WorldWideScience

Sample records for science perspective exist

  1. EXIST Perspective for SFXTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubertini, Pietro; Sidoli, L.; Sguera, V.; Bazzano, A.

    2009-12-01

    Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs) are one of the most interesting (and unexpected) results of the INTEGRAL mission. They are a new class of HMXBs displaying short hard X-ray outbursts (duration less tha a day) characterized by fast flares (few hours timescale) and large dinamic range (10E3-10E4). The physical mechanism driving their peculiar behaviour is still unclear and highly debated: some models involve the structure of the supergiant companion donor wind (likely clumpy, in a spherical or non spherical geometry) and the orbital properties (wide separation with eccentric or circular orbit), while others involve the properties of the neutron star compact object and invoke very low magnetic field values (B 1E14 G, magnetars). The picture is still highly unclear from the observational point of view as well: no cyclotron lines have been detected in the spectra, thus the strength of the neutron star magnetic field is unknown. Orbital periods have been measured in only 4 systems, spanning from 3.3 days to 165 days. Even the duty cycle seems to be quite different from source to source. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST), with its hard X-ray all-sky survey and large improved limiting sensitivity, will allow us to get a clearer picture of SFXTs. A complete census of their number is essential to enlarge the sample. A long term and continuous as possible X-ray monitoring is crucial to -(1) obtain the duty cycle, -(2 )investigate their unknown orbital properties (separation, orbital period, eccentricity),- (3) to completely cover the whole outburst activity, (4)-to search for cyclotron lines in the high energy spectra. EXIST observations will provide crucial informations to test the different models and shed light on the peculiar behaviour of SFXTs.

  2. Perspective of meson science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, T.; Nagamine, K.

    1992-01-01

    Unstable particles such as mesons and muons are now used in various research domains of physics, chemistry, engineering, and life sciences. This book is aimed at summarizing the present exploratory activities and giving future perspectives from a very broad scope. It contains 27 contributions in a wide range of subjects, such as μSR studies of superconductivities, magnetism, muon beam and μSr methodology, theoretical accounts of muon hyperfine interactions, muon catalyzed fusion processes, metastable exotic atoms, medical diagnostics, strangeness nuclear physics, mesons in nuclei, meson-related nuclear reactions and structure, and exotic decays of mesons

  3. Science and technology perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotek, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper looks at the waste processing program for Hanford from the perspective of science and technology. The Hanford waste processing problem is but one phase of the total defense waste problem in the country, and a small part of the total waste disposal problem of the industrial base of the country. Basic research effort on this problem will address the specific problems encountered in the forms of this waste, but will also develop technology of use to the entire industrial base of the country, while at the same time trying to benefit from technology being developed in this industrial base. The Hanford waste represents a huge financial cost in terms of its present volume, if handled by the proposed methods of grouting and vitrification. To decrease this costs technology will have to come forward with new processes which result in the overall decrease in waste volume, if not the chemical tailoring of this volume to be more amenable to these disposal methods. There must be a tradeoff in overall costs, technology development costs, treatment and disposal costs. But in general, if separations can be carried to a more developed level, the volume reductions will give cost gains which will support the effort. As technology is developed, the flow charts set up for dealing with the different waste streams will be narrowed by decisions made at different points. Adequate scientific support for these decisions will result in the minimum costs in developing eventual waste processing streams

  4. Priors & prejudice : using existing knowledge in social science research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wesel, F.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers in the social sciences usually start their research with the formulation of research goals and questions, which, together with studying the existing literature, lead to the formulation of hypotheses. Next, data is collected using experiments or questionnaires and is subsequently

  5. Perspectives on implementing energy efficiency in existing Swedish detached houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joelsson, Anna; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2008-01-15

    In this study, we first analyse energy-efficiency measures in existing electrically heated houses in Sweden from a societal economic perspective. Measures to a house envelopes and to energy supply chains are evaluated through a system analysis approach and we include the external costs of climate change and the effect of different Swedish climatic zones. We find that in a typical house from the 1970s, conversion from electric heating is highly motivated since the mitigation cost of conversion is lower than the estimated external costs of emitted CO{sub 2}. Both conversions and house envelope measures are more motivated in the northern part of the country, where there is a higher heat demand. A successful implementation of changes requires them to be attractive for consumers to adopt. We therefore secondly analyse the economic conditions for Swedish house owners to implement societal economic cost-efficient measures. We include the economic influence of an investment subsidy for heating system conversion, an income tax deduction for changing windows, customer electricity tax, real estate tax and of the cost of purchased energy from different energy suppliers. Apart from the economics, several other factors affect a house owner's decision to change heating systems. We therefore thirdly analyse house owners' perceptions of different heating supply alternatives based on the results of two comprehensive questionnaires. These different perspectives are combined in a discussion whether the studied policy instruments encourage house owners to implement changes in accordance with the energy-efficiency goals of decision makers. We find that the investment subsidy could be useful to break the lock-in effect of resistance heaters, which house owners seemed to experience. The electricity tax makes heating systems in line with national goals more competitive and efficiency measures to the house envelope more profitable. The reduction of the electricity tax in the northern part

  6. Perspectives on implementing energy efficiency in existing Swedish detached houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joelsson, Anna; Gustavsson, Leif

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we first analyse energy-efficiency measures in existing electrically heated houses in Sweden from a societal economic perspective. Measures to a house envelopes and to energy supply chains are evaluated through a system analysis approach and we include the external costs of climate change and the effect of different Swedish climatic zones. We find that in a typical house from the 1970s, conversion from electric heating is highly motivated since the mitigation cost of conversion is lower than the estimated external costs of emitted CO 2 . Both conversions and house envelope measures are more motivated in the northern part of the country, where there is a higher heat demand. A successful implementation of changes requires them to be attractive for consumers to adopt. We therefore secondly analyse the economic conditions for Swedish house owners to implement societal economic cost-efficient measures. We include the economic influence of an investment subsidy for heating system conversion, an income tax deduction for changing windows, customer electricity tax, real estate tax and of the cost of purchased energy from different energy suppliers. Apart from the economics, several other factors affect a house owner's decision to change heating systems. We therefore thirdly analyse house owners' perceptions of different heating supply alternatives based on the results of two comprehensive questionnaires. These different perspectives are combined in a discussion whether the studied policy instruments encourage house owners to implement changes in accordance with the energy-efficiency goals of decision makers. We find that the investment subsidy could be useful to break the lock-in effect of resistance heaters, which house owners seemed to experience. The electricity tax makes heating systems in line with national goals more competitive and efficiency measures to the house envelope more profitable. The reduction of the electricity tax in the northern part of

  7. Public Outreach Guerilla Style: Just Add Science to Existing Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We report on a campaign to use the visual appeal of astronomy as a gateway drug to inject public outreach into settings where people aren't expecting an encounter with science. Our inspiration came from the team at guerillascience.org, who have earned a reputation for creating, at sites around the world, "experiences and events that are unexpected, thought-provoking, but, above all, that delight and entertain." Our goal is to insert astronomy into existing festivals of music, culture, and art; county and state fairs; sporting events; and local farmer's markets. With volunteers and near-zero budgets, we have been able to meaningfully engage with audience members who would never willingly attend an event advertised as science related. By purposefully relating astronomy to the non-science aspects of the event that caused the audience members to attend, new learning experiences are created that alter the often negative pre-conceived notions about science that many of them held before our encounter.

  8. History, philosophy and science teaching new perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This anthology opens new perspectives in the domain of history, philosophy, and science teaching research. Its four sections are: first, science, culture and education; second, the teaching and learning of science; third, curriculum development and justification; and fourth, indoctrination. The first group of essays deal with the neglected topic of science education and the Enlightenment tradition. These essays show that many core commitments of modern science education have their roots in this tradition, and consequently all can benefit from a more informed awareness of its strengths and weaknesses. Other essays address research on leaning and teaching from the perspectives of social epistemology and educational psychology. Included here is the first ever English translation of Ernst Mach’s most influential 1890 paper on ‘The Psychological and Logical Moment in Natural Science Teaching’. This paper launched the influential Machian tradition in education. Other essays address concrete cases of the ...

  9. Reproducibility in Psychological Science: When Do Psychological Phenomena Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo E. Iso-Ahola

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific evidence has recently been used to assert that certain psychological phenomena do not exist. Such claims, however, cannot be made because (1 scientific method itself is seriously limited (i.e., it can never prove a negative; (2 non-existence of phenomena would require a complete absence of both logical (theoretical and empirical support; even if empirical support is weak, logical and theoretical support can be strong; (3 statistical data are only one piece of evidence and cannot be used to reduce psychological phenomena to statistical phenomena; and (4 psychological phenomena vary across time, situations and persons. The human mind is unreproducible from one situation to another. Psychological phenomena are not particles that can decisively be tested and discovered. Therefore, a declaration that a phenomenon is not real is not only theoretically and empirically unjustified but runs counter to the propositional and provisional nature of scientific knowledge. There are only “temporary winners” and no “final truths” in scientific knowledge. Psychology is a science of subtleties in human affect, cognition and behavior. Its phenomena fluctuate with conditions and may sometimes be difficult to detect and reproduce empirically. When strictly applied, reproducibility is an overstated and even questionable concept in psychological science. Furthermore, statistical measures (e.g., effect size are poor indicators of the theoretical importance and relevance of phenomena (cf. “deliberate practice” vs. “talent” in expert performance, not to mention whether phenomena are real or unreal. To better understand psychological phenomena, their theoretical and empirical properties should be examined via multiple parameters and criteria. Ten such parameters are suggested.

  10. Reproducibility in Psychological Science: When Do Psychological Phenomena Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso-Ahola, Seppo E.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific evidence has recently been used to assert that certain psychological phenomena do not exist. Such claims, however, cannot be made because (1) scientific method itself is seriously limited (i.e., it can never prove a negative); (2) non-existence of phenomena would require a complete absence of both logical (theoretical) and empirical support; even if empirical support is weak, logical and theoretical support can be strong; (3) statistical data are only one piece of evidence and cannot be used to reduce psychological phenomena to statistical phenomena; and (4) psychological phenomena vary across time, situations and persons. The human mind is unreproducible from one situation to another. Psychological phenomena are not particles that can decisively be tested and discovered. Therefore, a declaration that a phenomenon is not real is not only theoretically and empirically unjustified but runs counter to the propositional and provisional nature of scientific knowledge. There are only “temporary winners” and no “final truths” in scientific knowledge. Psychology is a science of subtleties in human affect, cognition and behavior. Its phenomena fluctuate with conditions and may sometimes be difficult to detect and reproduce empirically. When strictly applied, reproducibility is an overstated and even questionable concept in psychological science. Furthermore, statistical measures (e.g., effect size) are poor indicators of the theoretical importance and relevance of phenomena (cf. “deliberate practice” vs. “talent” in expert performance), not to mention whether phenomena are real or unreal. To better understand psychological phenomena, their theoretical and empirical properties should be examined via multiple parameters and criteria. Ten such parameters are suggested. PMID:28626435

  11. Occupational Science in a Nordic perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Tove; Bendixen, HJ; Frydendal, E

    The book is anthology and the first of its kind to be publiched in the Nordic countries. It comprices contributions from Sweden, Norway and Denmark. The authors write from respective fields of interest, research perspectives and personal experiences. The overall goal is to present a vision and im...... and importance of Occupational Science in a Nordic perspective, in responce to the American understanding. The anthology comprise 14 articles and adresses all with an interest in research in human activity and social participation....

  12. Reality and Fiction in the Perspective of Linguistic Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Kačerauskas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with relation between reality and fiction. The project of phenomenology of creation is presented in this context. According to the author, reality is an environment of our becoming. We fill this environment with our objects, desires, and expectations. Reality and fiction make two poles of creative tension. Human creation, i.e. culture is developed between these two poles. The author links culture with existential creation, i.e. with creation of life story. It is stressed that life story is analogous not to a diary but to a novel where every event takes part in the existential whole. An existential novel is born in a particular spiritual environment which is renewed by its inscription into this environment. The author refers to existential events as phenomena which being inscribed into our living whole direct the stream of events. The author uses the metaphors of the theatre as a public space and the river as a reative stream. It is stated that our existence is developed as polyphonic interrelation between a part and the whole. Different modi of existential creation like realization, working, embodiment, spiritualization and their links are analysed. Working is connected with a private domestic environment the created works in which should be prooved in a public space of the city. It is discussed on an opinion that the national language is the main modus of nationality. It is stated that a multinational environment of a capitol is the best school of national existence. It is showed that a theoretical model of phenomenology of creation is useful in the interpretation of historical and cultural phenomena. 

  13. Wilderness science: A historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole

    2014-01-01

    Wilderness is a relatively new and powerful idea that is still finding its footing in the world of science. Although the intellectual history of wilderness can be traced farther back in time (Nash 2001), as a land classification wilderness is less than a century old, and it was just 50 years ago that wilderness was codified in legislation in the United States. While...

  14. Practical Steps toward Computational Unification: Helpful Perspectives for New Systems, Adding Functionality to Existing Ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, R. M.

    2005-12-01

    With ever increasing amounts of Earth-Science funding being diverted to the war in Iraq, the Earth-Science community must now more than ever wring every bit of utility out of every dollar. We're not likely to get funded any projects perceived by others as "pie in the sky", so we have to look at already funded programs within our community and directing new programs in a unifying direction. We have not yet begun the transition to a computationally unifying, general-purpose Earth Science computing paradigm, though it was proposed at the Fall 2002 AGU meeting in San Francisco, and perhaps earlier. Encouragingly, we do see a recognition that more commonality is needed as various projects have as funded goals the addition of the processing and dissemination of new datatypes, or data-sets, if you prefer, to their existing repertoires. Unfortunately, the timelines projected for adding a datatype to an existing system are typically estimated at around two years each. Further, many organizations have the perception that they can only use their dollars to support exclusively their own needs as they don't have the money to support the goals of others, thus overlooking opportunities to satisfy their own needs while at the same time aiding the creation of a global GeoScience cyber-infrastructure. While Computational Unification appears to be an unfunded, impossible dream, at least for now, individual projects can take steps that are compatible with a unified community and can help build one over time. This session explores these opportunities. The author will discuss the issues surrounding this topic, outlining alternative perspectives on the points of difficulty, and proposing straight-forward solutions which every Earth Science data processing system should consider. Sub-topics include distributed meta-data, distributed processing, distributed data objects, interdisciplinary concerns, and scientific defensibility with an overall emphasis on how previously written processes

  15. Advances in welding science - a perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Babu, S.S.; DebRoy, T.

    1995-01-01

    The ultimate goal of welding technology is to improve the joint integrity and increase productivity. Over the years, welding has been more of an art than a science, but in the last few decades major advances have taken place in welding science and technology. With the development of new methodologies at the crossroads of basic and applied sciences, enormous opportunities and potential exist to develop a science-based tailoring of composition, structure, and properties of welds with intelligent control and automation of the welding processes

  16. Parasites in Forensic Science: a historic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rita; Alves, Helena; Richter, Joachim; Botelho, Monica C

    Parasites show a great potential to Forensic Science. Forensic Science is the application of any science and methodology to the legal system. The forensic scientist collects and analyses the physical evidence and produce a report of the results to the court. A parasite is an organism that lives at the expense of another and they exist in any ecosystem. Parasites are the cause of many important diseases. The forensic scientists can use the parasites to identify a crime scene, to determine the murder weapon or simply identify an individual. The applications for parasites in the Forensic Science can be many and more studies should be made in Forensic Parasitology. The most important parasites in Forensic Science are helminths specifically schistosomes. Through history there are many cases where schistosomes were described in autopsies and it was related to the cause of death. Here we review the applications of parasites in Forensic Science and its importance to the forensic scientist.

  17. Decision science a human-oriented perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Mengov, George

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a new perspective on human decision-making by comparing the established methods in decision science with innovative modelling at the level of neurons and neural interactions. The book presents a new generation of computer models, which can predict with astonishing accuracy individual economic choices when people make them by quick intuition rather than by effort. A vision for a new kind of social science is outlined, whereby neural models of emotion and cognition capture the dynamics of socioeconomic systems and virtual social networks. The exposition is approachable by experts as well as by advanced students. The author is an Associate Professor of Decision Science with a doctorate in Computational Neuroscience, and a former software consultant to banks in the City of London.  .

  18. Terrorism in Pakistan: a behavioral sciences perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Rana, Mowadat Hussain; Hassan, Tariq Mahmood; Minhas, Fareed Aslam

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the behavioral science perspectives of terrorism in Pakistan. It can be argued that Pakistan has gained worldwide attention for "terrorism" and its role in the "war against terrorism". The region is well placed geopolitically for economic successes but has been plagued by terrorism in various shapes and forms. A behavioral sciences perspective of terrorism is an attempt to explain it in this part of the world as a complex interplay of historical, geopolitical, anthropological and psychosocial factors and forces. Drawing from theories by Western scholars to explain the behavioral and cognitive underpinnings of a terrorist mind, the authors highlight the peculiarities of similar operatives at individual and group levels. Thorny issues related to the ethical and human right dimensions of the topic are visited from the unique perspective of a society challenged by schisms and divergence of opinions at individual, family, and community levels. The authors have attempted to minimize the political descriptions, although this cannot be avoided entirely, because of the nature of terrorism. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Popular Science Writing Bringing New Perspectives into Science Students' Theses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelger, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    This study analyses which perspectives occur in science students' texts at different points in time during the process of writing a popular science article. The intention is, thus, to explore how popular science writing can help students discover and discuss different perspectives on science matter. For this purpose, texts written by 12 bachelor…

  20. The Spanish Society of Soil Science: history and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinfante, Nicolás; Arbelo, Dolores; Rodríguez, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The Spanish Society of Soil Science (SECS; http://www.secs.com.es) has reached sixty years of existence, after being established in 1947 at the Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC) as an initiative of renowned scientists including José María Albareda, Salvador Rivas Goday, Fernando Burriel, Tomás Alvira and others. However, soil studies in Spain began in the first third of XX century, coordinated by Emilio Huguet del Villar, internationally outstanding researcher who was the President of the Subcommittee for the Mediterranean Region of the International Society Soil Science, with the activities of the Forest Research Institute and the Institute of Mediterranean Soils of the Regional Catalonian Government. With the creation of the CSIC and the Spanish Institute of Soil Science and Agrobiology, directed by José M. Albareda, Soil Science research was promoted in all scientific fields and through the Spanish geography. The SECS is considered equally heiress of previously existing organizations, in particular the Spanish Commission of Soil Science and Phytogeography, created in 1925, which was the Spanish voice in various international organizations and meetings related with Soil Science. After these years, Soil Science has developed considerably, showing a great diversification of fields of study and research and its applications, as well as a growing social awareness of the soil degradation processes and the need to implement measures to protect natural resources nonrenewable on a human scale, and an increasing role of universities and CSIC in Soil Science research. Currently, the SECS is a scientific organization dedicated to promoting the study, knowledge, research and protection of soil resources; spread the scientific importance of soil functions as nonrenewable natural resource in society and promote the interest in its protection; and preserve the knowledge about soils, their management and use, both from productive and environmental perspectives

  1. A Multi-Level Systems Perspective for the Science of Team Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Katy; Contractor, Noshir; Falk-Krzesinski, Holly J.; Fiore, Stephen M.; Hall, Kara L.; Keyton, Joann; Spring, Bonnie; Stokols, Daniel; Trochim, William; Uzzi, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This Commentary describes recent research progress and professional developments in the study of scientific teamwork, an area of inquiry termed the “science of team science” (SciTS, pronounced “sahyts”). It proposes a systems perspective that incorporates a mixed-methods approach to SciTS that is commensurate with the conceptual, methodological, and translational complexities addressed within the SciTS field. The theoretically grounded and practically useful framework is intended to integrate existing and future lines of SciTS research to facilitate the field’s evolution as it addresses key challenges spanning macro, meso, and micro levels of analysis. PMID:20844283

  2. FINANCING OF SCIENCE ADVANCEMENT IN UKRAINE: EXISTENT PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF THEIR SOLUTIONFINANCING OF SCIENCE ADVANCEMENT IN UKRAINE: EXISTENT PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF THEIR SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Bogolib

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Science plays an important role of development of national economies of developed countries. Postindustrial society, society of knowledge is a society where scientific discoveries, scientific research results ensure economic growth, economic stability, economic exuberance. In such a society not goods, not movable and real property and not natural resources, including power, put together the main society wealth, but scientific discoveries, new knowledge. Countries, which gain primary income from scientific discoveries and high technologies, are prosperous in the modern world. The purpose of study. A solution of science problems in the modern world should become an important direction of a state’s attention to providing national security. Weakening of academic and technological as well as technological potential of the country, research reduction, mass closure of research institutes and centres, several-ford reduction in the volume of funding of science, outflow of specialists and intellectual property abroad for the last three years menace Ukraine with a loss of advanced positions in the world, degradation of knowledge-intensive industries, strengthening of external technological dependence and undermining of its defensive capacity. Such a situation predetermined the topic of our research, its main purpose – identification of problems of science financing and determination of ways to solve them. Research methods. When writing the article, a set of methods and approaches was used that allowed realizing a conceptual unity of the research. Dialectical, system, structural methods are used for the analysis of financing of the science advancement in Ukraine, existent problems of the science financing are generalized with the help of comparative and factorial methods; ways for improving financing of the science advancement are determined by using methods of scientific abstraction, synthesis, functional analysis. The results of the study. In Ukraine

  3. Opposing discourses? Do the two cultural paradigms - natural science and humanities - exist in our school?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyen, Marianne; Mumiah, Rasmusen

    the humanities and natural sciences influence the newly educated teachers’ understanding of the teaching profession. From earlier research on teachers in natural science subjects it became clear that teachers from the two major areas are in conflict. Mutual understanding is lacking; the organization...... of the consequences was that teacher students today must choose between to teach either language and literature or maths and therefore, and as a consequence, early in their studies choose between the main areas of culture and nature. Starting from this basis, we want to see if, and in which ways, perspectives from...... of the school day gives priority to cultural subjects; the physical design of the school implies that natural science subjects are of a special kind. and consequently teachers within cultural subjects appear to regard natural science subjects as peripheral educationally to pupils development. Our starting point...

  4. The origin of the world from science and religion perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Corneliu ARION

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the origin of the world was one of the most controversial chapters in the dispute between science and religion, for it was reduced until recently to the confrontation between two theories: creationism and evolutionism, the latter claiming the scientific nature. But whether it's creationism or evolutionism, both theories disregard the presence and continuous work of God in creation. In terms of philosophical and religious point of view, creationists are rather deist because they consider God being transcendentally isolated, while evolutionists lean more towards pantheism, believing that the world exists from eternity. Unlike science, the theonomist cosmology of the Eastern Church does not launch into speculation about the origin and movement of the world, but starts from a divine gift, i.e. from biblical narration, which she does not ignore even when engaging a dialogue with the theories of scientific cosmology. The arguments of Orthodox Christian theology proof that the quantum universe was created “out of nothing” and that it’s kept in existence only by God's relationship with creation through Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit. In relation to itself, the universe is reduced to nothing, because God is in Himself, while any other created thing is dependent upon Him, into an indissoluble connection with Him. From the perspective of quantum physics, the genesis of the universe involves the image of a void space, serving as a stage for the material world.

  5. Cross-disciplinary Science and the Structure of Scientific Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2014-01-01

    of science, focusing on the synchronic structure of scientific perspectives across disciplines and not on the diachronic, historical structure of shifting perspectives within single disciplines that has been widely discussed since Kuhn and Feyerabend. We show what kinds of cross-disciplinary disagreement...

  6. The art of science from perspective drawing to quantum randomness

    CERN Document Server

    Angelini, Annarita

    2014-01-01

    Like linear perspective, complex numbers and probability are notable discoveries of the Renaissance. History has been quick to recognize the crucial impact of linear perspective on painting, but reluctant to acknowledge the importance of complex numbers and probability. Both were treated with a great deal of suspicion by the scientific establishment and overlooked for many years. It was only in the twentieth century, when quantum theory defined the notion of "complex probability amplitude", that complex numbers merged with probability and transformed the image of the physical world. From a theoretical point of view, however, the space opened to painting by linear perspective and the space opened to science by complex numbers are equally valuable and share significant characteristics. By exploring that common ground, The Art of Science will lead the reader to complement Leonardo’s vision of painting as a science and to see science as an art. Its aim is to restore a visual dimension to mathematical sciences �...

  7. Theory of Science Perspectives on Strategic Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    Arguments derived from the theory of science have been present in strategic management discourse since at least the beginning of the 1970s. The field's topjournal,the Strategic Management Journal, has printed several theory of sciencebased papers. Most positions in the theory of science...... (falsificationism, instrumentalism, realism, constructivism, etc.) have been present in the methodological discourse in the field. This chapter briefly reviews theory science applications to strategic management, before a distinctive perspective on the evolution of the strategic management field is developed....... According to this perspective, science progresses when deeper level mechanisms are identified and theorized. Theoretical reduction may therefore be an independent criterion of scientific progress. Application to the strategic management field of this perspective, which in the social sciences is closely...

  8. Mundane science use in a practice theoretical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente

    2017-01-01

    understanding and public engagement with science. Many of the public communication initiatives, however, address lay people as consumers rather than citizens. This creates specific challenges for understanding public engagement with science and scientific citizenship. The article compares five different...... understandings of the relations between citizen-consumers and public issue communication involving science, where the first four types are widely represented in the Public Understanding of Science discussions. The fifth understanding is a practice theoretical perspective. The article suggests how the public...... understanding of and engagement in science literature can benefit from including a practice theoretical approach to research about mundane science use and public engagement....

  9. The pain of existing and religion from the perspective of Catholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Saltareli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: to characterize the understanding of leaders and members of the Catholic religion on pain of existing.Method: 80 Catholics participated in the study. Data collection was carried out using the Religious Content Assessment Tool. The content analysis was carried out and arithmetic mean and standard deviation were calculated.Results: the following categories emerged: length of affiliation, beginning of the religious practice and affiliation changes, responsibility for the actions and relationship with death, description of God, awareness of the existence of profound experiences, possibility of reward, increased faith in proximity to death, religion as an attempt to explain human limitations, relationship between religion and science and religion of the past and present in relation to science. On the instrument, the highest assigning items were: I believe that nature should be respected (9.96±0.19; I believe that all living beings deserve respect (9.70±0.67; make life worth living (9.70±0.78; my life is a transformation process (9.63±1.04 and I respect the diversity of people (9.56±0.91.Conclusion: it was observed associations between the participants' perceptions and religious constructs, highlighting the need to approach the religious phenomenon as part of the human being and potential resource for management and modulation of the pain of existing.

  10. Socioscience and Ethics in Science Classrooms: Teacher Perspectives and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Amirshokoohi, Aidin; Kazempour, Mahsa; Allspaw, Kathleen M.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored teacher perspectives on the use of socioscientific issues (SSI) and on dealing with ethics in the context of science instruction. Twenty-two middle and high school science teachers from three US states participated in semi-structured interviews, and researchers employed inductive analyses to explore emergent patterns relative…

  11. On Teaching the Nature of Science: Perspectives and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radloff, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I present a critical review of the recent book, "On Teaching the Nature of Science: Perspectives and Resources," written by Douglas Allchin (2013). This publication presents an in-depth examination of the nature of science construct, as well as instruction for educators about how to teach it effectively utilizing…

  12. Leon Cooper's Perspective on Teaching Science: An Interview Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor; Klassen, Stephen; McMillan, Barbara; Metz, Don

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this paper portray the perspective of Professor Leon Cooper, a theoretical physicist, Nobel laureate, active researcher, and physics textbook author, on teaching science and on the nature of science (NOS). The views presented emerged from an interview prepared by the authors and responded to in writing by Professor Cooper. Based on…

  13. Perspectives on bay-delta science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Michael; Dettinger, Michael; Norgaard, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The State of Bay–Delta Science 2008 highlighted seven emerging perspectives on science and management of the Delta. These perspectives had important effects on policy and legislation concerning management of the Delta ecosystem and water exports. From the collection of papers that make up the State of Bay–Delta Science 2016, we derive another seven perspectives that augment those published in 2008. The new perspectives address nutrient and contaminant concentrations in Delta waters, the failure of the Delta food web to support native species, the role of multiple stressors in driving species toward extinction, and the emerging importance of extreme events in driving change in the ecosystem and the water supply. The scientific advances that underpin these new perspectives were made possible by new measurement and analytic tools. We briefly discuss some of these, including miniaturized acoustic fish tags, sensors for monitoring of water quality, analytic techniques for disaggregating complex contaminant mixtures, remote sensing to assess levee vulnerability, and multidimensional hydrodynamic modeling. Despite these new tools and scientific insights, species conservation objectives for the Delta are not being met. We believe that this lack of progress stems in part from the fact that science and policy do not incorporate sufficiently long-term perspectives. Looking forward half a century was central to the Delta Visioning process, but science and policy have not embraced this conceptual breadth. We are also concerned that protection and enhancement of the unique cultural, recreational, natural resource, and agricultural values of the Delta as an evolving place, as required by the Delta Reform Act, has received no critical study and analysis. Adopting wider and longer science and policy perspectives immediately encourages recognition of the need for evaluation, analysis, and public discourse on novel conservation approaches. These longer and wider perspectives

  14. Challenges of Women in Science: Bangladesh Perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ranjeetha

    Director, Bose Centre for Advanced Study and Research in Natural Sciences .... Enrolment in Universities by management d d and gender. 100000 .... in science. • Encouragement in the classroom, family and environment ... Desired strategy.

  15. History of Science Content Analysis of Chinese Science Textbooks from the Perspective of Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yongjun; Wan, Yanlan

    2017-01-01

    Based on previous international studies, a content analysis scheme has been designed and used from the perspective of culture to study the history of science (HOS) in science textbooks. Nineteen sets of Chinese science textbooks have been analyzed. It has been found that there are noticeable changes in the quantity, content, layout, presentation,…

  16. Embedding Indigenous Perspectives in Teaching School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appanna, Subhashni Devi

    2011-01-01

    Some Indigenous students are at risk of academic failure and science teachers have a role in salvaging these equally able students. This article firstly elucidates the research entailed in Indigenous science education in Australia and beyond. Secondly, it reviews the cultural and language barriers when learning science, faced by middle and senior…

  17. Trips and the Life Sciences - Perspectives on Limitations to Patentability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wested, Jakob; Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    This report is based on the material and input that was presented and discussed at the webinar with the title: “Perspectives on limitations to patentability”. The Webinar and the theme where introduced by Prof. Timo Minssen. Then Prof. Nari Lee gave a presentation introducing some of the context ...... and Minssen, Timo, Trips and the Life Sciences - Perspectives on Limitations to Patentability (June 15, 2017). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2986751...

  18. History of science content analysis of Chinese science textbooks from the perspective of acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yongjun; Wan, Yanlan

    2017-08-01

    Based on previous international studies, a content analysis scheme has been designed and used from the perspective of culture to study the history of science (HOS) in science textbooks. Nineteen sets of Chinese science textbooks have been analyzed. It has been found that there are noticeable changes in the quantity, content, layout, presentation, and writing intention of the HOS sections in textbooks from different time periods. What's more, the textbooks aim at presenting the scientific culture and aim to help students understand it better. However, the cultural associations of the HOS in textbooks is insufficient and significant differences exist among textbooks of different subjects. In order to explore the reasons why the presentation of HOS in various subjects is different, we made a specific comparison of curriculum standards of two subjects with great differences and interviewed the editors-in-chief of two textbooks. Results show that one of the most important reasons for the different writings of the HOS in textbooks is that different subject curriculum standards attach greater importance to the HOS. In addition, the attention to the HOS by editors-in-chief, the tradition of studying the HOS within the history of the discipline, and the reference textbooks in compiling textbooks are all important influence factors. Some suggestions for future textbooks compilation are given at the end.

  19. Health and environment: social science perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopnina, H.; Keune, H.

    2010-01-01

    In this new book the authors examine the contribution of social scientists to the topics of health and environment. They present diverse perspectives on classical and contemporary debates by focusing on social scientific framing of environment and health, as well as on the potential contribution of

  20. Science, technology and society : a methodological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.J.; Vries, de M.J.; Tamir, A.

    1997-01-01

    Methodology offers a perspective on technology that differs from a historical or sociological one. It focuses on the scientific, technological and social factors that are to be taken into account in technological developments. Other approaches tend to focus on actors rather than factors. The

  1. Evolution of managerial problems from the perspective of management science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Szarucki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Managerial problems and the process of their solving play an important role both in the theory of management science and practice of organisations’ functioning. There is a gap in the literature related to the evolution of management problems in the context of the methodological approaches to solve them. The main goal of this paper was to analyse the evolution of the managerial problems from the perspective of management science and to present dominant methodological approaches for problem solving. Based on the extensive literature analysis in the discipline of management science, the evolution of the managerial problems was described with relation to the sixteen streams of management science. The author reviewed the selected classifications of the management theory as well as proposed his own perspective, which took into account managerial problems and their evolution over time. Moreover, there was presented an attempt to depict sources of management problems from the historical perspective within the methodological approaches of management science. Despite the broad view on management problems presented in this paper, such perspective gives a good ground for developing new more specific problem classifications, addressing different facets of managerial problems.

  2. Science and technology from global and historical perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Karagözoğlu, Bahattin

    2017-01-01

    This book provides science and technology ethos to a literate person. It starts with a rather detailed treatment of basic concepts in human values, educational status and domains of education, development of science and technology and their contributions to the welfare of society. It describes ways and means of scientific progresses and technological advancements with their historical perspectives including scientific viewpoints of contributing scientists and technologists. The technical, social, and cultural dimensions are surveyed in relation to acquisition and application of science, and advantages and hindrances of technological developments. Science and Technology is currently taught as a college course in many universities with the intention to introduce topics from a global historical perspective so that the reader shall stretch his/her vision by mapping the past to the future. The book can also serve as a primary reference for such courses.

  3. Perspectives on Materials Science in 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    Materials characterization in 3D has opened a new era in materials science, which is discussed in this paper. The original motivations and visions behind the development of one of the new 3D techniques, namely the three dimensional x-ray diffraction (3DXRD) method, are presented and the route...... to its implementation is described. The present status of materials science in 3D is illustrated by examples related to recrystallization. Finally, challenges and suggestions for the future success for 3D Materials Science relating to hardware evolution, data analysis, data exchange and modeling...

  4. Some relevant questions in science education from the perspective Science- Technology-Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto, Teresa;

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, some of the answers given at this time to three classic questions related to science teaching: why teach science?, what kind of science to teach?, and how to teach it?, are analyzed from a Science-Technology- Society perspective (STS. It argues for the need to prepare future citizens to make responsible decisions on matters related to science and technology in the XXI century, and the convenience of using socio-scientific issues in the science classroom. Finally, the analysis is exemplified in two cases: food consumption and energy consumption.

  5. Biotechnology risks and benefits: Science instructor perspectives and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Grant Ean

    Developing scientifically literate students who understand the socially contextualized nature of science and technology is a national focus of science education reform. Understanding teachers' views on this topic is of equal importance. This document focuses on the topic of risks and benefits posed by science and technology as an important topic for which the socially contextualized nature of science and technology readily emerges. Following introduction of a theoretical model and a review of the literature, two research studies are described that examined teachers' perceptions of the risks posed by biotechnology and the role of risk topics in an undergraduate science course. The first research study examines four groups of science educators; pre-service science teachers, in-service science teachers, science graduate teaching assistants, and science professors (n = 91). The participants completed a survey and card sort task to determine their perceptions of the risks of biotechnology. The results show that teacher perceptions were shaped by the risk severity, regulation processes, public acceptance, fear, reciprocal benefits, and whether the applications would impact humans or the environment. Factors determining risk perception included personal worldviews, trust in communicating institutions, and personal experiences with biotechnology. The different types of science teachers were compared and contrasted in light of these factors and the implications of instructor perceptions on science pedagogy are discussed. The second research manuscript describes a case study in which six biology graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) were observed teaching as lesson on the potential risks and benefits of biotechnology. The data sources included classroom observations and semi-structured interviews. Qualitative analysis reveals that GTAs framed the instruction of risk in one of three ways: analytical, focus on perspectives and biases, and promotion of individual reflection

  6. Perspectives on Bay–Delta Science and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Healey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss4art6The State of Bay–Delta Science 2008 highlighted seven emerging perspectives on science and management of the Delta. These perspectives had important effects on policy and legislation concerning management of the Delta ecosystem and water exports. From the collection of papers that make up the State of Bay–Delta Science 2016, we derive another seven perspectives that augment those published in 2008. The new perspectives address nutrient and contaminant concentrations in Delta waters, the failure of the Delta food web to support native species, the role of multiple stressors in driving species toward extinction, and the emerging importance of extreme events in driving change in the ecosystem and the water supply. The scientific advances that underpin these new perspectives were made possible by new measurement and analytic tools. We briefly discuss some of these, including miniaturized acoustic fish tags, sensors for monitoring of water quality, analytic techniques for disaggregating complex contaminant mixtures, remote sensing to assess levee vulnerability, and multidimensional hydrodynamic modeling. Despite these new tools and scientific insights, species conservation objectives for the Delta are not being met. We believe that this lack of progress stems in part from the fact that science and policy do not incorporate sufficiently long-term perspectives. Looking forward half a century was central to the Delta Visioning process, but science and policy have not embraced this conceptual breadth. We are also concerned that protection and enhancement of the unique cultural, recreational, natural resource, and agricultural values of the Delta as an evolving place, as required by the Delta Reform Act, has received no critical study and analysis. Adopting wider and longer science and policy perspectives immediately encourages recognition of the need for evaluation, analysis, and public discourse on

  7. Wilderness values: Perspectives from non-economic social science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams; Alan E. Watson

    2007-01-01

    The concept of “values” is one of the most widely used to characterize the human dimensions of natural resources. Yet, clearly it means many different things in different disciplines and in everyday discourse. Background information regarding values from a non-economic social science perspective is provided, with an aim towards stretching the dominant economic paradigm...

  8. Tuning in to Young Viewers: Social Science Perspectives on Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBeth, Tannis M., Ed.

    Research indicates that children are especially vulnerable to the effects of television viewing. Taking a psychological, social-science perspective, this book explores how television viewing affects children. Chapter 1, "Introduction," (MacBeth) discusses the issues involved, how researchers go about studying media effects, whether television…

  9. Adopting a global perspective in the discipline consumer science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adopting a global perspective in the discipline consumer science. AC Erasmus, M Kok, A Retief. Abstract. 'n Oorwegend materialistiese waardestelsel en blootstelling aan die kragte van 'n ekonomiese markstelsel, het meegebring dat die moderne verbruiker 'n groot premie plaas op besittings en daarop ingestel is om ...

  10. Understanding the Language Demands on Science Students from an Integrated Science and Language Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Lay Hoon; Clarke, David John; Hart, Christina Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This case study of a science lesson, on the topic thermal expansion, examines the language demands on students from an integrated science and language perspective. The data were generated during a sequence of 9 lessons on the topic of "States of Matter" in a Grade 7 classroom (12-13 years old students). We identify the language demands…

  11. Science and Common Sense: Perspectives from Philosophy and Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Sara

    2016-01-01

    that to clarify the relation between common sense and scientific reasoning, more attention to the cognitive aspects of learning and doing science is needed. As a step in this direction, I explore the potential for cross-fertilization between the discussions about conceptual change in science education...... knowledge, distinguished by an increase in systematicity. On the other, he argues that scientific knowledge often comes to deviate from common sense as science develops. Specifically, he argues that a departure from common sense is a price we may have to pay for increased systematicity. I argue...... and philosophy of science. Particularly, I examine debates on whether common sense intuitions facilitate or impede scientific reasoning. While arguing that these debates can balance some of the assumptions made by Hoyningen-Huene, I suggest that a more contextualized version of systematicity theory could...

  12. Separation science and technology: an ORNL perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruett, D.J.

    1986-05-01

    This report was prepared as a summary of a fourfold effort: (1) to examine schemes for defining and categorizing the field of separation science and technology; (2) to review several of the major categories of separation techniques in order to determine the most recent developments and future research needs; (3) to consider selected problems and programs that require advances in separation science and technology as a part of their solution; and (4) to propose suggestions for new directions in separation research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

  13. Relevance: An Interdisciplinary and Information Science Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Greisdorf

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Although relevance has represented a key concept in the field of information science for evaluating information retrieval effectiveness, the broader context established by interdisciplinary frameworks could provide greater depth and breadth to on-going research in the field. This work provides an overview of the nature of relevance in the field of information science with a cursory view of how cross-disciplinary approaches to relevance could represent avenues for further investigation into the evaluative characteristics of relevance as a means for enhanced understanding of human information behavior.

  14. Risk to civilization: A planetary science perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.R.; Morrison, D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the most profound changes in our perspective of the solar system resulting from the first quarter century of planetary exploration by spacecraft is the recognition that planets, including Earth, were bombarded by cosmic projectiles for 4.5 aeons and continue to be bombarded today. Although the planetary cratering rate is much lower now than it was during the first 0.5 aeons, sizeable Earth-approaching asteroids and comets continue to hit the Earth at a rate that poses a finite risk to civilization. The evolution of this planetary perspective on impact cratering is gradual over the last two decades. It took explorations of Mars and Mercury by early Mariner spacecraft and of the outer solar system by the Voyagers to reveal the significance of asteroidal and cometary impacts in shaping the morphologies and even chemical compositions of the planets. An unsettling implication of the new perspective is addressed: the risk to human civilization. Serious scientific attention was given to this issue in July 1981 at a NASA-sponsored Spacewatch Workshop in Snowmass, Colorado. The basic conclusion of the 1981 NASA sponsored workshop still stands: the risk that civilization might be destroyed by impact with an as-yet-undiscovered asteroid or comet exceeds risk levels that are sometimes deemed unacceptable by modern societies in other contexts. Yet these impact risks have gone almost undiscussed and undebated. The tentative quantitative assessment by some members of the 1981 workshop was that each year, civilization is threatened with destruction with a probability of about 1 in 100,000. The enormous spread in risk levels deemed by the public to be at the threshold of acceptability derives from a host of psychological factors that were widely discussed in the risk assessment literature

  15. Science Teachers' Perspectives about Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and its effects are likely to present challenging problems for future generations of young people. It is important for Australian students to understand the mechanisms and consequences of climate change. If students are to develop a sophisticated understanding, then science teachers need to be well-informed about climate change…

  16. Environment, Science and Innovation. Analysis from the Perspective of Science Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz, A.; Lopera, E.; Cornejo, M.

    2015-01-01

    )Humankind is facing important challenges. Environmental degradation, of which climate change is the main exponent, is one of them. Science and innovation are key factors to address this challenge, in a context in which is becoming more evident the lack of commitment of society with scientific and technological development. Taking this into consideration, this paper analyzes the interaction among environment, science and innovation from the perspective of science studies.

  17. On teaching the nature of science: perspectives and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radloff, Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, I present a critical review of the recent book, On Teaching the Nature of Science: Perspectives and Resources, written by Douglas Allchin (2013). This publication presents an in-depth examination of the nature of science construct, as well as instruction for educators about how to teach it effectively utilizing historical case studies as vehicles for knowledge. Although several themes in the book merit further attention, a central issue present across all chapters is the largely masculine, monocultural nature of science presented, which is common to a multitude of scientific publications. In this review, I illustrate how culture and gender in science is not addressed throughout the book. I also discuss where we can build on the work of the author to integrate more aspects of gender and culture in teaching the nature of science.

  18. Perspectives on the Indigenous Worldviews in Informal Science Education Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Aparna; Burgasser, Adam

    2017-11-01

    The chronic underrepresentation of Native and indigenous peoples in STEM fields (Fig. 1) has been a longstanding issue in the United States, despite concentrated efforts by many local and national groups, including the Society for Advancement of Chicanos/Hispanics and Native Americans in Science (SACNAS) and the American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES) to address it. Here we report on the conference on Indigenous Worldviews in Informal Science Education (I-WISE), convened in Albuquerque, NM, on Sept. 2-5, 2015. We share what we learned on the commonalities and differences in perspectives between indigenous knowledge (IK) and Western science; summarize the role that IK is already playing in scientific fields, ranging from astrophysics to medicine to climate change; and describe how IK can help science education and research be more sustainable, inclusive, and respectful to all peoples.

  19. Existing knowledge in science and technology as subject of judicial establishment of facts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czajika, D.

    1982-02-01

    The problems facing administrative courts in determining 'existing knowledge in science and technology' (No. 3 of paragraph 2 of sect. 7 of the Atomic Energy Law) cannot be solved by limiting the judicial establishment of facts. According to established law, in procedural or substantive law there is no foundation for doing so. Limits to this establishment of facts do result from the nature of the scientific process of understanding, which very often allows but the establishment of 'margins' pertaining to scientific opinions.

  20. Climate Communication from a Science Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    Today, the world faces crucial choices in deciding what to do about climate change. Wise policy can be usefully informed by sound science. Scientists who are both climate experts and skilled communicators can provide valuable input into this policy process. They can help the public, media and policymakers learn what science has discovered about climate change. Scientists as a group are widely admired throughout the world. They can often use their prestige as well as their technical knowledge to advantage in publicizing and illuminating the findings of climate science. However, most scientists are unaware of the main obstacles to effective communication, such as the distrust that arises when the scientist and the audience do not have a shared worldview and shared cultural values. Many climate scientists also fail to realize that the jargon they use in their work is a significant barrier to communication, and that their messages requires skilled translation into the everyday language that people understand. Scientists need to recognize that lecturing is almost always poor communication. Speaking in a television interview or a Congressional hearing is completely unlike teaching a class of graduate students. The people whom one is trying to reach are rarely hungry for pure scientific information. Instead, they want to know how climate change will affect them and what can be done about it. Communicating climate science resembles skiing or speaking a foreign language: it is a skill that can be learned, but beginners are well advised to take lessons from expert instructors. Becoming adept at climate communication requires study and practice. Effective professional training in climate communication is available for those scientists who have the time and the willingness to improve as communicators.

  1. Perspective of Dimensional Analysis in Medical Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalewski Wojciech

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents several applications of the dimensional analysis method to problems investigated in medical sciences. The method is used to analyze various complex processes without using formal laws governing the same. It is particularly suitable for a general analysis of fluid transfer (liquids and gases in the human body. This paper mainly serves as an overview of selected applications, mostly those emerging in the recent years, and includes a discussion of the mathematical fundamentals of dimensional analysis together followed by its critical analysis. Containing detailed calculations of two examples, the paper also serves as training material in the area of the computational method of the dimensional analysis algorithm.

  2. Preparing informal science educators perspectives from science communication and education

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a diverse look at various aspects of preparing informal science educators. Much has been published about the importance of preparing formal classroom educators, but little has been written about the importance, need, and best practices for training professionals who teach in aquariums, camps, parks, museums, etc. The reader will find that as a collective the chapters of the book are well-related and paint a clear picture that there are varying ways to approach informal educator preparation, but all are important. The volume is divided into five topics: Defining Informal Science Education, Professional Development, Designing Programs, Zone of Reflexivity: The Space Between Formal and Informal Educators, and Public Communication. The authors have written chapters for practitioners, researchers and those who are interested in assessment and evaluation, formal and informal educator preparation, gender equity, place-based education, professional development, program design, reflective practice, ...

  3. The science of science: From the perspective of complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, An; Shen, Zhesi; Zhou, Jianlin; Wu, Jinshan; Fan, Ying; Wang, Yougui; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2017-11-01

    The science of science (SOS) is a rapidly developing field which aims to understand, quantify and predict scientific research and the resulting outcomes. The problem is essentially related to almost all scientific disciplines and thus has attracted attention of scholars from different backgrounds. Progress on SOS will lead to better solutions for many challenging issues, ranging from the selection of candidate faculty members by a university to the development of research fields to which a country should give priority. While different measurements have been designed to evaluate the scientific impact of scholars, journals and academic institutions, the multiplex structure, dynamics and evolution mechanisms of the whole system have been much less studied until recently. In this article, we review the recent advances in SOS, aiming to cover the topics from empirical study, network analysis, mechanistic models, ranking, prediction, and many important related issues. The results summarized in this review significantly deepen our understanding of the underlying mechanisms and statistical rules governing the science system. Finally, we review the forefront of SOS research and point out the specific difficulties as they arise from different contexts, so as to stimulate further efforts in this emerging interdisciplinary field.

  4. Place Existing Online Business Communication Classes into the International Context: Social Presence from Potential Learners' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junhua; Wang, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Recent scholarship on global online courses points to the need to examine the issue of social context in an online global learning environment. To explore global learners' cultural perspectives on the social climate of an online class, we first review the social presence theory--which can be used to examine the social climate in an online…

  5. Memory, museums and information science: An interdisciplinary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Adriano Sampaio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Reflects on Museums and Information Science in an interdisciplinary perspective, tracing an interface between memory and information. Presents socio-historical approaches of Information Science in an attempt to subsidize social issues that guide this discussion - 'The Social Epistemology Shera', the 'Hermeneutics Capurro' and 'Approach of Knowledge Wersig'. Highlights the dialogue between information, memory and museum institutions, analyzing its importance in the socio-cultural dynamics of the information society. Considers the process of building interdisciplinary, under a social dimension as a vital contribution to the direction of new readings that can transform individuals in humans reflexive and critical agents capable of walking paths foreseen and unforeseen, changing social reality.

  6. A current perspective on medical informatics and health sciences librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Gerald J; Roderer, Nancy K; Assar, Soraya

    2005-04-01

    The article offers a current perspective on medical informatics and health sciences librarianship. The authors: (1) discuss how definitions of medical informatics have changed in relation to health sciences librarianship and the broader domain of information science; (2) compare the missions of health sciences librarianship and health sciences informatics, reviewing the characteristics of both disciplines; (3) propose a new definition of health sciences informatics; (4) consider the research agendas of both disciplines and the possibility that they have merged; and (5) conclude with some comments about actions and roles for health sciences librarians to flourish in the biomedical information environment of today and tomorrow. Boundaries are disappearing between the sources and types of and uses for health information managed by informaticians and librarians. Definitions of the professional domains of each have been impacted by these changes in information. Evolving definitions reflect the increasingly overlapping research agendas of both disciplines. Professionals in these disciplines are increasingly functioning collaboratively as "boundary spanners," incorporating human factors that unite technology with health care delivery.

  7. Science diplomacy: Investigating the perspective of scholars on politics-science collaboration in international affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fähnrich, Birte

    2017-08-01

    Science diplomacy is a widely practiced area of international affairs, but academic research is rather sparse. The role of academia within this field of politics-science interaction has hardly been considered. This article analyzes this scholarly perspective: Based on a literature review, a case study of a German science diplomacy program is used to explore objectives, benefits, and constraints of science diplomacy for participating scholars. While political approaches suggest an ideal world where both sides profit from the collaboration, the findings of the case study point to another conclusion which shows that the interaction of scholars and officials in science diplomacy is far more complex. Thus, the contribution is regarded as both a useful starting point for further research and for a critical reflection of academics and politicians in science diplomacy practice to gauge what can be expected from the collaboration and what cannot.

  8. Gene Electrotransfer to Skin; Review of Existing Literature and Clinical Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gothelf, A.; Gehl, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Gene electrotransfer, which designates the combination of gene transfer and electroporation, is a non-viral means for transfecting genes into cells and tissues. It is a safe and efficient method and reports regarding the use of this technique in a variety of animal models and organs have been...... to now more than 40 papers have been published in which gene electrotransfer was the technique used for gene transfection to skin in vivo. The aim of this review is to summarize which plasmids were injected and the electrical parameters applied. Furthermore an overview of the clinical perspectives...

