologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Søren

    Papiret introducerer til en række klassiske sociologer: Comte, Spencer, Weber, Durkheim og Habermas......Papiret introducerer til en række klassiske sociologer: Comte, Spencer, Weber, Durkheim og Habermas...

  17. Scientometric trend analyses of publications on the history of psychology: Is psychology becoming an unhistorical science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krampen, Günter

    Examines scientometrically the trends in and the recent situation of research on and the teaching of the history of psychology in the German-speaking countries and compares the findings with the situation in other countries (mainly the United States) by means of the psychology databases PSYNDEX and PsycINFO. Declines of publications on the history of psychology are described scientometrically for both research communities since the 1990s. Some impulses are suggested for the future of research on and the teaching of the history of psychology. These include (1) the necessity and significance of an intensified use of quantitative, unobtrusive scientometric methods in historiography in times of digital "big data", (2) the necessity and possibilities to integrate qualitative and quantitative methodologies in historical research and teaching, (3) the reasonableness of interdisciplinary cooperation of specialist historians, scientometricians, and psychologists, (4) the meaningfulness and necessity to explore, investigate, and teach more intensively the past and the problem history of psychology as well as the understanding of the subject matter of psychology in its historical development in cultural contexts. The outlook on the future of such a more up-to-date research on and teaching of the history of psychology is-with some caution-positive.

  18. The sociology of innovation in modern astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edge, D.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes some of the main features of the development of astronomy since 1945, stressing sociological factors, and drawing examples mainly from the history of radio astronomy. Particular attention is given to aspects which appear to distinguish astronomy from other recently-studied sciences - notably, the prevalence of serendipitous discoveries, and the lack of any general resistance from the 'parent' discipline. The work of Kuhn and Hagstrom is used to illuminate these features, and also to indicate how a sociological analysis can be advanced of individual research decisions, and of the nature of disputes within science. Common misconceptions about the nature and scope of sociology are briefly discussed; in particular, it is emphasized that the kind of sociology of science under discussion cannot be normative. (author)

  19. The Social Science Curriculum of the Two-Year College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Jack

    1980-01-01

    Describes a nationwide study to identify: (1) the representation of different areas within the social sciences (i.e. anthropology, economics, history, political science, psychology, social/ethnic studies, sociology, and interdisciplinary social sciences) in the two-year college curriculum, and (2) which courses were offered for transfer,…

  20. Enriching science, practice, and policy relevant to school psychology around the globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R

    2016-03-01

    This editorial provides a brief synthesis of the past, present, and future of School Psychology Quarterly, highlighting important contributions as an international resource to enrich, invigorate, enhance, and advance science, practice, and policy relevant to school psychology around the globe. Information herein highlights (a) the value of high quality and timely reviews, (b) publishing manuscripts that address a breadth of important topics relevant to school psychology, and (c) the structure and contributions of the special topic sections featured in School Psychology Quarterly. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Psychological Morbidity in Students of Medical College and Science and Art College Students - A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Mahawar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of quality of life in medical students we have conducted a cross sectional & descriptive study on screening of mental illness of 60 medical students of prefinal year and comparing it with 60 students of third year of Science and Art College. Students were selected via random sampling. GHQ-12 was used as a screening tool and after obtaining scores students were graded in 3 categories - individuals screened positive for psychological morbidity were of Grades 2 and 3 and individuals screened negative for psychological morbidity were of Grade 1 and they were compared according to college, gender & residence. Students screened positive for psychological morbidity as per GHQ-12 were found higher in medical college (87% as compared to Science and Art College (45% and a statistically significant association was found between psychological morbidity and medical students. Psychological morbidity was not significantly associated with residence and gender.

  2. Science Supports Education: The Behavioral Research Base for Psychology's Top 20 Principles for Enhancing Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucariello, Joan M.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Anderman, Eric M.; Dwyer, Carol; Ormiston, Heather; Skiba, Russell

    2016-01-01

    Psychological science has much to contribute to preK-12 education because substantial psychological research exists on the processes of learning, teaching, motivation, classroom management, social interaction, communication, and assessment. This article details the psychological science that led to the identification, by the American Psychological…

  3. Scientific Competencies in the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Heike; Zhang, Ying; Klopp, Eric; Brünken, Roland; Krause, Ulrike-Marie; Spinath, Frank M.; Stark, Robin; Spinath, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to introduce a general theoretical model of scientific competencies in higher education and to adapt it to three social sciences, namely psychology, sociology, and political science, by providing evidence from expert interviews and program regulations. Within our general model, we distinguished and specified four…

  4. Can programming frameworks bring smartphones into the mainstream of psychological science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Piwek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones continue to provide huge potential for psychological science and the advent of novel research frameworks brings new opportunities for researchers who have previously struggled to develop smartphone applications. However, despite this renewed promise, smartphones have failed to become a standard item within psychological research. Here we consider the key barriers that continue to limit smartphone adoption within psychological science and how these barriers might be diminishing in light of ResearchKit and other recent methodological developments. We conclude that while these programming frameworks are certainly a step in the right direction it remains challenging to create usable research-orientated applications with current frameworks. Smartphones may only become an asset for psychology and social science as a whole when development software that is both easy to use, secure, and becomes freely available.

  5. Can Programming Frameworks Bring Smartphones into the Mainstream of Psychological Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwek, Lukasz; Ellis, David A

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones continue to provide huge potential for psychological science and the advent of novel research frameworks brings new opportunities for researchers who have previously struggled to develop smartphone applications. However, despite this renewed promise, smartphones have failed to become a standard item within psychological research. Here we consider the key issues that continue to limit smartphone adoption within psychological science and how these barriers might be diminishing in light of ResearchKit and other recent methodological developments. We conclude that while these programming frameworks are certainly a step in the right direction it remains challenging to create usable research-orientated applications with current frameworks. Smartphones may only become an asset for psychology and social science as a whole when development software that is both easy to use and secure becomes freely available.

  6. Virtue ethics, positive psychology, and a new model of science and engineering ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin

    2015-04-01

    This essay develops a new conceptual framework of science and engineering ethics education based on virtue ethics and positive psychology. Virtue ethicists and positive psychologists have argued that current rule-based moral philosophy, psychology, and education cannot effectively promote students' moral motivation for actual moral behavior and may even lead to negative outcomes, such as moral schizophrenia. They have suggested that their own theoretical framework of virtue ethics and positive psychology can contribute to the effective promotion of motivation for self-improvement by connecting the notion of morality and eudaimonic happiness. Thus this essay attempts to apply virtue ethics and positive psychology to science and engineering ethics education and to develop a new conceptual framework for more effective education. In addition to the conceptual-level work, this essay suggests two possible educational methods: moral modeling and involvement in actual moral activity in science and engineering ethics classes, based on the conceptual framework.

  7. "Everybody knows psychology is not a real science": Public perceptions of psychology and how we can improve our relationship with policymakers, the scientific community, and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    In a recent seminal article, Lilienfeld (2012) argued that psychological science is experiencing a public perception problem that has been caused by both public misconceptions about psychology, as well as the psychological science community's failure to distinguish itself from pop psychology and questionable therapeutic practices. Lilienfeld's analysis is an important and cogent synopsis of external problems that have limited psychological science's penetration into public knowledge. The current article expands upon this by examining internal problems, or problems within psychological science that have potentially limited its impact with policymakers, other scientists, and the public. These problems range from the replication crisis and defensive reactions to it, overuse of politicized policy statements by professional advocacy groups such as the American Psychological Association (APA), and continued overreliance on mechanistic models of human behavior. It is concluded that considerable problems arise from psychological science's tendency to overcommunicate mechanistic concepts based on weak and often unreplicated (or unreplicable) data that do not resonate with the everyday experiences of the general public or the rigor of other scholarly fields. It is argued that a way forward can be seen by, on one hand, improving the rigor and transparency of psychological science, and making theoretical innovations that better acknowledge the complexities of the human experience. (PsycINFO Database Record (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Structural stigma: Research evidence and implications for psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L

    2016-11-01

    Psychological research has provided essential insights into how stigma operates to disadvantage those who are targeted by it. At the same time, stigma research has been criticized for being too focused on the perceptions of stigmatized individuals and on microlevel interactions, rather than attending to structural forms of stigma. This article describes the relatively new field of research on structural stigma, which is defined as societal-level conditions, cultural norms, and institutional policies that constrain the opportunities, resources, and well-being of the stigmatized. I review emerging evidence that structural stigma related to mental illness and sexual orientation (a) exerts direct and synergistic effects on stigma processes that have long been the focus of psychological inquiry (e.g., concealment, rejection sensitivity), (b) serves as a contextual moderator of the efficacy of psychological interventions, and (c) contributes to numerous adverse health outcomes for members of stigmatized groups-ranging from dysregulated physiological stress responses to premature mortality-indicating that structural stigma represents an underrecognized mechanism producing health inequalities. Each of these pieces of evidence suggests that structural stigma is relevant to psychology and therefore deserves the attention of psychological scientists interested in understanding and ultimately reducing the negative effects of stigma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Sport and Society: An Introduction to Sociology of Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hilmi

    A theoretical framework for the study of sport sociology is provided in this text. It is intended for students of sport, arts and humanities, sociology, and social psychology. Sport and social organization are discussed first. Three models of societies and six theories of social organization are presented which form the basis of the eclectic…

  10. The comparative importance of books: clinical psychology in the health sciences library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmeyer, J M; Wehmeyer, S

    1999-01-01

    Clinical psychology has received little attention as a subject in health sciences library collections. This study seeks to demonstrate the relative importance of the monographic literature to clinical psychology through the examination of citations in graduate student theses and dissertations at the Fordham Health Sciences Library, Wright State University. Dissertations and theses were sampled randomly; citations were classified by format, counted, and subjected to statistical analysis. Books and book chapters together account for 35% of the citations in clinical psychology dissertations, 25% in nursing theses, and 8% in biomedical sciences theses and dissertations. Analysis of variance indicates that the citations in dissertations and theses in the three areas differ significantly (F = 162.2 with 2 and 253 degrees of freedom, P = 0.0001). Dissertations and theses in biomedical sciences and nursing theses both cite significantly more journals per book than the dissertations in clinical psychology. These results support the hypothesis that users of clinical psychology literature rely more heavily on books than many other users of a health sciences library. Problems with using citation analyses in a single subject to determine a serials to monographs ratio for a health sciences library are pointed out. PMID:10219478

  11. Educational Psychology's Past and Future Contributions to the Science of Learning, Science of Instruction, and Science of Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard E.

    2018-01-01

    Patricia Alexander (2018) provides a thought-provoking analysis of the past and future of educational psychology. Based on the themes in Alexander's paper, the present paper explores the past and future of educational psychology's contributions to: (a) the science of learning, corresponding to Alexander's theme of "a focus on learning as a…

  12. Perfiles Latinoamericanos: Regional sociology, connected sociologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Arteaga Botello

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The landscape of sociology published in the 48 numbers of the Perfiles Latinoamericanos magazineis analyzed. The diversity of topics, perspectives, and methodologies of the articles define aseries of fields of reflection around civil society, collective action, subjectivities and social identities,cities, media, violence, and theory. The essay suggests how the sociology that is producedin Latin America is not isolated but connected with international debates. It converges forms ofdoing theory and research with resonances on a global scale.

  13. Knowledge networking on Sociology: network analysis of blogs, YouTube videos and tweets about Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Cárdenas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available While mainstream scientific knowledge production have been widely studied in recent years with the development of scientometrics and bibliometrics, an emergent number of studies have focused on alternative sources of production and dissemination of knowledge such as blogs, YouTube videos and comments on Twitter. These online sources of knowledge become relevant in fields such as Sociology, where some academics seek to bring the sociological knowledge to the general population. To explore which knowledge on Sociology is produced and disseminated, and how is organized in these online sources, we analyze the knowledge networking of blogs, YouTube videos and tweets on Twitter using network analysis approach. Specifically, the present research analyzes the hyperlink network of the main blogs on Sociology, the networks of tags used to classify videos on Sociology hosted on YouTube, and the network of hashtags linked to #sociología on Twitter. The main results point out the existence of a cohesive and strongly connected community of blogs on Sociology, the very low presence of YouTube videos on Sociology in Spanish, and Sociology on Twitter is linked to others social sciences, classical scholars and social media

  14. Improving Training in Methodology Enriches the Science of Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Leona S.; West, Stephen G.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2009-01-01

    Replies to the comment Ramifications of increased training in quantitative methodology by Herbet Zimiles on the current authors original article "Doctoral training in statistics, measurement, and methodology in psychology: Replication and extension of Aiken, West, Sechrest, and Reno's (1990) survey of PhD programs in North America". The…

  15. Fundamentalism in Psychological Science. The Publication Manual as "Bible."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh-Bowers, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the content of the fourth edition of the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association" (1994) as if it were a biblical text. Draws on socio-historical studies and critical feminist perspectives to discuss the manual's function as a fundamentalist "bible" in relation to psychologists' culture. (SLD)

  16. Advancing science, practice, and policy relevant to school psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this editorial to inform both readers and potential authors, the editor provides a few details relevant to the School Psychology Quarterly (SPQ) including: the mission, contemporary context, the new emphases of SPQ, the editorial board, and advice for authors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Understanding Immigrants, Schooling, and School Psychology: Contemporary Science and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisby, Craig L.; Jimerson, Shane R.

    2016-01-01

    Immigration into the United States is a particularly salient topic of current contemporary educational, social, and political discussions. The school-related needs of immigrant children and youth can be well served by rigorous research and effective school psychology preservice training and preparation. This overview highlights key definitions,…

  18. Social Network Methods for the Educational and Psychological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Tracy M.

    2016-01-01

    Social networks are especially applicable in educational and psychological studies involving social interactions. A social network is defined as a specific relationship among a group of individuals. Social networks arise in a variety of situations such as friendships among children, collaboration and advice seeking among teachers, and coauthorship…

  19. The Neglected 95%, a Challenge to Psychology's Philosophy of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2009-01-01

    Responds to the comments of LoSchiavo F. M. and Shatz M. A.; Webster G. D., Nichols A. L., and Schember T. O.; Stroebe W. and Nijstad B.; and Haeffel et al. on the author's original article regarding the assertion that American psychology focuses too narrowly on Americans while neglecting the other 95% of the world's population. The author…

  20. The Goldwater Rule: Perspectives From, and Implications for, Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R

    2018-01-01

    When, if ever, should psychological scientists be permitted to offer professional opinions concerning the mental health of public figures they have never directly examined? This contentious question, which attracted widespread public attention during the 1964 U.S. presidential election involving Barry Goldwater, received renewed scrutiny during and after the 2016 U.S. presidential campaign, when many mental health professionals raised pointed questions concerning the psychiatric status of Donald Trump. Although the Goldwater Rule prohibits psychiatrists from offering diagnostic opinions on individuals they have never examined, no comparable rule exists for psychologists. We contend that, owing largely to the Goldwater Rule's origins in psychiatry, a substantial body of psychological research on assessment and clinical judgment, including work on the questionable validity of unstructured interviews, the psychology of cognitive biases, and the validity of informant reports and of L (lifetime) data, has been overlooked in discussions of its merits. We conclude that although the Goldwater Rule may have been defensible several decades ago, it is outdated and premised on dubious scientific assumptions. We further contend that there are select cases in which psychological scientists with suitable expertise may harbor a "duty to inform," allowing them to offer informed opinions concerning public figures' mental health with appropriate caveats.

  1. 2015 Hans O. Mauksch Address: How Departments Can Respond to the Changing Popularity of the Sociology Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    While the popularity of the psychology major and the sociology major were comparable in 1970, sociology witnessed a decline while psychology witnessed expansion. This article considers strategies of expanding the popularity of the sociology major, considering data from a variety of sources. Primary recommendations are to configure programs to…

  2. The Impact of Feminism on Sociology

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Walby

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates the impact of feminism on British sociology over the last 60 years. It focuses on changes in the intellectual content of the discipline, including epistemology, methodology, theory, concepts and the fields of economy, polity, violence and civil society. It situates these changes in the context of changes in gendered organisation of sociology, the rise of women's/gender studies, the ecology of social sciences and societal changes, especially the transformation of the gen...

  3. Negation and Affirmation: a critique of sociology in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-17

    Dec 17, 2013 ... Eurocentrism, sociology of religion, inter-religious dialogue, Ibn. Khaldun, paper read at ... Unpublished Master's Thesis. University of South Africa. ... Journal of Investigative Psychology, 1(3): 191-206. Lebakeng, T.J., 2000.

  4. The case for a sociology of dying, death, and bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Neil; Allan, June; Carverhill, Philip A; Cox, Gerry R; Davies, Betty; Doka, Kenneth; Granek, Leeat; Harris, Darcy; Ho, Andy; Klass, Dennis; Small, Neil; Wittkowski, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Dying, death, and bereavement do not occur in a social vacuum. How individuals and groups experience these phenomena will be largely influenced by the social context in which they occur. To develop an adequate understanding of dying, death, and bereavement we therefore need to incorporate a sociological perspective into our analysis. This article examines why a sociological perspective is necessary and explores various ways in which sociology can be of practical value in both intellectual and professional contexts. A case study comparing psychological and sociological perspectives is offered by way of illustration.

  5. Psychological science's contributions to a sustainable environment: extending our reach to a grand challenge of society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazdin, Alan E

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and degradation of the environment are global problems associated with many other challenges (e.g., population increases, reduction of glaciers, and loss of critical habitats). Psychological science can play a critical role in addressing these problems by fostering a sustainable environment. Multiple strategies for fostering a sustainable environment could draw from the diversity of topics and areas of specialization within psychology. Psychological research on fostering environmentally sustainable behaviors is rather well developed, as illustrated by interventions focusing on education of the public, message framing, feedback, decision making, the media, incentives and disincentives, and social marketing. Other sciences and professions as well as religion and ethics are actively involved in fostering a sustainable environment. Psychology ought to be more involved directly, systematically, and visibly to draw on our current knowledge and to have palpable impact. We would serve the world very well and in the process our discipline and profession.

  6. Towards a Cultural Psychology of Science:Economics and Economists in Contemporary Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Carre Benzi, David

    2017-01-01

    The present thesis is an enquiry about two distinct but complementary issues: the personal dimension of scientific activity, and the influential role that economists have had during the last decades in Chile. Regarding the former, this work complements existing philosophical, social, and psychological studies of science with a cultural psychology perspective. This perspective aims to be sensitive to the personal nature of the scientific activity but also to the cultural conditions in which sc...

  7. The psychological disengagement model among women in science, engineering, and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Ann M; Tougas, Francine; Rinfret, Natalie; Monger, Tanya

    2015-09-01

    Psychological responses to personal relative deprivation based on self/outgroup comparisons (named self/outgroup PRD) were explored among women in science, engineering, and technology according to the Psychological Disengagement Model. Three studies revealed that the experience of self/outgroup PRD increased women's likelihood of discounting the feedback they received at work. In turn, discounting led them to devalue their profession. Each study further documented the damaging effect of both psychological disengagement mechanisms. Study 1 (N = 93) revealed that discounting and devaluing were associated with decreased self-esteem. These results were replicated in Studies 2 and 3. Study 2 (N = 163) demonstrated that discounting and devaluing were also associated with reduced self-esteem stability. Study 3 (N = 187) further showed that psychological disengagement was also associated with women's occupational commitment. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are considered. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Principles of Sociology in Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Andrews, James G.; Larsen, Jordan A.

    2017-01-01

    Systems engineering involves both the integration of the system and the integration of the disciplines which develop and operate the system. Integrating the disciplines is a sociological effort to bring together different groups, often with different terminology, to achieve a common goal, the system. The focus for the systems engineer is information flow through the organization, between the disciplines, to ensure the system is developed and operated with all relevant information informing system decisions. Robert K. Merton studied the sociological principles of the sciences and the sociological principles he developed apply to systems engineering. Concepts such as specification of ignorance, common terminology, opportunity structures, role-sets, and the reclama (reconsideration) process are all important sociological approaches that should be employed by the systems engineer. In bringing the disciplines together, the systems engineer must also be wary of social ambivalence, social anomie, social dysfunction, insider-outsider behavior, unintended consequences, and the self-fulfilling prophecy. These sociological principles provide the systems engineer with key approaches to manage the information flow through the organization as the disciplines are integrated and share their information. This also helps identify key sociological barriers to information flow through the organization. This paper will discuss this theoretical basis for the application of sociological principles to systems engineering.

  9. Sociology, medicine and the construction of health-related sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Nelson Filice de; Nunes, Everardo Duarte

    2009-02-01

    Starting from a paper about closing the gap between sociology and medicine in Brazil and the United Kingdom that was published in 1971, a historical update was made with the aim of reflecting on the new shapes of health-related teaching and research within the social and human sciences, in these two countries. The methodology was qualitative and the study was developed using secondary data. The reflections were developed through the authors' immersion in Brazilian and British realities. It was concluded that the interface between sociology and health has expanded, although persistent old difficulties exist in relation to the structure and focus of the healthcare system, medical school power and medical student culture.

  10. Standardization in measurement philosophical, historical and sociological issues

    CERN Document Server

    Schlaudt, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The application of standard measurement is a cornerstone of modern science. In this collection of essays, standardization of procedure, units of measurement and the epistemology of standardization are addressed by specialists from sociology, history and the philosophy of science.

  11. Simpson’s Paradox in Psychological Science: A Practical Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier eKievit

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The direction of an association at the population-level may be reversed within the subgroups comprising that population—a striking observation called Simpson’s paradox. When facing this pattern, psychologists often view it as anomalous. Here, we argue that Simpson’s paradox is more common than conventionally thought, and typically results in incorrect interpretations – potentially with harmful consequences. We support this claim by drawing on empirical results from cognitive neuroscience, behavior genetics, psychopathology, personality psychology, educational psychology, intelligence research, and simulation studies. We show that Simpson’s Paradox is most likely to occur when inferences are drawn across different levels of explanation (e.g., from populations to subgroups, or subgroups to individuals. We propose a set of statistical markers indicative of the paradox, and offer psychometric solutions for dealing with the paradox when encountered—including a toolbox in R for detecting Simpson’s Paradox. We show that explicit modeling of situations in which the paradox might occur not only prevents incorrect interpretations of data, but also results in a deeper understanding of what data tell us about the world.

  12. Sociological Discourse(s) on Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertilsson, Margareta

    The concept of freedom is often thought of as antithetical to sociology. The discipline is more prone to detect and unveil forms of unfreedom, as Zygmunt Bauman (1988) has pointed out. The question remains if any academic discipline, however, including sociology can do away with the concept...... of freedom al together! In matters of science, the problem of determinism vs. chance and spontaneity is essential. Hence, freedom, in one sense or the other, is necessarily at bottom also of sociological discourse. This text is an attempt to map the predominant forms of freedom found in sociological...... discourses. While starting out with the classic liberal concept informing theories of modernity followed by the various critiques directed against liberalism, not the least the most recently occurring (Lyotard, Agamben), the aim here is to spot possible trajectories in our comprehension of freedom, also...

  13. Brazilian environmental sociology: a provisional review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Leila da Costa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims firstly at the reconstitution and analysis of history within the scope of international environmental sociology situated in the context of contemporary sociology. It also discusses - from the standpoint of literature (Buttel, Dunlap, Hanning, among others - its theoretical-methodological and institutional aspects as well in order to understand the obstacles encountered to legitimate and consolidate a set of problems which, until recently, were not dealt with by social sciences. Secondly, it analyses the Brazilian case. Environmental sociology in Brazil is strongly influenced by American empirical sociology, the precursor of the institutionalization process for the themes. On the other hand, further analysis of this case is relevant to understand the relationship between the scientific sphere, and the creation of environmental policies and social movements.

  14. 21st Century Science as a Relational Process: From Eureka! to Team Science and a Place for Community Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Thai, Nghi D.; Matlin, Samantha L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we maintain that 21st century science is, fundamentally, a relational process in which knowledge is produced (or co-produced) through transactions among researchers or among researchers and public stakeholders. We offer an expanded perspective on the practice of 21st century science, the production of scientific knowledge, and what community psychology can contribute to these developments. We argue that: 1) trends in science show that research is increasingly being conducted in teams; 2) scientific teams, such as transdisciplinary teams of researchers or of researchers collaborating with various public stakeholders, are better able to address complex challenges; 3) transdisciplinary scientific teams are part of the larger, 21st century transformation in science; 4) the concept of heterarchy is a heuristic for team science aligned with this transformation; 5) a contemporary philosophy of science known as perspectivism provides an essential foundation to advance 21st century science; and 6) community psychology, through its core principles and practice competencies, offers theoretical and practical expertise for advancing team science and the transformation in science currently underway. We discuss the implications of these points and illustrate them briefly with two examples of transdisciplinary team science from our own work. We conclude that a new narrative is emerging for science in the 21st century that draws on interpersonal transactions in teams, and active engagement by researchers with the public to address critical accountabilities. Because of its core organizing principles and unique blend of expertise on the intersection of research and practice, community psychologists are extraordinarily well-prepared to help advance these developments, and thus have much to offer 21st century science. PMID:24496718

  15. Sociology of Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greendorfer, Susan L.

    1985-01-01

    The author describes the issues which created the schism between physical education and sociology. If the subdiscipline of sports sociology is to survive, these misunderstandings must be erased. Current investigations of relevant topics are of interest to both physical educators and coaches and could begin to bridge the gap. (MT)

  16. Sociology through Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes how photography can inspire and cultivate sociological mindfulness. One set of assignments uses self-portraiture to highlight the complexity of visual representations of social identity. Another uses photography to guide sociological inquiry. Both sets of assignments draw on the Literacy Through Photography methodology,…

  17. Piaget's epistemic subject and science education: Epistemological vs. psychological issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, Richard F.

    1993-06-01

    Many individuals claim that Piaget's theory of cognitive development is empirically false or substantially disconfirmed by empirical research. Although there is substance to such a claim, any such conclusion must address three increasingly problematic issues about the possibility of providing an empirical test of Piaget's genetic epistemology: (1) the empirical underdetermination of theory by empirical evidence, (2) the empirical difficulty of testing competence-type explanations, and (3) the difficulty of empirically testing epistemic norms. This is especially true of a central epistemic construct in Piaget's theory — the epistemic subject. To illustrate how similar problems of empirical testability arise in the physical sciences, I briefly examine the case of Galileo and the correlative difficulty of empirically testing Galileo's laws. I then point out some important epistemological similarities between Galileo and Piaget together with correlative changes needed in science studies methodology. I conclude that many psychologists and science educators have failed to appreciate the difficulty of falsifying Piaget's theory because they have tacitly adopted a philosophy of science at odds with the paradigm-case of Galileo.

