Since the mid-1990's NASA's Office of Space Science (OSS) has embarked on an astronomy and space science education and public outreach (E/PO) program. Its goals are to share the excitement of space science discoveries with the public, and to enhance the quality of science, mathematics and technology education, particularly at the precollege level. A key feature of the OSS program is the direct involvement of space scientists. The majority of the funding for E/PO is allocated to flight missions, which spend 1%-2% of their total budget on E/PO, and to individual research grants. This paper presents an overview of the program's goals, objectives, philosophy, and infrastructure
Many studies in public understanding of science emphasise that learning how to do science also involves learning about the philosophical issues surrounding the nature of science. This thesis aims to find out how scientists themselves talk and write about these philosophical topics, and how these topics get used in scientific thought. It contrasts scientists' opinions on these issues with how they are portrayed in popular science, and also contrasts them with how philosophers themselves have j...
Science communication is a rapidly expanding area and meaningful engagement between scientists and the public requires effective communication. Designed to help the novice scientist get started with science communication, this unique guide begins with a short history of science communication before discussing the design and delivery of an effective engagement event. Along with numerous case studies written by highly regarded international contributors, the book discusses how to approach face-to-face science communication and engagement activities with the public while providing tips to avoid potential pitfalls. This book has been written for scientists at all stages of their career, including undergraduates and postgraduates wishing to engage with effective science communication for the first time, or looking to develop their science communication portfolio.
In 2007, University of Oklahoma political science professor Cindy Simon Rosenthal was elected mayor of Norman, Oklahoma, after having served as a member of its city council. Was her activity unique within the political science profession among female political scientists? Her election stimulated the curiosity of some of us in the…
Home; Initiatives; Women in Science; Chinese Scientists. Chinese Scientists. One third Chinese scientists are women [What about India?] ... scientists, at a young age of 52, after a valiant battle with cancer, today on 29th March 2016 in Delhi.
Spector, B. S.
Scientists with limited time to devote to educating the public about their work will get the greatest multiplier effect for their investment of time by successfully interacting with university science educators. These university professors are the smallest and least publicized group of professionals in the chain of people working to create science literate citizens. They connect to all aspects of formal and informal education, influencing everything from what and how youngsters and adults learn science to legislative rulings. They commonly teach methods of teaching science to undergraduates aspiring to teach in K-12 settings and experienced teachers. They serve as agents for change to improve science education inside schools and at the state level K-16, including what science content courses are acceptable for teacher licensure. University science educators are most often housed in a College of Education or Department of Education. Significant differences in culture exist in the world in which marine scientists function and that in which university science educators function, even when they are in the same university. Subsequently, communication and building relationships between the groups is often difficult. Barriers stem from not understanding each other's roles and responsibilities; and different reward systems, assumptions about teaching and learning, use of language, approaches to research, etc. This presentation will provide suggestions to mitigate the barriers and enable scientists to leverage the multiplier effect saving much time and energy while ensuring the authenticity of their message is maintained. Likelihood that a scientist's message will retain its authenticity stems from criteria for a university science education position. These professors have undergraduate degrees in a natural science (e.g., biology, chemistry, physics, geology), and usually a master's degree in one of the sciences, a combination of natural sciences, or a master's including
Home; Initiatives; Women in Science; Women Young Scientists of INSA. Women Young Scientists of INSA. INSA - Indian National Science Academy .... Charusita Chakravarty, one of the stars of our community of women scientists, at a young ...
Search The Education Office: Science Adventures Adventure Catalog Search for Adventures Calendar Class Facebook Group. Contact: Science Adventures Registrar, Education Office Fermilab, MS 777, P.O. Box 500 it again." Opportunities for Instructors The Education Office has openings for instructors who
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Being a soil scientist is a fascinating and certainly diverse career, which can indeed involve working in a laboratory or diagnosing sick orange trees. However it often involves much, much more. In 2015, as part of the United Nations' "International Year of Soils," Soil Science Australia's (SSA) "Soils in Schools" program…
Aratani, Michi [Office of Regional Collaboration, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Sasagawa, Sumiko
Women scientists generally play a great role in the public acceptance (PA) for the national policy of atomic energy developing in Japan. The reason may be that, when a woman scientist stands in the presence of women audience, she will be ready to be accepted by them as a person with the same gender, emotion and thought to themselves. A case of interchange between the Rokkasho women and the women scientists either resident at the nuclear site of Rokkasho or staying for a short time at Rokkasho by invitation has been described from the viewpoint of PA for the national policy of atomic energy developing, and more fundamentally, for promotion of science education. (author)
Aratani, Michi; Sasagawa, Sumiko
Women scientists generally play a great role in the public acceptance (PA) for the national policy of atomic energy developing in Japan. The reason may be that, when a woman scientist stands in the presence of women audience, she will be ready to be accepted by them as a person with the same gender, emotion and thought to themselves. A case of interchange between the Rokkasho women and the women scientists either resident at the nuclear site of Rokkasho or staying for a short time at Rokkasho by invitation has been described from the viewpoint of PA for the national policy of atomic energy developing, and more fundamentally, for promotion of science education. (author)
Graff, P. V.; Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K.
The Year of the Solar System (YSS) celebration begins in the fall of 2010. As YSS provides a means in which NASA can inspire members of the public about exciting missions to other worlds in our solar system, it is important to remember these missions are about the science being conducted and new discoveries being made. As part of the Year of the Solar System, Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Education, at the NASA Johnson Space Center, will infuse the great YSS celebration within the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program. Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) is an authentic research program for students in grades 5-14 and is a component of ARES Education. Students involved in EEAB have the opportunity to conduct and share their research about Earth and/or planetary comparisons. ARES Education will help celebrate this exciting Year of the Solar System by inviting scientists to share their science. Throughout YSS, each month will highlight a topic related to exploring our solar system. Additionally, special mission events will be highlighted to increase awareness of the exciting missions and exploration milestones. To bring this excitement to classrooms across the nation, the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program and ARES Education will host classroom connection events in which scientists will have an opportunity to share discoveries being made through scientific research that relate to the YSS topic of the month. These interactive presentations will immerse students in some of the realities of exploration and potentially inspire them to conduct their own investigations. Additionally, scientists will share their own story of how they were inspired to pursue a STEM-related career that got them involved in exploration. These career highlights will allow students to understand and relate to the different avenues that scientists have taken to get where they are today. To bring the sharing of science full circle, student groups who conduct research by
This anthology contains fourteen intriguing short stories by active research scientists and other writers trained in science. Science is at the heart of real science fiction, which is more than just westerns with ray guns or fantasy with spaceships. The people who do science and love science best are scientists. Scientists like Isaac Asimov, Arthur C. Clarke, and Fred Hoyle wrote some of the legendary tales of golden age science fiction. Today there is a new generation of scientists writing science fiction informed with the expertise of their fields, from astrophysics to computer science, biochemistry to rocket science, quantum physics to genetics, speculating about what is possible in our universe. Here lies the sense of wonder only science can deliver. All the stories in this volume are supplemented by afterwords commenting on the science underlying each story.
"Learning should be a voyage of discovery. Teachers at the Xplora Science Teachers conference shared their novel approaches to motivating students to treat science as an exciting exploration - and become the new generation of scientists Europe needs." (1½ page)
Successful efforts to achieve reform in science education require the active and purposeful engagement of professional scientists. Working as partners with teachers, school administrators, science educators, parents, and other stakeholders, scientists can make important contributions to the improvement of science teaching and learning in pre-college classrooms. The world of a practicing university, corporate, or government scientist may seem far removed from that of students in an elementary classroom. However, the science knowledge and understanding of all future scientists and scientifically literate citizens begin with their introduction to scientific concepts and phenomena in childhood and the early grades. Science education is the responsibility of the entire scientific community and is not solely the responsibility of teachers and other professional educators. Scientists can serve many roles in science education reform including the following: (1) Science Content Resource, (2) Career Role Model, (3) Interpreter of Science (4) Validator for the Importance of Learning Science and Mathematics, (5) Champion of Real World Connections and Value of Science, (6) Experience and Access to Funding Sources, (7) Link for Community and Business Support, (8) Political Supporter. Special programs have been developed to assist scientists and engineers to be effective partners and advocates of science education reform. We will discuss the rationale, organization, and results of some of these partnership development programs.
Schinske, Jeffrey N.; Perkins, Heather; Snyder, Amanda; Wyer, Mary
Research into science identity, stereotype threat, and possible selves suggests a lack of diverse representations of scientists could impede traditionally underserved students from persisting and succeeding in science. We evaluated a series of metacognitive homework assignments (“Scientist Spotlights”) that featured counterstereotypical examples of scientists in an introductory biology class at a diverse community college. Scientist Spotlights additionally served as tools for content coverage, as scientists were selected to match topics covered each week. We analyzed beginning- and end-of-course essays completed by students during each of five courses with Scientist Spotlights and two courses with equivalent homework assignments that lacked connections to the stories of diverse scientists. Students completing Scientist Spotlights shifted toward counterstereotypical descriptions of scientists and conveyed an enhanced ability to personally relate to scientists following the intervention. Longitudinal data suggested these shifts were maintained 6 months after the completion of the course. Analyses further uncovered correlations between these shifts, interest in science, and course grades. As Scientist Spotlights require very little class time and complement existing curricula, they represent a promising tool for enhancing science identity, shifting stereotypes, and connecting content to issues of equity and diversity in a broad range of STEM classrooms. PMID:27587856
Schinske, Jeffrey N.; Perkins, Heather; Snyder, Amanda; Wyer, Mary
Research into science identity, stereotype threat, and possible selves suggests a lack of diverse representations of scientists could impede traditionally underserved students from persisting and succeeding in science. We evaluated a series of metacognitive homework assignments ("Scientist Spotlights") that featured counterstereotypical…
Lynch, Louise I.
Citizen science is an increasingly popular collaboration between members of the public and the scientific community to pursue current research questions. In addition to providing researchers with much needed volunteer support, it is a unique and promising form of informal science education that can counter declining public science literacy, including attitudes towards and understanding of science. However, the impacts of citizen science programs on participants' science literacy remains elusive. The purpose of this study was to balance the top-down approach to citizen science research by exploring how adult citizen scientists participate in entomology research based on their perceptions and pioneer mixed methods research to investigate and explain the impacts of citizen science programs. Transference, in which citizen scientists transfer program impacts to people around them, was uncovered in a grounded theory study focused on adults in a collaborative bumble bee research program. Most of the citizen scientists involved in entomology research shared their science experiences and knowledge with people around them. In certain cases, expertise was attributed to the individual by others. Citizen scientists then have the opportunity to acquire the role of expert to those around them and influence knowledge, attitudinal and behavioral changes in others. An intervention explanatory sequential mixed methods design assessed how entomology-based contributory citizen science affects science self-efficacy, self-efficacy for environmental action, nature relatedness and attitude towards insects in adults. However, no statistically significant impacts were evident. A qualitative follow-up uncovered a discrepancy between statistically measured changes and perceived influences reported by citizen scientists. The results have important implications for understanding how citizen scientists learn, the role of citizen scientists in entomology research, the broader program impacts and
Bankston, Adriana; McDowell, Gary S.
Being successful in an academic environment places many demands on junior scientists. Science communication currently may not be adequately valued and rewarded, and yet communication to multiple audiences is critical for ensuring that it remains a priority in today’s society. Due to the potential for science communication to produce better scientists, facilitate scientific progress, and influence decision-making at multiple levels, training junior scientists in both effective and ethical science communication practices is imperative, and can benefit scientists regardless of their chosen career path. However, many challenges exist in addressing specific aspects of this training. Principally, science communication training and resources should be made readily available to junior scientists at institutions, and there is a need to scale up existing science communication training programs and standardize core aspects of these programs across universities, while also allowing for experimentation with training. We propose a comprehensive core training program be adopted by universities, utilizing a centralized online resource with science communication information from multiple stakeholders. In addition, the culture of science must shift toward greater acceptance of science communication as an essential part of training. For this purpose, the science communication field itself needs to be developed, researched and better understood at multiple levels. Ultimately, this may result in a larger cultural change toward acceptance of professional development activities as valuable for training scientists. PMID:29904538
Bankston, Adriana; McDowell, Gary S
Being successful in an academic environment places many demands on junior scientists. Science communication currently may not be adequately valued and rewarded, and yet communication to multiple audiences is critical for ensuring that it remains a priority in today's society. Due to the potential for science communication to produce better scientists, facilitate scientific progress, and influence decision-making at multiple levels, training junior scientists in both effective and ethical science communication practices is imperative, and can benefit scientists regardless of their chosen career path. However, many challenges exist in addressing specific aspects of this training. Principally, science communication training and resources should be made readily available to junior scientists at institutions, and there is a need to scale up existing science communication training programs and standardize core aspects of these programs across universities, while also allowing for experimentation with training. We propose a comprehensive core training program be adopted by universities, utilizing a centralized online resource with science communication information from multiple stakeholders. In addition, the culture of science must shift toward greater acceptance of science communication as an essential part of training. For this purpose, the science communication field itself needs to be developed, researched and better understood at multiple levels. Ultimately, this may result in a larger cultural change toward acceptance of professional development activities as valuable for training scientists.
The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science Early Career Program began in FY 2010. The program objectives are to support the development of individual research programs of outstanding scientists early in their careers and to stimulate research careers in the disciplines supported by the DOE Office of Science. Both university and DOE national laboratory early career scientists are eligible. Applicants must be within 10 years of receiving their PhD. For universities, the PI must be an untenured Assistant Professor or Associate Professor on the tenure track. DOE laboratory applicants must be full time, non-postdoctoral employee. University awards are at least 150,000 per year for 5 years for summer salary and expenses. DOE laboratory awards are at least 500,000 per year for 5 years for full annual salary and expenses. The Program is managed by the Office of the Deputy Director for Science Programs and supports research in the following Offices: Advanced Scientific and Computing Research, Biological and Environmental Research, Basic Energy Sciences, Fusion Energy Sciences, High Energy Physics, and Nuclear Physics. A new Funding Opportunity Announcement is issued each year with detailed description on the topical areas encouraged for early career proposals. Preproposals are required. This talk will introduce the DOE Office of Science Early Career Research program and describe opportunities for research relevant to the condensed matter physics community. http://science.energy.gov/early-career/
Full Text Available As scientists we are often unprepared and unwilling to communicate our passion for what we do to those outside our professional circles. Scientific literature can also be difficult or unattractive to those without a professional interest in research. Storytelling can be a successful approach to enable readers to engage with the challenges faced by scientists. In an effort to convey to the public what it means to be a field biologist, 18 Portuguese biologists came together to write a book titled “BIOgraphies: The lives of those who study life”, in the original Portuguese “BIOgrafias: Vidas de quem estuda a vida”. This book is a collection of 35 field stories that became career landmarks for those who lived them. We discuss the obstacles and opportunities of the publishing process and reflect on the lessons learned for future outreach efforts.
Schinske, Jeffrey N; Perkins, Heather; Snyder, Amanda; Wyer, Mary
Research into science identity, stereotype threat, and possible selves suggests a lack of diverse representations of scientists could impede traditionally underserved students from persisting and succeeding in science. We evaluated a series of metacognitive homework assignments ("Scientist Spotlights") that featured counterstereotypical examples of scientists in an introductory biology class at a diverse community college. Scientist Spotlights additionally served as tools for content coverage, as scientists were selected to match topics covered each week. We analyzed beginning- and end-of-course essays completed by students during each of five courses with Scientist Spotlights and two courses with equivalent homework assignments that lacked connections to the stories of diverse scientists. Students completing Scientist Spotlights shifted toward counterstereotypical descriptions of scientists and conveyed an enhanced ability to personally relate to scientists following the intervention. Longitudinal data suggested these shifts were maintained 6 months after the completion of the course. Analyses further uncovered correlations between these shifts, interest in science, and course grades. As Scientist Spotlights require very little class time and complement existing curricula, they represent a promising tool for enhancing science identity, shifting stereotypes, and connecting content to issues of equity and diversity in a broad range of STEM classrooms. © 2016 J. N. Schinske et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Calhoun, Tracy A.
The Human Exploration Science Office supports human spaceflight, conducts research, and develops technology in the areas of space orbital debris, hypervelocity impact technology, image science and analysis, remote sensing, imagery integration, and human and robotic exploration science. NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) resides in the Human Exploration Science Office. ODPO provides leadership in orbital debris research and the development of national and international space policy on orbital debris. The office is recognized internationally for its measurement and modeling of the debris environment. It takes the lead in developing technical consensus across U.S. agencies and other space agencies on debris mitigation measures to protect users of the orbital environment. The Hypervelocity Impact Technology (HVIT) project evaluates the risks to spacecraft posed by micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD). HVIT facilities at JSC and White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) use light gas guns, diagnostic tools, and high-speed imagery to quantify the response of spacecraft materials to MMOD impacts. Impact tests, with debris environment data provided by ODPO, are used by HVIT to predict risks to NASA and commercial spacecraft. HVIT directly serves NASA crew safety with MMOD risk assessments for each crewed mission and research into advanced shielding design for future missions. The Image Science and Analysis Group (ISAG) supports the International Space Station (ISS) and commercial spaceflight through the design of imagery acquisition schemes (ground- and vehicle-based) and imagery analyses for vehicle performance assessments and mission anomaly resolution. ISAG assists the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program in the development of camera systems for the Orion spacecraft that will serve as data sources for flight test objectives that lead to crewed missions. The multi-center Imagery Integration Team is led by the Human Exploration Science Office and provides
... 1066-001, ``Establishment of the Office of the Chief Scientist.'' OCS exists to provide leadership and... the Small Business Regulatory Fairness Enforcement Act, 5 U.S.C. 801 et seq., and thus is exempt from...
The need for scientists to work with educators to enhance the general public's understanding of science has been addressed for years in reports like Science for All Americans (1990), NSF in a Changing World (1995), Turning to the Sea: America's Ocean Future (1999), Discovering the Earth's Final Frontier, A U.S. Strategy for Ocean Exploration (2000), and most recently, the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy Report (2004). As reported in The National Science Foundation's Center for Ocean Science Education Excellence (COSEE) Workshop Report (2000), "The Ocean Sciences community did not answer (this) call, even though their discovery that the ocean was a more critical driving force in the natural environment than previously thought possessed great educational significance." It has been further acknowledged that "rapid and extensive improvement of science education is unlikely to occur until it becomes clear to scientists that they have an obligation to become involved in elementary- and secondary-level science (The Role of Scientists in the Professional Development of Science Teachers, National Research Council, 1996.) This presentation will focus on teachers' perceptions of how scientists conduct research, scientists' perceptions of how teachers should teach, and some misconceptions between the two groups. Criteria for high-quality professional development for teachers working with scientists will also be presented, along with a brief overview of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Ocean Exploration program efforts to bring teachers and ocean scientists together to further ocean science literacy at the national level through recommendations put forth in the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy Report (2004).
Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt; Kjaer, Carsten Rahbæk; Dahlgaard, Jørgen
Background Research into the field of science communication has tended to focus on public understanding of science or on the processes of science communication itself, e.g. by looking at science in the media. Few studies have explored how scientists understand science communication. At present...... and technical sciences see science communication. We wanted to map their general interest in using different media of science communication as well as their active participation in current science communication. Moreover, we wanted to find out what they think about future of science communication, and what...... science communication. Results Our respondents indicated interest in doing science communication through media aimed at a broader public. In particular, news media surfaced as the most attractive media of public communication. The respondents preferred to be in charge of science communication themselves...
Full Text Available Both scientists and the public would benefit from improved communication of basic scientific research and from integrating scientists into education outreach, but opportunities to support these efforts are limited. We have developed two low-cost programs--"Present Your PhD Thesis to a 12-Year-Old" and "Shadow a Scientist"--that combine training in science communication with outreach to area middle schools. We assessed the outcomes of these programs and found a 2-fold benefit: scientists improve their communication skills by explaining basic science research to a general audience, and students' enthusiasm for science and their scientific knowledge are increased. Here we present details about both programs, along with our assessment of them, and discuss the feasibility of exporting these programs to other universities.
Maienschein, Jane; Laubichler, Manfred; Loettgers, Andrea
History of science has developed into a methodologically diverse discipline, adding greatly to our understanding of the interplay between science, society, and culture. Along the way, one original impetus for the then newly emerging discipline--what George Sarton called the perspective "from the point of view of the scientist"--dropped out of fashion. This essay shows, by means of several examples, that reclaiming this interaction between science and history of science yields interesting perspectives and new insights for both science and history of science. The authors consequently suggest that historians of science also adopt this perspective as part of their methodological repertoire.
Glicksman, Martin; Vanalstine, James
Marshall Space Flight Center pursues scientific research in the area of low-gravity effects on materials and processes. To facilitate these Government performed research responsibilities, a number of supplementary research tasks were accomplished by a group of specialized visiting scientists. They participated in work on contemporary research problems with specific objectives related to current or future space flight experiments and defined and established independent programs of research which were based on scientific peer review and the relevance of the defined research to NASA microgravity for implementing a portion of the national program. The programs included research in the following areas: protein crystal growth, X-ray crystallography and computer analysis of protein crystal structure, optimization and analysis of protein crystal growth techniques, and design and testing of flight hardware.
DeVore, E. K.
"Are we alone?" "Where did we come from?" "What is our future?" These questions lie at the juncture of astronomy and biology: astrobiology. It is intrinsically interdisciplinary in its study of the origin, evolution and future of life on Earth and beyond. The fundamental concepts of origin and evolution--of both living and non-living systems--are central to astrobiology, and provide powerful themes for unifying science teaching, learning, and appreciation in classrooms and laboratories, museums and science centers, and homes. Research scientists play a key role in communicating the nature of science and joy of scientific discovery with the public. Communicating the scientific discoveries with the public brings together diverse professionals: research scientists, graduate and undergraduate faculty, educators, journalists, media producers, web designers, publishers and others. Working with these science communicators, research scientists share their discoveries through teaching, popular articles, lectures, broadcast and print media, electronic publication, and developing materials for formal and informal education such as textbooks, museum exhibits and documentary television. There's lots of activity in science communication. Yet, the NSF and NASA have both identified science education as needing improvement. The quality of schools and the preparation of teachers receive national attention via "No Child Left Behind" requirements. The number of students headed toward careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is not sufficient to meet national needs. How can the research community make a difference? What role can research scientists fulfill in improving STEM education? This talk will discuss the interface between research scientists and science educators to explore effective roles for scientists in science education partnerships. Astronomy and astrobiology education and outreach projects, materials, and programs will provide the context for
Bayir, Eylem; Cakici, Yilmaz; Ertas, Ozge
Science education researchers recently turned their attention to exploring views about nature of science (NOS). A large body of research indicates that both students and teachers have many naïve views about the NOS. Unfortunately, less attention has been directed at the issue of exploring the views of the scientists. Also, the little research in…
Peters, Hans Peter
The present article presents an up-to-date account of the current media relations of scientists, based on a comprehensive analysis of relevant surveys. The evidence suggests that most scientists consider visibility in the media important and responding to journalists a professional duty--an attitude that is reinforced by universities and other science organizations. Scientific communities continue to regulate media contacts with their members by certain norms that compete with the motivating and regulating influences of public information departments. Most scientists assume a two-arena model with a gap between the arenas of internal scientific and public communication. They want to meet the public in the public arena, not in the arena of internal scientific communication. Despite obvious changes in science and in the media system, the orientations of scientists toward the media, as well as the patterns of interaction with journalists, have their roots in the early 1980s. Although there is more influence on public communication from the science organizations and more emphasis on strategic considerations today, the available data do not indicate abrupt changes in communication practices or in the relevant beliefs and attitudes of scientists in the past 30 y. Changes in the science-media interface may be expected from the ongoing structural transformation of the public communication system. However, as yet, there is little evidence of an erosion of the dominant orientation toward the public and public communication within the younger generation of scientists.
DeVore, E. K.
Scientists play a key role in science education: the adventure of making new discoveries excites and motivates students. Yet, American science education test scores lag behind those of other industrial countries, and the call for better science, math and technology education is widespread. Thus, improving American science, math and technological literacy is a major educational goal for the NSF and NASA. Today, funding for research often carries a requirement that the scientist be actively involved in education and public outreach (E/PO) to enhance the science literacy of students, teachers and citizens. How can scientists contribute effectively to E/PO? What roles can scientists take in E/PO? And, how can this be balanced with research requirements and timelines? This talk will focus on these questions, with examples drawn from the author's projects that involve scientists in working with K-12 teacher professional development and with K-12 curriculum development and implementation. Experiences and strategies for teacher professional development in the research environment will be discussed in the context of NASA's airborne astronomy education and outreach projects: the Flight Opportunities for Science Teacher EnRichment project and the future Airborne Ambassadors Program for NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Effective partnerships with scientists as content experts in the development of new classroom materials will be described with examples from the SETI Institute's Life in the Universe curriculum series for grades 3-9, and Voyages Through Time, an integrated high school science course. The author and the SETI Institute wish to acknowledge funding as well as scientific and technical support from the National Science Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Hewlett Packard Company, the Foundation for Microbiology, and the Combined Federated Charities.
Bertram, K. B.
The Science Teacher Education Program (STEP) offered a unique framework for creating professional development courses focused on Arctic research from 2006-2009. Under the STEP framework, science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) training was delivered by teams of practicing Arctic researchers in partnership with master teachers with 20+ years experience teaching STEM content in K-12 classrooms. Courses based on the framework were offered to educators across Alaska. STEP offered in-person summer-intensive institutes and follow-on audio-conferenced field-test courses during the academic year, supplemented by online scientist mentorship for teachers. During STEP courses, teams of scientists offered in-depth STEM content instruction at the graduate level for teachers of all grade levels. STEP graduate-level training culminated in the translation of information and data learned from Arctic scientists into standard-aligned lessons designed for immediate use in K-12 classrooms. This presentation will focus on research that explored the question: To what degree was scientist involvement beneficial to teacher training and to what degree was STEP scientist involvement beneficial to scientist instructors? Data sources reveal consistently high levels of ongoing (4 year) scientist and teacher participation; high STEM content learning outcomes for teachers; high STEM content learning outcomes for students; high ratings of STEP courses by scientists and teachers; and a discussion of the reasons scientists indicate they benefited from STEP involvement. Analyses of open-ended comments by teachers and scientists support and clarify these findings. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze teacher and scientist qualitative feedback. Comments were coded and patterns analyzed in three databases. The vast majority of teacher open-ended comments indicate that STEP involvement improved K-12 STEM classroom instruction, and the vast majority of scientist open-ended comments
Peters, Hans Peter
The present article presents an up-to-date account of the current media relations of scientists, based on a comprehensive analysis of relevant surveys. The evidence suggests that most scientists consider visibility in the media important and responding to journalists a professional duty—an attitude that is reinforced by universities and other science organizations. Scientific communities continue to regulate media contacts with their members by certain norms that compete with the motivating and regulating influences of public information departments. Most scientists assume a two-arena model with a gap between the arenas of internal scientific and public communication. They want to meet the public in the public arena, not in the arena of internal scientific communication. Despite obvious changes in science and in the media system, the orientations of scientists toward the media, as well as the patterns of interaction with journalists, have their roots in the early 1980s. Although there is more influence on public communication from the science organizations and more emphasis on strategic considerations today, the available data do not indicate abrupt changes in communication practices or in the relevant beliefs and attitudes of scientists in the past 30 y. Changes in the science–media interface may be expected from the ongoing structural transformation of the public communication system. However, as yet, there is little evidence of an erosion of the dominant orientation toward the public and public communication within the younger generation of scientists. PMID:23940312
Enyeart, Peter; Gracia, Brant; Wessel, Aimee; Jarmoskaite, Inga; Polioudakis, Damon; Stuart, Yoel; Gonzalez, Tony; MacKrell, Al; Rodenbusch, Stacia; Stovall, Gwendolyn M.; Beckham, Josh T.; Montgomery, Michael; Tasneem, Tania; Jones, Jack; Simmons, Sarah; Roux, Stanley
Both scientists and the public would benefit from improved communication of basic scientific research and from integrating scientists into education outreach, but opportunities to support these efforts are limited. We have developed two low-cost programs—"Present Your PhD Thesis to a 12-Year-Old" and "Shadow a Scientist”—that combine training in science communication with outreach to area middle schools. We assessed the outcomes of these programs and found a 2-fold benefit: scientists improve their communication skills by explaining basic science research to a general audience, and students' enthusiasm for science and their scientific knowledge are increased. Here we present details about both programs, along with our assessment of them, and discuss the feasibility of exporting these programs to other universities. PMID:26844991
Kristian Hvidtfelt Nielsen
Full Text Available This paper summarizes key findings from a web-based questionnaire survey among Danish scientists in the natural sciences and engineering science. In line with the Act on Universities of 2003 enforcing science communication as a university obligation next to research and teaching, the respondents take a keen interest in communicating science, especially through the news media. However, they also do have mixed feeling about the quality of science communication in the news. Moreover, a majority of the respondents would like to give higher priority to science communication. More than half reply that they are willing to allocate up to 2% of total research funding in Denmark to science communication. Further, the respondents indicate that they would welcome a wider variety of science communication initiatives aimed at many types of target groups. They do not see the news media as the one and only channel for current science communication.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB), February...
Full Text Available The first step of the SEDEC project has been a survey on teachers and pupils perception of science, scientists, and the European dimension of science. Different research actions have been organized for the different targets, and have been held in the six countries involved in the project: Czech Republic, France, Italy, Portugal, Poland and Romania. This article will present the analysis of more then 1000 drawings realized by 9 and 14 years old pupils and representing "a scientist". Form the drawings emerge stereotypes, fears, desires, expectations and more, a whole imaginery that has to be taken in account for an effective educative adn communicative action.
Venville, Grady; Rennie, Léonie; Hanbury, Colin; Longnecker, Nancy
A concern commonly raised in literature and in media relates to the declining proportions of students who enter and remain in the `science pipeline', and whether many countries, including Australia and New Zealand, have enough budding scientists to fill research and industry positions in the coming years. In addition, there is concern that insufficient numbers of students continue in science to ensure an informed, scientifically literate citizenry. The aim of the research presented in this paper was to survey current Australian and New Zealand scientists to explore their reasons for choosing to study science. An online survey was conducted via a link to SurveyGizmo. The data presented are from 726 respondents who answered 22 forced-choice items and an open-ended question about the reasons they chose to study science. The quantitative data were analysed using t tests and analyses of variance followed by Duncan's multiple range tests, and the qualitative data were analysed thematically. The quantitative data showed that the main reasons scientists reported choosing to study science were because they were interested in science and because they were good at science. Secondary school science classes and one particular science teacher also were found to be important factors. Of much less importance were the prestige of science and financial considerations. The qualitative data expanded on these findings and showed that passion for science and/or curiosity about the world were important factors and also highlighted the importance of recreational pursuits, such as camping when a child. In the words of one respondent, `People don't go into science for the money and glory. It's passion for knowledge and science that always attracted me to the field'.
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Moon, Katie; Blackman, Deborah
Natural scientists are increasingly interested in social research because they recognize that conservation problems are commonly social problems. Interpreting social research, however, requires at least a basic understanding of the philosophical principles and theoretical assumptions of the discipline, which are embedded in the design of social research. Natural scientists who engage in social science but are unfamiliar with these principles and assumptions can misinterpret their results. We developed a guide to assist natural scientists in understanding the philosophical basis of social science to support the meaningful interpretation of social research outcomes. The 3 fundamental elements of research are ontology, what exists in the human world that researchers can acquire knowledge about; epistemology, how knowledge is created; and philosophical perspective, the philosophical orientation of the researcher that guides her or his action. Many elements of the guide also apply to the natural sciences. Natural scientists can use the guide to assist them in interpreting social science research to determine how the ontological position of the researcher can influence the nature of the research; how the epistemological position can be used to support the legitimacy of different types of knowledge; and how philosophical perspective can shape the researcher's choice of methods and affect interpretation, communication, and application of results. The use of this guide can also support and promote the effective integration of the natural and social sciences to generate more insightful and relevant conservation research outcomes. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.
The direct participation of scientists significantly enhances the impact of any E/PO effort. This is particularly true when the scientists come from minority or traditionally under-represented groups and, consequently, become role models for a large number of students while presenting positive counter-examples to the usual stereotypes. In this paper I will discuss the impact of scientists as role models through the successful implementation of a set of space physics games and activities, called Solar Week. Targetted at middle-school girls, the key feature of Solar Week is the "Ask a Scientist" section enabling direct interaction between participating students and volunteer scientists. All of the contributing scientists are women, serving as experts in their field and providing role models to whom the students can relate. Solar Week has completed four sessions with a total of some 140 edcuators and 12,000+ students in over 28 states and 9 countries. A major success of the Solar Week program has been the ability of the students to learn more about the scientists as people, through online biographies, and to discuss a variety of topics ranging from science, to careers and common hobbies.