  9. Innovation in Citizen SciencePerspectives on Science-Policy Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Hecker

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Citizen science is growing as a field of research with contributions from diverse disciplines, promoting innovation in science, society, and policy. Inter- and transdisciplinary discussions and critical analyses are needed to use the current momentum to evaluate, demonstrate, and build on the advances that have been made in the past few years. This paper synthesizes results of discussions at the first international citizen science conference of the European Citizen Science Association (ECSA in 2016 in Berlin, Germany, and distills major points of the discourse into key recommendations. To enhance innovation in science, citizen science needs to clearly demonstrate its scientific benefit, branch out across disciplines, and foster active networking and new formats of collaboration, including true co-design with participants. For fostering policy advances, it is important to embrace opportunities for policy-relevant monitoring and policy development and to work with science funders to find adequate avenues and evaluation tools to support citizen science. From a society angle it is crucial to engage with societal actors in various formats that suit participants and to evaluate two-way learning outcomes as well as to develop the transformative role of science communication. We hope that these key perspectives will promote citizen science progress at the science-society-policy interface.

  10. Scientific Literacy and Student Attitudes: Perspectives from PISA 2006 science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger; McCrae, Barry

    2011-01-01

    International assessments provide important knowledge about science education and help inform decisions about policies, programmes, and practices in participating countries. In 2006, science was the primary domain for the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), supported by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and conducted by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER). Compared to the school curriculum orientation of Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS), PISA provides a perspective that emphasises the application of knowledge to science and technology-related life situations. The orientation of PISA includes both knowledge and attitudes as these contribute to students' competencies that are central to scientific literacy. In addition to students' knowledge and competencies, the 2006 PISA survey gathered data on students' interest in science, support for scientific enquiry, and responsibility towards resources and environments. The survey used both a non-contextualised student questionnaire and contextualised questions. The latter is an innovative approach which embedded attitudinal questions at the conclusion of about two-thirds of the test units. The results presented in this article make connections between students' attitudes and interests in science and scientific literacy.

  11. Taking Stock: Existing Resources for Assessing a New Vision of Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Alicia C.; Ke, Li

    2016-01-01

    A new vision of science learning described in the "Next Generation Science Standards"--particularly the science and engineering practices and their integration with content--pose significant challenges for large-scale assessment. This article explores what might be learned from advances in large-scale science assessment and…

  12. The Science-Technology-Society Framework for Achieving Scientific Literacy: An Overview of the Existing Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autieri, Steven M.; Amirshokoohi, Aidin; Kazempour, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    This literature review intends to highlight some of the critical research that has been synthesized on the perspectives of both teachers and students and their attitudes to teaching and learning in an STS-themed learning environment. The first portion draws on the perspectives of elementary and secondary school teachers both locally and abroad.…

  13. Science, religion, and the quest for knowledge and truth: an Islamic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guessoum, Nidhal

    2010-03-01

    This article consists of two parts. The first one is to a large extent a commentary on John R. Staver's "Skepticism, truth as coherence, and constructivist epistemology: grounds for resolving the discord between science and religion?" The second part is a related overview of Islam's philosophy of knowledge and, to a certain degree, science. In responding to Staver's thesis, I rely strongly on my scientific education and habit of mind; I also partly found my views on my Islamic background, though I enlarge my scope to consider western philosophical perspectives as well. I differ with Staver in his definition of the nature, scope, and goals of religion (concisely, "explaining the world and how it works"), and I think this is the crux of the matter in attempting to resolve the perceived "discord" between science and religion. The heart of the problem is in the definition of the domains of action of science and religion, and I address this issue at some length, both generically and using Islamic principles, which are found to be very widely applicable. The concept of "reality," so important to Staver's thesis, is also critically reviewed. The philosophy of knowledge (and of science) in Islam is briefly reviewed in the aim of showing the great potential for harmony between the two "institutions" (religion and science), on the basis of the following philosophy: science describes nature, whereas religion gives us not only a philosophy of existence but also an interpretative cloak for the discoveries of science and for the meaning of the cosmos and nature. I conclude by insisting that though science and religion can be considered as two worldviews that propose to describe "reality" and to explain our existence and that of the world; they may come to compete for humans' minds and appear to enter into a conflicting position, but only if and when we confuse their domains and modes of action. [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.][InlineMediaObject not available: see

  14. Do Developmental Communication Disorders Exist in the Signed Modality? Perspectives from Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto-Pozos, David; Forber-Pratt, Anjali J.; Singleton, Jenny L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study focused on whether developmental communication disorders exist in American Sign Language (ASL) and how they might be characterized. ASL studies is an emerging field; educators and clinicians have minimal access to descriptions of communication disorders of the signed modality. Additionally, there are limited resources for…

  15. Understandings of Nature of Science and Multiple Perspective Evaluation of Science News by Non-science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jessica Shuk Ching; Wong, Alice Siu Ling; Yung, Benny Hin Wai

    2015-10-01

    Understandings of nature of science (NOS) are a core component of scientific literacy, and a scientifically literate populace is expected to be able to critically evaluate science in the media. While evidence has remained inconclusive on whether better NOS understandings will lead to critical evaluation of science in the media, this study aimed at examining the correlation therein. Thirty-eight non-science majors, enrolled in a science course for non-specialists held in a local community college, evaluated three health news articles by rating the extent to which they agreed with the reported claims and providing as many justifications as possible. The majority of the participants were able to evaluate and justify their viewpoint from multiple perspectives. Students' evaluation was compared with their NOS conceptions, including the social and cultural embedded NOS, the tentative NOS, the peer review process and the community of practice. Results indicated that participants' understanding of the tentative NOS was significantly correlated with multiple perspective evaluation of science news reports of socioscientific nature (r = 0.434, p media of socioscientific nature. However, the null result for other target NOS aspects in this study suggested a lack of evidence to assume that understanding the social dimensions of science would have significant influence on the evaluation of science in the media. Future research on identifying the reasons for why and why not NOS understandings are applied in the evaluation will move this field forward.

  16. Perspectives on learning, learning to teach and teaching elementary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    The framework that characterizes this work is that of elementary teachers' learning and development. Specifically, the ways in which prospective and beginning teachers' develop pedagogical content knowledge for teaching science in light of current recommendations for reform emphasizing teaching and learning science as inquiry are explored. Within this theme, the focus is on three core areas: (a) the use of technology tools (i.e., web-based portfolios) in support of learning to teach science at the elementary level; (b) beginning teachers' specialized knowledge for giving priority to evidence in science teaching; and (c) the applications of perspectives associated with elementary teachers' learning to teach science in Cyprus, where I was born and raised. The first manuscript describes a study aimed at exploring the influence of web-based portfolios and a specific task in support of learning to teach science within the context of a Professional Development School program. The task required prospective teachers to articulate their personal philosophies about teaching and learning science in the form of claims, evidence and justifications in a web-based forum. The findings of this qualitative case study revealed the participants' developing understandings about learning and teaching science, which included emphasizing a student-centered approach, connecting physical engagement of children with conceptual aspects of learning, becoming attentive to what teachers can do to support children's learning, and focusing on teaching science as inquiry. The way the task was organized and the fact that the web-based forum provided the ability to keep multiple versions of their philosophies gave prospective teachers the advantage of examining how their philosophies were changing over time, which supported a continuous engagement in metacognition, self-reflection and self-evaluation. The purpose of the study reported in the second manuscript was to examine the nature of a first

  17. The oblique perspective: philosophical diagnostics of contemporary life sciences research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Hub

    2017-12-01

    This paper indicates how continental philosophy may contribute to a diagnostics of contemporary life sciences research, as part of a "diagnostics of the present" (envisioned by continental thinkers, from Hegel up to Foucault). First, I describe (as a "practicing" philosopher) various options for an oblique (or symptomatic) reading of emerging scientific discourse, bent on uncovering the basic "philosophemes" of science (i.e. the guiding ideas, the basic conceptions of nature, life and technology at work in contemporary life sciences research practices). Subsequently, I outline a number of radical transformations occurring both at the object-pole and at the subject-pole of the current knowledge relationship, namely the technification of the object and the anonymisation or collectivisation of the subject, under the sway of automation, ICT and big machines. Finally, I further elaborate the specificity of the oblique perspective with the help of Lacan's theorem of the four discourses. Philosophical reflections on contemporary life sciences concur neither with a Master's discourse (which aims to strengthen the legitimacy and credibility of canonical sources), nor with university discourse (which aims to establish professional expertise), nor with what Lacan refers to as hysterical discourse (which aims to challenge representatives of the power establishment), but rather with the discourse of the analyst, listening with evenly-poised attention to the scientific files in order to bring to the fore the cupido sciendi (i.e. the will to know, but also to optimise and to control) which both inspires and disrupts contemporary life sciences discourse.

  18. The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research was carried with the aim to discover the existence of securing the foremost islands and state border region of the Republic of Indonesia reviewed from a legal perspective which is directly related to the existence of security and dispute resolution methods as well as the governance of the foremost islands and border region in Kalimantan which bordering Malaysia. This study was conducted in Nunukan district and the surrounding provinces of Kalimantan in this research method that used is normative legal analysis data with juridical and qualitative descriptive approach. The results showed that the security of foremost islands and border region of law perspective in accordance with the Law No. 34 of 2004 regarding the Indonesian National Army has not been implemented to the fullest to realize the security of foremost islands and border region as the frontline of the Republic of Indonesia. The existence of leading islands securing and the border region of the Republic of Indonesia still contain many weaknesses in terms of both governance and security.

  19. Society and the Carbon Cycle: A Social Science Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Lankao, P.

    2017-12-01

    Societal activities, actions, and practices affect the carbon cycle and the climate of North America in complex ways. Carbon is a key component for the functioning of croplands, grasslands, forests. Carbon fuels our industry, transportation (vehicles and roadways), buildings, and other structures. Drawing on results from the SOCCR-2, this presentation uses a social science perspective to address three scientific questions. How do human actions and activities affect the carbon cycle? How human systems such as cities, agricultural field and forests are affected by changes in the carbon cycle? How is carbon management enabled and constraint by socio-political dynamics?

  20. Exposure to science, perspectives on science and religion, and religious commitment in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E; Longest, Kyle C

    2017-07-01

    Social scientists know very little about the consequences of exposure to scientific knowledge and holding different perspectives on science and religion for individuals' religious lives. Drawing on secularization and post-secular theories, we develop and test several hypotheses about the relationships among exposure to scientific knowledge, perspectives on religion and science, and religious commitment using panel data from the National Study of Youth and Religion. Our findings indicate that religious faith is strongest among young adults who: (1) accommodate scientific knowledge into their religious perspective, or (2) reject scientific knowledge that directly contradicts their religious beliefs about the origins of the world. Young adults are also more likely to have lower religious commitment when they view science and religion as independent institutions, lending support to secularization ideas about how social differentiation secularizes individuals. We further find that mere exposure to scientific knowledge, in terms of majoring in biology or acknowledging conflict between the teachings of religion and science, is usually not sufficient to undermine religious commitment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Does the Glass Ceiling Exist?: A Cross-National Perspective on Gender Income Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Ira N. Gang; John Landon-Lane; Myeong-Su Yun

    2003-01-01

    We compare male and female upward labor income mobility in Germany and the United States using the GSOEP-PSID Cross-National Equivalent File. Our main interest is to test whether a glass ceiling exists for women. Conventional thinking about the glass ceiling highlights the belief that the playing field is level for women and men in the labor market up to a certain point, after which there is an effective limit on advancement for women. We examine the glass ceiling hypothesis by looking at the...

  2. Does the Glass Ceiling Exist? A Cross-National Perspective on

    OpenAIRE

    Gang, Ira N.; Landon-Lane, John S.; Yun, Myeong-Su

    2003-01-01

    We compare male and female upward labor income mobility in Germany and the United States using the GSOEP-PSID Cross National Equivalent File. Our main interest is to test whether a glass ceiling exists for women. The standard glass ceiling hypothesis highlights the belief that the playing field is level for women and men in the labor market up to a point, after which there is an effective limit on advancement for women. We examine the glass ceiling hypothesis by looking at the dynamics of the...

  3. Primatology between feelings and science: a personal experience perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Augusto

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss some aspects of the relationship between feelings and primatological science, and how this relationship can influence this particular scientific practice. This point of view is based on the author's personal experience. A sentimental reason to study primatology in the first place will be discussed, and then the existence of a bond between the observer and the observed will be presented as a possible by-product of primatology. The following question is whether a sentimental attitude toward primates is detrimental for good science or is, alternatively, actually leading to better primatological science. As an example, the practice of naming individual monkeys is considered. It is argued that naming monkeys can help by characterizing individuality, and this is likely to improve planning of behavioural observations and welfare of captive individuals. The relationship between the researcher and study subject in biomedical studies is discussed in terms of hierarchy of moral status. Finally, primatology is not unique in the existence of bonds between the observer and the observed, at least from the point of view of the observer. However, primatology is unique because, more than in other cases, it gives greater opportunity for reasoning about different factors surrounding "doing science with animals." This is most probably owing to the phylogenetic closeness primatologists have with their study subjects. Among the different factors involved in making science using animals, the sentimental bond developing between the researcher and study animal can be very influential. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. A study to modify, extend, and verify, an existing model of interactive-constructivist school science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numedahl, Paul Joseph

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the effects an interactive-constructive teaching and learning approach, the use of children's literature in science teaching and parental involvement in elementary school science had on student achievement in and attitudes toward science. The study was done in the context of Science PALS, a professional development program for inservice teachers. An existing model for interactive-constructive elementary science was modified to include five model variables; student achievement, student attitudes, teacher perceptions, teacher performance, and student perceptions. Data were collected from a sample of 12 teachers and 260 third and fourth grade students. Data analysis included two components, (1) the examination of relationships between teacher performance, teacher perceptions, student achievement and attitudes, and (2) the verification of a model using path analysis. Results showed a significant correlation between teacher perceptions and student attitude. However, only one model path was significant; thus, the model could not be verified. Further examination of the significant model path was completed. Study findings included: (1) Constructivist notions of teaching and learning may cause changes in the traditional role relationship between teachers and students leading to negative student attitudes. (2) Children who perceive parental interest toward science education are likely to have a positive attitude toward science learning, increased self-confidence in science and possess accurate ideas concerning the nature of science. (3) Students who perceive science instruction as relevant are likely to possess a positive attitude toward science learning, increased self-confidence in science, and possess accurate ideas concerning the nature of science. (4) Students who perceive their classroom as aligning with constructivist principles are likely to possess a positive attitude toward science, an increased self

  5. Women and girls in science education: Female teachers' and students' perspectives on gender and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotty, Ann

    Science is a part of all students' education, PreK-12. Preparing students for a more scientifically and technologically complex world requires the best possible education including the deliberate inclusion and full contributions of all students, especially an underrepresented group: females in science. In the United States, as elsewhere in the world, the participation of girls and women in science education and professional careers in science is limited, particularly in the physical sciences (National Academy of Sciences [NAS], 2006). The goal of this research study is to gain a better understanding of the perspectives and perceptions of girls and women, both science educators and students, related to gender and participation in science at the time of an important course: high school chemistry. There is a rich body of research literature in science education that addresses gender studies post---high school, but less research that recognizes the affective voices of practicing female science teachers and students at the high school level (Bianchini, Cavazos, & Helms, 2000; Brown & Gilligan, 1992; Gilligan, 1982). Similarly, little is known with regard to how female students and teachers navigate their educational, personal, and professional experiences in science, or how they overcome impediments that pose limits on their participation in science, particularly the physical sciences. This exploratory study focuses on capturing voices (Brown & Gilligan, 1992; Gilligan, 1982) of high school chemistry students and teachers from selected urban and suburban learning communities in public schools in the Capital Region of New York State. Through surveys, interviews, and focus groups, this qualitative study explores the intersection of the students' and teachers' experiences with regard to the following questions: (1) How do female chemistry teachers view the role gender has played in their professional and personal lives as they have pursued education, degree status, and

  6. Do brooding and polygamy behaviors exist on Cretaceous oviraptoroid dinosaurs of China: a paleobiological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.-R.; Cheng, Y.-N.; Yang, K.-M.

    2012-04-01

    Brooding, parental care, and polygamy represent three different stages in bird's reproduction. The oringin of these behaviors is still in debate. Several samples excavated from China strengthen the phylogenetic relationship between birds and dinosaurs, for example, feathered dinosaurs, paired-eggs in pelvic region of an oviraptorid dinosaur, and small theropod fossils. Previous studies in past two decades, including an oviraptor sitting on a clutch and comparison of the ratio of clutch-volume to adult-body-size between Aves and Mesozoic dinosaurs, proposed that these behaviors had appeared on some Cretaceous theropods (e.g., oviraptor and troodon). These researches also indicate the possibility of endothermy and male care first. In conclusion, this reproduction strategy might support females having more remnant energy to build a larger clutch contributed eggs from multiple females, and brooded by males only. From our cluster analysis through paleoecological perspectives, the eggs in Cretaceous oviraptor's nest should not be corporately laid by multiple females. In morphological observation, the fossilized clutches from Ganzhou, Jiangxi, Mainland China, are 2-layered interbeded with matrix of reddish-brown siltstone or clays. The inner-layer eggs are hampered from directly contacting with adult dinosaurs body. Furthermore, the blunt ends of the eggs point to the center, and incline away forming a mound-shape nest, which is completely different from those of precocial and male-caring megapode. The ornamentation of eggshell surface and microstructures from thin sections of eggs from oviraptors and ostrich (Struthioniformes) are totally different. Comparison of thickness in different part of oviraptor's egg also reveal possible physiological structure in the egg and ecological behaviors. The detailed comparison implies that the Mesozoic oviraptoroid dinosaurs hold absolutely different incubation and caring behaviors from extant birds. We propose an alternative

  7. Using and choosing digital health technologies: a communications science perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovretveit, John; Wu, Albert; Street, Richard; Thimbleby, Harold; Thilo, Friederike; Hannawa, Annegret

    2017-03-20

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore a non-technical overview for leaders and researchers about how to use a communications perspective to better assess, design and use digital health technologies (DHTs) to improve healthcare performance and to encourage more research into implementation and use of these technologies. Design/methodology/approach Narrative overview, showing through examples the issues and benefits of introducing DHTs for healthcare performance and the insights that communications science brings to their design and use. Findings Communications research has revealed the many ways in which people communicate in non-verbal ways, and how this can be lost or degraded in digitally mediated forms. These losses are often not recognized, can increase risks to patients and reduce staff satisfaction. Yet digital technologies also contribute to improving healthcare performance and staff morale if skillfully designed and implemented. Research limitations/implications Researchers are provided with an introduction to the limitations of the research and to how communications science can contribute to a multidisciplinary research approach to evaluating and assisting the implementation of these technologies to improve healthcare performance. Practical implications Using this overview, managers are more able to ask questions about how the new DHTs will affect healthcare and take a stronger role in implementing these technologies to improve performance. Originality/value New insights into the use and understanding of DHTs from applying the new multidiscipline of communications science. A situated communications perspective helps to assess how a new technology can complement rather than degrade professional relationships and how safer implementation and use of these technologies can be devised.

  8. Schools and Informal Science Settings: Collaborate, Co-Exist, or Assimilate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jennifer D.; Gupta, Preeti; DeFelice, Amy

    2012-01-01

    In this metalogue we build on the arguments presented by Puvirajah, Verma and Webb to discuss the nature of authentic science learning experiences in context of collaborations between schools and out-of-school time settings. We discuss the role of stakeholders in creating collaborative science learning practices and affordances of out of school…

  9. The Maryland nuclear science baccalaureate degree program: The university perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janke, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear utilities' efforts in response to industry-wide pressures to provide operations staff with degree opportunities have encountered formidable barriers. This paper describes, from the university's perspective, the development and operation of the University of Maryland University College (UMUC) special baccalaureate program in nuclear science. This program has successfully overcome these problems to provide degree education on-site, on-line, and on time. Program delivery began in 1984 with one utility and a single site. It is currently delivered at eight sites under contract to six utilities with a total active student count of over 500. The first graduates are expected in 1989. The program is an accredited university program and enjoys licensure approval from the six states within which it operates. In addition to meeting US Nuclear Regulatory Commission proposed guidelines for degreed operators, the program increasingly appears as part of utility management development programs for all plant personnel and a factor in employee retention. The owner utilities, the University of Maryland, and the growing user's group are committed to the academic integrity, technical capability, and responsiveness of the program. The full support of this partnership speaks well for the long-term service of the Bachelor of Science in Nuclear Science program to the nuclear power industry

  10. Perception of effort in Exercise Science: Definition, measurement and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pageaux, Benjamin

    2016-11-01

    Perception of effort, also known as perceived exertion or sense of effort, can be described as a cognitive feeling of work associated with voluntary actions. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of what is perception of effort in Exercise Science. Due to the addition of sensations other than effort in its definition, the neurophysiology of perceived exertion remains poorly understood. As humans have the ability to dissociate effort from other sensations related to physical exercise, the need to use a narrower definition is emphasised. Consequently, a definition and some brief guidelines for its measurement are provided. Finally, an overview of the models present in the literature aiming to explain its neurophysiology, and some perspectives for future research are offered.

  11. Perspectives on Current Issues Is ``Anthropic Selection'' Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Ronald G.

    2007-01-01

    I argue that there are strong reasons for resisting as a principle of science the concept of “anthropic selection.” This concept asserts that the existence of “observers” in a universe can be used as a condition that selects physical laws and constants necessary for intelligent life from different laws or physical constants prevailing in a vast number of other universes, to thereby explain why the properties of our universe are conducive to intelligent life. My reasons for limiting “anthropic selection” to the realm of speculation rather than permitting it to creep into mainstream science include our inability to estimate the probabilities of emergence of “observers” in a universe, the lack of testability through direct observation of the assumed high variability of the constants of nature, the lack of a clear definition of an “observer,” and the arbitrariness in how and to what questions anthropic selection is applied.

  12. Revising laboratory work: sociological perspectives on the science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobér, Anna

    2017-09-01

    This study uses sociological perspectives to analyse one of the core practices in science education: schoolchildren's and students' laboratory work. Applying an ethnographic approach to the laboratory work done by pupils at a Swedish compulsory school, data were generated through observations, field notes, interviews, and a questionnaire. The pupils, ages 14 and 15, were observed as they took a 5-week physics unit (specifically, mechanics). The analysis shows that the episodes of laboratory work could be filled with curiosity and exciting challenges; however, another picture emerged when sociological concepts and notions were applied to what is a very common way of working in the classroom. Laboratory work is characterised as a social activity that is expected to be organised as a group activity. This entails groups becoming, to some extent, `safe havens' for the pupils. On the other hand, this way of working in groups required pupils to subject to the groups and the peer effect, sometimes undermining their chances to learn and perform better. In addition, the practice of working in groups when doing laboratory work left some pupils and the teacher blaming themselves, even though the outcome of the learning situation was a result of a complex interplay of social processes. This article suggests a stronger emphasis on the contradictions and consequences of the science subjects, which are strongly influenced by their socio-historical legacy.

  13. Data life cycle: a perspective from the Information Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo César Gonçalves Sant’Ana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Access and use of data as a key factor has been extended to several areas of knowledge of today's society. It’s necessary to develop a new perspective that presents phases and factors involved in these processes, providing an initial analysis structure, allowing the efforts, skills and actions organization related to the data life cycle. Purpose: This article is a proposal for a new look at the data life cycle, that assumes, as a central element, the data itself, supporting itself on the concepts and contributions that Information Science can provide, without giving up the reflections on the role of other key areas such as Computer Science. Methodology: The methodological procedures consisted of bibliographic research and content analysis to describe the phases and factors related to the Data Life Cycle, developing reflections and considerations from context already consolidated in the development of systems that can corroborate the idea of centrality of data. Results: The results describe the phases of: collect, storage, recovery and discard, permeated by transverse factors: privacy, integration, quality, copyright, dissemination and preservation, composing a Data Life Cycle. Conclusions: The current context of the availability of large volumes of data, with great variety and at speeds that provide access in real time, setting the so-called Big Data that requires new concerns about access and use processes of data. The Information Science may offer a new approach, now centered in the data, and contribute to the optimization of Data Life Cycle as a whole, extending bridges between users and the data they need.

  14. Pedagogical perspectives and implicit theories of teaching: First year science teachers emerging from a constructivist science education program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Michael James

    Traditional, teacher-centered pedagogies dominate current teaching practice in science education despite numerous research-based assertions that promote more progressive, student-centered teaching methods. Best-practice research emerging from science education reform efforts promotes experiential, collaborative learning environments in line with the constructivist referent. Thus there is a need to identify specific teacher education program designs that will promote the utilization of constructivist theory among new teachers. This study explored the learning-to-teach process of four first-year high school teachers, all graduates of a constructivist-based science education program known as Teacher Education Environments in Mathematics and Science (TEEMS). Pedagogical perspectives and implicit theories were explored to identify common themes and their relation to the pre-service program and the teaching context. Qualitative methods were employed to gather and analyze the data. In depth, semi-structured interviews (Seidman, 1998) formed the primary data for probing the context and details of the teachers' experience as well as the personal meaning derived from first year practice. Teacher journals and teaching artifacts were utilized to validate and challenge the primary data. Through an open-coding technique (Strauss & Corbin, 1990) codes, and themes were generated from which assertions were made. The pedagogical perspectives apparent among the participants in this study emerged as six patterns in teaching method: (1) utilization of grouping strategies, (2) utilization of techniques that allow the students to help teach, (3) similar format of daily instructional strategy, (4) utilization of techniques intended to promote engagement, (5) utilization of review strategies, (6) assessment by daily monitoring and traditional tests, (7) restructuring content knowledge. Assertions from implicit theory data include: (1) Time constraints and lack of teaching experience made

  15. History, Philosophy, and Science in a Social Perspective: A Pedagogical Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Andreia; Braga, Marco; Reis, Jose Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Various studies have promoted instruction in the history and philosophy of science (HPS) in science classes, but the best way of putting this perspective into practice remains undetermined. To contribute to this issue, we developed a pedagogical project in some high schools in Brazil that aimed to present science content using an…

  16. Room for climate debate : perspectives on the interaction between climate politics, science and the media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, van der J.P.; Est, van R.; Riphagen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Room for climate debate: perspectives on the interaction between climate politics, science and the media The present study offers a picture of the complex interaction between climate politics, science and the media. During the 1970s and 1980s, politics and the sciences focused increasingly on the

  17. Exploring uncertainty in the Earth Sciences - the potential field perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R. W.; Blakely, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Interpretation of gravity and magnetic anomalies is mathematically non-unique because multiple theoretical solutions are possible. The mathematical label of 'non-uniqueness' can lead to the erroneous impression that no single interpretation is better in a geologic sense than any other. The purpose of this talk is to present a practical perspective on the theoretical non-uniqueness of potential field interpretation in geology. There are multiple ways to approach and constrain potential field studies to produce significant, robust, and definitive results. For example, a smooth, bell-shaped gravity profile, in theory, could be caused by an infinite set of physical density bodies, ranging from a deep, compact, circular source to a shallow, smoothly varying, inverted bell-shaped source. In practice, however, we can use independent geologic or geophysical information to limit the range of possible source densities and rule out many of the theoretical solutions. We can further reduce the theoretical uncertainty by careful attention to subtle anomaly details. For example, short-wavelength anomalies are a well-known and theoretically established characteristic of shallow geologic sources. The 'non-uniqueness' of potential field studies is closely related to the more general topic of scientific uncertainty in the Earth sciences and beyond. Nearly all results in the Earth sciences are subject to significant uncertainty because problems are generally addressed with incomplete and imprecise data. The increasing need to combine results from multiple disciplines into integrated solutions in order to address complex global issues requires special attention to the appreciation and communication of uncertainty in geologic interpretation.

  18. Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon P Wasser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main target of the present review is to draw attention to the current perspectives, advances, evidences, challenges, and future development of medicinal mushroom science in the 21 st century. Medicinal mushrooms and fungi are thought to possess approximately 130 medicinal functions, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active compounds in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. The data on mushroom polysaccharides and different secondary metabolites are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher hetero- and homobasidiomycetes. Numerous bioactive polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes from the medicinal mushrooms described appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses, and exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans. Whilst the mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom compounds appear central. Polysaccharides and low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites are particularly important due to their antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom compounds have been subjected to Phase I, II, and III clinical trials, and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Special attention is given to many important unsolved problems in the study of medicinal mushrooms.

  19. A Motivational Science Perspective on the Role of Student Motivation in Learning and Teaching Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintrich, Paul R.

    2003-01-01

    Develops a motivational science perspective on student motivation in learning and teaching contexts that highlights 3 general themes for motivational research. The 3 themes include the importance of a general scientific approach for research on student motivation, the utility of multidisciplinary perspectives, and the importance of use-inspired…

  20. Managing an academic career in science: What gender differences exist and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gayle Patrice

    The present study examines the career trajectories of academic scientists during the period from 1993 to 2001 to explore gender differences in mobility. Data from the National Science Foundation's Survey of Doctorate Recipients are used to examine and compare gender differences in the odds of promotion. The effects of age, marital and family status, duration of time to complete doctorate, academic discipline, cumulative number of publications and time in the survey are considered as explanatory variables. Event history analyses are conducted for all scientists, for scientists in four major academic disciplines and for scientists in various academic ranks. While no overall gender differences were observed in the odds of promotion, several important similarities and differences were evident. Expectedly, publications had a significant and positive relationship with advancement for both women and men. The role of parent influenced promotions quite differently for women and men. Contrary to expectations based on prior research, academic women scientists who were mothers advanced at similar rates as women without children. Consistent with expectations based on traditional roles, married men and men with children generally advanced more quickly than single or childless men, respectively. Two surprising patterns emerged among subgroups of women. Marriage was associated with greater odds of advancement for women engineers and motherhood was associated with greater odds of advancement for among assistant professors. Possible explanations for these findings are presented.

  1. Earth Science Informatics Community Requirements for Improving Sustainable Science Software Practices: User Perspectives and Implications for Organizational Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, R. R.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Robinson, E.

    2014-12-01

    Science software is integral to the scientific process and must be developed and managed in a sustainable manner to ensure future access to scientific data and related resources. Organizations that are part of the scientific enterprise, as well as members of the scientific community who work within these entities, can contribute to the sustainability of science software and to practices that improve scientific community capabilities for science software sustainability. As science becomes increasingly digital and therefore, dependent on software, improving community practices for sustainable science software will contribute to the sustainability of science. Members of the Earth science informatics community, including scientific data producers and distributers, end-user scientists, system and application developers, and data center managers, use science software regularly and face the challenges and the opportunities that science software presents for the sustainability of science. To gain insight on practices needed for the sustainability of science software from the science software experiences of the Earth science informatics community, an interdisciplinary group of 300 community members were asked to engage in simultaneous roundtable discussions and report on their answers to questions about the requirements for improving scientific software sustainability. This paper will present an analysis of the issues reported and the conclusions offered by the participants. These results provide perspectives for science software sustainability practices and have implications for actions that organizations and their leadership can initiate to improve the sustainability of science software.

  2. A forensic science perspective on the role of images in crime investigation and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliet, Quentin; Delémont, Olivier; Margot, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    This article presents a global vision of images in forensic science. The proliferation of perspectives on the use of images throughout criminal investigations and the increasing demand for research on this topic seem to demand a forensic science-based analysis. In this study, the definitions of and concepts related to material traces are revisited and applied to images, and a structured approach is used to persuade the scientific community to extend and improve the use of images as traces in criminal investigations. Current research efforts focus on technical issues and evidence assessment. This article provides a sound foundation for rationalising and explaining the processes involved in the production of clues from trace images. For example, the mechanisms through which these visual traces become clues of presence or action are described. An extensive literature review of forensic image analysis emphasises the existing guidelines and knowledge available for answering investigative questions (who, what, where, when and how). However, complementary developments are still necessary to demystify many aspects of image analysis in forensic science, including how to review and select images or use them to reconstruct an event or assist intelligence efforts. The hypothetico-deductive reasoning pathway used to discover unknown elements of an event or crime can also help scientists understand the underlying processes involved in their decision making. An analysis of a single image in an investigative or probative context is used to demonstrate the highly informative potential of images as traces and/or clues. Research efforts should be directed toward formalising the extraction and combination of clues from images. An appropriate methodology is key to expanding the use of images in forensic science. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 'Citizen science' recording of fossils by adapting existing computer-based biodiversity recording tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Alistair

    2014-05-01

    Biodiversity recording activities have been greatly enhanced by the emergence of online schemes and smartphone applications for recording and sharing data about a wide variety of flora and fauna. As a palaeobiologist, one of the areas of research I have been heavily involved in is the question of whether the amount of rock available to sample acts as a bias on our estimates of biodiversity through time. Although great progress has been made on this question over the past ten years by a number of researchers, I still think palaeontology has not followed the lead offered by the 'citizen science' revolution in studies of extant biodiversity. By constructing clearly structured surveys with online data collection support, it should be possible to collect field data on the occurrence of fossils at the scale of individual exposures, which are needed to test competing hypotheses about these effects at relatively small spatial scales. Such data collection would be hard to justify for universities and museums with limited personnel but a co-ordinated citizen science programme would be capable of delivering such a programme. Data collection could be based on the MacKinnon's Lists method, used in rapid conservation assessment work. It relies on observers collecting lists of a fixed length (e.g. 10 species long) but what is important is that it focuses on getting observers to ignore sightings of the same species until that list is complete. This overcomes the problem of 'common taxa being commonly recorded' and encourages observers to seek out and identify the rarer taxa. This gives a targeted but finite task. Rather than removing fossils, participants would be encouraged to take photographs to share via a recording website. The success of iSpot, which allows users to upload photos of plants and animals for other users to help with identifications, offers a model for overcoming the problems of identifying fossils, which can often look nothing like the examples illustrated in

  4. Using a Design Science Perspective to Understand a Complex Design-Based Research Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate how a design science perspective can be used to describe and understand a set of related design-based research processes. We describe and analyze a case study in a manner that is inspired by design science. The case study involves the design of modeling......-based research processes. And we argue that a design science perspective may be useful for both researchers and practitioners....... tools and the redesign of an information service in a library. We use a set of guidelines from a design science perspective to organize the description and analysis of the case study. By doing this we demonstrate the usefulness of design science as an analytical tool for understanding related design...

  5. A Framework for Re-thinking Learning in Science from Recent Cognitive Science Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytler, Russell; Prain, Vaughan

    2010-10-01

    Recent accounts by cognitive scientists of factors affecting cognition imply the need to reconsider current dominant conceptual theories about science learning. These new accounts emphasize the role of context, embodied practices, and narrative-based representation rather than learners' cognitive constructs. In this paper we analyse data from a longitudinal study of primary school children's learning to outline a framework based on these contemporary accounts and to delineate key points of difference from conceptual change perspectives. The findings suggest this framework provides strong theoretical and practical insights into how children learn and the key role of representational negotiation in this learning. We argue that the nature and process of conceptual change can be re-interpreted in terms of the development of students' representational resources.

  6. van Eijck and Roth's utilitarian science education: why the recalibration of science and traditional ecological knowledge invokes multiple perspectives to protect science education from being exclusive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael P.; Tippins, Deborah J.

    2010-12-01

    This article is a philosophical analysis of van Eijck and Roth's (2007) claim that science and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) should be recalibrated because they are incommensurate, particular to the local contexts in which they are practical. In this view, science maintains an incommensurate status as if it is a "fundamental" basis for the relative comparison of other cultural knowledges, which reduces traditional knowledge to a status of in relation to the prioritized (higher)-status of natural sciences. van Eijck and Roth reject epistemological Truth as a way of thinking about sciences in science education. Rather they adopt a utilitarian perspective of cultural-historical activity theory to demonstrate when traditional knowledge is considered science and when it is not considered science, for the purposes of evaluating what should be included in U.S. science education curricula. There are several challenges for evaluating what should be included in science education when traditional knowledges and sciences are considered in light of a utilitarian analysis. Science as diverse, either practically local or theoretically abstract, is highly uncertain, which provides opportunities for multiple perspectives to enlarge and protect the natural sciences from exclusivity. In this response to van Eijck and Roth, we make the case for considering dialectical relationships between science and TEK in order to ensure cultural diversity in science education, as a paradigm. We also emphasize the need to (re)dissolve the hierarchies and dualisms that may emerge when science is elevated in status in comparison with other knowledges. We conclude with a modification to van Eijck and Roth's perspective by recommending a guiding principle of cultural diversity in science education as a way to make curriculum choices. We envision this principle can be applied when evaluating science curricula worldwide.

  7. To appreciate variation between scientists: A perspective for seeing science's vitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, E. David

    2002-05-01

    At the heart of theoretical and practical ideas about science education is an image of scientific work. This image draws attention to particular features of scientific work, which then guides scholarship and pedagogy in science education. In the field of science education, much discussion in this vein focuses on the question, What is the nature of science? Most images of science found in education, psychology, and philosophy emerge from conceptual and methodological perspectives that emphasize norms, conventions, and broad trends. Some groups are motivated to distinguish science from other activities while some groups work in the opposite direction and blur the lines between science and others ways of knowing. Underlying both perspectives is an implicit focus on general qualities common to groups or subgroups (e.g. believing that ideas are subject to change, explanations demand evidence, science is a complex social activities, etc.). I propose that the vital qualities of science are best illuminated by just the opposite process: by appreciating the uncommon, rather than common, features. By attending to individual variation, we are more likely to understand what makes science a creative, motivating, and deeply personal enterprise. In addition, appreciating these variations reveals judgment, creativity, adaptation - the hallmark of scientific work. Implications of this perspective for science education are discussed.

  8. Development of an Analysis Model from the Perspectives of Science, Individual and Society in the Teaching of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel do Carmo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic vision of learning science has changed as scientific culture concepts evolution and the nature of the teaching of science go along. From a model essentially based on information acquisition, science instruction has included the practice of the science method when the importance of emphasizing the development of personal skills, thinking processes, and action was considered. The concern about citizens’ education in matters referring to the relationship between science and society and enlightened social participation demanded a special attention in investigation and in students’ participation in issues related to urban, natural, and technological environment. This research seeks to develop an integrative model of curriculum organizations based on these three axes or perspectives: science, individual, and society. A matrix enabling the analysis of curricular proposals and organization plans of didactic units is built, as well as the observation of teachers’ representations in the teaching of science.

  9. What Is "Agency"? Perspectives in Science Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jenny; Clarke, David John

    2014-01-01

    The contemporary interest in researching student agency in science education reflects concerns about the relevance of schooling and a shift in science education towards understanding learning in science as a complex social activity. The purpose of this article is to identify problems confronting the science education community in the development…

  10. Perspectives of women of color in science-based education and careers. Summary of the conference on diversity in science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Research on inequality or stratification in science and engineering tends to concentrate on black/white or male/female difference; very few studies have discussions of both race and gender. Consequently, very little is known about the exact course that women of color take in science-based education and employment or about the course that steers them out of science-based careers. Questions abound: What are the environmental factors that affect the choices in education and science-based careers of women of color? What has influenced women of color who currently are in science-based careers? Is critical mass important and, if so, what are the keys to increasing it? What recommendations can be made to colleges and universities, faculty members, employers, the federal government, women of color themselves, and to improve the conditions and numbers of women of color in science-based careers? These questions prompted the National Research Council`s Committee on Women in Science and Engineering (CWSE) to convene a conference on Diversity in Science: Perspectives on the Retention of Minority Women in Science, Engineering, and Health-Care Professions, held on October 21--23, 1995. Confronting the problem of the lack of knowledge about the journey of women of color in science-based education and career, the conference offered opportunities for these women to describe the paths that they have taken and to identify strategies for success. Their perspectives ground this report. For purposes of this document, women of color include women in the following racial or ethnic groups: Hispanics, African-Americans, Asian and Pacific Islanders, and American Indians and Alaskan Natives. Science-based careers include those in the physical sciences and mathematics, life sciences, social sciences, and engineering.

  11. Workshop on Friction: Understanding and Addressing Students' Difficulties in Learning Science through a Hermeneutical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sangwoo; Lee, Gyoungho; Kalman, Calvin S.

    2013-01-01

    Hermeneutics is useful in science and science education by emphasizing the process of understanding. The purpose of this study was to construct a workshop based upon hermeneutical principles and to interpret students' learning in the workshop through a hermeneutical perspective. When considering the history of Newtonian mechanics, it could be…

  12. Computer Science Education in French Secondary Schools: Historical and Didactical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Georges-Louis; Drot-Delange, Beatrice; Grandbastien, Monique; Tort, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Computer science as a school subject in France is characterized by a succession of promising starts that have not yet been transformed into perennial solutions. The main goal of this article is to analyze this complex situation from a historical perspective, and describe the current rebirth of an optional Computer Science course in the last year…

  13. Perspectives on the Contribution of Social Science to Adapted Physical Activity: Looking Forward, Looking Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causgrove Dunn, Janice; Cairney, John; Zimmer, Chantelle

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we reflect on the contributions of the social sciences to the field of adapted physical activity by examining the theories and methods that have been adopted from the social science disciplines. To broaden our perspective on adapted physical activity and provide new avenues for theoretical and empirical exploration, we discuss and…

  14. Historical Perspectives on Games and Education from the Learning Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Brett E.; Satwicz, Tom; Caswell, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews three classic theorists' writing on games, learning, and development. Piaget, Vygotsky, and Bruner all wrote about games and play as important to thinking and learning. This review attempts to synthesize their perspectives as a means to revisit underused theoretical perspectives on the role of games in education. The views of…

  15. Perspectives on Psychological Science: Right Way/Wrong Way Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnar, Megan R

    2017-07-01

    In unpredictable times, it is perhaps even more important to contemplate the direction different fields of science are headed. In this article, I contemplate two directions of psychological science: the increasing integration of the study of psychology with other sciences and the concern of many sciences, including ours, with improving the reproducibility of our findings. Both of these are argued to be "right ways," but these directions also have challenges that, unless carefully addressed, could detract from our ability to move the science of psychology forward. I detail these challenges along with a consideration of how to chart our science through the unpredictable waters we face at this point in history.

  16. Herbal medicine, radical scavenger and metal detoxification: bioinorganic, complexity and nano science perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumitro, Sutiman B.; Alit, Sukmaningsih

    2018-03-01

    Developing Complexity Science and Nano Biological perspective giving the ideas of interfacing between modern physical and biological sciences for more comprehensive understanding of life. The study of bioinorganic is a trans-disciplinary, and will initiate the way to more comprehensive and better understanding life. We can talk about energy generation, motive forces and energy transfer at the level of macromolecules. We can then develop understanding biological behavior on nano size biological materials and its higher order using modern physics as well as thermodynamic law. This is a necessity to ovoid partial understanding of life that are not match with holism. In animal tissues, the accumulation or overwhelmed production of free radicals can damage cells and are believed to accelerate the progression of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and age-related diseases. Thus a guarded balance of radical species is imperative. Edward Kosower [1] proposed an idea of biradical in an aromatic organic compounds. Each of which having unpaired electrons. The magnetic force of this compound used for making agregation based on their magnetic characters. Bioinorganic low molecular weight complex compounds composing herbal medicine can bind toxic metals. This low molecular weight complex molecules then easily excerted the metals from the body, removing them from their either intracellular or extracellular existences. This bioinorganic chelation potential is now inspiring a new therapeutic strategies.

  17. Science with the Square Kilometre Array: An Indian Perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-12-26

    Dec 26, 2016 ... Indian scientists are looking to enhance their scientific contribution to SKA, ... The international community is busy developing the so-called 'Key Science ... Soap Bubbles and Drones: National Science Day at the Academy!!!

  18. Perspectives on the Origins of Life in Science Textbooks from a Christian Publisher: Implications for Teaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Baptista, Geilsa Costa; da Silva Santos, Rodrigo; Cobern, William W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research regarding approaches to the origin of life featured in science textbooks produced by an Evangelical publisher. The research nature was qualitative with document analysis and an interpretive framework based on Epistemological Pluralism. Overall, the results indicate that there are four perspectives on the…

  19. The 6th International Earth Science Olympiad: A Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlett, Luke; Cathro, Darcy; Mellow, Maddi; Tate, Clara

    2014-01-01

    In October 2012, two students from the Australian Science and Mathematics School and two from Yankalilla Area School were selected to travel to Olavarria, Argentina in order to compete in the 6th International Earth Science Olympiad (IESO). It was an opportunity for individuals with a passion for Earth science to come together from 17 countries to…

  20. Digital Science Notebooks: Perspectives from an Elementary Classroom Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Seungoh; Fulton, Lori A.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how tablet-based note-taking applications can be integrated into elementary science classes as digital science notebooks. A teacher with 20 students in Grades 4-5 from a public charter school in Hawaii participated in the study. The participating science teacher introduced a tablet-based note taking application (TNA) to her…

  1. What Science Teaching Looks Like: An International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Kathleen; Garnier, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science (TIMSS) video study, the authors compare science teaching practices in the United States and in four other countries that outperformed the United States: Australia, the Czech Republic, Japan, and the Netherlands. Their observations of videotapes from 100 8th-grade science lessons in each…

  2. Integrating Internet Resources into the Science Classroom: Teachers' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesenmayer, Randall L.; Koul, Ravinder

    1998-01-01

    Presents teacher perspectives on the impact of Internet usage on their teaching practices. Semi-structured interviews and two online surveys provide data from teacher participants in the West Virginia K-12 RuralNet Project. (DDR)

  3. Science and Technology vs. Defense and Security: Dual Use Consequences, a South American Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espona, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays we can say that science and technology are development driven forces in most countries, with some exceptions especially in the Southern Hemisphere. Even though, we have to take into account their link to and impact on defense and security and not only when it comes to WMD but also in the economy and academy areas, both in developed and developing countries. Within this framework, when we analyze the spread of technology and knowledge, it is important to consider: the media where it takes place (e.g. journals, internet, conferences, commercial agreements); which the actors involved are (e.g. scientists, governmental agencies, commercial firms); and the motive why it occurs (e.g. scientific discoveries; commercial exchange; international agreements). Once known all these elements, which vary both intracountry and intercountry, we may have a deep and broad enough framework to consider which policies to take in order to foster scientific and technologic development without collaborating with state and non state WMD programs. Although we already have a legal framework to fight against WMD proliferation and terrorism, the diverse degree of success of such instruments makes it necessary to continue analyzing and debating ways to strengthen them and/or find new ones. Therefore, in this paper we will analyze how the phenomena of science and technology development and spread impacts on defense and security from a South American perspective, taking into account the particular differences among developed and developing countries. Among the primary findings we can mention the existing differences between countries when it comes to the place (military, academic or commercial ones) where the critical science and technology innovative developments take place; the origin of funding (private or governmental); the existence and fulfillment of plans to foster science and technology development; and the scientific community awareness in WMD topics. All these elements have a

  4. What is `Agency'? Perspectives in Science Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jenny; Clarke, David John

    2014-03-01

    The contemporary interest in researching student agency in science education reflects concerns about the relevance of schooling and a shift in science education towards understanding learning in science as a complex social activity. The purpose of this article is to identify problems confronting the science education community in the development of this new research agenda and to argue that there is a need for research in science education that attends to agency as a social practice. Despite increasing interest in student agency in educational research, the term 'agency' has lacked explicit operationalisation and, across the varied approaches, such as critical ethnography, ethnographies of communication, discourse analysis and symbolic interactionism, there has been a lack of coherence in its research usage. There has also been argument concerning the validity of the use of the term 'agency' in science education research. This article attempts to structure the variety of definitions of 'student agency' in science education research, identifies problems in the research related to assigning intentionality to research participants and argues that agency is a kind of discursive practice. The article also draws attention to the need for researchers to be explicit in the assumptions they rely upon in their interpretations of social worlds. Drawing upon the discursive turn in the social sciences, a definition of agency is provided, that accommodates the discursive practices of both individuals and the various functional social groups from whose activities classroom practice is constituted. The article contributes to building a focused research agenda concerned with understanding and promoting student agency in science.

  5. Current Crisis in Science Education? Women in Science and Problems for the Behavioral Scientists. Some Perspectives of a Physicist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    A number of problems exist in society which require the cooperation of physical and social scientists. One of these problems is the current crisis in science education. There are several aspects to this problem, including the declining interest of students in math and science at a time when functioning in our society requires more, not less,…

  6. Computational perspectives in the history of science: to the memory of Peter Damerow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubichler, Manfred D; Maienschein, Jane; Renn, Jürgen

    2013-03-01

    Computational methods and perspectives can transform the history of science by enabling the pursuit of novel types of questions, dramatically expanding the scale of analysis (geographically and temporally), and offering novel forms of publication that greatly enhance access and transparency. This essay presents a brief summary of a computational research system for the history of science, discussing its implications for research, education, and publication practices and its connections to the open-access movement and similar transformations in the natural and social sciences that emphasize big data. It also argues that computational approaches help to reconnect the history of science to individual scientific disciplines.

  7. Russian Bilingual Science Learning: Perspectives from Secondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemberger, Nancy; Vinogradova, Olga

    2002-01-01

    Describes one secondary Russian/English bilingual science teacher's practice and her literate students' experiences as they learn science and adapt to a new school. Discusses the notion of whether literacy skills in the native language are transferable to a second language. (Author/VWL)

  8. Towards Systematicity: Comparing from the Perspective of Philosophy of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietraß, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    As in many other social sciences, in international and comparative education there is an epistemological schism between two main approaches, one of which is traditional whose methodology and methods are historical-hermeneutical, while the other is empirical and oriented towards the natural sciences. In international and comparative education,…

  9. Life Skills from the Perspectives of Classroom and Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtdede-Fidan, Nuray; Aydogdu, Bülent

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine classroom and science teachers' views about life skills. The study employed phenomenological method. The participants of the study were 24 teachers; twelve of them were classroom teachers and the remaining were science teachers. They were working at public schools in Turkey. The participants were selected…

  10. Attracting Girls to Science, Engineering and Technology: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Alison J.; Leon de la Barra, Bernardo A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a project undertaken by the school outreach team at the School of Engineering, University of Tasmania, Australia, to attract girls to science, engineering and technology (SET). The project was a pilot program designed to engage female students from upper primary to senior secondary in the teaching of physical sciences. A…

  11. Military conversion and Science from a global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, J.

    1994-01-01

    The changes that begun in late 1980s in Europe and former Soviet Union have great impact upon political, economic and social conditions of most people in the world, meaning present state and future development of science. This paper deals with the problems of defense conversion and brain drain which provide a uniting global issue for learned societies, academies of science and organizations advancing technology around the world to maintain pressure on decision makers to raise science and technology in their scheme of priorities. Learned societies and academies both non-governmental and government supported have clear roles in defense conversion and related issues of brain drain. The challenge remains: to design and implement structures and processes for the modern world to deal with high technology, basic and applied science with the attendant great concentration of power and resources. Revised procedures for funding transitional structures and processes for sciences are expected to be recommended

  12. Faith in science in global perspective: Implications for transhumanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John H

    2014-10-01

    While citizens can know scientific facts, they also have faith in science - with faith defined as a firm belief for which there is no proof. Using national public opinion surveys from twelve nations from 1993 to 2010, I examine three different types of faith in science that citizens could hold. I examine temporal changes in levels of faith in science as well as the social determinants of each type of faith. I focus on the implications of these levels of faith for the transhumanist movement, which is particularly dependent on faith in science. I find that two of three types of faith in science are on the rise across the West, and that the social determinants of these types of faith suggest particular challenges for the transhumanist movement. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Designing Science Games and Science Toys from the Perspective of Scientific Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir Kaçan, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted with the participation of 21 pre-service science teachers attending the faculty of education of a university in Turkey. The study aims to evaluate pre-service science teachers' science games and science toy designs in terms of scientific creativity. Participants were given a four-week period to design science games or…

  14. The perspectives and experiences of African American students in an informal science program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulls, Domonique L.