  18. Comments on "Distinguishing science from pseudoscience in school psychology:" Evidence-based interventions for grandiose bragging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochwill, Thomas R

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide some perspectives on Lilienfeld, Ammirati, and David's (2012) paper on distinguishing science from pseudoscience in school psychology. In many respects their work represents an intervention for "grandiose bragging," a problem that has occasionally occurred when various non-evidence-based or discredited interventions receive sensationalized positive endorsement for adoption in school psychology practice. In this paper, the implications of the Lilienfeld et al. work are discussed within the context of the scientist-practitioner gap, scientific thinking and evaluation of scientific thinking, and negative results research. The authors have advanced our thinking on evidence-based practices in school psychology and education. Copyright © 2011 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cancer control falls squarely within the province of the psychological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green McDonald, Paige; O'Connell, Mary; Suls, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of cancer as a contemporary public health challenge, this article presents a selective overview of psychological science contributions to cancer control research, practice, and policy. Initial contributions were circumscribed to awareness campaigns and the assessment of emotional responses to diagnosis and treatment. As evidence linking certain behaviors to cancer risk and outcomes accumulated, psychology emerged as a "hub science" in the Nation's cancer control program. Despite substantial accomplishments, new societal trends further challenge our ability to reduce risk, incidence, and deaths from cancer and enhance quality of life for cancer survivors. Evidence generated from psychological research conducted within each cell of Pasteur's quadrant continues to be relevant and necessary for effective 21st-century approaches to cancer prevention and control at the individual, clinical, and population levels. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Reproducibility of Psychological Experiments as a Problem of Post-Nonclassical Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vachkov I.V.,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental project on reproducibility carried out in the USA by Brian Nosek in 2015 (the Reproducibility Project revealed a serious methodological problem in psychology: the issue of replication of psycho- logical experiments. Reproducibility has been traditionally perceived as one of the basic principles of the scientific method. However, methodological analysis of the modern post-nonclassical stage in the development of science suggests that this might be a bit too uncompromising as applied to psychology. It seems that the very criteria of scientific research need to be reconsidered with regard to the specifics of post-nonclassical science, and, as the authors put it, as a result, reproducibility might lose its key status or even be excluded at all. The reviewed problem and the proposed ways of coping with it are of high importance to research and practice in psychology as they define the strategies for organizing, conducting and evaluating experimental research.

  1. It's time to Rework the Blueprints: Building a Science for Clinical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millon, Theodore

    2003-01-01

    The aims in this article are to connect the conceptual structure of clinical psychological science to what the author believes to be the omnipresent principles of evolution, use the evolutionary model to create a deductively derived clinical theory and taxonomy, link the theory and taxonomy to comprehensive and integrated approaches to assessment,…

  2. Rejoinder to Rogosa's Commentary on "A Manifesto on Psychology as Idiographic Science"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a rejoinder to Rogosa's (2004) commentary on the author's (Molenaar, 2004) focus article titled, "A Manifesto on Psychology as Idiographic Science." The expert commentary of Rogosa brings up some central issues that require careful evaluation. The basic message of the author's focus article was straightforward: In general,…

  3. Advancing Our Understanding of Cross-Cultural Issues in Consumer Science and Consumer Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herk, H.; Torelli, Carlos J.; van Herk, Hester; Torelli, Carlos J.

    2017-01-01

    Globalization has resulted in a more complex marketplace. Growing multi-culturalism of consumer markets and increased global competition are pushing marketing scholars to better understand cross-cultural issues in consumer science and consumer psychology. The chapters in this book cover the field to

  4. Between Religion and Science: Integrating Psychological and Philosophical Accounts of Explanatory Coexistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Christine H.; Visala, Aku

    2011-01-01

    Examining the relationship between religion and science has until recently been considered a philosophical exercise and, as a consequence, theories of how natural and supernatural explanations are related tend to be highly abstract and operate at the level of ideal rationality rather than in the psychological reality of actual believers. Although…

  5. A Critique of Positive Psychology--Or "The New Science of Happiness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alistair

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that the new science of positive psychology is founded on a whole series of fallacious arguments; these involve circular reasoning, tautology, failure to clearly define or properly apply terms, the identification of causal relations where none exist, and unjustified generalisation. Instead of demonstrating that positive attitudes…

  6. The social practice of psychology and the social sciences in a liberal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the relevance of psychology and the social and human sciences in a changing South Africa. The new South Africa embraces a liberal democratic approach to government. The Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) is a policy document that articulates the goals of this liberal democratic ...

  7. Creativity, Problem Solving and Innovative Science: Insights from History, Cognitive Psychology and Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldous, Carol R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the intersection between creativity, problem solving, cognitive psychology and neuroscience in a discussion surrounding the genesis of new ideas and innovative science. Three creative activities are considered. These are (a) the interaction between visual-spatial and analytical or verbal reasoning, (b) attending to feeling in…

  8. Practicing Sociological Imagination through Writing Sociological Autobiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Alem

    2009-01-01

    Sociological imagination is a quality of mind that cannot be adopted by simply teaching students its discursive assumptions. Rather, it is a disposition, in competition with other forms of sensibility, which can be acquired only when it is practiced. Adhering to this important pedagogical assumption, students were assigned to write their…

  9. Sociological aspects of rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babuccu, Orhan; Latifoğlu, Osman; Atabay, Kenan; Oral, Nursen; Coşan, Behçet

    2003-01-01

    Although the psychological aspect of the rhinoplasty operation has been a subject of interest for a long time, with the exception of a few studies, sociological factors have been almost totally ignored. In this prospective study the personality characteristics and socioeconomic backgrounds of 216 rhinoplasty patients were evaluated. Between 1994 and 2000, a questionnaire and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) were given preoperatively to 157 females and 59 males. The MMPI was also given to age-matched people as a control. Six months after surgery, patients were called on the telephone and asked to rate their satisfaction. According to questionnaire, a great majority of the rhinoplasty patients were young, unmarried women with high education levels. In the rhinoplasty group, one or more scales of the inventory were not in the normal ranges in 45% of the patients, whereas this proportion in the control group was 28% (p childish, highly active, impulsive, competitive, reactive, perfectionistic about themselves, talkative, and emotionally superficial. Male patients could be described as rigid, stubborn, over-sensitive, suspicious, perfectionistic, pessimistic, over-reactive, and having somatizations. Tension and anxiety with feelings of inferiority were found to be characteristics of the male patients. The satisfaction rate after six months was reported as 72%. There was no significant correlation between MMPI results and demographic variables, nor satisfaction rate. In conclusion, the rhinoplasty patients in our study are young people at the very beginning of their careers. It could be that their personalities and socioeconomic backgrounds combine to make aesthetic surgery rewarding enough, both socially and personally, to encourage them to follow through.

  10. Jung’s “Psychology with the Psyche” and the Behavioral Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raya A. Jones

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral sciences and Jung’s analytical psychology are set apart by virtue of their respective histories, epistemologies, and definitions of subject matter. This brief paper identifies Jung’s scientific stance, notes perceptions of Jung and obstacles for bringing his system of thought into the fold of the behavioral sciences. The impact of the “science versus art” debate on Jung’s stance is considered with attention to its unfolding in the fin de siècle era.

  11. Jung’s “Psychology with the Psyche” and the Behavioral Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Raya A.

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral sciences and Jung’s analytical psychology are set apart by virtue of their respective histories, epistemologies, and definitions of subject matter. This brief paper identifies Jung’s scientific stance, notes perceptions of Jung and obstacles for bringing his system of thought into the fold of the behavioral sciences. The impact of the “science versus art” debate on Jung’s stance is considered with attention to its unfolding in the fin de siècle era. PMID:25379245

  12. Mobile sociology. 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urry, John

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to develop a manifesto for a sociology concerned with the diverse mobilities of peoples, objects, images, information, and wastes; and of the complex interdependencies between, and social consequences of, such diverse mobilities. A number of key concepts relevant for such a sociology are elaborated: 'gamekeeping', networks, fluids, scapes, flows, complexity and iteration. The article concludes by suggesting that a 'global civil society' might constitute the social base of a sociology of mobilities as we move into the twenty-first century.

  13. Herding, social influence and economic decision-making: socio-psychological and neuroscientific analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Michelle

    2010-01-27

    Typically, modern economics has steered away from the analysis of sociological and psychological factors and has focused on narrow behavioural assumptions in which expectations are formed on the basis of mathematical algorithms. Blending together ideas from the social and behavioural sciences, this paper argues that the behavioural approach adopted in most economic analysis, in its neglect of sociological and psychological forces and its simplistically dichotomous categorization of behaviour as either rational or not rational, is too narrow and stark. Behaviour may reflect an interaction of cognitive and emotional factors and this can be captured more effectively using an approach that focuses on the interplay of different decision-making systems. In understanding the mechanisms affecting economic and financial decision-making, an interdisciplinary approach is needed which incorporates ideas from a range of disciplines including sociology, economic psychology, evolutionary biology and neuroeconomics.

  14. Basic concepts in social sciences I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the results are given of an investigation into concepts from Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The goal of this investigation was to find out whether there is a set of concepts that may be considered to be basic to all these five social

  15. The denial of death thesis: sociological critique and implications for palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Camilla; Rodin, Gary

    2004-03-01

    It has become commonplace to say that contemporary western society is 'death-denying'. This characterization, which sociologists have termed the 'denial of death thesis', first arose in the social science, psychological and clinical medical literature in the period between 1955 and 1985. During the same time period, the hospice and palliative care movements were developing and in part directed themselves against the perceived cultural denial of death in western society. While the denial of death has been taken for granted by the lay public as well as by clinicians, in the sociological literature it has been increasingly questioned. In this paper we use sociological critiques of the denial of death thesis to raise critical questions about the theory and practice of contemporary palliative care. In particular, we argue that the emphasis of palliative care should not be on extinguishing the denial of death but on the relief of suffering.

  16. Avoiding Chaos in the Sociology of Sport Brickyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Barry D.

    1978-01-01

    If the sociology of sport is to flourish as a legitimate field of inquiry which can contribute valid knowledge rather than an array of bits of knowledge, a sociological perspective based on a sound philosophy of science must be adopted. (Author/LH)

  17. Labor Economics and Sociology of Labor: Demarkation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S N Lebedev

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with important economic and sociological problems taking into account their relevance to economics and sociology of labor as two independent sciences. The author suggests some demarcation boundaries of the concepts relevant to contemporary life within these two disciplines.

  18. Sociology Back to the Publics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2007-01-01

    This article is a reading of the `new sociology' that is mainly identified with the works of C. Wright Mills and Alvin Gouldner. Its main argument is that during the past 40 years the new sociology gave back a public face to sociology. This distinguishes it from the `old sociology' that had not been

  19. Sociology of Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    Sociology of Discourse takes the perspective that collective actors like social movements are capable of creating social change from below by creating new institutions through alternative discourses. Institutionalization becomes a process of moving away from existing institutions towards creating...

  20. Medical sociology for whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaska, N L

    1977-12-01

    This article defines the role of a medical sociologist in a medical institution concerned with health care delivery. The role in applied research and teaching is also discussed. The distinction is made between sociology in medicine and sociology of medicine. Five broad areas of research included under the category of sociology of medicine are the consumer of health care; the social, cultural, and economic enviroments as they relate to health and illness; health and illness behavior; patient education; and the evaluation of services provided to the consumer. Research methodologies utilized by sociologists are briefly presented, and research issues of concern in the sociology of medicine are outlined. The knowledge and information provided by a medical sociologist are supplemental to the physician's practice and are expressed ultimately as a benefit for the patient.

  1. Sociology of Drug Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    In this article which is a review of sociological ideas and studies of drug abusers in social situation, drug addiction steps (particularly alcohol, heroin and cocaine consumption) are revised and some explanations are made. Also, the role of some sociological ideas in drug addiction is considered in which Anomie Theory reads: "because of such duality, the individuals who are not satisfied with their role are in hurt." According to this theory, drug users choose seclusion and neglecting usual...

  2. (De)colonizing culture in community psychology: reflections from critical social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Cruz, Mariolga; Sonn, Christopher C

    2011-03-01

    Since its inception, community psychology has been interested in cultural matters relating to issues of diversity and marginalization. However, the field has tended to understand culture as static social markers or as the background for understanding group differences. In this article the authors contend that culture is inseparable from who we are and what we do as social beings. Moreover, culture is continually shaped by socio-historical and political processes intertwined within the globalized history of power. The authors propose a decolonizing standpoint grounded in critical social science to disrupt understandings of cultural matters that marginalize others. This standpoint would move the field toward deeper critical thinking, reflexivity and emancipatory action. The authors present their work to illustrate how they integrate a decolonizing standpoint to community psychology research and teaching. They conclude that community psychology must aim towards intercultural work engaging its political nature from a place of ontological/epistemological/methodological parity.

  3. A Third Use of Sociology of Scientific Knowledge: A Lens for Studying Teacher Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Daniel Z.; Avery, Leanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last two decades, science educators and science education researchers have grown increasingly interested in utilising insights from the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) to inform their work and research. To date, researchers in science education have focused on two applications: results of sociological studies of science have been…

  4. The Sociology of Family Health. A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumba-Masagazi, A. H. K., Comp.

    This unannotated bibliography is on man, his family, the society he makes and lives in, and his health. It is about man and his East African environment. It attempts to bring together both the applied and social sciences as they affect the family. Among the disciplines drawn from are: anthropology, sociology, medicine, religion, economics, labor…

  5. Reflections on Interdisciplinary Collaboration between Sociology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If the original ambition of sociology to constitute itself into an encyclopaedia of the social sciences has largely failed (because of the obligation to restrict its scope through disciplinary specialization), the discipline has been more successful as a key actor in interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary encounters that cover a wide ...

  6. Culture of science: strange history of the methodological thinking in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomela, Aaro

    2007-03-01

    In pre-World-War-II psychology, two directions in methodological thought-the German-Austrian and North American ways-could be differentiated. After the war, the German-Austrian methodological orientation has been largely abandoned. Compared to the pre-WWII German-Austrian psychology, modern mainstream psychology is more concerned with accumulation of facts than with general theory. Furthermore, the focus on qualitative data-in addition to quantitative data-is rarely visible. Only external-physical or statistical-rather than psychological controls are taken into account in empirical studies. Fragments--rather than wholes-and relationships are studied, and single cases that contradict group data are not analyzed. Instead of complex psychological types simple trait differences are studied, and prediction is not followed by thorough analysis of the whole situation. Last (but not least), data are not systematically related to complex theory. These limits have hindered the growth of knowledge in the behavioral sciences. A new return to an updated version of the German-Austrian methodological trajectory is suggested.

  7. Problem of Understanding in the Psychology Science Studies of Ukrainian and Russian Researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Kharchenko Natalia

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the phenomenon ‘understanding’ from the position of psychological science. The paper also examines the relationship between the categories of ‘understanding’, ‘knowledge’, ‘perception’, ‘sense’, in particular the relationship (interdependence) in dyads ‘understanding–knowledge’, ‘understanding–perception’, ‘understanding–sense’. The article also covers the functions of understanding (cognitive, regulatory, ideological), levels of understanding (depth, clarity and complet...

  8. Positive psychology, a science of strengths and virtues : beyond pathology and medication

    OpenAIRE

    Marujo, Helena Águeda

    2011-01-01

    Revista de psicologia da criança e do adolescente. - ISSN 1647-4120. - N. 3 (2011). - p. 127-145. Social sciences in general, and psychology in particular, have mainly approached children and adolescents through a focus on deviation from normality and of incidence of pathology. Even preventive approaches involve the expectation of potential illness. Taking into consideration that the choice for following this trend was based on a good intention of understanding and ending human suffering t...

  9. Big data, computational science, economics, finance, marketing, management, and psychology: connections

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chia-Lin; McAleer, Michael; Wong, Wing-Keung

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThe paper provides a review of the literature that connects Big Data, Computational Science, Economics, Finance, Marketing, Management, and Psychology, and discusses some research that is related to the seven disciplines. Academics could develop theoretical models and subsequent econometric and statistical models to estimate the parameters in the associated models, as well as conduct simulation to examine whether the estimators in their theories on estimation and hypothesis testin...

  10. Colour attitude test: the possibility of application in sociology

    OpenAIRE

    V P Tkach

    2009-01-01

    The article provides the analysis of the cognitive potential of colour tests in sociology. Nowadays colour tests which are extensively used in the framework of psychology find practically no application in sociological research due to a number of their peculiarities. However, it should be recognized that such tests as colour attitude test demonstrate the richest cognitive potential for the identification of value preferences and social attitudes system at the level of the unconscious of vario...

  11. Information processing psychology: A promising paradigm for research in science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James H.; Atkin, Julia A.

    Three research paradigms, those of Ausubel, Gagné and Piaget, have received a great deal of attention in the literature of science education. In this article a fourth paradigm is presented - an information processing psychology paradigm. The article is composed of two sections. The first section describes a model of memory developed by information processing psychologists. The second section describes how such a model could be used to guide science education research on learning and problem solving.Received: 19 October 1981

  12. Colour attitude test: the possibility of application in sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V P Tkach

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the analysis of the cognitive potential of colour tests in sociology. Nowadays colour tests which are extensively used in the framework of psychology find practically no application in sociological research due to a number of their peculiarities. However, it should be recognized that such tests as colour attitude test demonstrate the richest cognitive potential for the identification of value preferences and social attitudes system at the level of the unconscious of various social groups. The methodological experiment carried out by the author has proved demonstratively the feasibility and high efficiency of colour attitude tests application in the framework of empirical sociological research.

  13. Does infant cognition research undermine sociological theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how the results of infant research challenge the assumptions of the classical sciences of social behaviour. According to A.J. Bergesen, the findings of infant research invalidate Durkheim's theory of mental categories, thus requiring a re-theorizing of sociology. This article...... argues that Bergesen's reading of Emile Durkheim is incorrect, and his review of the infant research in fact invalidates his argument. Reviewing the assumptions of sociology in the light of the findings of infant research, it is argued that the real challenge is to formulate a research strategy...

  14. Air Pollution and the Social Sciences: Formulating and Implementing Control Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Paul B., Ed.

    The social science literature, dealing with air quality, up to mid-1970 is reviewed and synthesized in five separately authored chapters, one for each of sociology, psychology, political science, law and economies. In addition to suggesting what each discipline can contribute to the solution of the air pollution problem, gaps in the literature are…

  15. Sociology of Hidden Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Moradi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the concept of hidden curriculum in the sociological theories and wants to explain sociological aspects of formation of hidden curriculum. The main question concentrates on the theoretical approaches in which hidden curriculum is explained sociologically.For this purpose it was applied qualitative research methodology. The relevant data include various sociological concepts and theories of hidden curriculum collected by the documentary method. The study showed a set of rules, procedures, relationships and social structure of education have decisive role in the formation of hidden curriculum. A hidden curriculum reinforces by existed inequalities among learners (based on their social classes or statues. There is, in fact, a balance between the learner's "knowledge receptions" with their "inequality proportion".The hidden curriculum studies from different major sociological theories such as Functionalism, Marxism and critical theory, Symbolic internationalism and Feminism. According to the functionalist perspective a hidden curriculum has a social function because it transmits social values. Marxists and critical thinkers correlate between hidden curriculum and the totality of social structure. They depicts that curriculum prepares learners for the exploitation in the work markets. Symbolic internationalism rejects absolute hegemony of hidden curriculum on education and looks to the socialization as a result of interaction between learner and instructor. Feminism theory also considers hidden curriculum as a vehicle which legitimates gender stereotypes.

  16. Economics and sociology: Between cooperation and intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In social sciences two opposing tendencies act simultaneously: the growth of specialization and the need for synthesis. Similar tendencies are noticeable when economics and sociology are in question. The need for these two sciences to cooperate was noticed a long time ago. However, an increasingly intensive exchange has been achieved only recently, particularly in the explanation of individual and group behavior. The works of Mancur Olson are a good example how the results of economics can be inspiring for the research in other sciences, particularly sociology and political science. Applying the results he got by analyzing the logic of collective action, Olson managed to attain significant insight concerning the functioning of economics and society as a whole.

  17. Extended education and the re-definition of the role of educational psychology for science and mathematics teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Marques Zanforlin Pires de Almeida, Inês; Francesca Conte de Almeida, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to address the topic of continued teacher education, one of the main themes of the PhD thesis in psychology Re-definition of the Role cif Educational Psychology in Continued Education of Science and Mathetnatics Teachers. By tracing the historical path of the different trends, concepts and movements regarding continued education and the relationship between psychology and education, it has been possible to develop severa! guidelines and reflections related to pedagogical...

  18. Economics and sociology: Between cooperation and intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanović Božo

    2007-01-01

    In social sciences two opposing tendencies act simultaneously: the growth of specialization and the need for synthesis. Similar tendencies are noticeable when economics and sociology are in question. The need for these two sciences to cooperate was noticed a long time ago. However, an increasingly intensive exchange has been achieved only recently, particularly in the explanation of individual and group behavior. The works of Mancur Olson are a good example how the results of economics can be...

  19. ECONOMICS AND SOCIOLOGY: BETWEN COOPERATION AND INTOLERANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Božo Stojanović

    2007-01-01

    In social sciences two opposing tendencies act simultaneously: the growth of specialisation and the need for synthesis. Similar tendencies are noticable when economics and sociology are in question. The need for these two sciences to cooperate was noticed a long time ago. However, an incresingly intensive exchange has been achieved only recently, particularly in the explanation of individual and group behavior. The works of Mancur Olson are a good example how the results of economics can be i...

  20. Guide to Sources: American History, Anthropology, Folklore, Business Administration, Education, English, Food Science, French, German, Music, Philosophy, Political Science, Psychology, and Sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine Univ., Orono. Raymond H. Fogler Library.

    This group of 13 library guides, designed to introduce the student to some of the bibliographical tools available in various subject areas at Fogler Library, is not intended to be a complete listing, but rather a selective introduction to the many sources of information available to the beginning researcher. Information is provided on the use of…

  1. Persuasion through artifacts: Sociological and psychological dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroe Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that applicants use various impression management tactics during employment interviews to influence interviewers' evaluations of their performance. Yet, little research has examined inteviewers/perceptions of applicant's impression management and their degree of nonverbal influence. This PhD study examines these questions, using both quantitative and qualitative data: Do interviewers accurately perceive applicant's impression management tactics? How are these perceptions integrated into their evaluations of applicant's nonverbal behaviour? Is perception accuracy influenced by artifacts (professional clothing that interviewees wear? It has cross-cultural design, because describes the differences in European Commission interviewers' social perceptions and Romanian human resources managers on one hand, and between social perceptions of European Commission public servants and Romanian employees on the other hand, concerning 12 key concepts: persuasion, first impressions, professional image, credibility, authenticity, competence, self- confidence, self-management, self-presentation, self-promotion, impression management tactics, professional appearance.

  2. Physical Education, Sociology, and Sociology of Sport: Points of Intersection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, George H.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the rise of sociology and physical education (PE), discussing linkages that initially existed and the separation that transpired between them. Also examines connections between social theory and PE before the sociology of sport was formally developed. Details the rise of sociology of sport, highlighting roles of physical educators. (SM)

  3. Integrating research into clinical internship training bridging the science/practice gap in pediatric psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Spirito, Anthony

    2012-03-01

    Existing literature highlights a critical gap between science and practice in clinical psychology. The internship year is a "capstone experience"; training in methods of scientific evaluation should be integrated with the development of advanced clinical competencies. We provide a rationale for continued exposure to research during the clinical internship year, including, (a) critical examination and integration of the literature regarding evidence-based treatment and assessment, (b) participation in faculty-based and independent research, and (c) orientation to the science and strategy of grantsmanship. Participation in research provides exposure to new empirical models and can foster the development of applied research questions. Orientation to grantsmanship can yield an initial sense of the "business of science." Internship provides an important opportunity to examine the challenges to integrating the clinical evidence base into professional practice; for that reason, providing research exposure on internship is an important strategy in training the next generation of pediatric psychologists.

  4. Integrating Research Into Clinical Internship Training Bridging the Science/Practice Gap in Pediatric Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirito, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Existing literature highlights a critical gap between science and practice in clinical psychology. The internship year is a “capstone experience”; training in methods of scientific evaluation should be integrated with the development of advanced clinical competencies. We provide a rationale for continued exposure to research during the clinical internship year, including, (a) critical examination and integration of the literature regarding evidence-based treatment and assessment, (b) participation in faculty-based and independent research, and (c) orientation to the science and strategy of grantsmanship. Participation in research provides exposure to new empirical models and can foster the development of applied research questions. Orientation to grantsmanship can yield an initial sense of the “business of science.” Internship provides an important opportunity to examine the challenges to integrating the clinical evidence base into professional practice; for that reason, providing research exposure on internship is an important strategy in training the next generation of pediatric psychologists. PMID:22286345

  5. Best Practices: How to Evaluate Psychological Science for Use by Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T; Borgida, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    We discuss how organizations can evaluate psychological science for its potential usefulness to their own purposes. Common sense is often the default but inadequate alternative, and bench-marking supplies only collective hunches instead of validated principles. External validity is an empirical process of identifying moderator variables, not a simple yes-no judgment about whether lab results replicate in the field. Hence, convincing criteria must specify what constitutes high-quality empirical evidence for organizational use. First, we illustrate some theories and science that have potential use. Then we describe generally accepted criteria for scientific quality and consensus, starting with peer review for quality, and scientific agreement in forms ranging from surveys of experts to meta-analyses to National Research Council consensus reports. Linkages of basic science to organizations entail communicating expert scientific consensus, motivating managerial interest, and translating broad principles to specific contexts. We close with parting advice to both sides of the researcher-practitioner divide.

  6. Relevance of Piagetian cross-cultural psychology to the humanities and social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterdiekhoff, Georg W

    2013-01-01

    Jean Piaget held views according to which there are parallels between ontogeny and the historical development of culture, sciences, and reason. His books are full of remarks and considerations about these parallels, with reference to many logical, physical, social, and moral phenomena.This article explains that Piagetian cross-cultural psychology has delivered the decisive data needed to extend the research interests of Piaget. These data provide a basis for reconstructing not only the history of sciences but also the history of religion, politics, morals, culture, philosophy, and social change and the emergence of industrial society. Thus, it is possible to develop Piagetian theory as a historical anthropology in order to provide a basis for the humanities and social sciences.

  7. Single-Case Research Methods: History and Suitability for a Psychological Science in Need of Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo; López-López, Wilson

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a historical and conceptual analysis of a group of research strategies known as the Single-Case Methods (SCMs). First, we present an overview of the SCMs, their history, and their major proponents. We will argue that the philosophical roots of SCMs can be found in the ideas of authors who recognized the importance of understanding both the generality and individuality of psychological functioning. Second, we will discuss the influence that the natural sciences' attitude toward measurement and experimentation has had on SCMs. Although this influence can be traced back to the early days of experimental psychology, during which incipient forms of SCMs appeared, SCMs reached full development during the subsequent advent of Behavior Analysis (BA). Third, we will show that despite the success of SCMs in BA and other (mainly applied) disciplines, these designs are currently not prominent in psychology. More importantly, they have been neglected as a possible alternative to one of the mainstream approaches in psychology, the Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST), despite serious controversies about the limitations of this prevailing method. Our thesis throughout this section will be that SCMs should be considered as an alternative to NHST because many of the recommendations for improving the use of significance testing (Wilkinson & the TFSI, 1999) are main characteristics of SCMs. The paper finishes with a discussion of a number of the possible reasons why SCMs have been neglected.