Bohon, W.; Bartel, B. A.; Pendergrass, A. G.; Ramirez, K. S.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Weintraub, S. R.; Zelikova, T. J.
500 Women Scientists is a grassroots organization formed in late 2016 to empower women to grow to their full potential in science, increase scientific literacy through public engagement, and advocate for science and equality. Our organization is global but we focus on building community relationships through local action. Our "pods," or local chapters, focus on issues that resonate in their communities, rooted in our mission and values. Pod members meet regularly, develop a support network, make strategic plans, and take action. In less than a year, 500 Women Scientists has already formed important partnerships and begun to work on local, regional and national projects. Nationally, we partnered with The Cairn Project to raise money to support girls in science. In an effort led by the DC pod, our members sent postcards sharing stories of how the EPA protects their communities in the #OurEPA postcard campaign. Pods have also participated in marches, including the Women's March, the March for Science and the People's Climate March. The "Summer of Op-Ed" campaign catalyzed pods and individuals to write to their local newspapers to speak up for funding science, climate change action, and general science advocacy. We have organized "strike-teams" that are working on local issues like education, the environment, climate change, and equal access to science. Additionally, pod members serve as mentors, participate in local events, hold workshops and partner with local organizations. As women scientists, we are in the position to take action to increase diversity in science and to draw attention to unacknowledged structural biases that negatively impact historically under-represented groups. 500 Women Scientists enables women in science to embrace this advocacy role, both within our scientific system and within our local communities.
The Stanford Solar Observatories Group and Haas Center for Public Service have created an innovative model for scientist-educator partnerships in which science students are trained and mentored by public service education professionals to create outreach events for local communities. The program, Science in Service, is part of the EPO plan for the Solar Group's participation in NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory mission. Based on the principles of service learning, the Science in Service Program mentors college science students in best practices for communicating science and engages these students in public service projects that center on teaching solar science. The program goals are to - Enhance and expand the learning experiences that pre-college students, from underserved and underrepresented groups in particular, have in science and technology. - Promote leadership in community service in the area of science and engineering among the next generation of scientists and engineers, today's undergraduate students. - Encourage science and engineering faculty to think creatively about their outreach requirements and to create a community of faculty committed to quality outreach programs. This talk will describe the unique advantages and challenges of a research-public service partnership, explain the structure of Stanford's Science in Service Program, and present the experiences of the undergraduates and the outreach communities that have been involved in the program.
Elnakat, A. C.
With the complexity of environmental problems faced today, both scientists and policymakers are striving to combine policy and administration with the physical and natural sciences in order to mitigate and prevent environmental degradation. Nevertheless, communicating science to policymakers has been difficult due to many barriers. Even though scientists and policymakers share the blame in the miscommunication. This paper will provide recommendations targeted to the scientific arena. Establishing guidelines for the cooperation of scientists and policymakers can be an unattainable goal due to the complexity and diversity of political policymaking and environmental issues. However, the recommendations provided in this paper are simple enough to be followed by a wide variety of audiences and institutions in the scientific fields. This will aid when trying to fill the gap that has prevented the enhancement of scientific policymaking strategies, which decide on the critical issue s such as the disposal, transportation and production of hazardous waste
She had 11 papers to her credit in international journals. ... in India at the Indian Cancer Research Centre (presently Cancer Research Institute). ..... eminent Indian Woman Scientists, the Ranbaxy Science Foundation Award for Clinical Research, etc. ... She is Professor at the Saraswati Medical & Dental College, Lucknow.
Duggan-Haas, Don; Moscovici, Hedy; McNulty, Brendan; Gilmer, Penny J.; Eick, Charles J.; Wilson, John
This symposium will provide insights into collaborations among scientists and science educators in a variety of contexts-large research universities, small state and private institutions, and collaborations involving both pre- service and in-service programs. The session will begin with a brief framing of these collaborations as management of the…
Hasenkopf, C. A.
Collaborative science in which scientists are able to form research questions based on the current body of scientific knowledge and get feedback from colleagues on their ideas and work is essential for pushing science forward. However, not all scientists are able to fully participate in the international science community. Scientists from developing countries can face barriers to communicating with the international community due to, among other issues: fewer scientists in their home country, difficulty in getting language-specific science writing training, fewer established pre-existing international collaborations and networks, and sometimes geographic isolation. These barriers not only result in keeping individual scientists from contributing their ideas, but they also slow down the progress of the scientific enterprise for everyone. Global Science Share (http://globalscienceshare.org/) is a new project, entering its pilot phase in Fall 2012, which will work to reduce this disparity by connecting young scientists and engineers from developing countries seeking to improve their technical writing with other scientists and engineers around the world via online collaborations. Scientist-volunteers act as mentors and are paired up with mentees according to their academic field and writing needs. The mentors give feedback and constructive technical and editorial criticisms on mentees' submitted pieces of writing through a four-step email discussion. Mentees gain technical writing skills, as well as make international connections with other scientists and engineers in fields related to their own. Mentors also benefit by gaining new international scientific colleagues and honing their own writing skills through their critiques. The Global Science Share project will begin its pilot phase by first inviting Mongolian science students to apply as mentees this fall. This abstract will introduce the Global Science Share program, present a progress report from its first
Shope, R. E.; Alcantara Valverde, L.
A recent National Academy of Sciences report recommends that science educators focus strategically on teaching the practice of science. To accomplish this, we have devised and implemented the Science Performance Laboratory, a collaborative research, education, and workforce model that brings scientists and science educators together to conduct scientific inquiry. In this session, we demonstrate how to form active inquiry teams around Arctica Science Research content areas related to the International Polar Year. We use the term "Arctica Science Research" to refer to the entire scope of exploration and discovery relating to: polar science and its global connections; Arctic and Antarctic research and climate sciences; ice and cryospheric studies on Earth; polar regions of the Moon, Mars, and Mercury; icy worlds throughout the Solar System, such as Europa, Enceladus, Titan, Pluto and the Comets; cryovolcanism; ice in interstellar space, and beyond. We apply the notion of teaching the practice science by enacting three effective strategies: 1) The Inquiry Wheel Game, in which we develop an expanded understanding of what has been traditionally taught as "the scientific method"; 2) Acting Out the Science Story, in which we develop a physicalized expression of our conceptual understanding; and 3) Selecting Success Criteria for Inquiry Coaching, in which we reframe how we evaluate science learning as we teach the practice of science.
Shope, R. E.
A recent National Academy of Science report recommends that science educators focus strategically on teaching the practice of science. To accomplish this, we have devised and implemented the Science Performance Collaboratory, a collaborative research, education, and workforce model that brings scientists and science educators together to conduct scientific inquiry. In this session, we demonstrate how to form active inquiry teams around Arctica Science Research content areas related to the International Polar Year. We use the term Arctica Science Research to refer to the entire scope of exploration and discovery relating to: polar science and its global connections; Arctic and Antarctic research and climate sciences; ice and cryospheric studies on Earth; polar regions of the Moon, Mars, and Mercury; icy worlds throughout the Solar System, such as Europa, Enceladus, Titan, Pluto and the Comets; cryovolvanism; ice in interstellar space, and beyond. We apply the notion of teaching the practice science by enacting three effective strategies: 1) The Inquiry Wheel Game, in which we develop an expanded understanding of what has been traditionally taught as "the scientific method"; 2) Acting Out the Science Story, in which we develop a physicalized expression of our conceptual understanding; and 3) Selecting Success Criteria for Inquiry Coaching, in which we reframe how we evaluate science learning as we teach the practice of science.
Zhang, Joy Yueyue
It is commonly perceived that the 'globalization of science' may result in a 'Westernization of science'. In this paper, however, I use the case of stem cell science in China to demonstrate that developing countries are sometimes able to effectively shape the norms of global/local scientific exchange. Based on interviews with 38 stem cell scientists in six Chinese cities in early 2008, this paper elucidates Chinese scientists' outlook towards cross-border collaborations and the effects that the internationalization of science has had on everyday laboratory operations. Findings suggest that although there still exists an asymmetry of scientific influence, and in many aspects China is still 'catching-up' to the West, there is also a changing nature of communication beyond borders. One key aspect of recent international scientific development is the growing necessity for local stakeholders to acquire a global mindset and to compare, reflect and accommodate diverse interests. This is what I define as the 'cosmopolitanization of science'. The study empirically examines the sociological and methodological implications of the cosmopolitanization process and further develops Ulrich Beck's cosmopolitan theory by delineating four main features of the 'cosmopolitanization of science': shared future benefits, passive ethicization, reflexive negotiation, and continuous performance.
Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Thelwall, Mike; Larivi?re, Vincent; Tsou, Andrew; Mongeon, Philippe; Macaluso, Benoit
The TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design) conference and associated website of recorded conference presentations (TED Talks) is a highly successful disseminator of science-related videos, claiming over a billion online views. Although hundreds of scientists have presented at TED, little information is available regarding the presenters, their academic credentials, and the impact of TED Talks on the general population. This article uses bibliometric and webometric techniques to gather data o...
Tala, Suvi; Vesterinen, Veli-Matti
Understanding nature of science (NOS) is widely considered an important educational objective and views of NOS are closely linked to science teaching and learning. Thus there is a lively discussion about what understanding NOS means and how it is reached. As a result of analyses in educational, philosophical, sociological and historical research,…
Kapici, Hasan Özgür; Akçay, Hakan
It is an indispensable fact that having a positive attitude towards science is one of the important factors that promotes students for studying in science. The study is a kind of national study that aims to investigate middle school students', from different regions of Turkey, attitudes toward science, scientists and science classes. The study was…
In a rich and fascinating history John Cornwell tells the epic story of Germany's scientists from the First World War to the collapse of Hitler's Reich. He shows how Germany became the world's Mecca for inventive genius, taking the lion's share of Nobel awards, before Hitler's regime hijacked science for wars of conquest and genocidal racism. Cornwell gives a dramatic account of the wide ranging Nazi research projects, from rockets to nuclear weapons; the pursuit of advanced technology for irrational ends, concluding with with penetrating relevance for today: the inherent dangers of science without conscience.
The second questionnaire for scientists and engineers was carried out in 2007, and status of Japanese scientists and engineers were analyzed and reported. A part of the data was reanalyzed from the viewpoint of work life balance. In particular, office/laboratory staying hour and home working hour were analyzed and dependences on various factors were investigated. It was found that these hours depend on gender, marital status, number of child, employment status and age. In addition, the total hours tend to be kept constant regardless of various factors.
S&T community. What: Biotechnology I f ti S i 7 Power & Energy *Limited direct engagement China n orma on c ences Physical Sciences Singapore...desert, geothermal activity, and Antarctica) provide unique variety for bio studies. Abundant mineral resources. Why: 8th Largest GPD and growing
Strauss, Jeff; Shope, Richard E., III; Terebey, Susan
Science literacy is a major goal of science educational reform (NRC, 1996; AAAS, 1998; NCLB Act, 2001). Some believe that teaching science only requires pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). Others believe doing science requires knowledge of the methodologies of scientific inquiry (NRC, 1996). With these two mindsets, the challenge for science educators is to create models that bring the two together. The common ground between those who teach science and those who do science is science communication, an interactive process that galvanizes dialogue among scientists, teachers, and learners in a rich ambience of mutual respect and a common, inclusive language of discourse . The dialogue between science and non-science is reflected in the polarization that separates those who do science and those who teach science, especially as it plays out everyday in the science classroom. You may be thinking, why is this important? It is vital because, although not all science learners become scientists, all K-12 students are expected to acquire science literacy, especially with the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Students are expected to acquire the ability to follow the discourse of science as well as connect the world of science to the context of their everyday life if they plan on moving to the next grade level, and in some states, to graduate from high school. This paper posits that science communication is highly effective in providing the missing link for K-12 students cognition in science and their attainment of science literacy. This paper will focus on the "Science For Our Schools" (SFOS) model implemented at California State Univetsity, Los Angeles (CSULA) as a project of the National Science Foundation s GK-12 program, (NSF 2001) which has been a huge success in bridging the gap between those who "know" science and those who "teach" science. The SFOS model makes clear the distinctions that identify science, science communication, science
Two decades after Iran's Islamic revolution, science in this politically isolated but oil-rich nation may be on the verge of resurgence. The nation's reform-minded president, Mohammad Khatami, and his allies are promising more money for R&D, reorganizing universities to beef up graduate education and research, and cracking open the door to closer cooperation with scientists abroad, including those in the United States. But Iran's government is walking a tightrope between hard-liners on the right who oppose reforms and liberal university students eager for change.
Anderson, Dayle; Moeed, Azra
Current curriculum demands require primary teachers to teach about the Nature of Science; yet, few primary teachers have had opportunity to learn about science as a discipline. Prior schooling and vicarious experiences of science may shape their beliefs about science and, as a result, their science teaching. This qualitative study describes the impact on teacher beliefs about science and science education of a programme where 26 New Zealand primary (elementary) teachers worked fulltime for 6 months alongside scientists, experiencing the nature of work in scientific research institutes. During the 6 months, teachers were supported, through a series of targeted professional development days, to make connections between their experiences working with scientists, the curriculum and the classroom. Data for the study consisted of mid- and end-of-programme written teacher reports and open-ended questionnaires collected at three points, prior to and following 6 months with the science host and after 6 to 12 months back in school. A shift in many teachers' beliefs was observed after the 6 months of working with scientists in combination with curriculum development days; for many, these changes were sustained 6 to 12 months after returning to school. Beliefs about the aims of science education became more closely aligned with the New Zealand curriculum and its goal of developing science for citizenship. Responses show greater appreciation of the value of scientific ways of thinking, deeper understanding about the nature of scientists' work and the ways in which science and society influence each other.
Reif, C.; Oechel, W.
The PISCES Project (Partnerships Involving the Scientific Community in Elementary Schools www.sdsa.org/pisces) is an innovative program that brings high quality standards-based elementary science curriculum and hands-on laboratory materials into San Diego County's classrooms. The project is funded by the NSF Graduate Teaching Fellows in K-12 Education (GK-12) program. The project was designed and is administered through cooperation among faculty at San Diego State University and the Science Department of the San Diego County Office of Education. Undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in science programs in San Diego area universities including San Diego State University, California State University San Marcos, and University of California San Diego partner with elementary school teachers. Through this partnership, the scientist brings scientific expertise to the classroom while the teacher delivers the lesson using current pedagogic methods. This is accomplished during a 3 month partnership in which the scientist joins the teacher in the classroom a few days each week to complete professional kit-based curriculum such as that available from FOSS (Full Option Science System) and STC (Science and Technology for Children). The teachers remain in the program for two years during which they have continuous access to the kit-based curriculum as well as two to three partnership cycles. Teachers receive assistance outside of the classroom as well attending professional development institutes three times a year to establish and maintain effective science teaching methods. The San Diego Science Alliance and other community and industry supporters provide the additionalfunding necessary to provide this teacher professional development Currenty, PISCES is present in over 40 schools and is able to provide partnerships to over 100 classrooms each year. In addition to the work done in San Diego, the project has expanded to Barrow, Alaska with plans to expand to La Paz
Case, Harvey Lee; Barnum, Douglas A.
The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Salton Sea Science Office (SSSO) provides scientific information and evaluations to decisionmakers who are engaged in restoration planning and actions associated with the Salton Sea. The primary focus is the natural resources of the Salton Sea, including the sea?s ability to sustain biological resources and associated social and economic values.
A Geographic Information System (GIS), embedded in a Decision Support System linking spatial data bases and biophysical models of the environment, will be an important tool in the design and assessment of rehabilitation of uranium mines in the Alligator Rivers Region. The Office of the Supervising Scientist (OSS) and the Northern Territory of University are collaborating in the development of GIS and its introduction into rehabilitation planning. The achievements obtained to date are briefly outlined. There is every expectation that the system developed by OSS will be of general use in environmental assessment and management. 33 refs., 1 fig
Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Thelwall, Mike; Larivière, Vincent; Tsou, Andrew; Mongeon, Philippe; Macaluso, Benoit
The TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design) conference and associated website of recorded conference presentations (TED Talks) is a highly successful disseminator of science-related videos, claiming over a billion online views. Although hundreds of scientists have presented at TED, little information is available regarding the presenters, their academic credentials, and the impact of TED Talks on the general population. This article uses bibliometric and webometric techniques to gather data on the characteristics of TED presenters and videos and analyze the relationship between these characteristics and the subsequent impact of the videos. The results show that the presenters were predominately male and non-academics. Male-authored videos were more popular and more liked when viewed on YouTube. Videos by academic presenters were more commented on than videos by others and were more liked on YouTube, although there was little difference in how frequently they were viewed. The majority of academic presenters were senior faculty, males, from United States-based institutions, were visible online, and were cited more frequently than average for their field. However, giving a TED presentation appeared to have no impact on the number of citations subsequently received by an academic, suggesting that although TED popularizes research, it may not promote the work of scientists within the academic community. PMID:23638069
Cassidy R Sugimoto
Full Text Available The TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design conference and associated website of recorded conference presentations (TED Talks is a highly successful disseminator of science-related videos, claiming over a billion online views. Although hundreds of scientists have presented at TED, little information is available regarding the presenters, their academic credentials, and the impact of TED Talks on the general population. This article uses bibliometric and webometric techniques to gather data on the characteristics of TED presenters and videos and analyze the relationship between these characteristics and the subsequent impact of the videos. The results show that the presenters were predominately male and non-academics. Male-authored videos were more popular and more liked when viewed on YouTube. Videos by academic presenters were more commented on than videos by others and were more liked on YouTube, although there was little difference in how frequently they were viewed. The majority of academic presenters were senior faculty, males, from United States-based institutions, were visible online, and were cited more frequently than average for their field. However, giving a TED presentation appeared to have no impact on the number of citations subsequently received by an academic, suggesting that although TED popularizes research, it may not promote the work of scientists within the academic community.
Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Thelwall, Mike; Larivière, Vincent; Tsou, Andrew; Mongeon, Philippe; Macaluso, Benoit
The TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design) conference and associated website of recorded conference presentations (TED Talks) is a highly successful disseminator of science-related videos, claiming over a billion online views. Although hundreds of scientists have presented at TED, little information is available regarding the presenters, their academic credentials, and the impact of TED Talks on the general population. This article uses bibliometric and webometric techniques to gather data on the characteristics of TED presenters and videos and analyze the relationship between these characteristics and the subsequent impact of the videos. The results show that the presenters were predominately male and non-academics. Male-authored videos were more popular and more liked when viewed on YouTube. Videos by academic presenters were more commented on than videos by others and were more liked on YouTube, although there was little difference in how frequently they were viewed. The majority of academic presenters were senior faculty, males, from United States-based institutions, were visible online, and were cited more frequently than average for their field. However, giving a TED presentation appeared to have no impact on the number of citations subsequently received by an academic, suggesting that although TED popularizes research, it may not promote the work of scientists within the academic community.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... Coordinator, Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director, National..., Office of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health. [FR Doc. 2010-730 Filed 1-14-10; 8:45...
Office of the Science Advisor provides leadership in cross-Agency science and science policy. Program areas: Risk Assessment, Science and Technology Policy, Human Subjects Research, Environmental Measurement and Modeling, Scientific Integrity.
Reis, Pedro; Galvao, Cecilia
In this article the authors resort to a qualitative analysis of the plot of science fiction stories about a group of scientists, written by two 11th-grade Earth and Life Science students (aged 17), and to semi-structured interviews, with the double purpose of diagnosing their conceptions of the nature of science (namely, as regards scientists'…
Rathbun, Julie A.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Diniega, Serina; Hurley, Dana; New, Michael; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Prockter, Louise; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Schug, Joanna; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.
Many planetary scientists consider involvement in a robotic spacecraft mission the highlight of their career. We have searched for names of science team members and determined the percentage of women on each team. We have limited the lists to members working at US institutions at the time of selection. We also determined the year each team was selected. The gender of each team member was limited to male and female and based on gender expression. In some cases one of the authors knew the team member and what pronouns they use. In other cases, we based our determinations on the team member's name or photo (obtained via a google search, including institution). Our initial analysis considered 22 NASA planetary science missions over a period of 41 years and only considered NASA-selected PI and Co-Is and not participating scientists, postdocs, or graduate students. We found that there has been a dramatic increase in participation of women on spacecraft science teams since 1974, from 0-2% in the 1970s - 1980s to an average of 14% 2000-present. This, however, is still lower than the recent percentage of women in planetary science, which 3 different surveys found to be ~25%. Here we will present our latest results, which include consideration of participating scientists. As in the case of PIs and Co-Is, we consider only participating scientists working at US institutions at the time of their selection.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of... Hill, NSABB Program Assistant, NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of... Assistant NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750, Bethesda, Maryland 20892...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of..., NSABB Program Assistant, NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of..., Maryland 20892. Contact Person: Ronna Hill, NSABB Program Assistant, NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... Lewallen, Advisory Committee Coordinator, Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy..., Director, Office of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health. [FR Doc. 2010-6970 Filed 3-29...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of..., NSABB Program Assistant, NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750...
Schneider, S. H.
Should North American Scientists and Science Societies continue with current communication programs or is there a need for expanded and or altered roles in Science Communication? If current practices are working, why is discourse outside of science societies so often misinformed and distorted on environmental change issues that are clearly defined and described within the science community? Climate change is one example there is virtual unanimity and overwhelming evidence from the scientific community that the Earth is warming rapidly and humans are an important cause, but there is confusion in the media and the public, in part due to disinformation campaigns by greenhouse gas polluters and privately funded "Think Tanks." A summary discussion will be presented that addresses many of the ideas and issues brought forward by colleagues in science, science communication and education. Scientists and Science Societies must re-establish objectivity in science information communication to educators, the media and the public. Recommendations on directions will be a key outcome of this presentation.
Despite a growing consensus regarding the value of inquiry-based learning (IBL) for students' learning and engagement in the science classroom, the implementation of such practices continues to be a challenge. If science teachers are to use IBL to develop students' inquiry practices and encourage them to think and act as scientists, a better understanding of factors that influence their attitudes towards scientific research and scientists' practices is very much needed. Within this context there is a need to re-examine the science teachers' views of scientists and the cultural factors that might have an impact on teachers' views and pedagogical practices. A diverse group of Egyptian science teachers took part in a quantitative-qualitative study using a questionnaire and in-depth interviews to explore their views of scientists and scientific research, and to understand how they negotiated their views of scientists and scientific research in the classroom, and how these views informed their practices of using inquiry in the classroom. The findings highlighted how the teachers' cultural beliefs and views of scientists and scientific research had constructed idiosyncratic pedagogical views and practices. The study suggested implications for further research and argued for teacher professional development based on partnerships with scientists.
Steel, Daniel; Gonnerman, Chad; O'Rourke, Michael
This article examines the relevance of survey data of scientists' attitudes about science and values to case studies in philosophy of science. We describe two methodological challenges confronting such case studies: 1) small samples, and 2) potential for bias in selection, emphasis, and interpretation. Examples are given to illustrate that these challenges can arise for case studies in the science and values literature. We propose that these challenges can be mitigated through an approach in which case studies and survey methods are viewed as complementary, and use data from the Toolbox Dialogue Initiative to illustrate this claim. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kothare, A. N.
Although a lot is available in the form of biographies and writings of scientists, very little information is found on what made them not only great discoverers but humane too, blessed with humour, humility and humanism. This book helps to convey this very aspect of scientists who while being involved in their unique adventure are like us, the lesser mortals.
Best, M.; Hoeberechts, M.; Mangin, A.; Oggioni, A.; Orcutt, J. A.; Parrish, J.; Pearlman, J.; Piera, J.; Tagliolato, P.
The ocean represents over 70% of our planet's surface area, over 90% of the living space. Humans are not marine creatures, we therefore have fundamentally not built up knowledge of the ocean in the same way we have on land. The more we learn about the ocean, the more we understand it is the regulatory engine of our planet…How do we catch up? Answers to this question will need to come from many quarters; A powerful and strategic option to complement existing observation programs and infrastructure is Citizen Science. There has been significant and relevant discussion of the importance of Citizen Science to citizens and stakeholders. The missing effective question is sometimes what is the potential of citizen science for scientists? The answers for both scientists and society are: spatial coverage, remote locations, temporal coverage, event response, early detection of harmful processes, sufficient data volume for statistical analysis and identification of outliers, integrating local knowledge, data access in exchange for analysis (e.g. with industry) and cost-effective monitoring systems. Citizens can be involved in: instrument manufacture and maintenance, instrument deployment/sample collection, data collection and transmission, data analysis, data validation/verification, and proposals of new topics of research. Such opportunities are balanced by concern on the part of scientists about the quality, the consistency and the reliability of citizen observations and analyses. Experience working with citizen science groups continues to suggest that with proper training and mentoring, these issues can be addressed, understanding both benefits and limitations. How to do it- implementation and maintenance of citizen science: How to recruit, engage, train, and maintain Citizen Scientists. Data systems for acquisition, assessment, access, analysis, and visualisation of distributed data sources. Tools/methods for acquiring observations: Simple instruments, Smartphone Apps
Office Staff. Office EPABX: +91-80-2266 1200. Change in email domain name. The domain part of the email address of all email addresses used by the office of Indian Academy of Sciences, including those of the staff, the journals, various programmes, and Current Science, has changed from 'ias.ernet.in' (or ...
Every four to five years, the Office of Research and Development (ORD) gives its Board of Scientific Counselors (BOSC) the task of reviewing its research programs to decide how the National Center for Environmental Research (NCER) can better achieve the scientific needs of the Ag...
Despite a growing consensus regarding the value of inquiry-based learning (IBL) for students' learning and engagement in the science classroom, the implementation of such practices continues to be a challenge. If science teachers are to use IBL to develop students' inquiry practices and encourage them to think and act as scientists, a better…
Academic and non-academic career options for marine scientists. - Support measures for early career scientists offered at MARUM - Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Germany
Hebbeln, Dierk; Klose, Christina
Early career scientists at MARUM cover a wide range of research topics and disciplines including geosciences, biology, chemistry, social sciences and law. Just as colourful as the disciplinary background of the people, are their ideas for their personal careers. With our services and programmes, we aim to address some important career planning needs of PhD students and early career Postdocs, both, for careers in science and for careers outside academia. For PhD students aiming to stay in science, MARUM provides funding opportunities for a research stay abroad for a duration of up to 6 months. A range of courses is offered to prepare for the first Postdoc position. These include trainings in applying for research funding, proposal writing and interview skills. Following MARUM lectures which are held once a month, early career scientists are offered the opportunity to talk to senior scientists from all over the world in an informal Meet&Greet. Mentoring and coaching programmes for women in science are offered in cooperation with the office for equal opportunities at the University of Bremen. These programmes offer an additional opportunity to train interpersonal skills and to develop personal career strategies including a focus on special challenges that especially women might (have to) face in the scientific community. Early career scientists aiming for a non-academic career find support on different levels. MARUM provides funding opportunities for placements in industry, administration, consulting or similar. We offer trainings in e.g. job hunting strategies or interview skills. For a deeper insight into jobs outside the academic world, we regularly invite professionals for informal fireside chats and career days. These events are organised in cooperation with other graduate programmes in the region to broaden the focus of both, the lecturers and the participants. A fundamental component of our career programmes is the active involvement of alumni of MARUM and our
Bianchini, Julie A.; Whitney, David J.; Breton, Therese D.; Hilton-Brown, Bryan A.
This study examined the perceptions and self-reported practices of 18 scientists participating in a yearlong seminar series designed to explore issues of gender and ethnicity in science. Scientists and seminar were part of the Promoting Women and Scientific Literacy project, a curriculum transformation and professional development initiative undertaken by science, science education, and women's studies faculty at their university. Researchers treated participating scientists as critical friends able to bring clarity to and raise questions about conceptions of inclusion in science education. Through questionnaires and semistructured interviews, we explored their (a) rationales for differential student success in undergraduate science education; (b) self-reports of ways they structure, teach, and assess courses to promote inclusion; and (c) views of androcentric and ethnocentric bias in science. Statistical analysis of questionnaires yielded few differences in scientists' views and reported practices by sex or across time. Qualitative analysis of interviews offered insight into how scientists can help address the problem of women and ethnic minorities in science education; constraints encountered in attempts to implement pedagogical and curricular innovations; and areas of consensus and debate across scientists and science studies scholars' descriptions of science. From our findings, we provided recommendations for other professional developers working with scientists to promote excellence and equity in undergraduate science education.
Fischer, James (Technical Monitor); Merkey, Phillip
This grant supported the effort to characterize the problem domain of the Earth Science Technology Office's Computational Technologies Project, to engage the Beowulf Cluster Computing Community as well as the High Performance Computing Research Community so that we can predict the applicability of said technologies to the scientific community represented by the CT project and formulate long term strategies to provide the computational resources necessary to attain the anticipated scientific objectives of the CT project. Specifically, the goal of the evaluation effort is to use the information gathered over the course of the Round-3 investigations to quantify the trends in scientific expectations, the algorithmic requirements and capabilities of high-performance computers to satisfy this anticipated need.
Teach students to reason like scientists. This practical new book provides a clear framework for helping students develop scientific thinking so they are not just memorizing content but are becoming engaged in the real work scientists do. You'll learn how to teach students to analyse scientific testing, to understand if something caused something else, and to understand the value of evidence. The book offers ideas for lesson plans and assessments and also features reproducible tools and handouts that you can use in the classroom immediately.
Vaughan, R. G.; Worssam, J.; Vaughan, A. F.
Increasingly, research scientists are learning that communicating science to broad, non-specialist audiences, particularly students, is just as important as communicating science to their peers via peer-reviewed scientific publications. This presentation highlights opportunities that scientists in Flagstaff, AZ have to foster public support of science & inspire students to study STEM disciplines. The goal here is to share ideas, personal experiences, & the rewards, for both students & research professionals, of engaging in science education & public outreach. Flagstaff, AZ, "America's First STEM Community," has a uniquely rich community of organizations engaged in science & engineering research & innovation, including the Flagstaff Arboretum, Coconino Community College, Gore Industries, Lowell Observatory, Museum of Northern Arizona, National Weather Service, National Park Service, National Forest Service, Northern Arizona University, Northern Arizona Center for Entrepreneurship & Technology, US Geological Survey, US Naval Observatory, & Willow Bend Environmental Education Center. These organizations connect with the Northern Arizona community during the yearly Flagstaff Festival of Science - the third oldest science festival in the world - a 10 day long, free, science festival featuring daily public lectures, open houses, interactive science & technology exhibits, field trips, & in-school speaker programs. Many research scientists from these organizations participate in these activities, e.g., public lectures, open houses, & in-school speaker programs, & also volunteer as mentors for science & engineering themed clubs in local schools. An example of a novel, innovative program, developed by a local K-12 science teacher, is the "Scientists-in-the-Classroom" mentor program, which pairs all 7th & 8th grade students with a working research scientist for the entire school year. Led by the student & guided by the mentor, they develop a variety of science / technology
Biography of the Director of the Office of the Science Advisor which is responsible for is responsible for EPA’s human subject research ethics, scientific integrity, and developing cross-agency science policy guidance.
Dickinson State University organizes four Family Science Day events each fall to increase student engagement in the sciences. Offered on Saturday afternoons, each event focuses on a different science-related theme. Families can attend these events free of charge, and the kids participate in a large-variety of hands-on activities which center around the event's theme. Previous themes include The Amazing Telescope, Night of the Titanic, Dinosaur Prophecy, and Space Exploration. These events are amazing opportunities to show young children how much fun science can be. Many of the kids come from schools where science is neither interactive nor engaging. The activities help the children learn that science is a process of discovery that helps us better understand the world around us. University students staff all of the activity booths at these events, and this has proven to be a very valuable experience for them as well. Some of the students who help are majoring in a science field, and for them, the experience teaches public communication. They learn to break complicated concepts down into simpler terms that young kids can understand. Other students who help with these events are not science majors but may be taking a science course as part of their college curriculum. For these students, the experience reinforces various concepts that they are learning in their science class. For many of them, it also opens their eyes to the idea that science can be engaging. Some of them even discover that they have a true gift for teaching.