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are the fastest growing sectors of the economy, nationally and globally. In order for the United States (U.S.) to maintain its competitiveness, it is important to address STEM experiences at the precollege level. In early years, science education serves as a foundation and pipeline for students to pursue STEM in college and beyond. Alternative approaches to instruction in formal classrooms have been introduced to engage more students in science. One alternative is informal science education. Informal science education is an avenue used to promote science education literacy. Because it is less regulated than science teaching in formal classroom settings, it allows for the incorporation of culture into science instruction. Culturally relevant science teaching is one way to relate science to African American students, a population that continually underperforms in K-12 science education. This study explores the science perspectives and experiences of African American middle school students participating in an informal science program. The research is framed by the tenets of culturally relevant pedagogy and shaped by the following questions: (1) What specific aspects of the Carver Program make it unique to African American students? (2) How is culturally relevant pedagogy incorporated into the informal science program? (3) How does the incorporation of culturally relevant pedagogy into the informal science program influence African American students' perceptions about science? The findings to the previously stated questions add to the limited research on African American students in informal science learning environments and contribute to the growing research on culturally relevant science. This study is unique in that it explores the cultural components of an informal science program.

  15. Integral Methodological Pluralism in Science Education Research: Valuing Multiple Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nancy T.; Callihan, Laurie P.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the multiple methodologies used in educational research and proposes a model that includes all of them as contributing to understanding educational contexts and research from multiple perspectives. The model, based on integral theory (Wilber in a theory of everything. Shambhala, Boston, 2000) values all forms of research as…

  16. Cultural, Social and Political Perspectives in Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    conditions and contexts in science education. The different chapters review debates and research in teacher education, school teaching and learning including when external stakeholders are involved. Even though the chapters are contextualized in Nordic settings there will be similarities and parallels...... that will be informative to the international science education research community.......This book presents a collection of critical thinking that concern cultural, social and political issues for science education in the Nordic countries. The chapter authors describe specific scenarios to challenge persisting views, interrogate frameworks and trouble contemporary approaches...

  17. Innovation in science and organizational renewal historical and sociological perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Münch, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This book looks at the types of new research organizations that drive scientific innovation and how ground-breaking science transforms research fields and their organization. Based on historical case studies and comparative empirical data, the book presents new and thought-provoking evidence that improves our knowledge and understanding about how new research fields are formed and how research organizations adapt to breakthroughs in science. While the book is firmly based in science history, it discusses more general sociological and policy propositions regarding scientific innovations and organizational change. The volume brings together leading scholars both from the United States and Europe.

  18. A Path to Actionable Climate Science: Perspectives from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Bisbal, Gustavo A.; Meadow, Alison M.

    2018-02-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior Climate Science Centers (CSCs) work with natural and cultural resource managers and scientists to gather information and build tools needed to help fish, wildlife, and ecosystems adapt to the impacts of climate change. The CSCs prioritize the delivery of actionable science products (e.g., synthesized scientific information, maps, decision support tools, etc.) that are focused on key management priorities and co-produced by teams of scientists and managers. In the specific case of the Northwest CSC, we have been successful at promoting and supporting the co-production of actionable climate science at the individual project level, but it has been more difficult to replicate this success at the regional program level. Here we identify the most significant challenges in satisfying this mandate and propose the creation of a Science Advisory Panel to provide improved interface between resource managers and scientists engaged with the Northwest CSC.

  19. Incentivising social science perspectives in the SADC water sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs-Mata, Inga M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the governance challenges facing the water sector necessitates expertise from a diverse set of interdisciplinary backgrounds. Creating a balance between technical, natural and social science is critical to developing relevant and impact...

  20. Cultural, Social and Political Perspectives in Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    education research to question whether conventional research approaches, foci and theoretical approaches are sufficient in a world of science education that is neither politically neutral, nor free of cultural values. Attention is not only on the individual learner but on the cultural, social and political......This book presents a collection of critical thinking that concern cultural, social and political issues for science education in the Nordic countries. The chapter authors describe specific scenarios to challenge persisting views, interrogate frameworks and trouble contemporary approaches...... to researching teaching and learning in science. Taking a point of departure in empirical examples from the Nordic countries the collection of work is taking a critical sideways glance at the Nordic education principles. Critical examinations target specifically those who are researching in the fields of science...

  1. Perspectives on U.S. Competitiveness in Science and Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Galama, Titus; Hosek, James

    2007-01-01

    ... S&T competitiveness, including science policy, the quantitative assessment of S&T capability, globalization, the rise of Asia "particularly China and India", innovation, trade, technology diffusion, the increase in foreign-born...

  2. From philosophy to science (to natural philosophy): evolutionary developmental perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Alan C

    2008-03-01

    This paper focuses on abstraction as a mode of reasoning that facilitates a productive relationship between philosophy and science. Using examples from evolutionary developmental biology, I argue that there are two areas where abstraction can be relevant to science: reasoning explication and problem clarification. The value of abstraction is characterized in terms of methodology (modeling or data gathering) and epistemology (explanatory evaluation or data interpretation).

  3. Promoting Issues-based STSE Perspectives in Science Teacher Education: Problems of Identity and Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Erminia G.; Bencze, Larry; Hewitt, Jim; Romkey, Lisa; Jivraj, Ashifa

    2008-09-01

    Although science, technology, society and environment (STSE) education has gained considerable force in the past few years, it has made fewer strides in practice. We suggest that science teacher identity plays a role in the adoption of STSE perspectives. Simply put, issues-based STSE education challenges traditional images of a science teacher and science instructional ideologies. In this paper, we briefly describe the development of a multimedia documentary depicting issues-based STSE education in a teacher’s class and its subsequent implementation with 64 secondary student-teachers at a large Canadian university. Specifically, we set out to explore: (1) science teacher candidates’ responses to a case of issues-based STSE teaching, and (2) how science teacher identity intersects with the adoption of STSE perspectives. Findings reveal that although teacher candidates expressed confidence and motivation regarding teaching STSE, they also indicated decreased likelihood to teach these perspectives in their early years of teaching. Particular tensions or problems of practice consistently emerged that helped explain this paradox including issues related to: control and autonomy; support and belonging; expertise and negotiating curriculum; politicization and action; and biases and ideological bents. We conclude our paper with a discussion regarding the lessons learned about STSE education, teacher identity and the role of multimedia case methods.

  4. Interdisciplinary research and education at the biology-engineering-computer science interface: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmor, Brigitta; Tidor, Bruce

    2005-09-01

    Progress in the life sciences, including genome sequencing and high-throughput experimentation, offers an opportunity for understanding biology and medicine from a systems perspective. This 'new view', which complements the more traditional component-based approach, involves the integration of biological research with approaches from engineering disciplines and computer science. The result is more than a new set of technologies. Rather, it promises a fundamental reconceptualization of the life sciences based on the development of quantitative and predictive models to describe crucial processes. To achieve this change, learning communities are being formed at the interface of the life sciences, engineering and computer science. Through these communities, research and education will be integrated across disciplines and the challenges associated with multidisciplinary team-based science will be addressed.

  5. Perspectives of Science Communication Training Held by Lecturers of Biotechnology and Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondston, Joanne; Dawson, Vaille

    2014-01-01

    Science communication training for undergraduate science students has been recommended to improve future scientists' ability to constructively engage with the public. This study examined biotechnology lecturers' and science communication lecturers' views of science communication training and its possible inclusion in a biotechnology degree course…

  6. Perspectives of the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge and Science Education: a study of Education Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Aparecida Meglhioratti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that Science Teaching emphasizes the importance of researches in Epistemology and History of Science and also covers social aspects of the scientific construction, there are still relatively very few studies which are systematically based on perspectives from the Sociology of Science or from the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge. In this article, it has been outlined a brief history of the sociological perspectives of scientific knowledge, characterizing them as differentiationist, antidifferentiationist and tranversalist. Then, a bibliographical study was developed in journals Qualis A1 and A2 in the area of “Teaching” of CAPES, with emphasis in Science Teaching, from 2007 to 2016, aiming to understand how the sociological perspectives are present in science education. The search for articles which articulate sociological aspects and Science Education was done through use of search engines emerging from the accomplished historic, among them: Sociology of Science, Sociology of Scientific Knowledge, Ethnography, Laboratory Studies, Strong Program, Scientific Fields, Scientific Ethos, Actor-Network Theory, Social and Technical Networks, Latour, Bloor, Merton and Bourdieu. Through this research, we have identified 46 articles which have approaches with the subject. The articles were investigated by Content Analysis and were organized in the units of analysis: 1 Foundations of the sociology of knowledge; 2 Scientific Ethos; 3 Science Working System; 4 Sociogenesis of knowledge; 5 Strong Program of Sociology of Knowledge; 6 Laboratory studies and scientific practice; 7 Actor-Network Theory; 8 Bourdieusian Rationale; 9 Non-Bourdieusian tranversalist approaches; 10 Notes regarding the Sociology of Science. The units of analysis with the greatest number of articles were "Laboratory Studies and Scientific Practice" and "Actor-Network Theory", both closer to an antidifferentiationist perspective of the sociology of science, in which

  7. Perspectives on Peer-Mentoring from Taiwanese Science and Engineering Master's Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yii-nii

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the peer-mentoring experience from the perspective of 16 master's students majoring in science or engineering at a research-oriented university in Taiwan. Utilizing a qualitative method of phenomenology, these mentees shared their views about their peer-mentors through in-depth interviews. Participants…

  8. Perspective of Lecturers in Implementing PISMP Science Curriculum in Malaysia's IPG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Fauziah Hj; Bin Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Jantan, Hafsah Binti; Saleh, Halimatussadiah Binti

    2015-01-01

    The article aims to identify lecturers' perspectives in implementing PISMP science curriculum in IPG Malaysia based on teaching experience with KIPP model. The respondents consisted of 105 lecturers from 20 IPG Malaysia. The study used a questionnaire consisting of 74 items covering the four dimensions (Context, Input, Process and Product). Data…

  9. Unintended Learning in Primary School Practical Science Lessons from Polanyi's Perspective of Intellectual Passion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisun; Song, Jinwoong; Abrahams, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This study explored, from the perspective of intellectual passion developed by Michael Polanyi, the unintended learning that occurred in primary practical science lessons. We use the term "unintended" learning to distinguish it from "intended" learning that appears in teachers' learning objectives. Data were collected using…

  10. Understanding health systems, health economies and globalization: the need for social science perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Susan F; Bisht, Ramila; Baru, Rama; Pitchforth, Emma

    2012-08-31

    The complex relationship between globalization and health calls for research from many disciplinary and methodological perspectives. This editorial gives an overview of the content trajectory of the interdisciplinary journal 'Globalization and Health' over the first six years of production, 2005 to 2010. The findings show that bio-medical and population health perspectives have been dominant but that social science perspectives have become more evident in recent years. The types of paper published have also changed, with a growing proportion of empirical studies. A special issue on 'Health systems, health economies and globalization: social science perspectives' is introduced, a collection of contributions written from the vantage points of economics, political science, psychology, sociology, business studies, social policy and research policy. The papers concern a range of issues pertaining to the globalization of healthcare markets and governance and regulation issues. They highlight the important contribution that can be made by the social sciences to this field, and also the practical and methodological challenges implicit in the study of globalization and health.

  11. Perspectives on open science and scientific data sharing : An interdisciplinary workshop”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Destro Bisol, G.; Anagnostou, P.; Capocasa, M.; Bencivelli, S.; Cerroni, A.; Contreras, J.; Enke, N.; Fantini, B.; Greco, P.; Heeney, C.; Luzi, D.; Manghi, P.; Mascalzoni, D.; Molloy, J.; Parenti, F.; Wicherts, J.M.; Boulton, G.

    2014-01-01

    Looking at Open Science and Open Data from a broad perspective. This is the idea behind “Scientific data sharing: an interdisciplinary workshop”, an initiative designed to foster dialogue between scholars from different scientific domains which was organized by the Istituto Italiano di Antropologia

  12. How Do Business and Government Interact? Combining Perspectives from Economics, Political Science, Public Administration, and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Patrick B.; Harsell, Dana Michael

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe the theoretical preparation provided to students in advance of a limited-duration experiential learning experience in Washington DC in a Master's level course for students in Business or Public Administration. The students consider theoretical perspectives from economics, political science, and public administration with…

  13. Rethinking Environmental Science Education from Indigenous Knowledge Perspectives: An Experience with a Dene First Nation Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Ranjan Kumar

    2018-01-01

    This auto-ethnographic article explores how land-based education might challenge Western environmental science education (ESE) in an Indigenous community. This learning experience was developed from two perspectives: first, land-based educational stories from Dene First Nation community Elders, knowledge holders, teachers, and students; and…

  14. Re-shaping Sustainability Science for the 21st Century: : Young Scientists’ Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinko, Thomas; Borgomeo, Edoardo; Dufva, Mikko; Figge, Lukas; Schipfer, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    Humanity is facing unprecedented environmental, social and economic challenges. We ask what the role of the sustainability science community should be in tackling these challenges, focusing particularly on young scientists’ perspectives on the issue. On the basis of a questionnaire and a workshop

  15. Discussing dialogue: perspectives on the value of science dialogue events that do not inform policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; McCallie, Ellen; Simonsson, Elin

    2009-01-01

    deliberately draw on different literatures and seek to make use of practitioner expertise within our discussion, in order to display several perspectives on the value of non-policy dialogue on science as sites of symmetrical individual or small-scale learning --rather than institutional learning......--through social processes...

  16. The gender of science: reflections on the actor-network theory and the feminist perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Pugliese Cardoso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses some of the principles that guide the descriptive forms of the actor-network theory (ANT of Bruno Latour and feminist standpoint theory formulated by Sandra Harding and Evelyn Fox Keller, through my research on the "Marie Curie Case". As a singular case between gender and science, the goal of thispaper is to play with ANT certainties against feminist perspective uncertainties. In the other hand, the certainties of feminist perspective are put against the uncertainties of ANT. With this counterpoint we intend to promote a reaction - in the chemical sense of the word – to the descriptive forms of the actor-network theory and feminist perspective taking away the obviousness of some of their assumptions. Doing that, we explore the moves of those reactions and their effects to the description which we do about science.

  17. Cultural, Social and Political Perspectives in Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents a collection of critical thinking that concern cultural, social and political issues for science education in the Nordic countries. The chapter authors describe specific scenarios to challenge persisting views, interrogate frameworks and trouble contemporary approaches to resea......This book presents a collection of critical thinking that concern cultural, social and political issues for science education in the Nordic countries. The chapter authors describe specific scenarios to challenge persisting views, interrogate frameworks and trouble contemporary approaches...... to researching teaching and learning in science. Taking a point of departure in empirical examples from the Nordic countries the collection of work is taking a critical sideways glance at the Nordic education principles. Critical examinations target specifically those who are researching in the fields of science...... conditions and contexts in science education. The different chapters review debates and research in teacher education, school teaching and learning including when external stakeholders are involved. Even though the chapters are contextualized in Nordic settings there will be similarities and parallels...

  18. Poincaré, philosopher of science problems and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    DiSalle, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents a selection of papers from the Poincaré Project of the Center for the Philosophy of Science, University of Lisbon, bringing together an international group of scholars with new assessments of Henri Poincaré's philosophy of science—both its historical impact on the foundations of science and mathematics, and its relevance to contemporary philosophical inquiry. The work of Poincaré (1854-1912) extends over many fields within mathematics and mathematical physics. But his scientific work was inseparable from his groundbreaking philosophical reflections, and the scientific ferment in which he participated was inseparable from the philosophical controversies in which he played a pre-eminent part. The subsequent history of the mathematical sciences was profoundly influenced by Poincaré’s philosophical analyses of the relations between and among mathematics, logic, and physics, and, more generally, the relations between formal structures and the world of experience. The papers in this col...

  19. Focus: new perspectives on science and the Cold War. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyck, Hunter; Kaiser, David

    2010-06-01

    Twenty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Cold War looks ever more like a slice of history rather than a contemporary reality. During those same twenty years, scholarship on science, technology, and the state during the Cold War era has expanded dramatically. Building on major studies of physics in the American context--often couched in terms of "big science"--recent work has broached scientific efforts in other domains as well, scrutinizing Cold War scholarship in increasingly international and comparative frameworks. The essays in this Focus section take stock of current thinking about science and the Cold War, revisiting the question of how best to understand tangled (and sometimes surprising) relationships between government patronage and the world of ideas.

  20. Perspectives on the Science Advisor Program at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.C.; Heath, R.B.; Podlesny, A.; Channon, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a Science Advisor Program which has been established at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the long term augmentation of math and science instruction in New Mexico schools. Volunteer SNL engineers and scientists team with the faculty of participating schools to enhance the teachers' abilities to capture and hold the student's scientific imagination and develop their scientific skills. This is done primarily through providing laboratory resources, training the teachers how to use those resources, and advising how to obtain them in the future. In its first year, over 140 advisors teamed with 132 schools, for average weekly contact with 500 teachers and 10,000 students. Surveys indicate a general rise in frequency and quality of hands-on science instruction, as well as teacher and student attitudes. An expanded evaluation is planned for subsequent years

  1. Intergenerational Transfers of Preferences for Science Careers in Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Joanna; Pokropek, Artur

    2012-11-01

    Using data from 24 countries, which participated in the 2006 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), we examine the relationship between parental science employment and students' career expectations. In contrast to prior PISA-based studies, we find that the link between parental employment and adolescent plans to work in science is non-trivial and merits attention. In this context, we consider three versions of the gender socialisation hypothesis. The strong variant posits that girls' plans are shaped solely by their mothers' career pathways while boys model their expectations exclusively on fathers' occupations. The weaker version of this hypothesis expects children to be influenced more by the same-sex than by the opposite-sex parent. Finally, the third possibility is that, as egalitarian ideologies prevail, parents inspire adolescent occupational plans regardless of gender. These hypotheses are assessed separately for student career plans related to biology, agriculture and health (BAH) in contrast to computing, engineering and mathematics (CEM), because the involvement in these fields of science is known to be segregated by gender. Using two-level multinomial logit modelling, we find some support for the weak version of the gender socialisation hypothesis. Although within-family transfers of preferences for science careers vary considerably across countries, we note certain regularities. In many nations, relevant paternal employment enhances sons' interest in science careers regardless of their field. In contrast, maternal employment inspires daughters in fewer countries and this influence tends to be limited to careers in BAH. We discuss the possible implications of these findings for science educators.

  2. Space life sciences perspectives for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Laurence R.

    1992-01-01

    It is now generally acknowledged that the life science discipline will be the primary beneficiary of Space Station Freedom. The unique facility will permit advances in understanding the consequences of long duration exposure to weightlessness and evaluation of the effectiveness of countermeasures. It will also provide an unprecedented opportunity for basic gravitational biology, on plants and animals as well as human subjects. The major advantages of SSF are the long duration exposure and the availability of sufficient crew to serve as subjects and operators. In order to fully benefit from the SSF, life sciences will need both sufficient crew time and communication abilities. Unlike many physical science experiments, the life science investigations are largely exploratory, and frequently bring unexpected results and opportunities for study of newly discovered phenomena. They are typically crew-time intensive, and require a high degree of specialized training to be able to react in real time to various unexpected problems or potentially exciting findings. Because of the long duration tours and the large number of experiments, it will be more difficult than with Spacelab to maintain astronaut proficiency on all experiments. This places more of a burden on adequate communication and data links to the ground, and suggests the use of AI expert system technology to assist in astronaut management of the experiment. Typical life science experiments, including those flown on Spacelab Life Sciences 1, will be described from the point of view of the demands on the astronaut. A new expert system, 'PI in a Box,' will be introduced for SLS-2, and its applicability to other SSF experiments discussed. (This paper consists on an abstract and ten viewgraphs.)

  3. Nuclear science and technology: perspective prospects for Philippine development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleta, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    The paper provides some historical perspectives on nuclear energy utilization and development in the Philippines. Highlights on applications in agriculture, medicine, industry, environment and regulations are mentioned. Current activities include gamma sterilization, food irradiation, sterile insect technique for pest eradication, medical applications, isotope techniques, radiation protection activities and nuclear power. Prospective contribution of national development through the use of radiation and nuclear techniques include those for water resources assessment, environmental and pollution studies, electricity generation and nuclear desalination. The regulatory aspects in support of the nuclear energy development are also discussed. (author)

  4. Where are the female science professors? A personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The first woman to earn a Professorship at a University in Europe was Laura Maria Caterina Bassi, who earned a professorship in physics at the University of Bologna in 1732. Almost 300 years and three waves of feminism later, in 2016, women typically still only comprise 20% (or less) of the number of full professors in Europe. This opinion article will discuss the experiences of being a female academic today and the factors contributing to the academic gender gap from the perspective of a "young" natural scientist, as well as providing constructive suggestions for strategies to empower women in the academic world.

  5. Information Science and the Martial Arts: Perspectives on Online Searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitt, David I.

    The relatively new discipline of information science has its origins in the West, while the ancient martial arts have their origins in the East. Despite these differences in age and hemisphere, the two disciplines can be shown to possess many conceptual as well as technical similarities which have evolved quite independently of each other. This…

  6. Exploring the epididymis: a personal perspective on careers in science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry T Turner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Science is a profession of inquiry. We ask ourselves what is it we see and why our observations happen the way they do. Answering those two question puts us in the company of those early explorers, who from Europe found the New World, and from Asia reached west to encounter Europe. Vasco Núñez de Balboa of Spain was such an explorer. He was the first European to see or "discover" the Pacific Ocean. One can imagine his amazement, his excitement when he first saw from a mountain top that vast ocean previously unknown to his culture. A career in science sends each of us seeking our own "Balboa Moments," those observations or results that surprise or even amaze us, those discoveries that open our eyes to new views of nature and medicine. Scientists aim to do what those early explorers did: discover what has previously been unknown, see what has previously been unseen, and reveal what has previously been hidden. Science requires the scientist to discover the facts from among many fictions and to separate the important facts from the trivial so that knowledge can be properly developed. It is only with knowledge that old dogmas can be challenged and corrected. Careers in science produce specific sets of knowledge. When pooled with other knowledge sets they eventually contribute to wisdom and it is wisdom, we hope, that will improve the human condition.

  7. A quantitative perspective on ethics in large team science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander M; Pavlidis, Ioannis; Semendeferi, Ioanna

    2014-12-01

    The gradual crowding out of singleton and small team science by large team endeavors is challenging key features of research culture. It is therefore important for the future of scientific practice to reflect upon the individual scientist's ethical responsibilities within teams. To facilitate this reflection we show labor force trends in the US revealing a skewed growth in academic ranks and increased levels of competition for promotion within the system; we analyze teaming trends across disciplines and national borders demonstrating why it is becoming difficult to distribute credit and to avoid conflicts of interest; and we use more than a century of Nobel prize data to show how science is outgrowing its old institutions of singleton awards. Of particular concern within the large team environment is the weakening of the mentor-mentee relation, which undermines the cultivation of virtue ethics across scientific generations. These trends and emerging organizational complexities call for a universal set of behavioral norms that transcend team heterogeneity and hierarchy. To this end, our expository analysis provides a survey of ethical issues in team settings to inform science ethics education and science policy.

  8. The Perspective of Women Managing Research Teams in Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Marina; Castro, Diego

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a research study that focuses on how women manage research teams. More specifically, the study aims to ascertain the perception of female researchers who are leaders of research groups in social sciences with regard to the formation, operation and management of their research teams. Fifteen interviews were carried out, eight…

  9. Challenges in data science: a complex systems perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, Anna; Jensen, Meiko; Sato, Aki-Hiro

    2016-01-01

    The ability to process and manage large data volumes has been proven to be not enough to tackle the current challenges presented by “Big Data”. Deep insight is required for understanding interactions among connected systems, space- and time- dependent heterogeneous data structures. Emergence of global properties from locally interacting data entities and clustering phenomena demand suitable approaches and methodologies recently developed in the foundational area of Data Science by taking a Complex Systems standpoint. Here, we deal with challenges that can be summarized by the question: “What can Complex Systems Science contribute to Big Data? ”. Such question can be reversed and brought to a superior level of abstraction by asking “What Knowledge can be drawn from Big Data?” These aspects constitute the main motivation behind this article to introduce a volume containing a collection of papers presenting interdisciplinary advances in the Big Data area by methodologies and approaches typical of the Complex Systems Science, Nonlinear Systems Science and Statistical Physics.

  10. Educator Perspectives on Earth System Science Literacy: Challenges and Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDue, Nicole; Clark, Scott K.

    2012-01-01

    The challenges and priorities of defining and achieving Earth System Science (ESS) literacy are examined through surveys of geoscience educators attending a professional geological meeting. Two surveys with Likert-style and free-response questions were distributed to geoscientists and K-12 teachers to elicit what instructors think are important…

  11. Teachers' Perspectives on a Professional Development Intervention to Improve Science Instruction Among English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee; Adamson, Karen; Maerten-Rivera, Jaime; Lewis, Scott; Thornton, Constance; Leroy, Kathryn

    2008-02-01

    Our 5-year professional development intervention is designed to promote elementary teachers’ knowledge, beliefs, and practices in teaching science, along with English language and mathematics for English Language Learning (ELL) students in urban schools. In this study, we used an end-of-year questionnaire as a primary data source to seek teachers’ perspectives on our intervention during the first year of implementation. Teachers believed that the intervention, including curriculum materials and teacher workshops, effectively promoted students’ science learning, along with English language development and mathematics learning. Teachers highlighted strengths and areas needing improvement in the intervention. Teachers’ perspectives have been incorporated into our on-going intervention efforts and offer insights into features of effective professional development initiatives in improving science achievement for all students.

  12. The Existence of Customary Law in the Polemics of Positive Law – a Study From the Perspective of Constitutional Law

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, M

    2013-01-01

    As a member of the law family, the Adat law is one form of positive law which plays particular role and contribution in the making process of the whole positive law in Indonesia. Existence of Adat law in the constitutional of Indonesia painted its own color. As one of the oldest customary law in the life of local community Adat law has become the seed and formatting idea of Indonesia's national law where Adat Law has widely influenced other positive law.

  13. Tribal Proclivity and its Effects on the Cooperate Existence of Nigeria in the Centenary Era: An Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    USMAN JIMOH MUHAMMAD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper consists of seven sub-sections namely, the introduction, a flash on the prevalence of tribal proclivity in Nigeria, causes of tribal proclivity among Nigerians and its effects. Other aspect of the paper includes the Islamic perspective on tribal proclivity in Nigeria, recommendations and conclusion. The introduction briefly appraises the historical composition of Nigeria in the early nineteen century and its amalgamation in the year 1914. Reference is being made in the paper to cases of tribal proclivity in Nigeria while the causes of tribal penchant include unemployment, selfishness of some politicians, lack of patience and endurance by citizens in their relationship among themselves. Tribal proclivity the paper affirms results into insecurity of lives and properties, portrays evidence of lack of unity and bad governance. The paper examines some relevant verses and prophetic traditions in a bid to redress the situation and recommends that the government and the well to problem of unemployment in the nation. In addition, religious do people in the society should join hands together towards addressing the scholars and other orientation bodies must reorient people towards peaceful coexistence among themselves.

  14. Publication ethics from the perspective of PhD students of health sciences: a limited experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arda, Berna

    2012-06-01

    Publication ethics, an important subtopic of science ethics, deals with determination of the misconducts of science in performing research or in the dissemination of ideas, data and products. Science, the main features of which are secure, reliable and ethically obtained data, plays a major role in shaping the society. As long as science maintains its quality by being based on reliable and ethically obtained data, it will be possible to maintain its role in shaping the society. This article is devoted to the presentation of opinions of PhD candidate students in health sciences in Ankara concerning publication ethics. The data obtained from 143 PhD students from the fields of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and veterinary reveal limited but unique experiences. It also shows that plagiarism is one of the worst issues in the publication ethics from the perspective of these young academics.

  15. Knowledge about Science in Science Education Research from the Perspective of Ludwik Fleck's Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, André Ferrer Pinto

    2016-01-01

    The importance of knowledge about science is well established, and it has a long history in the area of science education. More recently, the specialized literature has highlighted the search for consensus in relation to what should be taught in this regard, that is, what should compose the science curricula of elementary and high school levels.…

  16. The Science of Unitary Human Beings in a Creative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caratao-Mojica, Rhea

    2015-10-01

    In moving into a new kind of world, nurses are encouraged to look ahead and be innovative by transcending to new ways of using nursing knowledge while embracing a new worldview. "We need to recognize that we're going to have to use our imagination more and more" (Rogers, 1994). On that note, the author in this paper explicates Rogers' science of unitary human beings in a creative way relating it to painting. In addition, the author also explores works derived from Rogers' science such as Butcher's (1993) and Cowling's (1997), which are here discussed in light of an artwork. A painting is presented with the unpredictability, creativity, and the "dance of color and light" (Butcher, 1993) is appreciated through comprehending essence, pandimensionality, and wholeness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. [Digitizing Human and Social Sciences Journals. Recent History and Perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisot, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence and the gradual rise of French journals digital offers in the fields of human and social sciences. In this article, we will both reconsider the conditions of occurrence of these services and discuss the evolution of their environment. Through the example of several emerging initiatives in the field of scientific publishing, in a context marked by continuity but also rupture, we will try to glimpse the role journals could play in the new digital world being created.

  18. Perspectives on U.S. Competitiveness in Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    allies in the battle against communism Japan, Korea, and Taiwan were allowed to sell increasingly sophisticated 1 Maurice R. Greenberg Senior Fellow...evidence (Adams and Clemmons , 2006b) suggests that much of firms’ own scien- tific discoveries can be attributed to learning from outside science. These...relevant over time, since collaboration has risen sharply from 1980 to the present (Adams, Black, Clemmons , and Stephan, 2005). The same period

  19. U.S. science in a changing context: A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Byerly, Jr.

    In 1989 Francis Fukuyama, a senior policy analyst at the U.S. Department of State, wrote a paper about the end of the Cold War entitled “The End of History?” It offered an intriguing thesis: “What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such; that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government” [Fukuyama, 1989 p 4]. What Fukuyama calls “the end of history” is an important change in the context of science for two overlapping reasons. First, because the challenge of the communist Soviet Union drove United States science policy for much of the twentieth century. Second, because the atomic bomb and a subsequent series of events and circumstances—including SDI, the Green Revolution, AIDS, and now global change—have connected science to global geopolitics, irreversibly enlarging its relevant context.

  20. Cloud computing applications for biomedical science: A perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navale, Vivek; Bourne, Philip E

    2018-06-01

    Biomedical research has become a digital data-intensive endeavor, relying on secure and scalable computing, storage, and network infrastructure, which has traditionally been purchased, supported, and maintained locally. For certain types of biomedical applications, cloud computing has emerged as an alternative to locally maintained traditional computing approaches. Cloud computing offers users pay-as-you-go access to services such as hardware infrastructure, platforms, and software for solving common biomedical computational problems. Cloud computing services offer secure on-demand storage and analysis and are differentiated from traditional high-performance computing by their rapid availability and scalability of services. As such, cloud services are engineered to address big data problems and enhance the likelihood of data and analytics sharing, reproducibility, and reuse. Here, we provide an introductory perspective on cloud computing to help the reader determine its value to their own research.

  1. Eastern Baltic cod : Perspectives from existing data on processes affecting growth and survival of eggs and larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; St. John, Michael; Wieland, Kai

    1996-01-01

    exist in our knowledge of processes affecting egg and larval growth and survival, but some promising areas of research are indicated. In particular the seasonality of spawning, deep water oxygen concentrations, predation on eggs, and larval food production require further investigation....... surveys have described food concentrations at appropriate scales for cod larvae, and the species composition of larval diets is unknown. Growth rates for Baltic cod larvae have not been measured and cannot be compared with rates in other areas or to variations in biotic and abiotic factors. Large gaps...

  2. Science Education Reform in Confucian Learning Cultures: Teachers' Perspectives on Policy and Practice in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Syuan; Asghar, Anila

    2018-01-01

    This empirical study investigates secondary science teachers' perspectives on science education reform in Taiwan and reflects how these teachers have been negotiating constructivist and learner-centered pedagogical approaches in contemporary science education. It also explores the challenges that teachers encounter while shifting their pedagogical…

  3. Understanding health systems, health economies and globalization: the need for social science perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Susan F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The complex relationship between globalization and health calls for research from many disciplinary and methodological perspectives. This editorial gives an overview of the content trajectory of the interdisciplinary journal ‘Globalization and Health’ over the first six years of production, 2005 to 2010. The findings show that bio-medical and population health perspectives have been dominant but that social science perspectives have become more evident in recent years. The types of paper published have also changed, with a growing proportion of empirical studies. A special issue on ‘Health systems, health economies and globalization: social science perspectives’ is introduced, a collection of contributions written from the vantage points of economics, political science, psychology, sociology, business studies, social policy and research policy. The papers concern a range of issues pertaining to the globalization of healthcare markets and governance and regulation issues. They highlight the important contribution that can be made by the social sciences to this field, and also the practical and methodological challenges implicit in the study of globalization and health.

  4. Training on intellectual disability in health sciences: the European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Martínez-Leal, Rafael; Heyler, Carla; Alvarez-Galvez, Javier; Veenstra, Marja Y.; García-Ibáñez, Jose; Carpenter, Sylvia; Bertelli, Marco; Munir, Kerim; Torr, Jennifer; Van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Intellectual disability (ID) has consequences at all stages of life, requires high service provision and leads to high health and societal costs. However, ID is largely disregarded as a health issue by national and international organisations, as are training in ID and in the health aspects of ID at every level of the education system. Specific aim This paper aims to (1) update the current information about availability of training and education in ID and related health issues in Europe with a particular focus in mental health; and (2) to identify opportunities arising from the initial process of educational harmonization in Europe to include ID contents in health sciences curricula and professional training. Method We carried out a systematic search of scientific databases and websites, as well as policy and research reports from the European Commission, European Council and WHO. Furthermore, we contacted key international organisations related to health education and/or ID in Europe, as well as other regional institutions. Results ID modules and contents are minimal in the revised health sciences curricula and publications on ID training in Europe are equally scarce. European countries report few undergraduate and graduate training modules in ID, even in key specialties such as paediatrics. Within the health sector, ID programmes focus mainly on psychiatry and psychology. Conclusion The poor availability of ID training in health sciences is a matter of concern. However, the current European policy on training provides an opportunity to promote ID in the curricula of programmes at all levels. This strategy should address all professionals working in ID and it should increase the focus on ID relative to other developmental disorders at all stages of life. PMID:25705375

  5. The water-energy nexus: an earth science perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.; Alley, William M.; Engle, Mark A.; McMahon, Peter B.; Bales, Jerad D.

    2015-01-01

    Water availability and use are closely connected with energy development and use. Water cannot be delivered to homes, businesses, and industries without energy, and most forms of energy development require large amounts of water. The United States faces two significant and sometimes competing challenges: to provide sustainable supplies of freshwater for humans and ecosystems and to ensure adequate sources of energy for future generations. This report reviews the complex ways in which water and energy are interconnected and describes the earth science data collection and research that can help the Nation address these important challenges.

  6. Importance of investing in adolescence from a developmental science perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Ronald E; Allen, Nicholas B; Wilbrecht, Linda; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff

    2018-02-21

    This review summarizes the case for investing in adolescence as a period of rapid growth, learning, adaptation, and formational neurobiological development. Adolescence is a dynamic maturational period during which young lives can pivot rapidly-in both negative and positive directions. Scientific progress in understanding adolescent development provides actionable insights into windows of opportunity during which policies can have a positive impact on developmental trajectories relating to health, education, and social and economic success. Given current global changes and challenges that affect adolescents, there is a compelling need to leverage these advances in developmental science to inform strategic investments in adolescent health.

  7. System level approaches for mainstreaming tobacco control into existing health programs in India: Perspectives from the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmohan Panda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: India is the second largest consumer of tobacco in the world, and varieties of both smoked and smokeless tobacco products are widely available. The national program for tobacco control is run like a vertical stand-alone program. There is a lack of understanding of existing opportunities and barriers within the health programs that influence the integration of tobacco control messages into them. The present formative research identifies such opportunities and barriers. Methods: We conducted a multi-step, mixed methodological study of primary care personnel and policy-makers in two Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. The primary purpose of our study was to investigate health worker and policy-maker perceptions on the integration of tobacco control intervention. We systematically collected data in three steps: In Step I, we conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs and focus group discussions with primary care health personnel, Step II consists of a quantitative survey among health care providers (n = 1457 to test knowledge, attitudes and practices in tobacco control and Step III we conducted 75 IDIs with program heads and policy-makers to evaluate the relative congruence of their views on integration of the tobacco control program. Results: Majority of the health care providers recognized tobacco use as a major health problem. There was a general consensus for the need of training for effective dissemination of information from health care providers to patients. Almost 92% of the respondents opined that integration of tobacco control with other health programs will be highly effective to downscale the tobacco epidemic. Conclusions: Our findings suggest the need for integration of tobacco control program into existing health programs. Integration of tobacco control strategies into the health care system within primary and secondary care will be more effective and counseling for tobacco cessation should be available for population

  8. The Maryland nuclear science baccalaureate degree program: The utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    In the early 1980s, Wisconsin Public Service Corporation (WPSC) made a firm commitment to pursue development and subsequent delivery of an appropriate, academically accredited program leading to a baccalaureate degree in nuclear science for its nuclear operations personnel. Recognizing the formidable tasks to be accomplished, WPSC worked closely with the University of Maryland University College (UMUC) in curriculum definition, specific courseware development for delivery by computer-aided instruction, individual student evaluation, and overall program implementation. Instruction began on our nuclear plant site in the fall of 1984. The university anticipates conferring the first degrees from this program at WPSC in the fall of 1989. There are several notable results that WPSC achieved from this degree program. First and most importantly, an increase in the level of education of our employees. It should be stated that this program has been well received by WPSC operator personnel. These employees, now armed with plant experience, a formal degree in nuclear science, and professional education in management are real candidates for advancement in our nuclear organization

  9. Perspectives on Open Science and scientific data sharing:an interdisciplinary workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destro Bisol, Giovanni; Anagnostou, Paolo; Capocasa, Marco; Bencivelli, Silvia; Cerroni, Andrea; Contreras, Jorge; Enke, Neela; Fantini, Bernardino; Greco, Pietro; Heeney, Catherine; Luzi, Daniela; Manghi, Paolo; Mascalzoni, Deborah; Molloy, Jennifer; Parenti, Fabio; Wicherts, Jelte; Boulton, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Looking at Open Science and Open Data from a broad perspective. This is the idea behind "Scientific data sharing: an interdisciplinary workshop", an initiative designed to foster dialogue between scholars from different scientific domains which was organized by the Istituto Italiano di Antropologia in Anagni, Italy, 2-4 September 2013.We here report summaries of the presentations and discussions at the meeting. They deal with four sets of issues: (i) setting a common framework, a general discussion of open data principles, values and opportunities; (ii) insights into scientific practices, a view of the way in which the open data movement is developing in a variety of scientific domains (biology, psychology, epidemiology and archaeology); (iii) a case study of human genomics, which was a trail-blazer in data sharing, and which encapsulates the tension that can occur between large-scale data sharing and one of the boundaries of openness, the protection of individual data; (iv) open science and the public, based on a round table discussion about the public communication of science and the societal implications of open science. There were three proposals for the planning of further interdisciplinary initiatives on open science. Firstly, there is a need to integrate top-down initiatives by governments, institutions and journals with bottom-up approaches from the scientific community. Secondly, more should be done to popularize the societal benefits of open science, not only in providing the evidence needed by citizens to draw their own conclusions on scientific issues that are of concern to them, but also explaining the direct benefits of data sharing in areas such as the control of infectious disease. Finally, introducing arguments from social sciences and humanities in the educational dissemination of open data may help students become more profoundly engaged with Open Science and look at science from a broader perspective.

  10. Promoting Climate Literacy and Conceptual Understanding among In-service Secondary Science Teachers requires an Epistemological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, D.; Forbes, C.; Roehrig, G.; Chandler, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Promoting climate literacy among in-service science teachers necessitates an understanding of fundamental concepts about the Earth's climate System (USGCRP, 2009). Very few teachers report having any formal instruction in climate science (Plutzer et al., 2016), therefore, rather simple conceptions of climate systems and their variability exist, which has implications for students' science learning (Francies et al., 1993; Libarkin, 2005; Rebich, 2005). This study uses the inferences from a NASA Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) teacher professional development program (CYCLES) to establish the necessity for developing an epistemological perspective among teachers. In CYCLES, 19 middle and high school (male=8, female=11) teachers were assessed for their understanding of global climate change (GCC). A qualitative analysis of their concept maps and an alignment of their conceptions with the Essential Principles of Climate Literacy (NOAA, 2009) demonstrated that participants emphasized on EPCL 1, 3, 6, 7 focusing on the Earth system, atmospheric, social and ecological impacts of GCC. However, EPCL 4 (variability in climate) and 5 (data-based observations and modeling) were least represented and emphasized upon. Thus, participants' descriptions about global climatic patterns were often factual rather than incorporating causation (why the temperatures are increasing) and/or correlation (describing what other factors might influence global temperatures). Therefore, engaging with epistemic dimensions of climate science to understand the processes, tools, and norms through which climate scientists study the Earth's climate system (Huxter et al., 2013) is critical for developing an in-depth conceptual understanding of climate. CLiMES (Climate Modeling and Epistemology of Science), a NSF initiative proposes to use EzGCM (EzGlobal Climate Model) to engage students and teachers in designing and running simulations, performing data processing activities, and analyzing

  11. Molecular surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. History and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1983-08-01

    A personal account is given of how the author became involved with modern surface science and how it was employed for studies of the chemistry of surfaces and heterogeneous catalysis. New techniques were developed for studying the properties of the surface monolayers: Auger electron spectroscopy, LEED, XPS, molecular beam surface scattering, etc. An apparatus was developed and used to study hydrocarbon conversion reactions on Pt, CO hydrogenation on Rh and Fe, and NH 3 synthesis on Fe. A model has been developed for the working Pt reforming catalyst. The three molecular ingredients that control catalytic properties are atomic surface structure, an active carbonaceous deposit, and the proper oxidation state of surface atoms. 40 references, 21 figures

  12. Molecular surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. History and perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1983-08-01

    A personal account is given of how the author became involved with modern surface science and how it was employed for studies of the chemistry of surfaces and heterogeneous catalysis. New techniques were developed for studying the properties of the surface monolayers: Auger electron spectroscopy, LEED, XPS, molecular beam surface scattering, etc. An apparatus was developed and used to study hydrocarbon conversion reactions on Pt, CO hydrogenation on Rh and Fe, and NH/sub 3/ synthesis on Fe. A model has been developed for the working Pt reforming catalyst. The three molecular ingredients that control catalytic properties are atomic surface structure, an active carbonaceous deposit, and the proper oxidation state of surface atoms. 40 references, 21 figures. (DLC)

  13. From the instantia crucis to the crucial experiment: different perspectives in philosophy and science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Cardoso Raicik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence and meaning of crucial experiments are issues that do not hold consensus in science and the philosophy of science. Duhem, Popper and Lakatos, for example, present antagonistic positions among themselves and even in relation to the idea of instantia crucis made explicit by Francis Bacon in the Novum Organum. This article aims at rescuing the Baconian definition, recognizing that it is part of a distinct philosophical position of contemporary theses, and discussing some conceptions of crucial experiment both by philosophers of science and by some scholars, such as Newton. Also, point out some reflections for the teaching of sciences.

  14. Climate sciences, observation and modelling: an historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, P.; Le Treut, H.; Charles, L.

    2013-01-01

    At a time when the public perception of climate change is recovering from the controversies and vocal dissent aired during the recent years, we thought it would be interesting to begin this special issue with an interview of Pierre Morel. As the originator of physical climate studies in France, he established and led (until 1975) the Dynamic Meteorology Laboratory of CNRS, a component of the Pierre-Simon Laplace Institute (IPSL), which has become the focus of climate research in France. However his professional activities were pursued largely in an international context. Alumnus of Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris, physicist, first director of scientific research and advanced technology programs in the French space agency CNES from 1962 to 1964 and then Professor at the University of Paris, he specialized in the field of geophysical fluid dynamics. In 1967, he became a member of the international Joint Organizing Committee for the Global Atmospheric Research Programme (GARP) and eventually vice-chairman of the Committee until 1982. He conceived and promoted a number of satellite projects, in particular the operational ARGOS navigation and data collection System on NOAA polar-orbiting meteorological satellites and the European geostationary meteorological satellite Meteosat. In 1982, he became the first director of the international World Climate Research Programme that followed upon GARP and continued in this function until 1994. He then joined NASA Headquarters in the capacity as Senior Visiting Scientist in the Office of Mission to Planet Earth. This unorthodox professional career gave Pierre Morel an exceptionally broad, possibly unmatched, view of all facets of climate science and global observations. Herve Le Treut, with whom this interview was prepared and conducted, is the current director of IPSL, a member of the French Academy of Sciences, and professor at Ecole Polytechnique and University Pierre and Marie Curie of Paris. We are grateful to both for

  15. The biological sciences in nursing: a developing country perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacos, Una; Jordan, Sue; van den Heever, Jean

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports a study to inform curriculum development by exploring the contribution of bioscience education programmes to nurses' clinical practice, their understanding of the rationale for practice, and their perceptions of their continuing professional development needs. The future of the health services worldwide depends on nurse education programmes equipping practitioners to deliver safe and effective patient care. In the developed world, the structure and indicative content of nursing curricula have been debated extensively. However, despite the rapid expansion in nursing roles brought about by social change, there is little information on the educational needs of nurses in developing countries. This study was undertaken in government teaching hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa in 2003. A purposive sample of 54 nurses from a range of clinical settings completed questionnaires and described critical incidents where bioscience knowledge had directed practice. Questionnaires were analysed descriptively, in the main. Analysis of critical incident reports was based on Akinsanya's bionursing model. Most nurses felt that their understanding of the biological, but not the physical sciences, was adequate or better: all felt confident with their knowledge of anatomy, compared with 57.4% (31/54) for microbiology. Respondents attributed the successes and failures of their education programmes to their teachers' delivery of content, ability to relate to practice and management of the process of learning. The biological, but not the physical, sciences were universally (96-100%) regarded as relevant to nursing. However, the critical incidents and nurses' own reports indicated a need for further education in pharmacology (40/54, 74.1%) and microbiology (29/54, 53.7%). To meet the needs of nurses in developing countries, and empower them to meet the increasingly complex demands of their expanding roles, nurse educators need to consider increasing the curriculum

  16. Innovating Science Teacher Education: A History and Philosophy of Science Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2010-01-01

    How teachers view the nature of scientific knowledge is crucial to their understanding of science content and how it can be taught. This book presents an overview of the dynamics of scientific progress and its relationship to the history and philosophy of science, and then explores their methodological and educational implications and develops…

  17. God particles in the perspective of The AlQuran Surah Yunus: 61 and modern science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jumini, Sri

    2017-01-01

    The Qur'an is the book of Allah revealed to guide human beings, settting the rules of life to enable them to achieve happiness in this world and hereafter. The Qur'an has mentioned various scientific nature detailly and accurately so we are able to find new knowledge which is previously unknown by human being. One was about the God particle (Higgs Boson). This article aims to provide a deeper understanding of the concept of the Higgs Boson, the Higgs Boson explained this concept in detail relatated to 1) Perspective of science 2) Perspective of Al-Qur'an 3) Development of technology or science and technology. This study is a qualitative research using library research (library research) that examines and analyzes the books relating directly or indirectly. The results of the analysis states that 1) The concept of the Higgs Boson particle in terms of basic science is also the reason why almost all elementary particles have a greater mass, 2) The concept of the Higgs Boson in the Qur'an is implied from the results of the comparison interpretation of the commentators in Surah Yunus paragraph 61 related to Atom concepts and smaller particles theory of (Higgs Boson), interpretation of Al-Maraghi, and Al-Misbah. 3) The concept of the Higgs Boson in science and technology provide the most advance technology and it is the greatest achievement in the world of science and technology. (paper)

  18. African American perspectives: A qualitative study of an informal science enrichment program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jamila Rashida

    The purposes of this study were to determine what program characteristics African American parents consider when they enroll their children into an informal science education enrichment program, the parents' evaluation of a program called Jordan Academy in which they enrolled their children, and the alignment of the parents' perspectives with Black Cultural Ethos (BCE). BCE refers to nine dimensions posited by Wade Boykin, a psychologist, as comprising African American culture. Participants were parents of students that attended Jordan Academy, an informal science enrichment program designed for third through sixth grade students from underserved populations. Qualitative methodologies were utilized to perform a thorough assessment of parents' perspectives. Data sources included classroom observations, student surveys, academy curriculum, photos and video-taped class sessions. Data included teachers and parents' responses to semi-structured, audio recorded interviews and students' written responses to open-ended items on the program's evaluation instrument. The data were analyzed for themes and the findings compared to Black Cultural Ethos. Findings revealed that the participants believed that informal science education offered their children opportunities not realized in the formal school setting - a means of impacting their children holistically. The parents expressed the academic, cultural, and personal development of their children in their characterizations of the ideal informal science education experience and in their evaluations of Jordan Academy. Overall, the parents' views emphasized the BCE values of harmony, affect, verve, movement, orality and communalism. The study has important implications for practices within and research on informal science education.

  19. God particles in the perspective of The AlQuran Surah Yunus: 61 and modern science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumini, Sri

    2017-01-01

    The Qur'an is the book of Allah revealed to guide human beings, settting the rules of life to enable them to achieve happiness in this world and hereafter. The Qur'an has mentioned various scientific nature detailly and accurately so we are able to find new knowledge which is previously unknown by human being. One was about the God particle (Higgs Boson). This article aims to provide a deeper understanding of the concept of the Higgs Boson, the Higgs Boson explained this concept in detail relatated to 1) Perspective of science 2) Perspective of Al-Qur'an 3) Development of technology or science and technology. This study is a qualitative research using library research (library research) that examines and analyzes the books relating directly or indirectly. The results of the analysis states that 1) The concept of the Higgs Boson particle in terms of basic science is also the reason why almost all elementary particles have a greater mass, 2) The concept of the Higgs Boson in the Qur'an is implied from the results of the comparison interpretation of the commentators in Surah Yunus paragraph 61 related to Atom concepts and smaller particles theory of (Higgs Boson), interpretation of Al-Maraghi, and Al-Misbah. 3) The concept of the Higgs Boson in science and technology provide the most advance technology and it is the greatest achievement in the world of science and technology.

  20. Using Our Heads and HARTSS*: Developing Perspective-Taking Skills for Socioscientific Reasoning (*Humanities, ARTS, and Social Sciences)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Sami; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2016-01-01

    Functional scientific literacy demands an informed citizenry capable of negotiating controversial socioscientific issues (SSI). Perspective taking is critical to SSI implementation as it enables understanding of the diverse cognitive and emotional perspectives of others. Science teacher educators must therefore facilitate teachers' promotion of…

  1. The History of Science from a science-technology-society perspective (CTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiuska Pérez Bejerano

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the many goals of scientific training under CTS is to contribute to improving public understanding of the nature of science. It emphasizes the article in the possibilities of the history of science on this issue clarifying and illustrating through the history of chemistry as you can put scientific knowledge in context unraveled the complex relationship science - society links with the philosophical, ethical, political positions. This will help form a more responsible citizen, with a deeper awareness of their own activity, which takes sides with the problems affecting the world and their community.

  2. Spirituality in the natural sciences and nursing: an interdisciplinary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Indira D; Raynor, James E

    2006-01-01

    The Big Bang theory, a widely accepted theory of the origin of the universe, states that the universe was created between ten to twenty billion years ago from a cosmic explosion. Charles Darwin, a 19th century English naturalist, convinced the scientific community through his work that life evolved by natural selection over three and a half million years ago rather than through the influence of a Supreme Being or creator. Although there has been scientific data to support the claims of natural selection, there still remain many unanswered questions suggesting that other mechanisms contributed to the evolution of life. These unresolved findings greatly influenced mysticism and the development of the theological argument, which suggest the existence of a supreme being (God), who is believe to be an omnipotent healer, comforter, provider of salvation, and the center of mysticism spirituality. There has been consistent use of spiritual practices to address health concerns by individuals for thousands of years. There is increasing data that supports the implementation of spirituality in nursing for client care to enhance health outcome and patient wellbeing. Incorporating spiritual care into practice is an integral dimension of holistic care that is the crux of nursing practice in the 21st century. Holistic care of clients requires that nurses use the nursing process to implement spiritual care in practice.