  8. Improving Public Engagement With Climate Change: Five "Best Practice" Insights From Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Sander; Maibach, Edward; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    Despite being one of the most important societal challenges of the 21st century, public engagement with climate change currently remains low in the United States. Mounting evidence from across the behavioral sciences has found that most people regard climate change as a nonurgent and psychologically distant risk-spatially, temporally, and socially-which has led to deferred public decision making about mitigation and adaptation responses. In this article, we advance five simple but important "best practice" insights from psychological science that can help governments improve public policymaking about climate change. Particularly, instead of a future, distant, global, nonpersonal, and analytical risk that is often framed as an overt loss for society, we argue that policymakers should (a) emphasize climate change as a present, local, and personal risk; (b) facilitate more affective and experiential engagement; (c) leverage relevant social group norms; (d) frame policy solutions in terms of what can be gained from immediate action; and (e) appeal to intrinsically valued long-term environmental goals and outcomes. With practical examples we illustrate how these key psychological principles can be applied to support societal engagement and climate change policymaking. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. The cognitive viewpoint on information science and processing information in cognitive psychology - a vision for interdisciplinary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Guimarães Pimenta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction amongst the ‘user’, ‘information’, and ‘text’ is of interest to Information Science although it has deserved insufficient attention in the literature. This issue is addressed by this paper whose main purpose is to contribute to the discussion of theoretical affinity between the cognitive viewpoint in Information Science and the information processing approach in Cognitive Psychology. Firstly, the interdisciplinary nature of Information Science is discussed and justified as a means to deepen and strengthen its theoretical framework. Such interdisciplinarity helps to avoid stagnation and keep pace with other disciplines. Secondly, the discussion takes into consideration the cognitive paradigm, which originates the cognitive viewpoint approach in Information Science. It is highlighted that the cognitive paradigm represented a change in the Social Sciences due to the shift of focus from the object and the signal to the individual. Besides that, it sheds light to the notion of models of worlds, i.e., the systems of categories and concepts that guide the interaction between the individual and his/her environment. Thirdly, the theoretical assumptions of the cognitive viewpoint approach are discussed, with emphasis on the concept of ‘information’, as resulting of cognitive processes and as related to the notion of ‘text’. This approach points out the relevance of understanding the interaction amongst users, information, and text. However, it lacks further development. Using notions which are common to both approaches, some of the gaps can be fulfilled. Finally, the concept of ‘text’, its constituents and structures are presented from the perspective of text comprehension models and according to the information processing approach. As a concluding remark, it is suggested that bringing together the cognitive viewpoint and the information processing approach can be enriching and fruitful to the both Information

  10. Sport Sociology: Contemporary Themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakis, Andrew, Ed.; And Others

    Intended for beginning and intermediate level students of sport and society, this anthology of 43 articles is organized into twelve, self-contained teaching units with unit introductions and study questions. Topics addressed include: (1) the sociological study of sport; (2) sport and American society; (3) the interdependence of sport, politics,…

  11. Big Data, Computational Science, Economics, Finance, Marketing, Management, and Psychology: Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lin Chang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a review of the literature that connects Big Data, Computational Science, Economics, Finance, Marketing, Management, and Psychology, and discusses research issues that are related to the various disciplines. Academics could develop theoretical models and subsequent econometric and statistical models to estimate the parameters in the associated models, as well as conduct simulation to examine whether the estimators in their theories on estimation and hypothesis testing have good size and high power. Thereafter, academics and practitioners could apply theory to analyse some interesting issues in the seven disciplines and cognate areas.

  12. Editorial: Child psychology and psychiatry - using science to make a difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, R M Pasco

    2017-04-01

    The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry has, I think it is fair to say, a special place in the hearts of scientists and scientist-practitioners working broadly in the field of developmental psychopathology. How would you put into words what it is we all love about the journal? Answers on a postcard please! For me, in addition to the high quality of the science, there is something unique about JCPP's open-minded, eclectic yet rigorous and methodologically pluralistic style that makes it stand out from the rest. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  13. [The politics of the self: psychological science and bourgeois subjectivity in 19th century Spain.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novella, Enric J

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers an analysis of the process of institutionalization of psychological knowledge in Spain following the educative reforms implemented during the second third of the 19th century, which prescribed its inclusion in the curricular program of the new secondary education. After a detailed examination of the theoretical orientation, the ideological assumptions and the socio-political connections of the contents transmitted to the students throughout the century, its militant spiritualism is interpreted as a highly significant attempt on the part of the liberal elites to articulate a pedagogy of subjectivity intended to counteract the trends toward reduction, naturalization and fragmentation of psychic life inherent to the development of modern science.

  14. [Doctoral theses production of the more productive Spanish psychology professors in the Web of Science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivas-Ávila, José A; Musi-Lechuga, Bertha

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze the scientific production of the more productive Psychology faculty member of Spain through advised doctoral theses in the data base TESEO. The sample consisted of the 100 more productive professors of each one of the areas of Spanish Psychology. We reviewed a total of 4036 records of which 2339 belong to the 610 professors who conformed the sample. The results reveal that the percentage of professors who have not directed any thesis accounts for 24%. On the other hand, the proportion of thesis by professor by areas oscillates in a range of between 5.25 and 2.50, being Personality, Evaluation and Psychological Treatment the highest of this rank and Behavioral Sciences Methodology the last. In the last 7 years, the most productive professors have duplicated their theses direction. Finally, there is a rising trend in terms of theses read in every area, reaching the greater frequency in the years of 2003 and 2005. We discuss the considerations that represent the doctoral thesis direction for professors as criterion in their evaluation.

  15. Heuristic resources of the ‘classics’: Perspectives of sociological enlightenment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D G Podvoyskiy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the methodological question traditional for the humanities and social sciences (and, above all, sociology, namely, the question about their world view status, functions and aims. According to the author, ‘sociological enlightenment’ provides a chance to justify the purport of scientific research on the theory and history of sociology (research that is culturally significant beyond the narrow professional frames of sociology. The most important component of this ‘enlightenment’ is the demonstration of ‘heuristic resources’ of classical and modern theoretical sociology as a means of scientific explanation and conceptualization of social problems at a level comprehensible to non-academic audiences.

  16. Are you afraid of the dark? Notes on the psychology of belief in histories of science and the occult

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Taylor & Francis via https://doi.org/ 10.1080/13642537.2016.1170062 The popular view of the inherent conflict between science and the occult has been rendered obsolete by recent advances in the history of science. Yet, these historiographical revisions have gone unnoticed in the public understanding of science and public education at large. Particularly reconstructions of the formation of modern psychology and its links to...

  17. V. M. BEKHTEREV IN RUSSIAN CHILD SCIENCE, 1900S-1920S: "OBJECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY"/"REFLEXOLOGY" AS A SCIENTIFIC MOVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byford, Andy

    2016-01-01

    In the early 20(th) century the child population became a major focus of scientific, professional and public interest. This led to the crystallization of a dynamic field of child science, encompassing developmental and educational psychology, child psychiatry and special education, school hygiene and mental testing, juvenile criminology and the anthropology of childhood. This article discusses the role played in child science by the eminent Russian neurologist and psychiatrist Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev. The latter's name is associated with a distinctive program for transforming the human sciences in general and psychology in particular that he in the 1900s labelled "objective psychology" and from the 1910s renamed "reflexology." The article examines the equivocal place that Bekhterev's "objective psychology" and "reflexology" occupied in Russian/Soviet child science in the first three decades of the 20(th) century. While Bekhterev's prominence in this field is beyond doubt, analysis shows that "objective psychology" and "reflexology" had much less success in mobilizing support within it than certain other movements in this arena (for example, "experimental pedagogy" in the pre-revolutionary era); it also found it difficult to compete with the variety of rival programs that arose within Soviet "pedology" during the 1920s. However, this article also demonstrates that the study of child development played a pivotal role in Bekhterev's program for the transformation of the human sciences: it was especially important to his efforts to ground in empirical phenomena and in concrete research practices a new ontology of the psychological, which, the article argues, underpinned "objective psychology"/"reflexology" as a transformative scientific movement. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Alcohol and Violence in the Emergency Room: A Review and Perspectives from Psychological and Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Cherpitel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Our objective is to present a focused review of the scientific literature on the effect of alcohol consumption on violence related-injuries assessed in the emergency room (ER and to show how psychological and behavioral sciences could lead to a better understanding of the factors contributing to alcohol-related injuries in the ER. We retrieved published literature through a detailed search in Academic Search Premier, MEDLINE with Full Text PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, PUBMed and SocINDEX with Full Text for articles related to emergency rooms, medical problems and sociocognitive models addressing alcohol intoxication articles. The first search was conducted in June 2011 and updated until August 2013. Literature shows that compared to uninjured patients; injured ones have a higher probability of: (i having an elevated blood-alcohol concentration upon arrival at the ER; (ii reporting having drunk alcohol during the six hours preceding the event; and (iii suffering from drinking-related consequences that adversely affect their social life. The main neurocognitive and sociocognitive models on alcohol and aggression are also discussed in order to understand the aetiology of violence-related injuries in emergency rooms. Suggestions are made for future research and prevention.

  19. The sterility of equilibrium economics: an aspect of sociology of science La esterilidad de la economía del equilibrio: un aspecto de la sociología de la ciencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt V. V.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that economic science is yet to reach maturity and that equilibrium theory does not grasp actual economic relationships,and is sterile for policy making. It analyses the creation of castsamong economists, the impossibility of formalizing all economic phenomena in terms of individual optimization, and the ideological biases of scientific work. It suggests the need to reassess the basic hypothesis of the general equilibrium approach and to rebuild the analytical framework of economics. Based upon Krishnamurti "ephilosophy, it shows that the main thrust of human behavior is notselfishness but envy, and that this motivation weakens the traditional theory of individual and firm behavior.Este articulo muestra que la ciencia economica no ha alñcanzado la madurez que la la teoria del equilibrio no capta las relaciones economicas reales y es esteril para formular politicas ecopnomicas. Analiza la formacion de castas entre los economistas, la imposibilidad de formalizar todos los fenomenso economicos en terminos de optimizacion individual y los sesgos ideologicos del trabajo cientifico. Indica la necesidad de replantear las hipotesis basicas del enfoque del equilibrio general y de reconstruir el aparato analitico de la economia. Con base en la filosofia de Krishnamurti, muestra que la fuerza motriz de la conducta humana es la envidia y no el egoismo , y que esta motivacion resta validez a la teoria tradicional del comportamiento de los individuos y de las empresas.

  20. Three General Theoretical Models in Sociology: An Articulated ?(Disunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís García-Pereiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After merely a brief, comparative reconstruction of the three most general theoretical models underlying contemporary Sociology (atomic, systemic, and fluid it becomes necessary to review the question about the unity or plurality of Sociology, which is the main objective of this paper. To do so, the basic terms of the question are firstly updated by following the hegemonic trends in current studies of science. Secondly the convergences and divergences among the three models discussed are shown. Following some additional discussion, the conclusion is reached that contemporary Sociology is not unitary, and need not be so. It is plural, but its plurality is limited and articulated by those very models. It may therefore be portrayed as integrated and commensurable, to the extent that a partial and unstable (disunity may be said to exist in Sociology, which is not too far off from what happens in the natural sciences.

  1. What has become of critique? Reassembling sociology after Latour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Tom

    2017-09-06

    This paper offers a defence of sociology through an engagement with Actor Network Theory (ANT) and particularly the critique of 'critical' and politically engaged social science developed by Bruno Latour. It argues that ANT identifies some weaknesses in more conventional sociology and social theory, and suggests that 'critical' and 'public' orientated sociologists can learn from the analytical precision and ethnographic sensibilities that characterize ANT as a framework of analysis and a research programme. It argues, however, that Latour et al. have too hastily dispensed with 'critique' in favour of a value neutral descriptive sociology, and that the symmetrical and horizontalist approach adopted in ANT is particularly ill-suited to the development of scientific knowledge about social structures. It argues that a more straightforwardly realist sociology would share many of the strengths of ANT whilst being better able to interrogate, empirically and normatively, the centres of contemporary social power. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  2. The rise of the boy-genius: psychological neoteny, science and modern life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2006-01-01

    The mid-20th century saw the rise of the boy-genius, probably because a personality type characterized by prolonged youthfulness is advantageous both in science and modern life generally. This is the evolution of 'psychological neoteny', in which ever-more people retain for ever-longer the characteristic behaviours and attitudes of earlier developmental stages. Whereas traditional societies are characterized by initiation ceremonies marking the advent of adulthood, these have now dwindled and disappeared. In a psychological sense, some contemporary individuals never actually become adults. A child-like flexibility of attitudes, behaviours and knowledge is probably adaptive in modern society because people need repeatedly to change jobs, learn new skills, move to new places and make new friends. It seems that this adaptation is achieved by the expedient of postponing cognitive maturation - a process that could be termed psychological neoteny. ('Neoteny' refers to the biological phenomenon whereby development is delayed such that juvenile characteristics are retained into maturity.) Psychological neoteny is probably caused by the prolonged average duration of formal education, since students' minds are in a significant sense 'unfinished'. Since modern cultures favour cognitive flexibility, 'immature' people tend to thrive and succeed, and have set the tone of contemporary life: the greatest praise of an elderly person is to state that they retain the characteristics of youth. But the faults of youth are retained with well as its virtues: short attention span, sensation- and novelty-seeking, short cycles of arbitrary fashion and a sense of cultural shallowness. Nonetheless, as health gets better and cosmetic technologies improve, future humans may become somewhat like an axolotl - the cave-dwelling salamander which retains its larval form until death.

  3. Unforgivable Sinners? Epistemological and Psychological Naturalism in Husserl’s Philosophy as a Rigorous Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sebastiano Staiti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I present and assess Husserl's arguments against epistomological and psychological naturalism in his essay Philosophy as a Rigorous Science. I show that his critique is directed against positions that are generally more extreme than most currently debated variants of naturalism. However, Husserl has interesting thoughts to contribute to philosophy today. First, he shows that there is an important connection between naturalism in epistemology (which in his view amounts to the position that the validity of logic can be reduced to the validity natural laws of thinking and naturalism in psychology (which in his view amounts to the position that all psychic occurrences are merely parallel accompaniments of physiological occurrences. Second, he shows that a strong version of epistemological naturalism is self-undermining and fails to translate the cogency of logic in psychological terms. Third, and most importantly for current debates, he attacks Cartesianism as a form of psychological naturalism because of its construal of the psyche as a substance. Against this position, Husserl defends the necessity to formulate new epistemic aims for the investigation of consciousness. He contends that what is most interesting about consciousness is not its empirical fact but its transcendental function of granting cognitive access to all kinds of objects (both empirical and ideal. The study of this function requires a specific method (eidetics that cannot be conflated with empirical methods. I conclude that Husserl's analyses offer much-needed insight into the fabric of consciousness and compelling arguments against unwarranted metaphysical speculations about the relationship between mind and body.

  4. Bringing Psychological Science to the Forefront of Educational Policy: Collaborative Efforts of the American Psychological Association's Coalition for Psychology in the Schools and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Stephen A.; Subotnik, Rena F.; Bassford, Maya; Smulson, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The following article details the work of the American Psychological Association's (APA's) Coalition for Psychology in the Schools and Education (CPSE). First, a brief history of the background and creation of the coalition is described. The article then details the projects, completed and ongoing, of the CPSE. Those projects include a Teacher…

  5. Using science and psychology to improve the dissemination and evaluation of scientific work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttliere, Brett T

    2014-01-01

    Here I outline some of what science can tell us about the problems in psychological publishing and how to best address those problems. First, the motivation behind questionable research practices is examined (the desire to get ahead or, at least, not fall behind). Next, behavior modification strategies are discussed, pointing out that reward works better than punishment. Humans are utility seekers and the implementation of current change initiatives is hindered by high initial buy-in costs and insufficient expected utility. Open science tools interested in improving science should team up, to increase utility while lowering the cost and risk associated with engagement. The best way to realign individual and group motives will probably be to create one, centralized, easy to use, platform, with a profile, a feed of targeted science stories based upon previous system interaction, a sophisticated (public) discussion section, and impact metrics which use the associated data. These measures encourage high quality review and other prosocial activities while inhibiting self-serving behavior. Some advantages of centrally digitizing communications are outlined, including ways the data could be used to improve the peer review process. Most generally, it seems that decisions about change design and implementation should be theory and data driven.

  6. Introduction to special section of the Journal of Family Psychology, advances in mixed methods in family psychology: integrative and applied solutions for family science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisner, Thomas S; Fiese, Barbara H

    2011-12-01

    Mixed methods in family psychology refer to the systematic integration of qualitative and quantitative techniques to represent family processes and settings. Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in study design, analytic strategies, and technological support (such as software) that allow for the integration of quantitative and qualitative methods and for making appropriate inferences from mixed methods. This special section of the Journal of Family Psychology illustrates how mixed methods may be used to advance knowledge in family science through identifying important cultural differences in family structure, beliefs, and practices, and revealing patterns of family relationships to generate new measurement paradigms and inform clinical practice. Guidance is offered to advance mixed methods research in family psychology through sound principles of peer review.

  7. Did Harriet Martineau's sociological methods influence Emile Durkheim's sociological methods?

    OpenAIRE

    Fritsch, Jon Eric

    1995-01-01

    Harriet Martineau (1802-1876) published How to Observe Morals and Manners in 1838. The book was perhaps the first sociological methodology text. Emile Durkheim (1855-1917) published The Rules of Sociological Method (1895) 57 years later. Durkheim's book has traditionally been labeled as the first sociological methodology text, while Martineau's book has been virtually forgotten by modern day sociologists. The author identifies significant similarities between the two tex...

  8. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  9. 2004 American Sociological Association Presidential address: for public sociology*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burawoy, Michael

    2005-06-01

    Responding to the growing gap between the sociological ethos and the world we study, the challenge of public sociology is to engage multiple publics in multiple ways. These public sociologies should not be left out in the cold, but brought into the framework of our discipline. In this way we make public sociology a visible and legitimate enterprise, and, thereby, invigorate the discipline as a whole. Accordingly, if we map out the division of sociological labor, we discover antagonistic interdependence among four types of knowledge: professional, critical, policy, and public. In the best of all worlds the flourishing of each type of sociology is a condition for the flourishing of all, but they can just as easily assume pathological forms or become victims of exclusion and subordination. This field of power beckons us to explore the relations among the four types of sociology as they vary historically and nationally, and as they provide the template for divergent individual careers. Finally, comparing disciplines points to the umbilical chord that connects sociology to the world of publics, underlining sociology's particular investment in the defense of civil society, itself beleaguered by the encroachment of markets and states.

  10. The Study on the Core Concepts of Contemporary Sociology of Education and Its Theoretical Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Min-hui

    2006-01-01

    Within the sphere of contemporary social sciences, the terms "modernity," "post-modernity" and "globalization" have penetrated, as the core concepts, into various fields of social sciences in a logical way. In constituting the concept of "modernity," sociology of education develops the educational theory, as sociological theory does, into a "grand…

  11. Interdisciplinary technology assessment of service robots: the psychological/work science perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Martin

    2012-12-01

    The article sheds light on psychological and work science aspects of the design and utilization of service robots. An initial presentation of the characteristics of man-robot interaction is followed by a discussion of the principles of the division of functions between human beings and robots in service area work systems. The following aspects are to be considered: (1) the organisation of societal work (such as the different employment and professional profiles of service employees), (2) the work tasks to be performed by humans and robots (such as handling, monitoring or decision-making tasks), (3) the possibilities and the limitations of realizing such tasks by means of information technology (depending, for example, on the motoric capabilities, perception and cognition of the robot). Consideration of these three design perspectives gives rise to criteria of usability. Current debate focuses on the (work science) principles of man-machine communication, though in future these should be supplemented with robot-specific criteria such as "motoric capabilities" or "relationship quality." The article concludes by advocating the convergence and combination of work science criteria with ideas drawn from participative design approaches in the development and utilization of service robots.

  12. The sociological imagination in a time of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgaard, Kari Marie

    2018-04-01

    Despite rising calls for social science knowledge in the face of climate change, too few sociologists have been engaged in the conversations about how we have arrived at such perilous climatic circumstances, or how society can change course. With its attention to the interactive dimensions of social order between individuals, social norms, cultural systems and political economy, the discipline of sociology is uniquely positioned to be an important leader in this conversation. In this paper I suggest that in order to understand and respond to climate change we need two kinds of imagination: 1) to see the relationships between human actions and their impacts on earth's biophysical system (ecological imagination) and 2) to see the relationships within society that make up this environmentally damaging social structure (sociological imagination). The scientific community has made good progress in developing our ecological imagination but still need to develop a sociological imagination. The application of a sociological imagination allows for a powerfully reframing of four key problems in the current interdisciplinary conversation on climate change: why climate change is happening, how we are being impacted, why we have failed to successfully respond so far, and how we might be able to effectively do so. I visit each of these four questions describing the current understanding and show the importance of the sociological imagination and other insights from the field of sociology. I close with reflections on current limitations in sociology's potential to engage climate change and the Anthropocene.

  13. Back to Hegel? On Gillian Rose's critique of sociological reason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Brian W

    2017-08-22

    Thirty-five years ago, Gillian Rose articulated a significant critique of classical sociological reason, emphasizing its relationship to its philosophical forebears. In a series of works, but most significantly in her Hegel contra Sociology, Rose worked to specify the implications of sociology's failure, both in its critical Marxist and its 'scientific' forms, to move beyond Kant and to fully come to terms with the thought of Hegel. In this article, I unpack and explain the substance of her criticisms, developing the necessary Hegelian philosophical background on which she founded them. I argue that Rose's attempted recuperation of 'speculative reason' for social theory remains little understood, despite its continued relevance to contemporary debates concerning the nature and scope of sociological reason. As an illustration, I employ Rose to critique Chernilo's recent call for a more philosophically sophisticated sociology. From the vantage point of Rose, this particular account of a 'philosophical sociology' remains abstract and rooted in the neo-Kantian contradictions that continue to characterize sociology. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  14. Religion, Psychology and Globalisation Process: Attitudinal Appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Orok Duke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A key consequence of globalisation is the integrative approach to reality whereby emphasis is placed on interdependence. Religion being an expression of human culture is equally affected by this cultural revolution. The main objective of this paper is to examine how religious affiliation, among Christians, influences attitudes towards the application of psychological sciences to the assuagement of human suffering. The sociological theory of structural functionalism was deployed to explain attitudinal appraisal. Ethnographic methodology, through quantitative analysis of administered questionnaire, was also used. The study reveals that religious tenets largely shape attitudinal appraisal and redefine the borders of globalisation’s metanarratives.

  15. Using Smartphones to Collect Behavioral Data in Psychological Science: Opportunities, Practical Considerations, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Gabriella M; Lane, Nicholas D; Wang, Rui; Crosier, Benjamin S; Campbell, Andrew T; Gosling, Samuel D

    2016-11-01

    Smartphones now offer the promise of collecting behavioral data unobtrusively, in situ, as it unfolds in the course of daily life. Data can be collected from the onboard sensors and other phone logs embedded in today's off-the-shelf smartphone devices. These data permit fine-grained, continuous collection of people's social interactions (e.g., speaking rates in conversation, size of social groups, calls, and text messages), daily activities (e.g., physical activity and sleep), and mobility patterns (e.g., frequency and duration of time spent at various locations). In this article, we have drawn on the lessons from the first wave of smartphone-sensing research to highlight areas of opportunity for psychological research, present practical considerations for designing smartphone studies, and discuss the ongoing methodological and ethical challenges associated with research in this domain. It is our hope that these practical guidelines will facilitate the use of smartphones as a behavioral observation tool in psychological science. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Problem of Understanding in the Psychology Science Studies of Ukrainian and Russian Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharchenko Natalia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the phenomenon ‘understanding’ from the position of psychological science. The paper also examines the relationship between the categories of ‘understanding’, ‘knowledge’, ‘perception’, ‘sense’, in particular the relationship (interdependence in dyads ‘understanding–knowledge’, ‘understanding–perception’, ‘understanding–sense’. The article also covers the functions of understanding (cognitive, regulatory, ideological, levels of understanding (depth, clarity and completeness, forms of understanding (understanding–recognition, understanding–hypothesis (prediction, understanding–unification, stages of understanding (pre-understanding, a vague understanding, insufficiently clear understanding, a clear understanding, a complete understanding, types of understanding (natural, cultural, creative. The analysis of scientific literature made it possible to draw conclusions that understanding is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon, which can act as a natural and social, conscious and unconscious, objective and subjective, as the process and as the result. Understanding as a psychological phenomenon covers all mental processes: thinking, memory, representation, creative imagination, emotional and volitional processes, properties and abilities of the individual and pervades and mediates cognitive procedures (observation, description, prediction, explanation, etc.. Understanding is the target process, motivated, active, emotional and volitional, productive and individually personal.

  17. It may be harder than we thought, but political diversity will (still) improve social psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jarret T; Duarte, José L; Haidt, Jonathan; Jussim, Lee; Stern, Charlotta; Tetlock, Philip E

    2015-01-01

    In our target article, we made four claims: (1) Social psychology is now politically homogeneous; (2) this homogeneity sometimes harms the science; (3) increasing political diversity would reduce this damage; and (4) some portion of the homogeneity is due to a hostile climate and outright discrimination against non-liberals. In this response, we review these claims in light of the arguments made by a diverse group of commentators. We were surprised to find near-universal agreement with our first two claims, and we note that few challenged our fourth claim. Most of the disagreements came in response to our claim that increasing political diversity would be beneficial. We agree with our critics that increasing political diversity may be harder than we had thought, but we explain why we still believe that it is possible and desirable to do so. We conclude with a revised list of 12 recommendations for improving political diversity in social psychology, as well as in other areas of the academy.