Yacoubian, Hagop A.; Al-Khatib, Layan; Mardirossian, Taline
This article presents an analysis of how scientists are portrayed in the Lebanese national science textbooks. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, to develop a comprehensive analytical framework that can serve as a tool to analyze the image of scientists portrayed in educational resources. Second, to analyze the image of scientists portrayed in the Lebanese national science textbooks that are used in Basic Education. An analytical framework, based on an extensive review of the relevant literature, was constructed that served as a tool for analyzing the textbooks. Based on evidence-based stereotypes, the framework focused on the individual and work-related characteristics of scientists. Fifteen science textbooks were analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative measures. Our analysis of the textbooks showed the presence of a number of stereotypical images. The scientists are predominantly white males of European descent. Non-Western scientists, including Lebanese and/or Arab scientists are mostly absent in the textbooks. In addition, the scientists are portrayed as rational individuals who work alone, who conduct experiments in their labs by following the scientific method, and by operating within Eurocentric paradigms. External factors do not influence their work. They are engaged in an enterprise which is objective, which aims for discovering the truth out there, and which involves dealing with direct evidence. Implications for science education are discussed.
Robertson Evia, Jane; Peterman, Karen; Cloyd, Emily; Besley, John
Self-efficacy, or the beliefs people hold about their ability to succeed in certain pursuits, is a long-established construct. Self-efficacy for science communication distinguishes scientists who engage with the public and relates to scientists' attitudes about the public. As such, self-efficacy for public engagement has the potential to serve as…
The purpose of the study was to examine what scientists studying to become teachers know about the nature of science (NOS) before, during and after a course focused on NOS. The 16 scientists had an average of 9.7 years of work experience. The course was structured to teach knowledge about the aspects of NOS, demonstrate effective methods of…
Background. Reform recommendations around the world call for an understanding about the nature of science and the work of scientists. However, related research findings provide evidence that students hold stereotypical views of scientists and the nature of their work. Purpose The aim of this case
Bartoszeck, Amauri Betini; Bartoszeck, Flavio Kulevicz
The purpose of this study is to understand in an exploratory way pupils' perception of science and the image of scientists at primary and secondary school levels. Data was collected by means of a survey questionnaire and a drawing representing pupils' depiction what scientists do during their working hours. A questionnaire anchored on a Likert…
Babaii, Esmat; Atai, Mahmood Reza; Saidi, Mavadat
With the increasingly growing technological advances and their consequences for societies, the public has the right to be engaged in the outcomes of science. On the one hand, the public are interested in acquiring information about the results of scientists' experiments. On the other hand, the scientists are willing to share their feelings about…
Milford, Todd M.; Tippett, Christine D.
This article presents the results of a mixed methods study that used the Draw-a-Scientist Test as a visual tool for exploring preservice teachers' beliefs about scientists. A questionnaire was also administered to 165 students who were enrolled in elementary (K-8) and secondary (8-12) science methods courses. Taken as a whole, the images drawn by…
This paper discusses a regulatory science, which fills a gap between scientific knowledge and regulatory actions. The author provides examples of the regulatory science employed in chemical risk assessment, such as the linear non-threshold theory. In the regulatory science, scientific data as well as scientific reasoning based on scientific knowledge - or regulatory rules - should play an important role. It is important to recognize that the rules facilitate transparent decision making under conditions of uncertainty and time constraints. Furthermore, the development of traditional or pure science results in the validation of regulatory rules, and subsequently, the regulatory science procedure develops more systematically. The concept of this science should be understood by those engaged in governmental decision making. (author)
Kluijtmans, M; de Haan, Else; Akkerman, Sanne; van Tartwijk, Jan
CONTEXT: Despite increasing numbers of publications, science often fails to significantly improve patient care. Clinician-scientists, professionals who combine care and research activities, play an important role in helping to solve this problem. However, despite the ascribed advantages of
Vliet, van A.J.H.; Bron, W.A.; Mulder, S.
In the scientific community, the importance of communication to society is often underestimated. Scientists and scientific organisations often lack the skills to organise such communication effectively. The Dutch citizen science phenology network Nature’s Calendar has been successful in
Tan, Aik-Ling; Jocz, Jennifer Ann; Zhai, Junqing
This study addresses the influence of popular media on how young children perceive science and the work of scientists. Using an adapted version of the Draw-A-Scientist Test, 15 classes of fourth graders (9-10 years old) at three different schools in Singapore were sampled ( n = 266). The students' drawings as well as their identification of three sources from which they obtained inspiration for their drawings were analyzed. Our results showed a strong relationship between students' drawings of scientists and their reported sources of inspiration. The results suggest that popular media play a large role in shaping how young children view scientists.
Swanson, Kara W
The United States Patent Office of the 1850s offers a rare opportunity to analyze the early gendering of science. In its crowded rooms, would-be scientists shared a workplace with women earning equal pay for equal work. Scientific men worked as patent examiners, claiming this new occupation as scientific in opposition to those seeking to separate science and technology. At the same time, in an unprecedented and ultimately unsuccessful experiment, female clerks were hired to work alongside male clerks. This article examines the controversies surrounding these workers through the lens of manners and deportment. In the unique context of a workplace combining scientific men and working ladies, office behavior revealed the deep assumption that the emerging American scientist was male and middle class.
Kirby, David A
Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey, released in 1968, is perhaps the most scientifically accurate film ever produced. The film presented such a plausible, realistic vision of space flight that many moon hoax proponents believe that Kubrick staged the 1969 moon landing using the same studios and techniques. Kubrick’s scientific verisimilitude in 2001 came courtesy of his science consultants—including two former NASA scientists—and the more than sixty-five companies, research organizations, and government agencies that offered technical advice. Although most filmmakers don’t consult experts as extensively as Kubrick did, films ranging from A Beautiful Mind and Contact to Finding Nemo and The Hulk have achieved some degree of scientific credibility because of science consultants. In Lab Coats in Hollywood, David Kirby examines the interaction of science and cinema: how science consultants make movie science plausible, how filmmakers negotiate scientific accuracy within production constraints, and ...
Svetlana M. Medvedeva
Full Text Available The article analyses the image of a scientist represented in recent Russian movies. The article discusses two groups of questions: (1 nature and role of popular science in the life of society; (2 national features of scientific cultures. The article agues that popular science should not be conceived as a week copy of the real science. On the contrary, modern models of science communication assume that popular science have its own value and is able to influence scientific practices. Simultaneously we assume, that since popular science is less integrated with international scientific norms, it can easer reveal national traditions of scientific life. As a result, the analyze of recent Russian movies shows that the tradition established in Peter I times for Russian scientists to work out their self-identity in concern with Russian state still exists (scientist- state supporter/scientist- oppositionist. Actually the modern interpretation of dilemma between state patriotism and liberalism given by modern movies shows that Russian scientist don't have real choice, because they loose anyway whereas the state always wins. So owing to recent movies this representation of hopeless destiny of a scientist is becoming widespread in Russian public culture.
28 September 2011 - Canadian Intellectual Property Office Policy, International and Research Office Director K. Georgaras visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Engineer M. Bajko and Senior Scientists P. Jenni and R. Voss.
28 September 2011 - Canadian Intellectual Property Office Policy, International and Research Office Director K. Georgaras visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Engineer M. Bajko and Senior Scientists P. Jenni and R. Voss.
McClain, Craig; Neeley, Liz
The role of scientists in social media and its impact on their careers are not fully explored. While policies and best practices are still fluid, it is concerning that discourse is often based on little to no data, and some arguments directly contradict the available data. Here, we consider the relevant but subjective questions about science outreach via social media (SOSM), specifically: (1) Does a public relations nightmare exist for science?; (2) Why (or why aren't) scientists engaging in social media?; (3) Are scientists using social media well?; and (4) Will social media benefit a scientist's career? We call for the scientific community to create tangible plans that value, measure, and help manage scientists' social media engagement.
Koren, Pazit; Bar, Varda
The physical and social image of the scientist among school children, student teachers, and teachers over the last 50 years was investigated. Interest has also been shown in the perception of the personality behind the physical stereotype. Nevertheless, the value judgments of science and scientists and the positive and negative mind-sets attaching…
Buxner, S.; Grier, J.; Meinke, B. K.; Gross, N. A.; Woroner, M.
The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forums support the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and its E/PO community by enhancing the coherency and efficiency of SMD-funded E/PO programs. The Forums foster collaboration and partnerships between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogy expertise. We will present tools to engage and resources to support scientists' engagement in E/PO efforts. Scientists can get connected to educators and find support materials and links to resources to support their E/PO work through the online SMD E/PO community workspace (http://smdepo.org) The site includes resources for scientists interested in E/PO including one page guides about "How to Get Involved" and "How to Increase Your Impact," as well as the NASA SMD Scientist Speaker's Bureau to connect scientists to audiences across the country. Additionally, there is a set of online clearinghouses that provide ready-made lessons and activities for use by scientists and educators: NASA Wavelength (http://nasawavelength.org/) and EarthSpace (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace/). The NASA Forums create and partner with organizations to provide resources specifically for undergraduate science instructors including slide sets for Earth and Space Science classes on the current topics in astronomy and planetary science. The Forums also provide professional development opportunities at professional science conferences each year including AGU, LPSC, AAS, and DPS to support higher education faculty who are teaching undergraduate courses. These offerings include best practices in instruction, resources for teaching planetary science and astronomy topics, and other special topics such as working with diverse students and the use of social media in the classroom. We are continually soliciting ways that we can better support scientists' efforts in effectively engaging in E/PO. Please contact Sanlyn Buxner (firstname.lastname@example.org) or Jennifer Grier (email@example.com) to
Gaensslen, Robert E.
Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)
Glen, Nicole J.; Dotger, Sharon
This qualitative study examined the connections between elementary teachers’ conceptions of how scientists use writing and how the teachers used writing during science lessons. Data collected included lesson observations, interviews, handouts to students, and curriculum resources. The findings revealed that teachers in this study thought scientists write for several purposes: the presentation of data, observations, experiences, procedures, and facts. The teachers used writing tasks that mirrored this with their students. The teachers also had a limited definition of creativity in writing, and when they had students write creatively in science it was to add in fictional elements. Implications of this study include providing teachers with better models for how and why scientists write, including these models in more inquiry-based science lessons, and directly relating concepts of nature of science to elementary science writing.
Hall, M.; Mayhew, M. A.
Teen Science Cafés are a global phenomenon where scientists and teenagers engage in lively conversations about current, relevant, and intriguing science. In the past two years, Teen Café programs have been initiated in 41 sites in 18 U.S. states via the Teen Science Cafe Network, teensciencecafe.org. Other such programs are growing in the UK, eastern Africa, South Africa, and Singapore. The events are a free, informal, and low risk way for scientists to share their science with a receptive audience much focused on future careers. The success of a Café depends on the core principle that rich conversation occurs; a Café program is not a lecture series. Engaging teen participants brings out different perspectives and new dimensions to the topic; this has typically given scientists new ways of thinking about their own research! Presenting the event as a conversation and inviting the teens to bring in questions and points of view is key to fostering a dynamic Café. Scientists report that the training provided for these engagements has changed the way they talk about their science to peers, managers, and funding agencies. Teen Cafés have been shown to significantly change teens' view of the importance of science in their lives, positively influence teens' understanding of science in the news, and increase their ability and confidence to use facts to support scientific points of view. The Café events also positively influenced teens' interest in science and science careers, and revealed to them the true nature of scientific research and the interesting lives that scientists lead. Cafés are an excellent vehicle for scientists to have broader impact on the current generation of students, our future adult citizens. The Teen Science Café Network is an open community of practice committed to helping others implement Teen Cafés.
This first edition of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) Groundwater Program Annual Report summarizes the work carried out by the Energy Systems GWPO for fiscal year (FY) 1993. This introductory section describes the GWPO's staffing, organization, and funding sources. The GWPO is responsible for coordination and oversight for all components of the groundwater program at the three Oak Ridge facilities [ORNL, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site], and the PGDP and PORTS, respectively. Several years ago, Energy systems senior management recognized that the manner in which groundwater activities were conducted at the five facilities could result in unnecessary duplication of effort, inadequate technical input to decisions related to groundwater issues, and could create a perception within the regulatory agencies of a confusing and inconsistent approach to groundwater issues at the different facilities. Extensive interactions among management from Environmental Compliance, Environmental Restoration (ER), Environmental Sciences Division, Environmental Safety and Health, and the five facilities ultimately led to development of a net technical umbrella organization for groundwater. On April 25, 1991, the GWPO was authorized to be set up within ORNL thereby establishing a central coordinating office that would develop a consistent technical and administrative direction for the groundwater programs of all facilities and result in compliance with all relevant U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations such as RCRA and Comprehensive Environmental Restoration, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) as well as U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulations and orders. For example, DOE Order 5400.1, issued on November 9, 1988, called for each DOE facility to develop an environmental monitoring program for all media (e.g., air, surface water, and groundwater)
Read this book before you write your thesis or journal paper! Communicating Science is a textbook and reference on scientific writing oriented primarily at researchers in the physical sciences and engineering. It is written from the perspective of an experienced researcher. It draws on the authors' experience of teaching and working with both native English speakers and English as a Second Language (ESL) writers. For the range of topics covered, this book is relatively short and tersely written, in order to appeal to busy researchers.Communicating Science offers comprehensive guidance on: Graduate students and early career researchers will be guided through the researcher's basic communication tasks: writing theses, journal papers, and internal reports, presenting lectures and posters, and preparing research proposals. Extensive best practice examples and analyses of common problems are presented. Advanced researchers who aim to commercialize their research results will be introduced to business plans and pat...
Elfman, Mary E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hayes, Birchard P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Michel, Kelly D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boyer, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory
The pairing of science and art has proven to be a powerful combination since the Renaissance. The combination of these two seemingly disparate disciplines ensured that even complex scientific theories could be explored and effectively communicated to both the subject matter expert and the layman. In modern times, science and art have frequently been considered disjoint, with objectives, philosophies, and perspectives often in direct opposition to each other. However, given the technological advances in computer science and high fidelity 3-D graphics development tools, this marriage of art and science is once again logically complimentary. Art, in the form of computer graphics and animation created on supercomputers, has already proven to be a powerful tool for improving scientific research and providing insight into nuclear phenomena. This paper discusses the power of pairing artists with scientists and engineers in order to pursue the possibilities of a widely accessible lightweight, interactive approach. We will use a discussion of photo-realism versus stylization to illuminate the expected beneficial outcome of such collaborations and the societal advantages gained by a non-traditional pa11nering of these two fields.
scientist or engineer to serve as Science Advisor and Assistant to the President for S&T. Once in office, the President should nominate her or him for the... Nominate four OSTP Associate Directors (ADs), with advice from the Science Advisor , as soon as possible and determine the focus and structure of...Technology Policy (OSTP) and, specifically, on advice from the President’s Science Advisor . The presidential transition is a critical period for ensuring S
Brown, Julie C.; Bokor, Julie R.; Crippen, Kent J.; Koroly, Mary Jo
Scientist-teacher partnerships are a unique form of professional development that can assist teachers in translating current science into classroom instruction by involving them in meaningful collaborations with university researchers. However, few reported models aim to directly alter science teachers' practices by supporting them in the…
Boukhanovsky, Alexander V; Krzhizhanovskaya, Valeria V; Athanassoulis, Gerassimos A; Klimentov, Alexei A; Sloot, Peter M A
We present an annual international Young Scientists Conference (YSC) on computational science http://ysc.escience.ifmo.ru/, which brings together renowned experts and young researchers working in high-performance computing, data-driven modeling, and simulation of large-scale complex systems. The first YSC event was organized in 2012 by the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands and ITMO University, Russia with the goal of opening a dialogue on the present and the future of computational science and its applications. We believe that the YSC conferences will strengthen the ties between young scientists in different countries, thus promoting future collaboration. In this paper we briefly introduce the challenges the millennial generation is facing; describe the YSC conference history and topics; and list the keynote speakers and program committee members. This volume of Procedia Computer Science presents selected papers from the 4th International Young Scientists Conference on Computational Science held on 25 ...
Geertz, Armin W.
Since the 1990s medical technology has afforded exciting possibilities for studying the brain. Together with knowledge accrued through psychology and psychiatry, it has set the stage for pioneering research and stimulated disciplines such as Social Neuroscience, the Cognitive Science of Religion......, Cognitive Anthropology, and Cognitive Archaeology. Another discipline has arisen, Neurotheology, which is interested in the brain and religious experience. Early proponents such as d'Aquili and Newberg had a religious agenda in their work. Others, such as members of Transcendental Meditation, have used...... experimental and brain studies to legitimate religious agendas. Experiential shamanists have embarked on a similar legitimation process. The differences between science and therapy and spirituality have been slurred or denied. Neurotheological attempts to discover special areas of the brain responsible...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity Meeting; Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of.... Contact Person: Ronna Hill, NSABB Program Assistant, NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities, 6705...
Mount, Richard P.; /SLAC
Science--like business, national security, and even everyday life--is becoming more and more data intensive. In some sciences the data-management challenge already exceeds the compute-power challenge in its needed resources. Leadership in applying computing to science will necessarily require both world-class computing and world-class data management. The Office of Science program needs a leadership-class capability in scientific data management. Currently two-thirds of Office of Science research and development in data management is left to the individual scientific programs. About $18M/year is spent by the programs on data-management research and development targeted at their most urgent needs. This is to be compared with the $9M/year spent on data management by DOE computer science. This highly mission-directed approach has been effective, but only in meeting just the highest-priority needs of individual programs. A coherent, leadership-class, program of data management is clearly warranted by the scale and nature of the Office of Science programs. More directly, much of the Office of Science portfolio is in desperate need of such a program; without it, data management could easily become the primary bottleneck to scientific progress within the next five years. When grouped into simulation-intensive science, experiment/observation-intensive science, and information-intensive science, the Office of Science programs show striking commonalities in their data-management needs. Not just research and development but also packaging and hardening as well as maintenance and support are required. Meeting these needs is a medium- to long-term effort requiring a well-planned program of evolving investment. We propose an Office of Science Data-Management Program at an initial scale of $32M/year of new funding. The program should be managed by a Director charged with creating and maintaining a forward-looking approach to multiscience data-management challenges. The program
Metoyer, S.; Prouhet, T.; Radencic, S.
The nature of science and the nature of learning are often assumed to have little practical relationship to each other. Scientists conduct research and science teachers teach. Rarely do the scientist and the science teacher have an opportunity to learn from each other. Here we describe results from a program funded by NSF, the Information Technology in Science (ITS) Center for Teaching and Learning. The ITS Center provided the support and structure necessary for successful long-term collaboration among scientists, science teachers, and education researchers that has resulted in the creation of new science education specialists. These specialists are not only among the science teachers, but also include avid recruits to science education from the scientists themselves. Science teachers returned to their classrooms armed with new knowledge of content, inquiry, and ideas for technology tools that could support and enhance students' scientific literacy. Teachers developed and implemented action research plans as a means of exploring educational outcomes of their use and understanding of new technologies and inquiry applied to the classroom. In other words, they tried something different in the class related to authentic inquiry and technology. They then assessed the students' to determine if there was an impact to the students in some way. Many of the scientists, on the other hand, report that they have modified their instructional practices for undergraduate courses based on their experiences with the teachers and the ITS Center. Some joined other collaborative projects pairing scientists and educators. And, many of the scientists continue on-going communication with the science teachers serving as mentors, collaborators, and as an "expert" source for the students to ask questions to. In order to convey the success of this partnership, we illustrate and discuss four interdependent components. First, costs and benefits to the science teacher are discussed through case
Banuelos, Gloria Rodriguez
California's K-12 schools contain 40% of the nation's English learners, the majority of them enrolled at the elementary level. Traditionally, English learners in California have difficulty performing at the same level as their native English speaking counterparts on national achievement tests, such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress. In 1998, California voters passed Proposition 227 mandating that English learners be taught "overwhelmingly" in English, thus making teachers, many without expertise, responsible for teaching multilevel English proficient students subject matter. I studied the use of scientist-teacher partnerships as a resource for teachers of English learners. University scientists (graduate students) partnered with local elementary school teachers designed and implemented integrated science and English lessons for classrooms with at least 30% English learners. The study explored two major foci. First, integrated science and language lessons implemented by six scientist-teacher partnerships were investigated. Second, the responsibilities taken on by the team members during the implementation of integrated science and language lessons were examined. Three data sources were analyzed: (1) six lesson sequences comprised of 28 lessons; (2) 18 lesson worksheet; and (3) 24 participant Retrospective interview transcripts (12 scientists and 12 teachers). Lessons across were examined according to four analytical categories which included the following: (1) nature of the science activities (e.g. hands-on); nature of language activities (e.g. speaking); (2) nature of instructional practices (e.g. student grouping); and (3) responsibilities of teachers and scientists (e.g. classroom). A micro level analysis illustrates how one scientist-teacher team innovatively used a children's story, Goldilocks and the Three Bears, to teach the measurement of length and temperature. A macro level analysis identified three characteristics of science activities
Chapnik, Noam; Yosef, Roy; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet
Scientists are required to communicate science and research not only to other experts in the field, but also to scientists and experts from other fields, as well as to the public and policymakers. One fundamental suggestion when communicating with non-experts is to avoid professional jargon. However, because they are trained to speak with highly specialized language, avoiding jargon is difficult for scientists, and there is no standard to guide scientists in adjusting their messages. In this research project, we present the development and validation of the data produced by an up-to-date, scientist-friendly program for identifying jargon in popular written texts, based on a corpus of over 90 million words published in the BBC site during the years 2012–2015. The validation of results by the jargon identifier, the De-jargonizer, involved three mini studies: (1) comparison and correlation with existing frequency word lists in the literature; (2) a comparison with previous research on spoken language jargon use in TED transcripts of non-science lectures, TED transcripts of science lectures and transcripts of academic science lectures; and (3) a test of 5,000 pairs of published research abstracts and lay reader summaries describing the same article from the journals PLOS Computational Biology and PLOS Genetics. Validation procedures showed that the data classification of the De-jargonizer significantly correlates with existing frequency word lists, replicates similar jargon differences in previous studies on scientific versus general lectures, and identifies significant differences in jargon use between abstracts and lay summaries. As expected, more jargon was found in the academic abstracts than lay summaries; however, the percentage of jargon in the lay summaries exceeded the amount recommended for the public to understand the text. Thus, the De-jargonizer can help scientists identify problematic jargon when communicating science to non-experts, and be implemented
Full Text Available Scientists are required to communicate science and research not only to other experts in the field, but also to scientists and experts from other fields, as well as to the public and policymakers. One fundamental suggestion when communicating with non-experts is to avoid professional jargon. However, because they are trained to speak with highly specialized language, avoiding jargon is difficult for scientists, and there is no standard to guide scientists in adjusting their messages. In this research project, we present the development and validation of the data produced by an up-to-date, scientist-friendly program for identifying jargon in popular written texts, based on a corpus of over 90 million words published in the BBC site during the years 2012-2015. The validation of results by the jargon identifier, the De-jargonizer, involved three mini studies: (1 comparison and correlation with existing frequency word lists in the literature; (2 a comparison with previous research on spoken language jargon use in TED transcripts of non-science lectures, TED transcripts of science lectures and transcripts of academic science lectures; and (3 a test of 5,000 pairs of published research abstracts and lay reader summaries describing the same article from the journals PLOS Computational Biology and PLOS Genetics. Validation procedures showed that the data classification of the De-jargonizer significantly correlates with existing frequency word lists, replicates similar jargon differences in previous studies on scientific versus general lectures, and identifies significant differences in jargon use between abstracts and lay summaries. As expected, more jargon was found in the academic abstracts than lay summaries; however, the percentage of jargon in the lay summaries exceeded the amount recommended for the public to understand the text. Thus, the De-jargonizer can help scientists identify problematic jargon when communicating science to non-experts, and
Rakedzon, Tzipora; Segev, Elad; Chapnik, Noam; Yosef, Roy; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet
Scientists are required to communicate science and research not only to other experts in the field, but also to scientists and experts from other fields, as well as to the public and policymakers. One fundamental suggestion when communicating with non-experts is to avoid professional jargon. However, because they are trained to speak with highly specialized language, avoiding jargon is difficult for scientists, and there is no standard to guide scientists in adjusting their messages. In this research project, we present the development and validation of the data produced by an up-to-date, scientist-friendly program for identifying jargon in popular written texts, based on a corpus of over 90 million words published in the BBC site during the years 2012-2015. The validation of results by the jargon identifier, the De-jargonizer, involved three mini studies: (1) comparison and correlation with existing frequency word lists in the literature; (2) a comparison with previous research on spoken language jargon use in TED transcripts of non-science lectures, TED transcripts of science lectures and transcripts of academic science lectures; and (3) a test of 5,000 pairs of published research abstracts and lay reader summaries describing the same article from the journals PLOS Computational Biology and PLOS Genetics. Validation procedures showed that the data classification of the De-jargonizer significantly correlates with existing frequency word lists, replicates similar jargon differences in previous studies on scientific versus general lectures, and identifies significant differences in jargon use between abstracts and lay summaries. As expected, more jargon was found in the academic abstracts than lay summaries; however, the percentage of jargon in the lay summaries exceeded the amount recommended for the public to understand the text. Thus, the De-jargonizer can help scientists identify problematic jargon when communicating science to non-experts, and be implemented by
Massen, Jorg J M; Bauer, Lisa; Spurny, Benjamin; Bugnyar, Thomas; Kret, Mariska E
Humans are considered to be highly prosocial, especially in comparison to other species. However, most tests of prosociality are conducted in highly artificial settings among anonymous participants. To gain a better understanding of how human hyper-cooperation may have evolved, we tested humans' willingness to share in one of the most competitive fields of our current society: academia. Researchers were generally prosocial with 80% sharing a PDF of one of their latest papers, and almost 60% willing to send us their data. Intriguingly, prosociality was most prominent from male to male, and less likely among all other sex-combinations. This pattern suggests the presence of male-exclusive networks in science, and may be based on an evolutionary history promoting strong male bonds.
Full Text Available I graduated as MD in 1965, after gaining substantial exposure to basic science in the course of my medical studies. I obtained my PhD degree in 1969, and thus, in essence, I have been actively engaged in conducting research for over half a century. It goes without saying, that to be successful in any field one has to love what one does. This is most important in experimental science, since experiments do not always work and at times the results disprove what you had been hoping for. Moments when everything comes together and you can shout “Eureka” are few and far between, and the outcomes attained might not exactly fit the starting hypothesis. However, such unexpected results can turn out to be of greatest importance. In one of my first experiments during my postdoctorate period, I observed quite by accident that the enzyme involved in the degradation of the protein tyrosine aminotransferase required energy. I wondered why would the degradation of an intracellular protein require energy, whereas to our knowledge protein degradation outside of cells – e.g. the digestion of food – does not. This “accidental” observation led me to assume the existence of some kind of novel, unknown energy-dependent mechanism that governs highly selective protein degradation within cells. I was very impressed by this finding, and all my subsequent work was influenced by this one experiment. Although it had been reached fortuitously, I considered the observation to be important. It might have been mere luck that I chose to do this type of experiment early on in my career, but luck by itself would not have steered me toward further achievements. I had to embark on serious scientific work to pursue this unique finding – and I have been pursuing it ever since.
Dresselhaus, Mildred S.
A number of problems exist in society which require the cooperation of physical and social scientists. One of these problems is the current crisis in science education. There are several aspects to this problem, including the declining interest of students in math and science at a time when functioning in our society requires more, not less,…
Martín-Sempere , María José; Garzón-García , Belén; Rey-Rocha , Jesús
Abstract This paper investigates what motivates scientists to communicate science and technology in a science event involving a direct relationship and interaction with the public. A structured questionnaire survey was administered through face-to-face interviews to 167 research practitioners (researchers, technicians, support staff and fellows) at the Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC) who part...
As science has grown in size and scope, it has also presented a number of ethical and moral challenges. Approaching these challenges from an ethical framework can provide guidance when engaging with them. In this article, I place science within a virtue ethics framework, as discussed by Aristotle. By framing science within virtue ethics, I discuss what virtue ethics entails for the practicing scientist. Virtue ethics holds that each person should work towards her conception of flourishing where the virtues enable her to realize that conception. The virtues must become part of the scientist's character, undergirding her intentions and motivations, as well as the resulting decisions and actions. The virtue of phronêsis, or practical wisdom, is critical for cultivating virtue, enabling the moral agent to discern the appropriate actions for a particular situation. In exercising phronêsis, the scientist considers the situation from multiple perspectives for an in-depth and nuanced understanding of the situation, discerns the relevant factors, and settles upon an appropriate decision. I examine goods internal to a practice, which are constitutive of science practiced well and discuss the role of phronêsis when grappling with science's ethical and moral features and how the scientist might exercise it. Although phronêsis is important for producing scientific knowledge, it is equally critical for working through the moral and ethical questions science poses.
Steer, Clifford J; Jackson, Peter R; Hornbeak, Hortencia; McKay, Catherine K; Sriramarao, P; Murtaugh, Michael P
Despite remarkable advances in medical research, clinicians face daunting challenges from new diseases, variations in patient responses to interventions, and increasing numbers of people with chronic health problems. The gap between biomedical research and unmet clinical needs can be addressed by highly talented interdisciplinary investigators focused on translational bench-to-bedside medicine. The training of talented physician-scientists comfortable with forming and participating in multidisciplinary teams that address complex health problems is a top national priority. Challenges, methods, and experiences associated with physician-scientist training and team building were explored at a workshop held at the Second International Conference on One Medicine One Science (iCOMOS 2016), April 24-27, 2016, in Minneapolis, Minnesota. A broad range of scientists, regulatory authorities, and health care experts determined that critical investments in interdisciplinary training are essential for the future of medicine and healthcare delivery. Physician-scientists trained in a broad, nonlinear, cross-disciplinary manner are and will be essential members of science teams in the new age of grand health challenges and the birth of precision medicine. Team science approaches have accomplished biomedical breakthroughs once considered impossible, and dedicated physician-scientists have been critical to these achievements. Together, they translate into the pillars of academic growth and success. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.
Today as never before, America needs its citizens to be literate in science and technology. Not only must we only inspire a new generation of scientists and engineers and technologists, we must foster a society capable of meeting complex, 21st-century challenges. Unfortunately, the need for creative, flexible thinkers is growing at a time when our young students are lagging in science interest and performance. Over the past 17 years, the JASON Project has worked to link real science and scientists to the classroom. This link provide viable pipeline to creating the next generation scientists and researchers. Ultimately, JASON's mission is to improve the way science is taught by enabling students to learn directly from leading scientists. Through partnerships with agencies such as NOAA and NASA, JASON creates multimedia classroom products based on current scientific research. Broadcasts of science expeditions, hosted by leading researchers, are coupled with classroom materials that include interactive computer-based simulations, video- on-demand, inquiry-based experiments and activities, and print materials for students and teachers. A "gated" Web site hosts online resources and provides a secure platform to network with scientists and other classrooms in a nationwide community of learners. Each curriculum is organized around a specific theme for a comprehensive learning experience. It may be taught as a complete package, or individual components can be selected to teach specific, standards-based concepts. Such thematic units include: Disappearing Wetlands, Mysteries of Earth and Mars, and Monster Storms. All JASON curriculum units are grounded in "inquiry-based learning." The highly interactive curriculum will enable students to access current, real-world scientific research and employ the scientific method through reflection, investigation, identification of problems, sharing of data, and forming and testing hypotheses. JASON specializes in effectively applying
Varga, M.; Worcester, J.
The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) Science Network is a community of over 20,000 scientists, engineers, economists, public health specialists, and technical experts that inform and advocate for science-based solutions to some of our nation's most pressing problems. The role of the community manager here is to train and prepare Science Network members to be effective advocates for science-based decision making, and also to identify opportunities for them to put their skills and expertise into action on science and public health issues. As an organizational asset, but also an important resource to its members, it is crucial that the Science Network demonstrate its impact. But measuring impact when it comes to engagement and advocacy can be difficult. Here we will define a glossary of terms relating to community management and scientist engagement, delve into tracking and measurement of actions taken within a community, and connect the dots between tracking metrics and measuring impact. Measuring impact in community management is a growing field, and here we will also suggest future research that will help standardize impact measurement, as well as bring attention to the growing and unique role that scientist communities can have on policy and public engagement goals. This work has been informed by the American Association for the Advancement of Science's inaugural cohort of the Community Engagement Fellows Program.
Background. Reform recommendations around the world call for an understanding about the nature of science and the work of scientists. However, related research findings provide evidence that students hold stereotypical views of scientists and the nature of their work. Purpose The aim of this case study was to examine the impact of an intervention on 15 elementary school students' views of scientists. Sample An urban, fifth-grade, European elementary school classroom defined the context of this study. Design and method The intervention was an 11-week-long investigation of a local problem concerning water quality. In carrying out this investigation the students collaborated with a young metrology scientist to collect and analyse authentic data that would help them to construct a claim about the quality of the water. The students' initial views of scientists were investigated through a drawing activity, classroom discussions and interviews. Results Analysis of these data indicated that all students but one girl held very stereotypical views on scientists and the nature of their work. Analysis of interviews with each student and classroom discussions after the intervention illustrated that they reconstructed their stereotypical views of scientists and the nature of their work owing to their personal engagement in the investigation and their collaboration with the scientist. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that more in-depth study into project-based approaches, out-of-school learning and school-scientist partnerships is warranted, for the purpose of determining appropriate pedagogies that support students in developing up-to-date understanding about scientists and the nature of their work.