  3. The Goldwater Rule: Perspectives From, and Implications for, Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R

    2018-01-01

    When, if ever, should psychological scientists be permitted to offer professional opinions concerning the mental health of public figures they have never directly examined? This contentious question, which attracted widespread public attention during the 1964 U.S. presidential election involving Barry Goldwater, received renewed scrutiny during and after the 2016 U.S. presidential campaign, when many mental health professionals raised pointed questions concerning the psychiatric status of Donald Trump. Although the Goldwater Rule prohibits psychiatrists from offering diagnostic opinions on individuals they have never examined, no comparable rule exists for psychologists. We contend that, owing largely to the Goldwater Rule's origins in psychiatry, a substantial body of psychological research on assessment and clinical judgment, including work on the questionable validity of unstructured interviews, the psychology of cognitive biases, and the validity of informant reports and of L (lifetime) data, has been overlooked in discussions of its merits. We conclude that although the Goldwater Rule may have been defensible several decades ago, it is outdated and premised on dubious scientific assumptions. We further contend that there are select cases in which psychological scientists with suitable expertise may harbor a "duty to inform," allowing them to offer informed opinions concerning public figures' mental health with appropriate caveats.

  4. Why Everyday Experience? Interpreting Primary Students' Science Discourse from the Perspective of John Dewey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jiyeon; Song, Jinwoong

    2014-05-01

    The purposes of this study were, based on John Dewey's ideas on experience, to examine how primary students used their own everyday experience and were affected by own and others' experience in science discourse, and to illuminate the implications of experience in science education. To do these, science discourses by a group of six fourth-graders were observed, where they talked about their ideas related to thermal concepts. The data was collected through interviews and open-ended questions, analyzed based on Dewey's perspective, and depicted as the discourse map which was developed to illustrate students' transaction and changing process of students' ideas. The results of the analysis showed typical examples of Dewey's notions of experience, such as the principles of continuity and of transaction and of different types of experience, examples of `the expanded continuity and transaction', and science discourse as inquiry. It was also found that students' everyday experiences played several roles: as a rebuttal for changing their own ideas or others', backing for assurance of their own ideas in individual students' inner changes after discourse with others, and backing for other's ideas. Based on these observations, this study argues that everyday experience should be considered as a starting point for primary students' science learning because most of their experience comes from everyday, not school science, contexts. In addition, to evoke educative experience in science education, it is important for teachers to pay more attention to Dewey's notions of the principles of continuity and of transaction and to their educational implications.

  5. Becoming allies: Combining social science and technological perspectives to improve energy research and policy making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, Rick; Moezzi, Mithra

    2002-07-01

    Within the energy research community, social sciences tends to be viewed fairly narrowly, often as simply a marketing tool to change the behavior of consumers and decision makers, and to ''attack market barriers''. As we see it, social sciences, which draws on sociology, psychology, political science, business administration, and other academic disciplines, is capable of far more. A social science perspective can re-align questions in ways that can lead to the development of technologies and technology policy that are much stronger and potentially more successful than they would be otherwise. In most energy policies governing commercial buildings, the prevailing R and D directives are firmly rooted in a technology framework, one that is generally more quantitative and evaluative than that fostered by the social sciences. To illustrate how social science thinking would approach the goal of achieving high energy performance in the commercial building sector, they focus on the US Department of Energy's Roadmap for commercial buildings (DOE 2000) as a starting point. By ''deconstructing'' the four strategies provided by the Roadmap, they set the stage for proposing a closer partnership between advocates of technology-based and social science-based approaches.

  6. Challenges and Opportunities for Integrating Social Science Perspectives into Climate and Global Change Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, E. K.; Li, J.; Zycherman, A.

    2017-12-01

    Integration of social science into climate and global change assessments is fundamental for improving understanding of the drivers, impacts and vulnerability of climate change, and the social, cultural and behavioral challenges related to climate change responses. This requires disciplinary and interdisciplinary knowledge as well as integrational and translational tools for linking this knowledge with the natural and physical sciences. The USGCRP's Social Science Coordinating Committee (SSCC) is tasked with this challenge and is working to integrate relevant social, economic and behavioral knowledge into processes like sustained assessments. This presentation will discuss outcomes from a recent SSCC workshop, "Social Science Perspectives on Climate Change" and their applications to sustained assessments. The workshop brought academic social scientists from four disciplines - anthropology, sociology, geography and archaeology - together with federal scientists and program managers to discuss three major research areas relevant to the USGCRP and climate assessments: (1) innovative tools, methods, and analyses to clarify the interactions of human and natural systems under climate change, (2) understanding of factors contributing to differences in social vulnerability between and within communities under climate change, and (3) social science perspectives on drivers of global climate change. These disciplines, collectively, emphasize the need to consider socio-cultural, political, economic, geographic, and historic factors, and their dynamic interactions, to understand climate change drivers, social vulnerability, and mitigation and adaptation responses. They also highlight the importance of mixed quantitative and qualitative methods to explain impacts, vulnerability, and responses at different time and spatial scales. This presentation will focus on major contributions of the social sciences to climate and global change research. We will discuss future directions for

  7. Science in the everyday world: Why perspectives from the history of science matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandora, Katherine; Rader, Karen A

    2008-06-01

    The history of science is more than the history of scientists. This essay argues that various modem "publics" should be counted as belonging within an enlarged vision of who constitutes the "scientific community"--and describes how the history of science could be important for understanding their experiences. It gives three examples of how natural knowledge-making happens in vernacular contexts: Victorian Britain's publishing experiments in "popular science" as effective literary strategies for communicating to lay and specialist readers; twentieth-century American science museums as important and contested sites for conveying both scientific ideas and ideas about scientific practice; and contemporary mass-mediated images of the "ideal" scientist as providing counternarratives to received professional scientific norms. Finally, it suggests how humanistic knowledge might help both scientists and historians grapple more effectively with contemporary challenges presented by science in public spheres. By studying the making and elaboration of scientific knowledge within popular culture, historians of science can provide substantively grounded insights into the relations between the public and professionals.

  8. History of the science of mutagenesis from a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malling, Heinrich V

    2004-01-01

    , in that I have selected only those experiences that I feel are important for the history of the field and the edification of today's students. I hope I have shown that science not only is a valuable pursuit but can also be fun, stimulating, and satisfying. A good sense of humor and the knowledge that many discoveries come by serendipity are essential.

  9. LATIN AND SCIENCE: PERSPECTIVES ON TRANSLATION OF THE NEO-LATIN ON SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ferreira Kaltner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists in a study of interdisciplinary perspectives that arise in the translation of scientific texts, from the Translation Studies, Linguistics, Textlinguistik (Text Linguistic and Latin Language. Here is the translation of an excerpt from Historia Naturalis Palmarum (Natural History of Palms, written in the nineteenth century by the botanist Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius (1794-1868, a pioneer in the description of the Brazilian flora.

  10. Science education reform in Confucian learning cultures: teachers' perspectives on policy and practice in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Syuan; Asghar, Anila

    2018-03-01

    This empirical study investigates secondary science teachers' perspectives on science education reform in Taiwan and reflects how these teachers have been negotiating constructivist and learner-centered pedagogical approaches in contemporary science education. It also explores the challenges that teachers encounter while shifting their pedagogical focus from traditional approaches to teaching science to an active engagement in students' learning. Multiple sources of qualitative data were obtained, including individual interviews with science teachers and teachers' reflective journals about Confucianism in relation to their educational philosophies. Thematic analysis and constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that Confucian traditions play a significant role in shaping educational practices in Taiwan and profoundly influence teachers' epistemological beliefs and their actual classroom practice. Indeed, science teachers' perspectives on Confucian learning traditions played a key role in supporting or obstructing their pedagogical commitments to inquiry-based and learner-centered approaches. This study draws on the literature concerning teachers' professional struggles and identity construction during educational reform. Specifically, we explore the ways in which teachers respond to educational changes and negotiate their professional identities. We employed various theories of identity construction to understand teachers' struggles and challenges while wrestling with competing traditional and reform-based pedagogical approaches. Attending to these struggles and the ways in which they inform the development of a teacher's professional identity is vital for sustaining current and future educational reform in Taiwan as well as in other Eastern cultures. These findings have important implications for teachers' professional development programs in East Asian cultures.

  11. The public communication of science in public health graduate programs in Brazil: From the coordinators' perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, C. A.; Gallo, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Introduction - The elaboration process of public policies for science and technology in knowledge societies should include not only experts, but all society members. There are studies on lay people's perception of science and technology. However, what is the scientists' perspective on public communication of science? Objectives - To describe and characterize the concepts that coordinators of Brazilian public health graduate programs have about public communication of science. Methods - This is an analytical and descriptive report of an exploratory research (doctoral study). The answers of fifty-one coordinators to two questionnaires were submitted for content analysis. The categories were transformed into variables that allowed the data processing by the Hiérarchique Classificatoire et Cohésitive (CHIC®) software. Results - Similarity analysis strongly suggested (0,99) that coordinators understand public communication as a communication directed to academic peers and students, also as a form of participation in scientific events and communication by scientific papers. Likewise, the implication analysis suggested a strong implication (0,98) between scientific communication understood as public communication. Conclusion - The notion of public communication of science as a social right and as a commitment and responsibility of researchers and research centers is not explicitly present in the narrative of the coordinators, although in general the coordinators conceive it as a relevant activity. This study thus contributes to a reflection on the role of scientists, researchers and research centers in public communication of science and technology.

  12. Citizen science for water quality monitoring: Data implications of citizen perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jollymore, Ashlee; Haines, Morgan J; Satterfield, Terre; Johnson, Mark S

    2017-09-15

    Citizen science, where citizens play an active role in the scientific process, is increasingly used to expand the reach and scope of scientific research while also achieving engagement and educational goals. Despite the emergence of studies exploring data outcomes of citizen science, the process and experience of engaging with citizens and citizen-lead groups through participatory science is less explored. This includes how citizen perspectives alter data outcomes, a critical upshot given prevalent mistrust of citizen versus scientist data. This study uses a citizen science campaign investigating watershed impacts on water quality to interrogate the nature and implications of citizen involvement in producing scientifically and societally relevant data. Data representing scientific outcomes are presented alongside a series of vignettes that offer context regarding how, why, and where citizens engaged with the project. From these vignettes, six specific lessons are examined towards understanding how integration of citizen participation alters data outcomes relative to 'professional' science. In particular, elements of participant social identity (e.g., their motivation for participation), and contextual knowledge (e.g., of the research program itself) can shape participation and resulting data outcomes. Such scientific outcomes are particularly relevant given continued concerns regarding the quality of citizen data, which could hinder scientific acceptance of citizen sciences. Importantly, the potential for meaningful engagement with citizen and participants within citizen groups - given significant capacity within the community - represents a substantial and under-realized opportunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Perspectives on Science Teacher Professional Development: A study of the ASSET Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Katrina; Miller, Scott; Foster, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The Astronomy Summer School of East Texas (ASSET) is a two-year NASA-funded teacher professional development program created to help improve middle and high school science teachers' knowledge of and attitudes toward astronomy. During an intensive summer astronomy course experience, science teachers are taught astronomy concepts and principles through engaging pedagogical techniques. The workshop models hands-on/minds-on teaching strategies that strengthened teachers' own pedagogical content knowledge and ways of teaching astronomy to students.As part of our second year of ASSET, participants were observed and interviewed before, during and after the workshop experience to ascertain their perspectives on their own professional development and understanding of astronomy. Interview data, participant observations, surveys, and artifact data (journaling, one-minute papers, etc...) were analyzed and three broad themes emerged regarding the significance of the ASSET experience on teacher enhancement of content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and the significance of teacher professional development communities in teaching and learning science. We will discuss the major implications of our observations and outline what tools and techniques can be best implemented as part of professional development workshops such as ASSET.This project is supported by the NASA Science Mission Directorate Education and Public Outreach for Earth and Space Science (EPOESS), which is part of the Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES), Grant Number NNX12AH11G.

  14. Is the United States losing ground in science? A global perspective on the world science system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Wagner, C.S.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the Science Citation Index-Expanded web-version, the USA is still by far the strongest nation in terms of scientific performance. Its relative decline in percentage share of publications is largely due to the emergence of China and other Asian nations. In 2006, China has become the second

  15. Perspective: Materials Informatics and Big Data: Realization of the Fourth Paradigm of Science in Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-17

    algorithm Bagging29 Ensembling Builds multiple models on bootstrapped training data subsets to improve model stability by reducing variance Random subspace30...36 053208-6 A. Agrawal and A. Choudhary APL Mater. 4, 053208 (2016) domains like business and marketing,51–53 healthcare,54–60 climate science,61–63

  16. Requirements, Science, and Measurements for Landsat 10 and Beyond: Perspectives from the Landsat Science Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, C. J.; Masek, J. G.; Roy, D. P.; Woodcock, C. E.; Wulder, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and NASA are currently prioritizing requirements and investing in technology options for a "Landsat 10 and beyond" mission concept as part of the Sustainable Land Imaging (SLI) architecture. Following the successful February 2013 launch of the Landsat 8, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) have now added over 1 million images to the USGS Landsat archive. The USGS and NASA support and co-lead a Landsat Science Team made up largely of university and government experts to offer independent insight and guidance of program activities and directions. The rapid development of Landsat 9 reflects, in part, strong input from the 2012-2017 USGS Landsat Science Team (LST). During the last two years of the LST's tenure, individual LST members and within LST team working groups have made significant contributions to Landsat 10 and beyond's science traceability and future requirements justification. Central to this input, has been an effort to identify a trade space for enhanced measurement capabilities that maintains mission continuity with eight prior multispectral instruments, and will extend the Landsat Earth observation record beyond 55+ years with an approximate launch date of 2027. The trade space is framed by four fundamental principles in remote sensing theory and practice: (1) temporal resolution, (2) spatial resolution, (3) radiometric resolution, and (4) spectral coverage and resolution. The goal of this communication is to provide a synopsis of past and present 2012-2017 LST contributions to Landsat 10 and beyond measurement science and application priorities. A particular focus will be to document the links between new science and societal benefit areas with potential technical enhancements to the Landsat mission.

  17. Democratizing science and technology education: Perspectives from the philosophy of education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Clayton Todd

    dominant model that currently exists in science education standards and suggest that this is a project that philosophy of education must be involved while also conscious of its past.

  18. A qualitative study of middle school students' perceptions of factors facilitating the learning of science: Grounded theory and existing theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Barbara S.; Gibson, Charles W.

    The purpose of this study was to explore middle school students' perceptions of what factors facilitated their learning of science. Florida's Educational Reform Act of 1983 funded programs providing the state's precollege students with summer learning opportunities in science. mathematics, and computers. The programs were intended to encourage the development of creative approaches to the teaching of these disciplines. Under this program, between 50 and 60 high-achieving middle school students were in residence on the University of South Florida campus for 12 consecutive days of study in the World of Water (WOW) program. There were two sessions per summer involving a total of 572 participants. Eighi specially trained teachers were in residence with the students. Between 50 and 70 experts from the university, government. business, and industry interacted with the students each year in an innovative science/technology/society (STS) program. An assignment toward the close of the program asked students to reflect on their experiences in residence at the university and write an essay comparing learning in the WOW program to learning in their schools. Those essays were the base for this study. This was a qualitative study using a discursive approach to emergent design to generate grounded theory. Document review, participant observation, and open-ended interviews were used to gather and triangulate data in five phases. Some of the factors that middle school students perceived as helpful to learning science were (a) experiencing the situations about which they were learning; (b) having live presentations by professional experts; (c) doing hands-on activities: (d) being active learners; (e) using inductive reasoning to generate new knowledge; (f) exploring transdisciplinary approaches to problem solving; (g) having adult mentors; (h) interacting with peers and adults; (i) establishing networks; (j) having close personal friends who shared their interest in learning; (k

  19. Analysis of Interactivity and Autonomy of Existing Digital Educational Resources: The Case of Life and Earth Sciences in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettazarini, Said

    2017-01-01

    The educational policy in Morocco is aimed at promoting the wide use of Information and Communication Technologies in Education and the adoption of interactive and autonomous digital resources for distance teaching and self-learning. The objective of this research is to evaluate the suitability of the existing digital educational resources for…

  20. Systemics, Communication and Knowledge: Shifts of Perspective and the Need for Requirements in Second-Order Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Marlowe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The systemic view of second-order science emphasizes the interaction of observer and observed, but tacitly assumes a single observer, or at least a unity of observer perspective. But experience in multiple domains, including software engineering, decision science, health sciences, co-creation and Living Labs, knowledge management, community development and government policy has emphasized the multiplicity of goals and perspectives across stakeholders. We look at the issues that arise when multiple views are incorporated, and propose a toolkit for addressing those issues.

  1. Socio-scientific issues with CTS focus on training of science teachers: complementary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Oliveira Marins Azevedo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical work that seeks to highlight the possible reasons why the STS approach has not effectively be inserted in the educational process and point out alternative to its insertion. It thus explores the origin of the STS movement and discusses its focus on education, science teaching and teacher education. It is a study in a critical perspective, from a documentary research focused on scientific production published in books, theses, papers presented in conference proceedings and journals in the field of education. The readings allowed direct the discussions, assuming the interpretative analysis for the organization of the text. The study shows that teacher education, the problems presented in its theoretical and epistemological aspects and ethical, is the main obstacle to the insertion of the STS approach in the educational process. Alternatively, points to issues of social-scientific approach to STS approach in a complementary perspective, as the possibility of improvements in the aspects highlighted

  2. Mind the Gap: Appropriate Evolutionary Perspectives toward the Integration of the Sciences and Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Leslie L.; Garcia, Justin R.; Wilson, David Sloan

    2010-01-01

    Although Darwinism has gained a foothold in the social sciences, in the humanities, with a few exceptions, it is still largely rejected--not, as some would claim, because humanists are all radical poststructuralists who deny that material reality exists, but rather because, with notable exceptions, Darwinists who work within the humanities have…

  3. Manpower Requirements and Education in Nuclear Science: An International Perspective Nuclear Science Manpower and Education Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeisler, R.; Clark, S.B.; Parry, S.J.; Choppin, G.R.; Danesi, P.R.; Rossbach, M.; Williamson, C.; and others

    2005-01-01

    The MARC-VI conference served as an excellent setting for a session organized to present and discuss the problems in nuclear science manpower and education. A panel discussion and contributed papers reflected the world-wide situation. Major points of the panel discussion are presented. As a result, a resolution on the current situation of nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry was drafted and endorsed by the conference attendees. (author)

  4. Revitalising Evidence-based Policy for the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030: Lessons from Existing International Science Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabine, Elizabeth

    2015-04-23

    The convergence of agreements on disaster risk reduction (DRR), development finance, sustainable development and climate change in 2015 presents a unique opportunity for coherence across these inter-related policy areas. At the same time, demand is growing for a more prominent and effective role for science and technology in providing evidence for policy, with the international community recognising that successful disaster risk reduction (DRR) depends on it. Reflecting this ambition, science is included as a core aspect of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, although the ways in which this will be implemented in practice is still unclear. This paper aims to inform the implementation of international science coordination for DRR by examining a number of existing international science partnerships used across other relevant areas of policy to understand best practice, options for coordination and lessons identified. In the field of DRR, the science-policy interface needs to be strengthened in line with the best practice described in this review. An enhanced UNISDR Scientific and Technical Advisory Group will be given the mandate for to enhance the evidence base for DRR and mobilise science and technical work in coordination with a broad range of stakeholders. The structure and function of an enhanced STAG must be as open, as inclusive and as participatory as possible in order to build trust in new and existing institutions at local, national, regional and global levels. The challenge for the international community is to facilitate evidence-based policy making by formally recognising the links between DRR, development finance, sustainable development and climate change in the upcoming post-2015 agreements.

  5. Professional Development in Climate Science Education as a Model for Navigating the Next Generations Science Standards - A High School Science Teacher's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, C.; Buhr, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards attempt to move the American K12 education system into the 21st century by focusing on science and engineering practice, crosscutting concepts, and the core ideas of the different disciplines. Putting these standards into practice will challenge a deeply entrenched system and science educators will need significant financial support from state and local governments, professional development from colleges and universities, and the creation of collegial academic networks that will help solve the many problems that will arise. While all of this sounds overwhelming, there are proven strategies and mechanisms already in place. Educators who tackle challenging topics like global climate change are turning to scientists and other like-minded teachers. Many of these teachers have never taken a class in atmospheric science but are expected to know the basics of climate and understand the emerging science as well. Teachers need scientists to continue to reach out and provide rigorous and in-depth professional development opportunities that enable them to answer difficult student questions and deal with community misconceptions about climate science. Examples of such programs include Earthworks, ICEE (Inspiring Climate Education Excellence) and ESSEA (Earth System Science Education Alliance). Projects like CLEAN (Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network) provide excellent resources that teachers can integrate into their lessons. All of these benefit from the umbrella of documents like Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science. Support from the aforementioned networks has encouraged the development of effective approaches for teaching climate science. From the perspective of a Geoscience master teacher and instructional coach, this presentation will demonstrate how scientists, researchers, and science education professionals have created models for professional development that create long-term networks supporting

  6. Perspective of the Science Advisor to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEART, WENDELL D.

    1999-01-01

    In 1975 Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) was asked by the predecessor to the Department of Energy to assume responsibility for the scientific programs necessary to assure the safe and satisfactory development of a geologic repository in the salt beds of southeast New Mexico. Sandia has continued in the role of Science Advisor to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to the present time. This paper will share the perspectives developed over the past 25 years as the project was brought to fruition with successful certification by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on May 13, 1998 and commencement of operations on April 26, 1999

  7. Somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and therapy: basic science, current knowledge, limitations and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeman, W.A.P.; Jong, M. de; Kwekkeboom, D.J.; Valkema, R.; Bakker, W.H.; Kooij, P.P.M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam (Netherlands); Visser, T.J. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam (Netherlands); Krenning, E.P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam (Netherlands); Dept. of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2001-09-01

    In vivo somatostatin receptor-mediated scintigraphy has proven to be a valuable method for the visualisation of neuroendocrine tumours and their metastases. A new application is the use of radiolabelled analogues for somatostatin receptor-mediated therapy. This paper presents a review on the basic science, historical background and current knowledge of somatostatin receptor subtypes and their expression in neuroendocrine tumours. New somatostatin analogues, new chelators, ''new'' radionuclides and combinations thereof are also discussed. Due attention is given to limitations and future perspectives of somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and therapy. (orig.)

  8. Somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and therapy: basic science, current knowledge, limitations and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeman, W.A.P.; Jong, M. de; Kwekkeboom, D.J.; Valkema, R.; Bakker, W.H.; Kooij, P.P.M.; Visser, T.J.; Krenning, E.P.

    2001-01-01

    In vivo somatostatin receptor-mediated scintigraphy has proven to be a valuable method for the visualisation of neuroendocrine tumours and their metastases. A new application is the use of radiolabelled analogues for somatostatin receptor-mediated therapy. This paper presents a review on the basic science, historical background and current knowledge of somatostatin receptor subtypes and their expression in neuroendocrine tumours. New somatostatin analogues, new chelators, ''new'' radionuclides and combinations thereof are also discussed. Due attention is given to limitations and future perspectives of somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and therapy. (orig.)

  9. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 24. Visibility: Existing and historical conditions - causes and effects. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trijonis, J.C.; Malm, W.C.; Pitchford, M.; White, W.H.; Charlson, R.

    1990-10-01

    One of the important effects associated with acid precipitation related pollutants is interference with radiation transfer (light transmission) in the atmosphere. An obvious result of such interference is visibility degradation--the impairment of atmospheric clarity or of the ability to perceive form, texture, and color. Climate modification constitutes another, somewhat less obvious, result. The purpose of the NAPAP State of Science/Technology report is to summarize current knowledge regarding these radiation transfer effects. Although the report focuses mainly on visibility issues, it does encompass the emerging field of climate modification. The links between the acid rain problem and radiation transfer effects, although indirect, are quite strong. The principal link is through sulfur dioxide emissions and sulfate aerosols. A secondary link occurs through nitrogen oxide emissions

  10. An investigation into field effects of consciousness from the perspectives of Maharishi's Vedic Science and physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschnitz, Kurt Warren

    1997-05-01

    A long-range field effect of consciousness has been reported repeatedly in the scientific literature over the past twenty years. This phenomenon is called the Maharishi Effect, after Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, the first to predict it. The Maharishi Effect is the phenomenon of improved societal trends resulting from the practice of the Transcendental Meditationoler program or group practice of the TM-Sidhioler program by a small fraction of a population. The Maharishi Effect is fundamentally a phenomenon of radiation of evolutionary influence arising from the enlivenment of pure consciousness, the unified field of natural law, in the perspective of Maharishi's Vedic Science. This perspective is corroborated by forty-three published or presented papers reporting on results of Maharishi Effect interventions world-wide at city, national, international, and global scales. Present day standard- model physics and physiology do not account for the outcomes of the research on the Maharishi Effect. Because the observed societal impact of the Maharishi Effect influence must be based in an impact on the individual, and investigators report detection of the effect in individual physiological measurements, a simple robust indicator for the effect might aid physiologists and physicists in the effort to extend their sciences to include such field effects of consciousness. Thus, this dissertation reports on two experiments investigating simple, robust, objective indicators for the effect. The dissertation concludes on a practical note with a description of the promise, available through concerted utilization of the knowledge and technologies of consciousness in Maharishi's Vedic Science, for enhanced national and global security in the face of unprecedented nuclear, biological, and genetic threats for which the modern sciences offer few sensible solutions. ftnolerTranscendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi are service marks registered in the United States Patent and Trademark Office

  11. Teacher and student perspectives on motivation within the high school science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Melanie Turnure

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher and student perspectives on the motivation of high school science students and to explore specific motivational strategies used by teachers as they attempt to enhance student motivation. Four science teachers took part in an initial audio-taped interview, classroom observations with debriefing conversations, and a final audio-taped interview to discuss findings and allow member checking for data triangulation and interpretation. Participating teachers also took part in a final focus group interview. Student participants from each teacher's class were given a Likert style anonymous survey on their views about motivation and learning, motivation in science class, and specific motivational strategies that emerged in their current science class. This study focused on effective teaching strategies for motivation commonly used by the four teachers and on specific teaching strategies used by two of these four teachers in different tracks of science classes. The intent was to determine not only what strategies worked well for all types of science classes, but also what specific motivational approaches were being used in high and low tracked science classes and the similarities and differences between them. This approach provided insight into the differences in motivating tracked students, with the hope that other educators in specific tracks might use such pedagogies to improve motivation in their own science classrooms. Results from this study showed that science teachers effectively motivate their students in the following ways: Questioning students to engage them in the lesson, exhibiting enthusiasm in lesson presentations, promoting a non-threatening environment, incorporating hands-on activities to help learn the lesson concepts, using a variety of activities, believing that students can achieve, and building caring relationships in the classroom. Specific to the higher tracked classroom, effective motivational

  12. Electronics and telecommunications in Poland, issues and perspectives: Part II. Science, research, development, higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modelski, Józef; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2010-09-01

    important role of ET is combined with the existence in the society of an adequate infrastructure which recreates the full development cycle of high technology embracing: people, institutions, finances and logistics, in this also science, higher education, education, continuous training, dissemination and outreach, professional social environment, legal basis, political support and lobbying, innovation structures, applications, industry and economy. The digest of chosen development tendencies in ET was made here from the academic perspective, in a wider scale and on this background the national one, trying to situate this branch in the society, determine its changing role to build a new technical infrastructure of a society based on knowledge, a role of builder of many practical gadgets facilitating life, a role of a big future integrator of today's single bricks into certain more useful unity. This digest does not have a character of a systematic analysis of ET. It is a kind of an arbitrary utterance of the authors inside their field of competence. The aim of this paper is to take an active part in the discussion of the academic community in this country on the development strategy of ET, choice of priorities for cyclically rebuilding economy, in competitive environments. The review paper was initiated by the Committee of Electronics and Telecommunications of Polish Academy of Sciences and was published in Polish as introductory chapter of a dedicated expertise, printed in a book format. This version makes the included opinions available for a wider community.

  13. Exploring the meaning of practicing classroom inquiry from the perspectives of National Board Certified Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Ayhan

    of science teachers. Second, it examined the meaning of practicing classroom inquiry for National Board Certified Science Teachers [NBCSTs]. Based on the specific cases of four NBCSTs, this naturalistic inquiry study was conducted to answer to those questions with the involvement of the following qualitative data sources: classroom observations, in-depth teacher interviews, and document analyses of teacher portfolios. The specific cases in this study indicated that undergoing the performance assessment process of NBC played an affirmational role for National Board Certified Science Teachers [NBCSTs] in their professional development. Their successful completion of the portfolio assessment process created a sharpened confidence into their existing notions and ways of teaching science. In the study, not all teachers were equally open to science education reform ideas. This meant that NBC experience strengthened the conventional notions of teaching science held by some teachers rather than generating a higher affiliation with the reform ideas. The teacher cases presented in this study denoted that teachers' conceptions of classroom inquiry were driven both by scientific and constructivist rationales. However, NBCSTs failed to create broader operational definitions of classroom inquiry. They tended to reduce the meaning of classroom inquiry into empirical investigations of students. The conventional representation of the scientific method as a stepwise linear process influenced teachers' understandings and practices of classroom inquiry. NBCSTs used inquiry in their classrooms to introduce their students to the cognitive processes and the actions of practicing scientists but not necessarily to teach scientific principles. Their reluctance to teach scientific principles through inquiry developed in parallel to their tendency of associating classroom inquiry with the highest levels of student autonomy. Participant teachers' particular understandings of scientific literacy

  14. Holism and embodiment in nursing: using Goethean science to join 2 perspectives on patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Deanna M

    2014-01-01

    Holism is a central concept in nursing theory, yet recently, embodiment has become prominent in the literature. Epistemological foundations from modern and contemporary philosophy are discussed and their relationship to nursing practice is explored to investigate the concepts of holism and embodiment. Nurses practice holistic care within the patient encounter while patients live an embodied experience. This creates inherent dissonance in the nurse-patient interaction. Goethean science is presented as a way to reconcile this discrepancy, to allow the nurse to better understand the patient's embodiment and, by default, his or her own embodiment. A new perspective of how nursing practice can use Goethean science and an embodied perspective are presented as a means to actualize Carper's fundamental pattern of knowing of personal knowledge within the nurse-patient interaction. With this approach, the nurse is able to examine the phenomenon of the patient with the patient to explore the essential nature that makes the patient who he or she is and what he or she is trying to become. During this exploration, the nurse uses the senses, language, and a critical mind to do what no machine or test could-to see the underlying meaningfulness and internal coherence of the patient. The intuitive revelation would expose nursing interventions simultaneously. Moving beyond the myopic perspective of how to keep "person" central to the nursing metaparadigm, nursing is beginning to see the embodiment of the patient as a means for understanding and providing care for patients. The challenge that remains is for nurses to see their own embodiment and reflect on if or how it is at odds with the necessity of providing holistic care to patients.

  15. The presence of blogs in the field of Library and Information Sciences in Spain: Can we talk about the existence of a “Biblogsfera”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Vera Baceta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The blog phenomenon has meant a natural way of grouping and establishing communication amongst those who have similar concerns. This has happened the same way in the field of science, thus creating communities of special interest in a context in which blogs are consolidating as sources of information and extra tools for research. While the authors’ freedom to organise and offer their contents may be considered one of the main advantages and a trigger for the success of blogs, it is also one of their main drawbacks. The contents and communities of blogs are not easy to identify, classify and quantify, so that they constitute a vague concept under the name of “blogosphere”. This article is meant to identify the blogs related to the field of Library and Information Sciences in Spain, their authorship, their contents and their connections in order to clarify if we can really talk about the existence of a “Biblogsfera”.

  16. The ethics of data and of data science: an economist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, Jonathan

    2016-12-28

    Data collection and modelling are increasingly important in social science and science-based policy, but threaten to crowd out other ways of thinking. Economists recognize that markets embody and shed light on human sentiments. However, their ethical consequences have been difficult to interpret, let alone manage. Although economic mechanisms are changed by data intensity, they can be redesigned to restore their benefits. We conclude with four cautions: if data are good, more may not be better; scientifically desirable data properties may not help policy; consent is a double-edged tool; and data exist only because someone thought to capture and codify them.This article is part of the themed issue 'The ethical impact of data science'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Applying gene flow science to environmental policy needs: a boundary work perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Caroline E; Alexander, Laurie C

    2016-08-01

    One application of gene flow science is the policy arena. In this article, we describe two examples in which the topic of gene flow has entered into the U.S. national environmental policymaking process: regulation of genetically engineered crops and clarification of the jurisdictional scope of the Clean Water Act. We summarize both current scientific understanding and the legal context within which gene flow science has relevance. We also discuss the process by which scientific knowledge has been synthesized and communicated to decision-makers in these two contexts utilizing the concept of 'boundary work'. Boundary organizations, the work they engage in to bridge the worlds of science, policy, and practice, and the boundary objects they produce to translate scientific knowledge existed in both examples. However, the specific activities and attributes of the objects produced varied based on the needs of the decision-makers. We close with suggestions for how scientists can contribute to or engage in boundary work with policymakers.

  18. A conceptual framework for understanding the perspectives on the causes of the science-practice gap in ecology and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuol-Garcia, Diana; Morsello, Carla; N El-Hani, Charbel; Pardini, Renata

    2018-05-01

    Applying scientific knowledge to confront societal challenges is a difficult task, an issue known as the science-practice gap. In Ecology and Conservation, scientific evidence has been seldom used directly to support decision-making, despite calls for an increasing role of ecological science in developing solutions for a sustainable future. To date, multiple causes of the science-practice gap and diverse approaches to link science and practice in Ecology and Conservation have been proposed. To foster a transparent debate and broaden our understanding of the difficulties of using scientific knowledge, we reviewed the perceived causes of the science-practice gap, aiming to: (i) identify the perspectives of ecologists and conservation scientists on this problem, (ii) evaluate the predominance of these perspectives over time and across journals, and (iii) assess them in light of disciplines studying the role of science in decision-making. We based our review on 1563 sentences describing causes of the science-practice gap extracted from 122 articles and on discussions with eight scientists on how to classify these sentences. The resulting process-based framework describes three distinct perspectives on the relevant processes, knowledge and actors in the science-practice interface. The most common perspective assumes only scientific knowledge should support practice, perceiving a one-way knowledge flow from science to practice and recognizing flaws in knowledge generation, communication, and/or use. The second assumes that both scientists and decision-makers should contribute to support practice, perceiving a two-way knowledge flow between science and practice through joint knowledge-production/integration processes, which, for several reasons, are perceived to occur infrequently. The last perspective was very rare, and assumes scientists should put their results into practice, but they rarely do. Some causes (e.g. cultural differences between scientists and decision

  19. Integration of Basic and Clinical Sciences: Faculty Perspectives at a U.S. Dental School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoeven, Dharini; van der Hoeven, Ransome; Zhu, Liang; Busaidy, Kamal; Quock, Ryan L

    2018-04-01

    Although dental education has traditionally been organized into basic sciences education (first and second years) and clinical education (third and fourth years), there has been growing interest in ways to better integrate the two to more effectively educate students and prepare them for practice. Since 2012, The University of Texas School of Dentistry at Houston (UTSD) has made it a priority to improve integration of basic and clinical sciences, with a focus to this point on integrating the basic sciences. The aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of basic and clinical science faculty members regarding basic and clinical sciences integration and the degree of integration currently occurring. In October 2016, all 227 faculty members (15 basic scientists and 212 clinicians) were invited to participate in an online survey. Of the 212 clinicians, 84 completed the clinician educator survey (response rate 40%). All 15 basic scientists completed the basic science educator survey (response rate 100%). The majority of basic and clinical respondents affirmed the value of integration (93.3%, 97.6%, respectively) and reported regular integration in their teaching (80%, 86.9%). There were no significant differences between basic scientists and clinicians on perceived importance (p=0.457) and comfort with integration (p=0.240), but the basic scientists were more likely to integrate (p=0.039) and collaborate (p=0.021) than the clinicians. There were no significant differences between generalist and specialist clinicians on importance (p=0.474) and degree (p=0.972) of integration in teaching and intent to collaborate (p=0.864), but the specialists reported feeling more comfortable presenting basic science information (p=0.033). Protected faculty time for collaborative efforts and a repository of integrated basic science and clinical examples for use in teaching and faculty development were recommended to improve integration. Although questions might be raised about

  20. Clinical trial regulation in Argentina: overview and analysis of regulatory framework, use of existing tools, and researchers' perspectives to identify potential barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lauren; Ortiz, Zulma; Cuervo, Luis G; Reveiz, Ludovic

    2011-11-01

    To review and analyze the regulatory framework of clinical trial registration, use of existing tools (publicly accessible national/international registration databases), and users' perspectives to identify possible barriers to registration compliance by sponsors and researchers in Argentina. Internationally registered trials recruiting patients in Argentina were found through clincialtrials.gov and the International Clinical Trial Registration Platform (ICTRP) and compared with publically available clinical trials registered through the National Administration of Drugs, Foods, and Medical Devices (ANMAT). A questionnaire addressing hypothesized attitudinal, knowledge-related, idiomatic, technical, economic, and regulatory barriers that could discourage or impede registration of clinical trials was developed, and semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposively selected sample of researchers (investigators, sponsors, and monitors) in Argentina. A response rate of 74.3% (n = 29) was achieved, and 27 interviews were ultimately used for analysis. Results suggested that the high proportion of foreign-sponsored or multinational trials (64.8% of all protocols approved by ANMAT from 1994-2006) may contribute to a communication gap between locally based investigators and foreign-based administrative officials. A lack of knowledge about available international registration tools and limited awareness of the importance of registration were also identified as limiting factors for local investigators and sponsors. To increase compliance and promote clinical trial registration in Argentina, national health authorities, sponsors, and local investigators could take the following steps: implement a grassroots educational campaign to improve clinical trial regulation, support local investigator-sponsor-initiated clinical trials, and/or encourage local and regional scientific journal compliance with standards from the International Committee of Medical Journal

  1. A private school leadership perspective on highly qualified middle school science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaski, Carolyn Siniscalchi

    The purpose of this study was to determine how Florida (FL) private, middle school (MS) leaders define highly qualified (HQ) MS science teachers, and how congruent their definitions are. The study also determines how congruent these leaders' definitions are with FL, national, and National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) definitions. Lastly, the study determines the major challenges these private MS leaders have in hiring MS science teachers who meet the NSTA definition of HQ. A convergent mixed methods survey design (Creswell, 2014) was used, in which qualitative and quantitative data were collected in parallel, analyzed separately, and then merged. Participants in the survey consisted of 119 leaders. A congruency rubric separated responses by religious affiliation and socioeconomic status (SES) level and matched responses with the percentage of congruency with the existing FL, national, and NSTA definitions of HQ. Descriptive statistics, paired samples t-test, and chi-squared test were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data. Qualitative data were coded into preliminary and final codes. Final codes were converted into magnitude codes, which allowed the researcher to analyze further the qualitative data statistically. Survey responses received were definitely congruent, except in ranking the importance of a candidate having an out-of-field degree with state certification, and in ranking the importance of a candidate being fully qualified to teach science in their state with a strong knowledge of science content. Segregating the survey responses into registered religious affiliations and SES levels found that the definition of a HQ MS science teacher was mostly congruent among all demographics, with only a couple of exceptions. The study found that these private school leaders' common definition of a HQ MS science teacher is one with adequate science content knowledge, pedagogy including engagement in laboratory activities, ability to relate to

  2. The interface between tradition and science: naturopaths' perspectives of modern practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Amie; Adams, Jon

    2011-10-01

    Although there has been much international commentary, little is known about the interface between traditional knowledge and scientific research in modern naturopathic practice. This study aimed to explore this interface from the perspective of naturopaths. Semistructured interviews were conducted with naturopaths in current practice. The participants were selected using purposive sampling, and the data from the interviews were interpreted using thematic analysis. Interviews were conducted in a place suitable to each participant. Twelve (12) naturopaths in current clinical practice were interviewed. The participants represented a diversity of characteristics including gender, time in practice, level of qualification, and clinical contact hours per week. Thematic analysis was used to identify common themes from the interviews. Analysis identified a disparity in practitioner definition of what constitutes traditional information. However, it also identified that traditional knowledge is considered a valid source of information, whereas the validity and value of modern research is questioned. There is also tension between these two information sources, with science being argued to both support traditional knowledge, while also undermining its value. This tension seems to be overcome by practitioners' use of traditional knowledge to direct their own research, as well as drawing upon their knowledge of science to explain traditional knowledge as yet not researched. The findings of this qualitative study reveal tensions and ambiguities around the interface between tradition and science with regard to naturopathic clinical practice. Understanding these findings may assist individuals and groups within the naturopathic profession, as well as those outside the profession engaging and collaborating with naturopaths.

  3. Students' Conceptions of the Nature of Science: Perspectives from Canadian and Korean Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeran; Nielsen, Wendy; Woodruff, Earl

    2014-05-01

    This study examined and compared students' understanding of nature of science (NOS) with 521 Grade 8 Canadian and Korean students using a mixed methods approach. The concepts of NOS were measured using a survey that had both quantitative and qualitative elements. Descriptive statistics and one-way multivariate analysis of variances examined the quantitative data while a conceptually clustered matrix classified the open-ended responses. The country effect could explain 3-12 % of the variances of subjectivity, empirical testability and diverse methods, but it was not significant for the concepts of tentativeness and socio-cultural embeddedness of science. The open-ended responses showed that students believed scientific theories change due to errors or discoveries. Students regarded empirical evidence as undeniable and objective although they acknowledged experiments depend on theories or scientists' knowledge. The open responses revealed that national situations and curriculum content affected their views. For our future democratic citizens to gain scientific literacy, science curricula should include currently acknowledged NOS concepts and should be situated within societal and cultural perspectives.

  4. Teacher perspectives on specialisation in the elementary classroom: implications for science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Susan; Colburn, Amanda; Long, David E.

    2017-09-01

    In the current educational climate of testing and accountability, many elementary teachers find they lack adequate time and confidence to enact reform-based science teaching due to pressure to perform in reading and mathematics. With this tension in mind, we explore the phenomenon of elementary teacher specialisation in comparison to the traditional, generalist model of teaching, wherein a teacher is responsible for teaching all subjects to one group of students each year. This mixed-methods study examines teacher perspectives on the practice of specialisation and generalisation through teacher interview data. Our teachers spoke candidly about their attitudes towards specialisation, the perceived impacts of specialization on teachers and students, and the role of accountability, administration, and testing in their decisions to specialise. Additionally, our teachers discussed time dedicated to science in specialist and generalist classrooms. Our findings suggest that specialist roles are sought by those who see specialisation as a means of reducing workload, while allowing for content mastery and improved instruction. Alternatively, generalist roles are sought by those who primarily view the role of elementary teaching as the care and development of children, and who prefer to focus on the classroom as a holistic, fluid space. Implications for science teaching are discussed.

  5. Numerical Relativity as preparation for Industrial Data Science, a personal perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    Much of the conversation in commercial enterprises these days revolves around industry buzz words such as Big Data, Data Science, and being Data Driven. Beyond the hype surrounding these terms, there is a real, continuously growing movement for organizations to make better use of the data assets they have to inform decisions, strategy, and policy. This push is not unique to the commercial sector; governmental and academic organizations are also embracing such initiatives. The skills required to staff a Data Science project typically come from a number of disciplines, ranging from computer science, statistics, modeling and simulation, to information technology, but the emerging wisdom in the community is that the rigor and discipline of a scientific background often makes for the best data scientists. In this talk, I will offer a personal perspective on making the transition from a career in computational physics (specifically Numerical Relativity) to a career in industry, where I have focused on helping organizations make more informed decisions through better access and analysis of data at their disposal. I will identify the skills and training that carry over from a background in physics, discuss the gaps in that preparation, hypothesize as to where this industry is headed, and offer a frank look at a life outside of academia.

  6. Alchemy & algorithms: perspectives on the philosophy and history of open science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Lahti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the reader a chance to experience, or revisit, PHOS16: a conference on the History and Philosophy of Open Science. In the winter of 2016, we invited a varied international group to engage with these topics at the University of Helsinki, Finland. Our aim was a critical assessment of the defining features, underlying narratives, and overall objectives of the contemporary open science movement. The event brought together contemporary open science scholars, publishers, and advocates to discuss the philosophical foundations and historical roots of openness in academic research. The eight sessions combined historical views with more contemporary perspectives on topics such as transparency, reproducibility, collaboration, publishing, peer review, research ethics, as well as societal impact and engagement. We gathered together expert panelists and 15 invited speakers who have published extensively on these topics, which allowed us to engage in a thorough and multifaceted discussion. Together with our involved audience we charted the role and foundations of openness of research in our time, considered the accumulation and dissemination of scientific knowledge, and debated the various technical, legal, and ethical challenges of the past and present. In this article, we provide an overview of the topics covered at the conference as well as individual video interviews with each speaker. In addition to this, all the talks were recorded and they are offered here as an openly licensed community resource in both video and audio form.

  7. Interdisciplinary technology assessment of service robots: the psychological/work science perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Martin

    2012-12-01

    The article sheds light on psychological and work science aspects of the design and utilization of service robots. An initial presentation of the characteristics of man-robot interaction is followed by a discussion of the principles of the division of functions between human beings and robots in service area work systems. The following aspects are to be considered: (1) the organisation of societal work (such as the different employment and professional profiles of service employees), (2) the work tasks to be performed by humans and robots (such as handling, monitoring or decision-making tasks), (3) the possibilities and the limitations of realizing such tasks by means of information technology (depending, for example, on the motoric capabilities, perception and cognition of the robot). Consideration of these three design perspectives gives rise to criteria of usability. Current debate focuses on the (work science) principles of man-machine communication, though in future these should be supplemented with robot-specific criteria such as "motoric capabilities" or "relationship quality." The article concludes by advocating the convergence and combination of work science criteria with ideas drawn from participative design approaches in the development and utilization of service robots.

  8. Listening to middle-school Spanish-speaking English language learners: A qualitative study of their perspectives of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Ferrao, Julio E.

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding and explanation of the science achievement gap between Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) and their mainstream peers. The sample of purposefully selected participants (N = 23) included students representing eight Spanish-speaking countries who attended three middle schools (grades 6th-8th), 11 boys and 12 girls, with different years of schooling in the United States, English proficiency levels, and science achievement levels. Data gathering strategies included individual interviews with participants, classroom observations, and analysis of secondary data sources on students' English language proficiency and science achievement. Data interpretation strategies using a critical-interpretive perspective consisted of coding and narrative analysis, including analyses of excerpts and case studies. Two major findings emerge from the study: (1) An inverse relation between participants' number of years of exposure to science learning in an English-only learning environment and their science achievement levels; and (2) specific participant-identified problems, such as learning the science vocabulary, writing in science, the use of mathematics in science, and the lack of sense making in the science classroom. Key recommendations comprise: (1) Acknowledging the value of dual language education; (2) supporting the science-literacy connection; (3) ensuring high-quality science through research-informed instructional strategies; and (4) assessing ELLs' science achievement.

  9. "Why bother so incredibly much?": student perspectives on PISA science assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serder, Margareta; Jakobsson, Anders

    2015-09-01

    Large-scale assessment, such as the Programme for International Assessment (PISA), plays an increasingly important role in current educational practice and politics. However, many scholars have questioned the validity and reliability of the tests and the extent to which they actually constitute trustworthy representations of students' knowledge. In the light of such critical voices the present article adopts a sociocultural perspective of human knowledge and action in order to explore the encounters between students and the science test assignments with which their knowledge is tested. Of particular interest in this study are the described "real-life situations" presented as the relevant background in which scientific literacy is assessed in PISA. According to the sociocultural theoretical onset the methodology used to approach the students' meaning making of the image of science as portrayed in the test were collaborative situations in which students work in small groups with units of PISA assignments, enabling a study of student-assignment encounters in action. The data we worked with consists of video-recordings from 71 Swedish 15-year-old students working with three released units from the PISA science test. According to our analysis, the "real-life situations" described in the test emerge as problematic in the students' meaning-making. This is demonstrated for instance by the students' positioning themselves as being different from and opposed to the fictional pictured students who appear in the backstories of the test. This article provides examples of how the scientific and academic language used by the fictional students in the assignments mediates distance and resistance among the students. The fictional students' use of strict scientific language and methods in day-to-day life situations leads them to be perceived as "little scientists" and as elite stereotypes of the scientific culture. We conclude that, by using assignments of this type, measurements of

  10. Perspectives of best Practices for Learning Gender-Inclusive Science: Influences of Extracurricular Science for Gifted Girls and Electrical Engineering for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Shaunda L.

    Gifted girls in elementary school must follow the set curriculum, but their choices of extracurricular activities may indicate future subject preferences. This study attempted to explore the perceptions of gifted girls regarding how the family, home, and school environments influenced their choices to take extracurricular science classes. A mixed methodology was adopted: qualitative, to understand the girls' perceptions of influence, and quantitative, to measure their attitudes toward science. Influential factors identified in this study highlight fun as occurring with the highest frequency and four emergent factors: doubt, traditional sex roles, boredom, and group work. In addition, findings from a focused case study of a graduate electrical engineer are interwoven with the girls' perspectives of science. The varying ages and experiences with science of the participants provide interesting views. This study adds knowledge to the field of science education, specifically on withingender differences of gifted girls and women in engineering.

  11. Assessing the Role of Technology in Citizen Science: A Volunteer's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J. H.; Force, A.