  18. Hale and Hearty Policies: How Psychological Science Can Create and Maintain Healthy Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Alexander J; Gollwitzer, Peter M; Grant, Adam M; Neal, David T; Sheeran, Paschal; Wood, Wendy

    2015-11-01

    Strategies are needed to ensure that the U.S. Government meets its goals for improving the health of the nation (e.g., Healthy People 2020). To date, progress toward these goals has been undermined by a set of discernible challenges: People lack sufficient motivation, they frequently fail to translate healthy intentions into action, their efforts are undermined by the persistence of prior unhealthy habits, and they have considerable difficulty maintaining new healthy patterns of behavior. Guided by advances in psychological science, we provide innovative, evidence-based policies that address each of these challenges and, if implemented, will enhance people's ability to create and maintain healthy behavioral practices. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Cognitive and psychological science insights to improve climate change data visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, Jordan; Lorenzoni, Irene; Shipley, Thomas F.; Coventry, Kenny R.

    2016-12-01

    Visualization of climate data plays an integral role in the communication of climate change findings to both expert and non-expert audiences. The cognitive and psychological sciences can provide valuable insights into how to improve visualization of climate data based on knowledge of how the human brain processes visual and linguistic information. We review four key research areas to demonstrate their potential to make data more accessible to diverse audiences: directing visual attention, visual complexity, making inferences from visuals, and the mapping between visuals and language. We present evidence-informed guidelines to help climate scientists increase the accessibility of graphics to non-experts, and illustrate how the guidelines can work in practice in the context of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change graphics.

  20. Toward Publicly Responsive Sociology Curricula: The Role of Introductory Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    Introductory sociology casts a wide net with regard to its audience and plays an important role in capturing the public eye as well as helping students to make more informed choices in their lives and communities. I ask six questions that help us as sociologists to think about how introductory sociology can better serve our discipline, our…

  1. Conceptual issues of research methodology for the behavioural, life and social sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellenbergh, G.J.; Adèr, H.J.; Baird, D.; Berger, M.P.F.; Cornell, J.E.; Hagenaars, J.A.P.; Molenaar, P.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Research methodology (RM) must be clearly separated from substantive fields, such as medicine, psychology, education, sociology and economics, and, on the other side, from the philosophy of science and statistics. RM starts from substantive research problems and uses statistical knowledge, but it

  2. Sociology of Drug Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article which is a review of sociological ideas and studies of drug abusers in social situation, drug addiction steps (particularly alcohol, heroin and cocaine consumption are revised and some explanations are made. Also, the role of some sociological ideas in drug addiction is considered in which Anomie Theory reads: "because of such duality, the individuals who are not satisfied with their role are in hurt." According to this theory, drug users choose seclusion and neglecting usual social aims as well as competitive situations. Association of Differentiation Theory claims that drug use behavior is a learned behavior and the first learning occurs in a friendly small group (i.e. youngsters. Social Control theory believes that one can predict normal and abnormal behaviors through the rate of individuals' social commitments. Internal and external controls also determine commitment rate. Micro-cultural theory considers drug use as a compatibility with abnormal micro-culture rules. Symbolic Mutual Action Believes that the etiquettes which society attribute to individuals/behaviors determine their acquired social reactions rather than any inherited acquisition.

  3. Best research practices in psychology: Illustrating epistemological and pragmatic considerations with the case of relationship science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Eli J; Eastwick, Paul W; Reis, Harry T

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, a robust movement has emerged within psychology to increase the evidentiary value of our science. This movement, which has analogs throughout the empirical sciences, is broad and diverse, but its primary emphasis has been on the reduction of statistical false positives. The present article addresses epistemological and pragmatic issues that we, as a field, must consider as we seek to maximize the scientific value of this movement. Regarding epistemology, this article contrasts the false-positives-reduction (FPR) approach with an alternative, the error balance (EB) approach, which argues that any serious consideration of optimal scientific practice must contend simultaneously with both false-positive and false-negative errors. Regarding pragmatics, the movement has devoted a great deal of attention to issues that frequently arise in laboratory experiments and one-shot survey studies, but it has devoted less attention to issues that frequently arise in intensive and/or longitudinal studies. We illustrate these epistemological and pragmatic considerations with the case of relationship science, one of the many research domains that frequently employ intensive and/or longitudinal methods. Specifically, we examine 6 research prescriptions that can help to reduce false-positive rates: preregistration, prepublication sharing of materials, postpublication sharing of data, close replication, avoiding piecemeal publication, and increasing sample size. For each, we offer concrete guidance not only regarding how researchers can improve their research practices and balance the risk of false-positive and false-negative errors, but also how the movement can capitalize upon insights from research practices within relationship science to make the movement stronger and more inclusive. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. The Crisis of the Sociology of Education and Its Reflections in Turkey: On the Critique of Functionalist and Eclecticist Pragmatic Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esgin, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Basis of the study: The claims that the sociology of education has been in a crisis seem to be dependent upon the insufficiencies in doing science and acquiring results with the ontological and epistemological foundations of sociology as a discipline of science. The sociology of education has taken shape from the outset in the framework of…

  5. [Margot Jefferys: the British voice of medical sociology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Everardo Duarte

    2011-03-01

    Margot Jefferys (1916-1999) was not only the person who introduced medical sociology into Great Britain, but also the researcher and professor who, during thirty years, exerted the most deep influence on the teaching of health social sciences either in undergraduate or especially graduate studies, since the beginning of her career, in 1953, at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. In addition to create a global panorama concerning the Jefferys' works, this study highlights two texts, which are situated into the field we are researching: the history of health sociology. The first one, published in 1991, discusses the relationships between epidemiology and sociology; and the second, published in 1996, discusses the field of medical sociology. Both texts are a series of considerations regarding the Jefferys' thought and the more recent questions of the field in Great Britain.

  6. Mapping the field of medical sociology: a comparative analysis of journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Clive

    2008-07-01

    A comparative keyword analysis of the content of nine leading journals is used to suggest potential new directions for medical sociology. The major British and American journals in sociology and medical sociology tend to publish authors based in their own countries, contrasting with the internationalism of other social science disciplines relevant to health, although Sociology of Health and Illness is an exception to this. Medical sociology journals on both sides of the Atlantic focus on individual experience more than general sociology journals, which focus more on social systems levels of analysis. While journal contents reveal British medical sociology to be relatively atheoretical when compared with British general sociology journals, American medical sociology appears relatively apolitical on the same comparison with American general journals. American journals of sociology publish more quantitative studies than their British equivalents, more studies concerning race and other social divisions in American society, and less work drawing on social constructionist perspectives or that is engaged with social theory. Analysis of health and health care at societal and global levels and a deeper engagement with the political and public issues that concern non-sociologists represents a possible future for a medical sociology that is internationally relevant and outward looking.

  7. A child of the empire: British sociology and colonialism, 1940s-1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, George

    2013-01-01

    British sociology was established as an academic discipline between 1945 and 1965, just as the British Empire was gearing up for a new phase of developmental colonialism backed by the social and other sciences. Many parts of the emerging sociological discipline became entangled with colonialism. Key themes and methods in sociology and the staff of sociology departments emerged from this colonial context. Historians have tended to place postwar British sociology in the context of expanding higher education and the welfare state, and have overlooked this colonial constellation. The article reconstructs this forgotten moment of disciplinary founding and explores three of the factors that promoted colonial sociology: the Colonial Social Science Research Council, the so-called Asquith universities, and the social research institutes in the colonies; and the involvement of sociologists from the London School of Economics in training colonial officials. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Teaching Sociology through Student Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepagnier, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    After several years of teaching Sociological Thought--an upper division course that focuses on classical, modern, and contemporary sociological theories--the author came across the idea of student portfolios. As a consequence, the course has undergone far-reaching changes. The content remains relatively intact; however, today the theory course…

  9. RESULTS OF 2011 STATE DUMA ELECTIONS: SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Fedotova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Sociological forecasting of political processes arose as a powerful industry. Nevertheless, results of the polls conducted by the major agencies diverged significantly with the voting in 2011 State Duma elections. The article analyses major complications in forecasting results of elections using sociological data, including psychological factors, role of mass media and administrative resource. The author identifies strategies of the opposition, as well as proves predominant importance of Vladimir Putin for the electoral success of the ruling party on the basis of the polls.

  10. Department of Defense Laboratory Civilian Science and Engineering Workforce - 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Aerospace Engineering 1,995 2,207 2,166 -41 -1.9% Electrical Engineering 982 1,193 1,413 220 18.4% Chemistry 744 873 804 -69 -7.9% Operations Research...1313 Geophysics 180 Psychology 690 Industrial Hygiene 1315 Hydrology 184 Sociology 701 Veterinary Medical Science 1320 Chemistry 190 General...Engineering 1520 Mathematics 470 Soil Science 861 Aerospace Engineering 1529 Mathematical Statistician 471 Agronomy 871 Naval Architecture 1530

  11. The Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior to Prevention Science in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, John L.; Netland, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRA/PB) is a model of behavior change that has been extensively studied in the health sciences but has had limited exposure in the counseling psychology literature. The model offers counseling psychologists a framework to conceptualize prevention research and practice. The model is important to…

  12. Influence of sociological determinants in consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Bujari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behavior belongs within the scope of delicate issues in theoretical marketing concepts of marketing. The main reason for such treatment of specific issues derives from human individuality in the decision making process for purchasing. From the complexity of human nature, arise challenges in their efforts to look at the internal motives of consumers, their psychological elements and conditions, the internal psychological determinants of behavior, but also the influence of culture, social class, family, lifestyle, as external sociological determinants, regardless of the particular autonomous characteristics of being socially exposed to certain environmental impacts that are undoubtedly of great importance to one’s behavior as a consumer. On the other hand, there is a series of hidden motifs for which their oversight is necessary because they are crucial to the decision-making process. Having this in mind, the researchers focused their objectives on analyzing the determinants of consumer behavior in the decision-making process to be marketed. Various sources of data have been used in the analysis and the theoretical processing of the work. Most of them have a secondary character and include domestic contemporary literature and foreign literature related to this issue. The basic concept of this paper, besides the introductory part and the conclusions, is also composed of interrelated parts. Given the analysis of different sociological determinants such as culture, social classes, reference groups and so on we understand their impact and their importance in bringing decisions in the market for personal consumption.

  13. Investigation of the Relationship between Psychological Variables and Sleep Quality in Students of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Najafi Kalyani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Students of medical sciences are exposed to many emotional and mental problems. In light of the importance of sleep quality in learning and liveliness, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between psychological variables (stress, anxiety, and depression and sleep quality of students. Design. This research is a cross-sectional analytical study, where all students studying at Fasa University of Medical Sciences in 2012-2013 year were selected. To examine the students’ stress, anxiety, and depression values, the standardized 21-item DASS-21 was used, and to examine their sleep quality, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI was used. Results. The results of the study demonstrated that 73% of the students have moderate and severe stress, and 46.4% of them have PSQ scores ≥ 5. The students’ mean sleep quality score was 4.65±2.37, and their stress score was 8.09±5.14. A statistically significant relationship was found between the students’ stress levels and sleep quality (P<0.001. Conclusion. The high stress levels decrease students’ sleep quality. High stress levels and also the significant relationship between stress value and decrease in students’ sleep quality call for more attention to and care for students’ emotional and mental issues and timely proper interference on the part of authorities.

  14. Do Underachievers Need Sociology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aladin El-Mafaalani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a promising model for using sociological learning to support the education of young people who are socially disadvantaged or display behavioral problems. A great many of these students are trapped in patterns of negative behavior. The goal of the model is to enable these young people to think explicitly about the role they are playing and to encourage them to strike out in a new direction. To this end, Erving Goffman’s sociological insights are used to stage a theatrical performance about school. This approach is informed by the microsociological tradition of proceeding from the concrete to the abstract in order to facilitate inductive learning and self-reflection. Goffman’s theory of social action provides the social-theoretical background for the theatrical action, while also serving as a medium of contrast for the analysis of the individual, interaction, and institution in subsequent reflections about school. In this way, sociological theory not only serves as a theoretical foundation for the lesson, but is also explicitly its subject.Der Aufsatz zeigt eine erfolgversprechende Möglichkeit auf, soziologisches Lernen als Beitrag zur Förderung sozial benachteiligter und verhaltensauffälliger Jugendlicher in der Schule zu implementieren. Die meisten dieser Schüler sind in ihren Handlungsmustern gefangen. Ziel ist es, diesen Jugendlichen die Möglichkeit zu eröffnen, bewusst über ihre Rolle nachzudenken und einen anderen Weg einzuschlagen. Hierfür werden Erkenntnisse aus Erving Goffman‘s Soziologie für ein schulisches Schauspiel genutzt, um ganz im Sinne der mikrosoziologischen Tradition vom Konkreten auf das Abstrakte zu schließen und damit induktives Lernen sowie Selbstreflexion zu ermöglichen. Goffman‘s Theorie sozialen Handelns bildet für das szenische Spiel zunächst das sozialtheoretische Hintergrundrauschen, um schließlich in der Reflexion der sozialen Situation in der Schule als Kontrastmittel f

  15. An Analysis of Co-Authorship Network in the Iranian Sociology

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Introduction   Among written academic collaborations, collaborating on writing scientific, research papers have a privileged position. It can show the rate of scientific development in any specialized discipline. T his study investigated the development of sociology in Iran through analyzing the co-authorship network in three main journal of "Iranian Journal of Sociology "," Sociological Studies " (a former Journal of Social Science) and "Quarterly Journal of Social S...

  16. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories......The proliferation of cultural transition and intercultural contact has highlighted the importance of psychological theories of acculturation. Acculturation, understood as contact between diverse cultural streams, has become prevalent worldwide due to technological, economical, and educational...... of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...

  17. Phenomenological sociology in the framework of contemporary methodological debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Ivanova

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a review of the pivotal doctrines in the sphere of social sciences and humanities methodology, namely positivism (O. Comte, H. Spenser et al and antipositivism (W. Dilthey, H. Rickert et al. In terms of E. Husserl's late philosophy as well as the works of M. Merleau-Ponty and A. Schutz the article provides the analysis of one of the prominent schools of the contemporary social theory - phenomenological sociology which is highlighted as the non-classical strategy of the philosophical methodology of social sciences and humanities opposing both Comte's objectivism as well as the sociological «subjectivism» of Neo-Kantianism.

  18. Are you afraid of the dark? Notes on the psychology of belief in histories of science and the occult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Andreas

    2016-04-02

    The popular view of the inherent conflict between science and the occult has been rendered obsolete by recent advances in the history of science. Yet, these historiographical revisions have gone unnoticed in the public understanding of science and public education at large. Particularly, reconstructions of the formation of modern psychology and its links to psychical research can show that the standard view of the latter as motivated by metaphysical bias fails to stand up to scrutiny. After highlighting certain basic methodological maxims shared by psychotherapists and historians, I will try to counterbalance simplistic claims of a 'need to believe' as a precondition of scientific open-mindedness regarding the occurrence of parapsychological phenomena by discussing instances revealing a presumably widespread 'will to disbelieve' in the occult. I shall argue that generalized psychological explanations are only helpful in our understanding of history if we apply them in a symmetrical manner.

  19. Are you afraid of the dark? Notes on the psychology of belief in histories of science and the occult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The popular view of the inherent conflict between science and the occult has been rendered obsolete by recent advances in the history of science. Yet, these historiographical revisions have gone unnoticed in the public understanding of science and public education at large. Particularly, reconstructions of the formation of modern psychology and its links to psychical research can show that the standard view of the latter as motivated by metaphysical bias fails to stand up to scrutiny. After highlighting certain basic methodological maxims shared by psychotherapists and historians, I will try to counterbalance simplistic claims of a ‘need to believe’ as a precondition of scientific open-mindedness regarding the occurrence of parapsychological phenomena by discussing instances revealing a presumably widespread ‘will to disbelieve’ in the occult. I shall argue that generalized psychological explanations are only helpful in our understanding of history if we apply them in a symmetrical manner. PMID:27226762

  20. Rethinking Giftedness and Gifted Education: A Proposed Direction Forward Based on Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subotnik, Rena F; Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Worrell, Frank C

    2011-01-01

    the measure of giftedness; and in fully developed talents, eminence is the basis on which this label is granted. Psychosocial variables play an essential role in the manifestation of giftedness at every developmental stage. Both cognitive and psychosocial variables are malleable and need to be deliberately cultivated. Our goal here is to provide a definition that is useful across all domains of endeavor and acknowledges several perspectives about giftedness on which there is a fairly broad scientific consensus. Giftedness (a) reflects the values of society; (b) is typically manifested in actual outcomes, especially in adulthood; (c) is specific to domains of endeavor; (d) is the result of the coalescing of biological, pedagogical, psychological, and psychosocial factors; and (e) is relative not just to the ordinary (e.g., a child with exceptional art ability compared to peers) but to the extraordinary (e.g., an artist who revolutionizes a field of art). In this monograph, our goal is to review and summarize what we have learned about giftedness from the literature in psychological science and suggest some directions for the field of gifted education. We begin with a discussion of how giftedness is defined (see above). In the second section, we review the reasons why giftedness is often excluded from major conversations on educational policy, and then offer rebuttals to these arguments. In spite of concerns for the future of innovation in the United States, the education research and policy communities have been generally resistant to addressing academic giftedness in research, policy, and practice. The resistance is derived from the assumption that academically gifted children will be successful no matter what educational environment they are placed in, and because their families are believed to be more highly educated and hold above-average access to human capital wealth. These arguments run counter to psychological science indicating the need for all students to be

  1. Sociological interpretation of social problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Katsora

    2015-04-01

    The article considers such sociological approaches to social problems as social pathology, social disorganization, functional and critical approaches, the approach of value conflict, constructionsite approach and the approach of «labelling». Each approach has its own peculiarities of consideration of social problems, that is related with the historical period in which it arose and settled down, and the views of members of a particular sociological approach to social problems. Also, the article discusses the main advantages and disadvantages of sociological approaches to dealing the social problems.

  2. A sociological dilemma: Race, segregation and US sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    US sociology has been historically segregated in that, at least until the 1960s, there were two distinct institutionally organized traditions of sociological thought – one black and one white. For the most part, however, dominant historiographies have been silent on that segregation and, at best, reproduce it when addressing the US sociological tradition. This is evident in the rarity with which scholars such as WEB Du Bois, E Franklin Frazier, Oliver Cromwell Cox, or other ‘African American Pioneers of Sociology’, as Saint-Arnaud calls them, are presented as core sociological voices within histories of the discipline. This article addresses the absence of African American sociologists from the US sociological canon and, further, discusses the implications of this absence for our understanding of core sociological concepts. With regard to the latter, the article focuses in particular on the debates around equality and emancipation and discusses the ways in which our understanding of these concepts could be extended by taking into account the work of African American sociologists and their different interpretations of core themes. PMID:25418995

  3. Psychological distress in health sciences college students and its relationship with academic engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Liébana-Presa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of psychological distress and its relationship with academic engagement (absorption, dedication and vigor, sex and degree among students from four public universities. Method: A non-experimental,comparative correlational, quantitative investigation without intervention. Study population: 1840 nursing and physical therapy students. The data collection tool used was a questionnaire. Results: A 32.2% prevalence of psychological distress was found in the subjects; a correlation between vigor and psychological distress was found for all of the subjects and also for women. High absorption and dedication scores and low psychological distress scores predicted higher vigor scores. Conclusion: The risk of psychological distress is high, especially for women. Women seem to have a higher level of psychological distress than men. Vigor, energy and mental resilience positively influence psychological distress and can be a vehicle for better results during the learning and studying process.

  4. [Intervention of psychological and ethical professionals of human science in obstetrical morbidity and mortality conferences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, B; Dupont, C; Perrotin, C; Barbier, A; Blaise Kopp, F; Gaucher, J; Branger, B; Winer, N; Lansac, J; Morin, X; Dubois, C; Deiber, M; Saliba, E; Rudigoz, R-C; Colin, C

    2013-06-01

    To identify the defence mechanisms manifested by medical staff which could disturb the decision making, revealed by professionals of human science (PHS) in morbidity and mortality conferences (MMC). Application of two methods of psychological intervention in MMC, conducted between March 1st, 2009 and November 30, 2010, in 20 randomized maternity among five perinatal networks: the method of inter-active problem solving targeted at the functioning of the teams and the method for developing professional practice centred on individual. The data collection was realized during analyse of case in MMC, with note-taking by two pair PHS. The oral expressions of RMM' participant were secondarily re-written, analyzed and classed by theme. Fifty-four MMC were performed. The mechanisms of defence have been identified by PHS intervention in MMC: denial of situation, pact of denegation, rift and overprotection. They were be identified by two PHS intervention methods, this consolidates these results. This intervention began staff medical to transformation at different level, in particular to improve the capacity of cooperation. The identification of the mechanisms of defence in MMC enables staff medical to improve communication and quality relationship between healthcare professionals. This could constitute an actual factor of practices improvement. However, complementary studies must be performed to confirm this hypothesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. A Reconciliation for the Future of Psychiatry: Both Folk Psychology and Cognitive Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Douglas Hutto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy of psychiatry faces a tough choice between two competing ways of understanding mental disorders. The folk psychology or FP view puts our everyday normative conceptual scheme in the driver’s seat – on the assumption that it, and it only, tells us what mental disorders are (Graham 2009. Opposing this, the scientific image or SI view (Murphy 2006, Gerrans 2014 holds that our understanding of mental disorders must come, wholly and solely, from the sciences of the mind, unfettered by FP. This paper argues that the FP view is problematic because it is too limited: there is more to the mind than FP allows, hence we must look beyond FP for properly deep and illuminating explanations of mental disorders. SI promises just this. But when cast in its standard cognitivist formulations SI is unnecessarily and unjustifiably neurocentric. After rejecting both the FP view, in its pure form, and SI, in its popular cognitivist renderings, this paper concludes that a more liberal version of SI can accommodate what is best in both views – once SI is so formulated and the FP view properly edited and significantly revised, the two views can be reconciled and combined to provide a sound philosophical basis for a future psychiatry.

  6. State of the Science: Apathy As a Model for Investigating Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimo, Lauren; Kales, Helen C; Kolanowski, Ann

    2018-04-01

    Apathy is one of the most common and pervasive of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSDs). Apathy has profound consequences for morbidity, mortality, and caregiver burden. Treatment of apathy has been hindered because of poor understanding of the mechanisms underlying this heterogeneous syndrome. Research has demonstrated that apathy is associated with disruption of the frontal-striatal system in individuals with neurodegenerative disease. As with other BPSDs, these neural mechanisms alone do not completely account for the syndrome; individual, caregiver, and environmental factors also contribute to apathy. In this article, we modify a current conceptual model of the factors contributing to BPSDs to examine determinants of apathy. This integrative model provides a more complete and theoretically informed understanding of apathy, allowing for greater insight into potential targets for research, intervention, and care. We end by proposing an agenda for moving the science of BPSDs in general, and apathy in particular, forward. © 2018, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2018, The American Geriatrics Society.

  7. Methodological pluralism and structure of sociological theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Polyakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the historical-sociological analysis is used as a means to show the differences between theoretical and empirical sociology. There exist several, basic traditions in theoretical sociology. The investigation of their competing theoretical and methodological principles carried out in the paper; identify some fundamental features of sociological theory as a whole.

  8. A Life with the Sociology of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about a life with the sociology of education. He begins by describing the "old" and "new" sociologies of education. Then, he discusses the sociology of education policy and the relevance of Basil Bernstein, who remained the dominant presence within the sociology of education in the UK until his…

  9. Catastrophes: sociological analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babosov, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    Various types of accidents - natural, ecological, technological and social are analysed. Consequences of accidents and co-operation of the people in extreme conditions of crises and accidents are considered. It is shown the social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident and ways of a decrease of negative consequences on the person

  10. The Sociology of Zygmunt Bauman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Michael Hviid; Poder, Poul

    significant as well as some of the lesser known and overlooked contributions of Zygmunt Bauman to contemporary sociology - ethics, freedom, utopia, genocide, metaphors, ambivalence, politics, strangers, globalization, power and consumerism. In separate chapters Bauman inspired scholars from the United Kingdom...

  11. Følelser og sociologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Inger Glavind; Jacobsen, Michael Hviid

    2017-01-01

    En introduktion til bogen om følelsernes sociologi eller emotionssociologi - herunder om den ekspressive revolution og den affektive vending, om forskning i følelser og dens klassifikationer, tilgange, teorier og metoder....

  12. Sport Sociology and the Discipline of Sociology: Present Status and Speculations about the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Eldon E.; Spreitzer, Elmer

    The status of the sociology of sport within the discipline of sociology is explored. Review of the subfield since 1971 indicates an increase in the number of publications and communication relating to sport sociology topics. It is hypothesized, however, that sport sociology will not in the near future receive equal acceptance within sociology with…

  13. Feminism and/in/as psychology: The public sciences of sex and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra; Pettit, Michael

    2015-08-01

    In our introduction to this special issue on the histories of feminism, gender, sexuality, and the psy-disciplines, we propose the tripartite framework of "feminism and/in/as psychology" to conceptualize the dynamics of their conjoined trajectories and relationship to gender and sexuality from the late 19th through the late 20th centuries. "Feminism and psychology" highlights the tensions between a political movement and a scientific discipline and the efforts of participants in each to problematize the other. "Feminism in psychology" refers to those historical moments when self-identified feminists intervened in psychology to alter its content, methodologies, and populations. We propose, as have others, that these interventions predate the 1970s, the period most commonly associated with the "founding" of feminist psychology. Finally, "feminism as psychology/psychology as feminism" explores the shared ground between psychology and feminism-the conceptual, methodological, and (more rarely) epistemological moments when psychology and feminism made common cause. We suggest that the traffic between feminism and psychology has been persistent, continuous, and productive, despite taking different historically and geographically contingent forms. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. A Global Community Psychology of Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart C. Carr

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This special issue heralds the coalescence of a new field in social sciences – the psychology of global mobility. This field whilst distinctive is certainly not insular. Contributions in this special issue are interdisciplinary and cross-level, reflecting an open systems perspective. Political motivation, sociological networks, community inclusion, educational institutions, socio-cultural identity processes, and organizational processes are all represented in the collection. Organizational dynamics are perhaps a special theme that runs throughout. They are a timely reminder that the organizational level of analysis in general, and the psychology of work in particular, is a major yet often overlooked component in the study of global mobility processes, including policy development. In a wider sense, the contributions in this special issue cast new light on the interaction between psychology and social/community structures, and the role of these essentially interactive processes in human development. The special issue is about a developing global consciousness, and a role that psychology as one discipline and applied profession can play in this process. A major challenge remains, of course: Connecting psychological research and evidence with social policymaking. To achieve more credibility in the policy domain, psychology will need itself to become more political, and overtly skilled in social advocacy. As these papers remind us, we will need to build more stakeholder alliances, including between research and community groups.