Rosenthal, Joshua; Jessup, Christine; Felknor, Sarah; Humble, Michael; Bader, Farah; Bridbord, Kenneth
For the past 16 years, the International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health program (ITREOH) has supported projects that link U.S. academic scientists with scientists from low- and middle-income countries in diverse research and research training activities. Twenty-two projects of varied duration have conducted training to enhance the research capabilities of scientists at 75 institutions in 43 countries in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America, and have built productive research relationships between these scientists and their U.S. partners. ITREOH investigators and their trainees have produced publications that have advanced basic sciences, developed methods, informed policy outcomes, and built institutional capacity. Today, the changing nature of the health sciences calls for a more strategic approach. Data-rich team science requires greater capacity for information technology and knowledge synthesis at the local institution. More robust systems for ethical review and administrative support are necessary to advance population-based research. Sustainability of institutional research capability depends on linkages to multiple national and international partners. In this context, the Fogarty International Center, the National Institute of Environmental Sciences and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, have reengineered the ITREOH program to support and catalyze a multi-national network of regional hubs for Global Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (GEOHealth). We anticipate that these networked science hubs will build upon previous investments by the ITREOH program and will serve to advance locally and internationally important health science, train and attract first-class scientists, and provide critical evidence to guide policy discussions. Published in 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Peticolas, L. M.; Gross, N. A.; Hsu, B. C.; Shipp, S. S.; Buxner, S.; Schwerin, T. G.; Smith, D.; Meinke, B. K.
NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forums are charged with engaging, extending, supporting, and coordinating the community of E/PO professionals and scientists involved in Earth and space science education activities. This work is undertaken to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of the overall national NASA science education and outreach effort made up of individual efforts run by these education professionals. This includes facilitating scientist engagement in education and outreach. A number of resources and opportunities for involvement are available for scientists involved in - or interested in being involved in - education or outreach. The Forums provide opportunities for earth and space scientists to stay informed, communicate, collaborate, leverage existing programs and partnerships, and become more skilled education practitioners. Interested scientists can receive newsletters, participate in monthly calls, interact through an online community workspace, and attend E/PO strategic meetings. The Forums also provide professional development opportunities on a myriad of topics, from common pre-conceptions in science, to program evaluation, to delivering effective workshops. Thematic approaches, such as Earth Science Week (http://www.earthsciweek.org), and the Year of the Solar System (http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss) are coordinated by the Forums; through these efforts resources are presented topically, in a manner that can be easily ported into diverse learning environments. Information about the needs of audiences with which scientists interact - higher education, K-12 education, informal education, and public - are provided by SMD's Audience-Based Working Groups. Their findings and recommendations are made available to inform the activities and products of E/PO providers so they are able to better serve these audiences. Also available is a 'one-stop shop' of SMD E/PO products and resources that can be
Hmielowski, Jay D; Feldman, Lauren; Myers, Teresa A; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Maibach, Edward
There is a growing divide in how conservatives and liberals in the USA understand the issue of global warming. Prior research suggests that the American public's reliance on partisan media contributes to this gap. However, researchers have yet to identify intervening variables to explain the relationship between media use and public opinion about global warming. Several studies have shown that trust in scientists is an important heuristic many people use when reporting their opinions on science-related topics. Using within-subject panel data from a nationally representative sample of Americans, this study finds that trust in scientists mediates the effect of news media use on perceptions of global warming. Results demonstrate that conservative media use decreases trust in scientists which, in turn, decreases certainty that global warming is happening. By contrast, use of non-conservative media increases trust in scientists, which, in turn, increases certainty that global warming is happening. © The Author(s) 2013.
The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science provides the Nation’s researchers with worldclass scientific user facilities to propel the U.S. to the forefront of science and innovation. A user facility is a federally sponsored research facility available for external use to advance scientific or technical knowledge under the following conditions: open, accessible, free, collaborative, competitive, and unique.
Goehring, L.; Carlsen, W.; Fisher, C. R.; Kerlin, S.; Trautmann, N.; Petersen, W.
Science education reform since the mid-1990's has called for a "new way of teaching and learning about science that reflects how science itself is done, emphasizing inquiry as a way of achieving knowledge and understanding about the world" (NRC, 1996). Scientists and engineers, experts in inquiry thinking, have been called to help model these practices for students and demonstrate scientific habits of mind. The question, however, is "how best to involve these experts?" given the very real challenges of limited availability of scientists, varying experience with effective pedagogy, widespread geographic distribution of schools, and the sheer number of students involved. Technology offers partial solutions to enable Student-Scientist Interactions (SSI). The FLEXE Project has developed online FLEXE Forums to support efficient, effective SSIs, making use of web-based and database technology to facilitate communication between students and scientists. More importantly, the FLEXE project has approached this question of "how best to do this?" scientifically, combining program evaluation with hypothesis-based research explicitly testing the effects of such SSIs on student learning and attitudes towards science. FLEXE Forums are designed to showcase scientific practices and habits of mind through facilitated interaction between students and scientists. Through these Forums, students "meet" working scientists and learn about their research and the environments in which they work. Scientists provide students with intriguing "real-life" datasets and challenge students to analyze and interpret the data through guiding questions. Students submit their analyses to the Forum, and scientists provide feedback and connect the instructional activity with real-life practice, showcasing their activities in the field. In the FLEXE project, Forums are embedded within inquiry-based instructional units focused on essential learning concepts, and feature the deep-sea environment in contrast
Garvey, W D
Communication: The Essence of Science provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of scientific communication. This book focuses on those information-exchange activities that take place mainly among scientists actively involved on the research front. Organized into five chapters, this book begins with an overview of the psychologists' description of the communication structure of science. This text then examines the relationship among spanning, connecting, and integrating the various streams of activities involved in the production of information. Other chapters consider some of
Realizing the importance of writing skills in communicating with other professionals and in educating the public, scientists and scientific institutions have renewed their interest in the writing education of science students. Informal surveys show that technological and engineering schools are reinstituting writing requirements and staffing the…
Cisneros-Cohernour, Edith J.; Lopez-Avila, Maria T.; Barrera-Bustillos, Maria E.
This paper presents findings of a project aimed to improve the quality of science education in Southeast Mexico by the creation of a community of practice among scientists, researchers and teachers, involved in the design, implementation and evaluation of a professional development program for mathematics, chemistry, biology and physics secondary…
Kluijtmans, Manon; De Haan, Else; Akkerman, Sanne; Van Tartwijk, Jan
Context Despite increasing numbers of publications, science often fails to significantly improve patient care. Clinician-scientists, professionals who combine care and research activities, play an important role in helping to solve this problem. However, despite the ascribed advantages of connecting
Women remain disproportionately underrepresented in certain science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) majors and occupations. Stereotypes of scientists may be contributing factors in this phenomenon. However, this relationship has not yet been empirically examined. This is partly because of the dearth of literature addressing the…
Sinclair, Alex; Strachan, Amy
Having embraced the inclusion of evolution in the National Curriculum for primary science in England and briefly bemoaned the omission of any physics in key stage 1 (ages 5-7), it was time to focus on the biggest change, that of working scientifically. While the authors were aware of the non-statutory suggestions to study famous scientists such as…
Selvi, Sezgin; Demir, Selçuk Besir
This qualitative study was conducted to compare the perceptions of students with gifted intelligence and students with those of normal intelligence about social science and social scientists. The data obtained from 23 gifted intelligent and 23 normal participants within the same age group was analysed using content analysis and results were…
Boukhanovsky, A.V.; Ilyin, V.A; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Athanassoulis, G.A.; Klimentov, A.A.; Sloot, P.M.A.
We present an annual international Young Scientists Conference (YSC) on computational science http://ysc.escience.ifmo.ru/, which brings together renowned experts and young researchers working in high-performance computing, data-driven modeling, and simulation of large-scale complex systems. The
Koehl, Laura Ann
The major purpose of this study was to examine, through the use of oral history technique, the lived experiences of seven women scientists and the factors that affected their pursuit of science. Numerous reports indicate that while women are gaining ground in the sciences, they are behind their male counterparts in many areas and continue to face barriers (National Science Foundation Report, 2002; Wilson, 2004). There is still work to be done to understand how gender differences in science participation affect the lives of women scientists (Clewell and Campbell, 2002). The qualitative data from seven women's histories was coded to identify emerging themes in the areas of family life, education and experiences with science. The seven women interviewed represented work in science, technology, engineering and math, had terminal degrees and 10 to 55 years of professional experience. Six themes were identified as major factors in the science careers of these women; experiences with science, support from others, an ethic of care, passions of the mind, self efficacy in science and belonging vs. marginality. Each of these had some impact on each woman's sense of identity as a scientist and their strong sense of agency for accomplishing their career goals. The factors and influences that lead them to their careers speak to the ways in which they were able to overcome any barriers and become successful scientists. The stories of these women present a picture that is both consistent with and offers some challenge to the feminist critique of science. While their stories attest to the predominance of males in science they also refute that image in the way these women were able to create a science career for themselves that is not solely defined by the conditions of a male science. As the feminist critique suggests, gender is an important variable in the factors influencing the pursuit of science. While these women acknowledged the role of gender in their scientific experience
Buxner, Sanlyn; Dalton, H.; Shipp, S.; CoBabe-Ammann, E.; Scalice, D.; Bleacher, L.; Wessen, A.
The Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forum is a team of educators, scientists, and outreach professionals funded by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) that supports SMD scientists currently involved in E/PO - or interested in becoming involved in E/PO efforts - to find ways to do so through a variety of avenues. There are many current and future opportunities and resources for scientists to become engaged in E/PO. The Forum provides tools for responding to NASA SMD E/PO funding opportunities (webinars and online proposal guides), a one-page Tips and Tricks guide for scientists to engage in education and public outreach, and a sampler of activities organized by thematic topic and NASA’s Big Questions in planetary science. Scientists can also locate resources for interacting with diverse audiences through a number of online clearinghouses, including: NASA Wavelength, a digital collection of peer-reviewed Earth and space science resources for educators of all levels (http://nasawavelength.org); the Year of the Solar System website (http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss), a presentation of thematic resources that includes background information, missions, the latest in planetary science news, and educational products, for use in the classroom and out, for teaching about the solar system organized by topic - volcanism, ice, astrobiology, etc.; and EarthSpace (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace), a community website where faculty can find and share resources and information about teaching Earth and space sciences in the undergraduate classroom, including class materials, news, funding opportunities, and the latest education research. Also recently developed, the NASA SMD Scientist Speaker’s Bureau (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/speaker) offers an online portal to connect scientists interested in getting involved in E/PO projects - giving public talks, classroom visits, and virtual connections - with audiences. Learn more about the
Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on the teaching of the theory of evolution more. ... Posted on 21 December 2017. ASTROPHYSICS: An Observational View of the Universe. Math Art and Design: MAD about Math, Math Education and Outreach.
Kluijtmans, Manon; de Haan, Else; Akkerman, Sanne; van Tartwijk, Jan
Despite increasing numbers of publications, science often fails to significantly improve patient care. Clinician-scientists, professionals who combine care and research activities, play an important role in helping to solve this problem. However, despite the ascribed advantages of connecting scientific knowledge and inquiry with health care, clinician-scientists are scarce, especially amongst non-physicians. The education of clinician-scientists can be complex because they must form professional identities at the intersection of care and research. The successful education of clinician-scientists requires insight into how these professionals view their professional identity and how they combine distinct practices. This study sought to investigate how recently trained nurse- and physiotherapist-scientists perceive their professional identities and experience the crossing of boundaries between care and research. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 nurse- and physiotherapist-scientists at 1 year after they had completed MSc research training. Interviews were thematically analysed using insights from the theoretical frameworks of dialogical self theory and boundary crossing. After research training, the initial professional identity, of clinician, remained important for novice clinician-scientists, whereas the scientist identity was experienced as additional and complementary. A meta-identity as broker, referred to as a 'bridge builder', seemed to mediate competing demands or tensions between the two positions. Obtaining and maintaining a dual work position were experienced as logistically demanding; nevertheless, it was considered beneficial for crossing the boundaries between care and research because it led to reflection on the health profession, knowledge integration, inquiry and innovation in care, improved data collection, and research with a focus on clinical applicability. Novice clinician-scientists experience dual professional identities as care
Liggins, Felicity; Dowell, Ellen; Wardley, Jamie; Jamieson, Claire
In 2015, the Met Office's award-winning outreach programme, designed to inspire the next generation of scientists and engineers, delivered one of its most ambitious and creative activities to date. It explored how scientists and artists can come together to create an engaging experience for young people and families. This activity was called Sandscape. Sandscape is an interactive sand sculpture workshop exploring how weather and climate affect our health. Budding sand sculptors are shown how to fashion elaborate structures from sand and water - creating a landscape with bridges, skyscrapers, forests and factories. As they work, participants are encouraged by the scientists delivering the activity to reflect on what makes a healthy city, considering how the natural and built environments influence air quality and circulation and how this impacts our health. Topics discussed include urban heat islands, air pollution and dispersion modelling, pollen forecasting and predicting the wind-borne spread of animal diseases. Each hour long workshop culminates in a dramatic demonstration that uses dry ice to represent clean air circulating from mountains, along rivers and into cities. Here we present an overview of Sandscape, identify the strengths and challenges of such a collaborative, innovative and playful approach to public engagement and share the results of our evaluation. Sandscape was originally supported by the Met Office and the Wellcome Trust, and produced by Einstein's Garden in collaboration with the Met Office, scientists from the University of Exeter and sand sculptors from Sand in Your Eye. It was first presented in Einstein's Garden at Green Man festival 2015, an independent music and arts festival held annually in Wales, and has since been invited to run at the 2015 Bournemouth Arts By the Sea Festival and Teignmouth's TRAIL Sculpture Festival in the summer of 2016.
In this paper, I describe the strong and reciprocal relations between the emergence of the specialized expert in the natural sciences and the establishment of science education, in early Modern Greece. Accordingly, I show how science and public education interacted within the Greek state from its inception in the early 1830, to the first decade of the twentieth century, when the University of Athens established an autonomous Mathematics and Physics School. Several factors are taken into account, such as the negotiations of Western educational theories and practices within a local context, the discourses of the science savants of the University of Athens, the role of the influential Greek pedagogues of the era, the state as an agent which imposed restrictions or facilitated certain developments and finally the intellectual and cultural aspirations of the nation itself. Science education is shown to be of fundamental importance for Greek scientists. The inclusion of science within the school system preceded and promoted the appearance of a scientific community and the institution of science courses was instrumental for the emergence of the first trained Greek scientists. Thus, the conventional narrative that would have science appearing in the classrooms as an aftermath of the emergence of a scientific community is problematized.
This thesis examines one dimension of the relationship between science and the arms race. More specifically, it develops and empirically examines a theoretical model of the relationship between the social demand for defense-related and weapons research, traditional scientific values related to the worldview of classical physics, and differential participation by physical scientists in such research. The theoretical model suggests that an antiquated traditional image of science exists, and that it may explain, in part, participation by physical scientists in defense-related or weapons research. Two major hypotheses are suggested by the model: first, that a constellation of values representing a traditional image of science obtains today among young physical scientists; and second, that those who currently engage (or are willing to engage) in defense-related or weapons research are more likely to agree with the values implicit in the traditional image of science than those who do not (or would not) engage in such research. The theoretical model is located within the sociologies of knowledge and science. This study includes chapters that provide an overview of the literature of these subdisciplines. This investigation concludes with an empirical examination of the model and hypotheses.
Worssam, J. B.
Field research finally within classroom walls, data driven, hands on with students using a series of electronic projects to show evidence of scientific mentor collaboration. You do not want to miss this session in which I will be sharing the steps to develop an interactive mentor program between scientists in the field and students in the classroom. Using next generation science standards and common core language skills you will be able to blend scientific exploration with scientific writing and communication skills. Learn how to make connections in your own community with STEM businesses, agencies and organizations. Learn how to connect with scientists across the globe to make your classroom instruction interactive and live for all students. Scientists, you too will want to participate, see how you can reach out and be a part of the K-12 educational system with students learning about YOUR science, a great component for NSF grants! "Scientists in the Classroom," a model program for all, bringing real time science, data and knowledge into the classroom.
Shipp, S. S.; Buxner, S.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.; Dalton, H.; Bleacher, L.; Scalice, D.
The Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forum is charged by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) with engaging, extending, and supporting the community of E/PO professionals and scientists involved in planetary science education activities in order to help them more effectively and efficiently share NASA science with all learners. A number of resources and opportunities for involvement are available for planetary scientists involved in - or interested in being involved in - E/PO. The Forum provides opportunities for community members to stay informed, communicate, collaborate, leverage existing programs and partnerships, and become more skilled education practitioners. Interested planetary scientists can receive newsletters, participate in monthly calls, interact through an online community workspace, and attend annual E/PO community meetings and meetings of opportunity at science and education conferences. The Forum also provides professional development opportunities on a myriad of topics, from common pre-conceptions in planetary science to program evaluation, to delivering effective workshops. Thematic approaches, such as the Year of the Solar System (http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss), are coordinated by the Forum; through these efforts resources are presented topically, in a manner that can be easily ported into diverse learning environments. Information about the needs of audiences with which scientists interact - higher education, K-12 education, informal education, and public - currently is being researched by SMD's Audience-Based Working Groups. Their findings and recommendations will be made available to inform the activities and products of E/PO providers so they are able to better serve these audiences. Also in production is a "one-stop-shop" of SMD E/PO products and resources that can be used in conjunction with E/PO activities. Further supporting higher-education efforts, the Forum coordinates a network of planetary science
Goldsmith, G. R.; Fulton, A. D.; Witherill, C. D.
Innovative approaches to science education are critical for inspiring a new generation of scientists. In a world where students are inundated with digital media inviting them to explore exciting, emerging disciplines, science often lags behind in using progressive media techniques. Additionally, science education media often neglects to include the scientists conducting research, thereby disconnecting students from the excitement, adventure, and beauty of conducting research in the field. Here we present initial work from a science education media project entitled Canopy in the Clouds. In particular, we address the goals and approach of the project, the logistics associated with generating educational material at a foreign field site, and the challenges associated with effectively integrating science and media. Canopy in the Clouds is designed to engage students in research, motivate a new generation of young scientists, and promote conservation from the perspective of a current research project being conducted in the canopy of a tropical montane cloud forest located in Monteverde, Costa Rica. The project seeks to generate curriculum based on multiple, immersive forms of novel digital media that attract and maintain student attention. By doing so from the perspective of an adventurous research project in a beautiful and highly biodiverse region, we hope to engage students in science and enhance bioliteracy. However, there are considerable logistic considerations associated with such an approach, including safety, travel, permitting, and equipment maintenance. Additionally, the goals of both the scientific research and the educational media project must be balanced in order to meet objectives in a timely fashion. Finally, materials generated in the field must be translated to viable final products and distributed. Work associated with Canopy in the Clouds will thus provide insight into this process and can serve to inform future science education and outreach
This article explores science journalism in the context of the media competition for readers' attention. It offers a qualitative stylistic perspective on how popular journalism colonizes science communication. It examines a sample of 400 headlines collected over the period of 15 months from the ranking of five 'most-read' articles on the website of the international magazine New Scientist. Dominant lexical properties of the sample are first identified through frequency and keyness survey and then analysed qualitatively from the perspective of the stylistic projection of newsworthiness. The analysis illustrates various degrees of stylistic 'hybridity' in online popularization of scientific research. Stylistic patterns that celebrate, domesticate or personalize science coverage (characteristic of popular journalism) are intertwined with devices that foreground tentativeness, precision and informativeness (characteristic of science communication). The article reflects on the implications of including various proportions of academic and popular styles in science journalism.
Big data technologies are evolving rapidly, driven by the need to manage ever increasing amounts of historical data; process relentless streams of human and machine-generated data; and integrate data of heterogeneous structure from extremely heterogeneous sources of information. Big data is inherently an application-driven problem. Developing the right technologies requires an understanding of the applications domain. Though, an intriguing aspect of this phenomenon is that the availability of the data itself enables new applications not previously conceived of! In this talk, we will discuss how the big data phenomenon creates an imperative for collaboration among domain scientists (in this case, geoscientists) and computer scientists. Domain scientists provide the application requirements as well as insights about the data involved, while computer scientists help assess whether problems can be solved with currently available technologies or require adaptaion of existing technologies and/or development of new technologies. The synergy can create vibrant collaborations potentially leading to new science insights as well as development of new data technologies and systems. The area of interface between geosciences and computer science, also referred to as geoinformatics is, we believe, a fertile area for interdisciplinary research.
van Vliet, Arnold J. H.; Bron, Wichertje A.; Mulder, Sara
In the scientific community, the importance of communication to society is often underestimated. Scientists and scientific organisations often lack the skills to organise such communication effectively. The Dutch citizen science phenology network Nature's Calendar has been successful in communicating to the general public via numerous newspaper articles, television appearances, presentations, websites and social media. We refer to these publications as societal publications. Due to active communication to mass media, we frequently reach millions of people. This communication helped us to involve thousands of volunteers in recording the timing of phenological events like the start of flowering, leaf unfolding and bird migration, but also several health-related events like hay fever symptoms and tick bites. In this paper, we analyse and present our experiences with the Nature's Calendar project regarding societal publications. Based on this analysis, we explain the importance of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists in general, and we show how scientists can increase the newsworthiness of scientific information and what factors and activities can increase the chances of media paying attention to this news. We show that societal publications help phenological networks by facilitating the recruitment, retention and instruction of observers. Furthermore, they stimulate the generation of new ideas and partners that lead to an increase in knowledge, awareness and behavioural change of the general public or specific stakeholders. They make projects, and scientists involved, better known to the public and increase their credibility and authority. Societal publications can catalyse the production of new publications, thereby enforcing the previous mentioned points.
Ashwell, Douglas James
The news media play an important role in informing the public about scientific and technological developments. Some argue that restructuring and downsizing result in journalists coming under increased pressure to produce copy, leading them to use more public relations material to meet their deadlines. This article explores science journalism in the highly commercialised media market of New Zealand. Using semi-structured interviews with scientists, science communication advisors and journalists, the study finds communication advisors and scientists believe most media outlets, excluding public service media, report science poorly. Furthermore, restructuring and staff cuts have placed the journalists interviewed under increasing pressure. While smaller newspapers appear to be printing press releases verbatim, metropolitan newspaper journalists still exercise control over their use of such material. The results suggest these journalists will continue to resist increasing their use of public relations material for some time to come. © The Author(s) 2014.
... OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY National Nanotechnology Coordination Office, Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology Subcommittee, National Science and Technology Council, Committee on Technology; The National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Strategic Planning Stakeholder Workshop: Public...
Anderson, Dayle; Moeed, Azra
Current curriculum demands require primary teachers to teach about the Nature of Science; yet, few primary teachers have had opportunity to learn about science as a discipline. Prior schooling and vicarious experiences of science may shape their beliefs about science and, as a result, their science teaching. This qualitative study describes the…
Hoy, Sarida P.
Reform initiatives such as Science for All Americans (AAA, 1989) and National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) argue for making science accessible to all children regardless of age, sex, cultural and/or ethic background, and disabilities. One of the most popular and prevailing phrases highlighting science education reform in the last decade has been science for all. In terms of making science accessible to all, science educators argue that one role of science teachers ought to be to embrace students' experiences outside of the science classroom by becoming aware and inclusive of the cultural resources that student's households contain. Moll, Gonzalez and Amanti (1992) termed these cultural resources as funds of knowledge which refer to culturally developed bodies of knowledge and skills essential for household well being. This study examined the career transition of a former Latina scientist from a research scientist to a high school science teacher. Her lived experiences that influenced her career transition were examined using interpretive biography through a feminist theory lens. The following question guided the study: How have the lived experiences of the participant as engaged through cultural, historical, and social interactions influenced a transition in career from a research scientist to a classroom teacher? A former Latina scientist and her family participated in this study to facilitate the documentation, narration, and interpretation of her career transition. The researcher immersed herself in the field for five months and data collection included in-depth interviews with the participant and her family. In addition, the researcher kept a reflexive journal. Data were analyzed using socio-cultural thematic approach to identify snapshots and to develop emergent themes. Data analysis revealed that the participant's cultural socialization conflicted with the Eurocentric/Androcentric culture of science found in both the university and research
By focusing on the scientists themselves, Gribbin has written an anecdotal narrative enlivened with stories of personal drama, success and failure. A bestselling science writer with an international reputation, Gribbin is among the few authors who could even attempt a work of this magnitude. Praised as “a sequence of witty, information-packed tales” and “a terriﬁ c read” by The Times upon its recent British publication, The Scientists breathes new life into such venerable icons as Galileo, Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein and Linus Pauling, as well as lesser lights whose stories have been undeservedly neglected. Filled with pioneers, visionaries, eccentrics and madmen, this is the history of science as it has never been told before.
Meinke, B. K.; Smith, D. A.; Bleacher, L.; Hauck, K.; Soeffing, C.
The NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Science Education and Public Outreach Forums coordinate the participation of SMD education and public outreach (EPO) programs in Women's History Month through the NASA Science4Girls and Their Families initiative. The initiative partners NASA science education programs with public libraries to provide NASA-themed hands-on education activities for girls and their families. These NASA science education programs are mission- and grant-based E/PO programs are uniquely poised to foster collaboration between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogy expertise. As such, the initiative engages girls in all four NASA science discipline areas (Astrophysics, Earth Science, Planetary Science, and Heliophysics), which enables audiences to experience the full range of NASA science topics and the different career skills each requires. The events focus on engaging underserved and underrepresented audiences in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) via use of research-based best practices, collaborations with libraries, partnerships with local and national organizations, and remote engagement of audiences.
Lilja Bye, Bente
Science communication is a time consuming and challenging task. Communicating scientific results comes on top of doing science itself and the administrative work the modern day scientists have to cope with. The competition on peoples time and attention is also fierce. In order to get peoples attention and interest, it is today often required that there is a two-way communication. The audience needs and wants to be engaged, even in real-time. The skills and times required to do that is normally not included in the university curricula. In this presentation we will look at new technologies that can help scientists overcome some of those skills and time challenges. The new online technologies that has been tested and developed in other societal areas, can be of great use for research and the important science communication. We will illustrate this through an example from biodiversity, wetlands and these fields use of Earth observations. Both the scientists themselves representing different fields of research and the general public are being engaged effectively and efficiently through specifically designed online events/seminars/workshops. The scientists are able to learn from each other while also engaging in live dialogues with the audience. A cooperation between the Group of Earth Observations and the Ramsar Convention of Wetlands will be used to illustrate the method. Within the global Earth observation community, where this example comes from, there is a great potential for efficient capacity building, targeting both experts, decision-makers and the general public. The method presented is demonstrating one way of tapping into that potential using new online technologies and it can easily be transferred to other fields of geoscience and science in general.
Baynham, Patricia J.
Most biology students have limited exposure to research since this is not a public activity and the pace of science does not lend itself to television dramatization. In contrast, medicine is the subject of numerous TV shows, and students’ experience visiting doctors may lead them to think they want to become physicians. One effective way to encourage these students to consider a research career is to invite engaging scientists to speak about their career paths and lives during class. S...
Mogendorff, K.; Molder, te H.; Gremmen, B.; Woerkum, van C.
In this study, the authors examine the performative functions of scientists’ discursive constructions of the science-society relationship. They use discursive psychology to analyze interviews with Dutch plant scientists and show that interviewees contrast the freedom of people in the private sphere
Mogendorff, K.; te Molder, Hedwig Frederica Maria; Gremmen, B.; van Woerkum, C.
In this study, the authors examine the performative functions of scientists’ discursive constructions of the science-society relationship. They use discursive psychology to analyze interviews with Dutch plant scientists and show that interviewees contrast the freedom of people in the private sphere
D'Addezio, Giuliana; Marsili, Antonella; Rubbia, Giuliana; Carosi, Alessandro
The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) is currently the largest European scientific institution dealing with Earth Sciences research and real-time surveillance, early warning, and forecast activities in geophysics and volcanology. The Laboratorio Didattica e Divulgazione Scientifica of INGV organizes every year educational and outreach activities with schools of different levels and with general public to convey scientific knowledge and to promote the Research on Earth Science, focusing on volcanic and seismic hazard. Among the most successful initiatives is the creation of a calendar designed for the schools and realized based on a competition devoted to children of primary school. The intent is to provide a pleasant stimulus for discussion for teachers and students. Schools participate with enthusiasm by sending drawings made by children on a specified theme, different each year, chosen among geophysics and earth sciences arguments. For 2011, the theme was selected also with the aims to investigate on the image the young generations have of the Research and on its potential and future prospective. The title was "Scienziato anche io! La Scienza e gli scienziati visti dai bambini" (I'm a scientist too! Science and scientists from the children point of view), with the purpose of give a shape to the image children have of the world of science, its potential and the figure of the scientists. We asked the children to realized a draw suggesting some possible arguments between: 1. How do you imagine a scientist? How do you imagine the daily activities of a researcher? 2. What is the invention you consider the most important among all those you know? 3. What would you invent? The 986 drawings realized by 6 up to 10 years old boys and girls from 48 schools distributed throughout the Italian territory, report us a generally positive picture of the work of scientists and also highlight a great level of confidence in the potential of science, capable to
Carlson, D. J.
An initial burst of enthusiasm resulted in more than 1000 expressions of interest and nearly 500 internationally coordinated proposals for polar research during IPY. An international committee has endorsed more than 200 of these proposals, and most other proposals and nearly all expressions of interest have found ways to join the endorsed programme. Ten nations have announced new IPY science funding totalling in excess of 300M USD for the two years of operations; several nations will make announcements soon. Most on-going funding for polar research, coming from at least 30 nations, approximately 1.6B USD over two years, will also support IPY activities. What should the thousands of scientists hoping to participate expect, personally and collectively? What should the overall science entity expect, during and after IPY? And, finally, what should the public expect, after much attention and the expenditure of 2B USD, not to mention the on-going and future costs of ice breakers and ice-monitoring satellites and polar bases? Many IPY scientists will initially experience disappointment. Funding, even with IPY infusions, will fall short of need, and initial proposal success rates will stay below 50% in almost every nation, far below in some nations. In many nations, however, a catch-up effect will occur, leading to more funds in 2008 or 2009 than in 2006 and 2007. A step-up effect will also occur, leading to increased on-going funds for polar research, although perhaps in smaller steps and in fewer countries than we might hope. Scientists should expect increased public attention to their work and increased demand for their cooperation and contribution to international data management and to public outreach. Individually and collectively, IPY scientists have the opportunity to interact with an amazing array of fellow scientists, exchanging experience and enthusiasm on topics from gravitational variations to genomic sequences to Gwich'in cultures. Science as an entity will
This essay examines the experiences of about five thousand Chinese students/scientists in the United States after the Communist takeover of mainland China in 1949. These experiences illustrate the often hidden transnational movements of people, instruments, and ideas in science and technology across the Iron Curtain during the Cold War. I argue that those hundreds who returned to China represented a partial "Americanization" of Chinese science and technology, while the rest of the group staying in the United States contributed to a transnationalization of the American scientific community.
Full Text Available The status and the new developments in world science are both discussed. The transition from the ‘normal science’ (Kuhn to the ‘post-normal science’ (Funtowicz & Ravetz is commented. The integration processes in science, the mass higher education and its mcdonaldization are also considered. The difference between ‘science’ and ‘surrogate science’ is explained. The existence of marginal journals as an attribute of the surrogate science is discussed. Such a broad-based consideration allows a realistic assess of the contribution of Bulgarian scientists in the development of world science to be made. Some of the most important scientific achievements made by Bulgarians are listed.
Yarborough, Mark; Hunter, Lawrence
A recent report of the United States' Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues highlights how important it is for the research community to enjoy the "earned confidence" of the public and how creating a "culture of responsibility" can contribute to that confidence. It identifies a major role for "creative, flexible, and innovative" ethics education in creating such a culture. Other recent governmental reports from various nations similarly call for a renewed emphasis on ethics education in the sciences. We discuss why some common approaches to ethics education in the graduate sciences fail to meet the goals envisioned in the reports and we describe an approach, animated by primary attention on excellent science as opposed to bad scientists, that we have employed in our ethics teaching that we think is better suited for inspiring and sustaining responsible, trustworthy science. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... Two Public Teleconferences of the Science Advisory Board Dioxin Review Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces... concerning the EPA Science Advisory Board can be found on the EPA Web site at http://www.epa.gov/sab...