    2017-12-01

    From a volunteer's perspective, citizen science can provide a direct connection between outdoor enthusiasts and the scientists who study these natural environments. These experiences are both rewarding and engaging, as participants become aware of field sites, the scientific method, and their own environmental impacts. Recent technological advances (i.e. smart phones and mobile applications) have the potential to transform citizen science, specifically as technology can both enable and modernize the networks between a large community of potential volunteers and scientists using these data. By providing volunteers who venture into largely understudied and remote areas with an easy method for data collection and entry, it becomes easier to encourage volunteer engagement in science, while maintaining quality control over the data collection process. Participating in Adventure Scientists' projects demonstrates the application of technology as an effective engagement tool, especially when compared to traditional pen and paper surveys often conducted. Pairing volunteers with simple, familiar technology increases engagement, particularly for volunteers otherwise intimidated by the scientific process. When equipped with useful features, such as GPS functionality, smartphone apps offer a simple and standardized method of data collection and description. Yet a variety of factors can complicate field sampling; final choices are ultimately left to the judgment of the volunteer and perhaps could be guided by use of a phone/app. Importantly, Adventure Scientists conducts follow ups and volunteer surveys, which are critical to the continued evaluation of volunteer experiences and the sampling methods themselves. For future projects, creating a forum in which scientists and volunteers can interact (perhaps also through a phone app) could provide scientific context for volunteers, further investing them in the scientific process and their continued participation. Overall, the

  12. Big Data in Science and Healthcare: A Review of Recent Literature and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron-Shatz, T.; Lau, A. Y. S.; Paton, C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives As technology continues to evolve and rise in various industries, such as healthcare, science, education, and gaming, a sophisticated concept known as Big Data is surfacing. The concept of analytics aims to understand data. We set out to portray and discuss perspectives of the evolving use of Big Data in science and healthcare and, to examine some of the opportunities and challenges. Methods A literature review was conducted to highlight the implications associated with the use of Big Data in scientific research and healthcare innovations, both on a large and small scale. Results Scientists and health-care providers may learn from one another when it comes to understanding the value of Big Data and analytics. Small data, derived by patients and consumers, also requires analytics to become actionable. Connectivism provides a framework for the use of Big Data and analytics in the areas of science and healthcare. This theory assists individuals to recognize and synthesize how human connections are driving the increase in data. Despite the volume and velocity of Big Data, it is truly about technology connecting humans and assisting them to construct knowledge in new ways. Concluding Thoughts The concept of Big Data and associated analytics are to be taken seriously when approaching the use of vast volumes of both structured and unstructured data in science and health-care. Future exploration of issues surrounding data privacy, confidentiality, and education are needed. A greater focus on data from social media, the quantified self-movement, and the application of analytics to “small data” would also be useful. PMID:25123717

  13. No Child Left Behind and Outreach to Families and Communities: The Perspectives of Exemplary African-American Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Linda T.; Xu, Jianzhong

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the perspectives of eight exemplary African-American science teachers toward No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and their outreach to families and communities in the context of the USA. Data revealed that whereas these exemplary teachers applauded the general intent of NCLB, they were concerned with its overemphasis on…

  14. Experience, Intersubjectivity, and Reflection: A Human Science Perspective on Preparation of Future Professionals in Adaptive Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standal, Øyvind F.; Rugseth, Gro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show that and how philosophy and philosophical thinking can be of relevance for the preparation of future professionals in adaptive physical activity. To this end we utilize philosophical insights from the human science perspective on two central issues, namely experience and intersubjectivity, which are weaved…

  15. Supply network science: Emergence of a new perspective on a classical field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brintrup, Alexandra; Ledwoch, Anna

    2018-03-01

    Supply networks emerge as companies procure goods from one another to produce their own products. Due to a chronic lack of data, studies on these emergent structures have long focussed on local neighbourhoods, assuming simple, chain-like structures. However, studies conducted since 2001 have shown that supply chains are indeed complex networks that exhibit similar organisational patterns to other network types. In this paper, we present a critical review of theoretical and model based studies which conceptualise supply chains from a network science perspective, showing that empirical data do not always support theoretical models that were developed, and argue that different industrial settings may present different characteristics. Consequently, a need that arises is the development and reconciliation of interpretation across different supply network layers such as contractual relations, material flow, financial links, and co-patenting, as these different projections tend to remain in disciplinary siloes. Other gaps include a lack of null models that show whether the observed properties are meaningful, a lack of dynamical models that can inform how layers evolve and adopt to changes, and a lack of studies that investigate how local decisions enable emergent outcomes. We conclude by asking the network science community to help bridge these gaps by engaging with this important area of research.

  16. Collaborative Projects Weaving Indigenous and Western Science, Knowledge and Perspectives in Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Chase, M.; Brunacini, J.; Spellman, K.

    2017-12-01

    The "Reaching Arctic Communities Facing Climate Change" and "Feedbacks and Impacts of A Warming Arctic: Engaging Learners in STEM Using GLOBE and NASA Assets" projects are examples of Indigenous and western science communities' collaborative efforts in braiding multiple perspectives and methods in climate change education. Lessons being learned and applied in these projects include the need to invite and engage members of the indigenous and scientific communities in the beginning as a project is being proposed or formulated; the need for negotiated space in the project and activities where opportunity to present and access both knowledge systems is equitable, recognizes and validates each knowledge and method, and considers the use of pedagogical practices including pace/rhythm and instructional approach most suitable to the target audience. For example with Indigenous audiences/participants, it is important to follow local Indigenous protocol to start an event and/or use a resource that highlights the current experience or voices of Indigenous people with climate change. For mixed audience groups, it is critical to have personal introductions at the beginning of an event so that each participant is given an opportunity and encouraged to voice their ideas and opinions starting with how they want to introduce themselves and thus begin to establish a welcoming and collegial atmosphere for dialog. It is also important to communicate climate science in humanistic terms, that people and communities are affected not just the environment or economies. These collaborative partnerships produce mutual benefits including increased awareness and understanding of personal connections to climate change impacts; opportunities for cultural enrichment; opportunities for accessing elder knowledge which is highly valued as well as science, education and communication tools that are needed in working together in addressing issues and making communities resilient and adaptive.

  17. Research perspectives on the public and fire management: a synthesis of current social science on eight essential questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. McCaffrey; Christine S. Olsen

    2012-01-01

    As part of a Joint Fire Science Program project, a team of social scientists reviewed existing fire social science literature to develop a targeted synthesis of scientific knowledge on the following questions: 1. What is the public's understanding of fire's role in the ecosystem? 2. Who are trusted sources of information about fire? 3. What are the public...

  18. What Kind of Boy Does Science? A Critical Perspective on the Science Trajectories of Four Scientifically Talented Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlone, Heidi B.; Webb, Angela W.; Archer, Louise; Taylor, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    The close association between science and masculinity has been widely discussed, yet few studies have focused on boys' negotiation with, and participation in, school science. This paper seeks to trouble monolithic notions of the link between science and masculinity, arguing that the "ideal science student" is a classed, racialized, and…

  19. Inviting queer ideas into the science classroom: studying sexuality education from a queer perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Mattias

    2014-06-01

    Science education has been pointed out as fact-based and built on reliable knowledge. Nevertheless, there are areas that include other aspects. Sexual education is, according to the Swedish syllabus, such an example and it involves aspects as love, sexuality and relations. These aspects suggest a possible tension between the biological and well-established definition of sex and later non-dichotomized perspectives. Teachers need to take both of these aspects into account as they work. Equality work aiming at providing equality for people that are not part of the prevalent norms for doing gender and sexuality is another endeavour to teachers in science education. To be able to study prevalent norms a queer perspective has been used. The hetero norm is defined in this perspective and it is explained as the expectation that everybody is heterosexual and wishes to live in hetero pair-ship. This perspective also involves the normative construction of man and woman. The different ways to approach sex and sexuality is the research object of this study and the research question is formulated as follows: How can the construction of the hetero norm be visualized by queer theory to challenge the norm in sexuality education? A framework that visualizes the hetero norm and that could elicit attempts to question the norm was chosen for the analysis. The applied framework can be summarized using the following descriptions: repetition of desirability, dichotomization of sexes, differentiation of sexualities and hierarchy of positions. The data constituted of observations made in two classes with 14-year-old students during sexuality education lessons. The results illustrate how the hetero norm was reconstructed in all of the four parts of the applied framework. The analysis provides four examples of how the norm was challenged, first, by expressing the unexpected and uncommon, second, by an orientation towards uncommon positions, third, by eliciting the communalities of sexes and

  20. Science, School Science, and School: Looking at Science Learning in Classrooms from the Perspective of Basil Bernstein's Theory of the Structure of Pedagogic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ralph Ian

    This analytic paper asks one question: How does Basil Bernstein's concept of the structure of pedagogic discourse (SPD) contribute to our understanding of the role of teacher-student interactions in science learning in the classroom? Applying Bernstein's theory of the SPD to an analysis of current research in science education explores the structure of Bernstein's theory as a tool for understanding the challenges and questions related to current concerns about classroom science learning. This analysis applies Bernstein's theory of the SPD as a heuristic through a secondary reading of selected research from the past fifteen years and prompts further consideration of Bernstein's ideas. This leads to a reevaluation of the categories of regulative discourse (RD) and instructional discourse (ID) as structures that frame learning environments and the dynamics of student-teacher interactions, which determine learning outcomes. The SPD becomes a simple but flexible heuristic, offering a useful deconstruction of teaching and learning dynamics in three different classroom environments. Understanding the framing interactions of RD and ID provides perspectives on the balance of agency and expectation, suggesting some causal explanations for the student learning outcomes described by the authors. On one hand, forms of open inquiry and student-driven instruction may lack the structure to ensure the appropriation of desired forms of scientific thinking. On the other hand, well-designed pathways towards the understanding of fundamental concepts in science may lack the forms of more open-ended inquiry that develop transferable understanding. Important ideas emerge about the complex dynamics of learning communities, the materials of learning, and the dynamic role of the teacher as facilitator and expert. Simultaneously, the SPD as a flexible heuristic proves ambiguous, prompting a reevaluation of Bernstein's organization of RD and ID. The hierarchical structure of pedagogic

  1. Evaluating a national science and technology program using the human capital and relational asset perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chia-Liang; Chou, Jerome Chih-Lung; Roan, Hung-Wei

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the performance of the National Science and Technology Program (NSTP) by targeting the Taiwan National Telecommunication Program (NTP) initiated in 1998. The Taiwan telecommunications industry has prospered, currently occupying key positions in global markets even though NTP seldom contributes positively to patent citation performance. Hence, the authors of this study investigate the qualitative perspective of intellectual capital rather than quantitative technological indices. The current study focuses on both human capital and relational assets through surveys of 53 principal investigators of NTP projects and 63 industrial R&D managers of telecommunications corporations in the Taiwan market. Results show that NSTP member quality and the flow of employment are good indicators of human capital and that both perform better than the middle value in the case of Taiwan NTP. In addition, we find that industrial participants are more likely to share R&D resources than other academic researchers with higher intention of co-publishing, co-funding, and sharing equipment and facilities. The industrial NTP participants also have higher expectations regarding achieving advanced technology breakthroughs in contrast to non-NTP industrial interviewees. Moreover, industrial participants with greater industry-university cooperation intensity indeed obtain a particular advantage, that is, greater knowledge acquisition from other fields related to the effect of knowledge spillovers through the particular NSTP linkage. Accordingly, from the perspectives of human capital and relational assets, the authors conclude by articulating the importance of absorptive capacity resulting from good human capital and knowledge spillover contributed by relational assets within governmental technology policy and NSTP programming. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Unintended Learning in Primary School Practical Science Lessons from Polanyi's Perspective of Intellectual Passion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisun; Song, Jinwoong; Abrahams, Ian

    2016-03-01

    This study explored, from the perspective of intellectual passion developed by Michael Polanyi, the unintended learning that occurred in primary practical science lessons. We use the term `unintended' learning to distinguish it from `intended' learning that appears in teachers' learning objectives. Data were collected using video and audio recordings of a sample of twenty-four whole class practical science lessons, taught by five teachers, in Korean primary schools with 10- to 12-year-old students. In addition, video and audio recordings were made for each small group of students working together in order to capture their activities and intra-group discourse. Pre-lesson interviews with the teachers were undertaken and audio-recorded to ascertain their intended learning objectives. Selected key vignettes, including unintended learning, were analysed from the perspective of intellectual passion developed by Polanyi. What we found in this study is that unintended learning could occur when students got interested in something in the first place and could maintain their interest. In addition, students could get conceptual knowledge when they tried to connect their experience to their related prior knowledge. It was also found that the processes of intended learning and of unintended learning were different. Intended learning was characterized by having been planned by the teacher who then sought to generate students' interest in it. In contrast, unintended learning originated from students' spontaneous interest and curiosity as a result of unplanned opportunities. Whilst teachers' persuasive passion comes first in the process of intended learning, students' heuristic passion comes first in the process of unintended learning. Based on these findings, we argue that teachers need to be more aware that unintended learning, on the part of individual students, can occur during their lesson and to be able to better use this opportunity so that this unintended learning can be

  3. Providing policy-relevant information for greenhouse gas management: Perspectives from science and technology policy research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilling, L.

    2009-12-01

    In the 12 years since the Kyoto Protocol was signed setting forth targets for greenhouse gas emissions from several nations, the number of policies, voluntary programs and commercial enterprises that have developed to manage carbon has grown exponentially. Many of these programs have occurred in a voluntary context, such as carbon trading, carbon offset programs, and climate registries . To date, no single, common system for accrediting, verifying and recording carbon credits has developed. Moreover, as the international community continues to negotiate the dimensions of an international agreement for the post-Kyoto time period, discussions still center on targets for fossil fuel emissions, biospheric carbon protection, and appropriate distribution of the burden of compliance globally. If carbon still remains the currency for discussion in a climate agreement, some type of effective measurement and verification system will be needed to ensure that commitments are being met. While entire volumes over the past decade have been written on what it is possible to observe about the carbon cycle and how to do so-- these tend to describe observations from the perspective of studying the carbon cycle to discover fundamental new knowledge. I will argue, however, that for the application under consideration in this session, i.e. a global greenhouse gas information system, it is essential to bring in the perspective of the policy and regulatory community. The needs of the scientific community for measuring the uncertainties in the global carbon cycle are not necessarily the same as those for the policy community. To ensure that such a system can serve a policy-relevant function, the scientific community must engage with policy makers, entrepreneurs, those who must comply, and others involved in constructing the policy framework. This paper will examine some of the key fundamentals that the policy community may be considering in designing a greenhouse gas monitoring system. I

  4. Editors' overview perspectives on teaching social responsibility to students in science and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandvoort, Henk; Børsen, Tom; Deneke, Michael; Bird, Stephanie J

    2013-12-01

    Global society is facing formidable current and future problems that threaten the prospects for justice and peace, sustainability, and the well-being of humanity both now and in the future. Many of these problems are related to science and technology and to how they function in the world. If the social responsibility of scientists and engineers implies a duty to safeguard or promote a peaceful, just and sustainable world society, then science and engineering education should empower students to fulfil this responsibility. The contributions to this special issue present European examples of teaching social responsibility to students in science and engineering, and provide examples and discussion of how this teaching can be promoted, and of obstacles that are encountered. Speaking generally, education aimed at preparing future scientists and engineers for social responsibility is presently very limited and seemingly insufficient in view of the enormous ethical and social problems that are associated with current science and technology. Although many social, political and professional organisations have expressed the need for the provision of teaching for social responsibility, important and persistent barriers stand in the way of its sustained development. What is needed are both bottom-up teaching initiatives from individuals or groups of academic teachers, and top-down support to secure appropriate embedding in the university. Often the latter is lacking or inadequate. Educational policies at the national or international level, such as the Bologna agreements in Europe, can be an opportunity for introducing teaching for social responsibility. However, frequently no or only limited positive effect of such policies can be discerned. Existing accreditation and evaluation mechanisms do not guarantee appropriate attention to teaching for social responsibility, because, in their current form, they provide no guarantee that the curricula pay sufficient attention to

  5. Interdisciplinary Science Courses for College General Education Requirements: Perspectives of Faculty at a State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Pradeep Maxwell

    Science educators have been advocating a broader role for science education--that of helping all students see the relevance of science to their own lives. Yet the only experience with post-secondary science that non-science majors get is through a couple of science courses which are part of the general education requirements (GERs) for a liberal…

  6. Speech Errors as a Window on Language and Thought: A Cognitive Science Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia M.L. Bencini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We are so used to speaking in our native language that we take this ability for granted. We think that speaking is easy and thinking is hard. From the perspective of cognitive science, this view is wrong. Utterances are complex things, and generating them is an act of linguistic creativity, in the face of the computational complexity of the task. On occasion, utterance generation goes awry and the speaker’s output is different from the planned utterance, such as a speaker who says “Fancy getting your model renosed!” when “fancy getting your nose remodeled” was intended. With some notable exceptions (e.g. Fromkin 1971 linguists have not taken speech error data to be informative about speakers’ linguistic knowledge or mental grammars. The paper strives to put language production errors back onto the linguistic data map. If errors involve units such as phonemes, syllables, morphemes and phrases, which may be exchanged, moved around or stranded during spoken production, this shows that they are both representational and processing units. If similar units are converged upon via multiple methods (e.g. native speaker judgments, language corpora, speech error corpora, psycholinguistic experiments those units have stronger empirical support. All other things being equal, theories of language that can account for both representation and processing are to be preferred.

  7. Aging brain from a network science perspective: something to be positive about?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle W Voss

    Full Text Available To better understand age differences in brain function and behavior, the current study applied network science to model functional interactions between brain regions. We observed a shift in network topology whereby for older adults subcortical and cerebellar structures overlapping with the Salience network had more connectivity to the rest of the brain, coupled with fragmentation of large-scale cortical networks such as the Default and Fronto-Parietal networks. Additionally, greater integration of the dorsal medial thalamus and red nucleus in the Salience network was associated with greater satisfaction with life for older adults, which is consistent with theoretical predictions of age-related increases in emotion regulation that are thought to help maintain well-being and life satisfaction in late adulthood. In regard to cognitive abilities, greater ventral medial prefrontal cortex coherence with its topological neighbors in the Default Network was associated with faster processing speed. Results suggest that large-scale organizing properties of the brain differ with normal aging, and this perspective may offer novel insight into understanding age-related differences in cognitive function and well-being.

  8. Communication of emergency public warnings: A social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mileti, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Sorensen, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    More than 200 studies of warning systems and warning response were reviewed for this social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment of communication of emergency public warnings. The major findings are as follows. First, variations in the nature and content of warnings have a large impact on whether or not the public heeds the warning. Relevant factors include the warning source; warning channel; the consistency, credibility, accuracy, and understandability of the message; and the warning frequency. Second, characteristics of the population receiving the warning affect warning response. These include social characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age, social setting characteristics such as stage of life or family context, psychological characteristics such as fatalism or risk perception, and knowledge characteristics such as experience or training. Third, many current myths about public response to emergency warning are at odds with knowledge derived from field investigations. Some of these myths include the keep it simple'' notion, the cry wolf'' syndrome, public panic and hysteria, and those concerning public willingness to respond to warnings. Finally, different methods of warning the public are not equally effective at providing an alert and notification in different physical and social settings. Most systems can provide a warning given three or more hours of available warning time. Special systems such as tone-alert radios are needed to provide rapid warning. 235 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Educators' Perspectives on Female Students' Enrollment in Computer Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibeau, Wendy

    The purpose of this case study was to inquire into educators' perspectives on female students' enrollment in computer science and engineering (CSE) courses. At a high school in New England, girls are significantly underrepresented in CSE courses, a problem that is reflected in schools throughout the United States. As a result, these careers are lacking in input from women, even as the number of CSE professions is increasing. Research questions in this study addressed what teachers, administrators, and guidance counselors think about this growing problem and what changes, if any, they are willing to make to help close this gender gap. Individual interviews and a focus group were used to gather data from 7 participants. The theoretical framework was based on brain research and social theories. Data were then analyzed and coded for themes based on the framework. The results indicated that educators are cognizant of the underrepresentation within their school and have tried individually, but unsuccessfully, to make changes to increase the numbers of girls in CSE courses. In response to these findings, a professional development project was developed that outlines ways for educators to communicate and collaborate to increase girls' representation in CSE courses. Girls, schools, and industry can benefit from the results of this study. If educators can encourage more girls to take CSE courses and provide support for them to be confident and successful, then more girls will go on to major in CSE, which will then lead to an increase in the number of women working in these fields.

  10. Effective teaching in the contexts of Internet science projects: American and Russian teachers' perspectives of best practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Brian

    Statement of the problem. Science education literature had agreed that an important goal in students' learning is the development of scientific and technological literacy. One effort that teachers have integrated into their practices for addressing this goal has been teaching within the contexts of Internet Science Projects. Greater awareness of teachers' perspectives of their best practices and their beliefs and reasons for these practices in the contexts of Internet Science Projects can improve the quality of science education programs. Methods. A series of pilot interviews was conducted during the 2000--2001 school year to develop the guiding questions for inquiring into teachers' perspectives of their best practices within the contexts of Internet Science Projects. This series of interviews resulted in the understanding of the need to select teachers with experiences with Internet Science Projects and to conduct in-depth phenomenological interviews for learning from their voices. Two teachers were purposefully selected as the participant-informants for this study, one an American elementary teacher from Walker County, Georgia, and one a Russian teacher from St. Petersburg, Russia. The study was conducted from October through December 2001. The data collected for this qualitative study consisted of a series of in-depth phenomenological interviews, classroom observations, and the collection and analysis of various artifacts including teacher journals, student products, and e-mail/bulletin board transcripts. The interview structure was based upon a modification of expanding Seidman's (1998) three interview series into multiple interviews concluded upon the determination of saturation of the topic. The series of interviews were composed of (1) life history focus; (2) the details of the experience of teaching within the contexts of Internet Science Projects; and (3) reflection on the meanings. The data analysis consisted of applying Strauss & Corbin's (1990) open

  11. THE SCIENCE OF SCIENCE (NAUKOZNAWSTWO) IN POLAND: THE CHANGING THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES AND POLITICAL CONTEXTS--A HISTORICAL SKETCH FROM THE 1910S TO 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokowski, Michał

    2015-01-01

    The article sketches the history of naukoznawstwo (literally meaning the science connoisseurship or the science of science or science studies) in Poland from the 1910s to the end of the Cold War (1991), and the recovery of full political independence in 1993. It outlines the changing research perspectives of this interdisciplinary field of knowledge in Poland against a background of changing political conditions caused by the reconfigurations of the political order. The first part of the article concerns the period from the 1910s, when Poland was occupied by Russia, Prussia, and Austria, through the regaining of independence by Poland in 1918, the reconstruction of the state in 1918-1939; the second part--World War II; the third part--the period from the initial period of Soviet dominance (1944-1954) in Poland and simultaneously the beginnings of the Cold War (1947-1954), the period 1955-1956 (when the Polish state was liberated from Sovietization), through the different political crises in October 1956, March 1968, December 1970, and June 1976, to the emergence of the Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity in September 1980, the end of the Cold War (1991), and the recovery of full political independence in 1993. The article outlines the fundamental achievements of prominent Polish scholars (among others K. Twardowski, M. Ossowska, S. Ossowski, T. Kotarbiński, K. Ajdukiewicz, S. Michalski, F. Znaniecki, B. Suchodolski, L. Fleck, M. Choynowski, Z. Modzelewski, S. Amsterdamski), politicians (among others B. Bierut, E. Krasowska), politicians and scholars (H. Jabłoński, S. Kulczyński), as well as committees (among others the Academic Section of the Józef Mianowski Fund, The Science of Science Committee of the Polish Academy of Sciences), schools of thought (among others the Lvov-Warsaw School of Philosophy), and academic units (among others the Science of Science Seminar in Kraków, the Department for the History of Science and Technology of the Polish

  12. Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial...... at different time points along this longitudinal investigation are performed with a comprehensive set of omics platforms. These data sets are generated in a biological context, rather than biochemical compound class-driven manner, which we term "systems omics."...

  13. Use of social media and online tools for participative space education and citizen science in India: Perspectives of future space leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aafaque; Sridhar, Apoorva

    2012-07-01

    review with various examples of present existing projects such as Open NASA, Zooniverse, SETI, Google Earth etc. Support these perspectives. Further, the authors put light on how developing countries can benefit from Space outreach and citizen science through Social Media to connect with the society. The paper concludes with various innovative ideas that are derived from the survey and discussions with these prospective space leaders, along with the insights of the authors on future strategies for such approaches in India and other developing nations. Demographically, youth provides the largest user-base to the Social Media and these young future space leaders are expert at using Social Media in their daily life. Thus, it is important that their collective and shared opinion is presented to the present policymakers and leaders of space agencies and industry.

  14. Transitioning a Fundamental Research Program to Align with the NASA Exploration Initiative-Perspectives from Microgravity Combustion Science and Fluid Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Thomas J.; Kohl, Fred J.

    2004-01-01

    A new Vision for Space Exploration was announced earlier this year by U.S. President George W. Bush. NASA has evaluated on-going programs for strategic alignment with this vision. The evaluation proceeded at a rapid pace and is resulting in changes to the scope and focus of experimental research that will be conducted in support of the new vision. The existing network of researchers in the physical sciences - a highly capable, independent, and loosely knitted community - typically have shared conclusions derived from their work within appropriate discipline-specific peer reviewed journals and publications. The initial result of introducing this Vision for Space Exploration has been to shift research focus from a broad coverage of numerous, widely varying topics into a research program focused on a nearly-singular set of supporting research objectives to enable advances in space exploration. Two of these traditional physical science research disciplines, Combustion Science and Fluid Physics, are implementing a course adjustment from a portfolio dominated by "Fundamental Science Research" to one focused nearly exclusively on supporting the Exploration Vision. Underlying scientific and engineering competencies and infrastructure of the Microgravity Combustion Science and Fluid Physics disciplines do provide essential research capabilities to support the contemporary thrusts of human life support, radiation countermeasures, human health, low gravity research for propulsion and materials and, ultimately, research conducted on the Moon and Mars. A perspective on how these two research disciplines responded to the course change will be presented. The relevance to the new NASA direction is provided, while demonstrating through two examples how the prior investment in fundamental research is being brought to bear on solving the issues confronting the successful implementation of the exploration goals.

  15. The science of animal behavior and welfare: challenges, opportunities and global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal welfare science is a relatively new scientific discipline. Originally heavily focused on animal behavior, it has emerged into a truly multi- and inter-disciplinary science, encompassing such sciences as behavior, physiology, pathology, immunology, endocrinology and neuroscience, and influence...

  16. Social behavior in the "Age of Empathy"?-A social scientist's perspective on current trends in the behavioral sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusall, Svenja

    2013-01-01

    Recently, several behavioral sciences became increasingly interested in investigating biological and evolutionary foundations of (human) social behavior. In this light, prosocial behavior is seen as a core element of human nature. A central role within this perspective plays the "social brain" that is not only able to communicate with the environment but rather to interact directly with other brains via neuronal mind reading capacities such as empathy. From the perspective of a sociologist, this paper investigates what "social" means in contemporary behavioral and particularly brain sciences. It will be discussed what "social" means in the light of social neuroscience and a glance into the history of social psychology and the brain sciences will show that two thought traditions come together in social neuroscience, combining an individualistic and an evolutionary notion of the "social." The paper concludes by situating current research on prosocial behavior in broader social discourses about sociality and society, suggesting that to naturalize prosocial aspects in human life is a current trend in today's behavioral sciences and beyond.

  17. New perspectives on interdisciplinary earth science at the Dead Sea: The DESERVE project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kottmeier, Christoph, E-mail: Christoph.Kottmeier@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann von Helmholtz Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Agnon, Amotz [The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem (Israel); Al-Halbouni, Djamil [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Alpert, Pinhas [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv-Yafo (Israel); Corsmeier, Ulrich [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann von Helmholtz Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Dahm, Torsten [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Eshel, Adam [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv-Yafo (Israel); Geyer, Stefan [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research GmbH — UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Haas, Michael; Holohan, Eoghan [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Kalthoff, Norbert [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann von Helmholtz Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Kishcha, Pavel [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv-Yafo (Israel); Krawczyk, Charlotte [Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics (LIAG), Stilleweg 2, 30655 Hannover (Germany); Lati, Joseph [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv-Yafo (Israel); Laronne, Jonathan B. [Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Be' er Sheva (Israel); Lott, Friederike [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann von Helmholtz Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Mallast, Ulf; Merz, Ralf [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research GmbH — UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Metzger, Jutta [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann von Helmholtz Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Mohsen, Ayman [An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine (Country Unknown); and others

    2016-02-15

    satellite image analysis and to geophysical surveys (e.g. shear-wave reflections) has enabled a more detailed characterization of sinkhole morphology and temporal development and the possible subsurface controls thereon. All the above listed efforts and scientific results take place with the interdisciplinary education of young scientists. They are invited to attend joint thematic workshops and winter schools as well as to participate in field experiments. - Graphical abstract: New perspectives on interdisciplinary earth science at the Dead Sea: the DESERVE project. Christoph Kottmeier, Amotz Agnon et al. - Highlights: • An interdisciplinary effort of Earth Sciences in the Dead Sea region is undertaken. • An observation network to monitor long time variability is installed. • Fieldwork and modeling studies on coupled environmental processes • Innovative measurement techniques are applied for the first time to the Dead Sea. • New insights into sinkhole formation, flashflood genesis, and complex wind systems.

  18. New perspectives on interdisciplinary earth science at the Dead Sea: The DESERVE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottmeier, Christoph; Agnon, Amotz; Al-Halbouni, Djamil; Alpert, Pinhas; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Dahm, Torsten; Eshel, Adam; Geyer, Stefan; Haas, Michael; Holohan, Eoghan; Kalthoff, Norbert; Kishcha, Pavel; Krawczyk, Charlotte; Lati, Joseph; Laronne, Jonathan B.; Lott, Friederike; Mallast, Ulf; Merz, Ralf; Metzger, Jutta; Mohsen, Ayman

    2016-01-01

    satellite image analysis and to geophysical surveys (e.g. shear-wave reflections) has enabled a more detailed characterization of sinkhole morphology and temporal development and the possible subsurface controls thereon. All the above listed efforts and scientific results take place with the interdisciplinary education of young scientists. They are invited to attend joint thematic workshops and winter schools as well as to participate in field experiments. - Graphical abstract: New perspectives on interdisciplinary earth science at the Dead Sea: the DESERVE project. Christoph Kottmeier, Amotz Agnon et al. - Highlights: • An interdisciplinary effort of Earth Sciences in the Dead Sea region is undertaken. • An observation network to monitor long time variability is installed. • Fieldwork and modeling studies on coupled environmental processes • Innovative measurement techniques are applied for the first time to the Dead Sea. • New insights into sinkhole formation, flashflood genesis, and complex wind systems

  19. What is a mental disorder? A perspective from cognitive-affective science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J

    2013-12-01

    Defining disease and disorder remains a key conceptual question in philosophy of medicine and psychiatry, and is currently a very practical matter for psychiatric nosology, given the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, and the upcoming International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision. There have been advances in the cognitive-affective science of human categorization, and it is timely to consider implications for our understanding of the category of psychiatric disorder. The category of mental disorder has graded boundaries, and conditions within this category can be conceptualized using MEDICAL or MORAL metaphors. One key set of constructs used in MEDICAL metaphors relates to the notion of dysfunction, and it may, in turn, be useful to conceptualize such dysfunction in evolutionary terms. For typical disorders, it is relatively easy to agree that dysfunction is present. However, for atypical disorders, there may be considerable debate about the presence and extent of dysfunction. Rational arguments can be brought to bear to help decide whether particular entities should be included in our nosologies, and, if so, what their boundaries should be. However, it is appropriate that there should be ongoing debate on diagnostic validity, clinical utility, and other relevant facts and values, for cases that are difficult to decide. The perspective here can be illustrated using many nosological debates within the anxiety disorders and the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, including the question of delineating normal from abnormal anxiety, of deciding whether anxiety is psychiatric or medical, and the debate about the optimal meta-structure for anxiety disorders.

  20. Autonomy, Competence, and Intrinsic Motivation in Science Education: A Self- Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Jason

    The purpose of this study was to examine a proposed motivational model of science achievement based on self-determination theory. The study relied on U.S. eighth-grade science data from the 2007 Third International Mathematics and Science Study to examine a structural model that hypothesized how perceived autonomy support, perceived competence in science, intrinsic motivation, and science achievement related to each other. Mother's education and student gender were used as controls. Findings showed that the hypothesized model provided a good fit to the data. The strongest direct effect on science achievement was students' perceived competence in science. Student intrinsic motivation was shown to have a surprisingly negative effect on science achievement. Autonomy support had positive direct effects on students' perceived competence in science and intrinsic motivation and had indirect positive effects to science achievement. Results and implications for science education are discussed.

  1. The Junior High School Integrated Science: The Actual Teaching Process in the Perspective of an Ethnographer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Kenneth; Ampiah, Joseph Ghartey

    2016-01-01

    Science education at the Basic School (Primary and Junior High School) serves as the foundation upon which higher levels of science education are pivoted. This ethnographic study sought to investigate the teaching of Integrated Science at the Junior High School (JHS) level in the classrooms of two science teachers in two schools of differing…

  2. Content Analysis of Science Books for Upper Primary Stage in Jordan and Intermediate Stage in Saudi Arabia from an Islamic Perspective: Analytical Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldossari, Ali Tarad; Al Khaldi, Jamal Khalil; Altarawneh, Mohammad Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify the current situation of science books in Jordan and Saudi Arabia from an Islamic perspective. For this end, the content analysis approach has been used through the analysis of the unit concept in the science books for the seventh, eighth and ninth grades in the academic year (2015/2016) in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The…

  3. Challenges in horizontal integration of eye care services into the pre-existing rural primary care structure: an operations research perspective from Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Chinyere Nkemdilim Ezisi; Boniface Ikenna Eze; Obiekwe Okoye; Chimdi Memnofu Chuka-Okosa; Jude Obinna Shiweobi

    2017-01-01

    Background . The provision of population-wide, accessible, affordable, acceptable and evenly distributed qualitative eye care services remains a recurrent challenge to eye care organizations worldwide. Objectives . To report the challenges encountered in setting up eye care service in a pre-existing primary health care facility in rural Nigeria and also audit the common causes of eye disorders in rural setting southeast of Nigeria. Material and methods . The study was an operations ...

  4. Reconceptualizing context from a situated perspective: Teacher beliefs and the activity of teaching within the context of science reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Leigh K.

    An increasing interest in illuminating the relationships between context and educational reform has led researchers to examine the various interconnected factors that constitute different teaching contexts and the relationships between these elements and teachers' beliefs. The challenge is to identify those aspects of context that facilitate change in teachers' thinking and the way they approach science instruction. This study investigated the relationships between elementary teachers' science-related beliefs and the external forces within the context of their teaching. Using a situated perspective from which to view context, the activity of teaching and the related beliefs of 2 elementary teachers was examined in an effort to better understand the role of context in teachers' thinking about what science is, what it means to teach and learn science, what is involved in reform-based practices, and what science instruction might look like in their classrooms based on their interpretation of reform. Comparative case studies were developed and analyzed using a constant comparative method of analysis. Cross-ease analyses revealed a number of major themes: (a) teachers' science-related beliefs vary in level of commitment; (b) more deeply held beliefs about what it means to teach and learn science, or guiding beliefs, are profoundly resistant to change and are derived primarily from teachers' personal histories both in and outside of schools; (c) guiding beliefs are also shaped by science methods courses, teacher development, and practical classroom experience; (d) less deeply held beliefs, or perceptions of control, are teachers' beliefs about their ability to teach science according to their guiding beliefs in the presence of physical, social, or structural factors within the context of their teaching; (e) guiding beliefs are likely to override perceptions of control, enabling teachers to adapt their teaching contexts; and (f) although all aspects of context impact

  5. Towards ecoscience: Environmental and sociocultural perspectives in science. Some insights from Uganda, and implications for higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluka, Silas Omoding

    This inquiry thus probed into perceptions about science and its applications towards social change and how these are placed in a broader perspective to capture sociocultural and ecological sustainability. Makerere University and an indigenous rural community of Osukuru were used as the setting for the study as they are the acclaimed targets of Ugandan development policies and programs which seek to move the country out of primitivity and backwardness and into a modernized society. A qualitative methodology involving focus group discussions, interviews and a workshop was employed in exploring perceptions, beliefs, assumptions and insights about science and its role in development and environmental conservation, of indigenous perspectives of development, and ecological well-being, and how these are shaped by various worldviews. With little known about how indigenous knowledge and worldviews could work in concert with modern science and technology in the African setting, the study initiated dialogue among scientists government officials, and rural elders towards appropriate harmonization of modern science and technology with local needs and knowledge ways in that promise ecological sustainability and cultural balance. The data indicated that science in Uganda is predominantly regarded as an exploration of natural phenomena and as a body of facts to be memorized or discovered by students within the defined process skills of scientific inquiry, irrespective of context. The nature of the market economy, its application of science and subsequent impacts on society and the environment were not seen as the responsibility of scientists, science research, or discourse. Rather, they were seen as "problems" for the politicians, industrialists and international or corporate organizations. There were no indications of planning, teaching nor research in science and technology education that explored the linkages and issues related to the interactions of economy, society

  6. Going Beyond Academic Integrity Might Broaden our Understanding of Plagiarism in Science Education: A Perspective from a Study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Christiane C; Santos, Patrícia S Dos; Sant'ana, Maurício C; Masuda, Hatisaburo; Barboza, Monica B; Vasconcelos, Sonia M R

    2017-05-01

    Fostering innovation and creativity is a priority in the science and education policy agenda of most countries, which have advocated that innovative minds and processes will boost scientific and economic growth. While our knowledge society has embraced this view, fostering creativity is among the major challenges faced by educators and policymakers. For example, plagiarism, which may be considered a form of imitation and repetition, is a global concern at schools and universities. However, most discussions focus on academic integrity, which, we believe, leaves some gaps in the approach to the problem. As part of an ongoing project on plagiarism, science and education policy, we show results from a survey sent to 143 high-school science teachers at one of the most highly regarded federal schools in Brazil. Among respondents (n=42), about 50% admit that students plagiarize in assignments. Additionally, many of these educators suggest that the way biology, chemistry and physics are taught at school stimulates more repetition than creativity. Our findings are consistent with the need for a broader perspective on plagiarism and with initiatives to stimulate creativity and critical thinking among students. Although we offer a perspective from Brazil, it may illuminate current discussions on plagiarism, particularly in emerging countries.

  7. Going Beyond Academic Integrity Might Broaden our Understanding of Plagiarism in Science Education: A Perspective from a Study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTIANE C. SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fostering innovation and creativity is a priority in the science and education policy agenda of most countries, which have advocated that innovative minds and processes will boost scientific and economic growth. While our knowledge society has embraced this view, fostering creativity is among the major challenges faced by educators and policymakers. For example, plagiarism, which may be considered a form of imitation and repetition, is a global concern at schools and universities. However, most discussions focus on academic integrity, which, we believe, leaves some gaps in the approach to the problem. As part of an ongoing project on plagiarism, science and education policy, we show results from a survey sent to 143 high-school science teachers at one of the most highly regarded federal schools in Brazil. Among respondents (n=42, about 50% admit that students plagiarize in assignments. Additionally, many of these educators suggest that the way biology, chemistry and physics are taught at school stimulates more repetition than creativity. Our findings are consistent with the need for a broader perspective on plagiarism and with initiatives to stimulate creativity and critical thinking among students. Although we offer a perspective from Brazil, it may illuminate current discussions on plagiarism, particularly in emerging countries.

  8. Una perspectiva ocupacional de la existencia humana desde la proximidad de la muerte = An occupational perspective of the existence since the proximity of human death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrueta Maeztu, Luís María

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Las ocupaciones en que participamos constituyen una de las mimbres más relevantes con que tejemos nuestra vida. El espacio vital que se configura por la cercanía de la muerte, tanto propia como de un ser querido, nos ofrece la posibilidad de mirar nuestras actividades cotidianas, tanto las actuales como las pasadas, desde una perspectiva diferente a la habitual. A su vez, nos permite replantearnos las actividades del futuro. Cuando algún acontecimiento, habitualmente no esperado, despierta en nosotros la lucidez de sentir profundamente la fragilidad de la vida es frecuente que broten en nosotros, y nos invadan, preguntas sobre lo que hemos hecho en nuestra vida y lo que deseamos o consideramos más importante hacer en el tiempo que nos queda. Es por tanto una oportunidad para profundizar en el significado y el sentido que tiene nuestra vida en su conjunto, pero también cada una de las ocupaciones que la configuran y que construyen o interfieren en nuestro bienestar personal.SUMARYOccupations in which we participate are one of the most important basketry that work our life. The living space that is set by the proximity of death, as both itself of a loved one, gives us the opportunity to look at our daily activities, the current and past, from a perspective different from the usual. In turn, enables us to rethink the activities of the future. When any event, not normally expected, awakens in us the wisdom to feel deeply the fragility of life is often erupt in us and invade us, questions about what we have done in our lives and what we want or do we consider most important in the time we have left. It is therefore an opportunity to deepen the meaning and sense as our life as a whole, but also each of the occupations that the shape and building or interfere with our personal well-being.

  9. The Existing Barriers and Infrastructures to Implement Accreditation from the Perspective of Hospitals’ Managers in East Azerbaijan Hospitals: A Mixed Method Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Azami-Aghdash

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and Objectives : The aim of this study was to assess the infrastructures and barriers of effective accreditation in East Azerbaijan hospitals. Material and Methods : In this triangulation (qualitative-quantitative study, all the managers of 43 hospitals in East Azerbaijan were selected. The authors developed an 8-item questionnaire for   quantitative section of the study which its validity was improved by experts’ comments and its reliability was assessed by half-structure methods (9. =α. In addition, two open-ended questions were used in qualitative section of the study. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and ANOVA test using SPSS version 20 statistical software packages. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the responses to the two open-ended questions. Results : Seventy-six percent of the managers agreed to implementation of accreditation in hospitals and believed that accreditation could improve the health services and increase the patient and staff satisfaction. Fifty percent of the participants had lack of required knowledge about the accreditation and they declared that the hospitals managed by them were not prepared to implement accreditation with respect to resources, manager’s commitment, staff skills and knowledge. In Tabriz hospitals, resources and infrastructures were mentioned to exist in a significantly higher proportion than other cities (P Conclusion : Considering the barriers and lack of infrastructures in the hospitals of East Azerbaijan to achieve an effective accreditation, it is essential to eliminate the existing barriers and provide appropriate infrastructures.

  10. [The concept of complementary and alternative medicine from the perspective of the philosophy of science and bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöne-Seifert, Bettina; Reichardt, Jan-Ole; Friedrich, Daniel R; Hucklenbroich, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Decisions about therapeutic interventions to be made by physicians, patients, and healthcare purchasers essentially depend on their classification in a credible context of justification, especially in a world dominated by contradicting experts. To some extent, this framing is done by sorting terms and their undertones, including the case of so-called CAM measures. In this paper, the authors reflect on ways to deal with the term CAM and the underlying supply-side approaches to healthcare from a primarily science-oriented perspective. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. Environment, Science and Innovation. Analysis from the Perspective of Science Studies; Medio Ambiente, Ciencia e Innovación. Análisis desde la Perspectiva de los Estudios Sociales de la Ciencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, A.; Lopera, E.; Cornejo, M.

    2015-07-01

    )Humankind is facing important challenges. Environmental degradation, of which climate change is the main exponent, is one of them. Science and innovation are key factors to address this challenge, in a context in which is becoming more evident the lack of commitment of society with scientific and technological development. Taking this into consideration, this paper analyzes the interaction among environment, science and innovation from the perspective of science studies.

  12. Towards a new learning science for the reinvention of education - A trans-disciplinary perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jörg, T.

    2006-01-01

    At first the question will be addressed why a new learning science is needed. The field of education may be considered as an uninventive discipline, still waiting to become a real science. History has shown the general problem of social sciences to become scientific in its method and approach.

  13. Undergraduate Research-Methods Training in Political Science: A Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Unlike other disciplines in the social sciences, there has been relatively little attention paid to the structure of the undergraduate political science curriculum. This article reports the results of a representative survey of 200 political science programs in the United States, examining requirements for quantitative methods, research methods,…

  14. Autonomy, Competence, and Intrinsic Motivation in Science Education: A Self- Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a proposed motivational model of science achievement based on self-determination theory. The study relied on U.S. eighth-grade science data from the 2007 Third International Mathematics and Science Study to examine a structural model that hypothesized how perceived autonomy support, perceived competence in…

  15. Science Education as Public and Social Wealth: The Notion of Citizenship from a European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siatras, Anastasios; Koumaras, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, (a) we present a framework for developing a science content (i.e., science concepts, scientific methods, scientific mindset, and problem-solving strategies for socio-scientific issues) used to design the new Cypriot science curriculum aiming at ensuring a democratic and human society, (b) we use the previous framework to explore the…

  16. THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED MANIPULATION PROJECT: WATERSHED SCIENCE IN A POLICY PERSPECTIVE. (R825762)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. The challenges of science journalism: The perspectives of scientists, science communication advisors and journalists from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, Douglas James

    2016-04-01

    The news media play an important role in informing the public about scientific and technological developments. Some argue that restructuring and downsizing result in journalists coming under increased pressure to produce copy, leading them to use more public relations material to meet their deadlines. This article explores science journalism in the highly commercialised media market of New Zealand. Using semi-structured interviews with scientists, science communication advisors and journalists, the study finds communication advisors and scientists believe most media outlets, excluding public service media, report science poorly. Furthermore, restructuring and staff cuts have placed the journalists interviewed under increasing pressure. While smaller newspapers appear to be printing press releases verbatim, metropolitan newspaper journalists still exercise control over their use of such material. The results suggest these journalists will continue to resist increasing their use of public relations material for some time to come. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Science and religion: implications for science educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2010-03-01

    A religious perspective on life shapes how and what those with such a perspective learn in science; for some students a religious perspective can hinder learning in science. For such reasons Staver's article is to be welcomed as it proposes a new way of resolving the widely perceived discord between science and religion. Staver notes that Western thinking has traditionally postulated the existence and comprehensibility of a world that is external to and independent of human consciousness. This has led to a conception of truth, truth as correspondence, in which our knowledge corresponds to the facts in this external world. Staver rejects such a conception, preferring the conception of truth as coherence in which the links are between and among independent knowledge claims themselves rather than between a knowledge claim and reality. Staver then proposes constructivism as a vehicle potentially capable of resolving the tension between religion and science. My contention is that the resolution between science and religion that Staver proposes comes at too great a cost—both to science and to religion. Instead I defend a different version of constructivism where humans are seen as capable of generating models of reality that do provide richer and more meaningful understandings of reality, over time and with respect both to science and to religion. I argue that scientific knowledge is a subset of religious knowledge and explore the implications of this for science education in general and when teaching about evolution in particular.

  19. Perspectives of in situ/operando resonant inelastic X-ray scattering in catalytic energy materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yi-Sheng; Glans, Per-Anders; Chuang, Cheng-Hao; Kapilashrami, Mukes; Guo, Jinghua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In-situ/operando soft X-ray RXES and RIXS offer unique perspectives in the energy material science. - Abstract: Growing environmental concerns have renewed the interest for light induced catalytic reactions to synthesize cleaner chemical fuels from syngas. This, however, requires a sound understanding for the dynamics taking place at molecular level as a result of light – matter interaction. We present herein the principles of soft X-ray resonant emission spectroscopy (RXES) and resonant inelastic scattering (RIXS) and the importance of these spectroscopic techniques in materials science in light of their unique ability to emanate characteristic fingerprints on the geometric structure, chemical bonding charge and spin states in addition to chemical sensitivity. The addition of in situ/operando RXES and RIXS capability offers new opportunities to project important material properties and functionalities under conditions nearly identical to the operational modes.

  20. Perspectives of in situ/operando resonant inelastic X-ray scattering in catalytic energy materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yi-Sheng; Glans, Per-Anders [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Chuang, Cheng-Hao [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 250, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kapilashrami, Mukes [Center for Engineering Concepts Development, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Guo, Jinghua, E-mail: jguo@lbl.gov [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • In-situ/operando soft X-ray RXES and RIXS offer unique perspectives in the energy material science. - Abstract: Growing environmental concerns have renewed the interest for light induced catalytic reactions to synthesize cleaner chemical fuels from syngas. This, however, requires a sound understanding for the dynamics taking place at molecular level as a result of light – matter interaction. We present herein the principles of soft X-ray resonant emission spectroscopy (RXES) and resonant inelastic scattering (RIXS) and the importance of these spectroscopic techniques in materials science in light of their unique ability to emanate characteristic fingerprints on the geometric structure, chemical bonding charge and spin states in addition to chemical sensitivity. The addition of in situ/operando RXES and RIXS capability offers new opportunities to project important material properties and functionalities under conditions nearly identical to the operational modes.

  1. Nacherzeugung, Nachverstehen: A phenomenological perspective on how public understanding of science changes by engaging with online media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Friesen, Norm

    2014-10-01

    It is widely acknowledged in science education that everyday understandings and evidence are generally inconsistent with the scientific view of the matter: "heartache" has little to do with matters cardiopulmonary, and a rising or setting sun actually reflects the movements of the earth. How then does a member of the general public, which in many areas of science is characterized as "illiterate" and "non-scientific," come to regard something scientifically? Moreover, how do traditional unscientific (e.g., Ptolemaic) views continue their lives, even many centuries after scientists have overthrown them in what are termed scientific (e.g., Copernican) revolutions? In this study, we develop a phenomenological perspective, using Edmund Husserl's categories of Nacherzeugung and Nachverstehen, which provide descriptive explanations for our observations. These observations are contextualized in a case study using online video and historical materials concerning the motions of the heart and blood to exemplify our explanations. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Science Engagement at the Museum School: Teacher Perspectives on the Contribution of Museum Pedagogy to Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermeyer, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the accounts of science teachers working within the UK's only "museum school" and what they perceive as the benefits and shortcomings of "museum pedagogy" as a process of object-based teaching (and learning). Museum pedagogy is in this context considered for its potential in harmonising informal and formal…

  3. Qualities of effective secondary science teachers: Perspectives of university biology students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Madelon J.

    This research was an attempt to hear the student voice concerning secondary science teacher effectiveness and to share that voice with those who impact the educational process. It was a snapshot of university freshmen biology students' opinions of the qualities of effective secondary science teachers based on their high school science experiences. The purpose of this study was to compile a list of effective secondary science teacher qualities as determined through a purposeful sampling of university second semester biology students and determine the role of the secondary science teacher in promoting interest and achievement in science, as well as the teacher's influence on a students' choice of a science career. The research was a mixed methods design using both quantitative and qualitative data obtained through the use of a 24 question electronic survey. There were 125 participants who provided information concerning their high school science teachers. Respondents provided information concerning the qualities of effective secondary science teachers and influences on the students' present career choice. The quantitative data was used to construct a hierarchy of qualities of effective secondary science teachers, divided into personal, professional, and classroom management qualities. The qualitative data was used to examine individual student responses to questions concerning secondary science teacher effectiveness and student career choice. The results of the research indicated that students highly value teachers who are both passionate about the subject taught and passionate about their students. High school science students prefer teachers who teach science in a way that is both interesting and relevant to the student. It was determined that the greatest influence on a secondary student's career choice came from family members and not from teachers. The secondary teacher's role was to recognize the student's interest in the career and provide encouragement

  4. Challenges in horizontal integration of eye care services into the pre-existing rural primary care structure: an operations research perspective from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinyere Nkemdilim Ezisi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . The provision of population-wide, accessible, affordable, acceptable and evenly distributed qualitative eye care services remains a recurrent challenge to eye care organizations worldwide. Objectives . To report the challenges encountered in setting up eye care service in a pre-existing primary health care facility in rural Nigeria and also audit the common causes of eye disorders in rural setting southeast of Nigeria. Material and methods . The study was an operations research study conducted at Akpuoga-Nike between February and April 2011. Demographic and ophthalmic clinical data were collected. Health system-, community- and patient-determined challenges were catalogued and analyzed using Epi Info Statistical software for Windows, version 6. Univariate analysis was performed for data distribution testing. Analytical statistics were performed, with p < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results . A total of 481 (males, 144 (29.9%; females, 377(70.1% patients aged 42.3 ± 20.2 SD years (range 4–80 years were seen. The leading eye disorders were refractive error – 28.9%, and cataract – 16.4%. The operations challenges encountered included difficulties with community sensitization/advocacies, inadequate infrastructure and mobile equipment, as well as lack of eye care manpower, consumables and funding deficits. Conclusions . Health system-related issues were the main challenges encountered. Recruitment of an adequate number of rural eye care workforce, provision of needed material resources, adequate funding and engendering community participation in rural eye care delivery through grass roots advocacy and health service public education would overcome the challenges.

  5. Silencing of Voices in a Swedish Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos de Robles, S. Lizette

    2018-01-01

    From a sociocultural perspective, I discuss data from a Swedish science classroom presented in María Gómez's article "Student Explanations of their Science Teachers' Assessments, Grading Practices, and How they learn Science". In this discussion, I focus on the need to change existing conceptions of assessment in the teaching and…

  6. Science, Technology, Engineering, Math (STEM) in Higher Education from the Perspective of Female Students: An Institutional Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parson, Laura J.