  15. Social History and Historical Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Knöbl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with exchanges and misunderstandings between the German school of social history (most prominently represented by scholars from the University of Bielefeld (such as Hans-Ulrich Wehler and Anglo-American trends in historical sociology (exemplified by the works of Barrington Moore, Theda Skocpol and Michael Mann. The social historians tended to dismiss historical sociology as too dependent on modernization theory, without taking into account the critique of that tradition by authors who brought processes of state formation and revolutionary change into the debate. On the other side, mainstream historical sociology worked with assumptions that limited its ability to change the terms and directions of sociological discourse, and to assimilate lessons from history. Among these inbuilt biases, organizational realism and materialism – particularly pronounced in the work of Michael Mann – stand out as particularly important. The paper closes with arguments in favour of bringing more history into historical sociology, with particular emphasis on three sets of problems. There is a need for more historical approaches to differentiation, less dependent on functionalist premises than the hitherto prevalent paradigm. A more explicit thematization of temporality in history and society would, among other things, help to clarify issues linked to the notion of path dependency. Finally, a reconsideration of the models and types of explanation in historical sociology would place more emphasis on their interpretive dimension.

  16. Social History and Historical Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Knöbl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with exchanges and misunderstandings between the German school of social history (most prominently represented by scholars from the University of Bielefeld (such as Hans-Ulrich Wehler and Anglo-American trends in historical sociology (exemplified by the works of Barrington Moore, Theda Skocpol and Michael Mann. The social historians tended to dismiss historical sociology as too dependent on modernization theory, without taking into account the critique of that tradition by authors who brought processes of state formation and revolutionary change into the debate. On the other side, mainstream historical sociology worked with assumptions that limited its ability to change the terms and directions of sociological discourse, and to assimilate lessons from history. Among these inbuilt biases, organizational realism and materialism - particularly pronounced in the work of Michael Mann - stand out as particularly important. The paper closes with arguments in favour of bringing more history into historical sociology, with particular emphasis on three sets of problems. There is a need for more historical approaches to differentiation, less dependent on functionalist premises than the hitherto prevalent paradigm. A more explicit thematization of temporality in history and society would, among other things, help to clarify issues linked to the notion of path dependency. Finally, a reconsideration of the models and types of explanation in historical sociology would place more emphasis on their interpretive dimension.

  17. The media of sociology: tight or loose translations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheim, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Sociologists have increasingly come to recognize that the discipline has unduly privileged textual representations, but efforts to incorporate visual and other media are still only in their beginning. This paper develops an analysis of the ways objects of knowledge are translated into other media, in order to understand the visual practices of sociology and to point out unused possibilities. I argue that the discourse on visual sociology, by assuming that photographs are less objective than text, is based on an asymmetric media-determinism and on a misleading notion of objectivity. Instead, I suggest to analyse media with the concept of translations. I introduce several kinds of translations, most centrally the distinction between tight and loose ones. I show that many sciences, such as biology, focus on tight translations, using a variety of media and manipulating both research objects and representations. Sociology, in contrast, uses both tight and loose translations, but uses the latter only for texts. For visuals, sociology restricts itself to what I call 'the documentary': focusing on mechanical recording technologies without manipulating either the object of research or the representation. I conclude by discussing three rare examples of what is largely excluded in sociology: visual loose translations, visual tight translations based on non-mechanical recording technologies, and visual tight translations based on mechanical recording technologies that include the manipulation of both object and representation. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  18. Let's dance: Organization studies, medical sociology and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Graeme; Dingwall, Robert; Kitchener, Martin; Waring, Justin

    2012-02-01

    This Special Issue of Social Science & Medicine investigates the potential for positive inter-disciplinary interaction, a 'generative dance', between organization studies (OS), and two of the journal's traditional disciplinary foundations: health policy and medical sociology. This is both necessary and timely because of the extent to which organizations have become a neglected topic within medical sociology and health policy analysis. We argue there is need for further and more sustained theoretical and conceptual synergy between OS, medical sociology and health policy, which provides, on the one-hand a cutting-edge and thought-provoking basis for the analysis of contemporary health reforms, and on the other hand, enables the development and elaboration of theory. We emphasize that sociologists and policy analysts in healthcare have been leading contributors to our understanding of organizations in modern society, that OS enhances our understanding of medical settings, and that organizations remain one of the most influential actors of our time. As a starting point to discussion, we outline the genealogy of OS and its application to healthcare settings. We then consider how medical sociology and health policy converge or diverge with the concerns of OS in the study of healthcare settings. Following this, we focus upon the material environment, specifically the position of business schools, which frames the generative dance between OS, medical sociology and health policy. This sets the context for introducing the thirteen articles that constitute the Special Issue of Social Science & Medicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Regarding Bioethics: A Sociology of Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    C. Wright Mills said that when done well, sociology illuminates the intersection of biography and history. This essay examines how the author's vocational choices and career path were shaped by historical circumstance, leading him to a degree in sociology and to participation in the odd and interesting interdiscipline of bioethics. Drawing on a distinction between sociology in bioethics and sociology of bioethics, the essay considers the value of sociology to the bioethical project.

  20. The Sociological Imagination and Its Promise Fifty Years Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frade

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a restatement of Wright Mills’ The Sociological Imagination and tries to judge whether its promise can be credibly renewed today by addressing the question about the present and future possibilities of the social sciences as free forms of enquiry. Relying on Weber, Mills and other thinkers, the paper sustains that the possibilities for a truly free social science essentially depend on three major ‘conditions’: the subjective stance or vocation, the sociological imagination proper, and an independent social science politics, conditions whose apt names can also be ‘love’, ‘insight’ and ‘courage’. An analysis of the presence and strength of each of these conditions in contemporary social science and in academia shows the magnitude of the task faced for the existence of a free social science.

  1. William James on a phenomenological psychology of immediate experience: the true foundation for a science of consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    Throughout his career, William James defended personal consciousness. In his "Principles of Psychology" (1890), he declared that psychology is the scientific study of states of consciousness as such and that he intended to presume from the outset that the thinker was the thought. But while writing it, he had been investigating a dynamic psychology of the subconscious, which found a major place in his Gifford Lectures, published as "The Varieties of Religious Experience" in 1902. This was the clearest statement James was able to make before he died with regard to his developing tripartite metaphysics of pragmatism, pluralism and radical empiricism, which essentially asked "Is a science of consciousness actually possible?" James's lineage in this regard, was inherited from an intuitive psychology of character formation that had been cast within a context of spiritual self-realization by the Swedenborgians and Transcendentalists of New England. Chief among these was his father, Henry James, Sr., and his godfather, Ralph Waldo Emerson. However, james was forced to square these ideas with the more rigorous scientific dictates of his day, which have endured to the present. As such, his ideas remain alive and vibrant, particularly among those arguing for the fusion of phenomenology, embodiment and cognitive neuroscience in the renewed search for a science of consciousness.

  2. Stevens’ forgotten crossroads: The divergent measurement traditions in the physical and psychological sciences from the mid-20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A McGrane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The late 19th and early 20th Centuries saw the consolidation in physics of the three main traditions that predominate in discussions of measurement theory. These are: (i the systematic tradition pioneered by Maxwell; (ii the representational tradition pioneered by Campbell; and (iii the operational tradition pioneered by Bridgman (1927. These divergent approaches created uncertainty about the nature of measurement in the physical sciences and provided Stevens (1946 with an opportunity and rationale to, in effect, reinvent the definition of scientific measurement. Stevens appropriated the representational and operational traditions as the sole basis for his definition of measurement, excluding any place for the systematic approach. In committing to Stevens’ path, the psychological sciences were blinded to the advances made in metrology, the establishment of the International System (SI and the standard units contained within this system. These advances were only possible due to the deep conceptual and instrumental connections between the system of physical units and the body of physical theory and laws developed over the preceding centuries. It is argued that if the psychological sciences are to ever achieve equivalent methodological advances, they must bridge this ‘metrological gap’ created by Stevens’ measurement crossroads and understand the ways in which the systematic approach advanced measurement. This means that psychological measurement needs to be de-abstracted, rid of operational rules for numerical assignment and set upon a foundation of quantitative theory, definition and law. In the absence of such theoretical foundations, claims of measurement in the psychological sciences remain a methodological chimera.

  3. Bringing science to bear--on peace, not war: elaborating on psychology's potential to promote peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidner, Bernhard; Tropp, Linda R; Lickel, Brian

    2013-10-01

    We argue that psychological and contextual factors play important roles in bringing about, facilitating, and escalating violent conflict. Yet rather than conclude that violent conflict is inevitable, we believe psychology's contributions can extend beyond understanding the origins and nature of violent conflict, to promote nonviolence and peace. In this article, we summarize psychological perspectives on the conditions and motivations underlying violent conflict. Drawing on this work, we then discuss psychological and contextual factors that can mitigate violence and war and promote nonviolence and peace. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Sociological concept of morale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author first discusses the overall unity of the total normative regulation, from which it is separated in the late Roman empire the right, but only in the new century and the morale. There are analyzed the relationship between the moral and ethical reflection and Weber's distinction between pure ethics will (Gesinnungsethik and ethics of responsibility (Verantwortungsethik. The morale is determined by the good as the highest value, as a specific form of social norms but also as a kind of human behavior. These three definitions can be combined in an integrative approach. There are examined the dimensions of moral statements, subjective and objective side of morality, as well as the difference between morale and morality. A general notion of morale can not be defined in substantive but only in formal way . The formal definition is a constituent of general as well as of sociological concept of morale and it is related to morality as a social phenomenon. Its essence is to define the morale by specific norms, the characteristics of the internal and external mandatory (with the pricks of conscience as the most distinctive moral sanction and control exercised by the formal not institutionalized or diffuse society , and in consideration of morality as a social process (actions of people associated moral norms . The basic types of social moral process - being, education, functioning and changing of morale are described. There are briefly analyzed the influence of society to the morale and social function of morale, with special emphasis on the relationship between law and morale.

  5. The politics of the self: psychological science and bourgeois subjectivity in 19th century Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novella, Enric J.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an analysis of the process of institutionalization of psychological knowledge in Spain following the educative reforms implemented during the second third of the 19th century, which prescribed its inclusion in the curricular program of the new secondary education. After a detailed examination of the theoretical orientation, the ideological assumptions and the sociopolitical connections of the contents transmitted to the students throughout the century, its militant spiritualism is interpreted as a highly significant attempt on the part of the liberal elites to articulate a pedagogy of subjectivity intended to counteract the trends toward reduction, naturalization and fragmentation of psychic life inherent to the development of modern science.

    En este artículo se ofrece un análisis del proceso de institucionalización del conocimiento psicológico en España por obra de las reformas educativas implementadas durante el segundo tercio del siglo XIX, que prescribieron su inclusión en el programa curricular de la nueva educación secundaria. Tras un examen detenido de la orientación doctrinal, los supuestos ideológicos y la filiación sociopolítica de los contenidos transmitidos a los alumnos durante la mayor parte de la centuria, se interpreta su espiritualismo militante como un intento muy significativo por parte de las élites liberales de articular una pedagogía de la subjetividad destinada a contrarrestar las tendencias de reducción, naturalización y fragmentación del psiquismo alentadas por el desarrollo de la ciencia moderna.

  6. How cultural evolutionary theory can inform social psychology and vice versa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex

    2009-10-01

    Cultural evolutionary theory is an interdisciplinary field in which human culture is viewed as a Darwinian process of variation, competition, and inheritance, and the tools, methods, and theories developed by evolutionary biologists to study genetic evolution are adapted to study cultural change. It is argued here that an integration of the theories and findings of mainstream social psychology and of cultural evolutionary theory can be mutually beneficial. Social psychology provides cultural evolution with a set of empirically verified microevolutionary cultural processes, such as conformity, model-based biases, and content biases, that are responsible for specific patterns of cultural change. Cultural evolutionary theory provides social psychology with ultimate explanations for, and an understanding of the population-level consequences of, many social psychological phenomena, such as social learning, conformity, social comparison, and intergroup processes, as well as linking social psychology with other social science disciplines such as cultural anthropology, archaeology, and sociology.

  7. "Ghosts of Sociologies Past": Settlement Sociology in the Progressive Era at the Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Vicky M.; Williams, Joyce E.

    2012-01-01

    This embedded case study of the Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy (CSCP) illustrates the development of disciplinary boundaries during a transitional period of professionalization in the social sciences, particularly for the fields of sociology and social work. Drawing on archival data (e.g., reports, scholarly and autobiographical…

  8. Socioecological psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    Socioecological psychology investigates humans' cognitive, emotional, and behavioral adaption to physical, interpersonal, economic, and political environments. This article summarizes three types of socioecological psychology research: (a) association studies that link an aspect of social ecology (e.g., population density) with psychology (e.g., prosocial behavior), (b) process studies that clarify why there is an association between social ecology and psychology (e.g., residential mobility → anxiety → familiarity seeking), and (c) niche construction studies that illuminate how psychological states give rise to the creation and maintenance of a social ecology (e.g., familiarity seeking → dominance of national chain stores). Socioecological psychology attempts to bring the objectivist perspective to psychological science, investigating how objective social and physical environments, not just perception and construal of the environments, affect one's thinking, feeling, and behaviors, as well as how people's thinking, feeling, and behaviors give rise to social and built environments.

  9. Responsible Opposition, Disruptive Voices: Science, Social Change, and the History of Feminist Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra; Vaughn-Blount, Kelli; Ball, Laura C.

    2010-01-01

    Feminist psychology began as an avowedly political project with an explicit social change agenda. However, over the last two decades, a number of critics have argued that feminist psychology has become mired in an epistemological impasse where positivist commitments effectively mute its political project, rendering the field acceptable to…

  10. Emotions or Science? Pre-Tertiary Males' Accounts of Psychology as a Subject Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Jenny; Sander, Paul; Williams, Stella; Jones, Tim

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that the number of males studying psychology in the UK, both at A-level and on degree courses, is disproportionately low compared to females. There is a paucity of research, however, which discusses how psychology is viewed by this group. The present study employed focus groups with 35 pre-tertiary males (some of whom were…

  11. Philosophy and Sociology Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Kravchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy and Social science school of MGIMO has received both nationwide and international recognition. The traditions of the school were laid by two highly respected scientists and science managers, George P. Frantsev, who was the rector MGIMO during the crucial period of its early years, and Alexander F. Shishkin, who was the founder and head of the Department of Philosophy. The former belonged to one of the best schools of antic history studies of the Petersburg (Leningrad University. Frantsev made a great contribution to the restoration of Russian social and political science after World War II. After graduating from MGIMO, he worked at the Foreign Ministry of USSR, and then served as a rector of the Academy of Social Sciences and chief-editor of the journal "Problems of Peace and Socialism" in Prague. He consistently supported MGIMO scientists and recommended them as participants for international congresses and conferences. Shishkin was born in Vologda, and studied in Petrograd during 1920s. His research interests included history of education and morality. He was the author of the first textbook on ethics in the postwar USSR. Other works Shishkin, including monograph "XX century and the moral values of humanity", played a in reorienting national philosophy from class interests to universal moral principles. During thirty years of his leadership of the Department of Philosophy, Shishkin managed to prepare several generations of researchers and university professors. Scientists educated by Shishkin students consider themselves to be his "scientific grandchildren". The majority of MGIMO post-graduate students followed the footsteps of Frantsev in their research, but they also were guided by Shishkin's ideas on morality in human relations. Philosophy and Social science school of MGIMO played an important role in the revival of Soviet social and political science. Soviet Social Science Association (SSSA, established in 1958, elected Frantsev

  12. [Theoretical construction in the sociology of health: a reflection on its trajectory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Everardo Duarte

    2014-04-01

    The scope of this paper is to reflect on the theoretical construction in the constitution of the sociology of health, still called medical sociology in some countries. Two main ideas constitute the basis for this: interdisciplinarity and the degree of articulation in the fields of medicine and sociology. We sought to establish a dialogue with some dimensions - macro/micro, structure/action - that constitute the basis for understanding medicine/health in relation to the social/sociological dimension. The main aspects of these dimensions are initially presented. Straus' two medical sociologies and the theory/application impasses are then addressed, as well as the dilemmas of the sociology of medicine in the 1960s and 1970s. From these analyses the theoretical production before 1970 is placed as a counterpoint. Lastly, the sociology of health is seen in the general context of sociology, which underwent a fragmentation process from 1970 with effects in all subfields of the social sciences. This process involves a rethinking of the theoretical issues in a broadened spectrum of possibilities. The 1980s are highlighted when theoretical issues in the sociology of health are reinvigorated and the issue of interdisciplinarity is once again addressed.

  13. A stale challenge to the philosophy of science: commentary on "Is psychology based on a methodological error?" by Michael Schwarz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruck, Nora; Slunecko, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    In his article "Is psychology based on a methodological error?" and based on a quite convincing empirical basis, Michael Schwarz offers a methodological critique of one of mainstream psychology's key test theoretical axioms, i.e., that of the in principle normal distribution of personality variables. It is characteristic of this paper--and at first seems to be a strength of it--that the author positions his critique within a frame of philosophy of science, particularly positioning himself in the tradition of Karl Popper's critical rationalism. When scrutinizing Schwarz's arguments, however, we find Schwarz's critique profound only as an immanent critique of test theoretical axioms. We raise doubts, however, as to Schwarz's alleged 'challenge' to the philosophy of science because the author not at all seems to be in touch with the state of the art of contemporary philosophy of science. Above all, we question the universalist undercurrent that Schwarz's 'bio-psycho-social model' of human judgment boils down to. In contrast to such position, we close our commentary with a plea for a context- and culture sensitive philosophy of science.

  14. Cooperation between medicine and sociology in head and neck oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, Emmanuel; Grandazzi, Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-first-century medicine is facing many challenges--knowledge and command of technical advances, research development, team management, knowledge transmission, and adaptation to economic constraints--without neglecting "human" aspects, via transformed carer-patient relationships, social change, and so on. The "modern" physicians know that simply treating disease is no longer enough. One of their essential missions lies in offering the individual patient overall care, which implies acknowledging the latter as an individual within a family, social, and professional environment. Indeed, medical practice requires pluridimensional knowledge of the patients' experience of their disease. Yet the contribution sociology can offer to health care remains largely unknown to many physicians, and medical training includes only limited instruction in the human sciences. On the basis of a few observations taken from sociological research, we would like to demonstrate how, in head and neck oncology, interdisciplinary collaboration between medicine and sociology can prove propitious to improving patient care and attention to their close relations.

  15. Architecture and health care: a place for sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daryl; Nettleton, Sarah; Buse, Christina; Prior, Lindsay; Twigg, Julia

    2015-09-01

    Sociologists of health and illness have tended to overlook the architecture and buildings used in health care. This contrasts with medical geographers who have yielded a body of work on the significance of places and spaces in the experience of health and illness. A review of sociological studies of the role of the built environment in the performance of medical practice uncovers an important vein of work, worthy of further study. Through the historically situated example of hospital architecture, this article seeks to tease out substantive and methodological issues that can inform a distinctive sociology of healthcare architecture. Contemporary healthcare buildings manifest design models developed for hotels, shopping malls and homes. These design features are congruent with neoliberal forms of subjectivity in which patients are constituted as consumers and responsibilised citizens. We conclude that an adequate sociology of healthcare architecture necessitates an appreciation of both the construction and experience of buildings, exploring the briefs and plans of their designers, and observing their everyday uses. Combining approaches and methods from the sociology of health and illness and science and technology studies offers potential for a novel research agenda that takes healthcare buildings as its substantive focus. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  16. Latin american sociology's contribution to sociological imagination: analysis, criticism, and social commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Tavares-dos-Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tackles the role played by sociology in the analysis of the transformation processes in the Latin American societies, in following the construction process of both State and Nation, and in questioning the social issues in Latin America. Six periods of sociology in Latin America and in the Caribbean Islands are analyzed: (i sociology's intellectual inheritance; (ii the authoritative-teaching sociology; (iii the "scientific sociology" period and the configuration of the "critical sociology"; (iv the institutional crisis, consolidation of the "critical sociology", and the diversification of sociology; (v the sociology of authoritarianism, of democracy, and of exclusion; and (vi the institutional consolidation and the worldization of sociology in Latin America (from the year 2000 on. It can be said that the distinctive features of the sociological knowledge in the continent have been: internationalism, hybridism, critical approach to the processes and conflicts in the Latin American societies, and social commitment on the part of the sociologist.

  17. Secular and religious: the intrinsic doubleness of analytical psychology and the hegemony of naturalism in the social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Roderick

    2013-06-01

    In recent years a number of prominent social theorists, including Jürgen Habermas and Charles Taylor, have voiced concern about the hegemony of naturalistic, secular assumptions in the social sciences, and in their different ways have sought to address this by establishing greater parity between secular and religious perspectives. This paper suggests that C.G. Jung's analytical psychology, which hitherto has been largely ignored by social theory, may have something to contribute on this issue as it can be understood coherently both empirically, without reference to transcendent reality, and metaphysically, with reference to transcendent reality. It is argued that, despite his denials of any metaphysical intent, Jung does in fact engage in metaphysics and that together the empirical and metaphysical vectors of his thought result in a rich and distinctive double perspective. This dual secular and religious perspective can be seen as part of Jung's own critique of the hegemony of naturalism and secularism, which for Jung has profound social as well as clinical relevance. The concern and approach that Habermas and Taylor share with Jung on this issue may provide some grounds for increased dialogue between analytical psychology and the social sciences. © 2013, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  18. Committing Canadian sociology: developing a Canadian sociology and a sociology of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Ralph

    2014-05-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of the author's "Outstanding Career Award Lecture" presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria, British Columbia on June 6, 2013. The paper distinguishes between Canadian Sociology and the Sociology of Canada. The former involves the explanatory stance that one takes to understanding Canada. The latter addresses the significant social dimensions that underlie Canadian social organization, culture, and behavior. I make a case for a Canadian Sociology that focuses on the unique features of Canadian society rather than adopting a comparative perspective. I also argue that there is a continuing need within the Sociology of Canada to address the issues of staples development. However, I argue that "new" staples analysis must have a directional change from that of the past, in that social processes now largely determine the pattern of staples development. Moreover, new staples analysis must include issues that were never part of earlier staples analysis, such as issues of environmental impacts and of staples depletion under conditions, such as climate change. The paper concludes by analyzing four factors that provide the dominant social contexts for analyzing modern staples development: (1) the rise of neoliberal government, (2) the implementation of globalization and its social consequences, (3) the assumption of aboriginal rights and entitlement, and (4) the rise of environmentalism. These factors were generally not considered in earlier staples approaches. They are critical to understanding the role of staples development and its impact on Canada in the present time.

  19. Sexual Orientation Differences as Deficits: Science and Stigma in the History of American Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herek, Gregory M

    2010-11-01

    This article briefly describes how psychology, psychiatry, and the mental health professions (here collectively referred to as Psychology) treated sexual orientation differences as deficits for much of the 20th century, as well as some of the negative consequences that practice had for sexual minorities. The 1970s witnessed a remarkable turnaround when the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the American Psychological Association called for psychologists to work to remove the stigma historically associated with homosexuality. This history illustrates not only how cultural institutions play a central role in legitimating stigma, but also how they can recognize their own complicity in this process and work effectively to undo its harmful effects. It is argued that Psychology still has an important role to play in challenging the differences-as-deficits model in contemporary policy debates. © The Author(s) 2010.

  20. Emotional health: on the applicability of affective science to the integration of clinical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Trzebińska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to outline the concept of emotional health and its integrative potential in the field of clinical psychology. It is a well-known fact that the transdiagnostic approach and psychotherapy integration – the two most influential integrative movements in clinical psychology – search for a sound conceptual foundation of the efforts to organize a plethora of theories and data relating to the psychological aspects of physical and mental health. Following a short presentation of general discrepancies afflicting clinical psychology and the main ideas of both the transdiagnostic approach and psychotherapy integration, the notion of emotional health is introduced and its unifying convenience, as well as limitations, is discussed.

  1. Positive Psychology in Cancer Care: Bad Science, Exaggerated Claims, and Unproven Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Coyne, James C.; Tennen, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Background Claims of positive psychology about people with cancer enjoy great popularity because they seem to offer scientific confirmation of strongly held cultural beliefs and values. Purpose Our goal is to examine critically four widely accepted claims in the positive psychology literature regarding adaptational outcomes among individuals living with cancer. Methods We examine: (1) the role of positive factors, such as a ?fighting spirit? in extending the life of persons with cancer; (2) e...

  2. Revitalizing sociology: urban life and mental illness between history and the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Des; Rose, Nikolas; Singh, Ilina

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a re-thinking of the relationship between sociology and the biological sciences. Tracing lines of connection between the history of sociology and the contemporary landscape of biology, the paper argues for a reconfiguration of this relationship beyond popular rhetorics of 'biologization' or 'medicalization'. At the heart of the paper is a claim that, today, there are some potent new frames for re-imagining the traffic between sociological and biological research - even for 'revitalizing' the sociological enterprise as such. The paper threads this argument through one empirical case: the relationship between urban life and mental illness. In its first section, it shows how this relationship enlivened both early psychiatric epidemiology, and some forms of the new discipline of sociology; it then traces the historical division of these sciences, as the sociological investment in psychiatric questions waned, and 'the social' become marginalized within an increasingly 'biological' psychiatry. In its third section, however, the paper shows how this relationship has lately been revivified, but now by a nuanced epigenetic and neurobiological attention to the links between mental health and urban life. What role can sociology play here? In its final section, the paper shows how this older sociology, with its lively interest in the psychiatric and neurobiological vicissitudes of urban social life, can be our guide in helping to identify intersections between sociological and biological attention. With a new century now underway, the paper concludes by suggesting that the relationship between urban life and mental illness may prove a core testing-ground for a 'revitalized' sociology. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  3. Political sociology of human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Kazemi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The dominant approach in the field of human rights is Legal attitude. Legal attitude more than anything else on the identification and recognition of human rights by the government is focused. At the same time, governments are the biggest violators of human rights norms. Despite the gap between the legal obligations of states and the real world, legal analysis of this gap is not possible. Therefore, in the era of inflation of rights, according to Louis Henkin , transition needs based approach to the protection of human rights is justified. Social sciences, especially political sociology may be, to identify obstacles to the realization of human rights in different societies and operate it is used. Since the main subject of political sociology "explores the relationship between state and society" is, knowledge can be produced in the field of political sociology in understanding the inability of governments establishing human rights norms and effective ways to fix it. Therefore, it can be said that human rights political sociology focus on: how to advance the state of human rights in a society and its institutionalization and consolidation within all relationships and political processes. رهیافت مسلط در حوزه مطالعات حقوق بشر، نگرش حقوقی است.نگرش حقوقی بیش از هرچیز بر شناسایی و به رسمیت شناختن حقوق بشر توسط دولت‌ها متمرکز است.در عین حال، دولت‌ها خود بزرگترین ناقضین هنجارهای حقوق بشری می‌باشند. با وجود شکاف میان تعهدات حقوقی دولت‌ها و جهان واقعی، تحلیل حقوقی از این شکاف ممکن نیست. لذا، در عصر تورم حقوق به تعبیر هنکین، نیازمند گذار از رهیافت مبتنی بر توجیه به حفاظت از حقوق بشر هستیم. علوم اجتماعی بویژه جامعه

  4. Teaching Sociology and Womens’ Critical Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad-Ali Zaki

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sociology of Teaching sociology is seen as a fresh new place to explore the importance and role of critical thinking in the sociology of education has been one of the most important issues to consider.Principles of Sociology course ample opportunities for students to develop critical thinking skills and attitudes and serves as a missionary spirit, critical thinking has suggested an alternative,Areas has brought the development of critical thinking. Learn the basics of critical...