... Closed Meetings of the Science Advisory Board's Scientific and Technological Achievement Awards Committee... Agency's (EPA), Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a meeting and teleconference of the....gov . The SAB Mailing address is: U.S. EPA Science Advisory Board (1400F), U.S. Environmental...
... a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH... Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public teleconference of the SAB Polycyclic Aromatic... EPA Science Advisory Board can be found on the EPA Web site at http://www.epa.gov/sab . SUPPLEMENTARY...
... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9298-6] Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconferences of the Science Advisory Board Panel for Review of Hydraulic Fracturing... EPA Science Advisory Board can be found at the EPA SAB Web site at http://www.epa.gov/sab . Any...
... a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board Lead Review Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces... information concerning the EPA Science Advisory Board can be found on the EPA Web site at http://www.epa.gov...
... Public Teleconferences of the Science Advisory Board Radiation Advisory Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces... the EPA Science Advisory Board can be found at the EPA SAB Web site at http// www.epa.gov/sab...
... Closed Meetings of the Science Advisory Board's Scientific and Technological Achievement Awards Committee... Agency's (EPA), Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a meeting and teleconference of the[email protected] . The SAB Mailing address is: U.S. EPA Science Advisory Board (1400R), U.S. Environmental...
Duggan-Haas, Don Andrew
Great problems exist in science teaching from kindergarten through the college level (NRC, 1996; NSF, 1996). The problem may be attributed to the failure of teachers to integrate their own understanding of science content with appropriate pedagogy (Shulman, 1986, 1987). All teachers were trained by college faculty and therefore some of the blame for these problems rests on those faculty. This dissertation presents three models for describing secondary science teacher preparation. Two Programs, Two Cultures adapts C. P. Snow's classic work (1959) to describe the work of a science teacher candidate as that of an individual who navigates between two discrete programs: one in college science and the second in teacher education. The second model, Scientists Are from Mars, Educators Are from Venus adapts the popular work of John Gray to describe the system of science teacher education as hobbled by the dysfunctional relationships among the major players and describes the teacher as progeny from this relationship. The third model, The Ecosystem of Science Teacher Preparation reveals some of the deeper complexities of science teacher education and posits that the traditional college science approach treats students as a monoculture when great diversity in fact exists. The three models are described in the context of a large Midwestern university's teacher education program as that program is construed for future biology teachers. Four undergraduate courses typically taken by future biology teachers were observed and described: an introductory biology course; an introductory teacher education course; an upper division course in biochemistry and a senior level science teaching methods course. Seven second semester seniors who were biological Science majors were interviewed. All seven students had taken all of the courses observed. An organization of scientists and educators working together to improve science teaching from kindergarten through graduate school is also
King, Denise; Ma, Joyce; Armendariz, Angela; Yu, Kristina
Science museums have made a concerted effort to work with researchers to incorporate current scientific findings and practices into informal learning opportunities for museum visitors. Many of these efforts have focused on creating opportunities and support for researchers to interact face-to-face with the public through, for example, speaker series, community forums, and engineering competitions. However, there are other means by which practicing scientists can find a voice on the museum floor - through the design and development of exhibits. Here we describe how researchers and museum professionals have worked together to create innovative exhibit experiences for an interactive science museum. For each example: scientist as (1) data providers, (2) advisors, and (3) co-developers, we highlight essential components for a successful partnership and pitfalls to avoid when collaborating on museum exhibits. Not many museums prototype and build their own exhibits like the Exploratorium. In those cases, there may be similar opportunities in more mediated offerings such as public demonstrations or lectures or in other formats that allow for direct interactions between scientists and visitors.We believe there are many opportunities for researchers to share natural phenomena, to advise on exhibit development and interpretation, to provide much needed materials, and to otherwise incorporate authentic research into the learning experiences at museums, no matter what the format.
Thayer, Bradley A
American social scientists rarely ever use evolutionary concepts to explain behavior, despite the potential of such concepts to elucidate major social problems. I argue that this observation can be understood as the product of three influences: an ideologically narrowed political liberalism; a fear of ''Social Darwinism'' as a scientific idea, rather than a scientific apostasy; and a widely believed criticism of evolutionary thinking as deterministic, reductionistic, and Panglossian. I ask what is to be done to encourage social scientists to learn and to apply evolutionary lessons. I answer with four solutions. First, evolutionary social scientists should more effectively educate their non-evolutionary students and colleagues. Second, they should publicize, even popularize, accessible refutations of perennially misleading criticisms. Third, they should more credibly assure skeptics that evolutionary theory not only keeps the ''social'' in social science but better explains social behavior than can any individual-level theory, such as rational-choice theory. Fourth, they should recall that biology took generations to become Darwinian, and they must understand that the social sciences may take as long to become evolutionary.
Underrepresentation of women and minorities in the science, technology, and engineering (STEM) fields is a perennial concern for researchers and policy-makers. Many causes of this problem have been identified. Less is known about what constitutes effective methods for increasing women's participation in STEM. This study examines the role that identity formation plays in encouraging girls to pursue STEM education and careers utilizing data from a cohort-based, informal science enrichment program that targets middle-school-aged girls. A Mixed-methods design was employed to examine girls' science interests, efficacy, attitudes, and identity---referred to as affinities. Quantitative data were collected before and after program participation using science affinity scales. Qualitative data included observations, focus groups, and individual interviews. This study builds on past research conducted on the same program. The study is presented in three components: fidelity of implementation, participant affinities, and science identity theory building. Quantitative and qualitative measures reveal that the program was implemented with high fidelity. Participants had high initial affinities for science as compared to a contrast group. Analysis of qualitative data of science affinities revealed several themes in girls' attitudes, experiences, and intentions toward science. Emergent themes discussed include girls' preferences and interests in science, gender and science efficacy, attitudes toward science, and elements of science identities. Archetypes of emergent science identities developed in this study (expert, experimenter, and inventor) inform different ways in which girls engage with and envision science study and careers. Implications for best practice in fostering science engagement and identities in middle-school-aged girls include the importance of hands-on science activities, the need for enthusiastic relatable role models, and an emphasis on deep understanding of
Hultgren, Anna Kristina
This chapter is concerned with attitudes to English as an international language of science among Nordic scientists. It reports on a questionnaire completed by 200+ physicists, chemists and computer scientists at universities in five Nordic countries: Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Finland. The purpose is two-fold: First, it investigates if claims made primarily by representatives of the national language councils about a lack of local language terminology are corroborated by scientists...
Patricia J. Baynham
Full Text Available Most biology students have limited exposure to research since this is not a public activity and the pace of science does not lend itself to television dramatization. In contrast, medicine is the subject of numerous TV shows, and students’ experience visiting doctors may lead them to think they want to become physicians. One effective way to encourage these students to consider a research career is to invite engaging scientists to speak about their career paths and lives during class. Students are most likely to be influenced by people they consider to be like themselves. While this method is well-suited to a lecture format where the scientist can address a larger audience, the laboratory would also be appropriate.
Lewis, P. M.; Chambers, L. H.; Bethea, K. L.; Crecelius, S.; Ruhlman, K.; Harte, T.
At NASA's Langley Research Center, the Science Directorate participates in a wide range of public outreach events, from individual small-scale classroom visits, to the large-scale NASA events like Exploration Day at Busch Gardens Williamsburg. Despite the diversity of venues, one thing is certain: the public is hungry for science and ravenous for the materials and activities that NASA produces. However, designing and producing materials and activities to capture the attention of everyone from children to grandparents can be a challenging task. The NASA Langley Science Directorate Outreach and Communications Team has taken on the task to ensure that event participants have a worthwhile science experience through a series of educational tabletop games. This diverse group of educators, scientists, writers and graphic artists has been able to produce many games and activities perfect for public exposure and understanding. These games not only capture the imagination of the citizen scientists that visit the display, but they also allow them to learn the science behind many of the things that happen around them on a daily basis, many of which they take for granted. Teaching the public through games and short activities has proven to be a winning combination of efforts. In the development of any game or activity a great deal of consideration is given to "boiling down" the science concept or educational "take away." This step is where the diverse development group has proven to be invaluable. A final product developed by this team includes a review for science validity by a scientist, words written by a science writer, educational alignment by a science educator and design by a graphic designer. This process ensures that the game will attract the right group of people and have them leave understanding new science content. Games and activities generated in this fashion have been successful in the traditional classroom and informal education venues that this team routinely
Grcevich, Jana; Pagnotta, Ashley; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Shara, Michael; Flores, Kennet; Nadeau, Patricia A.; Sessa, Jocelyn; Ustunisik, Gokce; Zirakparvar, Nasser; Ebel, Denton; Harlow, George; Webster, James D.; Kinzler, Rosamond; MacDonald, Maritza B.; Contino, Julie; Cooke-Nieves, Natasha; Howes, Elaine; Zachowski, Marion
The Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) Program at the American Museum of Natural History is a innovative program designed to prepare participants to be world-class Earth Science teachers. New York State is experiencing a lack of qualified Earth Science teachers, leading in the short term to a reduction in students who successfully complete the Earth Science Regents examination, and in the long term potential reductions in the number of students who go on to pursue college degrees in Earth Science related disciplines. The MAT program addresses this problem via a collaboration between practicing research scientists and education faculty. The faculty consists of curators and postdoctoral researchers from the Departments of Astrophysics, Earth and Planetary Sciences, and the Division of Paleontology, as well as doctoral-level education experts. During the 15-month, full-time program, students participate in a residency program at local urban classrooms as well as taking courses and completing field work in astrophysics, geology, earth science, and paleontology. The program targets high-needs schools with diverse populations. We seek to encourage, stimulate interest, and inform the students impacted by our program, most of whom are from traditionally underrepresented backgrounds, about the rich possibilities for careers in Earth Science related disciplines and the intrinsic value of the subject. We report on the experience of the first and second cohorts, all of whom are now employed in full time teaching positions, and the majority in high needs schools in New York State.
This paper finds that the Croatian public's and the social elites' perceptions of science are a mixture of scientific and technological optimism, of the tendency to absolve science of social responsibility, of skepticism about the social effects of science, and of cognitive optimism and skepticism. However, perceptions differ significantly according to the different social roles and the wider value system of the observed groups. The survey data show some key similarities, as well as certain specificities in the configuration of the types of views of the four groups--the public, scientists, politicians and managers. The results suggest that the well-known typology of the four cultures reveals some of the ideologies of the key actors of scientific and technological policy. The greatest social, primarily educational and socio-spatial, differentiation of the perceptions of science was found in the general public.
van Vliet, Arnold J H; Bron, Wichertje A; Mulder, Sara
In the scientific community, the importance of communication to society is often underestimated. Scientists and scientific organisations often lack the skills to organise such communication effectively. The Dutch citizen science phenology network Nature's Calendar has been successful in communicating to the general public via numerous newspaper articles, television appearances, presentations, websites and social media. We refer to these publications as societal publications. Due to active communication to mass media, we frequently reach millions of people. This communication helped us to involve thousands of volunteers in recording the timing of phenological events like the start of flowering, leaf unfolding and bird migration, but also several health-related events like hay fever symptoms and tick bites. In this paper, we analyse and present our experiences with the Nature's Calendar project regarding societal publications. Based on this analysis, we explain the importance of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists in general, and we show how scientists can increase the news worthiness of scientific information and what factors and activities can increase the chances of media paying attention to this news. We show that societal publications help phenological networks by facilitating the recruitment, retention and instruction of observers. Furthermore, they stimulate the generation of new ideas and partners that lead to an increase in knowledge, awareness and behavioural change of the general public or specific stakeholders. They make projects, and scientists involved, better known to the public and increase their credibility and authority. Societal publications can catalyse the production of new publications, thereby enforcing the previous mentioned points.
Becker, Tracy M.; Runyon, Cassandra; Cynthia, Hall; Britt, Daniel; Tracy Becker
Through NASA’s Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI), the Center for Lunar and Asteroid Surface Science (CLASS) and the SSERVI Evolution and Environment of Exploration Destinations (SEEED) nodes have developed an interdisciplinary formal and informal hands-on curriculum to bring the excitement of space exploration directly to the students.With a focus on exploring asteroids, this 5-year effort has infused art with traditional STEM practices (creating STEAM) and provides teachers with learning materials to incorporate art, social studies, English language arts, and other courses into the lesson plans. The formal curricula being developed follows Next Generation Standards and incorporates effective and engaging pedagogical strategies, such as problem-based learning (PBL), design thinking, and document based questions, using authentic data and articles, some of which are produced by the SSERVI scientists. From the materials developed for the formal education component, we have built up a collection of informal activities of varying lengths (minutes to weeks-long programs) to be used by museums, girl and boy scouts, science camps, etc.The curricula are being developed by formal and informal educators, artists, storytellers, and scientists. The continual feedback between the educators, artists, and scientists enables the program to evolve and mature such that the material will be accessible to the students without losing scientific merit. Online components will allow students to interact with SSERVI scientists and will ultimately infuse ongoing, exciting research into the student’s lessons.Our Education & Public Engagement (EPE) program makes a strong effort to make educational material accessible to all learners, including those with visual or hearing impairments. Specific activities have been included or independently developed to give all students an opportunity to experience the excitement of the universe.
Keswani, Sundeep G; Moles, Chad M; Morowitz, Michael; Zeh, Herbert; Kuo, John S; Levine, Matthew H; Cheng, Lily S; Hackam, David J; Ahuja, Nita; Goldstein, Allan M
The aim of this study was to examine the challenges confronting surgeons performing basic science research in today's academic surgery environment. Multiple studies have identified challenges confronting surgeon-scientists and impacting their ability to be successful. Although these threats have been known for decades, the downward trend in the number of successful surgeon-scientists continues. Clinical demands, funding challenges, and other factors play important roles, but a rigorous analysis of academic surgeons and their experiences regarding these issues has not previously been performed. An online survey was distributed to 2504 members of the Association for Academic Surgery and Society of University Surgeons to determine factors impacting success. Survey results were subjected to statistical analyses. We also reviewed publicly available data regarding funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH data revealed a 27% decline in the proportion of NIH funding to surgical departments relative to total NIH funding from 2007 to 2014. A total of 1033 (41%) members responded to our survey, making this the largest survey of academic surgeons to date. Surgeons most often cited the following factors as major impediments to pursuing basic investigation: pressure to be clinically productive, excessive administrative responsibilities, difficulty obtaining extramural funding, and desire for work-life balance. Surprisingly, a majority (68%) did not believe surgeons can be successful basic scientists in today's environment, including departmental leadership. We have identified important barriers that confront academic surgeons pursuing basic research and a perception that success in basic science may no longer be achievable. These barriers need to be addressed to ensure the continued development of future surgeon-scientists.
Reiff, Rebecca R.
Science educators, philosophers, and pre-service teachers have contributed to conceptualizing inquiry but missing from the inquiry forum is an in-depth research study concerning science faculty conceptions of scientific inquiry. The science education literature has tended to focus on certain aspects of doing, teaching, and understanding scientific inquiry without linking these concepts. As a result, conceptions of scientific inquiry have been disjointed and are seemingly unrelated. Furthermore, confusion surrounding the meaning of inquiry has been identified as a reason teachers are not using inquiry in instruction (Welch et al., 1981). Part of the confusion surrounding scientific inquiry is it has been defined differently depending on the context (Colburn, 2000; Lederman, 1998; Shymansky & Yore, 1980; Wilson & Koran, 1976). This lack of a common conception of scientific inquiry is the reason for the timely nature of this research. The result of scientific journeys is not to arrive at a stopping point or the final destination, but to refuel with questions to drive the pursuit of knowledge. A three-member research team conducted Interviews with science faculty members using a semi-structured interview protocol designed to probe the subject's conceptions of scientific inquiry. The participants represented a total of 52 science faculty members from nine science departments (anthropology, biology, chemistry, geology, geography, school of health, physical education and recreation (HPER), medical sciences, physics, and school of environmental science) at a large mid-western research university. The method of analysis used by the team was grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1990; Glaser & Strauss, 1967), in which case the frequency of concepts, patterns, and themes were coded to categorize scientists' conceptions of scientific inquiry. The results from this study address the following components: understanding and doing scientific inquiry, attributes of scientists engaged
Kotcher, J.; Vraga, E.; Myers, T.; Stenhouse, N.; Roser-Renouf, C.; Maibach, E.
The question of what type of role scientists, or experts more generally, should play in policy debates is a perennial point of discussion within the scientific community. It is often thought that communication containing some form of policy advocacy is likely to compromise the perceived credibility of the individual scientist engaged in such behavior, with the possibility that it may also harm the credibility of the scientific community more broadly. Rather than evaluating statements in a binary fashion as representing either pure objectivity or pure advocacy, one recent model proposes that public communication by scientists should instead be thought of as falling along a continuum based upon the extent of normative judgment implicit in a statement. This approach predicts that as the extent of normative judgment increases, it poses a relatively greater risk to a scientist's perceived credibility. Though such a model is conceptually useful, little empirical social science research has systematically explored how individuals form judgments about different types of advocacy to examine common assumptions about the relative risks associated with such behaviors. In this presentation, we will report results from a national online experiment (N=1200) that examines audience responses to fictional social media posts written by either a climate scientist or a television weathercaster. Following the above model, the posts represent differing degrees of advocacy defined by the extent of normative judgment implicit in each statement. In instances where a specific policy is advocated, we examine whether participants' reactions are shaped by the extent to which the policy mentioned is congruent with one's political ideology. We hope this study will serve as an exemplar of applied science communication research that can begin to help inform scientists and other experts about the potential implications of different communication options they may choose from in deciding how to engage
Alan E. Watson; H. Ken Cordell
At a workshop in Oulanka National Park in Finland, shortly after the Finnish Wilderness Act had passed in 1991, managers and scientists wrestled with how to incorporate science into protection of wildlands of northern Finland. One working group was assigned to develop a list of "why managers don't apply the information scientists provide" and another...
Hill, Patricia Wonch; McQuillan, Julia; Talbert, Eli; Spiegel, Amy; Gauthier, G Robin; Diamond, Judy
In the United States, gender gaps in science interest widen during the middle school years. Recent research on adults shows that gender gaps in some academic fields are associated with mindsets about ability and gender-science biases. In a sample of 529 students in a U.S. middle school, we assess how explicit boy-science bias, science confidence, science possible self (belief in being able to become a scientist), and desire to be a scientist vary by gender. Guided by theories and prior research, we use a series of multivariate logistic regression models to examine the relationships between mindsets about ability and these variables. We control for self-reported science grades, social capital, and race/ethnic minority status. Results show that seeing academic ability as innate ("fixed mindsets") is associated with boy-science bias, and that younger girls have less boy-science bias than older girls. Fixed mindsets and boy-science bias are both negatively associated with a science possible self; science confidence is positively associated with a science possible self. In the final model, high science confident and having a science possible self are positively associated with a desire to be a scientist. Facilitating growth mindsets and countering boy-science bias in middle school may be fruitful interventions for widening participation in science careers.
Hellman, Leslie G.
This qualitative study uses children's writing to explore the divide between a conception of Science as a humanistic discipline reliant on creativity, ingenuity and out of the box thinking and a persistent public perception of science and scientists as rigid and methodical. Artifacts reviewed were 506 scripts written during 2014 and 2016 by 5th graders participating in an out-of classroom, mentor supported, free-choice 10-week arts and literacy initiative. 47% (237) of these scripts were found to contain content relating to Science, Scientists, Science Education and the Nature of Science. These 237 scripts were coded for themes; characteristics of named scientist characters were tracked and analyzed. Findings included NOS understandings being expressed by representation of Science and Engineering Practices; Ingenuity being primarily linked to Engineering tasks; common portrayals of science as magical or scientists as villains; and a persistence in negative stereotypes of scientists, including a lack of gender equity amongst the named scientist characters. Findings suggest that representations of scientists in popular culture highly influence the portrayals of scientists constructed by the students. Recommendations to teachers include encouraging explicit consideration of big-picture NOS concepts such as ethics during elementary school and encouraging the replacement of documentary or educational shows with more engaging fictional media.
Robinson-Hill, Rona M.
What affect does female participation in the Training Future Scientist (TFS) program based on Vygotsky's sociocultural theory and Maslow's Hierarchies of Needs have on female adolescents' achievement levels in science and their attitude toward science and interest in science-based careers? The theoretical framework for this study was developed…
Yuan, Shupei; Oshita, Tsuyoshi; AbiGhannam, Niveen; Dudo, Anthony; Besley, John C.; Koh, Hyeseung E.
The current study explores the degree to which two-way communication is applied in science communication contexts in North America, based on the experiences of science communication trainers. Interviews with 24 science communication trainers suggest that scientists rarely focus on applying two-way communication tactics, such as listening to their…
Abi-El-Mona, Issam; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad
This study aimed to elucidate college freshmen science students, secondary science teachers, and scientists' perceptions of 'scientific' argument; to compare participants' perceptions with Stephen Toulmin's analytical framework of argument; and to characterize the criteria that participants deployed when assessing the 'quality' or 'goodness' of arguments. Thirty students, teachers, and scientists-with 10 members in each group-participated in two semi-structured individual interviews. During the first interview, participants generated an argument in response to a socioscientific issue. In the second interview, each participant 'evaluated' three arguments generated by a member from each participant group without being privy to the arguer's group membership. Interview transcripts were qualitatively analyzed. The findings point to both similarities and differences between participants' conceptions of argument and those based on Toulmin's analytical framework. Participants used an array of common and idiosyncratic criteria to judge the quality or goodness of argument. Finally, contrary to expectations, participants independently agreed that the 'best' arguments were those generated by participant science teachers.
Barden, Linda M.
Plenum: New York, 1997. xx + 260 pp. Figs., tables, photos. 15 x 22.8 cm. ISBN 0-306-45558-7. $27.50. Science education is undergoing an upheaval more fundamental than the one that occurred in the aftermath of Sputnik. Research during the past 40 years has led to a radical change in the way we view children's learning of science. The National Science Education Standards (NSES) suggest a new model for teaching science based upon these research findings. Societal changes, particularly changes in business, have put pressure on schools to alter the emphasis of curricula from rote memory and individual competition to problem solving using a variety of technological skills and teamwork/team competition. This timely book addresses all these issues by describing projects that K-12 teachers can use to achieve the goals set forth by both NSES and business. It also provides scientists with examples of how they and their coworkers might better interact with K-12 science education to encourage a more scientifically literate society. Finally, it includes suggestions for future research in science education.
Anderson, Benjamin; Warren, Pamela M.; Manke, Kristin L.
This report includes research highlights of work funded in part or whole by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences as well as selected leadership accomplishments.
Aydeniz, Mehmet; Bilican, Kader
The purpose of this study was to explore 15 graduate research assistants' understanding of the nature of science. Data were collected through administration of a modified version of the Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire (VNOS-C). The findings suggest that graduate research assistants held underdeveloped views related to several nature…
In the days of global warming and BSE, science is increasingly a public issue. But what should scientists communicate to the general public? To what extent can the public understand and be involved in scientific debate? How does this involvement affect the shaping and organisation of scientific activity? Why do scientists sometime turn to the media and publicize their findings rather than communicating their findings only with their peers? In this presentation, Massimiano Bucchi reviews the existing literature in this field and highlights the pitfalls of current approaches. He then develops his core argument that turning to the public is not simply a response to inaccurate reporting by journalists or to public curiosity, nor a wish to gain recognition and additional funding. Rather, it is a tactic to which the scientific community are pushed by certain ÒinternalÓ crisis situations. Three cases of scientists turning to the public are examined: the cold fusion case, the COBE/Big Bang issue and Louis PasteurÕ...
... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9254-5] Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board Nutrient Criteria Review Panel Correction In notice document 2011-1014 beginning on page 3133 in the issue of Wednesday, January 19, 2011, make the...
This report provides a convenient compilation index of the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs. This compilation is intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research and as an aid in selecting new programs and is divided into Sections A and B, listing all the projects, Section C, a summary of funding levels, and Section D, an index
Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Sethi, Ricky J.; Bry, Lynn; Yarden, Anat
Interest is a powerful motivator; nonetheless, science educators often lack the necessary information to make use of the power of student-specific interests in the reform process of science curricula. This study suggests a novel methodology, which might be helpful in identifying such interests - using children's self-generated questions as an indication of their scientific interests. In this research, children's interests were measured by analyzing 1555 science-related questions submitted to an international Ask-A-Scientist Internet site. The analysis indicated that the popularity of certain topics varies with age and gender. Significant differences were found between children's spontaneous (intrinsically motivated) and school-related (extrinsically motivated) interests. Surprisingly, girls contributed most of the questions to the sample; however, the number of American girls dropped upon entering senior high school. We also found significant differences between girls' and boys' interests, with girls generally preferring biological topics. The two genders kept to their stereotypic fields of interest, in both their school-related and spontaneous questions. Children's science interests, as inferred from questions to Web sites, could ultimately inform classroom science teaching. This methodology extends the context in which children's interests can be investigated.
Griffard, Phyllis Baudoin; Mosleh, Tayseer; Kubba, Saad
The leap from science student to scientist involves recognizing that science is a tentative, evolving body of knowledge that is socially constructed and culturally influenced; this is known as The Nature of Science (NOS). The aim of this study was to document NOS growth in first-year premedical students who participated in a science book club as a curricular option. The club read three acclaimed nonfiction works that connect biology to medicine via the history of scientific ideas. Students' NOS status was assessed as informed, transitional, or naïve at the beginning and end of the academic year using the Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire-Form C (VNOS-C). Focus group interviews and document analysis of assignments and exams provided qualitative evidence. VNOS-C scores improved over the academic year regardless of book club participation. Students who participated in book club had marginally better NOS status at the end of the year but also at the beginning, suggesting that book club may have attracted rather than produced students with higher NOS status. It is notable that an improvement in NOS understanding could be detected at all, as there have been few reports of NOS growth in the literature in which NOS was not an explicit topic of instruction.
Silva, Maria Celina Soares de Mello E; Trancoso, Márcia Cristina Duarte
This article addresses the study of document typology in the personal archives of scientists and its importance in the history of science studies and for the archivist's work. A brief history is presented of diplomatic to typological information, emphasizing that identifying document production activity as essential for its classification. The article illustrates personal archive characteristics as regards the diversity of documental types and, in particular, those belonging to physicists. Furthermore, it presents five examples of documental types found in the archives of physicists as examples of research in progress. It also highlights the elaboration of a glossary of different documental kinds and types found in the private archives of Museum of Astronomy and Related Sciences in Rio de Janeiro.
Hock, Emily; Sharp, Zoe
Aspiring teachers and current teachers can gain insight about the scientific community through hands-on experience. As America's standards for elementary school and middle school become more advanced, future and current teachers must gain hands-on experience in the scientific community. For a teacher to be fully capable of teaching all subjects, they must be comfortable in the content areas, equipped to answer questions, and able to pass on their knowledge. Hands-on research experiences, like the Summer Astronomy Research Experience at California Polytechnic University, pair liberal studies students with a cooperative group of science students and instructors with the goal of doing research that benefits the scientific community and deepens the team members' perception of the scientific community. Teachers are then able to apply the basic research process in their classrooms, inspire students to do real life science, and understand the processes scientists' undergo in their workplace.
Barner, Chester A., III
The cultures of science and religion have had different levels of conflict throughout the past several hundred years due in part to the development of the theory of evolution. Although many ideas abound in science education as to the alleviation of this struggle, few studies have examined how scientists who profess religious beliefs deal with this conflict. In general, the study sought to understand the cognitive dynamic of the cultural interaction between the scientific and religious culture within a few individuals. Specifically, the study allowed scientists to explain how they found a measure of compatibility between their faith and their scientific endeavors. Within the boundaries of both the general and specific purposes for the study, the following research question was used: How do college science professors describe the interaction between their faith and their scientific knowledge in reference to their transitioning between a naturalistic or scientific understanding and a super-naturalistic or religious understanding? Three theoretical lenses were used as backdrop to view the cultural interaction. World View (Kearney, 1984), Collateral Learning Theory (Jegede, 1995), and Faith Perspective in relation to the Stages of Faith Theory (Fowler, 1981) constituted the theoretical framework. Because of the qualitative nature of the research, the author used a modified naturalistic paradigm that stressed an emergent quality, grounded categorical design, and a modified case study written format that aided in the understanding of data generated through multiple qualitative methods. Three overlapping themes emerged within the data that offer new insights not only into the complex nature of the conflict but also into the ways scientists themselves find a reason to have faith as well as scientific knowledge. Boundaries based upon a philosophical and world view difference, conflict due to culturally integrative ideas, and cultural bridges without distortion made up the
Grier, Jennifer A.; Gay, Pamela L.; Buxner, Sanlyn; Noel-Storr, Jacob; CosmoQuest Team
NASA Science Mission Directorate missions and research return more data than subject matter experts (SMEs - scientists and engineers) can effectively utilize. Citizen scientist volunteers represent a robust pool of energy and talent that SMEs can draw upon to advance projects that require the processing of large quantities of images, and other data. The CosmoQuest Virtual Research Facility has developed roles and pathways to engage SMEs in ways that advance the education of the general public while producing science results publishable in peer-reviewed journals, including through the CosmoQuest Facility Small Grants Program and CosmoAcademy. Our Facility Small Grants Program is open to SMEs to fund them to work with CosmoQuest and engage the public in analysis. Ideal projects have a specific and well-defined need for additional eyes and minds to conduct basic analysis and data collection (such as crater counting, identifying lineaments, etc.) Projects selected will undergo design and implementation as Citizen Science Portals, and citizen scientists will be recruited and trained to complete the project. Users regularly receive feedback on the quality of their data. Data returned will be analyzed by the SME and the CQ Science Team for joint publication in a peer-reviewed journal. SMEs are also invited to consider presenting virtual learning courses in the subjects of their choice in CosmoAcademy. The audience for CosmoAcademy are lifelong-learners and education professionals. Classes are capped at 10, 15, or 20 students. CosmoAcademy can also produce video material to archive seminars long-term. SMEs function as advisors in many other areas of CosmoQuest, including the Educator's Zone (curricular materials for K-12 teachers), Science Fair Projects, and programs that partner to produce material for podcasts and planetaria. Visit the CosmoQuest website at cosmoquest.org to learn more, and to investigate current opportunities to engage with us. CosmoQuest is funded
Michael P. Clough
Full Text Available Why does anyone do science? Why would anyone want to do science? Those are question that take on added significance as policymakers around the globe emphasize the importance of STEM education and seek to encourage the best and brightest young minds to enter STEM fields. But at the root of those questions are more fundamental issues that are important for all citizens.
Jobbagy, E. G.; Pineiro, G.
The need for a stronger research community in Latin America (LA) is increasingly acknowledged by most countries in the region. Tools to cope with natural and social shifts as well as novel scientific knowledge of international value are being demanded. What are the main challenges and opportunities to feel these needs? Although funding is traditionally pointed out as the main barrier for (global change) science development in LA, we propose that some aspects of the prevailing scientific culture are also of fundamental importance. We define them as a) "inferiority complex", yielding low expectation on the potential impact of LA science at the international level, pushing researchers seeking success to look for it outside LA, and making many home-based researchers to create a self-defensive attitude against returning colleagues; b) "disciplinary and hierarchical focus" shaping national agencies, universities, and scientific unions along structured traditional fields that make the acceptance and development of cross-cutting Earth System science difficult; and c) "academic isolation", stemming from a mutual distrust between scientist and policy makers. The often overlooked opportunities of global change science in LA include d) a "complementary perspective" on global change issues in LA among southern and northern researchers, derived from their different cultural context, e) a "complementary global change laboratory" in LA hosting a dynamic and often unique set of land use changes; f) "highly efficient research systems" capable of training student and publish paper at very low costs. We argue that creative capacity building programs should tackle a-b-c and take advantage of d-e-f by propitiating teams that develop effective North-South and regional links to train new young scientist doing global change research in their own countries. In addition, capacity building in the continent needs to go beyond formal training and deal with the process of young scientist
O'Connell, E. A.