    A persistent disadvantage for females is systemically embedded in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) education in postsecondary institutions. As a result, undergraduate women majoring in STEM fields face a uniquely difficult path; yet, for the most part, recommendations made and supported in the literature have focused on recruitment of women to STEM fields or on ways to make women more successful and comfortable in their STEM major. These recommendations have so far proved to be insufficient to remedy a gender gap and serve to replicate the existing male hierarchy. In order to truly make the STEM classroom one in which women are welcome and comfortable and to challenge the existing social and scientific systems, it is necessary to explore and understand the social and political implications embedded within teaching and learning choices. This institutional ethnography addresses that gap. The purpose of this study was to uncover and describe the institutional practices of STEM education at a Midwest research university (MRU) from the standpoint of female undergraduate students. Using the framework of feminist standpoint theory, this study explored the everyday "work" of female undergraduate STEM students to provide a unique perspective on the STEM education teaching and learning environment. Data collection began with in-depth interviews with female undergraduate math and physics students. As the institutional processes shaping undergraduate participant experiences were identified, subsequent data collection included classroom observations, additional interviews with students and faculty, and analysis of the texts that mediate these processes (e.g., syllabi and student handbooks). Data analysis followed Carspecken's process of ethnographic data analysis that began with low-level coding, followed by high-level coding, and concluded by pulling codes together through the creation of themes. Analysis of data led to three key findings. First, undergraduate

  7. State and Perspectives of Research in Bulgaria: Problems and Weacknesses in Science Policy [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Toshev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current status of the Bulgarian research sector is analyzed. There are alarming trends both in the system of higher education as well as in the research organizations; some of them are listed. The main problems and weaknesses of the educational and research policy in Bulgaria are under the critic. Phenomena as mcdonaldization of higher education, mass higher education, integration processes in science of XXth century, the transition from the normal to post-normal science, appearance and development of surrogate science, increasing the number of marginal scientific sources, are considered in details. The basic normative science documents are considered and their weak features are exhibited.

  8. The Impacts of the Annual Professional Performance Review in New York State: Science Teachers' and Administrators' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Jessica A.

    The goal of this study was to investigate New York State’s Annual Professional Performance Review (APPR) from the perspectives of secondary science teachers and their administrators. Examining their perceptions through interviews was insightful due to the subjects’ proximity to the teaching and learning processes. Five science teacher/administrator pairs from selected school districts were interviewed; all had varied ranges of experience and content certifications. The study also investigated the unintended consequences the teachers and administrators experienced using the APPR system. This phenomenological research study lays the groundwork for making policy recommendations for science teacher evaluations. The goal was to examine teacher and administrator perceptions, the clarity and practicality of teacher evaluation reforms, as well as how motivational theory might incentivize teacher change through future reform efforts. Provisional coding was used in this study based upon prior research. The list of codes was generated using motivational theories applied to the design of teacher evaluation policy and reform implementation constructs. Although the science teachers agreed with the importance of being evaluated, they generally viewed aspects of the process of quantifying their effectiveness as unclear, unfair, and flawed. The science teachers indicated that student variations in ability and performance were not considered when APPR was established. The science teachers recommended that the focus of teacher evaluations should be on content specific professional development. They proposed the establishment of peer review systems, teacher collaboration networks, and self-reflection documentation as means to improve their science teaching practices. The administrators agreed that accountability was important, however, holding individual teachers accountable for student outcomes was not reliably measured through the APPR process. They recommended other forms of

  9. Teachers Perspective of Using English as a Medium of Instruction in Mathematics and Science Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Norudin; Badarudin, Mohamed Ishak; Mat, Azman Che

    2011-01-01

    The policy of changing the medium of instruction in the teaching of mathematics and science from Bahasa Melayu to English is an important innovation affecting teachers of mathematics and science. It poses special challenges not only for teachers who have been trained in the Malay medium but also for those trained in English. This investigation…

  10. Secondary School Teachers' Perspectives on Teaching about Topics That Bridge Science and Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, Berry; Riga, Fran; Taber, Keith S.; Newdick, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The question of where to locate teaching about the relationships between science and religion has produced a long-running debate. Currently, science and religious education (RE) are statutory subjects in England and are taught in secondary schools by different teachers. This paper reports on an interview study in which 16 teachers gave their…

  11. Housing, Equipment, and Design Research and Scholarship: A Family and Consumer Sciences Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamish, Julia O.; Ahn, Mira; Seiling, Sharon

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of research on housing, equipment, and design (n=333) in the Journal of Home Economics/Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences (1985-2000), Home Economics Research Journal/Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal (1985- 2000), and Housing and Society (1985-1999) found that articles declined by more than 50% and behavior theories were…

  12. Temperature in Science Textbooks: Changes and Trends in Cross-National Perspective (1950-2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtka, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the way the concept of temperature was presented in lower-secondary science textbooks in France, Poland and England at the end of the 1950s and in the 2000s. I draw on history of science, history of education and book history to analyze different treatments of an apparently-similar scientific concept with regard to national…

  13. Impetus and barriers to teaching ocean literacy: A perspective from landlocked middle school science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Amy Larrison

    The demand for a more ocean literate citizenry is growing rapidly in response to an ocean increasingly in peril. Discovering how to include students far removed from the ocean in our teaching about the ocean is imperative to meeting that charge. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the extent to which middle school science teachers in landlocked states addressed important ocean literacy concepts and what they perceived to be barriers and motivators to their doing so. This descriptive study was based on a nation-wide survey of middle school science teachers and content analyses of their most commonly used science textbooks and their state science standards. Data was analyzed quantitatively. Results indicated that landlocked and coastal teachers are similar in terms of their infrequency of teaching about the ocean, yet a number of their perceptions of barriers and motivators to do so vary. The barrier most often mentioned was middle school state science standards, which characteristically ignore the ocean sciences. The results are discussed in terms of their impact on ocean literacy professional development providers, science textbook publishers, and state science standards revision committees.

  14. Computer Support for Knowledge Communication in Science Exhibitions: Novel Perspectives from Research on Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipfer, Kristin; Mayr, Eva; Zahn, Carmen; Schwan, Stephan; Hesse, Friedrich W.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the potentials of advanced technologies for learning in science exhibitions are outlined. For this purpose, we conceptualize science exhibitions as "dynamic information space for knowledge building" which includes three pathways of knowledge communication. This article centers on the second pathway, that is, knowledge…

  15. Room for climate debate : perspectives on the interaction between climate politics, science and the media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluijs, J.P.; van Est, R.; Riphagen, M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study offers a picture of the complex interaction between climate politics, science and the media. During the 1970s and 1980s, politics and the sciences focused increasingly on the climate problem, at the time known as the greenhouse effect. Due to a lack of sufficient scientific

  16. Data science for mental health: a UK perspective on a global challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew M; Stewart, Robert; John, Ann; Smith, Daniel J; Davis, Katrina; Sudlow, Cathie; Corvin, Aiden; Nicodemus, Kristin K; Kingdon, David; Hassan, Lamiece; Hotopf, Matthew; Lawrie, Stephen M; Russ, Tom C; Geddes, John R; Wolpert, Miranda; Wölbert, Eva; Porteous, David J

    2016-10-01

    Data science uses computer science and statistics to extract new knowledge from high-dimensional datasets (ie, those with many different variables and data types). Mental health research, diagnosis, and treatment could benefit from data science that uses cohort studies, genomics, and routine health-care and administrative data. The UK is well placed to trial these approaches through robust NHS-linked data science projects, such as the UK Biobank, Generation Scotland, and the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) programme. Data science has great potential as a low-cost, high-return catalyst for improved mental health recognition, understanding, support, and outcomes. Lessons learnt from such studies could have global implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. School effectiveness in science in Sweden and Norway viewed from a TIMSS perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Wiberg

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Declining achievement in various core subjects has led to a debate on strategies to enhance student achievement. Identifying factors in the school environment that affect student performance in science, are therefore, of vital importance. The aim of this study is to identify school-level factors that are associated with eighth-grade students’ achievement in science based on results from TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2003 and 2007. Because the TIMSS data includes school-level factors at two different time points, we expected to find factors that influence science performance by Swedish and Norwegian students. Multilevel analysis was used, and this framework allowed us to account for the influence of the students’ home backgrounds. After controlling for student background, our results show that there are only a few school-level factors that are associated with student achievement in science, and the influence of these factors differ between Sweden and Norway.

  18. Physiological Measures of Emotion from a Developmental Perspective: State of the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Tracy A.; Buss, Kristin A.; Hastings, Paul D.; Bell, Martha Ann; Diaz, Anjolii; Adam, Emma K.; Miskovic, Vladimir; Schmidt, Louis A.; Feldman, Ruth; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Rigterink, Tami; Strang, Nicole M.; Hanson, Jamie L.; Pollak, Seth D.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Siegle, Greg J.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Kirwan, Michael; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany; Gunnar, Megan R.; Obradovic, Jelena; Boyce, W. Thomas; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Gates, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been a dramatic growth in research examining the development of emotion from a physiological perspective. However, this widespread use of physiological measures to study emotional development coexists with relatively few guiding principles, thus reducing opportunities to move the field forward in innovative ways. The…

  19. Surveys of current status in biomedical science grant review: funding organisations' and grant reviewers' perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroter, Sara; Groves, Trish; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were (a) to describe the current status of grant review for biomedical projects and programmes from the perspectives of international funding organisations and grant reviewers, and (b) to explore funders' interest in developing uniform requirements for grant review...

  20. The Interest of the Diversity of Perspectives and Methodologies in Evaluating the Science Laboratory Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membiela, Pedro; Vidal, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The importance of researching the opinions of students and teachers has been pointed out concerning the improvement of teaching and learning in laboratory environments. In this regard, a study of the laboratory environment was carried out from a diversity of perspectives and methodologies. By means of a questionnaire it was learned that the…

  1. Preservice Teachers' Perspectives on 'Appropriate' K-8 Climate Change and Environmental Science Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    With the release of the Next Generation Science Standards (NRC, 2013), climate change and related environmental sciences will now receive greater emphasis within science curricula at all grade levels. In grades K-8, preparation in foundational content (e.g., weather and climate, natural resources, and human impacts on the environment) and the nature of scientific inquiry will set the groundwork for later learning of climate change in upper middle and high school. These rigorous standards increase pressure on elementary and middle school teachers to possess strong science content knowledge, as well as experience supporting children to develop scientific ideas through the practices of science. It also requires a set of beliefs - about children and the science that is appropriate for them - that is compatible with the goals set out in the standards. Elementary teachers in particular, who often have minimal preparation in the earth sciences (NSF, 2007), and entrenched beliefs about how particular topics ought to be taught (Holt- Reynolds, 1992; Pajares, 1992), including climate change (Bryce & Day, 2013; Lambert & Bleicher, 2013), may face unique challenges in adjusting to the new standards. If teachers hold beliefs about climate change as controversial, for example, they may not consider it an appropriate topic for children, despite its inclusion in the standards. On the other hand, those who see a role for children in efforts to mitigate human impacts on the environment may be more enthusiastic about the new standards. We report on a survey of preservice K-8 teachers' beliefs about the earth and environmental science topics that they consider to be appropriate and inappropriate for children in grades K-3, 4-5, and 6-8. Participants were surveyed on a variety of standards-based topics using terminology that signals publicly and scientifically neutral (e.g. weather, ecosystems) to overtly controversial (evolution, global warming) science. Results from pilot data

  2. Science and data science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blei, David M; Smyth, Padhraic

    2017-08-07

    Data science has attracted a lot of attention, promising to turn vast amounts of data into useful predictions and insights. In this article, we ask why scientists should care about data science. To answer, we discuss data science from three perspectives: statistical, computational, and human. Although each of the three is a critical component of data science, we argue that the effective combination of all three components is the essence of what data science is about.

  3. Science and Technology in Africa: The African Union New Initiative and Financial Support Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezin, Jean-Pierre

    2010-02-01

    Physics, which is widely touted as the most fundamental of the sciences, underpins the progress in all other branches of science and has a wide range of applications in economic development, including in health, energy research, food security, communication technology and climate change. The African Union (AU) Commission articulates the continental vision of its Member States and its programs are designed to directly contribute to its social and economic development and integration efforts. In the area of science and technology the Department has developed Africa's Science and Technology Consolidated Plan of Action as a strategic policy document through the AU system of conference of ministers responsible for science to guide the continent on common priority programs. The programs in this plan of action that have been transformed into bankable projects under the Book of ``lighthouse projects Phase 1'', adequately respond to Africa's challenges and development needs using science. They can be summarized into three main themes: a pan-African university (PAU) initiative (to combine higher education and scientific research as a network of differentiated PAU in each of the five African regions), African research grants (to strengthen the research capacity of the African institutions and upgrading infrastructures, consolidating their accumulated asset of scientific knowledge), popularization of science and technology and promotion of public participation (to build public understanding and raising awareness on science and technology as a driving agent for social and economic progress for Africa and its integration process) and a science and technology institutional capacity building program). This talk will review these programs as well as the vision of the African Development Bank role in it. )

  4. Office of Fusion Energy Sciences. A ten-year perspective (2015-2025)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-01

    The vision described here builds on the present U.S. activities in fusion plasma and materials science relevant to the energy goal and extends plasma science at the frontier of discovery. The plan is founded on recommendations made by the National Academies, a number of recent studies by the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC), and the Administration’s views on the greatest opportunities for U.S. scientific leadership.This report highlights five areas of critical importance for the U.S. fusion energy sciences enterprise over the next decade: 1) Massively parallel computing with the goal of validated whole-fusion-device modeling will enable a transformation in predictive power, which is required to minimize risk in future fusion energy development steps; 2) Materials science as it relates to plasma and fusion sciences will provide the scientific foundations for greatly improved plasma confinement and heat exhaust; 3) Research in the prediction and control of transient events that can be deleterious to toroidal fusion plasma confinement will provide greater confidence in machine designs and operation with stable plasmas; 4) Continued stewardship of discovery in plasma science that is not expressly driven by the energy goal will address frontier science issues underpinning great mysteries of the visible universe and help attract and retain a new generation of plasma/fusion science leaders; 5) FES user facilities will be kept world-leading through robust operations support and regular upgrades. Finally, we will continue leveraging resources among agencies and institutions and strengthening our partnerships with international research facilities.

  5. Challenges and prospects of food science and technology education: Nepal's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartaula, Ghanendra; Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani

    2014-01-01

    Food science and technology education has been running since four decades in Nepal. There is a very slow improvement in the profession. The job opportunities have always been threatened by insiders and outsiders. Academic institutions, government agencies, and food industries themselves are responsible for the quality of food science professionals. Novel and practical methods of teaching should be followed. The government and private organizations should facilitate the recruitment of food technologists. Constant prodding needs to be done for the establishment of a Council with more authority that could monitor all bodies associated with food science professionals. PMID:25493177

  6. Challenges and prospects of food science and technology education: Nepal's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartaula, Ghanendra; Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani

    2014-11-01

    Food science and technology education has been running since four decades in Nepal. There is a very slow improvement in the profession. The job opportunities have always been threatened by insiders and outsiders. Academic institutions, government agencies, and food industries themselves are responsible for the quality of food science professionals. Novel and practical methods of teaching should be followed. The government and private organizations should facilitate the recruitment of food technologists. Constant prodding needs to be done for the establishment of a Council with more authority that could monitor all bodies associated with food science professionals.

  7. University/Science Center Collaborations (A Science Center Perspective): Developing an Infrastructure of Partnerships with Science Centers to Support the Engagement of Scientists and Engineers in Education and Outreach for Broad Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Eric

    2009-03-01

    Science centers, professional associations, corporations and university research centers share the same mission of education and outreach, yet come from ``different worlds.'' This gap may be bridged by working together to leverage unique strengths in partnership. Front-end evaluation results for the development of new resources to support these (mostly volunteer-based) partnerships elucidate the factors which lead to a successful relationship. Maintaining a science museum-scientific community partnership requires that all partners devote adequate resources (time, money, etc.). In general, scientists/engineers and science museum professionals often approach relationships with different assumptions and expectations. The culture of science centers is distinctly different from the culture of science. Scientists/engineers prefer to select how they will ultimately share their expertise from an array of choices. Successful partnerships stem from clearly defined roles and responsibilities. Scientists/engineers are somewhat resistant to the idea of traditional, formal training. Instead of developing new expertise, many prefer to offer their existing strengths and expertise. Maintaining a healthy relationship requires the routine recognition of the contributions of scientists/engineers. As professional societies, university research centers and corporations increasingly engage in education and outreach, a need for a supportive infrastructure becomes evident. Work of TryScience.org/VolTS (Volunteers TryScience), the MRS NISE Net (Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network) subcommittee, NRCEN (NSF Research Center Education Network), the IBM On Demand Community, and IEEE Educational Activities exemplify some of the pieces of this evolving infrastructure.

  8. Teacher perspectives on science literacy in multilingual classrooms –multidisciplinary explorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajer, Maaike; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Tytler, Russell

    using Clarke & Hollingworth (2002) (referred to as C&H) model for analyzing teacher development as connections between teachers personal domain of knowledge and beliefs, practice domain of experimenting in the classroom, domain of consequence including salient student outcomes and the external domain...... that requires multidisciplinary cooperation. The Swedish Science and Literacy Teaching (SALT)project focuses on the questions How do science teachers address literacy skills in classes with secondary students in a multilingual classroom? and How can an explicit focus on literacy development become an integrated...... part of science teachers’ practice and thinking? The multidisciplinary team includes expertise in applied linguistics (text analysis, second language teaching), science pedagogy and teacher professional development. Having gathered the SALT data, the challenge in this phase is in the analysis. How can...

  9. A Tool for Adopting a Different Perspective on Classroom Observation and Feedback on Science Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Lyn

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines the development of a tool designed to take forward the practice of science teachers through subject-specific guidance and discourse that promotes dialogue and deep critical reflection on practice.

  10. Development of engineering and materials science in Pronuclear: retrospective and perspectives for the 80's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydt, H.M.

    1982-01-01

    The evolution of a great number of persons that completed engineering and materials science course, up to 1981, is showed. The Pronuclear, an organ that finances the personel education with emphasis in nuclear engineering, is described. (E.G.) [pt

  11. Perspective: The social science of sustainable bioenergy production in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    The social sciences have made considerable inroads into exploring the politics of environment, land and resources throughout Southeast Asia, yet the social and political character of bioenergy development remains little understood. Current assumptions that bioenergy provides benefits to rural

  12. Young Researchers Advancing Computational Science: Perspectives of the Young Scientists Conference 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Boukhanovsky, Alexander V; Krzhizhanovskaya, Valeria V; Athanassoulis, Gerassimos A; Klimentov, Alexei A; Sloot, Peter M A

    2015-01-01

    We present an annual international Young Scientists Conference (YSC) on computational science http://ysc.escience.ifmo.ru/, which brings together renowned experts and young researchers working in high-performance computing, data-driven modeling, and simulation of large-scale complex systems. The first YSC event was organized in 2012 by the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands and ITMO University, Russia with the goal of opening a dialogue on the present and the future of computational science and its applications. We believe that the YSC conferences will strengthen the ties between young scientists in different countries, thus promoting future collaboration. In this paper we briefly introduce the challenges the millennial generation is facing; describe the YSC conference history and topics; and list the keynote speakers and program committee members. This volume of Procedia Computer Science presents selected papers from the 4th International Young Scientists Conference on Computational Science held on 25 ...

  13. Discovering reality: feminist perspectives on epistemology, metaphysics, methodology, and philosophy of science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harding, Sandra G; Hintikka, Merrill B

    1983-01-01

    ... FOX KELLER / Gender and Science EVELYN FOX KELLER AND CHRISTINE R. GRONTKOWSKI / The Mind's Eye NAOMI SCHEMAN / Individualism and the Objects of Psychology JANE FLAX / Political Philosophy and the Pa...

  14. Sociological and communication-theoretical perspectives on the commercialization of the sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.

    2013-01-01

    Both self-organization and organization are important for the further development of the sciences: the two dynamics condition and enable each other. Commercial and public considerations can interact and "interpenetrate" in historical organization; different codes of communication are then

  15. Consistency from the perspective of an experimental systems approach to the sciences and their epistemic objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jörg Rheinberger

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the development of the modern sciences is rooted in experiment. Yet for a long time, experimentation did not occupy a prominent role, neither in philosophy nor in history of science. With the 'practical turn' in studying the sciences and their history, this has begun to change. This paper is concerned with systems and cultures of experimentation and the consistencies that are generated within such systems and cultures. The first part of the paper exposes the forms of historical and structural coherence that characterize the experimental exploration of epistemic objects. In the second part, a particular experimental culture in the life sciences is briefly described as an example. A survey will be given of what it means and what it takes to analyze biological functions in the test tube.

  16. A Report to the President: Analytic Perspectives on the Science and Technology Issues Facing the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Initiatives CAROLINE WAGNER Research Planning and OSTP Coordination LISA SHELDONE Research Administration and Financial Management DAVID ADAMSON...Communications LISA NEUFELD Contract Administration and Financial Management REVIEWS FROM S&T POLICY INSTITUTE PROJECT SPONSORS “The Science & Technology Policy...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Science and Technology Policy Instituite , RAND, 1200 South Hayes St

  17. The changing roles of science in managing Australian droughts: An agricultural perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Howden; Serena Schroeter; Steven Crimp; Ivan Hanigan

    2014-01-01

    As the driest inhabited continent with a highly variable climate, Australia has had a long and evolving history of drought management in agriculture. This paper analyses the changing roles of science in the management of climate risk and uncertainty and how this may continue into the future. Initially science had a role in documenting the underlying nature of Australia׳s climate, and later broadening the understanding around the drivers of variability so as to provide useful climate forecasts...

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Science and Chemistry Textbooks for Indicators of Reform: A complementary perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahveci, Ajda

    2010-07-01

    In this study, multiple thematically based and quantitative analysis procedures were utilized to explore the effectiveness of Turkish chemistry and science textbooks in terms of their reflection of reform. The themes gender equity, questioning level, science vocabulary load, and readability level provided the conceptual framework for the analyses. An unobtrusive research method, content analysis, was used by coding the manifest content and counting the frequency of words, photographs, drawings, and questions by cognitive level. The context was an undergraduate chemistry teacher preparation program at a large public university in a metropolitan area in northwestern Turkey. Forty preservice chemistry teachers were guided to analyze 10 middle school science and 10 high school chemistry textbooks. Overall, the textbooks included unfair gender representations, a considerably higher number of input and processing than output level questions, and high load of science terminology. The textbooks failed to provide sufficient empirical evidence to be considered as gender equitable and inquiry-based. The quantitative approach employed for evaluation contrasts with a more interpretive approach, and has the potential in depicting textbook profiles in a more reliable way, complementing the commonly employed qualitative procedures. Implications suggest that further work in this line is needed on calibrating the analysis procedures with science textbooks used in different international settings. The procedures could be modified and improved to meet specific evaluation needs. In the Turkish context, next step research may concern the analysis of science textbooks being rewritten for the reform-based curricula to make cross-comparisons and evaluate a possible progression.

  19. Cloning humans? Current science, current views, and a perspective from Christianity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Rudolf B

    2002-01-01

    Therapeutic cloning is urgent and should be vigorously supported. To successfully argue for this position, the distinction between a human embryo and a human nuclear transplant may be helpful. Even if current technical difficulties should be solved, global legislation should prohibit cloning for the purpose of fabricating babies. This position originates from a view on human nature in general and from a Christian perspective in particular.

  20. Developing science talent in minority students: Perspectives of past participants in a summer mentorship program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Dale Bishop

    The underrepresentation of women and ethnic minorities in science has been well documented. Research efforts are directed toward understanding the high attrition rate in science course selection as students advance through high school and college. The attrition rate is especially high for females and minority students. Since 1980 the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Connecticut has conducted a "Minority Research Apprentice Program" to attract students by expanding their knowledge of research and technology. The goal of the program is to encourage students from underrepresented groups to eventually select careers in the field of science. This qualitative study of past participants explored factors that related to students' decisions to pursue or not to pursue careers in science. Descriptive statistics and qualitative data collected from surveys and interviews of twenty former apprentices, along with comparative case studies of four selected individuals, revealed the educational interventions, personal traits and social supports that helped guide students' eventual career choice decisions. Participation in gifted programs, advanced placement courses, and talented high school science teachers all played a critical role in assisting these individuals in developing their potential interest. Qualitative data revealed the role of the Minority Research Apprentice Program played in helping talented individuals gain an appreciation of the nature of scientific research through apprenticeship and involvement with authentic projects. For all those involved, it assisted them in clarifying their eventual career choices. Individuals identified the lack of challenge of the introductory science courses, the commitment science requires, and the nature of laboratory work as reasons for leaving the field. Females who left science switched majors more frequently than males. Qualitative data revealed the dilemma that multipotentiality and lack of career counseling

  1. Conditions for a Possible Dialogue between Theology and Science from the Perspective of the Concept of Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saplacan Calin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Is there a way without conquests and wars to be found in the relationship of theology and science? This relation is analyzed from the perspective of the concept of frontier in order to establish the conditions for a possible dialogue. Paradoxically, the frontier unites and divides at the same time. On the one hand, the frontier marks the differences, on the other hand it appears as a crossing, a passageway. The frontier is an in-between, a huge space in which the two sides are called together to explain each other, and in order to create a passage between the two sides. The methodological framework of analysis is the approach of analytical theology to distinctions in language and significance. As a frame of reference, the possibility conditions for a philosophical dialogue between phenomenology and analytical philosophy have been considered.

  2. The changing roles of science in managing Australian droughts: An agricultural perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Howden

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As the driest inhabited continent with a highly variable climate, Australia has had a long and evolving history of drought management in agriculture. This paper analyses the changing roles of science in the management of climate risk and uncertainty and how this may continue into the future. Initially science had a role in documenting the underlying nature of Australia׳s climate, and later broadening the understanding around the drivers of variability so as to provide useful climate forecasts and developing metrics to measure and compare the severity of extreme climatic events. Over time this has shifted to providing effective integrating approaches to enhance social cohesion, rural economies, environmental protection, health, and food security under drought conditions. Institutional responses initially framed drought as a natural disaster, for which State and Federal funding for farmers was distributed; however, the need for farmers to proactively manage climate risk and build adaptive capacity has resulted in climate variability being seen as a risk to be managed as part of normal practise. The formulation of a national drought policy in 1992 placed responsibility for adaptation and education in the hands of the farmers, where science played various roles, including the provision of training for strategic business planning and decision-making, methods of managing uncertainty as well as via delivery of climate data and methods to integrate this into meaningful information that is embedded into the social and institutional processes through which decisions are made. This policy continues to evolve and science inputs will evolve with this. In particular, we anticipate that ongoing and projected climate changes will impact on drought frequency and severity and will require science integrated with stakeholder input into developing climate adaptation practices and technologies and effective adoption paths particularly to deal with climate extremes

  3. Mundane science use in a practice theoretical perspective: Different understandings of the relations between citizen-consumers and public communication initiatives build on scientific claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkier, Bente

    2015-08-13

    Public communication initiatives play a part in placing complicated scientific claims in citizen-consumers' everyday contexts. Lay reactions to scientific claims framed in public communication, and attempts to engage citizens, have been important subjects of discussion in the literatures of public understanding and public engagement with science. Many of the public communication initiatives, however, address lay people as consumers rather than citizens. This creates specific challenges for understanding public engagement with science and scientific citizenship. The article compares five different understandings of the relations between citizen-consumers and public issue communication involving science, where the first four types are widely represented in the Public Understanding of Science discussions. The fifth understanding is a practice theoretical perspective. The article suggests how the public understanding of and engagement in science literature can benefit from including a practice theoretical approach to research about mundane science use and public engagement. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. A knowledge transfer scheme to bridge the gap between science and practice: an integration of existing research frameworks into a tool for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Evert; Voogt, Nelly; Bruinsma, Anja; Finch, Caroline F

    2014-04-01

    Evidence of effectiveness does not equal successful implementation. To progress the field, practical tools are needed to bridge the gap between research and practice and to truly unite effectiveness and implementation evidence. This paper describes the Knowledge Transfer Scheme integrating existing implementation research frameworks into a tool which has been developed specifically to bridge the gap between knowledge derived from research on the one side and evidence-based usable information and tools for practice on the other.

  5. Abused women's vulnerability in daily life and in contact with psychiatric care: In the light of a caring science perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örmon, Karin; Hörberg, Ulrica

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study is to deepen the understanding of abused women's vulnerability in relation to how the abuse and encounters with health care professionals affect life. A further aim is to highlight abused women's vulnerability with a caring science perspective. Experience of abuse has consequences for the mental health of women and girls. Abused women may experience health care as unsupportive, and as a result, often chose not to disclose their experiences of abuse. The results of two qualitative empirical studies were analysed along with a phenomenological meaning analysis in accordance with the methodological principles of Reflective Lifeworld Research. Living one's life with experiences of abuse implies vulnerability, which can prevent abused women from achieving good health. This vulnerability results from insecurity regarding identity, along with the sense that one could have been a different individual if it were not for the abuse and thereby have a more fair chance in life. Being cared for within general psychiatric care could further increase this vulnerability. The healthcare professional's ability to care for the women who have experienced abuse leads to either an encounter of trust or else further suffering for the women. A lifeworld-oriented caring science perspective as a foundation for care can contribute to care for abused women which reaches the existential dimensions of their vulnerability and vulnerable life situation. It is evident that healthcare professionals should deepen their understanding of how abused women live, within a general psychiatric context. This study enables a deeper understanding of abused women's vulnerability in relation to how the abuse and encounters with healthcare professionals affect life. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A Non-science Major Undergraduate Seminar on the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS): A Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherford, V. L.; Redemann, J.

    2003-12-01

    Titled "Observing Climate Change From Space-what tools do we have?", this non-science major freshman seminar at UCLA is the culmination of a year-long interdisciplinary program sponsored by the Institute of the Environment and the College Honors programs at the University. Focusing on the anthropogenic and natural causes of climate change, students study climate forcings and learn about satellite and other technological means of monitoring climate and weather. NASA's Terra satellite is highlighted as one of the most recent and comprehensive monitoring systems put into space and the role of future NASA platforms in the "A-train"-constellation of satellites is discussed. Course material is typically presented in a Power-Point presentation by the instructor, with assigned supplementary reading to stimulate class discussion. In addition to preparing lectures for class presentation, students work on a final term paper and oral presentation which constitutes the majority of their grade. Field trips to the San Gabriel mountains to take atmospheric measurements with handheld sunphotometers and to JPL, Pasadena (CA) to listen to a NASA scientist discuss the MISR instrument aboard the Terra satellite help bring a real-world perspective to the science learned in the classroom. In this paper, we will describe the objectives and structure of this class and present measurement results taken during the field trip to the San Gabriel Mountains. In this context we will discuss the potential relevance of hands-on experience to meeting class objectives and give a student perspective of the overall class experience.

  7. Affective science perspectives on cancer control: Strategically crafting a mutually beneficial research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A.; McDonald, Paige Green; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    Cancer control research involves the conduct of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences to reduce cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality, and improve quality of life. Given the importance of behavior in cancer control, fundamental research is necessary to identify psychological mechanisms underlying cancer risk, prevention, and management behaviors. Cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are often emotionally-laden. As such, affective science research to elucidate questions related to basic phenomenological nature of emotion, stress, and mood is necessary to understand how cancer control can be hindered or facilitated by emotional experiences. To date, the intersection of basic affective science research and cancer control remains largely unexplored. The goal of this paper is to outline key questions in the cancer control research domain that provide an ecologically valid context for new affective science discoveries. We also provide examples of ways in which basic affective discoveries could inform future cancer prevention and control research. These examples are not meant to be exhaustive or prescriptive, but instead are offered to generate creative thought about the promise of a cancer research context for answering basic affective science questions. Together, these examples provide a compelling argument for fostering collaborations between affective and cancer control scientists. PMID:25987511

  8. TEACHERS PERSPECTIVE OF USING ENGLISH AS A MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION IN MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norudin Mansor

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The policy of changing the medium of instruction in the teaching of mathematics and science from Bahasa Melayu to English is an important innovation affecting teachers of mathematics and science. It poses special challenges not only for teachers who have been trained in the Malay medium but also for those trained in English. This investigation seeks to find out the achievement of students in mathematic and science subjects after considering the impact of prominent independent variables such as, the school, class and home environment, the teaching methodology and the teachers’ attitude. Analysis of the development in the state of Terengganu has been carried out by the distribution of questionnaires to teachers involved. Result of the correlation and multiple regressions indicated that all the three factors are significantly associated towards students’ achievement. However, the teaching methodology indicated a low level of moderate correlation which is believed to be the immediate issue that needed to be addressed in the new system.

  9. Editors’ Overview Perspectives on Teaching Social Responsibility to Students in Science and Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandvoort, Henk; Bird, Stephanie J.; Børsen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    . If the social responsibility of scientists and engineers implies a duty to safeguard or promote a peaceful, just and sustainable world society, then science and engineering education should empower students to fulfil this responsibility. The contributions to this special issue present European examples...... of teaching social responsibility to students in science and engineering, and provide examples and discussion of how this teaching can be promoted, and of obstacles that are encountered. Speaking generally, education aimed at preparing future scientists and engineers for social responsibility is presently...... very limited and seemingly insufficient in view of the enormous ethical and social problems that are associated with current science and technology. Although many social, political and professional organisations have expressed the need for the provision of teaching for social responsibility, important...

  10. Malaysian perspective on the contribution of nuclear science and technology to national development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alang Md Rashid, Nahrul Khair [Unit Tenaga Nuklear, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1994-04-01

    The development of nuclear science and technology in Malaysia began with the inception of The Nuclear Energy Unit (UTN) in 1972. In 1985, the Atomic Energy Licensing Board was set up as a regulatory body to enforce the Atomic Energy Licensing Act. Ten years after UTN`s establishment, the first of its major facilities, a one Megawatt TRIGA MkII nuclear research reactor (RTP), was commissioned. This is the first step of any type of nuclear reactor for Malaysia. The healthy development of peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology in malaysia has enabled UTN to acquire several other major facilities. These facilities support research and development, in line with UTN`s mission, viz, to enhance national development through the applications of nuclear science and technology. This paper describes selected activities at UTN and some of its successes in linking the results of research and development to real-world applications through services and/or technology transfers.

  11. Malaysian perspective on the contribution of nuclear science and technology to national development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid

    1994-01-01

    The development of nuclear science and technology in Malaysia began with the inception of The Nuclear Energy Unit (UTN) in 1972. In 1985, the Atomic Energy Licensing Board was set up as a regulatory body to enforce the Atomic Energy Licensing Act. Ten years after UTN's establishment, the first of its major facilities, a one Megawatt TRIGA MkII nuclear research reactor (RTP), was commissioned. This is the first step of any type of nuclear reactor for Malaysia. The healthy development of peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology in malaysia has enabled UTN to acquire several other major facilities. These facilities support research and development, in line with UTN's mission, viz, to enhance national development through the applications of nuclear science and technology. This paper describes selected activities at UTN and some of its successes in linking the results of research and development to real-world applications through services and/or technology transfers

  12. Perspectives on learning through research on critical issues-based science center exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Erminia G.

    2004-07-01

    Recently, science centers have created issues-based exhibitions as a way of communicating socioscientific subject matter to the public. Research in the last decade has investigated how critical issues-based installations promote more robust views of science, while creating effective learning environments for teaching and learning about science. The focus of this paper is to explore research conducted over a 10-year period that informs our understanding of the nature of learning through these experiences. Two specific exhibitions - Mine Games and A Question of Truth - provide the context for discussing this research. Findings suggest that critical issues-based installations challenge visitors in different ways - intellectually and emotionally. They provide experiences beyond usual phenomenon-based exhibitions and carry the potential to enhance learning by personalizing subject matter, evoking emotion, stimulating dialogue and debate, and promoting reflexivity. Critical issues-based exhibitions serve as excellent environments in which to explore the nature of learning in these nonschool settings.

  13. An Evaluation of Integrated Curriculum as It Exists in Mathematics and Science SSS as Well as the Subsequent Supportive Presentation of Those Standards in Eighth Grade Mathematics and Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Clara Joanne Schneberger

    2010-01-01

    This study attempted to verify points of intersection (POIs) between mathematics and science in the eighth grade Sunshine State Standards (SSS), and to develop a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate these POIs as they were presented in the respective mathematics and science textbooks approved for use in Florida public schools. Shannon and…

  14. The questions of scientific literacy and the challenges for contemporary science teaching: An ecological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung

    This study began with questions about how science education can bring forth humanity and ethics to reflect increasing concerns about controversial issues of science and technology in contemporary society. Discussing and highlighting binary epistemological assumptions in science education, the study suggests embodied science learning with human subjectivity and integrity between knowledge and practice. The study questions (a) students' understandings of the relationships between STSE and their everyday lifeworld and (b) the challenges of cultivating scientific literacy through STSE teaching. In seeking to understand something about the pedagogical enactment of embodied scientific literacy that emphasizes the harmony of children's knowledges and their lifeworlds, this study employs a mindful pedagogy of hermeneutics. The intro- and intra-dialogical modes of hermeneutic understanding investigate the pedagogical relationship of parts (research texts of students, curriculum, and social milieu) and the whole (STSE teaching in contemporary time and place). The research was conducted with 86 Korean 6 graders at a public school in Seoul, Korea in 2003. Mixed methods were utilized for data collection including a survey questionnaire, a drawing activity, interviews, children's reflective writing, and classroom teaching and observation. The research findings suggest the challenges and possibilities of STSE teaching as follows: (a) children's separated knowledge from everyday practice and living, (b) children's conflicting ideas between ecological/ethical aspects and modernist values, (c) possibilities of embodied knowing in children's practice, and (d) teachers' pedagogical dilemmas in STSE teaching based on the researcher's experiences and reflection throughout teaching practice. As further discussion, this study suggests an ecological paradigm for science curriculum and teaching as a potential framework to cultivate participatory scientific literacy for citizenship in

  15. Perspectives on Policy and the Value of Nursing Science in a Big Data Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Sheila M; Davis, Mary; Shea, Kimberly

    2018-01-01

    As data volume explodes, nurse scientists grapple with ways to adapt to the big data movement without jeopardizing its epistemic values and theoretical focus that celebrate while acknowledging the authority and unity of its body of knowledge. In this article, the authors describe big data and emphasize ways that nursing science brings value to its study. Collective nursing voices that call for more nursing engagement in the big data era are answered with ways to adapt and integrate theoretical and domain expertise from nursing into data science.

  16. Where are the female science professors? A personal perspective [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shina Caroline Lynn Kamerlin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The first woman to earn a Professorship at a University in Europe was Laura Maria Caterina Bassi, who earned a professorship in physics at the University of Bologna in 1732. Almost 300 years and three waves of feminism later, in 2016, women typically still only comprise 20% (or less of the number of full professors in Europe. This opinion article will discuss the experiences of being a female academic today and the factors contributing to the academic gender gap from the perspective of a “young” natural scientist, as well as providing constructive suggestions for strategies to empower women in the academic world.

  17. Where are the female science professors? A personal perspective [version 2; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shina Caroline Lynn Kamerlin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The first woman to earn a Professorship at a University in Europe was Laura Maria Caterina Bassi, who earned a professorship in physics at the University of Bologna in 1732. Almost 300 years and three waves of feminism later, in 2016, women typically still only comprise 20% (or less of the number of full professors in Europe. This opinion article will discuss the experiences of being a female academic today and the factors contributing to the academic gender gap from the perspective of a “young” natural scientist, as well as providing constructive suggestions for strategies to empower women in the academic world.

  18. Students' Conceptions of the Nature of Science: Perspectives from Canadian and Korean Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeran; Nielsen, Wendy; Woodruff, Earl

    2014-01-01

    This study examined and compared students' understanding of nature of science (NOS) with 521 Grade 8 Canadian and Korean students using a mixed methods approach. The concepts of NOS were measured using a survey that had both quantitative and qualitative elements. Descriptive statistics and one-way multivariate analysis of variances examined the…

  19. Scientometric mapping of vacuum research in nuclear science and technology: a global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kademani, B S; Sagar, A; Kumar, A; Kumar, V

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to analyse the growth and development of Vacuum research in Nuclear Science and Technology, as reflected in publication output covered by International Nuclear Information System (INIS) database during 2002-2006. A total of 12027 papers were published in the field of vacuum science. United States topped the list with 1936 (16.10%) publications followed by Japan with 1770 (14.70%) publications, The highest number of publications (3276) were published in 2004. The average number of publications published per year were 2405.4. The highest number of publications were in 'Physics of Elementary Particles and Fields' with 2644 (21.98%) publications. The authorship and collaboration trend is towards multi-authored papers. The highly productive institutions were: Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan) with 366 publications, University of Tokyo (Japan) with 274 publications, Hiroshima University (Japan) with 245 publications, Osaka University Japan (Japan) with 224 publications and Chinese Academy of Science (P-R-China) with 223 publications. The most preferred journals for publication were: Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology-A with 857 papers, Physical Review -D with 765 papers, Journal of High Energy Physics with 500 papers, Thin Solid Films with 311 papers, Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena with 309 papers, and AIP Conference Proceedings with 308 papers

  20. The Emergence of Liberal Arts and Sciences Education in Europe: A Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wende, Marijk

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the question of why liberal arts and sciences education has been (re-)emerging in Europe over roughly the last two decades. A period, which is also characterized by the Bologna Process, that is the introduction of distinct undergraduate--graduate degree cycles, and the explicit framing of higher education policies within the…

  1. Perspectives of German and US Students as They Make Meaning of Science in Their Everyday Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preczewski, Paul J.; Mittler, Alexandra; Tillotson, John W.

    2009-01-01

    Scientific literacy is a major educational and political goal worldwide, yet the development and enhancement of scientific literacy is not well understood. In order to better understand scientific literacy at the level of everyday science meaning making and a person's ability to address scientific questions and issues, this study reports on…

  2. The Music of the Spheres: Cross-Curricular Perspectives on Music and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, George L.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of music and science is embodied in the music of the spheres, the ancient concept that the universe is ordered in a manner consistent with principles of musical harmony. This idea boasts a long history, from the teachings of Pythagoras (ca. 600 BC) through Isaac Newton in the eighteenth century, and makes a fascinating…

  3. Historical review, present status and perspectives of nuclear sciences education at the Sofia University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djingova, R.; Kuleff, I.; Todorovsky, D.; Kovacheva, P.; Tsankov, L.; Staevski, K.; Tsenov, R.

    2004-01-01

    A brief review of the history of the education in nuclear sciences at the Faculty of Physics and Faculty of Chemistry of the Sofia University is made in the report. The present status of Bachelor, Master and PhD programmes in both Faculties is presented. (authors)

  4. A View of Oral Communication Activities in Food Science from the Perspective of a Communication Researcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrchota, Denise Ann

    2015-01-01

    Food science researchers have pronounced the Institute of Food Technologists Success Skills to be the most important competency mastered by graduates entering the work force. Much of the content and outcomes of the Success Skills pertains to oral communication skills of public speaking and interpersonal and group communication. This qualitative…

  5. Sociological and Communication-Theoretical Perspectives on the Commercialization of the Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2013-01-01

    Both self-organization and organization are important for the further development of the sciences: the two dynamics condition and enable each other. Commercial and public considerations can interact and "interpenetrate" in historical organization; different codes of communication are then "recombined". However,…

  6. An Exploratory Analysis of TPACK Perceptions of Pre-Service Science Teachers: A Regional Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Vicente Chua, Jr.; Rizk, Nadya; Gregory, Sue; Doyle, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Four distinct constructs were identified from a survey of a sample of pre-service science teachers at a regional Australian University. The constructs emerged after employing Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) on respondents' perceptions of pedagogical practices incorporating the use of Information Communication and Technology (ICT). The key…

  7. Behavioral science priorities in residency education: The perspective of practicing family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt-Kreutz, Richard L; Ferguson, Kyle E; Sawyer, Devin

    2015-12-01

    The family medicine residency behavioral science curriculum is more effective if prioritized to match what is needed in practice after graduation. Two prior studies (Kendall, Marvel, & Cruickshank, 2003; Marvel & Major, 1999) identified physician priorities for behavioral science education. The present study extends this research to include topics from more recent curriculum guidelines and examines the extent to which size of community and perceived competence correlate with prioritization of Washington state family physicians. Practicing family physicians in Washington state (N = 2,270) were invited to complete the survey. Respondents provided demographic and practice information. Respondents then rated, on a scale from 1 to 4, 35 behavioral science topics on 2 different scales including (a) priority to be given in residency education and (b) perceived level of competence. A total of 486 responded and 430 completed both priority and competence scales for a response rate of 19%. The top half of 35 topics of the present study included the top 13 topics found in the 2 prior studies. Priority and competence scales were moderately correlated (r = .48, n = 430, p = .001). There was a small significant correlation with size of community and priority ratings (r = .13, n = 435, p = .006). Family physicians in Washington state prioritize behavioral science topics in residency education similar to Colorado and Mississippi. The results of this study support recent ACGME guidelines, in that training should focus on common psychiatric illnesses, including depression and anxiety, and interpersonal processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The Federal Role in Education and the Rise of Social Science Research: Historical and Comparative Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadie, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the rise of social science research in education typically focus on the Progressive Era, from 1890 to 1930, the period in which the American Educational Research Association (AERA) was founded. As central as this story is to the intellectual history of education as a field, however, it obscures an earlier set of events that arguably is…

  9. Sociocultural Perspective of Science in Online Learning Environments. Communities of Practice in Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Niyazi

    2016-01-01

    Present study reviews empirical research studies related to learning science in online learning environments as a community. Studies published between 1995 and 2015 were searched by using ERIC and EBSCOhost databases. As a result, fifteen studies were selected for review. Identified studies were analyzed with a qualitative content analysis method…

  10. Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006 and Scientific Literacy: A Perspective for Science Education Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the idea of scientific literacy as defined in PISA, discusses relevant results of PISA, and clarifies meaningful relationships between PISA data and scientific competencies of U.S. students. Finally, the author includes insights and recommendations for contemporary leadership in science education. (Contains 8 tables and 1…

  11. When are Racial Disparities in Education the Result of Racial Discrimination? A Social Science Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin

    2003-01-01

    Synthesizes the social science research on racially correlated disparities in education, focusing on biological determinism (behavioral genetics); social structure (e.g., reproduction theory and resistance theory); school organization and opportunities to learn (e.g., resources, racial composition, and tracking); family background (financial,…

  12. Research as Praxis: Perspectives on Interpreting Data from a Science and Indigenous Knowledge Systems Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhalevilo, Emilia Afonso; Ogunniyi, Meshach

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a reflection on an aspect of research methodology, particularly on the interpretation strategy of data from a Science and Indigenous Knowledge Systems Project (SIKSP) in a South African university. The data interpretation problem arose while we were analysing the effects of a series of SIKSP-based workshops on the views of a…

  13. Social Situation of Development: Parents Perspectives on Infants-Toddlers' Concept Formation in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Shukla

    2015-01-01

    The social situation of development (SSD) specific to each age determines regularly the whole picture of the child's life. Therefore, we need to learn about the whole context surrounding children relevant to their development. The focus of the study is to understand parent's views on infant-toddler's science concept formation in the family…

  14. Video Game Player Profiles: Bridging Industry, Game Studies and Social Science Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    For decades, game designers and game studies experts have largely sought to understand video game players through a lens of experience and observation. Meanwhile, social science research has focused on the empirical understanding of video game players using a variety of psychological constructs. This study focuses on the creation and evaluation of…

  15. The Manifesto for Extension and Engagement: A Perspective on Family and Consumer Sciences for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jan B.; Chamberlin, Barbara; Devall, Esther; Dinstel, Roxie; Hauser-Lindstrom, Doreen; Petty, Barbara D.

    2017-01-01

    Extension professionals in the Western Region proclaimed The Timberline Manifesto at their 100-year celebration, "Centennial on the Summit," at Mount Hood, OR, in 2014. Family and consumer sciences (FCS) leaders relate this platform to the future of FCS: our opportunities for success in engagement, integration, technology, demand-driven…

  16. Teachers Training Teachers: Four Perspectives on an Innovative Mentoring Program for Intern Science Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Christine L.; Harris, Jerilyn; Barrios, David; O'Connor, Heather; Fong, Jennifer

    The Graduate School of Education (GSE) at the University of California at Berkeley (UCB), the San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD), and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have collaborated to pilot an on-site training and mentoring program for intern science teachers. Exit interviews suggest that its innovative mentoring…

  17. Creating university spin-offs: a science-based design perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van J.C.; Romme, A.G.L.; Gilsing, V.A.; Reymen, I.M.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Academic entrepreneurship by means of university spin-offs commercializes technological breakthroughs, which may otherwise remain unexploited. However, many universities face difficulties in creating spin-offs. This article adopts a science-based design approach to connect scholarly research with

  18. Creating university spin-offs : a science-based design perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van J.C.; Romme, A.G.L.; Gilsing, V.A.; Reymen, I.M.M.J.; Dan Remenyi, xx

    2007-01-01

    Academic entrepreneurship by means of university spin-offs commercializes technological breakthroughs, which may otherwise remain unexploited. However, many universities face difficulties in creating spin-offs. This article adopts a science-based design approach, to connect scholarly research with

  19. An Investigation of the Goals for an Environmental Science Course: Teacher and Student Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation uses an ethnographic case study approach to explore the benefits and challenges of including a variety of goals within a high school Environmental Science curriculum. The study focuses on environmental education (EE) goals established by the Belgrade Charter (1975), including developing students' environmental awareness and…

  20. Young Researchers Advancing Computational Science: Perspectives of the Young Scientists Conference 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boukhanovsky, A.V.; Ilyin, V.A; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Athanassoulis, G.A.; Klimentov, A.A.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    We present an annual international Young Scientists Conference (YSC) on computational science http://ysc.escience.ifmo.ru/, which brings together renowned experts and young researchers working in high-performance computing, data-driven modeling, and simulation of large-scale complex systems. The

  1. The Nature and Process of Science and Applications to Geography Education: A US Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Place-name geography, as it is sometimes called, is merely the tip of the iceberg in a field that aims to understand people and places and their interactions with the environment. Geography is also the study of spatial distributions and interpreting what they mean. This review lays out the definition of the nature of science as it relates to…

  2. Teaching Research Methods in the Social Sciences: Expert Perspectives on Pedagogy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Sarah; Nind, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Capacity building in social science research methods is positioned by research councils as crucial to global competitiveness. The pedagogies involved, however, remain under-researched and the pedagogical culture under-developed. This paper builds upon recent thematic reviews of the literature to report new research that shifts the focus from…

  3. Teacher Perspectives on Specialisation in the Elementary Classroom: Implications for Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Susan; Colburn, Amanda; Long, David E.