  5. Can sociology help to improve nursing practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, David

    The first in a five-part series on sociology offers an overview of the debate about the relationship between sociology and nursing. Although sociological education is currently limited within nurse education, there is a long-held argument for its relevance. With a growing emphasis on preventative and public healthcare, sociology may yet prove its usefulness. Subsequent articles cover four of the key social factors affecting health.

  6. The Corpus Status of Literature in Teaching Sociology: Novels as "Sociological Reconstruction"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    Using fiction in teaching sociology involves what Harvey Sacks calls "sociological reconstruction". Numerous comments on teaching sociology provide advice and suggestions on the use of literature and "what counts" as "sociological" literature, including specific titles. This paper goes further: while the use of literature is a routine feature of…

  7. Should We Talk about the Pain? Personalizing Sociology in the Medical Sociology Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Alexandra C. H.; Sumerau, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the potential of personalizing sociology curriculum, specifically in Medical Sociology courses, to increase student engagement and sociological awareness. Based on our experiences offering separate Medical Sociology courses at a large public research university and a small private teaching university, respectively, we…

  8. Principles of Gestalt Psychology and Their Application to Teaching Junior High School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosser, Patricia E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses insightful learning, trace system,'' and laws of perception and Pragnanz in connection with problem solving and critical thinking in science teaching. Suggests 19 guidelines for sequencing curriculum and identifying activities for use in science classes. (CC)

  9. Analytical Sociology: A Bungean Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Poe Yu-ze

    2012-10-01

    Analytical sociology, an intellectual project that has garnered considerable attention across a variety of disciplines in recent years, aims to explain complex social processes by dissecting them, accentuating their most important constituent parts, and constructing appropriate models to understand the emergence of what is observed. To achieve this goal, analytical sociologists demonstrate an unequivocal focus on the mechanism-based explanation grounded in action theory. In this article I attempt a critical appreciation of analytical sociology from the perspective of Mario Bunge's philosophical system, which I characterize as emergentist systemism. I submit that while the principles of analytical sociology and those of Bunge's approach share a lot in common, the latter brings to the fore the ontological status and explanatory importance of supra-individual actors (as concrete systems endowed with emergent causal powers) and macro-social mechanisms (as processes unfolding in and among social systems), and therefore it does not stipulate that every causal explanation of social facts has to include explicit references to individual-level actors and mechanisms. In this sense, Bunge's approach provides a reasonable middle course between the Scylla of sociological reification and the Charybdis of ontological individualism, and thus serves as an antidote to the untenable "strong program of microfoundations" to which some analytical sociologists are committed.

  10. Sociological theories of subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSubjective well-being is no great issue in sociology; the subject is not mentioned in sociological textbooks (a notable exception is Nolan & Lenski, 2004) and is rarely discussed in sociological journals. This absence has many reasons: pragmatic, ideological, and theoretical. To begin

  11. Structural Stigma and Health Inequalities: Research Evidence and Implications for Psychological Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Psychological research has provided essential insights into how stigma operates to disadvantage those who are targeted by it. At the same time, stigma research has been criticized for being too focused on the perceptions of stigmatized individuals and on micro-level interactions, rather than attending to structural forms of stigma. This article describes the relatively new field of research on structural stigma, which is defined as societal-level conditions, cultural norms, and institutional policies that constrain the opportunities, resources, and wellbeing of the stigmatized. I review emerging evidence that structural stigma related to mental illness and sexual orientation (1) exerts direct and synergistic effects on stigma processes that have long been the focus of psychological inquiry (e.g., concealment, rejection sensitivity); (2) serves as a contextual moderator of the efficacy of psychological interventions; and (3) contributes to numerous adverse health outcomes for members of stigmatized groups—ranging from dysregulated physiological stress responses to premature mortality—indicating that structural stigma represents an under-recognized mechanism producing health inequalities. Each of these pieces of evidence suggests that structural stigma is relevant to psychology and therefore deserves the attention of psychological scientists interested in understanding and ultimately reducing the negative effects of stigma. PMID:27977256

  12. Positive psychology in cancer care: bad science, exaggerated claims, and unproven medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, James C; Tennen, Howard

    2010-02-01

    Claims of positive psychology about people with cancer enjoy great popularity because they seem to offer scientific confirmation of strongly held cultural beliefs and values. Our goal is to examine critically four widely accepted claims in the positive psychology literature regarding adaptational outcomes among individuals living with cancer. We examine: (1) the role of positive factors, such as a "fighting spirit" in extending the life of persons with cancer; (2) effects of interventions cultivating positive psychological states on immune functioning and cancer progression and mortality; and evidence concerning (3) benefit finding and (4) post-traumatic growth following serious illness such as cancer and other highly threatening experiences. Claims about these areas of research routinely made in the positive psychology literature do not fit with available evidence. We note in particular the incoherence of claims about the adaptational value of benefit finding and post-traumatic growth among cancer patients, and the implausibility of claims that interventions that enhance benefit finding improve the prognosis of cancer patients by strengthening the immune system. We urge positive psychologists to rededicate themselves to a positive psychology based on scientific evidence rather than wishful thinking.

  13. Teaching and Learning Psychology through an Analysis of Social Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, William E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is designed to accompany an appearance by the author as a panelist during a session on science fiction and teaching methods at the I-CON 28 Science Fiction Convention held April 3-5, 2009, on Long Island (near New York City). The author describes how he employs social science fiction in an honors course at the university level to…

  14. “IDENTITY” IN CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Polyakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of identity has come to the fore of contemporary societies in the conditions when the institutional structures of these societies their ascriptive statuses have become looser when modernity is “liquid”, “soft”. Varions conceptualizations of identity are becoming a basic part of contemporary sociological theory. The paper aims to reveal the key problems that sociology faces when striving to work out a theory of identity. The paper takes as its starting point the classic notion of identity. This notion was shaped by Erik Erikson on the basis of his dynamic psychology. The paper proves that the contemporary identity is connected with the process of individualization in modern societies. Numerous and varied studies of contemporary identity can be divided into three large groups according to three methodological approaches: constructivist, postmodern and interactionist. The paper compares the major theories based on these approaches and reveals their theoretical and methodological problems. The paper shows that the constructivist approach is based on the notion of reflexivity which is viewed as a mechanism of identity formation by an individual. Identity is a reflexive project which is being realized in a conscious manner. The postmodern theories of identity reveal the fragmentation incompleteness of ego-identitity and it’s narcissic decay. They also reveal the inability of the individual to solve the problem of continuity and unity of her (his own personality. Identity as a notion is replaced by the notion of identification which reduces identity to varions modes of repsentation. The interactionist methodology conld open up the way to tackle, the problem of individual’s unity and continuity as the main problem of human existence. This is the condition of the individual’s psychic and social health. 

  15. Understanding the psychology of seeking support to increase Health Science student engagement in academic support services. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Francis Hoyne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing student engagement within higher education academic support services is a constant challenge. Whilst engagement with support is positively associated with successful retention, and non-engagement connected to attrition, the most vulnerable students are often the least likely to engage. Our data has shown that Health Science students are reluctant to engage with academic support services despite being made aware of their academic deficiencies. The “psychology of seeking support” was used as a lens to identify some of the multifaceted issues around student engagement. The School of Health Sciences made attendance at support courses compulsory for those students who were below the benchmark score in a post entrance literacy test. Since the policy change was implemented, there has been a 50% reduction in the fail rate of “at risk” students in a core literacy unit. These findings are encouraging and will help reduce student attrition in the long term.

  16. The sociologist and the state. An assessment of Pierre Bourdieu's sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel, Willem

    2015-06-01

    This paper provides an assessment of Pierre Bourdieu's sociology based on a reading of his posthumously published lectures on the state in Sur l'État. It argues that the state was a foundational element in Bourdieu's rendition of the symbolic order of everyday life. As such, the state becomes equally pivotal in Bourdieu's sociology, the applicability of which rests on the existence of the state, which stabilizes the social fields and their symbolic action that constitute the object of sociology. The state, which Bourdieu considers a 'meta'-ordering principle in social life, ensures that sociology has a well-ordered object of study, vis-à-vis which it can posit itself as 'meta-meta'. The state thus functions as an epistemic guarantee in Bourdieu's sociology. A critical analysis of Bourdieu's sociology of the state offers the chance of a more fundamental overall assessment of Bourdieu's conception of sociology that has relevance for any critical sociological perspective that rests on the assumption of a meta-social entity, such as the state in Bourdieu's work, as a final ordering instance. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  17. Toward a Sociology of Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, John

    2017-02-01

    Despite covering around 70 percent of the earth's surface, the ocean has long been ignored by sociology or treated as merely an extension of land-based systems. Increasingly, however, oceans are assuming a higher profile, emerging both as a new resource frontier, a medium for geopolitical rivalry and conflict, and a unique and threatened ecological hot spot. In this article, I propose a new sociological specialty area, the "sociology of oceans" to be situated at the interface between environmental sociology and traditional maritime studies. After reviewing existing sociological research on maritime topics and the consideration of (or lack of consideration) the sea by classic sociological theorists, I briefly discuss several contemporary sociological approaches to the ocean that have attracted some notice. In the final section of the paper, I make the case for a distinct sociology of oceans and briefly sketch what this might look like. One possible trajectory for creating a shared vision or common paradigm, I argue, is to draw on Deleuze and Guattari's dialectical theory of the smooth and the striated. Même s'il couvre 70% de la surface de la Terre, l'océan a été longtemps ignoré en sociologie ou traité comme une extension des systèmes terrestres. De plus en plus, toutefois, l'océan retient l'attention, en étant vu comme une nouvelle frontière en termes de ressources, un médium pour les rivalités et les conflits géopolitiques, et un lieu écologique névralgique et unique. Dans cet article, je propose une nouvelle spécialisation sociologique, la 'sociologie des océans', se situant dans l'interface entre la sociologie environnementale et les études maritimes traditionnelles. Après une recension de la recherche sociologique existante sur les sujets maritimes et la prise en compte (ou l'absence de prise en compte) de l'océan par les théoriciens de la sociologie classique, je discute brièvement quelques approches sociologiques contemporaines de l

  18. [Analysis of the production of psychology professors in Spain in journal articles of the Web of Science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivas-Ávila, José A; Musi-Lechuga, Bertha

    2010-11-01

    The present work is a descriptive study by means of document analysis that aims to make the analysis of the more productive professors of psychology in Spain trough indexed Web of Science journal articles. The sample was conformed of the first one hundred more productive professors of each one of the six academic areas of Spanish Psychology. A total of 85492 records were analyzed of which 8770 correspond to the 610 analyzed professors. The main results are that from the more productive professors ranking, six belong to the Psychobiology area and only 4 belong to different areas. With respect to the average proportion of articles by Professor of the six areas of psychology, it was found that that range of the proportion oscillates between 25 and 6. The journal Psicothema maintains the most frequency of records among the professors of the sample since they are 1461 which represents a 17% of the total. Finally, we discuss the results and mentioned the implications in the professor's evaluation.

  19. How (and Whether) to Teach Undergraduates about the Replication Crisis in Psychological Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopik, William J.; Bremner, Ryan H.; Defever, Andrew M.; Keller, Victor N.

    2018-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, crises surrounding replication, fraud, and best practices in research methods have dominated discussions in the field of psychology. However, no research exists examining how to communicate these issues to undergraduates and what effect this has on their attitudes toward the field. We developed and validated a 1-hr lecture…

  20. Psychology 2.0 : towards a new science of mind and technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJsselsteijn, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between psychology and technology is a two-way street. On the one hand, we utilize knowledge about human cognition, affect, and behavior to design our technological artifacts, services, and environments such that, ideally, they seamlessly connect to our abilities, needs, and

  1. Statistical reporting errors and collaboration on statistical analyses in psychological science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, C.L.S.; Nuijten, M.B.; Dominguez Alvarez, L.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Wicherts, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Statistical analysis is error prone. A best practice for researchers using statistics would therefore be to share data among co-authors, allowing double-checking of executed tasks just as co-pilots do in aviation. To document the extent to which this ‘co-piloting’ currently occurs in psychology, we

  2. John Foran’s sociology of revolution: From historical sociology to the sociological imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Yu Karasyev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers J. Foran’s sociology of revolution through the stages of evolution of his theoretical and methodological views and the works representing them. The trajectory of Foran’s sociology of revolution reflects in many respects the development of the contemporary comparative and historical sociology of revolution: from the fundamental historical research of a few classical cases to the quantitative study of an extremely wide range of examples and after that to the prediction of the ‘revolution-like’ events’ in future. According to Foran, there are three ways to consider the future of revolutions: 1 the analysis of the revolutions of the past, 2 the look into the future in terms of the existing theories, 3 the sources of sociological imagination. These three methods correspond to three stages in Foran’s sociology of revolution: after conducting the historical study of the situation and revolutions in Iran, the comparative analysis of 39 revolution events in the Third World countries and then an attempt to imagine patterns of future revolutions on the example of Zapatistas’ revolution in Mexico in 1994 and the struggle for global justice at the beginning of the XXI century. Despite the evolution of the subject and methodology of the theory, the concept ‘political culture of opposition’ remained the central category of Foran’s model. This complex notion describes such social process when under the influence of material and discursive elements the revolutionaries found out some common discourse that prescribed them to participate in collective actions to change their societies. Thus, Foran states that revolutions are the product of both structural conditions and human agency and the latter is due to both political-economic and cultural reasons. The cultural-structural character of Foran’s approach makes it relevant for the study of contemporary revolutionary events.

  3. Sociologies of energy. Towards a research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Ariztía

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a panoramic view of the field of the social studies of energy while introducing the articles of the special issue. It begins by discussing the progressive interest on studying the social aspects of energy. We relate this interest to the increasing challenges imposed by global climate change as well as the growing sociological attention to the material dimension of social life. The article suggests understanding energy and energy related phenomena as a socio-technical object which involve material, social, cultural and technical elements. The article then briefly describes different research areas concerning the intersection between energy and society and present the contributions to the monograph. We suggest that the articles comprised in this special issue are not only relevant for social scientist interested on energy related issues; they might also help energy professionals and researchers from outside the social sciences to further problematize the social aspects and challenges of energy.

  4. Cameroon Journal of Agricultural Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Camerounais des Sciences Agricoles The Cameroon Journal of Agricultural Science publishes new information on all aspects of agricultural science – agronomy, breeding, crop protection, economics, rural sociology, forestry and animal science, health and production ...

  5. Sociology: a view from the diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Richard

    2010-12-01

    From the vantage point of criminology, one of sociology's main export subject areas, the present and future of sociology appear a good deal more promising than John Holmwood's essay on the discipline's misfortune would suggest. Sociology remains in high demand by students and faculty hiring remains strong, even in its more critical sub-fields, such as race and ethnicity, sex and gender, and social inequality. Holmwood is correct that sociology is vulnerable to external pressures to demonstrate its relevance to social practice, but those pressures come from left-wing social movements as well as from centres of power. He is also correct that external pressures contribute to internal disagreement, but sociology has been at war with itself since the 1960s, with little evident decline in its academic standing or intellectual vitality. Those of us on the discipline's diaspora, who depend on sociology for both support and light, must remain hopeful about sociology's continued good fortune.

  6. Sociologia e literatura Sociology and literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Célia Leonel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Propomos discutir como Os sertões foi incorporado, pela crítica, como obra de literatura e como, posteriormente, o romance Grande sertão: veredas passou a ser lido como ensaio. Para tanto, examina-se, de um lado, em vários estudos, como o primeiro foi consagrado como obra compósita, pertencendo, ao mesmo tempo, ao campo da literatura, da sociologia e da ciência, o que se tornou moeda corrente e cânone quase inquestionável, sobrevivendo por mais de um século. De outro lado, investiga-se como a narrativa rosiana passou a ser vista, por uma determinada vertente da crítica, como ensaio ou estudo das relações de poder no Brasil. É essa indistinção, paradoxal, entre sociologia e literatura, ciência e fi cção que nos propomos investigar e problematizar, buscando compreender tal embaralhamento de gêneros. Palavras-chave: Grande sertão: veredas. Os sertões. Ficção. Sociologia. Ensaio. Crítica. The purpose is to discuss how Os sertões has been incorporated, by the critics, as literary work and how, after that, the novel Grande sertão: veredas started to be read as an essay. In order to achieve that, there is the examination, from one side, of several studies, on how the fi rst has been consecrated as composite work belonging, at the same time, to the literature, sociology and science fi elds, what has come as currency and unquestionable standard, surviving for over a century. On the other hand, there is the investigation of how the narrative of Rosa started to be seen, by a determined share of the critics, as essay or study of the power relationships in Brazil. It is this non-distinction, this paradox, between sociology and literature, science and fi ction, that we propose to investigate and put into matter, searching for comprehension in this gender mixture. Keywords: Grande sertão: veredas. Os sertões. Fiction. Sociology. Essay. Critics.

  7. Annie Marion MacLean: “the mother of contemporary etnography” and pioneer in sociology distance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia García Dauder

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces Anne Marion MacLean into the United States' scientific sociology at its very origins (1892, when the Department of Sociology of the Chicago University was created. It also puts MacLean in a network called "Women's School of Chicago", and the forgotten contributions of these social sciences' pioneers, submitted to the American Journal of Sociology, are analyzed. Two MacLean's key contributions are highlighted: the correspondence courses in teaching sociology and her research by means of participant observation in workplaces focusing on women's work.

  8. A Comparison of Mental Health Status between Students of Two Faculties of Alzahra University: Physical Education vs. Educational Sciences and Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Baghban Baghestan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : This study aimed to compare mental health status between students of two faculties of Alzahra University: physical education vs. educational sciences and psychology. Material and Methods : This cross-sectional study was conducted in physical educations and educational sciences and psychology faculties. A total number of 242 and 265 students were surveyed in these faculties respectively by GHQ-28 general health questionnaire. Data were extracted and analyzed using SPSS-17. Results : Results indicated that among 265 students, 135 participants (55.8% in physical education faculty and 170 participants in educational sciences and psychology faculty (60.3% were suspected to suffer from mental disorders. Results showed that prevalence of mental disorders in physical education faculty and faculty of educational sciences and psychology was 9.4% and 30.2% respectively (p Conclusion : The results demonstrated that students of physical education faculty significantly scored lower than students of educational sciences and psychology faculty in all four scales of mental health. They had fewer problems in terms of anxiety, depression, physical disorders and social function. Generally, they had better mental health status. ​

  9. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  10. Applied Statistics for the Social and Health Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, Rachel A A

    2012-01-01

    Applied Statistics for the Social and Health Sciences provides graduate students in the social and health sciences with the basic skills that they need to estimate, interpret, present, and publish statistical models using contemporary standards. The book targets the social and health science branches such as human development, public health, sociology, psychology, education, and social work in which students bring a wide range of mathematical skills and have a wide range of methodological affinities. For these students, a successful course in statistics will not only offer statistical content

  11. Facts, theories and ideologies: Viola Klein and Sociology of Scientific Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Pérez Sedeño

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies on history, philosophy and sociology of science have demonstrated that science is not autonomous and value-neutral and its selfless search of truth is an ideal theoretical myth far from the real practice of science, which is an aggregate of social practices. Viola Klein was a pioneer in studying science using the same instruments and categories utilized in any other social practice. The aim of this work is to highlight her contributions to Sociology of Scientific Knowledge at a moment when this discipline was, at the most, incipient.

  12. Review: Dirk Tänzler, Hubert Knobloch & Hans-Georg Soeffner (Eds. (2006. Neue Perspektiven der Wissenssoziologie [New Perspectives on the Sociology of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Junge

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The 14 articles in this collection present theories, questions and research areas in German sociology of knowledge. The contributions analyze the construction of reality with regard to knowledge. As a science of "the real," sociology of knowledge gains access to other disciplines such as ethnology, systems theory, communication studies or cognitive science. The collection emphasizes a critical approach to the possibilities and capacities of sociology of knowledge as such. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901278

  13. Qualitative Research in Counseling Psychology: A Primer on Research Paradigms and Philosophy of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an overview of philosophy of science and research paradigms. The philosophy of science parameters of ontology, epistemology, axiology, rhetorical structure, and methodology are discussed across the research paradigms of positivism, postpositivism, constructivism-interpretivism, and the critical-ideological perspective.…

  14. Reflexive criteria of sociological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R T Ubaydullaeva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the sociological criteria of explaining the way of thinking and actions of subjects, their spiritual and moral positions and intellectual forces that form the laws of social life. The author seeks to adapt such categories as ‘meaning of life’, ‘human dignity’, ‘rationality’ etc. for the purposes of sociological analysis by methodological construction of some real life dichotomies such as ‘subjective meaning and social function’, ‘the real and the ideal’, ‘the demanded and the excluded’. Thus, the author studies economic, political and technical processes in terms of both positivity and negativity of social interaction and states that given the increasing differentiation of the society and the contradictory trends of social development the reflexive criteria that take into account the socio-cultural nature of the man help to find one’s own model of development.

  15. The Sociology of Zygmunt Bauman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Michael Hviid; Poder, Poul

    Zygmunt Bauman is one of the most inspirational and controversial thinkers on the scene of contemporary sociology. For several decades he has provided compelling analyses and diagnoses of a vast variety of aspects of modern and liquid modern living. His work is increasingly popularized, appraised...... life and intellectual trajectory published here for the first time in English. In this postscript aptly entitled "Pro Domo Sua" ("About Myself"), he describes the pushes and pulls that throughout the years have shaped his thinking....

  16. [A sociological approach to vulnerability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelège, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The term precarity covers many realities. It has become one of those "portmanteau words" which, as a resuIt of being constantly reassessed, is losing its meaning. In order to avoid an overly sectional approach to the mechanisms of social precarity, or exclusion, it is necessary to understand in more general terms the sociological processes around the concept of the social tie and its effects of rupture.

  17. The dating mind: evolutionary psychology and the emerging science of human courtship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesch, Nathan; Miklousic, Igor

    2012-12-20

    In the New York Times bestselling book The Game: Penetrating the Secret Society of Pickup Artists (2006), the world was granted its first exclusive introduction to the steadily growing dating coach and pick-up artist community. Many of its most prominent authorities claim to use insights and information gleaned both through first-hand experience as well as empirical research in evolutionary psychology. One of the industry's most well-respected authorities, the illusionist Erik von Markovik, promotes a three-phase model of human courtship: Attraction, building mutual Comfort and Trust, and Seduction. The following review argues that many of these claims are in fact grounded in solid empirical findings from social, physiological and evolutionary psychology. Two texts which represent much of this literature are critiqued and their implications discussed.

  18. Dementia: sociological and philosophical constructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel H J

    2004-01-01

    This analysis presents a challenge to the biomedical view of dementia as a disease. This view is critiqued from two perspectives: those of sociology and philosophy. Because these domains inform the creation of the medical discourse, their analysis provides an important refinement to the apprehension of the phenomenon of dementia. From the work of Foucault, and in particular his analysis of the historical origins of modern medicine, the sociological construction of dementia is considered. Following this, the philosophical question of Being is discussed, considering particularly the positions of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty. Lastly aspects of dementia nursing that are damaging to those relatives forced to take on the role of primary carer are isolated, in the context of Kitwood's view that it is possible to maintain personhood at the extremes of this condition. It is suggested that this critique of sociological and philosophical foundations of dementia might offer a way of approaching the dismantling of the self and revise current conceptions of dementia care for the better.

  19. Sociology of bodies/emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Scribano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at pointing out that the division between a sociology of the bodies and the emotions is, to say the least, unnecessary. The basic idea that runs through this argument is very simple but needs to be justified: it is not possible to search and reflect on bodies/emotions separately, as if it were any chance of one not referring to the other and viceversa. The strategy of the exposition we have selected is as follows: 1 we outline in an introductory manner the existing approaches in the social studies on bodies and emotions, 2 we point out three kinds of reasons/motives to argue the inadequacy of the categorical/aporetic division of a sociology of the bodies and one of the emotions, 3 we put forward our perspective regarding a sociology of bodies/emotions, and 4 we analize the problem of hunger as an example of our viewpoint. Finally, we invite to reflect on the exposed as a means to open a possible discussion in methodological, theoretical, epistemological and political terms.

  20. Classroom communication in lessons of educational science and psychology at secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Šimáková, Monika

    2017-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with classroom communication during pedagogy and psychology lessons at high schools. The aim of the thesis is to describe classroom communication in the observed subjects in a complex way and to give the reader a realistic idea about the communication between the teachers and their students during instruction. The thesis is divided into a theoretical and an empirical part. The theoretical part focuses on pedagogical communication itself, which is a key term in class...

  1. Names in Psychological Science: Investigating the Processes of Thought Development and the Construction of Personal Identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglia, Rocco; Longobardi, Claudio; Mendola, Manuela; Prino, Laura Elvira

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the name as an issue of interest in the psychology field. In thinking about the role played by names for some of the most important approaches on the psychology panorama, it has been found that the analysis of names can be used as an instrument for the investigation of thought formation processes, or as an element in the process of constructing personal identity. In the first case, the focus is on the so-called "common" names, which designate objects; in the second case, instead, it is on people's given names and on the way they are perceived by their bearers and those who surround them. We have examined both domains, since it is essential to understand how the psychological concepts related to names develop in children's minds, if we aim to grasp their importance as designators of people's internal and external realities. Lastly, we have proposed our own view of the person's name, linked to the relational systems perspective which essentially sees the name as a signifier or "representative" of the child-parent relationship, while the "relationship" is the signified.