The Frontier Scientists National Science Foundation project titled Science in Alaska: Using Multimedia to Support Science Education produced research products in several formats: videos short and long, blogs, social media, a computer game, and a pop-up book. These formats reached distinctly different audiences. Internet users, public TV viewers, gamers, schools, and parents & young children were drawn to Frontier Scientists' research in direct and indirect ways. The analytics (our big data) derived from this media broadcast has given us insight into what works, what doesn't, next steps. We have evidence for what is needed to present science as an interesting, vital, and a necessary component for the general public's daily information diet and as an important tool for scientists to publicize research and to thrive in their careers. Collaborations with scientists at several Universities, USGS, Native organizations, tourism organizations, and Alaska Museums promoted accuracy of videos and increased viewing. For example, Erin Marbarger, at Anchorage Museum, edited, and provided Spark!Lab to test parents & child's interest in the pop-up book titled: The Adventures of Apun the Arctic Fox. Without a marketing budget Frontier Scientist's minimum publicity, during the three year project, still drew an audience. Frontier Scientists was awarded Best Website 2016 by the Alaska Press Club, and won a number of awards for short videos and TV programs.
Morrison, Judith A.; Estes, Jeffrey C.
Middle school science teachers were involved in a problem-solving experience presented and guided by research scientists. Data on the teachers’ perspectives about this professional development and any impact it may have had on their teaching practices were collected through interviews, surveys, and classroom observations. The findings show that the professional development experience was positive, although one concern expressed by teachers was their lack of understanding of the scientists’ vocabulary. Using scientists and real-world scenarios was shown to be an effective strategy for encouraging middle school teachers to teach science as a process and help them strengthen their science content understanding.
Stuart, Toby E; Ding, Waverly W
The authors examine the conditions prompting university-employed life scientists to become entrepreneurs, defined to occur when a scientist (1) founds a biotechnology company, or (2) joins the scientific advisory board of a new biotechnology firm. This study draws on theories of social influence, socialization, and status dynamics to examine how proximity to colleagues in commercial science influences individuals' propensity to transition to entrepreneurship. To expose the mechanisms at work, this study also assesses how proximity effects change over time as for-profit science diffuses through the academy. Using adjusted proportional hazards models to analyze case-cohort data, the authors find evidence that the orientation toward commercial science of individuals' colleagues and coauthors, as well as a number of other workplace attributes, significantly influences scientists' hazards of transitioning to for-profit science.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... meeting, please contact Ms. Laurie Lewallen, Advisory Committee Coordinator, Office of Biotechnology...: March 1, 2010. Amy P. Patterson, Director, Office of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of...
Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.
The Education and Public Outreach group at the National Optical Astronomy Observatory has designed an outside-of-school education program to excite the interest of talented youth in future projects like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and the NOAO (archival) Data Lab - their data approaches and key science projects. Originally funded by the LSST Corporation, the program cultivates talented youth to enter STEM disciplines and serves as a model to disseminate to the 40+ institutions involved in LSST. One Saturday a month during the academic year, high school students have the opportunity to interact with expert astronomers who work with large astronomical data sets in their scientific work. Students learn about killer asteroids, the birth and death of stars, colliding galaxies, the structure of the universe, gravitational waves, dark energy, dark matter, and more. The format for the Saturday science cafés has been a short presentation, discussion (plus food), computer lab activity and more discussion. They last about 2.5 hours and have been planned by a group of interested local high school students, an undergraduate student coordinator, the presenting astronomers, the program director and an evaluator. High school youth leaders help ensure an enjoyable and successful program for fellow students. They help their fellow students with the activities and help evaluate how well the science café went. Their remarks shape the next science café and improve the program. The experience offers youth leaders ownership of the program, opportunities to take on responsibilities and learn leadership and communication skills, as well as foster their continued interests in STEM. The prototype Big Data Science Academy was implemented successfully in the Spring 2017 and engaged almost 40 teens from greater Tucson in the fundamentals of astronomy concepts and research. As with any first implementation there were bumps. However, staff, scientists, and student leaders all
Michael P. Clough
Full Text Available Effectively teaching about science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM is far more complex than policymakers, the public, and even many teachers realize. Leinhardt and Greeno (1986, p. 75 write that “teaching occurs in a relatively ill-structured, dynamic environment”, and this is even more so the case when attempting to teach STEM through inquiry (activities that require significant student decision-making and sense-making, and the necessary pedagogical practices that support student learning in those experiences and as inquiry (helping students understand how knowledge in STEM disciplines is developed and comes to be accepted.
MacDonald, E.; Heavner, M.; Kosar, B.; Case, N.; Donovan, E.; Spanswick, E.; Nishimura, Y.; Gallardo-Lacourt, B.
Aurora has been observed and recorded by people for thousands of years. Recently, citizen scientists captured features of aurora-like arc events not previously described in the literature at subauroral latitudes. Amateur photo sequences show unusual flow, unstable composition changes, and field aligned structures. Observations from the Swarm satellite crossing the arc reveals thermal enhancement, density depletion, and strong westward ion flow. These signatures resemble features previously described from in situ observation however the optical manifestation is surprising and contains rich, unstable signatures as well. The relevant observations have presented important implications on a variety of open questions, including the fundamental definition of aurora, and limitations of jargon and subfield distinctions. This paper covers the discovery, its context, and the significant implications for the application of public participation measurement modes to the natural sciences whereby they can form a disruptive gap to expose new observing perspectives. Photo Credit: Notanee Bourassa, Alberta Aurora Chasers
Maria Francisca Carneiro
Full Text Available Sometimes scientists live real dramas or undergo social and psychological conflicts which have a positive or negative influence on the development and recognition of their research, discoveries and inventions in society, including the way they are recorded in history. This being so, the question is: to what extent can science be communicated to the public at large by the use of scientists' biographies as a motivational strategy? The controversy arises from the fact that usual (classical science has traditionally argued for the separation (or de-linking of the research (the object from the researcher (the subject.Thus, if the above-mentioned motivational strategy is used in scientific communication, it could break a dominant methodological trend and consequently lead to a questioning of the myth of axiological neutrality in science. The communication of science by means of scientists' biographies could be useful for reaching a specific public, more directed towards emotional aspects, thereby awakening its interest in science, even amid cultural differences and in environments where interest in science and its utility is lacking. It could also reveal human aspects of the everyday life of scientists, bringing them closer to the public at large, which would contribute to the dissemination of science and knowledge.
Bourqui, Michel; Bolduc, Cassandra; Paul, Charbonneau; Marie, Charrière; Daniel, Hill; Angelica, Lopez; Enrique, Loubet; Philippe, Roy; Barbara, Winter
This talk introduces a scientists-initiated, new online platform whose aim is to contribute to making climate sciences become public knowledge. It takes a unique bottom-up approach, strictly founded on individual-based participation, high scientific standards and independence The main purpose is to build an open-access, multilingual and peer-reviewed journal publishing short climate articles in non-scientific language. The targeted public includes journalists, teachers, students, local politicians, economists, members of the agriculture sector, and any other citizens from around the world with an interest in climate sciences. This journal is meant to offer a simple and direct channel for scientists wishing to disseminate their research to the general public. A high standard of climate articles is ensured through: a) requiring that the main author is an active climate scientist, and b) an innovative peer-review process involving scientific and non-scientific referees with distinct roles. The platform fosters the direct participation of non-scientists through co-authoring, peer-reviewing, language translation. It furthermore engages the general public in the scientific inquiry by allowing non-scientists to invite manuscripts to be written on topics of their concern. The platform is currently being developed by a community of scientists and non-scientists. In this talk, I will present the basic ideas behind this new online platform, its current state and the plans for the next future. The beta version of the platform is available at: http://www.climateonline.bourquiconsulting.ch
Frederick L Smyth; Brian A. Nosek; Brian A. Nosek
Women’s representation in science has changed substantially, but unevenly, over the past 40 years. In health and biological sciences, for example, women’s representation among U.S. scientists is now on par with or greater than men’s, while in physical sciences and engineering they remain a clear minority. We investigated whether variation in proportions of women in scientific disciplines is related to differing levels of male-favoring explicit or implicit stereotypes held by students and sc...
Abstract This article suggests to focus on the history of human variation instead of focussing on the history of race science. It views the latter as a subset of the former, hence views race science as embedded into the larger field of life scientists' investigations into human variation. This paper explores why human variation is such an attractive and productive object particularly for the life sciences. It proposes that knowledge about human variation is incomplete in a promising way, and ...
This paper traces the evolution of measures and parameters for the evaluation of science and scientific journals from the first attempts during the early part of the last century to the development of the most popular, current and widely used metrics viz., citations, impact factor (IF) etc. The identification of measures of evaluation in science and scientific reporting paralled the post-war increase in funding in the United States of America. Biomedical and medical sciences continue to garner a major share, estimated to be almost two-thirds of total research and development funding of over US$ 350 billion. There has been a concomitant growth in the publications in learned journals. About 1.4 million papers are published every year in an estimated 20,000 journals. In India there are an estimated 100 journals in medical sciences. With a steady increase of about 10% every year, the competition for grants, awards, rewards etc., is fierce. This unrelenting increase in number of scientists and the resultant competition, the limitation of peer review was felt. A search was on for new quantifiable measures for informed decision making for funding, awards, rewards, etc. Now virtually all major decisions all over the world are based on some data linked to publications and/or citations. The concept of citations as tool for 'evaluating' science was first proposed by Eugene Garfield in 1955. The availability of Science Citation Index (SCI), Journal Citation Reports (JCR), Web of Science etc. and the relative ease with which they could be used (and abused) has spawned an entirely new area bibliometrics/scientometrics. As only a limited number of journals could be included in the Thomson Reuters (TR) databases (currently numbering about 10500), analyses based on such a limited dataset (also selected in a non-transparent way by the TR) has been widely and severely criticized by both the developed and developing countries. Yet, studies have shown that citation-based data and
Slater, S. J.; Mankowski, T.; Slater, T. F.; CenterAstronomy; Physics Education Research Caper Team
A particularly successful effort to engage the public in science has been to move the nearly countless galaxies imaged by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to citizen scientists in a project known widely as Galaxy Zoo (URL; http://www.galaxyzoo.org). To everyone’s surprise, the unexpectedly large participation in the website has caused the data set, numbering over a million images, to be classified multiple times, quicker than the project leader anticipated, and continues to boast a high hit count on the website (15 classifications per second). Within 24 hours of launch, the site was receiving 70,000 classifications an hour, and more than 50 million classifications were received by the project during its first year, from almost 150,000 people. In a parallel effort, the Galaxy Zoo forum was created to handle the flood of emails that occurred alongside the flood of classifications, the team hoping that it would encourage the participants to handle each others' questions. By examining the motivations, methods and appeal of Galaxy Zoo to the participating public, other models of citizen science might be purposefully formulated to take advantage of the success exhibited in Galaxy Zoo. In addition, we want to understand the reasons people engage in science in informal settings in order to better enhance teaching methods in formal settings. Although in the past citizen science has primarily been used as a data collection method, there are many new opportunities contained in citizen science motivations and methods that we can use in future applications. This new and innovative method of online citizen science creates data for researchers of galaxies, but there is a parallel set of underlying data that has not yet been deeply analyzed: the motivations and underlying themes within the population of citizen scientists that could lead us to improve future citizen science projects. To address this, we pursued an investigation of the underlying reasons for the success of Galaxy Zoo
Chimba, Mwenya; Kitzinger, Jenny
This paper examines the gendered representations of scientists in the UK media. Our analysis reveals the asymmetrical ways in which men and women working in science, engineering and technology are portrayed, in particular through the emphasis on women's appearance and a focus on their exceptional status. It also highlights the way female scientists may be used to "sex up" the discipline in the context of increasing concern about the (un)popularity of science. This media analysis is contextualized by drawing on data from 86 scientists examining how women themselves experience press and television coverage and address the cultural contradictions surrounding their role. The research highlights the challenges facing women working in these fields and the dilemmas for those seeking to develop a "human" face for science and promote a positive image for women.
Photo 01: Dr Pierre Perrolle, Director, Office of International Science and Engineering, National Science Foundation, USA (second from right) in the ATLAS assembly hall with from left to right Randi Ruchti, Peter Jenni and Robert Eisenstein, Senior Science Advisor, National Science Foundation, USA. Photo 02: Dr Pierre Perrolle, Director, Office of International Science and Engineering, National Science Foundation, USA (second from right) in the ATLAS assembly hall with from left to right Randi Ruchti, Robert Eisenstein, Senior Science Advisor, National Science Foundation, USA and Peter Jenni. Photo 03: Dr Pierre Perrolle, Director, Office of International Science and Engineering, National Science Foundation, USA (second from right) in front of the ATLAS End-Cap Toroid vacuum vessel in the ATLAS assembly hall with from left to right Peter Jenni, Robert Eisenstein, Senior Science Advisor, National Science Foundation, USA and Randi Ruchti ________________________________
Full Text Available Evidence of sex differences in intellectual capabilities remains scant and, rather than revealing genetic origin, it is complicated by the influence of social circumstances. Some inequities persist, and although these have been decreasing in recent decades, therefore, it remains a major task for policy makers and educators to assist in setting up programs, including mentoring opportunities, that are directed at alleviating such inequities. This paper outlines some historical circumstances in science and suggests that mentoring has to be understood in a wide systemic framework. The freedom to think and act and follow research ideas through is intrinsically rewarding to society and to the individual. For female scientists, it is a freedom that has yet to be fully developed and mentoring is just one way in which such a process can be legitimized. The paper outlines how institutions can best do this, and how this might work in practice for the individual, and argues that science needs to have its own code of mentoring.
The anti-fracking movement in upstate New York is unusual for its grassroots mobilization and for the close relationship between scientists and activists. This paper, based on intensive fieldwork in the Finger Lakes region, will discuss the factors that have made scientists such an integral part of the movement, the organizations (from universities and NGOs dedicated to making science accessible, to town meetings and social media) that have facilitated dissemination of science to the citizenry, and the ways that knowledge has affected the movement's strategy and end goals, including a shift from anti-fracking to pro-renewables.
Farland-Smith, Donna; Finson, Kevin D.; Arquette, Cecile M.
This study utilized the Draw-A-Scientist Test Checklist (DAST-C) to assess the illustrations of scientists in the most recent three years of NSTA Recommends book lists. A total of 15,778 images were contained in the 148 books from those lists, of which 1,676 were of scientists. ANOVA procedures revealed no significant differences in stereotypical…
Orrell, Richard; Liggins, Felicity; Challenger, Lesley; Lethem, Dom; Campbell, Katy
Wow Schools is a pilot project from the Met Office with an aim to inspire and educate the next generation of scientists and, uniquely, use the data collected by schools to improve weather forecasts and warnings across the UK. Wow Schools was launched in late 2015 with a competition open to primary schools across the UK. 74 schools entered the draw, all hoping to be picked as one of the ten lucky schools taking part in the pilot scheme. Each winning school received a fully automatic weather station (AWS), enabling them to transmit real-time local weather observations to the Met Office's Weather Observation Website (WOW - wow.metoffice.gov.uk), an award winning web portal for uploading and sharing a range of environmental observations. They were also given a package of materials designed to get students out of the classroom to observe the weather, get hands-on with the science underpinning weather forecasting, and analyse the data they are collecting. The curriculum-relevant materials were designed with the age group 7 to 11 in mind, but could be extended to support other age groups. Each school was offered a visit by a Wow Schools Ambassador (a Met Office employee) to bring the students' learning to life, and access to a dedicated forecast for its location generated by our new supercomputer. These forecasts are improved by the school's onsite AWS reinforcing the link between observations and forecast production. The Wow Schools pilot ran throughout 2016. Here, we present the initial findings of the project, examining the potential benefits and challenges of working with schools across the UK to: enrich students' understanding of the science of weather forecasting; to source an ongoing supply of weather observations and discover how these might be used in the forecasting process; and explore what materials and business model(s) would be most useful and affordable if a wider roll-out of the initiative was undertaken.
Harnik, P. G.; Ross, R. M.; Chiment, J. J.; Sherpa, J. M.
Reducing the discrepancy between the dynamic science that researchers experience and the static fact-driven science education in which k-12 students participate at school is an important component to national science education reform. Scientist-student partnerships (SSPs) involving whole classes in Earth systems research provide a solution to this problem, but existing models have often lacked rigorous scientific data quality control and/or evaluation of pedagogical effectiveness. The Paleontological Research Institution has been prototyping two SSPs with an eye toward establishing protocols to insure both scientific and educational quality of the partnership. Data quality analysis involves making statistical estimates of data accuracy and employing robust statistical techniques for answering essential questions with noisy data. Educational evaluation takes into account affective variables, such as student motivation and interest, and compares the relative pedagogical effectiveness of SSPs with more traditional hands-on activities. Paleontology is a natural subject for scientist-student partnerships because of its intrinsic appeal to the general public, and because its interdisciplinary content serves as a springboard for meeting science education standards across the physical and life sciences. The "Devonian Seas" SSP involves classes in identifying fossil taxa and assessing taphonomic characteristics from Devonian-aged Hamilton Group shales in Central New York. The scientific purpose of the project is to establish at high stratigraphic resolution the sequence of dysoxic biofacies composition, which will shed light on the sensitivity of epeiric sea communities to environmental (e.g., sea level) changes. The project is undertaken in upper elementary school and secondary school Earth science classes, and in some cases has involved field-based teacher training and collection of samples. Students in small teams collaborate to identify taxa within the samples, then
Gay-Antaki, Miriam; Liverman, Diana
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an authoritative and influential source of reports on climate change. The lead authors of IPCC reports include scientists from around the world, but questions have been raised about the dominance of specific disciplines in the report and the disproportionate number of scholars from the Global North. In this paper, we analyze the as-yet-unexamined issue of gender and IPCC authorship, looking at changes in gender balance over time and analyzing women's views about their experience and barriers to full participation, not only as women but also at the intersection of nationality, race, command of English, and discipline. Over time, we show that the proportion of female IPCC authors has seen a modest increase from less than 5% in 1990 to more than 20% in the most recent assessment reports. Based on responses from over 100 women IPCC authors, we find that many women report a positive experience in the way in which they are treated and in their ability to influence the report, although others report that some women were poorly represented and heard. We suggest that an intersectional lens is important: not all women experience the same obstacles: they face multiple and diverse barriers associated with social identifiers such as race, nationality, command of English, and disciplinary affiliation. The scientific community benefits from including all scientists, including women and those from the Global South. This paper documents barriers to participation and identifies opportunities to diversify climate science. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.
Coakley, B.; Pockalny, R. A.
As part of their education, marine geology and geophysics students spend time at sea, collecting, processing and interpreting data to earn their degrees. While this is a critical component of their preparation, it is an incomplete introduction to the process of doing science at sea. Most students are unfamiliar with the proposal process. Many students spend their time at sea performing assigned tasks without responsibility or participation in cruise planning and execution. In December 2016, we conducted a two-week-long, NSF-funded "Chief Scientist Training Cruise" aboard the R/V Sikuliaq designed to complete their introduction to seagoing science by giving the students the opportunity to plan and execute surveys based hypotheses they formulated. The educational process began with applicants responding to a request for proposals (RFP), which provided a framework for the scientific potential of the cruise. This process continued training through two days of workshops and presentations at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics. The students used existing data to define hypotheses, plan surveys, and collect/analyze data to test their hypothesis. The survey design was subject to the time constraints imposed by the ship schedule and the physical constraints imposed by the ship's equipment. The training and sea time made it possible to address all of steps of the scientific process, including proposal writing. Once underway, the combination of conducting the planned surveys and attending daily presentations helped familiarize the students with at-sea operations, the equipment on board the RV Sikuliaq, and the process of writing proposals to NSF for sea-going science. Questionnaires conducted prior to the cruise and in the final days before arriving in port document the success of this training program for developing the abilities and confidence in identifying significant scientific problems, preparing proposals to secure funding, and planning and directing ship surveys.
Bleacher, L.; Hsu, B. C.; Campbell, B. A.; Hess, M.
The Science Communication Working Group (SCWG) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been in existence since late 2007. The SCWG is comprised of education and public outreach (E/PO) professionals, public affairs specialists, scientists, and engineers. The goals of the SCWG are to identify barriers to scientist and engineer engagement in E/PO activities and to enable those scientists and engineers who wish to contribute to E/PO to be able to do so. SCWG members have held meetings with scientists and engineers across GSFC to determine barriers to their involvement in E/PO. During these meetings, SCWG members presented examples of successful, ongoing E/PO projects, encouraged active research scientists and engineers to talk about their own E/PO efforts and what worked for them, discussed the E/PO working environment, discussed opportunities for getting involved in E/PO (particularly in high-impact efforts that do not take much time), handed out booklets on effective E/PO, and asked scientists and engineers what they need to engage in E/PO. The identified barriers were consistent among scientists in GSFC's four science divisions (Earth science, planetary science, heliophysics, and astrophysics). Common barriers included 1) lack of time, 2) lack of funding support, 3) lack of value placed on doing E/PO by supervisors, 4) lack of training on doing appropriate/effective E/PO for different audiences, 5) lack of awareness and information about opportunities, 6) lack of understanding of what E/PO really is, and 7) level of effort required to do E/PO. Engineers reported similar issues, but the issues of time and funding support were more pronounced due to their highly structured work day and environment. Since the barriers were identified, the SCWG has taken a number of steps to address and rectify them. Steps have included holding various events to introduce scientists and engineers to E/PO staff and opportunities including an E/PO Open House, brown bag seminars on
Parker, John N; Lortie, Christopher; Allesina, Stefano
In science, a relatively small pool of researchers garners a disproportionally large number of citations. Still, very little is known about the social characteristics of highly cited scientists. This is unfortunate as these researchers wield a disproportional impact on their fields, and the study of highly cited scientists can enhance our understanding of the conditions which foster highly cited work, the systematic social inequalities which exist in science, and scientific careers more generally. This study provides information on this understudied subject by examining the social characteristics and opinions of the 0.1% most cited environmental scientists and ecologists. Overall, the social characteristics of these researchers tend to reflect broader patterns of inequality in the global scientific community. However, while the social characteristics of these researchers mirror those of other scientific elites in important ways, they differ in others, revealing findings which are both novel and surprising, perhaps indicating multiple pathways to becoming highly cited.
Charlton, Bruce G
why are so many leading modern scientists so dull and lacking in scientific ambition? because the science selection process ruthlessly weeds-out interesting and imaginative people. At each level in education, training and career progression there is a tendency to exclude smart and creative people by preferring Conscientious and Agreeable people. The progressive lengthening of scientific training and the reduced independence of career scientists have tended to deter vocational 'revolutionary' scientists in favour of industrious and socially adept individuals better suited to incremental 'normal' science. High general intelligence (IQ) is required for revolutionary science. But educational attainment depends on a combination of intelligence and the personality trait of Conscientiousness; and these attributes do not correlate closely. Therefore elite scientific institutions seeking potential revolutionary scientists need to use IQ tests as well as examination results to pick-out high IQ 'under-achievers'. As well as high IQ, revolutionary science requires high creativity. Creativity is probably associated with moderately high levels of Eysenck's personality trait of 'Psychoticism'. Psychoticism combines qualities such as selfishness, independence from group norms, impulsivity and sensation-seeking; with a style of cognition that involves fluent, associative and rapid production of many ideas. But modern science selects for high Conscientiousness and high Agreeableness; therefore it enforces low Psychoticism and low creativity. Yet my counter-proposal to select elite revolutionary scientists on the basis of high IQ and moderately high Psychoticism may sound like a recipe for disaster, since resembles a formula for choosing gifted charlatans and confidence tricksters. A further vital ingredient is therefore necessary: devotion to the transcendental value of Truth. Elite revolutionary science should therefore be a place that welcomes brilliant, impulsive, inspired
Murry, Adam T.
Science has been identified as a crucial element in the competitiveness and sustainability of America in the global economy. American citizens, especially minority populations, however, are not pursuing science education or careers. Past research has implicated ‘attitudes toward science’ as an important factor in the public’s participation in science. I applied Ajzen’s (1991) Theory of Planned Behavior to attitudes toward science to predict science-related sustainability-action intentions and evaluated whether scientists and Native Americans differed in their general attitudes toward science, cultural values, and specific beliefs about science. Analyses revealed that positive attitude toward science and the cultural value of individualism predicted intentions to engage with science-related sustainability actions. Unexpectedly, scientists and Native Americans did not differ in their cultural values or positive attitude toward science. However, Natives Americans held significantly more negative attitude toward science than scientists. Implications for science education and attitudes towards science theory and application are discussed.
Full Text Available “Il ciclotrone” is the weekly science programme of “Radio Popolare - Popolare Network”, the most important independent news radio network in Italy, based in Milan. During the last 12 years, once or twice a month listeners have been able to directly ask questions to the guest scientists in the studios, or to express their point of view on some controversial scientific issue. Among mass-media, the radio has several characteristics which tend to enhance the sense of friendliness and belonging - essential to any true communication. Phone-ins at Radio Popolare are not filtered; regular and occasional listeners are used to communicate with or through the radio, and in doing so they contribute to the sense of spontaneity which characterise the programmes. During “Il ciclotrone”, very often the ''anchor'' tends to disappear, and phone-ins become a lively conversation between the scientists and the public (whose members seldom agree with each other. In this presentation, phone-ins on science - over the years they involved internationally famous scientists (such as Lewontin, Damasio, Amaldi, Rotblat, Di Chiara, …, and less well-known but reputed Italian researchers - are analysed in terms of their capabilities of providing a tool to understand public perception of science. Moreover, the authors believe that science journalism shouldn't only inform or educate the public on the work of scientists, but also inform or educate the scientists on how their work is perceived. Indeed, scientists seldom have a chance to hear the criticism (positive or negative of a large, unselected audience and to have a first-hand grasp of public feelings concerning their work.
Shugart, Erika C.; Racaniello, Vincent R.
ABSTRACT Scientists must communicate about science with public audiences to promote an understanding of complex issues that we face in our technologically advanced society. Some scientists may be concerned about a social stigma or ?Sagan effect? associated with participating in public communication. Recent research in the social sciences indicates that public communication by scientists is not a niche activity but is widely done and can be beneficial to a scientist?s career. There are a varie...
Oliver, Richard; Rybak, Kasia; Gruber, Cornelia; Nicholls, Graeme; Roberts, Graeme; Mengler, Janet; Oliver, Mary
Practical work is often considered to be a highlight of science classes for students. However, there are few opportunities for students to engage in an investigation which is situated in a real world problem and students are required to contribute their own ideas to the design and conduct of an experiment. This paper reports on a Scientists in…
Didion, Catherine Jay; Guenther, Rita S.; Gunderson, Victoria
Scientists, engineers, and medical professionals play a vital role in building the 21st- century science and technology enterprises that will create solutions and jobs critical to solving the large, complex, and interdisciplinary problems faced by society: problems in energy, sustainability, the environment, water, food, disease, and healthcare.…
Funke, Nicola S
Full Text Available This paper examines the complexity of the South African policy-making context and its official and non-official actors and investigates the challenges that scientists face when trying to exert their influence here in order to strengthen the science...
Miller, David I; Nolla, Kyle M; Eagly, Alice H; Uttal, David H
This meta-analysis, spanning 5 decades of Draw-A-Scientist studies, examined U.S. children's gender-science stereotypes linking science with men. These stereotypes should have weakened over time because women's representation in science has risen substantially in the United States, and mass media increasingly depict female scientists. Based on 78 studies (N = 20,860; grades K-12), children's drawings of scientists depicted female scientists more often in later decades, but less often among older children. Children's depictions of scientists therefore have become more gender diverse over time, but children still associate science with men as they grow older. These results may reflect that children observe more male than female scientists in their environments, even though women's representation in science has increased over time. © 2018 Society for Research in Child Development.
Watters, James J.; Diezmann, Carmel M.
Recruitment of highly qualified science and mathematics graduates has become a widespread strategy to enhance the quality of education in the field of STEM. However, attrition rates are very high suggesting preservice education programs are not preparing them well for the career change. We analyse the experiences of professionals who are scientists and have decided to change careers to become teachers. The study followed a group of professionals who undertook a 1-year preservice teacher education course and were employed by secondary schools on graduation. We examined these teachers' experiences through the lens of self-determination theory, which posits autonomy, confidence and relatedness are important in achieving job satisfaction. The findings indicated that the successful teachers were able to achieve a sense of autonomy and confidence and, in particular, had established strong relationships with colleagues. However, the unique challenges facing career-change professionals were often overlooked by administrators and colleagues. Opportunities to build a sense of relatedness in their new profession were often absent. The failure to establish supportive relationships was decisive in some teachers leaving the profession. The findings have implications for both preservice and professional in-service programs and the role that administrators play in supporting career-change teachers.
Méndez, B. J. H.
In recent years, several space science research projects have enlisted the help of large numbers of non-professional volunteers, ``citizen scientists'', to aid in performing tasks that are critical to a project, but require more person-time (or computing time) than a small professional research team can practically perform themselves. Examples of such projects include SETI@home, which uses time from volunteers computers to process radio-telescope observation looking for signals originating from extra-terrestrial intelligences; Clickworkers, which asks volunteers to review images of the surface of Mars to identify craters; Spacewatch, which used volunteers to review astronomical telescopic images of the sky to identify streaks made by possible Near Earth Asteroids; and Stardust@home, which asks volunteers to review ``focus movies'' taken of the Stardust interstellar dust aerogel collector to search for possible impacts from interstellar dust particles. We shall describe these and other similar projects and discuss lessons learned from carrying out such projects, including the educational opportunities they create.
Guernion, Muriel; Hoeffner, Kevin; Guillocheau, Sarah; Hotte, Hoël; Cylly, Daniel; Piron, Denis; Cluzeau, Daniel; Hervé, Morgane; Nicolai, Annegret; Pérès, Guénola
Scientists have become more and more interested in earthworms because of their impact on soil functioning and their importance in provision of many ecosystem services. To improve the knowledge on soil biodiversity and integrate earthworms in soil quality diagnostics, it appeared necessary to gain a large amount of data on their distribution. The University of Rennes 1 developed since 2011 a collaborative science project called Observatoire Participatif des Vers de Terre (OPVT, participative earthworm observatory). It has several purposes : i) to offer a simple tool for soil biodiversity evaluation in natural and anthropic soils through earthworm assessment, ii) to offer trainings to farmers, territory managers, gardeners, pupils on soil ecology, iii) to build a database of reference values on earthworms in different habitats, iv) to propose a website (https://ecobiosoil.univ-rennes1.fr/OPVT_accueil.php) providing for example general scientific background (earthworm ecology and impacts of soil management), sampling protocols and online visualization of results (data processing and earthworms mapping). Up to now, more than 5000 plots have been prospected since the opening of the project in 2011., Initially available to anyone on a voluntary basis, this project is also used by the French Ministry of Agriculture to carry out a scientific survey throughout the French territory.
Yewdell, Jonathan W
Making discoveries is the most important part of being a scientist, and also the most fun. Young scientists need to develop the experimental and mental skill sets that enable them to make discoveries, including how to recognize and exploit serendipity when it strikes. Here, I provide practical advice to young scientists on choosing a research topic, designing, performing and interpreting experiments and, last but not least, on maintaining your sanity in the process.
Yewdell, Jonathan W.
Making discoveries is the most important part of being a scientist, and also the most fun. Young scientists need to develop the experimental and mental skill sets that enable them to make discoveries, including how to recognize and exploit serendipity when it strikes. Here, I provide practical advice to young scientists on choosing a research topic, designing, performing and interpreting experiments and, last but not least, on maintaining your sanity in the process.
... a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board Committee on Science Integration for Decision Making... Agency (EPA or Agency) Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public meeting of the SAB Committee on Science Integration for Decision Making. DATES: The meeting dates are March 29, 2011 from 9 a.m...
through postgraduate. Materials sciences can be a significant magnet in attracting students to STEM areas, and a focused effort is needed to ensure that it is included in STEM programs. From this effort will come the next generation of materials scientists and the innovations that will enable us to overcome the energy challenge.
Full text: Full text: My hypothesis is that the effective global governance so urgently needed in relation to greenhouse climate change is not developing, in part, because climate research scientists are failing to communicate well. This is, I believe, because traditionally science has informed society through a sequence of steps moving from facts, through assessment, projection, risk evaluation to policy for changed governance. Any prioritisation, facilitation, and co-ordination activity (such as the World Climate Research Programme) has to be concerned about the way in which science participates in policy. The range of options encompasses: Hands off: it is the job of policy, not science to make decisions; Recognise risk: provide credible and defensible information to help deal with risk; Inform people: because the ultimate policy-maker is the public. Good global governance of common resource, the climate, uses risk management to avoid free riding. History teaches that international cooperation can be successful, e.g. protection of the ozone layer. Some international collective moves towards global carbon governance are occurring: multilateral frameworks such as the UNFCCC, Kyoto Protocol and its follow-up (endorsed by the G8 in June) and domestic mandatory goals set by the EU, UK, China, California and other US states. It is very clear that the world must move from actuarial style climate risk management strategy (history as a good predictor of future) to a dynamically-based prediction and management regime. The urgency of this includes that while mitigation costs are high, delaying action increases them (e.g. Stern 2006; IPCC 2007); that atmospheric concentration of C02 is 380 ppmv (up from the pre-industrial 270 ppmv); current emissions are already higher than the 1990s IPCC scenarios; positive feedbacks seem to predominate; and finally social and climate systems inertias of decades mean that the world is already committed to unrealised warming. Stronger and
... and By-Laws, a review of ethics rules applicable to the Board's activities, and briefings from OJP... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (OJP) Docket No. 1543] Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice. ACTION...