    2017-01-01

    In the current educational climate of testing and accountability, many elementary teachers find they lack adequate time and confidence to enact reform-based science teaching due to pressure to perform in reading and mathematics. With this tension in mind, we explore the phenomenon of elementary teacher specialisation in comparison to the…

  4. Evaluating a National Science and Technology Program Using the Human Capital and Relational Asset Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chia-Liang; Chou, Jerome Chih-Lung; Roan, Hung-Wei

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the performance of the National Science and Technology Program (NSTP) by targeting the Taiwan National Telecommunication Program (NTP) initiated in 1998. The Taiwan telecommunications industry has prospered, currently occupying key positions in global markets even though NTP seldom contributes positively…

  5. Synergies and Distinctions between Computational Disciplines in Biomedical Research: Perspective from the Clinical and Translational Science Award Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstam, Elmer V.; Hersh, William R.; Johnson, Stephen B.; Chute, Christopher G.; Nguyen, Hien; Sim, Ida; Nahm, Meredith; Weiner, Mark; Miller, Perry; DiLaura, Robert P.; Overcash, Marc; Lehmann, Harold P.; Eichmann, David; Athey, Brian D.; Scheuermann, Richard H.; Anderson, Nick; Starren, Justin B.; Harris, Paul A.; Smith, Jack W.; Barbour, Ed; Silverstein, Jonathan C.; Krusch, David A.; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Becich, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical and translational research increasingly requires computation. Projects may involve multiple computationally-oriented groups including information technology (IT) professionals, computer scientists and biomedical informaticians. However, many biomedical researchers are not aware of the distinctions among these complementary groups, leading to confusion, delays and sub-optimal results. Although written from the perspective of clinical and translational science award (CTSA) programs within academic medical centers, the paper addresses issues that extend beyond clinical and translational research. The authors describe the complementary but distinct roles of operational IT, research IT, computer science and biomedical informatics using a clinical data warehouse as a running example. In general, IT professionals focus on technology. The authors distinguish between two types of IT groups within academic medical centers: central or administrative IT (supporting the administrative computing needs of large organizations) and research IT (supporting the computing needs of researchers). Computer scientists focus on general issues of computation such as designing faster computers or more efficient algorithms, rather than specific applications. In contrast, informaticians are concerned with data, information and knowledge. Biomedical informaticians draw on a variety of tools, including but not limited to computers, to solve information problems in health care and biomedicine. The paper concludes with recommendations regarding administrative structures that can help to maximize the benefit of computation to biomedical research within academic health centers. PMID:19550198

  6. Teachers' Perspectives on Online Virtual Labs vs. Hands-On Labs in High School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohr, Teresa M.

    This study of online science teachers' opinions addressed the use of virtual labs in online courses. A growing number of schools use virtual labs that must meet mandated laboratory standards to ensure they provide learning experiences comparable to hands-on labs, which are an integral part of science curricula. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine teachers' perceptions of the quality and effectiveness of high school virtual labs. The theoretical foundation was constructivism, as labs provide student-centered activities for problem solving, inquiry, and exploration of phenomena. The research questions focused on experienced teachers' perceptions of the quality of virtual vs. hands-on labs. Data were collected through survey questions derived from the lab objectives of The Next Generation Science Standards . Eighteen teachers rated the degree of importance of each objective and also rated how they felt virtual labs met these objectives; these ratings were reported using descriptive statistics. Responses to open-ended questions were few and served to illustrate the numerical results. Many teachers stated that virtual labs are valuable supplements but could not completely replace hands-on experiences. Studies on the quality and effectiveness of high school virtual labs are limited despite widespread use. Comprehensive studies will ensure that online students have equal access to quality labs. School districts need to define lab requirements, and colleges need to specify the lab experience they require. This study has potential to inspire positive social change by assisting science educators, including those in the local school district, in evaluating and selecting courseware designed to promote higher order thinking skills, real-world problem solving, and development of strong inquiry skills, thereby improving science instruction for all high school students.

  7. A philosophy of science perspective on the quantitative analysis of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Terry L

    2015-05-01

    B.F. Skinner argued that the science of behavior would progress more rapidly without appealing to theories of learning. He also suggested that theories in a quite different sense were possible, but that the science of behavior as of 1950 was not ready for them. The following analysis distinguishes between Skinner's two concepts of theory. It argues that theory in the second sense has arisen in the quantitative analysis of behavior. The attempt to give a dynamic account of the static regularities of this theory, however, has produced a theory in the first sense. Within its limited domain, this theory offers a rigorous alternative to cognitive accounts of behavior. Rather than distracting attention from actual behavior, it has now led to novel predictions about it. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'SQAB 2014'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Virtue training in medical schools: the perspective of behavioral science course directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olufowote, James Olumide

    2015-01-01

    Although the multidisciplinary research on physician socialization has focused on areas such as developments in learners' ideological commitments and ethics knowledge and skills, the literature on physician virtues has been anecdotal. To contribute empirical knowledge of virtue development during socialization, I performed constant comparisons on interviews with 20 directors of preclinical behavioral science courses. In discussing their courses, participants revealed foci on virtues involved in making intimate connections with patients (e.g., empathy) and "being professional" with colleagues (e.g., trustworthiness). To cultivate virtues for intimate connections, participants used the strategies of learner engagement with patients' narratives of illness, service in underserved communities, and shadowing and observing role models. To develop virtues for being professional, participants used the strategy of small learner groups, which consisted of discussions, project collaborations, and group evaluations. I conclude with implications for training students of various health sciences and managing health care teams.

  9. The growth of coral reef science in the Gulf: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, John A

    2013-07-30

    Coral reef science has grown exponentially in recent decades in the Gulf. Analysis of literature from 1950 to 2012 identified 270 publications on coral reefs in the Gulf, half of which were published in just the past decade. This paper summarizes the growth and evolution of coral reef science in the Gulf by examining when, where and how research has been conducted on Gulf reefs, who conducted that research, and what themes and taxa have dominated scientific interest. The results demonstrate that there has been significant growth in our understanding of the valuable coral reefs of the Gulf, but also highlight the fact that we are documenting an increasingly degraded ecosystem. Reef scientists must make a concerted effort to improve dialogue with regional reef management and decision-makers if we are to stem the tide of decline in coral reefs in the Gulf. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Heritages of science history in the gerontological discussion on multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kondratowitz, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Since the beginning of the nineteenth century, the history of science in modern Germany has been characterized by a development going in opposite directions. The old scientific disciplines with their traditional Gestus of knowledge acquisition are in contrast to new sciences resulting from external pressures, combining and mobilizing different areas of knowledge, which challenge former dominances and help to establish new open disciplines. However, gerontology in Germany is in this respect a clear latecomer and can only cast off the impact of medicine in the twentieth century to some extent. This article describes this process by the superposition of different lines of tradition, which have long-term effects reaching into the history of the early Federal Republic of Germany.

  11. Sociological and Communication-Theoretical Perspectives on the Commercialization of the Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2013-10-01

    Both self-organization and organization are important for the further development of the sciences: the two dynamics condition and enable each other. Commercial and public considerations can interact and "interpenetrate" in historical organization; different codes of communication are then "recombined". However, self-organization in the symbolically generalized codes of communication can be expected to operate at the global level. The Triple Helix model allows for both a neo-institutional appreciation in terms of historical networks of university-industry-government relations and a neo-evolutionary interpretation in terms of three functions: (1) novelty production, (2) wealth generation, and (3) political control. Using this model, one can appreciate both subdynamics. The mutual information in three dimensions enables us to measure the trade-off between organization and self-organization as a possible synergy. The question of optimization between commercial and public interests in the different sciences can thus be made empirical.

  12. Ecosystem services science, practice, and policy: Perspectives from ACES, A Community on Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Carl D.; Arthaud, Greg; Casey, Frank; Hogan, Dianna M.

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services are at a crossroad. The natural capital needed to produce them is diminishing (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). At the same time, the science relating to their identification, production, and valuation is advancing. Examples of ecosystem services applications are abundant in the literature. In addition, the concept of ecosystem services and its applications are attracting attention and are becoming more visible. The concept of ecosystem services, however, is still not routinely applied to many natural resource management decisions.

  13. Positioning Mbeya University of Science and Technology in Tanzania in the Systems of Innovation Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Katambara, Zacharia

    2014-01-01

    The chronological development of universities ranges from the state at which universities are considered to be knowledge accumulators followed by knowledge factories and finally the knowledge hubs. The various national systems of innovations are aligned with the knowledge hubs and it involves substantial amount of research activities. The newly established Mbeya University of Science and Technology is recog- nised as a knowledge hub in some particular niches. However, there are a limited numb...

  14. Quranic Sciences from Abdul Hamid Farahi’s Perspective (1863-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannat Taftahi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Discussions regarding Quranic sciences and gaining cognizance of different issues of this field date back to the advent of Islam. Throughout history, this field has witnessed a surge of valuable research that has been and is being conducted on its various issues. Farahi (1863-1930, the Indian interpreter, due to preventing the introduction of eisegesis and Isra'iliyyat which lack well-accepted sources into the field of Quran interpretation, is known as the interpreter of Quran. In the introduction of Nazm-ul-Quran and his other works, Farahi proposes novel ideas regarding Qur'anic sciences such as coherence, interconnection between verses and Surahhs (or Surahs of Quran, asbab al-nuzul (occasions of revelation, and the muqatta'at (disjoined letters, etc. He has also put forward some views concerning naskh (abrogation which are in line with other interpreters' views. Determined and deliberate attempts of this anonymous author in the field of Qur'anic science led the researchers, drawing on library research and descriptive-analytic methods, to shed some light on the views of this noteworthy interpreter and, as a corollary, revive his character.

  15. Personalized Medicine Applied to Forensic Sciences: New Advances and Perspectives for a Tailored Forensic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurro, Alessandro; Vullo, Anna Maria; Borro, Marina; Gentile, Giovanna; La Russa, Raffaele; Simmaco, Maurizio; Frati, Paola; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2017-01-01

    Personalized medicine (PM), included in P5 medicine (Personalized, Predictive, Preventive, Participative and Precision medicine) is an innovative approach to the patient, emerging from the need to tailor and to fit the profile of each individual. PM promises to dramatically impact also on forensic sciences and justice system in ways we are only beginning to understand. The application of omics (genomic, transcriptomics, epigenetics/imprintomics, proteomic and metabolomics) is ever more fundamental in the so called "molecular autopsy". Emerging fields of interest in forensic pathology are represented by diagnosis and detection of predisposing conditions to fatal thromboembolic and hypertensive events, determination of genetic variants related to sudden death, such as congenital long QT syndromes, demonstration of lesions vitality, identification of biological matrices and species diagnosis of a forensic trace on crime scenes without destruction of the DNA. The aim of this paper is to describe the state-of-art in the application of personalized medicine in forensic sciences, to understand the possibilities of integration in routine investigation of these procedures with classical post-mortem studies and to underline the importance of these new updates in medical examiners' armamentarium in determining cause of death or contributing factors to death. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. A global perspective on evolving bioinformatics and data science training needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Teresa K; Blackford, Sarah; Brazas, Michelle D; Davies, Angela; Schneider, Maria Victoria

    2017-08-29

    Bioinformatics is now intrinsic to life science research, but the past decade has witnessed a continuing deficiency in this essential expertise. Basic data stewardship is still taught relatively rarely in life science education programmes, creating a chasm between theory and practice, and fuelling demand for bioinformatics training across all educational levels and career roles. Concerned by this, surveys have been conducted in recent years to monitor bioinformatics and computational training needs worldwide. This article briefly reviews the principal findings of a number of these studies. We see that there is still a strong appetite for short courses to improve expertise and confidence in data analysis and interpretation; strikingly, however, the most urgent appeal is for bioinformatics to be woven into the fabric of life science degree programmes. Satisfying the relentless training needs of current and future generations of life scientists will require a concerted response from stakeholders across the globe, who need to deliver sustainable solutions capable of both transforming education curricula and cultivating a new cadre of trainer scientists. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Perspectives on competency-based medical education from the learning sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swing, Susan R

    2010-01-01

    A central component of competency-based medical education is a framework of higher-order and more fundamental competencies whose purpose is to focus instruction and learning. In the language of the learning sciences, many of these competencies are complex cognitive-perceptual or cognitive-motor skills. Competency-based medical education has been criticized for being reductionistic, that is, for focusing on atomistic skills and failing to capture the essence of professional activities as manifested by complex, integrated capabilities. The value of identifying fundamental skill components is supported by theory and evidence from the learning sciences, however. Complex skills are constructed from fundamental, component skills. Proficient performance of the former is achieved as components are refined and integrated during repeated performance of the skill in a realistic context and as feedback on performance is provided. Competency-based medical education does not propose specific methods for teaching competencies. The learning and instructional sciences, however, posit a number of conditions for learning that support the acquisition of simple skills and their flexible integration into complex capabilities. Learners' motivation and self-regulation skills will also have an impact on the extent to which they engage in learning processes that result in the integration of knowledge and skills into complex competencies.

  18. Sharing NASA Science with Decision Makers: A Perspective from NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, A. I.; Blevins, B.; Hook, E.

    2015-12-01

    NASA ARSET http://arset.gsfc.nasa.gov has been providing applied remote sensing training since 2008. The goals of the program are to develop the technical and analytical skills necessary to utilize NASA resources for decision-support. The program has reached over 3500 participants, with 1600 stakeholders from 100 countries in 2015 alone. The target audience for the program are professionals engaged in environmental management in the public and private sectors, such as air quality forecasters, public utilities, water managers and non-governmental organizations engaged in conservation. Many program participants have little or no expertise in NASA remote sensing, and it's frequently their very first exposure to NASA's vast resources. One the key challenges for the program has been the evolution and refinement of its approach to communicating NASA data access, research, and ultimately its value to stakeholders. We discuss ARSET's best practices for sharing NASA science, which include 1) training ARSET staff and other NASA scientists on methods for science communication, 2) communicating the proper amount of scientific information at a level that is commensurate with the technical skills of program participants, 3) communicating the benefit of NASA resources to stakeholders, and 4) getting to know the audience and tailoring the message so that science information is conveyed within the context of agencies' unique environmental challenges.

  19. PLRP-3: Operational Perspectives of Conducting Science-Driven Extravehicular Activity with Communications Latency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Brady, Allyson; Cardman, Zena; Bell, Ernest; Garry, Brent; Reid, Donnie; Chappell, Steve; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Pavilion Lake Research Project (PLRP) is a unique platform where the combination of scientific research and human space exploration concepts can be tested in an underwater spaceflight analog environment. The 2015 PLRP field season was performed at Pavilion Lake, Canada, where science-driven exploration techniques focusing on microbialite characterization and acquisition were evaluated within the context of crew and robotic extravehicular activity (EVA) operations. The primary objectives of this analog study were to detail the capabilities, decision-making process, and operational concepts required to meet non-simulated scientific objectives during 5-minute one-way communication latency utilizing crew and robotic assets. Furthermore, this field study served as an opportunity build upon previous tests at PLRP, NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS), and NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) to characterize the functional roles and responsibilities of the personnel involved in the distributed flight control team and identify operational constraints imposed by science-driven EVA operations. The relationship and interaction between ground and flight crew was found to be dependent on the specific scientific activities being addressed. Furthermore, the addition of a second intravehicular operator was found to be highly enabling when conducting science-driven EVAs. Future human spaceflight activities will need to cope with the added complexity of dynamic and rapid execution of scientific priorities both during and between EVA execution to ensure scientific objectives are achieved.

  20. Citizen science: A new perspective to advance spatial pattern evaluation in hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Julian; Stisen, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Citizen science opens new pathways that can complement traditional scientific practice. Intuition and reasoning often make humans more effective than computer algorithms in various realms of problem solving. In particular, a simple visual comparison of spatial patterns is a task where humans are often considered to be more reliable than computer algorithms. However, in practice, science still largely depends on computer based solutions, which inevitably gives benefits such as speed and the possibility to automatize processes. However, the human vision can be harnessed to evaluate the reliability of algorithms which are tailored to quantify similarity in spatial patterns. We established a citizen science project to employ the human perception to rate similarity and dissimilarity between simulated spatial patterns of several scenarios of a hydrological catchment model. In total, the turnout counts more than 2500 volunteers that provided over 43000 classifications of 1095 individual subjects. We investigate the capability of a set of advanced statistical performance metrics to mimic the human perception to distinguish between similarity and dissimilarity. Results suggest that more complex metrics are not necessarily better at emulating the human perception, but clearly provide auxiliary information that is valuable for model diagnostics. The metrics clearly differ in their ability to unambiguously distinguish between similar and dissimilar patterns which is regarded a key feature of a reliable metric. The obtained dataset can provide an insightful benchmark to the community to test novel spatial metrics.

  1. Introducing iPads in Danish natural science museum settings: A youthful user perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronemann, Sigurd Trolle

    For portable tablet resources to be efficient and relevant tools for participatory learning their adoption and didactic substance need to be developed with a dual view to learners’ socio-cultural contexts of learning and to institutional objectives for adoption. I substantiate my claim through...... new opportunities for enhancing and supporting participatory learning experiences in museums. Recently, portable tablets have been a central focus in Danish political and learning discourse and many museums now experiment on how iPads can deliver the dissemination and experience results they have...... for contextual grounding and justification on the use of tablets even more. Secondly, use of iPads in some instances enhances the classroom feel to the visit in the young users’ perspective. Conclusively, it is argued that even though didactic focus on creators is obvious, it has profound impact on conceptual...

  2. A perspective on the future role of brain pet imaging in exercise science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecker, Henning; Drzezga, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) bears a unique potential for examining the effects of physical exercise (acute or chronic) within the central nervous system in vivo, including cerebral metabolism, neuroreceptor occupancy, and neurotransmission. However, application of Neuro-PET in human exercise science is as yet surprisingly sparse. To date the field has been dominated by non-invasive neuroelectrical techniques (EEG, MEG) and structural/functional magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI/fMRI). Despite PET having certain inherent disadvantages, in particular radiation exposure and high costs limiting applicability at large scale, certain research questions in human exercise science can exclusively be addressed with PET: The "metabolic trapping" properties of (18)F-FDG PET as the most commonly used PET-tracer allow examining the neuronal mechanisms underlying various forms of acute exercise in a rather unconstrained manner, i.e. under realistic training scenarios outside the scanner environment. Beyond acute effects, (18)F-FDG PET measurements under resting conditions have a strong prospective for unraveling the influence of regular physical activity on neuronal integrity and potentially neuroprotective mechanisms in vivo, which is of special interest for aging and dementia research. Quantification of cerebral glucose metabolism may allow determining the metabolic effects of exercise interventions in the entire human brain and relating the regional cerebral rate of glucose metabolism (rCMRglc) with behavioral, neuropsychological, and physiological measures. Apart from FDG-PET, particularly interesting applications comprise PET ligand studies that focus on dopaminergic and opioidergic neurotransmission, both key transmitter systems for exercise-related psychophysiological effects, including mood changes, reward processing, antinociception, and in its most extreme form 'exercise dependence'. PET ligand displacement approaches even allow quantifying specific endogenous

  3. Social determinants of health inequalities: towards a theoretical perspective using systems science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Saroj

    2015-08-25

    A systems approach offers a novel conceptualization to natural and social systems. In recent years, this has led to perceiving population health outcomes as an emergent property of a dynamic and open, complex adaptive system. The current paper explores these themes further and applies the principles of systems approach and complexity science (i.e. systems science) to conceptualize social determinants of health inequalities. The conceptualization can be done in two steps: viewing health inequalities from a systems approach and extending it to include complexity science. Systems approach views health inequalities as patterns within the larger rubric of other facets of the human condition, such as educational outcomes and economic development. This anlysis requires more sophisticated models such as systems dynamic models. An extension of the approach is to view systems as complex adaptive systems, i.e. systems that are 'open' and adapt to the environment. They consist of dynamic adapting subsystems that exhibit non-linear interactions, while being 'open' to a similarly dynamic environment of interconnected systems. They exhibit emergent properties that cannot be estimated with precision by using the known interactions among its components (such as economic development, political freedom, health system, culture etc.). Different combinations of the same bundle of factors or determinants give rise to similar patterns or outcomes (i.e. property of convergence), and minor variations in the initial condition could give rise to widely divergent outcomes. Novel approaches using computer simulation models (e.g. agent-based models) would shed light on possible mechanisms as to how factors or determinants interact and lead to emergent patterns of health inequalities of populations.

  4. Scientometric mapping of mass spectrometry research in nuclear science and technology: a global perspective. IT-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, Anil; Kademani, B.S.; Vijai Kumar

    2007-01-01

    This paper attempts to analyse quantitatively the growth and development of Mass Spectrometry research in Nuclear Science and Technology in terms of publication output as reflected in International Nuclear Information System (INIS) database (1970-2005). During 1970-2005, a total of 10913 papers were published in various domains: Chemistry, Materials and Earth Sciences (5286) (48.44%), Physical Sciences (2367) (21.69%), Engineering and Technology (1434) (13.14), Life and Environmental Sciences (1212) (11.11), other aspects of Nuclear and Non Nuclear Energy (492) (4.51%) and Isotopes, Isotope and Radiation Applications (122) (1.12%). There were only three papers published in 1970. The highest number of papers (816) were published in 2004. The average number of publications published per year was 303.13. United States topped the list with 2247 publications followed by Germany with 1333 publications, Japan with 820 publications, France with 525 publications, and India with 460 publications. Authorship and collaboration trend was towards multi-authored papers as 81.83 percent of the papers were collaborative is indicative of the multidisciplinary nature of research activity. The most prolific authors were: S.K. Aggarwal, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India with 113 publications, W. Kutschera, University of Vienna, Austria with 85 publications, and H.C. Jain, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India with 70 publications. The highly productive institutions were: Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India) with 233 publications, Argonne National Laboratory (USA) with 150 publications, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (USA) with 146 publications, University of California (USA) with 118 publications, Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA) with 104 publications and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan) with 91 publications. The journals most preferred by the scientists for publication of papers were: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research

  5. Strategic latency and warning. Private sector perspectives on current intelligence challenges in science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Zachary [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gac, Frank [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nacht, Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-08

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and National Intelligence University convened a group of business experts to examine parallels between S&T competition in the marketplace and science and technology intelligence (S&TI). The experts identified the centrality of people — individuals and connected groups — to the successful development and application of latent S&T capabilities. People may indeed be more important to recognizing S&T potential than deep knowledge of any particular technology. This report explores the significance of this key insight for S&TI.

  6. Building a Cohesive Body of Design Knowledge: Developments from a Design Science Research Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Piirainen, Kalle A.

    2015-01-01

    researchers have identified difficulties in building on past works, and combining insights from across the field. This work starts to dissolve some of these issues by drawing on Design Science Research to propose an integrated approach for the development of design research knowledge, coupled with pragmatic......Design is an extremely diverse field where there has been widespread debate on how to build a cohesive body of scientific knowledge. To date, no satisfactory proposition has been adopted across the field – hampering scientific development. Without this basis for bringing research together design...... advice for design researchers. This delivers a number of implications for researchers as well as for the field as a whole....

  7. New tools, technology and techniques applied in geological sciences: current situation and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulloa, Andres

    2014-01-01

    Technological tools and work methodologies most used in the area of geological sciences are reviewed and described. The various electronic devices such as laptops, palmtops or PDA (personal digital assistant), tablets and smartphones have allowed to take field geological data and store them efficiently. Tablets and smartphones have been convenient for data collection of scientific data by the diversity of sensors that present, portability, autonomy and the possibility to install specific applications. High precision GPS in conjunction with LIDAR technology and sonar technology have been more accessible and used for geological research, generating high resolution three-dimensional models to complement geological studies. Remote sensing techniques such as high penetration radar are used to perform models of the ice thickness and topography in Antarctic. Modern three-dimensional scanning and printing techniques are used in geological science research and teaching. Currently, the advance in the computer technology has allowed to handle three-dimensional models on personal computers efficiently way and with different display options. Some, of the new areas of geology, emerged recently, are mentioned to generate a broad panorama toward where can direct geological researches in the next years [es

  8. Alcohol and Violence in the Emergency Room: A Review and Perspectives from Psychological and Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Cherpitel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Our objective is to present a focused review of the scientific literature on the effect of alcohol consumption on violence related-injuries assessed in the emergency room (ER and to show how psychological and behavioral sciences could lead to a better understanding of the factors contributing to alcohol-related injuries in the ER. We retrieved published literature through a detailed search in Academic Search Premier, MEDLINE with Full Text PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, PUBMed and SocINDEX with Full Text for articles related to emergency rooms, medical problems and sociocognitive models addressing alcohol intoxication articles. The first search was conducted in June 2011 and updated until August 2013. Literature shows that compared to uninjured patients; injured ones have a higher probability of: (i having an elevated blood-alcohol concentration upon arrival at the ER; (ii reporting having drunk alcohol during the six hours preceding the event; and (iii suffering from drinking-related consequences that adversely affect their social life. The main neurocognitive and sociocognitive models on alcohol and aggression are also discussed in order to understand the aetiology of violence-related injuries in emergency rooms. Suggestions are made for future research and prevention.

  9. Potentialities beyond deficit perspectives: globalization, culture and urban science education in the Bronx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Wesley

    2011-03-01

    The major focus of this ethnographic study is devoted to exploring the confluence of global and local referents of science education in the context of an urban chemistry laboratory classroom taught by a first-generation Filipino-American male teacher. This study investigates encounters between the teacher and four second-generation immigrant female students of color, as well as encounters among the four students. The pervasive spread of neoliberal ideology of accountability and sanctions both globally and locally, particularly in public high schools in the Bronx, New York City fuel situations for teaching and learning science that are encoded with the referents of top-down control. In the face of theses challenges, classroom participants must become aware of productive ways to build solidarity and interstitial culture across salient social boundaries, such as age, gender, ethnicity and role, to create and sustain successful teaching and learning of chemistry. Empirical evidence for solidarity was guided by physical and verbal displays of synchrony, mutual focus, entrainment, and emotional energy, body gestures, and prosody markers. This study shows that classroom participants used a combination of prosody markers to appropriate resources to decrease breaches in face-to-face encounters and, at the same time, create and sustain participation and solidarity to successfully complete an acid-base experiment.

  10. New Perspectives in Planetarium Lectures: How to Tell Science under the Dome while Preserving the "Enchantment"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, G.; Catanzaro, G.; Giovanardi, S.; Masi, G.; Vomero, V.

    2005-12-01

    We discuss the philosophy and strategy of a modern planetarium lecture within the larger frame of the communication of astronomy. The planetarium is a peculiar medium that requires a creative and rigorous approach in order to balance the three motivating forces behind the 'planetarium experience': scientific knowledge (method and contents); technological 'sense of wonder' and a pre-rational (not necessarily anti-rational) sense of 'enchantment'. While scientific and technological resources are typically fully exploited in state-of-the-art domes, the latter concept-introduced by Max Weber in order to categorize the mystic/aesthetic impact of nature on the human mind-has not been sufficiently explored. To use it effectively demands an understanding of the public perception of astronomy, stressing the crucial role of professional communication skills for the effective communication of science. Rather than enforcing a narrow focus on pure science and/or a crusade against astrology, we believe that the planetarium experience should be a stimulating reawakening of curiosity and a holistic awareness of the sky and hence of the Universe. Fine tuning of the above three components makes the classical confl ict between the boring academic lecture under the stars versus disneyish, supertechnological shows obsolete. We present some approaches for creating "fine-tuned lectures", with examples from our experience at the Rome Planetarium.

  11. progressive problemshifts between different research programs in science education: A lakatosian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    Given the importance of epistemology and philosophy of science, the Lakatos (1970) methodology is particularly suited to evaluate competing research programs in science education. This article has two objectives: (a) to evaluate critically the interpretations of Gilbert and Swift (1985) and Rowell and Dawson (1989), and (b) to postulate a progressive problemshift between Piaget's epistemic subject and Pascual-Leone's metasubject. Regarding the Gilbert and Swift interpretation, it is concluded that the alternative conceptions movement at its present stage of development cannot explain the previous success of its rival (Piagetian school) nor supersede it by a further display of heuristic power as required by Lakatos. If we accept the Rowell and Dawson thesis it would amount to the postulation of Piagetian and integrated (Piagetian and schema) theories as rival research programs. It appears that the Rowell and Dawson approach would enrich Piagetian theory with descriptive content rather than explanatory constructs, and thus would not lead to a progressive problemshift. It is concluded that Pascual-Leone's theory extends Piaget's negative heuristic by introducing antecedent variables, and at the same time enriches the positive heuristic by introducing metasubjective task analysis, which leads to a progressive problemshift.

  12. Science in the Public Sphere: Greater Sage-grouse Conservation Planning from a Transdisciplinary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, Alicia; Casazza, Michael L.; Caldwell, Margaret R.; Mathiasmeier, Teresa A.; Morgan, Peter M.; Overton, Cory T.

    2010-01-01

    Integration of scientific data and adaptive management techniques is critical to the success of species conservation, however, there are uncertainties about effective methods of knowledge exchange between scientists and decisionmakers. The conservation planning and implementation process for Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; ) in the Mono Basin, Calif. region, was used as a case study to observe the exchange of scientific information among stakeholders with differing perspectives; resource manager, scientist, public official, rancher, and others. The collaborative development of a risk-simulation model was explored as a tool to transfer knowledge between stakeholders and inform conservation planning and management decisions. Observations compiled using a transdisciplinary approach were used to compare the exchange of information during the collaborative model development and more traditional interactions such as scientist-led presentations at stakeholder meetings. Lack of congruence around knowledge needs and prioritization led to insufficient commitment to completely implement the risk-simulation model. Ethnographic analysis of the case study suggests that further application of epistemic community theory, which posits a strong boundary condition on knowledge transfer, could help support application of risk simulation models in conservation-planning efforts within similarly complex social and bureaucratic landscapes.

  13. From embryonic stem cells to functioning germ cells: science, clinical and ethical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatpongsan, Sorapop

    2007-10-01

    Embryonic stem cells have been well recognized as cells having a versatile potential to differentiate into all types of cells in the body including germ cells. There are many research studies focusing on the differentiation processes and protocols to derive various types of somatic cells from embryonic stem cells. However, germ cells have unique differentiation process and developmental pathway compared with somatic cells. Consequently, they will require different differentiation protocols and special culture techniques. More understanding and established in vitro systems for gametogenesis will greatly contribute to further progression of knowledge and technology in germ cell biology, reproductive biology and reproductive medicine. Moreover if oocytes can be efficiently produced in vitro, this will play an important role on progression in nuclear transfer and nuclear reprogramming technology. The present article will provide concise review on past important discoveries, current ongoing studies and future views of this challenging research area. An ethical perspective has also been proposed to give comprehensive summary and viewpoint for future clinical application.

  14. Hybrid Light-Matter States in a Molecular and Material Science Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbesen, Thomas W

    2016-11-15

    The notion that light and matter states can be hybridized the way s and p orbitals are mixed is a concept that is not familiar to most chemists and material scientists. Yet it has much potential for molecular and material sciences that is just beginning to be explored. For instance, it has already been demonstrated that the rate and yield of chemical reactions can be modified and that the conductivity of organic semiconductors and nonradiative energy transfer can be enhanced through the hybridization of electronic transitions. The hybridization is not limited to electronic transitions; it can be applied for instance to vibrational transitions to selectively perturb a given bond, opening new possibilities to change the chemical reactivity landscape and to use it as a tool in (bio)molecular science and spectroscopy. Such results are not only the consequence of the new eigenstates and energies generated by the hybridization. The hybrid light-matter states also have unusual properties: they can be delocalized over a very large number of molecules (up to ca. 10 5 ), and they become dispersive or momentum-sensitive. Importantly, the hybridization occurs even in the absence of light because it is the zero-point energies of the molecular and optical transitions that generate the new light-matter states. The present work is not a review but rather an Account from the author's point of view that first introduces the reader to the underlying concepts and details of the features of hybrid light-matter states. It is shown that light-matter hybridization is quite easy to achieve: all that is needed is to place molecules or a material in a resonant optical cavity (e.g., between two parallel mirrors) under the right conditions. For vibrational strong coupling, microfluidic IR cells can be used to study the consequences for chemistry in the liquid phase. Examples of modified properties are given to demonstrate the full potential for the molecular and material sciences. Finally an

  15. A marketing science perspective on recognition-based heuristics (and the fast-and-frugal paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hauser

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Marketing science seeks to prescribe better marketing strategies (advertising, product development, pricing, etc.. To do so we rely on models of consumer decisions grounded in empirical observations. Field experience suggests that recognition-based heuristics help consumers to choose which brands to consider and purchase in frequently-purchased categories, but other heuristics are more relevant in durable-goods categories. Screening with recognition is a rational screening rule when advertising is a signal of product quality, when observing other consumers makes it easy to learn decision rules, and when firms react to engineering-design constraints by offering brands such that a high-level on one product feature implies a low level on another product feature. Experience with applications and field experiments suggests four fruitful research topics: deciding how to decide (endogeneity, learning decision rules by self-reflection, risk reduction, and the difference between utility functions and decision rules. These challenges also pose methodological cautions.

  16. Chance, necessity and the origins of life: a physical sciences perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Robert M.

    2017-11-01

    Earth's 4.5-billion-year history has witnessed a complex sequence of high-probability chemical and physical processes, as well as `frozen accidents'. Most models of life's origins similarly invoke a sequence of chemical reactions and molecular self-assemblies in which both necessity and chance play important roles. Recent research adds two important insights into this discussion. First, in the context of chemical reactions, chance versus necessity is an inherently false dichotomy-a range of probabilities exists for many natural events. Second, given the combinatorial richness of early Earth's chemical and physical environments, events in molecular evolution that are unlikely at limited laboratory scales of space and time may, nevertheless, be inevitable on an Earth-like planet at time scales of a billion years. This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'.

  17. Critical Neuroscience – or Critical Science? A Perspective on the Perceived Normative Significance of Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eSchleim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Critical Neuroscience initiative raised the question whether the perceived normative significance of neuroscience is justified by the discipline’s actual possibilities. In this paper I show how brain research was assigned the ultimate political, social, and moral authority by some leading researchers who suggested that neuroscientists should change their research priorities, promising solutions to social challenges in order to increase research funds. Discussing the two examples of cognitive enhancement and the neuroscience of (immoral behavior I argue that there is indeed a gap between promises and expectations on the one hand and knowledge and applications on the other. However it would be premature to generalize this to the neurosciences at large, whose knowledge-producing, innovative, and economic potentials have just recently been confirmed by political and scientific decision-makers with the financial support for the Human Brain Project and the BRAIN Initiative. Finally, I discuss two explanations for the analyzed communication patterns and argue why Critical Neuroscience is necessary, but not sufficient. A more general Critical Science movement is required to improve the scientific incentive system.

  18. Integrating Brain Science and Law: Neuroscientific Evidence and Legal Perspectives on Protecting Individual Liberties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin J. Kraft

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in neuroscientific techniques have found increasingly broader applications, including in legal neuroscience (or “neurolaw”, where experts in the brain sciences are called to testify in the courtroom. But does the incursion of neuroscience into the legal sphere constitute a threat to individual liberties? And what legal protections are there against such threats? In this paper, we outline individual rights as they interact with neuroscientific methods. We then proceed to examine the current uses of neuroscientific evidence, and ultimately determine whether the rights of the individual are endangered by such approaches. Based on our analysis, we conclude that while federal evidence rules constitute a substantial hurdle for the use of neuroscientific evidence, more ethical safeguards are needed to protect against future violations of fundamental rights. Finally, we assert that it will be increasingly imperative for the legal and neuroscientific communities to work together to better define the limits, capabilities, and intended direction of neuroscientific methods applicable for use in law.

  19. The science, policy and practice of nature-based solutions: An interdisciplinary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesshöver, Carsten; Assmuth, Timo; Irvine, Katherine N; Rusch, Graciela M; Waylen, Kerry A; Delbaere, Ben; Haase, Dagmar; Jones-Walters, Lawrence; Keune, Hans; Kovacs, Eszter; Krauze, Kinga; Külvik, Mart; Rey, Freddy; van Dijk, Jiska; Vistad, Odd Inge; Wilkinson, Mark E; Wittmer, Heidi

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we reflect on the implications for science, policy and practice of the recently introduced concept of Nature-Based Solutions (NBS), with a focus on the European context. First, we analyse NBS in relation to similar concepts, and reflect on its relationship to sustainability as an overarching framework. From this, we derive a set of questions to be addressed and propose a general framework for how these might be addressed in NBS projects by funders, researchers, policy-makers and practitioners. We conclude that: To realise their full potential, NBS must be developed by including the experience of all relevant stakeholders such that 'solutions' contribute to achieving all dimensions of sustainability. As NBS are developed, we must also moderate the expectations placed on them since the precedent provided by other initiatives whose aim was to manage nature sustainably demonstrates that we should not expect NBS to be cheap and easy, at least not in the short-term. Copyright © 2016 British Geological Survey, NERC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Perspective on Wearable Sensor Measurements and Data Science for Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Ricardo; Paixão, Vitor; Bouça, Raquel; Ferreira, Joaquim J

    2017-01-01

    Miniaturized and wearable sensor-based measurements enable the assessment of Parkinson's disease (PD) motor-related features like never before and hold great promise as non-invasive biomarkers for early and accurate diagnosis, and monitoring the progression of PD. High-fidelity human movement reconstruction and simulation can already be conducted in a clinical setting with increasingly precise and affordable motion technology enabling access to high-quality labeled data on patients' subcomponents of movement (kinematics and kinetics). At the same time, body-worn sensors now allow us to extend some quantitative movement-related measurements to patients' daily living activities. This era of patient movement "cognification" is bringing us previously inaccessible variables that encode patients' movement, and that, together with measures from clinical examinations, poses new challenges in data analysis. We present herein examples of the application of an unsupervised methodology to classify movement behavior in healthy individuals and patients with PD where no specific knowledge on the type of behaviors recorded is needed. We are most certainly leaving the early stage of the exponential curve that describes the current technological evolution and soon will be entering its steep ascent. But there is already a benefit to be derived from current motion technology and sophisticated data science methods to objectively measure parkinsonian impairments.

  1. Contemporary Issues in Group Learning in Undergraduate Science Classrooms: A Perspective from Student Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Linda C

    2018-06-01

    As the use of collaborative-learning methods such as group work in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics classes has grown, so has the research into factors impacting effectiveness, the kinds of learning engendered, and demographic differences in student response. Generalizing across the range of this research is complicated by the diversity of group-learning approaches used. In this overview, I discuss theories of how group-work formats support or hinder learning based on the ICAP (interactive, constructive, active, passive) framework of student engagement. I then use this model to analyze current issues in group learning, such as the nature of student discourse during group work, the role of group learning in making our classrooms inclusive, and how classroom spaces factor into group learning. I identify key gaps for further research and propose implications from this research for teaching practice. This analysis helps identify essential, effective, and efficient features of group learning, thus providing faculty with constructive guidelines to support their work and affirm their efforts.

  2. Critical neuroscience—or critical science? A perspective on the perceived normative significance of neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleim, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Critical Neuroscience initiative raised the question whether the perceived normative significance of neuroscience is justified by the discipline’s actual possibilities. In this paper I show how brain research was assigned the ultimate political, social, and moral authority by some leading researchers who suggested that neuroscientists should change their research priorities, promising solutions to social challenges in order to increase research funds. Discussing the two examples of cognitive enhancement and the neuroscience of (im)moral behavior I argue that there is indeed a gap between promises and expectations on the one hand and knowledge and applications on the other. However it would be premature to generalize this to the neurosciences at large, whose knowledge-producing, innovative, and economic potentials have just recently been confirmed by political and scientific decision-makers with the financial support for the Human Brain Project and the BRAIN Initiative. Finally, I discuss two explanations for the analyzed communication patterns and argue why Critical Neuroscience is necessary, but not sufficient. A more general Critical Science movement is required to improve the scientific incentive system. PMID:24904376

  3. Brazilian Scientific Mobility Program - Science without Borders - Preliminary Results and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Concepta; Nobre, Carlos A

    2017-05-01

    The Brazilian Scientific Mobility Program - Science without Borders (SwB) - saw the concession of over 101 thousand scholarships for Brazilian STEM students and education professionals to attend universities worldwide. As the first phase of this program ends, it is time to take a first look at its impacts, mainly on the undergraduate student body (79% of total scholarships implemented). Benefits included a 6-month language course (optional), a one year undergraduate course and optional 2 month internship in a university, government laboratory or technology company. Positive impacts have been seen on entrance into post-graduate programs (>20% of SwB students compared to 50% from families with less than 6 minimum wages per month). The impact of the program will need to be evaluated over the next years, but innovation on the part of the students is already apparent. Any new SwB program needs to take into account the lessons learned from this first experience and therefore recommendations are presented.

  4. Structural geology practice and learning, from the perspective of cognitive science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Thomas F.; Tikoff, Basil; Ormand, Carol; Manduca, Cathy

    2013-09-01

    Spatial ability is required by practitioners and students of structural geology and so, considering spatial skills in the context of cognitive science has the potential to improve structural geology teaching and practice. Spatial thinking skills may be organized using three dichotomies, which can be linked to structural geology practice. First, a distinction is made between separating (attending to part of a whole) and combining (linking together aspects of the whole). While everyone has a basic ability to separate and combine, experts attend to differences guided by experiences of rock properties in context. Second, a distinction is made between seeing the relations among multiple objects as separate items or the relations within a single object with multiple parts. Experts can flexibly consider relations among or between objects to optimally reason about different types of spatial problems. Third, a distinction is made between reasoning about stationary and moving objects. Experts recognize static configurations that encode a movement history, and create mental models of the processes that led to the static state. The observations and inferences made by a geologist leading a field trip are compared with the corresponding observations and inferences made by a cognitive psychologist interested in spatial learning. The presented framework provides a vocabulary for discussing spatial skills both within and between the fields of structural geology and cognitive psychology.

  5. The European Research Infrastructures of the ESFRI Roadmap in Biological and Medical Sciences: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Calzolari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. Since 2002, the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures identified the needs for Research Infrastructures (RIs in Europe in priority fields of scientific research and drafted a strategic document, the ESFRI Roadmap, defining the specific RIs essential to foster European research and economy. The Biological and Medical Sciences RIs (BMS RIs were developed thanks to the active participation of many institutions in different European member states associated to address the emerging needs in biomedicine and, among these, the Italian National Institute of Health (ISS, in virtue of its role in public health and research, has been specifically involved in the national development and implementation of three RIs: the Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI, the European Advanced Translational Research Infrastructure in Medicine (EATRIS and the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN. AIM. This article outlines the design and development of these RIs up to the recent achievement of the ERIC status, their importance in the Horizon 2020 programme and their societal and economic potential impact, with special attention to their development and significance in Italy. CONCLUSIONS. The ISS plays a unique role in fostering a coordinated participation of excellence Italian institutes/facilities to different European biomedical RIs, thus contributing to health innovation, healthcare optimization, and healthcare cost containment.

  6. Pan-European management of coastal lagoons: A science-policy-stakeholder interface perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillebø, Ana I.; Stålnacke, Per; Gooch, Geoffrey D.; Krysanova, Valentina; Bielecka, Małgorzata

    2017-11-01

    The main objective of the work carried out in the scope of a three years collaborative research project was to develop science-based strategies and a decision support framework for the integrated management of coastal lagoons and their catchments and, in this context, to enhance connectivity between research and policymaking. In this paper our main objective is to share the lessons learned from the innovative methodology used throughout the project. To achieve the proposed objectives, the multidisciplinary scientific knowledge in the project team was combined and integrated with the knowledge and views of local stakeholders of four selected European coastal lagoons, using a three step participatory approach. With this innovative approach, which included the usage of eco-hydrological and water quality-modelling tools, the team developed and analyzed integrated scenarios of possible economic development and environmental impacts in four European lagoons and their catchments. These scenarios were presented and discussed with stakeholders, giving rise to management recommendations for each case study lagoon. Results show that some management options might be transferrable to other European lagoons having similar climatic, geophysical and socio-economic settings. In management terms, the project output provides a set of policy guidelines derived from the different analyses conducted and proposes initiatives concerning management implementation in a local-regional-national-European setting.

  7. Innovation and technology transfer in the health sciences: a cross-sectional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, L; Guerra, L; Lanuza, A; Palomar, G

    2014-11-01

    This article is based on the strategic reflection and discussion that took place on occasion of the first conference on innovation and technology transfer in the health sciences organized by the REGIC-ENS-FENIN-SEMICYUC and held in Madrid in the Instituto de Salud Carlos III on May 7th, 2013, with the aim of promoting the transfer of technological innovation in medicine and health care beyond the European program "Horizon 2020". The presentations dealt with key issues such as evaluation of the use of new technologies, the need to impregnate the decisions related to adoption and innovation with the concepts of value and sustainability, and the implication of knowledge networks in the need to strengthen their influence upon the creation of a "culture of innovation" among health professionals. But above all, emphasis was placed on the latent innovation potential of hospitals, and the fact that these, being the large companies that they are, should seriously consider that much of their future sustainability may depend on proper management of their ability to generate innovation, which is not only the generation of ideas but also their transformation into products or processes that create value and economic returns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  8. Is victim identity in genocide a question of science or law? The scientific perspective, with special reference to Darfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, Debra

    2008-09-01

    In genocide, victims must represent an ethnic, racial, religious or national group. But is victim identity a question of science or law? Must victims be a socially recognized group or can group identity exist solely in the mind of the perpetrator? This question is relevant to the on-going crisis in Darfur. The "Arab-on-African" violence depicted in the media encompasses identities not shared by Darfurians. This study details an evaluation of victim identity in Darfur, based on field research and literature review. Darfurians are defined by subsistence strategy and economic groups are not protected under genocide law. Whether Darfur is genocide depends on whether victims must conform to scientific group classifications or need only be defined by their relationship to the perpetrators.

  9. Human impact on the planet: an earth system science perspective and ethical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    The modern Earth Narrative, the scientific story of the 4.5 billion-year natural and human history of the Earth, has emerged from the solid foundation of two factual concepts: Deep (or Geologic) Time and Biological Evolution. spread acceptance of the Earth Narrative is critically important as we begin the third millennium, because it provides a clear understanding of the growing impact of human population growth and associated activities on the Earth System, especially the negative impact on Earth?s biosphere. It is important for humans to realize that we are but one of 4,500 species of mammals that exist on Earth and that we are but one species in the estimated 30 to 100 million species that form the complex biosphere. We also need to recognize that all species exist within the physical limits imposed by the geosphere. We are totally dependent on the biosphere for food, oxygen, and other necessities of life. mans are one of the latest results of biological evolution operating over a long period of Geologic Time. We find ourselves on Earth, after 4.5 billion years of Earth history by chance, not by design. Humans have become so successful at modifying their environment that many of the natural limitations on the expansion of populations of our fellow animals have been overcome by technological and cultural innovations. According to Peter Raven, ?Humans, at a current population of 6 billion [expected to nearly double by 2050], are consuming or wasting about 50 percent of the total net biological productivity on land and 50 percent of the available supply of freshwater. The overwhelming and expanding human presence leaves less and less room in the environment for other biota.? st century will be a pivotal time in the fate of Earth?s biosphere. Whereas human modification of the geosphere will slowly recover over time, human changes to the biosphere are a far more consequential matter? extinction of a species is forever! Will humans effectively use our new knowledge of

  10. The early evolution of southwestern Pennsylvania's regional math/science collaborative from the leadership perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunt, Nancy R.

    Designed as a regional approach to the coordination of efforts and focusing of resources in fragmented southwestern Pennsylvania, the Collaborative's story is narrated by its founding director. Drawing from office archives, including letters of invitation, meeting notes, and participant evaluations of each event, the study describes the genesis of the Collaborative. It begins with identification of the problem and the resulting charge by a founding congress. It details the building of an organizational framework, the creation of a shared vision, the development of a blueprint for action, and the decision-making involved in determining how to strengthen mathematics and science education in the region. The study notes several influences on the Collaborative's leadership. Considering the role of other collaboratives, the study notes that knowledge of the Los Angeles Educational Partnership's LA SMART jump-started the Collaborative's initial planning process. Knowledge of San Francisco's SEABA influenced the size and naming of the Collaborative's Journal. Fred Newmann's definition of authentic instruction, learning and assessment are reflected in the shared vision and belief statements of the Collaborative. The five disciplines of Peter Senge influenced the nature of the organizational framework as well as the day-to-day operations of the Collaborative. The study also notes that the five organizational tensions identified in Ann Lieberman's work on "intentional learning communities" were present in every aspect of the evolution of the Collaborative. The study suggests that leaders of evolving collaboratives: (1) engage all relevant stakeholders in assessing the current situation and defining a desired future state, (2) take advantage of the lessons learned by others and the resources available at the state and national levels to design strategies and build action plans, (3) model the practices to be inspired in the learning community, (4) constantly gather feedback on

  11. Conservation science in developing countries: an inside perspective on the struggles in sea turtle research and conservation in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buitrago, Joaquin; Guada, Hedelvy J.; Doyle, Emma

    2008-01-01

    Human exploitation of sea turtles in Venezuela dates back at least 800 years and continues to the present day. The first concerns about the status of sea turtle populations arose in the 1970s, and the projects from this early era were a tagging program, beach evaluation and in situ nest protection. Since then, efforts to develop a sea turtle research and conservation sector in Venezuela have resulted in a number of successes and rather more failures. Among the achievements is a course 'Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation Techniques', which has now been run for 15 years and has educated several hundred participants and enabled the establishment of a valuable professional network, and the publication of the Venezuelan 'Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan' in 2000. But Venezuela shares with other developing countries some crucial shortcomings which have restricted the success of conservation and research efforts. Whilst regulations relating to protected areas and natural resource use have proliferated, enforcement is weak. Community-based projects and environmental education programs exist, but levels of participation are low. A large number of conservation approaches have been applied, including head-starting and nest translocation to hatcheries, but their value as conservation tools remains unproven. Research has increased, but its impact on decision-making is not significant. Taking an insider's perspective on the challenges to date in sea turtle research and conservation in Venezuela reveals much about the reality facing conservation scientists in developing countries and the forces that shape and can potentially derail research and conservation efforts

  12. Earth sciences, GIS and geomatics for natural hazards assessment and risks mitigation: a civil protection perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Luigi; Conte, Riccardo; Lanfranco, Massimo; Perrone, Gianluigi; Giardino, Marco; Ratto, Sara

    2010-05-01

    Geo-information and remote sensing are proper tools to enhance functional strategies for increasing awareness on natural hazards and risks and for supporting research and operational activities devoted to disaster reduction. An improved Earth Sciences knowledge coupled with Geomatics advanced technologies has been developed by the joint research group and applied by the ITHACA (Information Technology for Humanitarian Assistance, Cooperation and Action) centre, within its partnership with the UN World Food Programme (WFP) with the goal of reducing human, social, economic and environmental losses due to natural hazards and related disasters. By cooperating with local and regional authorities (Municipalities, Centro Funzionale of the Aosta Valley, Civil Protection Agency of Regione Piemonte), data on natural hazards and risks have been collected, compared to national and global data, then interpreted for helping communities and civil protection agencies of sensitive mountain regions to make strategic choices and decisions to better mitigation and adaption measures. To enhance the application of GIS and Remote-sensing technologies for geothematic mapping of geological and geomorphological risks of mountain territories of Europe and Developing Countries, research activities led to the collection and evaluation of data from scientific literature and historical technical archives, for the definition of predisposing/triggering factors and evolutionary processes of natural instability phenomena (landslides, floods, storms, …) and for the design and implementation of early-warning and early-impact systems. Geodatabases, Remote Sensing and Mobile-GIS applications were developed to perform analysis of : 1) large climate-related disaster (Hurricane Mitch, Central America), by the application of remote sensing techniques, either for early warning or mitigation measures at the national and international scale; 2) distribution of slope instabilities at the regional scale (Aosta

  13. Synergistic Use of Satellite Volcano Detection and Science: A Fifteen Year Perspective of ASTER on Terra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The success of Terra-based observations using the ASTER instrument of active volcanic processes early in the mission gave rise to a funded NASA program designed to both increase the number of ASTER observations following an eruption and validate the satellite data. The urgent request protocol (URP) system for ASTER grew out of this initial study and has now operated in conjunction with and the support of the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the University of Hawaii, the USGS Land Processes DAAC, and the ASTER science team. The University of Pittsburgh oversees this rapid response/sensor-web system, which until 2011 had focused solely on the active volcanoes in the North Pacific region. Since that time, it has been expanded to operate globally with AVHRR and MODIS and now ASTER VNIR/TIR data are being acquired at numerous erupting volcanoes around the world. This program relies on the increased temporal resolution of AVHRR/MODIS midwave infrared data to trigger the next available ASTER observation, which results in ASTER data as frequently as every 2-5 days. For many targets, the URP has increased the observational frequency over active eruptions by as much 50%. The data have been used for operational response to new eruptions, longer-term scientific studies such as capturing detailed changes in lava domes/flows, pyroclastic flows and lahars. These data have also been used to infer the emplacement of new lava lobes, detect endogenous dome growth, and interpret hazardous dome collapse events. The emitted TIR radiance from lava surfaces has also been used effectively to model composition, texture and degassing. Now, this long-term archive of volcanic image data is being mined to provide statistics on the expectations of future high-repeat TIR data such as that proposed for the NASA HyspIRI mission. In summary, this operational/scientific program utilizing the unique properties of ASTER and the Terra mission has shown the potential for

  14. Social behaviour in the Age of Empathy? – A social scientist’s perspective on current trends in the behavioural sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja eMatusall

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several behavioral sciences became increasingly interested in investigating biological and evolutionary foundations of (human social behavior. In this light, prosocial behavior is seen as a core element of human nature. A central role within this perspective plays the ‘social brain’ that is not only able to communicate with the environment but rather to interact directly with other brains via neuronal mind reading capacities such as empathy. From the perspective of a sociologist, this paper investigates what social means in contemporary behavioral and particularly brain sciences. It will be discussed what social means in the light of social neuroscience and a glance into the history of social psychology and the brain sciences will show that two thought traditions come together in social neuroscience, combining an individualistic and an evolutionary notion of the social. The paper concludes by situating current research on prosocial behavior in broader social discourses about sociality and society, suggesting that to naturalise prosocial aspects in human life is a current trend in today's behavioral sciences and beyond.