  2. What Should Researchers Expect When They Replicate Studies? A Statistical View of Replicability in Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Prasad; Peng, Roger D; Leek, Jeffrey T

    2016-07-01

    A recent study of the replicability of key psychological findings is a major contribution toward understanding the human side of the scientific process. Despite the careful and nuanced analysis reported, the simple narrative disseminated by the mass, social, and scientific media was that in only 36% of the studies were the original results replicated. In the current study, however, we showed that 77% of the replication effect sizes reported were within a 95% prediction interval calculated using the original effect size. Our analysis suggests two critical issues in understanding replication of psychological studies. First, researchers' intuitive expectations for what a replication should show do not always match with statistical estimates of replication. Second, when the results of original studies are very imprecise, they create wide prediction intervals-and a broad range of replication effects that are consistent with the original estimates. This may lead to effects that replicate successfully, in that replication results are consistent with statistical expectations, but do not provide much information about the size (or existence) of the true effect. In this light, the results of the Reproducibility Project: Psychology can be viewed as statistically consistent with what one might expect when performing a large-scale replication experiment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Phenomenological sociology in the framework of contemporary methodological debates

    OpenAIRE

    A S Ivanova

    2010-01-01

    The article provides a review of the pivotal doctrines in the sphere of social sciences and humanities methodology, namely positivism (O. Comte, H. Spenser et al) and antipositivism (W. Dilthey, H. Rickert et al). In terms of E. Husserl's late philosophy as well as the works of M. Merleau-Ponty and A. Schutz the article provides the analysis of one of the prominent schools of the contemporary social theory - phenomenological sociology which is highlighted as the non-classical strategy of the ...

  4. Pure sociology and social geometry as an example of formal sociological theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škorić Marko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes pure sociology and social geometry of Donald Black as an example of formal sociological theory. Starting with the importance of formal and analytical theory in sociology, we present the bold theoretical strategy and/or the paradigm of the sociology of behavior of social life. The examples of pure sociology and social geometry concerning law, violence and homosexuality are presented as well. A review and critique of pure sociology as a scientific formal theory is offered in the end.

  5. Prevalence of menstrual problems and their association with psychological stress in young female students studying health sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazish Rafique

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify the prevalence of various menstrual problems in young females studying health sciences and to identify their association with academic stress. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in the health colleges of Immam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia between February 2015 and February 2016. Seven hundred and thirty-eight female students aged 18-25 years anonymously completed menstrual problem identification and perceived stress scale questionnaire. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16.0. Results: Ninety-one percent of the students were suffering from some kind of menstrual problem. The different menstrual problems reported, and their incidences included irregular menstruation (27%, abnormal vaginal bleeding (9.3%, amenorrhea (9.2%, menorrhagia (3.4%, dysmenorrhea (89.7%, and premenstrual symptoms (46.7%. High perceived stress (HPS was identified in 39% of the students. A significant positive correlation was found between HPS and menstrual problems. Students with HPS had 4 times, 2 times, and 2.8 times increased odds ratio for experiencing amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and premenstrual syndrome (p less than 0.05. Conclusion: The most prevalent menstrual problems (dysmenorrhea and premenstrual symptoms in the target population were strongly associated with stress. Therefore, it is recommended that health science students should be provided with early psychological and gynecological counselling to prevent future complications.

  6. Women's Feminist Consciousness, Anger, and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ann R.; Good, Glenn E.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to bring together several lines of research and theory on women's feminist consciousness from psychology, sociology, and philosophy. Past literatures had suggested bivariate links between feminist identity development and psychological distress, feminist identity and anger, feminist identity and interpersonal conflict,…

  7. The Psychology of Psychic Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkanson, Lars; Ambos, Björn; Schuster, Anja

    2016-01-01

    and their theoretical underpinnings assume psychic distances to be symmetric. Building on insights from psychology and sociology, this paper demonstrates how national factors and cognitive processes interact in the formation of asymmetric distance perceptions. The results suggest that exposure to other countries...

  8. Love, from a sociological point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Piazzesi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available What does it mean to examine erotic love and intimacy from a sociological point of view? Does this endeavour entail a definition of love, and, if so, is such a definition possible from a sociological perspective? This paper discusses the epistemological challenges implied by the task of constructing love as the object of sociological inquiry. We will start by giving a definition of the task itself and by detailing the peculiarities of a sociological inquiry on love. We will point out why it is imperative for such an inquiry to remain open to the historicity of love as an emotion and as a form of interaction. Finally we will explore love as the object of a sociological investigation in order to spell out what becomes visible to the sociological eye once the correct epistemological precautions are taken.

  9. Comparative education and the ?new? sociologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusz, Andrew R.; Parks-Trusz, Sandra L.

    1981-12-01

    The authors examine the impact of the `new' sociologies on comparative education by reviewing five comparative readers published during the past twenty years. While the `new' sociologies have had considerable impact within sociology and the sociology of education, minimal impact is found within comparative education. The authors further show that while critical new sociologies such as Marxism, neo-Marxism, and Critical theory have had some penetration into comparative education, use of the interpretative sociologies such as symbolic interactionism, ethnomethodology, and semiotics has generally been absent. The authors conclude by suggesting that a synthesis of the critical and interpretative modes would prove fruitful for further work in comparative education. The five texts are: Halsey, Floud and Anderson (eds.), Education, Economy and Society (1961); Eckstein and Noah (eds.), Scientific Investigations in Comparative Education (1969); Beck, Perspectives on World Education (1970); Karabel and Halsey (eds.), Power and Ideology in Education (1977); and Altbach and Kelly (eds.), Education and Colonialism (1978).

  10. Building the boundaries of a science: First representations of Italian social psychology between 1875 and 1954.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensales, Gilda; Areni, Alessandra; Del Secco, Alessandra

    2011-11-01

    The present study embraces the critical traditions of "New History" and of social representations theory articulated with the mainstream historiographical tradition of a bibliometric approach. The historical analysis deals with the early representations of Italian social psychology articulated and disseminated by some of the main Italian scientific-cultural and philosophical journals. We examined seven journals published between 1875 and 1954, and gathered 2,030 texts dealing with the various forms of social and collective psychology. We have applied a grid of content analysis whose data have been transcribed to a numerical file. At the same time, we have created a textual file containing the titles of the contributions as well as the names of the authors and scholars reviewed. The two files have been processed by SPAD-T for a correspondence analysis in which both lexical data and category variables have been considered as active variables. Through the scree-test, two factors that explain 18.90% of the variance have been singled out. Their combination has produced a factorial plan able to highlight three distinct areas differently characterized from journals and years. The results are also discussed with regard to the contextual historical frame.

  11. Why human evolution should be a basic science for medicine and psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano

    2016-06-20

    Based on our teaching experience in medicine and psychology degree programs, we examine different aspects of human evolution that can help students to understand how the human body and mind work and why they are vulnerable to certain diseases. Three main issues are discussed: 1) the necessity to consider not only the mechanisms, i.e. the "proximate causations", implicated in biological processes but also why these mechanisms have evolved, i.e. the "ultimate causations" or "adaptive significance", to understand the functioning and malfunctioning of human body and mind; 2) examples of how human vulnerabilities to disease are caused by phylogenetic constraints, evolutionary tradeoffs reflecting the combined actions of natural and sexual selection, and/or mismatch between past and present environment (i.e., evolution of the eye, teeth and diets, erect posture and their consequences); 3) human pair-bonding and parent-offspring relationships as the result of socio-sexual selection and evolutionary compromises between cooperation and conflict. These psychobiological mechanisms are interwoven with our brain developmental plasticity and the effects of culture in shaping our behavior and mind, and allow a better understanding of functional (normal) and dysfunctional (pathological) behaviors. Thus, because the study of human evolution offers a powerful framework for clinical practice and research, the curriculum studiorum of medical and psychology students should include evolutionary biology and human phylogeny.

  12. Statistical Reporting Errors and Collaboration on Statistical Analyses in Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Coosje L S; Nuijten, Michèle B; Dominguez-Alvarez, Linda; van Assen, Marcel A L M; Wicherts, Jelte M

    2014-01-01

    Statistical analysis is error prone. A best practice for researchers using statistics would therefore be to share data among co-authors, allowing double-checking of executed tasks just as co-pilots do in aviation. To document the extent to which this 'co-piloting' currently occurs in psychology, we surveyed the authors of 697 articles published in six top psychology journals and asked them whether they had collaborated on four aspects of analyzing data and reporting results, and whether the described data had been shared between the authors. We acquired responses for 49.6% of the articles and found that co-piloting on statistical analysis and reporting results is quite uncommon among psychologists, while data sharing among co-authors seems reasonably but not completely standard. We then used an automated procedure to study the prevalence of statistical reporting errors in the articles in our sample and examined the relationship between reporting errors and co-piloting. Overall, 63% of the articles contained at least one p-value that was inconsistent with the reported test statistic and the accompanying degrees of freedom, and 20% of the articles contained at least one p-value that was inconsistent to such a degree that it may have affected decisions about statistical significance. Overall, the probability that a given p-value was inconsistent was over 10%. Co-piloting was not found to be associated with reporting errors.

  13. Analysing Discourse. An Approach From the Sociology of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Keller

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The contribution outlines a research pro­gramme which I have coined the "sociology of knowledge approach to discourse" (Wissens­sozio­logische Diskursanalyse. This approach to dis­course integrates important insights of FOU­CAULT's theory of discourse into the interpretative paradigm in the social sciences, especially the "German" approach of hermeneutic sociology of knowledge (Hermeneutische Wissenssoziologie. Accordingly, in this approach discourses are con­sidered as "structured and structuring structures" which shape social practices of enunciation. Un­like some Foucauldian approaches, this form of discourse analysis recognises the importance of socially constituted actors in the social production and circulation of knowledge. Furthermore, it com­bines research questions related to the concept of "discourse" with the methodical toolbox of qual­itative social research. Going beyond ques­tions of language in use, "the sociology of knowl­edge ap­proach to discourse" (Wissenssozio­logi­sche Dis­kurs­analyse addresses sociological inter­ests, the analyses of social relations and politics of knowl­edge as well as the discursive construction of re­al­ity as an empirical ("material" process. For empiri­cal research on discourse the approach proposes the use of analytical concepts from the sociology of knowledge tradition, such as inter­pretative schemes or frames (Deutungsmuster, "clas­sifi­ca­tions", "phenomenal structure" (Phäno­men­struktur, "narrative structure", "dispositif" etc., and the use of the methodological strategies of "grounded theory". URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503327

  14. Reconceptualizing resistance: sociology and the affective dimension of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Maria

    2013-12-01

    This paper re-examines the sociological study of resistance in light of growing interest in the concept of affect. Recent claims that we are witness to an 'affective turn' and calls for a 'new sociological empiricism' sensitive to affect indicate an emerging paradigm shift in sociology. Yet, mainstream sociological study of resistance tends to have been largely unaffected by this shift. To this end, this paper presents a case for the significance of affect as a lens by which to approach the study of resistance. My claim is not simply that the forms of actions we would normally recognize as resistance have an affective dimension. Rather, it is that the theory of affect broadens 'resistance' beyond the purview of the two dominant modes of analysis in sociology; namely, the study of macropolitical forms, on the one hand, and the micropolitics of everyday resistance on the other. This broadened perspective challenges the persistent assumption that ideological forms of power and resistance are the most pertinent to the contemporary world, suggesting that much power and resistance today is of a more affective nature. In making this argument, it is a Deleuzian reading of affect that is pursued, which opens up to a level of analysis beyond the common understanding of affect as emotion. I argue that an affective approach to resistance would pay attention to those barely perceptible transitions in power and mobilizations of bodily potential that operate below the conscious perceptions and subjective emotions of social actors. These affective transitions constitute a new site at which both power and resistance operate. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  15. Fashion in the context of contemporary sociological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Voronkova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between the content of the various options of fashion’s theory and research strategies of national sociological schools is identified and analyzed in the article. To those schools belong scientists from the USA, France and Germany: R. Barthes, H. Blumer, J. Baudrillard, P. Bourdieu, Th. Veblen, G. Simmel, W. Sombart. In particular, representatives of American sociology study fashion, especially in the context of a definition of psychological factors affecting both the individual (Th. Veblen, and so on Collective (G. Bloomer behavior of members of modern society. French researchers P. Bourdieu, R. Barthes and J. Baudrillard offer analyze fashion as a social phenomenon that puts the functioning of all spheres of personality and needs, especially solid theoretical interpretations. German sociologists examined fashion, especially as one of many forms of life (G. Simmel, in which the trend towards social cohesion combined with the trend towards individual differences that are beginning to engage in the conditions of formation and development of capitalist society (W. Sombart. It is substantiated that the historical development of each country affected the establishment of national sociological schools. This reflected not only in the formation of the leading areas of research, but also on specificity of the analysis of other social phenomena and processes, particularly in the study of the problem field of fashion.

  16. Audiological rehabilitation in sociological perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    , or they can relate to particular situations. On entering the hearing clinic for the first time, many patients express discomfort when confronted with becoming partners in decision-making concerning the choice of hearing aid type. In the fitting room, the audiologist operates within a dominant medical...... as the 'truth'. By building on a sociological approach to hearing impairment that reaches beyond the medical definition, we see another picture emerging. Some patients embark on the process of getting a hearing aid and come to the hearing aid fitting as a response to social pressure from relatives or colleagues...

  17. Building Bridges between Psychological Science and Education: Cultural Stereotypes, STEM, and Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Allison; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2016-01-01

    There is a gender gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. This presents a worldwide problem of inequity. Sociocultural stereotypes associating STEM with males act as barriers that prevent girls from developing interests in STEM. This article aims to show that we can increase equity and enhance outcomes for a…

  18. Translating Neuroscience, Psychology and Education: An Abstracted Conceptual Framework for the Learning Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Gregory M.; Horvath, Jared C.

    2016-01-01

    Educators strive to understand and apply knowledge gained through scientific endeavours. Yet, within the various sciences of learning, particularly within educational neuroscience, there have been instances of seemingly contradictory or incompatible research findings and theories. We argue that this situation arises through confusion between…

  19. 'Hypotheses, everywhere only hypotheses!': on some contexts of Dilthey's critique of explanatory psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feest, Uljana

    2007-03-01

    In 1894, Wilhelm Dilthey published an article in which he formulated a critique of what he called 'explanatory psychology', contrasting it with his own conception of 'descriptive psychology'. Dilthey's descriptive psychology, in turn, was to provide the basis for Dilthey's specific philosophy of the human sciences (Geisteswissenschaften). In this paper, I contextualize Dilthey's critique of explanatory psychology. I show that while this critique comes across as very broad and sweeping, he in fact had specific opponents in mind, namely, scholars who, like him, attempted to theorize about the relationship between the individual and society, between psychology and the other human sciences. Dilthey's critique of explanatory psychology is the flipside of his critique of sociology, which he had already formulated. He challenged both because he felt that they gave the wrong kind of answer to the task of overcoming metaphysics within the human sciences. In particular, I identify the founders of Völkerpsychologie, Moritz Lazarus and Heymann Steinthal, and (more importantly) their student, Georg Simmel, as Dilthey's targets. I provide textual and historical evidence for this thesis.

  20. Sociologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholm, Niels

    2016-01-01

    I kapitlet diskuteres ud fra et sociologisk perspektiv brug af et screeningsinstrumentet til opsporing af depression efter indlæggelse for hjertesygdom. HADS – Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Det er en udbredt praksis at screene udskrevne hjertepatienter for depression. Som screeningsinstru...

  1. Toward a Sociology of Environmental Flows: A New Agenda for Twenty-First-Century Environmental Sociology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.; Spaargaren, G.

    2006-01-01

    The emerging sociology of networks and flows, as it can be found in the works of Castells and Urry among others, offers promising perspectives for environmental sociology in rethinking its principle object of study: nature and environment. The sociology of flow perspective takes us beyond the

  2. The Fourth Sociology and Music Education: Towards a Sociology of Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    By identifying three main sociologies that characterise broad movements in the field since its inception, this paper provides a background to considerations of music education from the perspective of sociology. A fourth sociology is then proposed that may be useful to interrogate the complexities of the field of 21st century music education. This…

  3. A Sociology "of" or a Sociology "for" Education? The New Zealand Experience of the Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rata, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The sociology of education in New Zealand, as in other countries, is affected by the dilemma inherent to the discipline, namely: is it a sociology "of" education or a sociology "for" education? In this article I analyse three factors in which the dilemma is played out: "cultural oppositionism" in the indigenous…

  4. A sociohistorical examination of George Herbert Mead's approach to science education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michelle L

    2016-07-01

    Although George Herbert Mead is widely known for his social psychological work, his views on science education also represent a significant, yet sometimes overlooked contribution. In a speech delivered in March 1906 entitled "The Teaching of Science in College," Mead calls for cultural courses on the sciences, such as sociology of science or history of science courses, to increase the relevancy of natural and physical science courses for high school and university students. These views reflect Mead's perspective on a number of traditional dualisms, including objectivity versus subjectivity and the social sciences versus natural and physical sciences. Taking a sociohistorical outlook, I identify the context behind Mead's approach to science education, which includes three major influences: (1) German intellectual thought and the Methodenstreit debate, (2) pragmatism and Darwin's theory of evolution, and (3) social reform efforts in Chicago and the General Science Movement. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. ACADEMIC GENEALOGIES WITH RESPECT TO NARRATIVE IN HUMAN AND SOCIAL SCIENCES AND THEIR IMPLICATION FOR PUBLIC POLICIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Taiki; Nakano, Takeshi; Hatori, Tsuyoshi

    In human and society science, narrative is regarded as an important issue to understand dynamic actions of human being and society. Therefore, narrative is also expected to be important for public policies that try to improve dynamic actions of human being and society. In th is study, we review academic genealogies with respect to narratives including western philosophy, hermeneutics, historical science, historical philosophy, literary criticism, clinical psychology and sociology, narrative psychology and folklore. Then we discuss how narrative can be pragmatically applied for public policies.

  6. Use of New Approaches in Teaching Sociology (Application of a Technique for Producing Idea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraslan, Levent

    2011-01-01

    Society-based research subjects are the study of sociology which is an important branch of science in the field of social science. It is a branch of studying society, social values, social groups, social classes and economical, political, social, religious, lawful institutions, population, usage, custom, value, norm, beliefs and relations and…

  7. Psychology, education and history: the paths offered by social studies of science to analyze the mobilization of conceptual and practice devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Sebastian Soto Triana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a reflection about the way in which the analysis of the history of psychology in Colombia has been constituted. It contributes a conceptual development to the classical tradition of viewing history as a reference to moments and “heroic” characters, neglecting analytical possibilities around various narratives that enable a broad understanding of the movements of psychology as a space for social appropriation of knowledge, sociotechnical network building and practices of translation of interests. Through a brief exposition of the case of psychology and education at the Gimnasio Moderno School of Bogota in the early twentieth century, the way in which Social Studies of Science provide important tools in terms of their epistemology and methodology for monitoring concepts, practices, adaptations and staging of European developmental psychology in an educational institution where childhood is a “mandatory step” in narratives about modernization is presented.

  8. The psychological characteristics of experiences that influence science motivation and content knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathgate, Meghan; Schunn, Christian

    2017-11-01

    While motivational changes towards science are common during adolescence, our work asks which perceived classroom experiences are most strongly related to these changes. Additionally, we examine which experiences are most strongly associated with learning classroom content. In particular, using self-reports from a sample of approximately 3000 middle school students, this study investigates the influence of perceived science classroom experiences, namely student engagement and perceived success, on motivational change (fascination, values, competency belief) and content knowledge. Controlling for demographic information, school effects, and initial levels of motivation and content knowledge, we find that dimensions of engagement (affect, behavioural/cognitive) and perceived success are differentially associated with changes in particular motivational constructs and learning. Affective engagement is positively associated with motivational outcomes and negatively associated with learning outcomes, behavioural-cognitive engagement is associated only with learning, and perceived success is related only to motivational outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  9. Sociological theory and social reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Díez Nicolás

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper pretends to demonstrate the complementary relations between three relatively recent sociological theories, each one of which explains a different aspect of the same social object: the origin, diffusion and change of social and cultural values, aiming at demonstrating that there is not such a thing as a sociological theory that explains all, but rather diverse theories that offer partial explanations of social reality. To that effect, and on the basis of the necessary relationship between theory and research, three different theories are evaluated separately: Hawley’s and Duncan’s theory of the social ecosystem, Galtung’s centre-periphery theory, and Inglehart’s theory of values’ change in modern-industrial societies, offering theoretical and empirical evidence of their complementary relations, based on Spanish and international data. Social ecosystem and centre-periphery theories show a high level of generalization (through space and time and a high level of abstraction, though both can easily operationalize their main concepts through valid and reliable indicators. The theory of values’ change, however, though showing a high level of generalization, is limited in time to the historical period after World War II, and also shows a high level of abstraction. Centre-periphery theory and values’ change theory use individual and collective units of analysis, but social ecosystem theory only uses collective units, by definition. The three theories lead to the conclusion that ‘security’ values will gain a growing importance in present societies.

  10. Explaining drug policy: Towards an historical sociology of policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Toby

    2011-11-01

    The goal of seeking to understand the development over time of drug policies is a specific version of the more general intellectual project of finding ways of explaining social change. The latter has been a preoccupation of some of the greatest thinkers within the social sciences of the last 200 years, from Foucault all the way back to the three nineteenth-century pioneers, Marx, Durkheim and Weber. I describe this body of work as 'historical sociology'. In this paper, I outline how a particular approach to historical sociology can be fruitfully drawn upon to understand the development of drug policy, using by way of illustration the example of the analysis of a recent transformation in British drug policy: the rise of the criminal justice agenda. I conclude by arguing that by looking at developments in drug policy in this way, some new insights are opened up. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Research advances in treatment of neurological and psychological diseases by acupuncture at the Acupuncture Meridian Science Research Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombi Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is an ancient therapeutic intervention that can be traced back at least 2100 years and is emerging worldwide as one of the most widely used therapies in the field of complementary and alternative medicine. Due to limitations associated with Western medicine's focus on the treatment of diseases rather than on their causes, interests are shifting to complementary and alternative medicines. The Acupuncture and Meridian Science Research Center (AMSRC was established in 2005 to elucidate the neurophysiological mechanisms of acupuncture for neurological diseases based on multidisciplinary research supported by the Korean Ministry of Science and Technology. In the AMSRC, resultant research articles have shown that acupuncture can improve neurological and psychological problems, including Parkinson's disease, pain, and depression, in animal models. Basic research studies suggest its effectiveness in treating various problems such as depression, drug addiction, epilepsy, ischemia, dementia, Parkinson's disease, and pain. We strongly believe that these effects, evident from the AMSRC research results, can play leading roles in the use of acupuncture for treating neurological diseases, based on collaboration among various academic fields such as neurophysiology, molecular genetics, and traditional Korean medicine.

  12. Sociology of Social Documentary Photography in Forming Social Movements and its Effect on Iran Islamic Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Rahman Setayesh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Photography is taken as one of the modern disciplines of the art world. Social documentary photography, with its realistic, impartial and truthful nature, is aimed at keeping a record of social events. It is a document of an event happened in front of the camera which may symbolize history and identity of a society. As a science, sociology has emerged concurrently. Sociology of art is aimed at introducing the art or style of a given era which has been created by a given society. Reflection and formation are two significant approaches of sociology of art. It is aimed to highlight the effect of sociology of photography in forming social movements especially Iran Islamic revolution.

  13. Formulation of work stress in 1960-2000: analysis of scientific works from the perspective of historical sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Ari; Anttila, Erkko; Turtiainen, Jussi; Varje, Pekka

    2012-09-01

    During the latter part of the 20th century, work stress became an important societal issue and a huge amount of scientific attention went to studying it. This paper examines the process of formulating and defining the concept of work stress in the occupational health sciences and in industrial and organizational psychology from the early 1960s to the late 1990s. The empirical material of the study encompasses 108 scientific articles, books, book chapters, 'state of the art' reviews, book reviews, and written conference presentations. The data are analysed in the frameworks of historical sociology, critical psychology, and the anthropology of knowledge. We argue that work stress as a life-structuring concept gained ground in psychosocial and occupational health sciences (and also in lay understanding) in the 1960s simultaneously with the rise of social reformist movements that called for fundamental changes emphasizing democratic and human-orientated work organizations and socially responsible values. With the passing of time, however, the focus on structural improvement of work life waned and the emphasis shifted towards the apolitical occupational health aspects of work stress. Researchers with a psychological orientation emphasized micro-level characteristics as factors affecting work stress, whereas stress-orientated epidemiologists turned to the study of specific occupational stress models and/or risk factors. The emergence and development of work stress research can be seen as a chain of attempts to define and identify new risks and experiences occurring in work life. The process, driven by a gradual shift from industrial environments towards organizational frameworks characterized by social and psychological dimensions, reflected the overall shift towards modern democratic work life and the information society in which employees' emotions and well-being became an issue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Toward a Global Sociology of Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Z. Fareen

    2017-01-01

    This article offers an example of a global approach to teaching the sociology of religion, a course that typically focuses on American religious phenomena. It builds on three interventions in the movement for a global sociology: connecting the local and global, moving beyond methodological nationalism, and developing an ethical orientation toward…

  15. One Hundred Years of Sociological Solitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaut, Ruben G.

    2005-01-01

    This Cuban-born author presents a narrative on the social events in the United States that marked his life as he embarked on a career in the field of sociology in the 1960s and 70s. He advocates for sociologists' awareness of social realities and the evolution of sociological studies from a socially-conscious perspective.

  16. Sociology and Social Work in Nigeria: Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the evolution of sociology and social work in Nigeria and examines the current characteristics and areas of convergences and divergences in both fields. It was only in the 1960s that universities in Nigeria began to offer degree programmes in sociology with the. first sub-department and full department ...

  17. Phi in physiology, psychology and biomechanics: The golden ratio between myth and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosa, Marco; Morone, Giovanni; Paolucci, Stefano

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the use of the so-called golden ratio (Phi, ϕ), an irrational number with fractal properties, used in artworks since V century BC. and now for modelling complex biological structures and functions. This number, in fact, recursively pops-up in human history, from Ancient Greeks to Renaissance, and to contemporary scientific studies. Nevertheless, recent scientific results often fall between two extremes: those of a priori sceptic researchers accusing the artificial emergence of ϕ in many studies, and those of researchers that find a mystic meaning in the presence of ϕ in human physiology. This review moves between these two extremes to provide a scientifically based discussion about the possible presence of Phi in human physiology, psychology, and biomechanics of heart and locomotion. We provide scientific evidence, analysing reasons for the presence of Phi, reporting the weakness of some studies overstating the potential meaning of this number, and reporting the reasons for which it could be actually found in some biological structures and functions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrating medical and environmental sociology with environmental health: crossing boundaries and building connections through advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Phil

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the personal and professional processes of developing an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complex issues of environmental health in their community, political-economic, social science, and scientific contexts. This interdisciplinary approach includes a synthesis of research, policy work, and advocacy. To examine multiple forms of interdisciplinarity, I examine pathways of integrating medical and environmental sociology via three challenges to the boundaries of traditional research: (1) crossing the boundaries of medical and environmental sociology, (2) linking social science and environmental health science, and (3) crossing the boundary of research and advocacy. These boundary crossings are discussed in light of conceptual and theoretical developments of popular epidemiology, contested illnesses, and health social movements. This interdisciplinary work offers a more comprehensive sociological lens for understanding complex problems and a practical ability to join with scientists, activists, and officials to meet public health needs for amelioration and prevention of environmental health threats.