Barnum, Douglas A.; Bradley, Timothy; Cohen, Michael; Wilcox, Bruce; Yanega, Gregor
IntroductionThe Salton Sea (Sea) is an ecosystem facing large systemic changes in the near future. Managers and stakeholders are seeking solutions to the decline of the Sea and have turned to the scientific community for answers. In response, scientists gathered in Irvine, California, to review existing science and propose scientific studies and monitoring needs required for understanding how to retain the Sea as a functional ecosystem. This document summarizes the proceedings of this gathering of approximately 50 scientists at a September 8–10, 2014, workshop on the State of the Salton Sea.
Howitt, Christine; Lewis, Simon W.; Waugh, Sara
Scientists in Schools (SiS) is an initiative of the Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations that aims to establish and maintain sustained and ongoing partnerships between scientists and school communities as a means of developing more scientifically literate citizens. This paper describes and analyses an…
Arnott, J. C.; Lemos, M. C.
A wealth of evidence supports the idea that collaboration between scientists and decision-makers is an influential factor in generating actionable knowledge. Nevertheless, persistent obstacles across the research-policy-practice interface limit the amount of engagement that may be necessary to satisfy demands for information to support decisions. Funding agencies have been identified as one possible driver of change, but few multi-year studies have been conducted to trace the influence of program designs on research practices or other outcomes. To fill this gap, we examine a body of applied science projects (n=120) funded through NOAA's National Estuarine Research Reserve System from 1998-2014. Periodic innovation in the structure of this funding program, including requirements for end user engagement and the inclusion of collaboration specialists, offers a natural experiment from which to test hypotheses about the how funding program design influences research practice, utilization, and broader impacts. Using content analysis of project reports and interviews of project team members, end users, and program managers (n=40), we produce a data that can be analyzed through both statistical and qualitative methods. We find that funder mandates significantly influence the intensity of interaction between researchers and practitioners as well as affect long-term change in research cultures. When interaction intensifies, corresponding gains appear in the readiness of research to support decision-making and the readiness of user groups to incorporate findings into their work. While collaborative methods transform research practice and positively influence the applied contexts in which partnerships occur, it remains less clear whether this actually increases the direct use of scientific to inform decisions. For example, collaboration may lead to outcomes other than new knowledge or knowledge application, yielding many positive outcomes that are distinct from knowledge use
Kusek, K. M.; Freitag, K.; Devey, C.
The Science Writer-at-Sea program is one small step in a marathon need for improved coverage of science and environmental issues. It targets two significant links in the Earth science communication pipeline: marine scientists and journalists; and attempts to reconnect people with the Earth by boosting their understanding of Earth science and its relevance to society. How it works: Journalism graduate students are invited to participate in oceanographic expeditions affiliated with InterRidge, an international organization dedicated to promoting ocean ridge research. InterRidge's outreach coordinator and science writer prepares each student for the expedition experience using materials she developed based on years of at-sea reporting. The students work side-by-side with the science writer and the scientists to research and write innovative journalistic stories for a general audience that are featured on a uniquely designed multimedia website that includes videos and images. The science, journalism and public communities benefit from this cost-effective program: science research is effectively showcased, scientists benefit from interactions with journalists, science outreach objectives are accomplished; student journalists enjoy a unique hands-on, `boot camp' experience; and the website enhances public understanding of `real' Earth science reported `on scene at sea.' InterRidge completed its first pilot test of the program in August 2005 aboard a Norwegian research cruise. A student writer entering the science journalism program at Columbia University participated. The results exceeded expectations. The team discovered the world's northernmost vent fields on the cruise, which expanded the original scope of the website to include a section specifically designed for the international press. The student was inspired by the cruise, amazed at how much she learned, and said she entered graduate school with much more confidence than she had prior to the program. The site
Zhang, Jiuchen; Yu, Feklova T
In the 1950s, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) engaged in close cooperation with the Soviet Academy of Sciences. The CAS sent scientists to the Soviet Academy to work as interns, study for advanced degrees, or engage in academic cooperation, and a large number of Soviet scientists were invited by the various institutes of the CAS to come to China to give lectures, direct research, help make scientific plans, and collaborate. The comprehensive cooperation between the two academies was launched at a time when the CAS institutes were in their embryonic stage, which suggests that the better-established Soviet scientists had the opportunity to play a dominate role. But the reality is not so straightforward. The case studies in this paper suggest that besides the influence of compatible political movements in China and the Soviet Union and bilateral ties between these two nations' scientific institutes, disharmony in actual working relationships prevented Soviet scientists from playing the role they might have envisioned within the CAS institutes. The rapid development of the cooperative relationship in a short span of time, combined with lack of experience on both sides, made for a disharmonious collaboration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Administration; Editorial Staff - Academy; Editorial Staff - Current Science ... Coordinator, Summer Research Fellowship Programme (Science Education Panel), .... Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on the teaching of the ...
Rylands, Leanne; Simbag, Vilma; Matthews, Kelly E.; Coady, Carmel; Belward, Shaun
There is general agreement in Australia and beyond that quantitative skills (QS) in science, the ability to use mathematics and statistics in context, are important for science. QS in the life sciences are becoming ever more important as these sciences become more quantitative. Consequently, undergraduates studying the life sciences require better…
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Dr Kathryn Beers, Assistant Director Physical Sciences and Engineering, Office of Science and Technology Policy Executive Office of the President United States of America visit the CMS experiment at point 5.
Dr Kathryn Beers, Assistant Director Physical Sciences and Engineering, Office of Science and Technology Policy Executive Office of the President United States of America visit the CMS experiment at point 5.
Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.
Patel, Sanjai; DeMaine, Sophie; Heafield, Joshua; Bianchi, Lynne; Prokop, Andreas
Science communication is becoming an increasingly important part of a scientist's remit, and engaging with primary and secondary schools is one frequently chosen strategy. Here we argue that science communication in schools will be more effective if based on good understanding of the realities of school life, which can be achieved through structured participation and/or collaboration with teachers. For example, the Manchester Fly Facility advocates the use of the fruit fly Drosophila as an important research strategy for the discovery processes in the biomedical sciences. To communicate this concept also in schools, we developed the 'droso4schools' project as a refined form of scientist-teacher collaboration that embraces the expertise and interests of teachers. Within this project, we place university students as teaching assistants in university partner schools to collaborate with teachers and develop biology lessons with adjunct support materials. These lessons teach curriculum-relevant biology topics by making use of the profound conceptual understanding existing in Drosophila combined with parallel examples taken from human biology. By performing easy to implement experiments with flies, we bring living organisms into these lessons, thus endeavouring to further enhance the pupil's learning experience. In this way, we do not talk about flies but rather work with flies as powerful teaching tools to convey mainstream curriculum biology content, whilst also bringing across the relevance of Drosophila research. Through making these lessons freely available online, they have the potential to reach out to teachers and scientists worldwide. In this paper, we share our experiences and strategies to provide ideas for scientists engaging with schools, including the application of the droso4schools project as a paradigm for long-term school engagement which can be adapted also to other areas of science. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All
Full Text Available By integrating the research and resources of hundreds of scientists from dozens of institutions, network-level science is fast becoming one scientific model of choice to address complex problems. In the pursuit to confront pressing environmental issues such as climate change, many scientists, practitioners, policy makers, and institutions are promoting network-level research that integrates the social and ecological sciences. To understand how this scientific trend is unfolding among rising scientists, we examined how graduate students experienced one such emergent social-ecological research initiative, Integrated Science for Society and Environment, within the large-scale, geographically distributed Long Term Ecological Research (LTER Network. Through workshops, surveys, and interviews, we found that graduate students faced challenges in how they conceptualized and practiced social-ecological research within the LTER Network. We have presented these conceptual challenges at three scales: the individual/project, the LTER site, and the LTER Network. The level of student engagement with and knowledge of the LTER Network was varied, and students faced different institutional, cultural, and logistic barriers to practicing social-ecological research. These types of challenges are unlikely to be unique to LTER graduate students; thus, our findings are relevant to other scientific networks implementing new social-ecological research initiatives.
Robinson-Hill, Rona M.
What affect does female participation in the Training Future Scientist (TFS) program based on Vygotsky's sociocultural theory and Maslow's Hierarchies of Needs have on female adolescents' achievement levels in science and their attitude toward science and interest in science-based careers? The theoretical framework for this study was developed through a constructivist perspective, using dialogic engagement, coinciding with Lev Vygotsky's sociocultural learning theory. This action research project used mixed methods research design, targeted urban adolescent females who were members of Boys & Girls Club of Greater St. Louis (BGCGSTL) after-school program. The data collection measures were three qualitative instruments (semi-structured interviews, reflective journal entries and attitudinal survey open-ended responses) and two quantitative instruments (pre-test and posttests over the content from the Buckle-down Curriculum and attitudinal survey scaled responses). The goal was to describe the impact the Training Future Scientist (TFS) after-school program has on the girls' scientific content knowledge, attitude toward choosing a science career, and self-perception in science. Through the TFS after-school program participants had access to a secondary science teacher-researcher, peer leaders that were in the 9th--12th grade, and Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) role models from Washington University Medical School Young Scientist Program (YSP) graduate and medical students and fellows as volunteers. The program utilized the Buckle-down Curriculum as guided, peer-led cooperative learning groups, hands-on labs and demonstrations facilitated by the researcher, trained peer leaders and/or role models that used constructivist science pedagogy to improve test-taking strategies. The outcomes for the TFS study were an increase in science content knowledge, a positive trend in attitude change, and a negative trend in choosing a science career. Keywords: informal
Bleacher, L. V.; Lakew, B.; Bracken, J.; Brown, T.; Rivera, R.
The NASA Goddard Planetary Science Winter School (PSWS) is a Goddard Space Flight Center-sponsored training program, managed by Goddard's Solar System Exploration Division (SSED), for Goddard-based postdoctoral fellows and early career planetary scientists. Currently in its third year, the PSWS is an experiential training program for scientists interested in participating on future planetary science instrument teams. Inspired by the NASA Planetary Science Summer School, Goddard's PSWS is unique in that participants learn the flight instrument lifecycle by designing a planetary flight instrument under actual consideration by Goddard for proposal and development. They work alongside the instrument Principal Investigator (PI) and engineers in Goddard's Instrument Design Laboratory (IDL; idc.nasa.gov), to develop a science traceability matrix and design the instrument, culminating in a conceptual design and presentation to the PI, the IDL team and Goddard management. By shadowing and working alongside IDL discipline engineers, participants experience firsthand the science and cost constraints, trade-offs, and teamwork that are required for optimal instrument design. Each PSWS is collaboratively designed with representatives from SSED, IDL, and the instrument PI, to ensure value added for all stakeholders. The pilot PSWS was held in early 2015, with a second implementation in early 2016. Feedback from past participants was used to design the 2017 PSWS, which is underway as of the writing of this abstract.
Lee, Gloria; Kranzler, Jay D; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle
PhDs and post-doctoral biomedical graduates, in greater numbers, are choosing industry based careers. However, most scientists do not have formal training in business strategies and venture creation and may find senior management positions untenable. To fill this training gap, "Biotechnology Industry: Structure and Strategy" was offered at New York University School of Medicine (NYUSOM). The course focuses on the business aspects of translational medicine and research translation and incorporates the practice of business case discussions, mock negotiation, and direct interactions into the didactic. The goal is to teach scientists at an early career stage how to create solutions, whether at the molecular level or via the creation of devices or software, to benefit those with disease. In doing so, young, talented scientists can develop a congruent mindset with biotechnology/industry executives. Our data demonstrates that the course enhances students' knowledge of the biotechnology industry. In turn, these learned skills may further encourage scientists to seek leadership positions in the field. Implementation of similar courses and educational programs will enhance scientists' training and inspire them to become innovative leaders in the discovery and development of therapeutics.
Frederick L Smyth
Full Text Available Women’s representation in science has changed substantially, but unevenly, over the past 40 years. In health and biological sciences, for example, women’s representation among U.S. scientists is now on par with or greater than men’s, while in physical sciences and engineering they remain a clear minority. We investigated whether variation in proportions of women in scientific disciplines is related to differing levels of male-favoring explicit or implicit stereotypes held by students and scientists in each discipline. We hypothesized that science-is-male stereotypes would be weaker in disciplines where women are better represented. This prediction was tested with a sample of 176,935 college-educated participants (70% female, including thousands of engineers, physicians, and scientists. The prediction was supported for the explicit stereotype, but not for the implicit stereotype. Implicit stereotype strength did not correspond with disciplines’ gender ratios, but, rather, correlated with two indicators of disciplines’ scientific intensity, positively for men and negatively for women. From age 18 on, women who majored or worked in disciplines perceived as more scientific had substantially weaker science-is-male stereotypes than did men in the same disciplines, with gender differences larger than 0.8 standard deviations in the most scientifically-perceived disciplines. Further, particularly for women, differences in the strength of implicit stereotypes across scientific disciplines corresponded with the strength of scientific values held by women in the disciplines. These results are discussed in the context of dual process theory of mental operation and balanced identity theory. The findings point to the need for longitudinal study of the factors’ affecting development of adults’ and, especially, children’s implicit gender stereotypes and scientific identity.
Smyth, Frederick L; Nosek, Brian A
Women's representation in science has changed substantially, but unevenly, over the past 40 years. In health and biological sciences, for example, women's representation among U.S. scientists is now on par with or greater than men's, while in physical sciences and engineering they remain a clear minority. We investigated whether variation in proportions of women in scientific disciplines is related to differing levels of male-favoring explicit or implicit stereotypes held by students and scientists in each discipline. We hypothesized that science-is-male stereotypes would be weaker in disciplines where women are better represented. This prediction was tested with a sample of 176,935 college-educated participants (70% female), including thousands of engineers, physicians, and scientists. The prediction was supported for the explicit stereotype, but not for the implicit stereotype. Implicit stereotype strength did not correspond with disciplines' gender ratios, but, rather, correlated with two indicators of disciplines' scientific intensity, positively for men and negatively for women. From age 18 on, women who majored or worked in disciplines perceived as more scientific had substantially weaker science-is-male stereotypes than did men in the same disciplines, with gender differences larger than 0.8 standard deviations in the most scientifically-perceived disciplines. Further, particularly for women, differences in the strength of implicit stereotypes across scientific disciplines corresponded with the strength of scientific values held by women in the disciplines. These results are discussed in the context of dual process theory of mental operation and balanced identity theory. The findings point to the need for longitudinal study of the factors' affecting development of adults' and, especially, children's implicit gender stereotypes and scientific identity.
Smyth, Frederick L.; Nosek, Brian A.
Women's representation in science has changed substantially, but unevenly, over the past 40 years. In health and biological sciences, for example, women's representation among U.S. scientists is now on par with or greater than men's, while in physical sciences and engineering they remain a clear minority. We investigated whether variation in proportions of women in scientific disciplines is related to differing levels of male-favoring explicit or implicit stereotypes held by students and scientists in each discipline. We hypothesized that science-is-male stereotypes would be weaker in disciplines where women are better represented. This prediction was tested with a sample of 176,935 college-educated participants (70% female), including thousands of engineers, physicians, and scientists. The prediction was supported for the explicit stereotype, but not for the implicit stereotype. Implicit stereotype strength did not correspond with disciplines' gender ratios, but, rather, correlated with two indicators of disciplines' scientific intensity, positively for men and negatively for women. From age 18 on, women who majored or worked in disciplines perceived as more scientific had substantially weaker science-is-male stereotypes than did men in the same disciplines, with gender differences larger than 0.8 standard deviations in the most scientifically-perceived disciplines. Further, particularly for women, differences in the strength of implicit stereotypes across scientific disciplines corresponded with the strength of scientific values held by women in the disciplines. These results are discussed in the context of dual process theory of mental operation and balanced identity theory. The findings point to the need for longitudinal study of the factors' affecting development of adults' and, especially, children's implicit gender stereotypes and scientific identity. PMID:25964765
Walker, Benjamin; Alavifard, Sepand; Roberts, Surain; Lanes, Andrea; Ramsay, Tim; Boet, Sylvain
We investigated the inter-rater reliability of Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus when calculating the h-index of 25 senior scientists in the Clinical Epidemiology Program of the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute. Bibliometric information and the h-indices for the subjects were computed by four raters using the automatic calculators in WoS and Scopus. Correlation and agreement between ratings was assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficient and a Bland-Altman plot, respectively. Data could not be gathered from Google Scholar due to feasibility constraints. The Spearman's rank correlation between the h-index of scientists calculated with WoS was 0.81 (95% CI 0.72-0.92) and with Scopus was 0.95 (95% CI 0.92-0.99). The Bland-Altman plot showed no significant rater bias in WoS and Scopus; however, the agreement between ratings is higher in Scopus compared to WoS. Our results showed a stronger relationship and increased agreement between raters when calculating the h-index of a scientist using Scopus compared to WoS. The higher inter-rater reliability and simple user interface used in Scopus may render it the more effective database when calculating the h-index of senior scientists in epidemiology. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.
Full Text Available Science Translational Medicine’s mission is to improve human health care worldwide by providing a forum for communication and interdisciplinary idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners from all relevant established and emerging disciplines. The weekly journal debuted in October 2009 and is published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS, the publisher of Science and Science Signaling. The journal features peer-reviewed research articles, perspectives and commentary, and is guided by an international Advisory Board, led by Chief Scientific Adviser, Elias A. Zerhouni, M.D., former Director of the National Institutes of Health, and Senior Scientific Adviser, Elazer R. Edelman, M.D., Ph.D., Thomas D. and Virginia W. Cabot Professor of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Science Translational Medicine editorial team is led by Katrina L. Kelner, Ph.D., AAAS. A profound transition is required for the science of translational medicine. Despite 50 years of advances in our fundamental understanding of human biology and the emergence of powerful new technologies, the rapid transformation of this knowledge into effective health measures is not keeping pace with the challenges of global health care. Creative experimental approaches, novel technologies, and new ways of conducting scientific explorations at the interface of established and emerging disciplines are now required to an unprecedented degree if real progress is to be made. To aid in this reinvention, Science and AAAS have created a new interdisciplinary journal, Science Translational Medicine. The following interview exemplefies the pioneering content found in Science Translational Medicine. It is an excerpt from a Podcast interview with Dr. Samuel Broder, former director of the National Cancer Institute and current Chief Medical Officer at Celera. The Podcast was produced in tangent with Dr
Halversen, C.; Weiss, E. L.; Pedemonte, S.
Today's youth have been tasked with the overwhelming job of addressing the world's climate future. The students who will become the scientists, policy makers, and citizens of tomorrow must gain a robust understanding of the causes and effects of climate change, as well as possible adaptation strategies. Currently, few high quality curriculum materials exist that address climate change in a developmentally appropriate manner. The NOAA-funded Ocean Sciences Sequence for Grades 6-8: The Ocean-Atmosphere Connection and Climate Change (OSS) addresses this gap by providing teachers with scientifically accurate climate change curriculum that hits on some of the most salient points in climate science, while simultaneously developing students' science process skills. OSS was developed through a collaboration between some of the nation's leading ocean and climate scientists and the Lawrence Hall of Science's highly qualified curriculum development team. Scientists were active partners throughout the entire development process, from initial brainstorming of key concepts and creating the conceptual storyline for the curriculum to final review of the content and activities. The goal was to focus strategically and effectively on core concepts within ocean and climate sciences that students should understand. OSS was designed in accordance with the latest research from the learning sciences and provides numerous opportunities for students to develop facility with science practices by "doing" science.Through hands-on activities, technology, informational readings, and embedded assessments, OSS deeply addresses a significant number of standards from the Next Generation Science Standards and is being used by many teachers as they explore the shifts required by NGSS. It also aligns with the Ocean Literacy and Climate Literacy Frameworks. OSS comprises 33 45-minute sessions organized into three thematic units, each driven by an exploratory question: (1) How do the ocean and atmosphere
Subprograms of the OBES discussed in this document include: materials sciences, chemical sciences, nuclear sciences, engineering and geosciences, advanced energy projects, biological energy research, carbon dioxide research, HFBR, HFIR, NSLS, SSRL, IPNS, Combustion Research Facility, high-voltage and atomic resolution electron microscopic facilities, Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator, Dynamitron Accelerator, calutrons, and Transuranium Processing Plant. Nickel aluminide and glassy metals are discussed
...); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP); Bureau... Department of Justice, with valuable advice in the areas of science and statistics for the purpose of...
...); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP); Bureau... Department of Justice, with valuable advice in the areas of science and statistics for the purpose of...
...); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP); Bureau... Department of Justice, with valuable advice in the areas of science and statistics for the purpose of...
... Justice (NIJ); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention... component of the Department of Justice, with valuable advice in the areas of science and statistics for the...
...); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP... Department of Justice, with valuable advice in the areas of science and statistics for the purpose of...
Dunlop, Lynda; de Schrijver, Jelle
Philosophical dialogue requires an approach to teaching and learning in science that is focused on problem posing and provides space for meaning making, finding new ways of thinking and understanding and for linking science with broader human experiences. This article explores the role that philosophical dialogue can play in science lessons and…
Smith, Denise A.; Jirdeh, Hussein; Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Villard, Ray
As the science operations center for Hubble and Webb, the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is uniquely positioned to captivate the imagination and inspire learners of all ages in humanity's quest to understand fundamental questions about our universe and our place in it. With the 25th anniversary of Hubble's launch and deployment approaching in April 2015, this presentation will provide an overview of the impact of the STScI's Office of Public Outreach's programs to engage students, educators, and the public in exploring the universe through audience-based news, education, and outreach programs. At the heart of our programs lies a tight coupling of scientific, education, and communications expertise. By partnering scientists and educators, we assure current, accurate science content and education products and programs that are classroom-ready and held to the highest pedagogical standards. Likewise, news and outreach programs accurately convey cutting-edge science and technology in a way that is attuned to audience needs. The combination of Hubble's scientific capabilities and majestic imagery, together with a deep commitment to creating effective programs to share Hubble science with the education community and the public, has enabled the STScI Office of Public Outreach programs to engage 6 million students and ½ million educators per year, and 24 million online viewers per year. Hubble press releases generate approximately 5,000 online news articles per year with an average circulation of 125 million potential readers per press release news story. We will also share how best practices and lessons learned from this long-lived program are already being applied to engage a new generation of explorers in the science and technology of the James Webb Space Telescope.
Smith, Denise Anne; Jirdeh, Hussein; Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Villard, Ray; Green, Joel David
As the science operations center for the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope, the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is uniquely positioned to captivate the imagination and inspire learners of all ages in humanity’s quest to understand fundamental questions about our universe and our place in it. This presentation will provide an overview of the impact of the STScI’s Office of Public Outreach’s efforts to engage students, educators, and the public in exploring the universe through audience-based news, education, and outreach programs.At the heart of our programs lies a tight coupling of scientific, education, and communications expertise. By partnering scientists and educators, we assure current, accurate science content and education products and programs that are classroom-ready and held to the highest pedagogical standards. Likewise, news and outreach programs accurately convey cutting-edge science and technology in a way that is attuned to audience needs. The combination of Hubble’s scientific capabilities, majestic imagery, and our deep commitment to create effective programs to share Hubble science with the education community and the public, has enabled the STScI Office of Public Outreach programs to engage 6 million students and ½ million educators per year, and 24 million online viewers per year. Hubble press releases generate approximately 5,000 online news articles per year with an average circulation of 125 million potential readers per press release news story. We will also share how best practices and lessons learned from this long-lived program are already being applied to engage a new generation of explorers in the science and technology of the James Webb Space Telescope.
Coderre, Raymond W; Uekermann, Kristen A; Choi, Youngeun; Anderson, William J
Scientists constantly make groundbreaking discoveries, some of which receive attention from the press. We designed a course intended for a lay audience that provides the scientific background to appreciate these reports more fully. We discuss three topics in the life sciences: stem cells, cancer, and infectious disease. The course is structured to blend relevant scientific background and evaluation of primary literature with the coverage of these advances by the media and popular press. In short, lectures emphasize exposure to basic biological concepts and tools as a means of informing understanding of prominent biological questions of public interest. The overall goal of the course is not only to expose students to the media's coverage of scientific progress, but also to hone their critical thinking skills to distinguish hope from hype.
Raymond W. Coderre
Full Text Available Scientists constantly make groundbreaking discoveries, some of which receive attention from the press. We designed a course intended for a lay audience that provides the scientific background to appreciate these reports more fully. We discuss three topics in the life sciences: stem cells, cancer, and infectious disease. The course is structured to blend relevant scientific background and evaluation of primary literature with the coverage of these advances by the media and popular press. In short, lectures emphasize exposure to basic biological concepts and tools as a means of informing understanding of prominent biological questions of public interest. The overall goal of the course is not only to expose students to the media’s coverage of scientific progress, but also to hone their critical thinking skills to distinguish hope from hype.
Zhi, Qiang; Su, Jun; Ru, Peng; Anadon, Laura Diaz
Since 1978, when China launched its “opening up” reform, a range of large-scale national science and technology programs have been implemented to spur economic development. Energy has received significant attention and has become a growing priority in the past years. In this paper we have analyzed the goals, management, and impact over time of China's three largest national programs: Gong Guan, 863, and 973 Programs. Using quantitative metrics to describe the input and output, by conducting semi-structured interviews with officials, scientists, and other decision makers, and by reviewing available documents as well as a case study on the coal sector we examined the changes in the decision making process, particularly in regard to the role of scientists. We found that the changes in strategic priorities set by China's high level political leaders were implemented and then transformed into outputs by using scientists as inputs or policy tools. The decreased role of scientists has been driven by two forces: (1) periodic changes in national strategy emphasizing technology commercialization; and (2) changes in the management structure involving low tolerance of risk. We suggest four ways that the government's efforts to turn China into an innovation oriented country. - Highlights: • New data was provided for the energy sector of China's three largest RD and D programs. • Transitions of goals, priorities, management, and impact over time of the programs were reviewed. • We found the role of scientists has been reduced in the decision making process. • Two forces are identified as the shaping factors
Wong, E. David
At the heart of theoretical and practical ideas about science education is an image of scientific work. This image draws attention to particular features of scientific work, which then guides scholarship and pedagogy in science education. In the field of science education, much discussion in this vein focuses on the question, What is the nature of science? Most images of science found in education, psychology, and philosophy emerge from conceptual and methodological perspectives that emphasize norms, conventions, and broad trends. Some groups are motivated to distinguish science from other activities while some groups work in the opposite direction and blur the lines between science and others ways of knowing. Underlying both perspectives is an implicit focus on general qualities common to groups or subgroups (e.g. believing that ideas are subject to change, explanations demand evidence, science is a complex social activities, etc.). I propose that the vital qualities of science are best illuminated by just the opposite process: by appreciating the uncommon, rather than common, features. By attending to individual variation, we are more likely to understand what makes science a creative, motivating, and deeply personal enterprise. In addition, appreciating these variations reveals judgment, creativity, adaptation - the hallmark of scientific work. Implications of this perspective for science education are discussed.
Pellegrini, Pablo A
Practices related to research misconduct seem to have been multiplied in recent years. Many cases of scientific fraud have been exposed publicly, and journals and academic institutions have deployed different measures worldwide in this regard. However, the influence of specific social and cultural environments on scientific fraud may vary from society to society. This article analyzes how scientists in Japan deal with accusations of scientific fraud. For such a purpose, a series of scientific fraud cases that took place in Japan has been reconstructed through diverse sources. Thus, by analyzing those cases, the social basis of scientific fraud and the most relevant aspects of Japanese cultural values and traditions, as well as the concept of honour which is deeply involved in the way Japanese scientists react when they are accused of and publicly exposed in scientific fraud situations is examined.
Childs, Lauren; Brozen, Madeline; Hillyer, Nelson
Since its inception over a decade ago, the DEVELOP National Program has provided students with experience in utilizing and integrating satellite remote sensing data into real world-applications. In 1998, DEVELOP began with three students and has evolved into a nationwide internship program with over 200 students participating each year. DEVELOP is a NASA Applied Sciences training and development program extending NASA Earth science research and technology to society. Part of the NASA Science Mission Directorate s Earth Science Division, the Applied Sciences Program focuses on bridging the gap between NASA technology and the public by conducting projects that innovatively use NASA Earth science resources to research environmental issues. Project outcomes focus on assisting communities to better understand environmental change over time. This is accomplished through research with global, national, and regional partners to identify the widest array of practical uses of NASA data. DEVELOP students conduct research in areas that examine how NASA science can better serve society. Projects focus on practical applications of NASA s Earth science research results. Each project is designed to address at least one of the Applied Sciences focus areas, use NASA s Earth observation sources and meet partners needs. DEVELOP research teams partner with end-users and organizations who use project results for policy analysis and decision support, thereby extending the benefits of NASA science and technology to the public.
Considerable attention has been paid to the representation of scientists as villains in horror and science fiction films, and to the part this has played in creating the public perception of scientists. But science and scientists have also been represented in films which do not fit readily with the conventions of these genres, and these "mainstream" films allow a more detailed investigation of the public perception of science at the time they were made. This paper examines a number of British mainstream films portraying scientists and science from the period 1945-1970 to see in what ways the conduct of science was being questioned. A concern with the political control of science and the resulting secrecy is evident in a number of the films. The criticism of scientists seems to come from two contradictory directions. Scientists were either seen as too detached and unconcerned about the consequences of their work, or they were too emotional and insufficiently objective. This is in part explained by newer, less deferential attitudes to science co-existing with the older, heroic view during the period under study.
Houseal, Ana K.; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Destefano, Lizanne
Engaging K-12 students in science-based inquiry is at the center of current science education reform efforts. Inquiry can best be taught through experiential, authentic science experiences, such as those provided by Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnerships (STSPs). However, very little is known about the impact of STSPs on teachers' and…
Weiss, E.; Skene, J.; Tran, L.
Today's youth have been tasked with the overwhelming job of addressing the world's climate future. The students who will become the scientists, policy makers, and citizens of tomorrow must gain a robust understanding of the causes and effects of climate change, as well as possible adaptation strategies. Currently, there are few high quality curricula available to teachers that address these topics in a developmentally appropriate manner. The NOAA-funded Ocean Sciences Sequence for Grades 6-8 aims to address this gap by providing teachers with scientifically accurate climate change curriculum that hits on some of the most salient points in climate science, while simultaneously developing students' science process skills. The Ocean Sciences Sequence for Grades 6-8 is developed through a collaboration between some of the nation's leading ocean and climate scientists and the Lawrence Hall of Science's highly qualified GEMS (Great Explorations in Math & Science) curriculum development team. Scientists are active partners throughout the whole development process, from initial brainstorming of key concepts and creating the conceptual storyline for the curriculum to final review of the content and activities. As with all GEMS Sequences, the Ocean Sciences Sequence for Grades 6-8 is designed to provide significant scientific and educational depth, systematic assessments and informational readings, and incorporate new learning technologies. The goal is to focus strategically and effectively on the core concepts within ocean and climate sciences that students need to understand. This curriculum is designed in accordance with the latest research from the learning sciences, and provides numerous opportunities for students to develop inquiry skills and abilities as they learn about the practice of science through hands-on activities. The Ocean Sciences Sequence for Grades 6-8 addresses in depth a significant number of national, state, and district standards and benchmarks. It
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This article explores whether some scientists have now actually been developing a type of science apt to be published as a piece of news, yet lacking a relevant scientific interest. Possibly, behind this behaviour there may be the present working culture, in which scientists live under the pressure of the dictatorship of the Science Citation Index (SCI) of the reference journals. This hypothesis is supported by a study demonstrating that there is a direct relation between publishing scientifi...
Miller, M. K.; Bartels, D.; Schwartzenberg, S.; Andrews, M. S.