  15. Landscapes of Central Italy through Science, Poetry and Music. A perspective for educating to the planet sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesci, Olivia; Valentini, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Born from a desire to promote the Italian landscape by integrating its physical aesthetic with its cultural and artistic heritage, we develop a story about the landscape told in popular science, and supported by visual stimulations, poetry and ancient music. Our work proceeds through two different routes. The first route analyzes the landscape from the scientific point of view trying to understand how it evolves and responds in response to changes in independent variables. The second path examines the landscape from a perspective more closely related to the visual and emotional impact that a place evokes, its history, its cultural significance, and perception of its fragility. The latter is perhaps a more complex path, more intimate, which develop fully only through the intersection of different forms of language, linked to specific arts. Three different disciplines focused on the same site, the combination of which results in an emotional experience where the encounter between different languages becomes an expression of the place. Among the many amazing landscapes of Italy, we focus on three known sites from the hystorical region of Montefeltro, in central Italy: "The flatiron of Petrano Mount", "The Stones of Montefeltro", "The sea-cliff of San Bartolo". Since a few years we have created a team of five researchers-artists, called "TerreRare" (Rare Earth Elements), whose mission is the desire to promote the gorgeous Italian landscape. Olivia Nesci, geomorphologist, begins this story analyzing the processes and the "forces" that have created and modified the landscape over time. Laura Valentini, a geologist and a musician, through the musical language, try to reproduce the emotional impact of the site, by searching for a piece of ancient music, composed for harpsichord. The choice of the musical instrument and the historical period is not accidental: the harpsichord has a punchy and gritty tone that clearly expresses the "strength" of the landscape; early music

  16. Evaluating earthquake hazards in the Los Angeles region; an earth-science perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziony, Joseph I.

    1985-01-01

    geologic and seismologic record indicates that parts of the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults have generated major earthquakes having recurrence intervals of several tens to a few hundred years. In contrast, the geologic evidence at points along other active faults suggests recurrence intervals measured in many hundreds to several thousands of years. The distribution and character of late Quaternary surface faulting permit estimation of the likely location, style, and amount of future surface displacements. An extensive body of geologic and geotechnical information is used to evaluate areal differences in future levels of shaking. Bedrock and alluvial deposits are differentiated according to the physical properties that control shaking response; maps of these properties are prepared by analyzing existing geologic and soils maps, the geomorphology of surficial units, and. geotechnical data obtained from boreholes. The shear-wave velocities of near-surface geologic units must be estimated for some methods of evaluating shaking potential. Regional-scale maps of highly generalized shearwave velocity groups, based on the age and texture of exposed geologic units and on a simple two-dimensional model of Quaternary sediment distribution, provide a first approximation of the areal variability in shaking response. More accurate depictions of near-surface shear-wave velocity useful for predicting ground-motion parameters take into account the thickness of the Quaternary deposits, vertical variations in sediment .type, and the correlation of shear-wave velocity with standard penetration resistance of different sediments. A map of the upper Santa Ana River basin showing shear-wave velocities to depths equal to one-quarter wavelength of a 1-s shear wave demonstrates the three-dimensional mapping procedure. Four methods for predicting the distribution and strength of shaking from future earthquakes are presented. These techniques use different measures of strong-motion

  17. Exploring Ivorian Perspectives on the Effectiveness of the Current Ivorian Science Curriculum in Addressing Issues Related to HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ado, Gustave Firmin

    2014-01-01

    School-based HIV/AIDS science education has the potential to impact students when integrated into the science curriculum. However, this mixed method study shows that school-based HIV/AIDS science education is often not infused into career subjects such as science education but integrated into civics education and taught by teachers who lack the…

  18. Change is the only Constant: Community-Driven Questions, Indigenous Knowledge (IK) and Western Science Working Together - A Northern Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimmelmayr, R.; Adams, B.; Harcharek, Q.; Pederson, M.; Brower, H., Jr.; Hepa, T.

    2017-12-01

    Hunter observations and many studies indicate that the Arctic is undergoing major changes in duration of seasonal sea ice extent and thickness, extreme weather patterns, more maritime traffic etc. Coupled to these environmental changes are noted changes in animal distribution, in migration routes and timing, in breeding season start, and arrival of new species to name just a few. The continuation of all these changes could negatively impact the rich marine mammal resources that are essential to Yupik and Iñupiat subsistence communities. The North Slope Borough Department of wildlife management community based marine mammal health research program aims to support the families and communities, as they, as in the past, continue to adapt to changing environmental conditions, changes in wildlife abundance and accessibility. Our program monitors the health of animals so we can detect diseases and contaminants early on that are of concern to people, provide veterinary medicine science based information to hunters regarding "healthy" and "hunter concern" catches, and address individual and "big picture" concerns about native food health and food security. Our collaborative work depends on IK and the sharing of knowledge. IK is an existing source of an integrated object and event-based data knowledge system with culturally rooted quantitative and qualitative aspects. It is characterized by built-in routine and periodic updating and comparison within a given spatial-temporal coverage (traditional use areas). It is the oldest on the ground wildlife health monitoring system of the Arctic. Hunters and communities provide in a meaningful spatial-temporal scale rich wildlife information and data on traditional subsistence resources. The IK based interpretation of ecological, physiological, behavioral, and pathological phenomena advances and expands western science based biological concepts.

  19. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  20. Greening Existing Tribal Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance about improving sustainability in existing tribal casinos and manufactured homes. Many steps can be taken to make existing buildings greener and healthier. They may also reduce utility and medical costs.

  1. Conservation science in developing countries: an inside perspective on the struggles in sea turtle research and conservation in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buitrago, Joaquin [Estacion de Investigaciones Marinas de Margarita, Fundacion La Salle de Ciencias Naturales, Apartado 144, Porlamar, Isla Margarita (Venezuela)], E-mail: jbuitrago@edimar.org; Guada, Hedelvy J. [Centro de Investigacion y Conservacion de Tortugas Marinas CICTMAR, Red de Conservacion de Tortugas Marinas en el Gran Caribe, WIDECAST, Apdo. 50.789, Caracas 1050-A (Venezuela); Doyle, Emma [5 Woodvale Close, St. Ives, N.S.W. 2075 (Australia)

    2008-10-15

    Human exploitation of sea turtles in Venezuela dates back at least 800 years and continues to the present day. The first concerns about the status of sea turtle populations arose in the 1970s, and the projects from this early era were a tagging program, beach evaluation and in situ nest protection. Since then, efforts to develop a sea turtle research and conservation sector in Venezuela have resulted in a number of successes and rather more failures. Among the achievements is a course 'Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation Techniques', which has now been run for 15 years and has educated several hundred participants and enabled the establishment of a valuable professional network, and the publication of the Venezuelan 'Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan' in 2000. But Venezuela shares with other developing countries some crucial shortcomings which have restricted the success of conservation and research efforts. Whilst regulations relating to protected areas and natural resource use have proliferated, enforcement is weak. Community-based projects and environmental education programs exist, but levels of participation are low. A large number of conservation approaches have been applied, including head-starting and nest translocation to hatcheries, but their value as conservation tools remains unproven. Research has increased, but its impact on decision-making is not significant. Taking an insider's perspective on the challenges to date in sea turtle research and conservation in Venezuela reveals much about the reality facing conservation scientists in developing countries and the forces that shape and can potentially derail research and conservation efforts.

  2. The evolution and extinction of science fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrotic, Steven

    2014-11-01

    Science fiction literature reflects our constantly evolving attitudes towards science and technological innovations, and the kinds of societal impacts believed possible. The newly popular subgenre 'steampunk' shows that these attitudes have significantly shifted. Examined from a cognitive anthropological perspective, science fiction reveals the cultural evolution of the genre as intelligently designed, and implies a cognitive mechanism of group membership reliant on implicit memory. However, such an analysis also suggests that genre science fiction as it was in the 20th century may no longer exist. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Perspectives on Science Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieghbaum, Hillier

    1979-01-01

    The history of scientific journalism is long, but sporadic. Recently the public has shown an increased desire for scientific information useable by the layman. This information is essential to provide tools for the citizen to participate in public decisions that may have global consequences. (RE)

  4. `You Actually Feel like You're Actually Doing Some Science': Primary Students' Perspectives of Their Involvement in the MyScience Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Anne; Skamp, Keith

    2017-07-01

    MyScience is a primary science education initiative in which being in a community of practice (CoP) is integral to the learning process. Stakeholder groups—primary teachers, primary students and scientist mentors—interact around the CoP domainof investigating scientifically and learn from each other through participation. This paper is the fifth in a series and reports 27 year 5/6 students' (from three schools) perceptions of how their views were influenced through their involvement in a MyScience CoP. Semi-structured interviews, guided by a phenomenographic framework, were the substantive data source. Primary students' perceptions about science, science learning and science teaching were analysed using attributes associated with both communities of practice and the nature of science. Findings reveal that students' perceptions of what it means to be doing science' were transformed through their participation and students were able to identify some of the contributing factors. Where appropriate, students' views were compared with the published views of their participating scientist mentors and teachers from earlier papers. Implications for science teaching and learning in primary school community of practice settings are discussed.

  5. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    Give us the tools: science and technology for development. Ottawa, ...... altered technical rela- tionships among the factors used in the process of production, and the en- .... to ourselves only the rights of audit and periodic substantive review." If a ...... and destroying scarce water reserves, recreational areas and a generally.

  6. The construction of a questionnaire to evaluate the science orientedness of students’ identities as learners from a cognitive perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taconis, R.; Putter-Smits, de L.G.A.; Henry, S.F.; Brok, den P.J.; Beijaard, D.

    2010-01-01

    Forming a science-oriented identity is considered a process underlying both interest and achievement in science education. A questionnaire is developed for describing "identities as learners" and evaluating their science orientedness. The instrument (k = 65) focuses on cognitive aspects. An internal

  7. How to Cope with Gauss's Errors? Motivation for Teaching Data and Uncertainty Analysis from a History of Science Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Every measurement in science, every experimental decision, result and information drawn from it has to cope with something that has long been named by the term "error". In fact, errors describe our limitations when it comes to experimental science and science looks back on a long tradition to cope with them. The widely known way to cope…

  8. Teachers' Perspectives of the New Western Australian Earth and Environmental Science Course: Lessons for the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille; Moore, Leah

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, a new upper secondary course, Earth and Environmental Science (EES) was introduced in Western Australia. The development and implementation of the course was supported by Earth Science Western Australia (ESWA), a consortium of universities, the CSIRO and other organisations. The role of ESWA is to support the teaching of earth science in…

  9. Merging perspectives in the catchment sciences: the US-Japan Joint Seminar on catchment hydrology and forest biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin J. McGuire; Stephen D. Sebestyen; Nobuhito Ohte; Emily M. Elliott; Takashi Gomi; Mark B. Green; Brian L. McGlynn; Naoko. Tokuchi

    2014-01-01

    Japan has strong research programmes in the catchment sciences that overlap with interests in the US catchment science community, particularly in experimental and field-based research. Historically, however, there has been limited interaction between these two hydrologic science communities because of differences in language, culture, and research approaches. These...

  10. Some Aspects of the State-of-the-Arts in Biomedical Science Research: A Perspective for Organizational Change in African Academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Theresa Adebola

    2014-12-29

    In the biomedical sciences, there is need to generate solutions for Africa's health and economic problems through the impact of university research. To guide organizational transformation, the author here presents some aspects of the state-of-the-arts of biomedical science research in advanced countries using a perspective derived from the FASEB journal publications. The author examines the thirty three peer reviewed scientific research articles in a centennial (April 2012) issue of the FASEB Journal [Volume 26(4)] using the following parameters: number of authors contributing to the paper; number of academic departments contributing to the paper; number of academic institutions contributing to the paper; funding of the research reported in the article. The articles were written by 7.97±0.61 authors from 3.46±0.3 departments of 2.79±0.29 institutions. The contributors were classified into four categories: basic sciences, clinical sciences, institutions and centers, and programs and labs. Amongst the publications, 21.2% were single disciplinary. Two tier collaboration amongst any two of the four categories were observed in 16/33 (48.5%) of the articles. Three tier and four tier collaborations were observed amongst 7/33 (21.2%) and 3/33 (9%) of the articles respectively. Therefore 26/33 (78.7%) of the articles were multidisciplinary. Collaborative efforts between basic science and clinical science departments were observed in 9/33 (27.3%) articles. Public funding through government agencies provided 85 out of a total of 143 (59.5%) grants. The collaborative and multidisciplinary nature and government support are characteristic of biomedical science in the US where research tends to result in solutions to problems and economic benefits.

  11. Perspectives of Best Practices for Learning Gender-Inclusive Science: Influences of Extracurricular Science for Gifted Girls and Electrical Engineering for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Shaunda L.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the perceptions of gifted girls with regard to how the family, home, and school environments influenced their choices to take extracurricular science classes. Uses qualitative and quantitative methods to measure girls' attitudes toward science. Specifically addresses gender differences of gifted girls and women in engineering. (Contains…

  12. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Singaporean and Taiwanese Eighth Graders' Science Learning Self-Efficacy from a Multi-Dimensional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tan, Aik Ling; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-05-01

    Due to the scarcity of cross-cultural comparative studies in exploring students' self-efficacy in science learning, this study attempted to develop a multi-dimensional science learning self-efficacy (SLSE) instrument to measure 316 Singaporean and 303 Taiwanese eighth graders' SLSE and further to examine the differences between the two student groups. Moreover, within-culture comparisons were made in terms of gender. The results showed that, first, the SLSE instrument was valid and reliable for measuring the Singaporean and Taiwanese students' SLSE. Second, through a two-way multivariate analysis of variance analysis (nationality by gender), the main result indicated that the SLSE held by the Singaporean eighth graders was significantly higher than that of their Taiwanese counterparts in all dimensions, including 'conceptual understanding and higher-order cognitive skills', 'practical work (PW)', 'everyday application', and 'science communication'. In addition, the within-culture gender comparisons indicated that the male Singaporean students tended to possess higher SLSE than the female students did in all SLSE dimensions except for the 'PW' dimension. However, no gender differences were found in the Taiwanese sample. The findings unraveled in this study were interpreted from a socio-cultural perspective in terms of the curriculum differences, societal expectations of science education, and educational policies in Singapore and Taiwan.

  13. Nihithewak Ithiniwak, Nihithewatisiwin and science education: An exploratory narrative study examining Indigenous-based science education in K--12 classrooms from the perspectives of teachers in Woodlands Cree community contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michell, Herman Jeremiah

    This study was guided by the following research questions: What do the stories of teachers in Nihithewak (Woodlands Cree) school contexts reveal about their experiences and tendencies towards cultural and linguistic-based pedagogical practices and actions in K-12 classrooms? How did these teachers come to teach this way? How do their beliefs and values from their experiences in science education and cultural heritage influence their teaching? Why do these teachers do what they do in their science classroom and instructional practices? The research explores Indigenous-based science education from the perspectives and experiences of science teachers in Nihithewak school contexts. Narrative methodology (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000) was used as a basis for collecting and analyzing data emerging from the research process. The results included thematic portraits and stories of science teaching that is connected to Nihithewak and Nihithewatisiwin (Woodlands Cree Way of Life). Major data sources included conversational interviews, out-of-class observations and occasional in-class observations, field notes, and a research journal. An interview guide with a set of open-ended and semi-structured questions was used to direct the interviews. My role as researcher included participation in storied conversations with ten selected volunteer teachers to document the underlying meanings behind the ways they teach science in Nihithewak contexts. This research is grounded in socio-cultural theory commonly used to support the examination and development of school science in Indigenous cultural contexts (Lemke, 2001; O'Loughlin, 1992). Socio-cultural theory is a framework that links education, language, literacy, and culture (Nieto, 2002). The research encapsulates a literature review that includes the history of Aboriginal education in Canada (Battiste & Barman, 1995; Kirkness, 1992; Perley, 1993), Indigenous-based science education (Cajete, 2000; Aikenhead, 2006a), multi

  14. The Influence of Disciplines on the Knowledge of Science: A Study of the Nature of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Akarsu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available At least four factors affect pupils’ understanding of the nature of science: teachers’ specialization in different science areas (physics, chemistry, and biology, gender issues, teaching experience in elementary school environments, and the perspectives of acquiring necessary knowledge. This study is the introduction part of a research project which will be initiated soon. Four elementary science teachers participated in the study. The results reveal that participants’ views of the aspects of nature of science are not solely diverged, based on their major disciplines, but there exist significant distinctions according to gender differences.

  15. A phenomenological study on middle-school science teachers' perspectives on utilization of technology in the science classroom and its effect on their pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbanshi, Roshani

    With access to technology and expectation by the mainstream, the use of technology in the classroom has become essential these days. However, the problem in science education is that with classrooms filled with technological equipment, the teaching style is didactic, and teachers employ traditional teacher-centered methods in the classroom. In addition, results of international assessments indicate that students' science learning needs to be improved. The purpose of this study is to analyze and document the lived experience of middle-school science teachers and their use of technology in personal, professional lives as well as in their classroom and to describe the phenomenon of middle-school science teachers' technological beliefs for integration of digital devices or technology as an instructional delivery tool, knowledge construction tool and learning tool. For this study, technology is defined as digital devices such as computer, laptops, digital camera, iPad that are used in the science classroom as an instructional delivery tool, as a learning tool, and as a knowledge construction tool. Constructivism is the lens, the theoretical framework that guides this qualitative phenomenological research. Observation, interview, personal journal, photo elicitation, and journal reflection are used as methods of data collection. Data was analyzed based on a constructivist theoretical framework to construct knowledge and draw conclusion. MAXQDA, a qualitative analysis software, was also used to analyze the data. The findings indicate that middle-school science teachers use technology in various ways to engage and motivate students in science learning; however, there are multiple factors that influence teachers' technology use in the class. In conclusion, teacher, students, and technology are the three sides of the triangle where technology acts as the third side or the bridge to connect teachers' content knowledge to students through the tool with which students are

  16. Addressing the Misuse Potential of Life Science Research-Perspectives From a Bottom-Up Initiative in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeschger, Franziska M; Jenal, Ursula

    2018-01-01

    Codes of conduct have received wide attention as a bottom-up approach to foster responsibility for dual use aspects of life science research within the scientific community. In Switzerland, a series of discussion sessions led by the Swiss Academy of Sciences with over 40 representatives of most Swiss academic life science research institutions has revealed that while a formal code of conduct was considered too restrictive, a bottom-up approach toward awareness raising and education and demonstrating scientists' responsibility toward society was highly welcomed. Consequently, an informational brochure on "Misuse potential and biosecurity in life sciences research" was developed to provide material for further discussions and education.

  17. A Perspective of Middle Schools and the Motivating Factors that will Influence Students to Pursue Careers in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins-Miller, Cornelia B.

    This dissertation project will determine what factors are being used to engage students to obtain careers in science. It will explore factors and other theories that contribute to persuading students to think about careers in science after college. The participants of the study included counselors, parents, principals, middle school students and teachers. All of the participants were surveyed. Information from the participants was collected and analyzed according to their responses. The results indicated that there were many contributing factors that the participants thought changed their attitudes about science and engaging in a science career.

  18. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Kleter, G.A.; Brennan, M.; Coles, D.G.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Houdebine, L.M.; Mora, C.; Millar, K.; Salter, B.

    2013-01-01

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing

  19. A critical analysis towards research perspectives: Reply to comments on "Modeling human behavior in economics and social science".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolfin, M; Leonida, L; Outada, N

    2017-12-01

    We take advantage of the challenging comments to the modeling approach we proposed in [35] to look ahead at a number of applications of the methods to the alternative questions these comments raise. In turn, our effort results in a number of interesting and valuable research perspectives. The presentation goes along three main lines. In the first line, we summarize briefly the aims and results in [35]. In the second section we give a technical the issues raised and, finally, the focus moves to the above mentioned research perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Impact of Single-Sex and Coeducational Schooling on Participation and Achievement in Science: A 10-Year Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Alex; Knipe, Damian; Gallagher, Tony

    1997-01-01

    Examines the impact of government science education policy through the uptake of science A level subjects and patterns of attainment among boys and girls. Whereas recent evidence from Britain has been popularly interpreted as showing the educational advantage of single-sex schooling, the evidence of this study suggests that pupils are more likely…

  1. Innovations in Community-Based and Interdisciplinary Research: A Network Perspective on Innovation in Social Work Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Eric; Petering, Robin; Stringfellow, Erin; Craddock, Jaih B.

    2017-01-01

    We present a preliminary theory of innovation in social work science. The focus of the piece is two case studies from our work that illustrate the social nature of innovations in the science of social work. This inductive theory focuses on a concept we refer to as transformative innovation, wherein two sets of individuals who possess different…

  2. Benefits from an exchange of knowledge in the treaty-related science and technologies: A personal perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes benefits from an exchange of knowledge in the non-proliferation treaty related science and technologies concerning science and technology development. Benefits to State Parties are concerned with non-treaty uses of seismic, hydro acoustic, infrasound and radionuclides data, their evaluation and measuring techniques

  3. Perspektiven einer Rezeption neurowissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse in der Erziehungswissenschaft (Perspectives of an Integration of Neuro-Scientific Findings into Educational Science).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Nicole

    2002-01-01

    Sketches the status quo and possible starting points for the adoption of neuro-scientific findings by educational science. Describes the latest developments in U.S. research. Discusses the adoption of these points by German educational science. Outlines the possibilities and limits of an interdisciplinary discourse. (CAJ)

  4. Collaboration in Science and Technology. An Inter-American Perspective. Issues in International Education Report No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. N.

    Political events in Latin America in recent years have caused universities to re-examine their goals and external relationships, especially in terms of science and technology. The reexamination has led to a renewed stress on basic science education and an explosive growth of graduate education. In view of these structural changes, almost every…

  5. Diverse Complexities, Complex Diversities: Resisting "Normal Science" in Pedagogical and Research Methodologies. A Perspective from Aotearoa (New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of complexities of the contexts for education in Aotearoa, which include the need to recognise and include Maori (Indigenous) perspectives, but also to extend this inclusion to the context of increasing ethnic diversity. These complexities include the situation of worsening disparities between rich and poor which…

  6. Voices from inside the elementary classroom: Three teachers' perspectives on the Alabama Reading Initiative and elementary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Brenda Hainley

    The influences of mandates, particularly the Alabama Reading Initiative (ARI) as the response to No Child Left Behind (2002), on elementary science education in Alabama were investigated. Teachers' voices provided insights to the status of science education in kindergarten, second grade, and third grade, and all three case participants reported negative influences of ARI on science education in their classrooms. The multiple case study, framed by critical theory and critical pedagogy, indicated that these teachers sometimes accepted marginalized roles in determining curriculum and pedagogy yet at other times made the decisions to empower themselves and negotiate or discard mandates in favor of meeting their children's learning needs or their own professional needs as they perceived them to be. Whether the case participants reached a threshold of resisting mandates or not, they struggled with the view of the political hierarchy that continues to force them into the status of being a technician rather than being a teaching professional. NCLB currently mandates standardized science testing, beginning in the spring of 2008. Historically, standardized testing reduces learning to low-level recall and teaching to rigid, uncreative, uncritical strategies. All of this intersects with science education reform and a national call for more attention to be given to science, technology, and mathematics learning. Research should track the continued influences of intersecting mandates on science education at every level.

  7. Unpacking the Paradox of Chinese Science Learners: Insights from Research into Asian Chinese School Students' Attitudes towards Learning Science, Science Learning Strategies, and Scientific Epistemological Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, May Hung May; Wan, Zhi Hong

    2016-01-01

    Chinese students' excellent science performance in large-scale international comparisons contradicts the stereotype of the Chinese non-productive classroom learning environment and learners. Most of the existing explanations of this paradox are provided from the perspective of teaching and learning in a general sense, but little work can be found…

  8. Invoking the Ghosts in the Machine: Reassessing the Evolution of the Science/Religion Phenomena - Alternative Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Shalet, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is an in-depth critical analysis of the nature of the science/religion relationship. The purpose of this project is to expose the problems associated with the many fallacies related to these phenomena, and to evaluate the reasons behind certain perceptions. It outlines the damage done through years of misconceiving and misunderstanding the concepts of science and religion, and to address what led to such inadequacies in interpretation, emphasizing the use of insufficient and archa...

  9. Why preeclampsia still exists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelbi, Sonia T; Veitia, Reiner A; Vaiman, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a deadly gestational disease affecting up to 10% of women and specific of the human species. Preeclampsia is clearly multifactorial, but the existence of a genetic basis for this disease is now clearly established by the existence of familial cases, epidemiological studies and known predisposing gene polymorphisms. PE is very common despite the fact that Darwinian pressure should have rapidly eliminated or strongly minimized the frequency of predisposing alleles. Consecutive pregnancies with the same partner decrease the risk and severity of PE. Here, we show that, due to this peculiar feature, preeclampsia predisposing-alleles can be differentially maintained according to the familial structure. Thus, we suggest that an optimal frequency of PE-predisposing alleles in human populations can be achieved as a result of a trade-off between benefits of exogamy, importance for maintaining genetic diversity and increase of the fitness owing to a stable paternal investment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Perspective of midwives working at hospitals affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences regarding medical errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Valiani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Based on the results of this study on the perspectives of participants, among the three factors of medical errors (human factors, structural factors, and management factors, human factors are the biggest threat in committing medical errors. Modification in the pattern of teaching by the midwifery professors and their presence in the hospitals, creating a no-blame culture, and sharing of alerts in medical errors are among appropriate actions in the dimensions of human, structural, and managerial factors.

  11. Existence of Projective Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Perrott, Xander

    2016-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the history of finite projective planes and their properties before going on to outline the proof that no projective plane of order 10 exists. The report also investigates the search carried out by MacWilliams, Sloane and Thompson in 1970 [12] and confirms their result by providing independent verification that there is no vector of weight 15 in the code generated by the projective plane of order 10.

  12. Does bioethics exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, L

    2009-12-01

    Bioethicists disagree over methods, theories, decision-making guides, case analyses and public policies. Thirty years ago, the thinking of many scholars coalesced around a principlist approach to bioethics. That mid-level mode of moral reasoning is now one of many approaches to moral deliberation. Significant variation in contemporary approaches to the study of ethical issues related to medicine, biotechnology and health care raises the question of whether bioethics exists as widely shared method, theory, normative framework or mode of moral reasoning.

  13. Exploring Ivorian perspectives on the effectiveness of the current Ivorian science curriculum in addressing issues related to HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ado, Gustave Firmin

    School-based HIV/AIDS science education has the potential to impact students when integrated into the science curriculum. However, this mixed method study shows that school-based HIV/AIDS science education is often not infused into career subjects such as science education but integrated into civics education and taught by teachers who lack the skills, knowledge, and the training in the delivery of effective school HIV/AIDS education. Since science is where biological events take place, it is suggested that HIV/AIDS science merits being taught in the science education classroom. This study took place in nine public middle schools within two school districts in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, one major urban city in the southern region. The study utilized triangulation of multiple data sources---both qualitative and quantitative. To substantiate the claims made in this study, a range of qualitative methods such as field notes and individual interviews with 39 teachers, 63 sixth grade students, 8 school administrators, and 20 community elders were used. For the quantitative portion 140 teachers and 3510 sixth grade students were surveyed. The findings from the study prioritize science education that includes HIV/AIDS science education for all, with emphasis on HIV/AIDS prevention in Ivory Coast. The factors that influence the implementation of HIV/AIDS curricula within the Ivorian sixth grade classrooms are discussed. Interview and survey data from students, teachers, school administrators, and community elders indicate that in the Ivorian school setting, "gerontocratic" cultural influences, religious beliefs, personal cultural beliefs, and time spent toward the discourse on HIV/AIDS have led to HIV/AIDS education that is often insufficient to change either misconceptions about HIV/AIDS or risky practices. It was also found that approaches to teaching HIV/AIDS does not connect with youth cultures. By reframing and integrating current HIV/AIDS curricula into the science

  14. Space science comes of age: Perspectives in the history of the space sciences Proceedings of the Symposium, Washington, DC, March 23, 24, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanle, P.A.; Chamberlain, V.D.

    1981-01-01

    The development of space science is recounted in two parts, the first written by founders and pioneers in the field who recount some of the important scientific discoveries in their areas, the second offering a preliminary view of space science by professional historians. The subjects of the first part are solar physics, rocket astronomy, the ultraviolet spectra of stars, lunar exploration and geology. James Van Allen's lecture first disclosing his discovery of the radiation belts surrounding the earth is reprinted. The second part includes the story of the development of theories about the origin of the solar system before 1960, a discussion of studies of the upper atmosphere, a concise history of space-launch vehicles, and a review of the politics and funding of the Landsat project

  15. Wealth, equity and health care: a critique of a "population health" perspective on the determinants of health. Critical Social Science Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, B; Coburn, D; Robertson, A; Eakin, J

    1998-04-01

    In this paper we examine the recent ascendancy of a "population health" perspective on the "determinants of health" in health policy circles as conceptualized by health economists and social epidemiologists such as Evans and Stoddart [Evans and Stoddart (1990) Producing health, consuming health care. Social Science & Medicine 31(12), 1347 1363]. Their view, that the financing of health care systems may actually be deleterious for the health status of populations by drawing attention away from the (economic) determinants of health, has arguably become the "core" of the discourse of "population health". While applauding the efforts of these and other members of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research for "pushing the envelope", we nevertheless have misgivings about their conceptualization of both the "problem" and its "solutions", as well as about the implications of their perspective for policy. From our critique, we build an alternative point of view based on a political economy perspective. We point out that Evans and Stoddart's evidence is open to alternative interpretations--and, in fact, that their conclusions regarding the importance of wealth creation do not directly reflect the evidence presented, and are indicative of an oversimplified link between wealth and health. Their view also lacks an explicit substantive theory of society and of social change, and provides convenient cover for those who wish to dismantle the welfare state in the name of deficit reduction. Our alternative to the "provider dominance" theory of Evans and Stoddart and colleagues stresses that the factors or forces producing health status, which Evans and Stoddart describe, are contained within a larger whole (advanced industrial capitalism) which gives the parts their character and shapes their interrelationships. We contend that this alternative view better explains both how we arrived at a situation in which health care systems are as costly or extensive as they are, and suggests

  16. Big Data in Science and Healthcare: A Review of Recent Literature and Perspectives. Contribution of the IMIA Social Media Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, M M; Miron-Shatz, T; Lau, A Y S; Paton, C

    2014-08-15

    As technology continues to evolve and rise in various industries, such as healthcare, science, education, and gaming, a sophisticated concept known as Big Data is surfacing. The concept of analytics aims to understand data. We set out to portray and discuss perspectives of the evolving use of Big Data in science and healthcare and, to examine some of the opportunities and challenges. A literature review was conducted to highlight the implications associated with the use of Big Data in scientific research and healthcare innovations, both on a large and small scale. Scientists and health-care providers may learn from one another when it comes to understanding the value of Big Data and analytics. Small data, derived by patients and consumers, also requires analytics to become actionable. Connectivism provides a framework for the use of Big Data and analytics in the areas of science and healthcare. This theory assists individuals to recognize and synthesize how human connections are driving the increase in data. Despite the volume and velocity of Big Data, it is truly about technology connecting humans and assisting them to construct knowledge in new ways. Concluding Thoughts: The concept of Big Data and associated analytics are to be taken seriously when approaching the use of vast volumes of both structured and unstructured data in science and health-care. Future exploration of issues surrounding data privacy, confidentiality, and education are needed. A greater focus on data from social media, the quantified self-movement, and the application of analytics to "small data" would also be useful.

  17. Control of Chaos: New Perspectives in Experimental and Theoretical Science. International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos in Applied Sciences and Engineering. Theme Issue. Part 1. Volume 8, Number 8, August 1998

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arecchi, F

    1998-01-01

    .... In every field of the applied sciences (astronomy, atmospheric sciences, biology, chemistry, economics, geophysics, life and medical sciences, physics, social sciences, zoology, etc.) and engTheenng...

  18. Qualitative approaches to large scale studies and students' achievements in Science and Mathematics - An Australian and Nordic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, Eva; Sørensen, Helene

    Large scale studies play an increasing role in educational politics and results from surveys such as TIMSS and PISA are extensively used in medial debates about students' knowledge in science and mathematics. Although this debate does not usually shed light on the more extensive quantitative...... analyses, there is a lack of investigations which aim at exploring what is possible to conclude or not to conclude from these analyses. There is also a need for more detailed discussions about what trends could be discern concerning students' knowledge in science and mathematics. The aim of this symposium...... is therefore to highlight and discuss different approaches to how data from large scale studies could be used for additional analyses in order to increase our understanding of students' knowledge in science and mathematics, but also to explore possible longitudinal trends, hidden in the data material...

  19. Tests for the existence of black holes through gravitational wave echoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Pani, Paolo

    2017-09-01

    The existence of black holes and spacetime singularities is a fundamental issue in science. Despite this, observations supporting their existence are scarce, and their interpretation is unclear. In this Perspective we outline the case for black holes that has been made over the past few decades, and provide an overview of how well observations adjust to this paradigm. Unsurprisingly, we conclude that observational proof for black holes is, by definition, impossible to obtain. However, just like Popper's black swan, alternatives can be ruled out or confirmed to exist with a single observation. These observations are within reach. In the coming years and decades, we will enter an era of precision gravitational-wave physics with more sensitive detectors. Just as accelerators have required larger and larger energies to probe smaller and smaller scales, more sensitive gravitational-wave detectors will probe regions closer and closer to the horizon, potentially reaching Planck scales and beyond. What may be there, lurking?

  20. Preparing Science-Trained Professionals for the Biotechnology Industry: A Ten-Year Perspective on a Professional Science Master’s Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T. Hamilton

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The biotechnology industry has a need for business-savvy scientists; however, this is not the way scientists are traditionally trained at universities and colleges. To address this need, universities have developed Professional Science Master’s (PSM degree programs that offer advanced training in a technical field along with professional skills development through team-based projects and internships. Nearly ten years ago, the Department of Microbiology at NCSU started a PSM program in Microbial Biotechnology (MMB. This article provides an overview of the MMB program, and shares some of the lessons that we have learned.

  1. Educating for Social Justice: Perspectives from Library and Information Science and Collaboration with K-12 Social Studies Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Jamie Campbell; Sweeney, Miriam E.

    2015-01-01

    Library and Information Science (LIS) as a discipline is guided by core values that emphasize equal access to information, freedom of expression, democracy, and education. Importantly, diversity and social responsibility are specifically called out as foundations of the profession (American Library Association, 2004). Following from this, there…

  2. Producing and Consuming the Controversial--A Social Media Perspective on Political Conversations in the Social Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Teachers find it difficult to conduct political controversial conversations in the social science classroom and due to an increased use of social media in educational settings new challenges and possibilities are raised. The use of social media causes fundamental changes to the role of the learner who becomes a producer and consumer--a…

  3. Science at Harvard University: Historical Perspectives, edited by Clark A. Elliott and Margaret W. Rossiter. Lehigh University Press, Bethlehem, 1992

    OpenAIRE

    Christenson, Andrew L.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains historical studies of several sciences as practiced at Harvard University. Two of these studies have relevance to the history of archaeology. A chapter by Toby Appel focuses upon the scientific career of Jeffries Wyman, first curator of Harvard's Peabody Museum. She contrasts Wyman's unassuming character with the dominating personality of his mentor and contemporary Louis Agassiz. Trained as a medi...

  4. Caring Science or Science of Caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkel, Marian C; Watson, Jean; Giovannoni, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    The concepts caring science and science of caring have different meanings; however, they are often used interchangeably. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the synthesis of the scholarly literature on the definitions of the science of caring and caring science and to affirm the authors' perspective relating to the language of caring science. Caring science advances the epistemology and ontology of caring. Ideas related to caring science inquiry are presented, and the authors acknowledge the future of caring science as unitary caring science.

  5. O Ponto G Existe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Molina Noccioli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho busca analisar o tratamento linguístico-discursivo das informações acerca de um tópicotemático tradicionalmente visto como tabu, relacionado a questões sexuais, na notícia O ponto G existe?, publicada em 2008, na revista brasileira Superinteressante, destacando-se como o conhecimento em questão é representado socialmente ao se considerar a linha editorial da revista. A notícia caracteriza-se como um campo fértil para a análise das estratégias divulgativas, já que atrai, inclusive pelas escolhas temáticas, a curiosidade dos leitores. Imbuído de um tema excêntrico, o texto consegue angariar um público jovem interessado em discussões polêmicas relacionadas ao seu universo.

  6. Lebesgue Sets Immeasurable Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marginean Petrovai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the notion of measure and integral were released early enough in close connection with practical problems of measuring of geometric figures. Notion of measure was outlined in the early 20th century through H. Lebesgue’s research, founder of the modern theory of measure and integral. It was developed concurrently a technique of integration of functions. Gradually it was formed a specific area todaycalled the measure and integral theory. Essential contributions to building this theory was made by a large number of mathematicians: C. Carathodory, J. Radon, O. Nikodym, S. Bochner, J. Pettis, P. Halmos and many others. In the following we present several abstract sets, classes of sets. There exists the sets which are not Lebesgue measurable and the sets which are Lebesgue measurable but are not Borel measurable. Hence B ⊂ L ⊂ P(X.

  7. Developing a complex systems perspective for medical education to facilitate the integration of basic science and clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, David C

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of medical education is to produce competent and capable professional practitioners who can combine the art and science of medicine. Moreover, this process must prepare individuals to practise in a field in which knowledge is increasing and the contexts in which that knowledge is applied are changing in unpredictable ways. The 'basic sciences' are important in the training of a physician. The goal of basic science training is to learn it in a way that the material can be applied in practice. Much effort has been expended to integrate basic science and clinical training, while adding many other topics to the medical curriculum. This effort has been challenging. The aims of the paper are (1) to propose a unifying conceptual framework that facilitates knowledge integration among all levels of living systems from cell to society and (2) illustrate the organizing principles with two examples of the framework in action - cybernetic systems (with feedback) and distributed robustness. Literature related to hierarchical and holarchical frameworks was reviewed. An organizing framework derived from living systems theory and spanning the range from molecular biology to health systems management was developed. The application of cybernetic systems to three levels (regulation of pancreatic beta cell production of insulin, physician adjustment of medication for glycaemic control and development and action of performance measures for diabetes care) was illustrated. Similarly distributed robustness was illustrated by the DNA damage response system and principles underlying patient safety. Each of the illustrated organizing principles offers a means to facilitate the weaving of basic science and clinical medicine throughout the course of study. The use of such an approach may promote systems thinking, which is a core competency for effective and capable medical practice. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Cosmic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, S. K.; Mallik, D. C. V.; Vishveshwara, C. V.

    2008-07-01

    1. Astronomy in ancient and medieval China Joseph Needham; 2. Indian astronomy: an historical perspective B. V. Subbarayappa; 3. Making of astronomy in ancient India Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya; 4. The impact of astronomy on the development of western science Jean-Claude Pecker; 5. Man and the Universe Hubert Reeves; 6. Understanding the Universe - challenges and directions in modern observational astronomy Harlan Smith, Jr: 7. Frontiers in cosmology Fred Hoyle; 8. Did the Universe originate in a big bang? Jayant Narlikar; 9. The dark matter problem Bernard Carr; 10. Geometry and the Universe C. V. Vishveshwara; 11. The origin and evolution of life Cyril Ponnamperuma; 12. The anthropic principle: self selection as an adjunct to natural selection Brandon Carter; 13. Astrology and science: an examination of the evidence Ivan Kelly, Roger Culver and Peter Loptson; 14. Astronomy and science fiction Allen Janis.

  9. !Claro, se puede! Critical resilience: A critical race perspective on resilience in the baccalaureate achievement of Latino/a engineering and life science students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Gary Anthony

    An under representation of Latino/as in the fields of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) still persists. In Rising Above the Gathering Storm, the National Academies sounded an alarm in response to data indicating a "troubling decline" in the number of U.S. citizens trained to become scientists and engineers at a time when the number of technical jobs is outpacing the rate of the U.S. workforce. The shrinking technical talent pipeline threatens the country's future in technology innovation, energy alternatives, national security, and education. This study purported to contextualize resilience and discern the cultural capital and persistence behaviors of STEM Latino/a students succeeding in two adverse environments---higher education and science and engineering. Through a critical race perspective the student cuentos were thematically analyzed. Student narratives were then triangulated with the narrative of the researcher---a Mexican American, first-generation college student, who pursued a life science bachelor's degree through the two institutions in this study. The theoretical framework was guided by Critical Race Theory, Resiliency, Persistence Theory, and Social Construction of Technology. The study consisted of a pilot survey and narrative inquiry. The survey contained pilot questions on the use and perception of information technologies in STEM education. The narrative inquiry was guided by critical race that enabled both positionality and storytelling through narratives and counter-narratives. Twenty-two Latino/a graduating seniors majoring in the biological sciences or engineering/engineering technology at a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI) and a Predominantly-White Institution (PWI) in Texas were recruited. The narratives of these students were collected through one-time, semi-structured interviews during the last semester of their studies. Results from the study indicate that these Latino/a STEM students are conscious of their ethnicity

  10. The harmonious relationship between faith and science from the perspective of some great saints: A brief comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Manuel E; Del Río, Juan Pablo; Vigil, Pilar

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this editorial is to show that a harmonious relationship between science and faith is possible, as exemplified by great saints of the Catholic Church. It begins with the definitions of science and faith, followed by an explanation of the apparent conflict between them. A few saints that constitute an example that a fruitful relationship between these two seemingly opposed realities has been possible are Saint Albert the Great, Saint John of the Cross, Saint Giuseppe Moscati, and Saint Edith Stein, among others, and this editorial highlights their deep contributions to the dialogue between faith and reason. This editorial ends with a brief discussion on whether it is possible to be both a scientist and a man of faith.

  11. Inquiry based Teacher Professional development from a multidisciplinary perspective: The NEOGEO Lake Erie Earth Science Field Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, J. D.; Munro-Stasiuk, M. J.; Hart, B. I.; Mokaren, D. M.; Arnold, B.; Chermansky, J. V.; Vlack, Y. A.

    2006-12-01

    State and national educational standards stress the need to incorporate inquiry-based approaches into the K- 12 science curriculum. However, many teachers either lack training in these pedagogical techniques or science content mastery. Both of these are needed to confidently approach science teaching in the less structured framework associated with a real world exploration of the natural environment. To overcome these barriers to implementation, we have developed an intensive, field-based professional development workshop which explores the connections between the bedrock geology, glacial geomorphology, ecology, and geography of the Lake Erie Islands and the shore of its western basin. This workshop is part of a series of three workshops that form the professional development activities of our NSF funded Graduate Teaching Fellows in K-12 Education (GK-12) project, the Northeast Ohio Geoscience Education Outreach (NEOGEO) Program which seeks to improve the quality of Earth Science education at the middle and high school levels in Northeast Ohio. During the workshop students explored the ecology and geomorphology of a series of coastal wetlands, collecting instrumental data and field observations to evaluate water quality and the forces that created these surface features. Exceptional exposure of glacial scours and striations at Kelleys Island and along the Marblehead Peninsula allowed the participants to reconstruct evolving ice flow paths to see how recent geological history shaped the landscape. Finally, stratigraphic observations in a local quarry enabled the students to understand why the observed glacial features varied as a function of bedrock type. Response to the workshop was overwhelming positive with participants commenting positively on quality and quantity of the material presented and the manner in which inquiry based teaching was modeled. End of term projects which included the conceptualization of a teaching plan to incorporate the approaches learned

  12. Science, mathematics and technology education in the US: a perspective from the "frontlines of the classroom to national policy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Pertzborn

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade significant emphasis has been placed on increasing the involvement and influence of the professional scientific community in America's K-12 classrooms. The origins of this thrust have arisen from a variety of real and perceived crises occurring in America's K-12 classrooms. Projections for the nation's future workforce needs indicate an increased demand for science and technically literate workers, while fewer of the nation's students are pursuing advanced degrees in these academic areas of expertise. In an effort to address these issues and to impact the overall understanding and quality of science, math and technology education, several of the federal agencies have increasingly included a percentage of research funding devoted to the objective of improving the quality of kindergarten through Grade 12 (K-12, see Table 1 formal education and informal public outreach. To this end, NASA's Space Science Enterprise in particular has demonstrated a successful implementation approach and has been a national leader in forging strong partnerships with the education community to address these concerns.

  13. Excellence in teaching for promotion and tenure in animal and dairy sciences at doctoral/research universities: a faculty perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattiaux, M A; Moore, J A; Rastani, R R; Crump, P M

    2010-07-01

    In this study, animal or dairy sciences faculty from doctoral/research universities were surveyed to clarify teaching performance expectations for the purpose of promotion and tenure of assistant professors. A survey tool including 15 evaluation criteria was available online and at the registration desk of the 2005 Joint Annual Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science. The analyzed data set included 47 faculty (41 tenured and 6 tenure-track) with a substantial teaching responsibility from 27 different departments in 25 states. Four criteria were perceived as currently overemphasized: student evaluation of the instructor, student evaluation of the course, authoring peer-reviewed publications, and authoring an undergraduate textbook or book chapter. Nevertheless, more than 50% of respondents reported that these criteria should be used. One criterion emerged as being currently underemphasized: documentation of personal assessment of one's own teaching by preparing a portfolio. The lack of consensus for the remaining 10 items may have reflected substantial differences in institutional practices. The significance of overemphasis or underemphasis of certain criteria varied substantially depending on the respondent's perceived institutional mission. When asked about recognition within their department, 68% of respondents indicated that efforts in teaching improvement were properly rewarded. Respondents doubted the meaningfulness and appropriateness of student ratings tools as currently used. Results also suggested that animal and dairy science faculty placed a higher value on criteria recognizing excellence in teaching based on intradepartmental recognition (e.g., interactions with close-up peers and students) rather than recognition within a broader community of scholars as evidenced by authorship or success in generating funding for teaching. Proposed improvements in the evaluation of teaching for promotion and tenure

  14. The ideal form of transdisciplinary research as seen from the perspective of sustainability science, considering the future development of IATSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Takeuchi

    2014-07-01

    Considering the future development of IATSS, I suggest promoting strategic participation at related international events, and building institutional links with existing networks. Rather than serving as a specialist journal, IATSS Research should look at traffic safety in a broad sense, and discuss visions for transportation societies as well as concrete research findings.

  15. A behavioral science framework for understanding kawaii

    OpenAIRE

    Nittono, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Kawaii is a key concept that characterizes modern Japanese culture. It is often translated into English as “cute," but asubtle difference of nuance exists between the two words. Although many books and articles have been published onthis subject, these discussions are mostly limited to the fields of humanities and sociology. In this paper, I put forward aframework for research on kawaii from a behavioral science perspective. First, I provide an overview of kawaii,including a summary of its di...

  16. Carte mentale et science politique : Regards et perspectives critiques sur l’emploi d’un outil prometteur

    OpenAIRE

    Breux, Sandra; Reuchamps, Min; Loiseau, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Peut-on substituer l'image au discours et conserver une démarche scientifique ? Dans ce livre, une équipe interdisciplinaire, réunissant des chercheurs belges et québécois, explore cette question à travers l'outil « carte mentale ». Rarement utilisé en science politique, cet instrument de collecte de l'information permet d'accéder à des données originales, spontanées et libres à propos d'une multitude d'objets, allant du cyberespace au fédéralisme, en passant par des politiques publiques et d...

  17. Carte mentale et science politique : Regards et perspectives critiques sur l’emploi d’un outil prometteur

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Peut-on substituer l'image au discours et conserver une démarche scientifique ? Dans ce livre, une équipe interdisciplinaire, réunissant des chercheurs belges et québécois, explore cette question à travers l'outil « carte mentale ». Rarement utilisé en science politique, cet instrument de collecte de l'information permet d'accéder à des données originales, spontanées et libres à propos d'une multitude d'objets, allant du cyberespace au fédéralisme, en passant par des politiques publiques e...

  18. Some Barthian perspectives on the present science-religion debate: What is the place of “natural theology” today?

    OpenAIRE

    Cornel W. du Toit

    2007-01-01

    As an example of the context-relatedness of Barth’s work, this article compares his crisis theology with Heidegger’s philosophy of Being. Further examples are Barth’s reaction to the modernism of his time, with its accent on rationalism (see his critique of Kant), and the influence of subjective theology. In spite of his condemnation of natural theology, Barth could make a unique contribution to the current science-theology debate. His reading of the creation story and the way he views (trans...

  19. TRIENNIAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT SYMPOSIUM: Dedifferentiated fat cells: Potential and perspectives for their use in clinical and animal science purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, M S; Bueno, R; Silva, W; Campos, C F; Gionbelli, M P; Guimarães, S E F; Silva, F F; Lopes, P S; Hausman, G J; Dodson, M V

    2017-05-01

    An increasing body of evidences has demonstrated the ability of the mature adipocyte to dedifferentiate into a population of proliferative-competent cells known as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. As early as the 1970s, in vitro studies showed that DFAT cells may be obtained by ceiling culture, which takes advantage of the buoyancy property of lipid-filled cells. It was documented that DFAT cells may acquire a phenotype similar to mesenchymal stem cells and yet may differentiate into multiple cell lineages, such as skeletal and smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes. Additionally, recent studies showed the ability of isolated mature adipocytes to dedifferentiate in vivo and the capacity of the progeny cells to redifferentiate into mature adipocytes, contributing to the increase of body fatness. These findings shed light on the potential for use of DFAT cells, not only for clinical purposes but also within the animal science field, because increasing intramuscular fat without excessive increase in other fat depots is a challenge in livestock production. Knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the dedifferentiation and redifferentiation of DFAT cells will allow the development of strategies for their use for clinical and animal science purposes. In this review, we highlight several aspects of DFAT cells, their potential for clinical purposes, and their contribution to adipose tissue mass in livestock.

  20. [The depression epidemic does not exist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M

    2009-01-01

    There has been much discussion in the media about the question of the existence of a depression epidemic. This leads on to the questions of whether the social and economic approaches are adequate, and what the alternatives are. The concept of the disease 'depression' can be defined using a medical model, or from a patient's or a societal perspective. From a medical perspective, indeed a depression epidemic has ensued from the increased prosperity and the associated decompression of the mortality rate. Society responded with preventative measures and policies aimed at improving functioning in the workplace. However, patients with a major depressive disorder (MDD) who are eligible for treatment are often not motivated to take it up, or are undertreated. Research is necessary in order to explore what patients think about the identification and treatment of depression. The confusion regarding the concept of depression found in the media, needs to be cleared.