  19. French Economics of Convention and Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    foundation of markets and of money may be an occasion for economic sociology to focus even more on elaborating on the institutional void created by traditional economic theory. A second point is that economic sociology could benefit from the perspective of a plurality of forms of coordination involved......The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...... closely into three recent texts from the economics of convention tradition discussing, in slightly different ways, differences and similarities between economics of convention and economic sociology. It is argued that André Orléan’s point that a common aim could be to ‘denaturalise’ the institutional...

  20. Economics of Convention and New Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the article is to explore potential common themes in economic sociology and economics of conventions. The article explores two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be of particular importance to economic sociology. First, the explicit exploration of the consequences...... of a plurality of forms of justification, as elaborated in économie de la grandeur. This perspective was recently taken up in economic sociology by David Stark's introduction of the notion ‘sociology of worth'. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalize economic theory...... and economic action to demonstrate the social constructed nature of economic action. It is argued that these two issues demonstrate that a fruitful dialogue is indeed possible between economic sociology and economics of convention and should be encouraged....

  1. Sociology as Moral Philosophy (and Vice Versa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Frédéric

    2017-11-01

    In this article, I want to make an attempt to reconnect sociology to moral philosophy and moral philosophy to sociology. The thesis I want to defend is that sociology continues by other means the venerable tradition of practical and moral philosophy. Like its forebears, it stands and falls with a defense of "practical wisdom" (Aristotle) and "practical reason" (Kant). The development of a moral sociology presupposes, however, that one recognizes and rejects Max Weber's theory of axiological neutrality as an extremist position and that one carefully articulates prescriptive and descriptive, internal and external, as well as observer and actor positions. © 2017 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  2. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The Sociology and Entrenchment. A Cystic Fibrosis Test for Everyone?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Lene; Stemerding, Dirk

    1994-01-01

    Socialmedicine, genetic screening, cystic fibrosis, ethics, political regulation, sociology of technology......Socialmedicine, genetic screening, cystic fibrosis, ethics, political regulation, sociology of technology...

  4. African Journals Online: Sociology & Anthropology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 41 of 41 ... It welcomes articles and other academic communications from scholars in Africa and elsewhere ... Creative Artist: A Journal of Theatre and Media Studies ... International Journal of Emotional Psychology and Sport Ethics.

  5. Figures and Institutions of the neurological sciences in Paris from 1800 to 1950. Part IV: Psychiatry and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, J; Clarac, F; Barbara, J-G; Broussolle, E

    2012-05-01

    We present a short historical review on the major institutions and figures who contributed to make Paris a renowned centre of physiology and neurology during the XIXth and the first half of the XXth century. We purposely chose to focus on the period 1800-1950, as 1800 corresponds to the actual beginning of neurosciences, and as 1950 marks their exponential rise. Our presentation is divided into four chapters, matching the main disciplines that have progressed and contributed most to the knowledge we have of the brain sciences: anatomy, physiology, neurology, and psychiatry-psychology. The present article is the fourth of the four parts of this review, which deals with the chapter on psychiatry and psychology. When the French Revolution occurred, only a few institutions were taking care of the mentally ill. In the Paris area, these included Maison Royale de Charenton, Les Petites Maisons, and one of the departments of larger hospitals such as Hôtel-Dieu, the Salpêtrière Hospital and Bicêtre Hospital. One of the founders of psychiatry in Paris at that time and thereafter was Philippe Pinel (1745-1826) who was the first to distinguish insane/alienated patients from misfits, beggars, and other vagabonds. During the first half of the XIXth century, his student Jean-Étienne Esquirol (1772-1840) also played a major role with his treatise on mental diseases and the 1838 law and the creation of asylums in all parts of France. Alienists were in general caregivers and learned by themselves. In contrast, at the academic level, the emerging disciplines psychiatry and neurology were very close to each other in the second half of the XIXth century, the best example being Jules Baillarger (1809-1890). The actual development of psychiatry and psychology and the foundation of psychoanalysis later in the XIXth century and in the first half of the XXth century owed much to several European doctors and scientists, particularly those from British institutions and from German

  6. An Environmental Sociology for the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Gary

    2017-02-01

    Attention to the relationship between nature and society has been a defining feature of environmental sociology since its inception. Early research, incorporating insights from ecology, argued for the need to (1) theorize the causal connections between nature and society and (2) contextualize those connections in terms of biophysical limits resulting from resource scarcity. Over the past two decades, partly in response to new forms of existential threat such as climate change, the treatment of nature and society as distinct entities has given way to a focus on socio-natural assemblages. Using the Anthropocene as a lens to explore this emerging view, it is argued (1) that current theorizing on the socio-natural assemblage needs to pay more attention to the issues of temporality and complexity, (2) that taking these factors into account reconceptualizes the nature-society relationship as a complex, evolving socio-natural assemblage, (3) that this evolutionary process needs to be understood in the context of cosmic evolution and the tension between entropy and the emergence of local complexity, and (4) that constraints on human development arise from the tension between these two tendencies, not from resource scarcity. An environmental sociology for the Anthropocene, one based on assumptions about the nature of causal dynamics and context consistent with our understanding of current earth system science, is proposed. L'attention portée à la relation entre la nature et la société a été un trait caractéristique de la sociologie de l'environnement depuis sa création. La recherche initiale, intégrant les connaissances de l'écologie, a soutenu la nécessité de (1) théoriser les liens causaux entre la nature et la société et (2) contextualiser ces connexions en termes de limites biophysiques résultant de la pénurie de ressources. Au cours des deux derniéres décennies, en partie en réponse à de nouvelles formes de menace existentielle telles que le

  7. DISCUSS THE ISSUES CONCERNING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AS PART OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Shaban MOHAMMADI

    2015-01-01

    Dominate the thoughts of positivism in America (Zimmerman, 1979; Watts & Zimmerman, 1979, 1986) and the development of case studies based on management accounting investigators throughout Europe (Panozzo, 1997; Drury & Tayles, 1994, 2005), evidence of improvements in accounting. During this process, management accounting in the economic concepts related to its development and the social sciences as well from sociology, psychology and organizational studies. Furthermore, this improvement may b...

  8. The Phenomenological, Sociological, and Psychological Understanding of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Pompe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available When trying to investigate the understanding of music, there are a number of epistemologically and methodologically diverse perspectives, and this is associated with the fairly vague definition of music. Firstly, music exists in the form of a waving motion as a physical-acoustic dimension that reaches the listener’s/receiver’s ear. At the time of the »reception« of music, the human neuropsychological mechanism is triggered, which causes the process of semiosis – when we imbue music with meaning strongly exceeding the basic, physical characteristics of music as a sound. In the history of music studies, one can discern the periodical shifting of scientific methodologies that have placed now this and later the other perspective in the center of their research. Meanwhile the author of the article claims that for a holistic understanding of music one needs to employ all the different methodological starting points. Music must be understood as a “two-sided” process: it is possible to investigate the “path” that leads from the creation of music to the emergence of listener’s meaning or to begin with the latter and try to connect it with the intentionality of the author.

  9. Giving and volunteering in the Netherlands : Sociological and psychological perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.H.F.P.

    2004-01-01

    Volunteer work, membership of voluntary associations, philanthropy and donation of blood and organs are studied by scholars from a wide range of disciplines. Sociologists and economists assume that good intentions are universal, but that some people have a stock of human and social capital that

  10. Crisis Management: Psychological and Sociological Factors in Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    Section A. Cognitive Prooeaes While what has been a Ued the " rational model" of decision - making may not adequately account for the operation of the...obstacles blocking rational decision - making . 7. What part does fatigue play in reacting to a crisis? Fatigue results from two factors. First...further important question of the impact of these variables on decision - making . It is a difficult theoretical problem to link the maladaptive emotional

  11. Improving epistemological beliefs and moral judgment through an STS-based science ethics education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin; Jeong, Changwoo

    2014-03-01

    This study develops a Science-Technology-Society (STS)-based science ethics education program for high school students majoring in or planning to major in science and engineering. Our education program includes the fields of philosophy, history, sociology and ethics of science and technology, and other STS-related theories. We expected our STS-based science ethics education program to promote students' epistemological beliefs and moral judgment development. These psychological constructs are needed to properly solve complicated moral and social dilemmas in the fields of science and engineering. We applied this program to a group of Korean high school science students gifted in science and engineering. To measure the effects of this program, we used an essay-based qualitative measurement. The results indicate that there was significant development in both epistemological beliefs and moral judgment. In closing, we briefly discuss the need to develop epistemological beliefs and moral judgment using an STS-based science ethics education program.

  12. Critical issues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of astrobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J

    2012-10-01

    Fifty years after serious scientific research began in the field of exobiology, and forty years after serious historical research began on the subject of extraterrestrial life, this paper identifies and examines some of the most important issues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of what is today known as astrobiology. As in the philosophy of science in general, and in the philosophies of particular sciences, critical issues in the philosophy and sociology of astrobiology are both stimulated and illuminated by history. Among those issues are (1) epistemological issues such as the status of astrobiology as a science, the problematic nature of evidence and inference, and the limits of science; (2) metaphysical/scientific issues, including the question of defining the fundamental concepts of life, mind, intelligence, and culture in a universal context; the role of contingency and necessity in the origin of these fundamental phenomena; and whether or not the universe is in some sense fine-tuned for life and perhaps biocentric; (3) societal issues such as the theological, ethical, and worldview impacts of the discovery of microbial or intelligent life; and the question of whether the search for extraterrestrial life should be pursued at all, and with what precautions; and (4) issues related to the sociology of scientific knowledge, including the diverse attitudes and assumptions of different scientific communities and different cultures to the problem of life beyond Earth, the public "will to believe," and the formation of the discipline of astrobiology. All these overlapping issues are framed by the concept of cosmic evolution-the 13.7 billion year Master Narrative of the Universe-which may result in a physical, biological, or postbiological universe and determine the long-term destiny of humanity.

  13. Unification and mechanistic detail as drivers of model construction: models of networks in economics and sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuorikoski, Jaakko; Marchionni, Caterina

    2014-12-01

    We examine the diversity of strategies of modelling networks in (micro) economics and (analytical) sociology. Field-specific conceptions of what explaining (with) networks amounts to or systematic preference for certain kinds of explanatory factors are not sufficient to account for differences in modelling methodologies. We argue that network models in both sociology and economics are abstract models of network mechanisms and that differences in their modelling strategies derive to a large extent from field-specific conceptions of the way in which a good model should be a general one. Whereas the economics models aim at unification, the sociological models aim at a set of mechanism schemas that are extrapolatable to the extent that the underlying psychological mechanisms are general. These conceptions of generality induce specific biases in mechanistic explanation and are related to different views of when knowledge from different fields should be seen as relevant.

  14. Professionalism in Physician Assistant, Physical Therapist, Occupational Therapist, Clinical Psychology, and Biomedical Sciences Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Sandhya; Anderson, Deborah; Lee, Michelle M; Krumdick, Nathaniel D; Irwin, Kent E; Burton-Hess, Judith; Ciancio, Mae; Wallingford, Minetta; Workman, Gloria M

    2016-01-01

    Interprofessional collaboration for healthcare requires a better understanding of the commonalities and differences in student perceptions of professionalism. 217 students in five programs (PA 71, PT 46, OT 29, CP 12, and BMS 59) completed a 22-item survey (response rate 79.5%). A Likert scale grading from 1 (hardly ever) to 5 (always) was used to assess professional attitudes and behaviors. A mixed-model MANOVA, supplemented with post-hoc analyses, showed significant group by time interactions for 5 items. Sensitivity to differences and diversity of other people increased for BMS students, but decreased for PT students. Timeliness increased for BMS students, but did not change for PA students. Seeking out new learning experiences increased for BMS students, but did not change for PA or PT students. Taking a group leadership role increased for BMS students, decreased for PT students, while PA and OT students showed no change. Volunteering time to serve others decreased for OT and PA students, while BMS and BM students showed no change. It is plausible that these findings emerge from differences in program curricula and specific training objectives. The findings provide initial insight to educators on ways that attitudes and behaviors pertaining to professionalism sometimes vary among students in different health science programs.

  15. Rational Choice Theory in Sociology: A Methodological Argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRA GHEONDEA-ELADI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available În the last years, rational choice theory (RCT took over a lot of the social sciences, almost polarizing discussions in sociology, such that I was able to hear questions like: are there any other theories in sociology, besides rational choice theory? Although the answer to this question is clearly yes, what seems to be important to avoid is that the moment when this theory monopolizes behavioural explanations in a multi-paradigmatic discipline should not come from partial or incomplete knowledge of it. Consequently, I decided to write this article with two goals in mind: one, to make a review of what rational choice theory is and means to sociology and secondly, to shortly present a research which questioned the structuring of social events according to this theory[1]. In the first part of this paper, I will present the main aspects of rational choice theory, such that I can argue for choosing one of its variants in the second section. In the last part I will present the methodology I used to explore the closeness of the Volunteer's Dilemma (as Diekmann (1985, 1993 proposed it to the volunteering situation in Romania. I shall do this by aid of institutional analysis and interview analysis. The results of the research will be briefly described, such that, in the end, the conclusions can summarize the main ideas about rational choice theory emerging from this article.

  16. From bioethics to a sociology of bio-knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alan

    2013-12-01

    Growing recognition of bioethics' shortcomings, associated in large part with its heavy reliance on abstract principles, or so-called principlism, has led many scholars to propose that the field should be reformed or reconceptualised. Principlism is seen to de-contextualise the process of ethical decision-making, thus restricting bioethics' contributions to debate and policy on new and emergent biotechnologies. This article examines some major critiques of bioethics and argues for an alternative normative approach; namely, a sociology of bio-knowledge focussing on human rights. The article discusses the need for such an approach, including the challenges posed by the recent rise of 'the bio-economy'. It explores some potential alternative bases for a normative sociology of bio-knowledge, before presenting the elements of the proposed human rights-focused approach. This approach, it is argued, will benefit from the insights and concepts offered by various fields of critical scholarship, particularly the emergent sociology of human rights, science and technology studies, Foucaultian scholarship, and feminist bioethics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY IN SOCIOLOGY: A METHODOLOGICAL ARGUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRA GHEONDEA-ELADI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available În the last years, rational choice theory (RCT took over a lot of the social sciences, almost polarizing discussions in sociology, such that I was able to hear questions like: are there any other theories in sociology, besides rational choice theory? Although the answer to this question is clearly yes, what seems to be important to avoid is that the moment when this theory monopolizes behavioural explanations in a multi-paradigmatic discipline should not come from partial or incomplete knowledge of it. Consequently, I decided to write this article with two goals in mind: one, to make a review of what rational choice theory is and means to sociology and secondly, to shortly present a research which questioned the structuring of social events according to this theory2. In the first part of this paper, I will present the main aspects of rational choice theory, such that I can argue for choosing one of its variants in the second section. In the last part I will present the methodology I used to explore the closeness of the Volunteer’s Dilemma (as Diekmann (1985, 1993 proposed it to the volunteering situation in Romania. I shall do this by aid of institutional analysis and interview analysis. The results of the research will be briefly described, such that, in the end, the conclusions can summarize the main ideas about rational choice theory emerging from this article

  18. Fort Collins Science Center- Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch : Integrating social, behavioral, economic and biological sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Policy Analysis and Science Assistance (PASA) Branch is a team of approximately 22 scientists, technicians, and graduate student researchers. PASA provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and biological analyses in the context of human-natural resource interactions. Resource planners, managers, and policymakers in the U.S. Departments of the Interior (DOI) and Agriculture (USDA), State and local agencies, as well as international agencies use information from PASA studies to make informed natural resource management and policy decisions. PASA scientists' primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to advance performance in policy relevant research areas. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context, involve difficult to access populations, require knowledge of both natural/biological science in addition to social science, and require the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these difficult contexts, PASA researchers apply traditional and state-of-the-art social science methods drawing from the fields of sociology, demography, economics, political science, communications, social-psychology, and applied industrial organization psychology. Social science methods work in concert with our rangeland/agricultural management, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of PASA's research is to enhance natural resource management, agency functions, policies, and decision-making. Our research is organized into four broad areas of study.

  19. Metaphor of society (a sociological essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadii Vasil’evich Osipov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The essay by Academician G.V. Osipov, who is the patriarch of Russian sociology, is dedicated to one of the most cognitive topics of modern sociology – identification of sociological metaphor as such and its application in research projects. This topic is avant-garde for the world sociological thought, and in Russia such kind of research is making its first steps. However, its future importance is difficult to overestimate. Sociological metaphor, if a methodology for its application is developed, can provide scientists with qualitatively new synthetic research tools. It can also bring together scientific structures and artifacts on the space of interdisciplinary and inter-subject borderland and give them qualitatively new intellectual and sensuous (system and mental technological capabilities for learning the surrounding world. The advantage of the following essay can be found in the fact that it is based on the objective analysis of the real embodiment of social metaphor in the work of art – a pictorial triptych “The Mystery of the 21st Century”. This is the first such experience in domestic sociological and artistic-painting practice. The authors of the final product are a scientist of great scientific and life experience and a young artist, who received in-depth sociological training and defended his Ph.D. in Sociology dissertation. But the main result of their collaboration is a product that combines scientific (sociological knowledge and insight and intuitive-creative artistic perception in a qualitatively new perception of the world and world outlook

  20. Ilya Neustadt, Norbert Elias, and the Leicester Department: personal correspondence and the history of sociology in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, John; Hughes, Jason

    2011-12-01

    The central aims of this paper are: (1) to explore the utility of using personal correspondence as a source of data for sociological investigations into the history of sociology in the UK; (2) in relation to this undertaking, to advance the beginnings of a figurational analysis of epistolary forms; and (3), to provide an empirically-grounded discussion of the historical significance of the Department of Sociology at the University of Leicester (a University largely ignored in 'standard histories' of the subject) at a formative phase in the development of the discipline within the UK. The correspondence drawn upon in the paper is between Norbert Elias and Ilya Neustadt between 1962 and 1964 when Elias was Professor of Sociology at the University of Ghana and Ilya Neustadt was Professor of Sociology and Head of the Sociology Department at the University of Leicester. From an analysis of this correspondence, we elucidate an emergent dynamic to the relationship between Neustadt and Elias, one which, we argue, undergirds the development of sociology at Leicester and the distinctive character of the intellectual climate that prevailed there during the 1960s. The paper concludes with a consideration of whether it was a collapse of this dynamic that led to a total breakdown in the relationship between Neustadt and Elias, and by extension, an important phase in the expansion of sociology at Leicester. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  1. International psychology and scientific psychology: at the crossroads for the future of psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, J.

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of psychology as a science and the newly emerging field of international psychology are at a crossroads in terms of a conflict that has developed in their views. By means of comparative analysis, this article examines how the proponents of international psychology describe their area, how that description conflicts with the concept of psychology as a science, and what that conflict means for the development of psychology as an overall discipline. The analysis reveals weaknesses...

  2. [The current conception of the unconscious - empirical results of neurobiology, cognitive sciences, social psychology and emotion research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüssler, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    The influence of the unconscious on psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy: a comprehensive concept of unconscious processes based on empirical evidence. The theory of the Unconscious constitutes the basis of psychoanalysis and of psychodynamic therapy. The traditional description of the Unconscious as given by Freud is of historical significance and not only gained widespread acceptance but also attracted much criticism. The most important findings of neurobiology, the cognitive sciences, social psychology and emotion research in relation to the Unconscious are compared with this traditional definition. Empirical observations on defence mechanisms are of particular interest in this context. A comprehensive concept of unconscious processes is revealed: the fundamental process of brain function is unconscious. Parts of the symbolic-declarative and emotional-procedural processing by the brain are permanently unconscious. Other parts of these processing procedures are conscious or can be brought to the conscious or alternatively, can also be excluded from the conscious. Unconscious processes exert decisive influence on experience and behaviour; for this reason, every form of psychotherapy should take into account such unconscious processes.

  3. Straus: as duas sociologias médicas Straus: the two medical sociologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Duarte Nunes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se o trabalho pioneiro de Robert Straus, de 1957, denominado "The nature and status of Medical Sociology". Straus, um dos fundadores da sociologia médica, trouxe contribuições fundamentais para o campo e criou o primeiro departamento de ciências do comportamento em uma escola médica. No texto analisado, Straus estabelece as diferenças entre sociologia na medicina e sociologia da medicina. São apresentados comentários sobre a perspectiva atual da sociologia médica e sobre o autor.Robert Straus' pioneer work, "The nature and status of Medical Sociology," written in 1957, was reviewed. Straus, one of the founders of medical sociology, made major contributions to this field and created the first department of behavior sciences in a medical school. In the work reviewed, Straus establishes the differences between sociology in medicine and medical sociology. Comments are made on the current perspective of medical sociology and about the author.

  4. A Review of Three Major Sociological Theories and an Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAYATULLAH LALUDDIN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines critically the three major sociological theories namely, Structural Functionalism, Symbolic Interactionism and Conflict theory. These theories are formulated on the pattern of science where scientific method is strictly adhered to. Considering the nature and the essence of the social phenomenon and its component parts the author argues that the application of pure scientific method in the study or analysis of the social phenomenon fail to present an accurate understanding of the social phenomenon. Thus, an alternative method which is capable of taking into consideration both physical and metaphysical aspects of the social phenomenon is required. Toward this end this article attempts to delineate the three major theories of sociology, their shortcoming and loophole, then attempt to highlight the constituent elements of the social phenomenon and their significance in formulation of comprehensive sociological theories. An Islamic perspective on sociological theories is also provided in the last part of this article where the discrepancy of the sociological theories are disclosed and a proposal for a more dynamic method for the formulation of sociological theories of comprehensive nature is made.

  5. Health, illness, and healing in an uncertain era: challenges from and for medical sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescosolido, B A; Kronenfeld, J J

    1995-01-01

    The current situation in health care organizations, among providers and for people, dramatically challenges the "business as usual" roles of medicine, government, insurance companies, the community, and the university. Health care reform marks the first attempt in a century to consider a reconstruction of the social contract between society and medicine. While sociology stands as one of the earliest social sciences to systematically study the health care arena and create a health-focused subfield, there is a perception, not without support, of a desertion of identity from within, an encroachment by other areas from without, and abandonment by the parent discipline. We argue that these situations in medical arenas and in research fields require serious rethinking. The key lies in understanding how these phenomena are related to each other and to larger social forces, and how they offer opportunities, rather than signal limitations, to medical sociologists. We turn to the theoretical tools of sociology to help unravel the complicated challenges that face both policymakers and researchers. After framing these issues in a sociology of knowledge perspective, we use the case of "utilization theory" to illustrate the connections between society and systems of care (as well as studies of them) and to create a future agenda. We end by raising three basic questions: (1) Why is a sociological perspective critical to the understanding of change and reform in health care? (2) Why is medical sociology critical to the survival of the general sociological enterprise? and (3) Why is general sociology critical to the research agenda in medical sociology?

  6. First Contact: Teaching and Learning in Introductory Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Nancy A.

    2011-01-01

    The Introduction to Sociology course is usually the first contact that students have with the discipline of sociology. This course can determine whether students take other sociology courses or learn to use sociology in their lives as adults and citizens. "First Contact" identifies important issues facing instructors in introducing students to the…

  7. A Sociology of Knowledge Approach to European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca; Kropp, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Scholars are deeply involved in the process of European integration, but we lack systematic understanding of this involvement. On the one hand, scholars, academic ideas and ideologies shape European integration and policies (e.g. the Economic and Monetary Union and the free movement of people......). On the other hand, EU institutions, policies and practitioners produce particular forms of knowledge (e.g. the Eurobarometer and benchmarking of national performances) that inform social scientific choices of theories, methods and research topics. Drawing on the new sociology of knowledge as well as Science...

  8. Sociology, Protestant Theology, and the Concept of Modern Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    'scientification' of religion by the emerging disciplines of the humanities and social sciences. In taking the life and work of William Robertson Smith (1846-94) as an example, the article analyzes the transformation of some specific elements of liberal Protestant theology into a set of universal features......This article looks at the intersection between Protestant theology and sociology in the construction of the modern concept of religion. Set against the theoretical background of the functional differentiation of modern society, it identifies the origin of this concept in the discursive...

  9. Social inequality: philosophical and sociological reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Victorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Social inequality is the phenomena that is hypothetically the base for first human communities genesis. Modern model for capitalist society as market relations form fails to satisfy the needs of society’s social development, and strongly requires to create new social knowledge structure and new approach for inequality sociology theory development. Our study conceptual logic comprises routine, philosophic and ideological reflexions analysis to create new social inequality definition in the context of new sociologic knowledge structure. Social inequality is the one of key problems in global sociology; the need is obvious to extract social inequality into separate discipline. Inequality sociology target is the decision of theoretical and practical problems in the formation of comprehensive knowledge about inequality phenomena in modern community, and in the development of common and specialized theoretical-methodological base for inequality study.

  10. Economic Sociology and Economics of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper is part of a larger exploration of the French Economics of Convention tradition. The aim of the paper is to explore potential themes of common interest to economic sociology and Economics of Conventions. The paper is in two parts. First, I summarise the main theoretical features of EC...... the institutional framework of social action. Second, I explore two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be particularly important to consider for economic sociology. The first issue is the explicit exploration of the consequences of a plurality of forms of justification suggested by Luc Boltanski...... and Laurent Thévenot in ‘économie de la grandeur’. This perspective has already been taken up in economic sociology in David Stark’s notion of a ‘Sociology of Worth’. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalise economic theory and economic action to demonstrate the social...

  11. The Challenge of Training in Applied Sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Doyle Paul; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Explores the challenge of expanding nonacademic employment opportunities for sociologists and training sociology students for such employment. Suggests several interrelated strategies for these students that address issues of marketing and public relations as well as curriculum revision. (Author/BSR)

  12. The Reflexive Principle of Sociological Theorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R T Ubaidullayeva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to describe the reflexive principle in theory-making, which integrates the basic modern methodological paradigms and lays the foundation for the development of sociology. On the basis of the theoretical ideas of P. Bourdieu, A. Giddens and P. Ricoeur the author defines the concept of social reflexion and reveals its peculiarities in sociology as compared to reflexion in philosophy. According to the author, the fulfillment of reflexive functions in sociology is connected with the task of analyzing the complex structure of the polysemantic object, considering the specific quality of the subjects and their various trends of development. The presence of the poles — objectivity-subjectivity, rationality-irrationality, consciousness-unconsciousness etc, requires a reproduction of the dichotomies engendering them in social life and development of cognitive methods for their study in sociology.

  13. EDITORIAL: | Oloyede | African Sociological Review / Revue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 18, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Book Review | Oloyede | African Sociological Review / Revue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Editorial | Oloyede | African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Editorial | Oloyede | African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Third Worldism | Nash | African Sociological Review / Revue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 1 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.