The Exploratorium engages Americans on issues of climate change, and energy use and production in a distinctive way; using a multilayered approach emphasizing all of the Exploratorium's strengths, not simply exhibitions. Specifically, the institution gives people access to the latest science research and researchers, provides the inquiry skills and basic science needed to make sense of this research, studies perception and cognition and how we come to believe what we believe, and sets up social communities and spaces for people to test their ideas and understandings with others. Using exhibits, the web and other media, visualization technology, building architecture, physical spaces, classes and professional education the Exploratorium achieves this multilayered approach. This powerful combination enhances people's own ability to make sound, evidence-based decisions for themselves, their families, and their communities. In 2013, the Exploratorium will move from its current home in the Palace of Fine Arts in San Francisco to a waterfront campus with access to the bay and outdoor platforms for instrumentation and observation. This will allow program and exhibit development in the environmental sciences that focuses on natural phenomena and physical and biological systems. Some current and planned Exploratorium projects with an emphasis on global climate change and potential for further development in the new location: 1. An Observatory building, where visitors can investigate Bay waters and climate. 2. Wired Pier, a suite of environmental sensors that will track local conditions over time and connect to larger observing networks regionally and globally 3. NOAA education and climate science partnership, including a scientist-in-residence program for training front-line staff 4. Global Climate Change Research Explorer website enabling visitors to observe current climate data or analyze evidence. 5. The Ice Stories project which trained polar scientists in media
Dogan, Alev; Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Kilic, Ziya; Kilic, Esma; Aydogdu, Mustafa
In this study, prospective science teachers' (PSTs) views about their poster presentations were investigated. These posters were developed through PSTs' online and library research and scientific mini-symposiums in chemistry related topics in the framework of science, technology and society course (STS). During the first four weeks of STS course,…
Clegg, Tamara; Ahn, June; Yip, Jason C.; Bonsignore, Elizabeth; Pauw, Daniel
This article provides an overview of several studies in which the authors draw on social media, storytelling, and mobile apps to help children playfully develop their own approaches to science. The authors detail their efforts to strike a balance between the structure needed to promote science learning and the flexibility needed to nurture…
Mercer-Mapstone, Lucy; Kuchel, Louise
Communication skills are one of five nationally recognised learning outcomes for an Australian Bachelor of Science (BSc) degree. Previous evidence indicates that communication skills taught in Australian undergraduate science degrees are not developed sufficiently to meet the requirements of the modern-day workplace--a problem faced in the UK and…
Gray, Phyllis; Rule, Audrey C.; Gentzsch, Anneliese; Tallakson, Denise A.
This practical article describes an arts-integrated project with engineering design and science concepts from the Next Generation Science Standards, art principles from the National Arts Standards, as well as ideas under the theme of "Culture" from the National Council for the Social Studies Standards. Preservice teachers in an…
How might we overcome the lack of archival resources while doing the history of science in India? Offering reflections on the nature of archival resources that could be collected for scientific institutions and the need for new interpretative tools with which to understand these resources, this essay argues for the use of oral history in order to understand the practices of science in the postcolonial context. The oral history of science can become a tool with which to understand the hidden interactions between the world of scientific institutions and the larger world of the postcolonial nation.
A compilation and index are provided of the the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs. This compilation is intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research and as an aid in selecting new programs. The report is divided into Sections A and B, listing all the projects, Section C, a summary of funding levels, and Section D, an index
Gordov, E. P.; Lykosov, V. N.; Genina, E. Yu; Gordova, Yu E.
The paper describes a regular events CITES consisting of young scientists school and international conference as a tool for training and professional growth. The events address the most pressing issues of application of information-computational technologies in environmental sciences and young scientists’ training, diminishing a gap between university graduates’ skill and concurrent challenges. The viability of the approach to the CITES organization is proved by the fact that single event organized in 2001 turned into a series, quite a few young participants successfully defended their PhD thesis and a number of researchers became Doctors of Science during these years. Young researchers from Russia and foreign countries show undiminishing interest to these events.
Full Text Available How is one to conduct adequate political-science investigation, presentation and evaluation of the history and present situation of political science in Croatia? The text focuses on a thorough inquiry into the subject of the science of politics – what is politics? – as the prerequisite for a scientifically adequate solution to the uncertainty regarding the professional profile of the Faculty and its attendants – political scientists. In this context, it ooks into the meaning of the definition of political science as “science of generality” and of the political scientist as “expert for generality”. The theoretical and contextual meaning of these definitions is explained (Prpić, 1969, and its assumptions, scope and limitations are valued. The dramatic uncertainty, both theoretical and practical, which Prpić confronted us with, is insurmountable within the historical context of the democratic state, given its characteristic epochal ambivalence. This goes to show that the dilemma between the plural and the singular does not make much sense: political science in the singular is a servant of political power, while political sciences are mere metascientific humanistic critique of the extant world. Consequently, the science of politics is no good either in the singular or the plural. When scientific and professional, it is a danger to political freedom. When humanistic and non-professional, it is impotent and superfluous. The political scientist, in turn, is either “an expert for particularity”, a servant of political power neutral with regard to ethics and values, or else a pretentious missionary. In order to break out of the vicious circle, the science of politics, in a fruitful and irreplaceable duality, must be methodically made to rely on a new principle of community constitution, which is immanent critique and overcoming of the modern democratic state and civil society. In addition, the perception of political science as “science
International Journal of Molecular Sciences Editorial Office
Full Text Available With the goal of recognizing outstanding contributions to the field of molecular sciences by early-career investigators, including assistant professors, postdoctoral students and PhD students, [...
University/Science Center Collaborations (A Science Center Perspective): Developing an Infrastructure of Partnerships with Science Centers to Support the Engagement of Scientists and Engineers in Education and Outreach for Broad Impact
Science centers, professional associations, corporations and university research centers share the same mission of education and outreach, yet come from ``different worlds.'' This gap may be bridged by working together to leverage unique strengths in partnership. Front-end evaluation results for the development of new resources to support these (mostly volunteer-based) partnerships elucidate the factors which lead to a successful relationship. Maintaining a science museum-scientific community partnership requires that all partners devote adequate resources (time, money, etc.). In general, scientists/engineers and science museum professionals often approach relationships with different assumptions and expectations. The culture of science centers is distinctly different from the culture of science. Scientists/engineers prefer to select how they will ultimately share their expertise from an array of choices. Successful partnerships stem from clearly defined roles and responsibilities. Scientists/engineers are somewhat resistant to the idea of traditional, formal training. Instead of developing new expertise, many prefer to offer their existing strengths and expertise. Maintaining a healthy relationship requires the routine recognition of the contributions of scientists/engineers. As professional societies, university research centers and corporations increasingly engage in education and outreach, a need for a supportive infrastructure becomes evident. Work of TryScience.org/VolTS (Volunteers TryScience), the MRS NISE Net (Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network) subcommittee, NRCEN (NSF Research Center Education Network), the IBM On Demand Community, and IEEE Educational Activities exemplify some of the pieces of this evolving infrastructure.
Wilkerson, L; Abelmann, W H
The Harvard-MIT Program in Health Sciences and Technology (HST) is a flexible, preclinical curriculum, taught by members of the faculties of both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, that stresses a rigorous, scientific, quantitative approach, small classes (usually fewer than 50 students), and student-faculty interaction. The program is aimed at students with strong backgrounds in quantitative and biological sciences who are interested in careers as physician-scientists. The first 234 students of the program, who graduated between 1975 and 1985, were asked to participate in a 1990 follow-up study by completing a four-page questionnaire and submitting curricula vitae and lists of publications, if available. Data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Of the 234 graduates, 211 (90%) responded. Sixty-three (30%) had received both MD and PhD degrees. The graduates were twice as likely to describe their primary professional roles as academic than as clinical practice; 94 held full-time faculty positions at 50 medical schools. The 154 (73%) in research spent an average of 51% of their time on this activity. According to the 179 graduates (85%) who stated that they would choose HST again, the most frequently mentioned reasons were the quantitative approach that emphasized integration of basic science and clinical practice (49%) and the small class size (37%). The HST MD curriculum, with its emphasis on basic science and research experience, has been successful in preparing carefully selected students for careers as physician-scientists, without necessarily requiring the completion of a PhD degree.
Pelz, M.; Hoeberechts, M.; Hale, C.; McLean, M. A.
This presentation describes Ocean Networks Canada's (ONC) Youth Science Ambassador Program. The Youth Science Ambassadors are a growing network of youth in Canadian coastal communities whose role is to connect ocean science, ONC data, and Indigenous knowledge. By directly employing Indigenous youth in communities in which ONC operates monitoring equipment, ONC aims to encourage wider participation and interest in ocean science and exploration. Further, the Youth Science Ambassadors act as role models and mentors to other local youth by highlighting connections between Indigenous and local knowledge and current marine science efforts. Ocean Networks Canada, an initiative of the University of Victoria, develops, operates, and maintains cabled ocean observatory systems. These include technologies developed on the world-leading NEPTUNE and VENUS observatories as well as community observatories in the Arctic and coastal British Columbia. These observatories, large and small, enable communities, users, scientists, teachers, and students to monitor real-time and historical data from the local marine environment from anywhere on the globe. Youth Science Ambassadors are part of the Learning and Engagement team whose role includes engaging Indigenous communities and schools in ocean science through ONC's K-12 Ocean Sense education program. All of the data collected by ONC are freely available over the Internet for non-profit use, including disaster planning, community-based decision making, and education. The Youth Science Ambassadors support collaboration with Indigenous communities and schools by facilitating educational programming, encouraging participation in ocean data collection and analysis, and fostering interest in ocean science. In addition, the Youth Science Ambassadors support community collaboration in decision-making for instrument deployment locations and identify ways in which ONC can help to address any areas of concern raised by the community. This
Paula Cavalcante Monteiro
Full Text Available Television is a powerful vehicle of mass communication and several cartoons, specifically made for children and adolescents, have ‘scientific’ themes. Preteens and teens devote many hours in front of TV, attracted by cartoons, some of which portray, in a caricature manner, scientists at work. Current paper investigates the effect the concepts of science transmitted by the cartoon ‘Jimmy Neutron’ have on adolescents. A group of 31 adolescents of the 9th grade of the junior school were invited to watch three episodes of the ‘Jimmy Neutron’ cartoon. After the sessions, they answered a questionnaire and were interviewed on their perceptions of Science and scientists. Their answers were analyzed by Discourse Textual Analysis. Results show that they most have misconceptions on Science and on scientists and they presume that scientists have a very solitary and uninterested life solely dedicated in investing new devises.
Shermer, Michael B
Science historian Ronald Numbers once remarked that the two most influential historians of science of the 20th century were Thomas Kuhn and Stephen Jay Gould. All historians are deeply familiar with Kuhn's work and influence, and most know of the remarkable impact Gould has had on evolutionary theory through both his professional and popular works. But little attention has been paid to the depth, scope, and importance of Gould's rôle as historian and philosopher of science, and his use of popular science exposition to reinforce old knowledge and generate new. This paper presents the results of an extensive quantitative content analysis of Gould's 22 books, 101 book reviews, 479 scientific papers, and 300 Natural History essays, in terms of their subject matter (Evolutionary Theory, History and Philosophy of Science, Natural History, Paleontology/Geology, Social Science/Commentary), and thematic dichotomies (Theory-Data, Time's Arrow-Time's Cycle, Adaptationism- Nonadaptationalism, Punctuationism-Gradualism, Contingency-Necessity). Special emphasis is placed on the interaction between the subjects and themata, how Gould has used the history of science to reinforce his evolutionary theory (and vice versa), and how his philosophy of science has influenced both his evolutionary theory and his historiography. That philosophy can best be summed up in a quotation from Charles Darwin, frequently cited by Gould: 'All observation must be for or against some view if it is to be of any service'. Gould followed Darwin's advice throughout his career, including his extensive writings on the history and philosophy of science.
Lemon, M. G.; McDonough, C. A.; Schifman, L. A.
Science communication is increasingly important. Our world is facing difficult environmental challenges that can only be addressed if an understanding of the basic scientific principles exists. With this in mind, we founded oceanbites.org in 2013, and recently (August 2017) also started envirobites.org. For both blogs, graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and science professionals come together to write and edit easy-to-read, compelling summaries of recent, cutting-edge research papers in environmental science or oceanography and make them accessible to non-experts. We want to share our passion for research with all non-scientists who are interested to learn more about the environment and our oceans: This ranges in scale from identifying science problems and solutions in cities to explaining the complex environmental challenges facing our planet as a whole. Because science is also about identifying and applying technologies to address these challenges, we also cover some success stories! For envirobites.org, topics of posts include science in and for cities, global transport of pollutants, toxic effects of pollution, climate change, and environmental remediation. Oceanbites.org covers topics ranging from chemical, to biological, and physical oceanography. Currently, oceanbites.org has 24 writers and publishes posts daily, whereas envirobites.org has 26 writers and we publish posts on our blog three times per week. We hope to recruit more members and editors, but most of all, increase our readership to make a big splash in the communication of science to the public, whether we reach K-12 classrooms or living rooms.
One of the most exciting developments in exoplanet science is the inclusion of a coronagraph instrument on WFIRST. After more than 20 years of research and development on coronagraphy and wavefront control, the technology is ready for a demonstration in space and to be used for revolutionary science. Good progress has already been made at JPL and partner institutions on the coronagraph technology and instrument design and test. The next five years as we enter Phase A will be critical for raising the TRL of the coronagraph to the needed level for flight and for converging on a design that is robust, low risk, and meets the science requirements. In addition, there is growing excitement over the possibility of rendezvousing an occulter with WFIRST/AFTA as a separate mission; this would both demonstrate that important technology and potentially dramatically enhance the science reach, introducing the possibility of imaging Earth-like planets in the habitable zone of nearby stars. In this proposal I will be applying for the Coronagraph Adjutant Scientist (CAS) position. I bring to the position the background and skills needed to be an effective liaison between the project office, the instrument team, and the Science Investigation Team (SIT). My background in systems engineering before coming to Princeton (I was Chief Systems Engineer for the Gravity Probe-B mission) and my 15 years of working closely with NASA on both coronagraph and occulter technology make me well-suited to the role. I have been a lead coronagraph scientist for the WFIRST mission from the beginning, including as a member of the SDT. Together with JPL and NASA HQ, I helped organize the process for selecting the coronagraphs for the CGI, one of which, the shaped pupil, has been developed in my lab. All of the key algorithms for wavefront control (including EFC and Stroke Minimization) were originally developed by students or post-docs in my lab at Princeton. I am thus in a unique position to work with
Recent Refresher Courses. Experimental Physics, C.S. Sundar, 20 June 2017 to 05 July 2017 G.B.P.U.A.& T., Pantnagar MORE · Recent Lecture workshops. Recent advances in chemical sciences, 13–15 June 2017, St. Thomas College, Pala MORE ...
Contemporary research on gender and persistence in undergraduate education in science and engineering has routinely focused on why students leave their majors rather than asking why students stay. This study compared three common ways of measuring persistence-commitment to major, degree aspirations, and commitment to a science or engineering career-and emphasized factors that would encourage students to persist, including positive images of scientists and engineers, positive attitudes toward gender equity in science and engineering, and positive classroom experiences. A survey was administered in classrooms to a total of 285 female and male students enrolled in two required courses for majors. The results indicate that the different measures of persistence were sensitive to different influences but that students' gender did not interact with their images, attitudes, and experiences in predicted ways. The study concludes that an individual student's gender may be a more important factor in explaining why some female students leave their science and engineering majors than in explaining why others stay.
Melanson, Mark; Bosley, William; Santiago, Jodi; Hamilton, Daniel
Tracing their distinguished history back to the Manhattan Project that developed the world's first atomic bomb, the Nuclear Medical Science Officers are the Army's experts on radiation and its health effects. Serving around the globe, these commissioned Army officers serve as military health physicists that ensure the protection of Soldiers and those they defend against all sources of radiation, military and civilian. This poster will highlight the various roles and responsibilities that Nuclear Medical Science Officers fill in defense of the Nation. Areas where these officers serve include medical health physics, deployment health physics, homeland defense, emergency response, radiation dosimetry, radiation research and training, along with support to the Army's corporate radiation safety program and international collaborations. The poster will also share some of the unique military sources of radiation such as depleted uranium, which is used as an anti-armor munition and in armor plating because of its unique metallurgic properties. )
Reiners, Derek S; Reiners, William A; Lockwood, Jeffrey A
This article reports the results ofa survey of 1215 nonstudent Ecological Society of America (ESA) members. The results pertain to three series of questions designed to assess ecologists' engagement in various advocacy activities, as well as attitudes on the relationship between environmental advocacy, values, and science. We also analyzed the effects of age, gender, and employment categories on responses. While many findings are reported, we highlight six here. First, ecologists in our sample do not report particularly high levels of engagement in advocacy activities. Second, ecologists are not an ideologically unified group. Indeed, there are cases of significant disagreement among ecologists regarding advocacy, values, and science. Third, despite some disagreement, ecologists generally believe that values consistent with environmental advocacy are more consonant with ecological pursuits than values based on environmental skepticism. Fourth, compared to males, female ecologists tend to be more supportive of advocacy and less convinced that environmentally oriented values perturb the pursuit of science. Fifth, somewhat paradoxically, ecologists in higher age brackets indicate higher engagement in advocacy activities as well as a higher desire for scientific objectivity. Sixth, compared to ecologists in other employment categories, those in government prefer a greater separation between science and the influences of environmental advocacy and values.
Samuels, Sheldon W
In the context of the history of science and the American labor movement, this comment in response to Joseph LaDou's in this issue briefly addresses impediments to Workers' Compensation reform: intellectual lapses in understanding the key concept of causation and political mistakes rooted in professional timidity. The result is the perpetuation of failures of government.
Mercer-Mapstone, Lucy; Kuchel, Louise
Communication skills are one of five nationally recognised learning outcomes for an Australian Bachelor of Science (BSc) degree. Previous evidence indicates that communication skills taught in Australian undergraduate science degrees are not developed sufficiently to meet the requirements of the modern-day workplace-a problem faced in the UK and USA also. Curriculum development in this area, however, hinges on first evaluating how communication skills are taught currently as a base from which to make effective changes. This study aimed to quantify the current standard of communication education within BSc degrees at Australian research-intensive universities. A detailed evidential baseline for not only what but also how communication skills are being taught was established. We quantified which communication skills were taught and assessed explicitly, implicitly, or were absent in a range of undergraduate science assessment tasks (n = 35) from four research-intensive Australian universities. Results indicate that 10 of the 12 core science communication skills used for evaluation were absent from more than 50% of assessment tasks and 77.14% of all assessment tasks taught less than 5 core communication skills explicitly. The design of assessment tasks significantly affected whether communication skills were taught explicitly. Prominent trends were that communication skills in tasks aimed at non-scientific audiences were taught more explicitly than in tasks aimed at scientific audiences, and the majority of group and multimedia tasks taught communication elements more explicitly than individual, or written and oral tasks. Implications for science communication in the BSc and further research are discussed.
Design based research was utilized to investigate how students use a greenhouse effect simulation in order to derive best learning practices. During this process, students recognized the authentic scientific process involving computer simulations. The simulation used is embedded within an inquiry-based technology-mediated science curriculum known as Web-based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE). For this research, students from a suburban, diverse, middle school setting use the simulations as part of a two week-long class unit on climate change. A pilot study was conducted during phase one of the research that informed phase two, which encompasses the dissertation. During the pilot study, as students worked through the simulation, evidence of shifts in student motivation, understanding of science content, and ideas about the nature of science became present using a combination of student interviews, focus groups, and students' conversations. Outcomes of the pilot study included improvements to the pedagogical approach. Allowing students to do 'Extreme Testing' (e.g., making the world as hot or cold as possible) and increasing the time for free exploration of the simulation are improvements made as a result of the findings of the pilot study. In the dissertation (phase two of the research design) these findings were implemented in a new curriculum scaled for 85 new students from the same school during the next school year. The modifications included new components implementing simulations as an assessment tool for all students and embedded modeling tools. All students were asked to build pre and post models, however due to technological constraints these were not an effective tool. A non-video group of 44 students was established and another group of 41 video students had a WISE curriculum which included twelve minutes of scientists' conversational videos referencing explicit aspects on the nature of science, specifically the use of models and simulations in science
The NASA Science Internet, (NSI) was established in 1987 to provide NASA's Offices of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) missions with transparent wide-area data connectivity to NASA's researchers, computational resources, and databases. The NSI Office at NASA/Ames Research Center has the lead responsibility for implementing a total, open networking program to serve the OSSA community. NSI is a full-service communications provider whose services include science network planning, network engineering, applications development, network operations, and network information center/user support services. NSI's mission is to provide reliable high-speed communications to the NASA science community. To this end, the NSI Office manages and operates the NASA Science Internet, a multiprotocol network currently supporting both DECnet and TCP/IP protocols. NSI utilizes state-of-the-art network technology to meet its customers' requirements. THe NASA Science Internet interconnects with other national networks including the National Science Foundation's NSFNET, the Department of Energy's ESnet, and the Department of Defense's MILNET. NSI also has international connections to Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Chile, and several European countries. NSI cooperates with other government agencies as well as academic and commercial organizations to implement networking technologies which foster interoperability, improve reliability and performance, increase security and control, and expedite migration to the OSI protocols.
Putnam, N. M.; Maness, H. L.; Rossi, E. A.; Hunter, J. J.
The vision science activity was originally designed for the 2007 Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) Summer School. Participants were graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and professionals studying the basics of adaptive optics. The majority were working in fields outside vision science, mainly astronomy and engineering. The primary goal of the activity was to give participants first-hand experience with the use of a wavefront sensor designed for clinical measurement of the aberrations of the human eye and to demonstrate how the resulting wavefront data generated from these measurements can be used to assess optical quality. A secondary goal was to examine the role wavefront measurements play in the investigation of vision-related scientific questions. In 2008, the activity was expanded to include a new section emphasizing defocus and astigmatism and vision testing/correction in a broad sense. As many of the participants were future post-secondary educators, a final goal of the activity was to highlight the inquiry-based approach as a distinct and effective alternative to traditional laboratory exercises. Participants worked in groups throughout the activity and formative assessment by a facilitator (instructor) was used to ensure that participants made progress toward the content goals. At the close of the activity, participants gave short presentations about their work to the whole group, the major points of which were referenced in a facilitator-led synthesis lecture. We discuss highlights and limitations of the vision science activity in its current format (2008 and 2009 summer schools) and make recommendations for its improvement and adaptation to different audiences.
Antonella Del Rosso
On 8 May, the joint CERN and Swiss FameLab final took place in CERN’s Restaurant 1, which was transformed into a cosy setting for the special occasion. The jury selected Oskari Vinko, a Master’s student in synthetic biology at ETH Zurich, as the winner of the Swiss final while Lillian Smestad, a physicist in the Aegis collaboration, will be the first CERN finalist to go to the international final at the Cheltenham Science Festival. In addition, CMS physicist Christos Lazaridis was awarded the audience prize.
Supinski, Bronis R de; Gamblin, Todd; Schulz, Martin
The Performance Engineering Institute (PERI) originally proposed a tiger team activity as a mechanism to target significant effort optimizing key Office of Science applications, a model that was successfully realized with the assistance of two JOULE metric teams. However, the Office of Science requested a new focus beginning in 2008: assistance in forming its ten year facilities plan. To meet this request, PERI formed the Architecture Tiger Team, which is modeling the performance of key science applications on future architectures, with S3D, FLASH and GTC chosen as the first application targets. In this activity, we have measured the performance of these applications on current systems in order to understand their baseline performance and to ensure that our modeling activity focuses on the right versions and inputs of the applications. We have applied a variety of modeling techniques to anticipate the performance of these applications on a range of anticipated systems. While our initial findings predict that Office of Science applications will continue to perform well on future machines from major hardware vendors, we have also encountered several areas in which we must extend our modeling techniques in order to fulfill our mission accurately and completely. In addition, we anticipate that models of a wider range of applications will reveal critical differences between expected future systems, thus providing guidance for future Office of Science procurement decisions, and will enable DOE applications to exploit machines in future facilities fully.
Beato, M. Carmen; González-Merino, Ramón; Campillo, M. Carmen; Fernández-Ahumada, Elvira; Ortiz, Leovigilda; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Guerrero, José Emilio
Currently, numerous tools based on the new information and communication technologies offer a wide range of possibilities for the implementation of interactive methodologies in Education and Science. In particular, virtual reality and immersive worlds - artificially generated computer environments where users interact through a figurative individual that represents them in that environment (their "avatar") - have been identified as the technology that will change the way we live, particularly in educational terms, product development and entertainment areas (Schmorrow, 2009). Gisbert-Cervera et al. (2011) consider that the 3D worlds in education, among others, provide a unique training and exchange of knowledge environment which allows a goal reflection to support activities and achieve learning outcomes. In Soil Sciences, the experimental component is essential to acquire the necessary knowledge to understand the biogeochemical processes taking place and their interactions with time, climate, topography and living organisms present. In this work, an immersive virtual environment which reproduces a series of pits have been developed to evaluate and differentiate soil characteristics such as texture, structure, consistency, color and other physical-chemical and biological properties for educational purposes. Bibliographical material such as pictures, books, papers and were collected in order to classify the information needed and to build the soil profiles into the virtual environment. The programming language for the virtual recreation was Unreal Engine4 (UE4; https://www.unrealengine.com/unreal-engine-4). This program was chosen because it provides two toolsets for programmers and it can also be used in tandem to accelerate development workflows. In addition, Unreal Engine4 technology powers hundreds of games as well as real-time 3D films, training simulations, visualizations and it creates very realistic graphics. For the evaluation of its impact and its
This collection of thesis of Republic Anniversary Conference of young scientists, dedicated to 30 thirtieth anniversary of Institute of Chemistry of Academy of Sciences of Republic of Tajikistan present the results of investigation of young scientists-chemists of Tajikistan which was carried out from 1974 till 1976 years in the area of physical, nonorganic, analytical, applied and organic chemistry. They are consider the questions of matters synthesis with beforehand given properties
Huang, Ming-Qing; Han, Li-Wei; Wu, Xiu-Hong; Bi, Ming-Gang; Shang, Hong-Cai; Liu, Yun-Fang; He, Wei-Ming; Li, Dan-Dan; Dong, Yan; Wang, Chang-En
The applications accepted and approved by general program, young scientist fund and fund for less developed region of national natural science funds in the discipline of Chinese materia medica, NSFC in 2012 have been introduced. The research contents of the funded projects in the popular research areas have been summarized and the problems in the applications have been analyzed to give a reference to the scientists in the field of Chinese materia medica.
Boger, R. A.; Low, R.; Jaroensutasinee, M.; Jaroensutasinee, K.; Sparrow, E. B.; Costosa, J. I.; Medina, J.; Randolph, G.
GLOBE in Thailand and GLOBE in Africa independently developed citizen science protocols for collecting and analyzing mosquito larvae. These protocols have been piloted in several workshops and implemented in schools. Data collected have been used for several secondary, undergraduate and graduate student research studies. Over this past year, 2015, these protocols have been synthesized into one protocol that will be made available to the world-wide community through the GLOBE website (www.globe.gov). This new protocol is designed to be flexible in the mosquito species that can be collected and the types of environments sampled (e.g., containers in and around the house, ponds, irrigation ditches in a rice paddy field). Plans are underway to enable web-based data entry and mobile apps for data collection and submission. Once everything is finalized, a GLOBE field campaign will be initiated for citizen scientists to collect meaningful data on where different types of mosquito larvae are found and how the abundance and distribution is changing seasonally. To assist in the standardization of data collection and quality control, training slides are being developed and will be made available in early 2016. This will enable a wider participation of citizen scientists to participate in this effort to collect mosquito data by making it easier to become part of the GLOBE community. As with mosquito larvae, training slides are being created for hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and pedosphere GLOBE measurement protocols. The development of the mosquito protocol and the training slides are in direct response to the GLOBE community's desire to increase citizen science participation beyond primary and secondary schools, in observing and measuring environmental change.
Coastal marine ecosystems only represent a small percentage of the global ocean's surface area. However, these ecosystems are highly productive, rich in biodiversity, and are where the vast majority of human activity occurs. The complex interaction between seawater, land, and atmosphere makes coastal ecosystems some of the most dynamic in terms of seawater chemistry. In order to capture these dynamic changes in seawater chemistry across appropriate spatial and temporal scales requires a large amount of measurements. Unfortunately, it is often challenging to maintain an array of oceanographic sensors in coastal ecosystems, especially in high energy areas like the surf zone. Citizen science has the potential to increase the collection of oceanographic data from coastal systems where traditional methods are more difficult or expensive to implement. This talk will highlight the Smartfin, a surfboard mounted fin that measures seawater chemical parameters, physical wave characteristics, and GPS location during an ordinary surf session. Created by environmental non-profit Lost Bird, the Smartfin is a partnership between non-profits (Lost Bird and Surfrider Foundation), researchers (Scripps Institution of Oceanography), engineers (Board Formula), and the citizen science community. With an estimated 23 million surfers worldwide the Smartfin could greatly enhance vital data collection in coastal regions as well as raise awareness about our changing coastal and ocean ecosystems.
Crosscut report: Exascale Requirements Reviews, March 9–10, 2017 – Tysons Corner, Virginia. An Office of Science review sponsored by: Advanced Scientific Computing Research, Basic Energy Sciences, Biological and Environmental Research, Fusion Energy Sciences, High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics
Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Hack, James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Riley, Katherine [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF); Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Coffey, Richard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF); Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). ESnet; Straatsma, Tjerk [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Wells, Jack [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Bard, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Dosanjh, Sudip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Monga, Inder [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). ESnet; Papka, Michael E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Argonne Leadership Computing Facility; Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). ESnet
scientists, experts in computer science and applied mathematics, ASCR facility staff, and DOE program managers in ASCR and the respective program offices. The purpose of these reviews was to identify mission-critical scientific problems within the DOE Office of Science (including experimental facilities) and determine the requirements for the exascale ecosystem that would be needed to address those challenges. The exascale ecosystem includes exascale computing systems, high-end data capabilities, efficient software at scale, libraries, tools, and other capabilities. This effort will contribute to the development of a strategic roadmap for ASCR compute and data facility investments and will help the ASCR Facility Division establish partnerships with Office of Science stakeholders. It will also inform the Office of Science research needs and agenda. The results of the six reviews have been published in reports available on the web at http://exascaleage.org/. This report presents a summary of the individual reports and of common and crosscutting findings, and it identifies opportunities for productive collaborations among the DOE SC program offices.
Messerotti, M.; Cobabe-Ammann, E.
The recent developments in Earth and Space Science Informatics led to the availability of advanced tools for data search, visualization and analysis through e.g. the Virtual Observatories or distributed data handling infrastructures. Such facilities are accessible via web interfaces and allow refined data handling to be carried out. Notwithstanding, to date their use is not exploited by the scientific community for a variety of reasons that we will analyze in this work by considering viable strategies to overcome the issue. Similarly, such facilities are powerful tools for teaching and for popularization provided that e-learning programs involving the teachers and respectively the communicators are made available. In this context we will consider the present activities and projects by stressing the role and the legacy of the Electronic Geophysical Year.
Alonso, Meghan M
Commercializing a diagnostic or life science product often encompasses different goals than that of research and grant funding. There are several necessary steps, and a strategy needs to be well defined in order to be successful. Product development requires input from and between various groups within a company and, for academia, outside entities. The product development stakeholder groups/entities are research, marketing, development, regulatory, manufacturing, clinical, safety/efficacy, and quality. After initial research and development, much of the work in product development can be outsourced or jointly created using public-private partnerships. This chapter serves as an overview of the product development process and provides a guide to best define a product strategy.
In the Footsteps of Roger Revelle: A STEM Partnership Between Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Office of Naval Research and Middle School Science Students Bringing Next Generation Science Standards into the Classroom through Ocean Science
Brice, D.; Appelgate, B., Jr.; Mauricio, P.
Now in its tenth year, "In the Footsteps of Roger Revelle" (IFRR) is a middle school science education program that draws student interest, scientific content and coherence with Next Generation Science Standards from real-time research at sea in fields of physical science. As a successful collaboration involving Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO),Office of Naval Research (ONR), and San Marcos Middle School (SMMS), IFRR brings physical oceanography and related sciences to students at the San Marcos Middle School in real-time from research vessels at sea using SIO's HiSeasNet satellite communication system. With a generous grant from ONR, students are able to tour the SIO Ships and spend a day at sea doing real oceanographic data collection and labs. Through real-time and near-realtime broadcasts and webcasts, students are able to share data with scientists and gain an appreciation for the value of Biogeochemical research in the field as it relates to their classroom studies. Interaction with scientists and researchers as well as crew members gives students insights into not only possible career paths, but the vital importance of cutting edge oceanographic research on our society. With their science teacher on the ship as an education outreach specialist or ashore guiding students in their interactions with selected scientists at sea, students observe shipboard research being carried out live via videoconference, Skype, daily e-mails, interviews, digital whiteboard sessions, and web interaction. Students then research, design, develop, deploy, and field-test their own data-collecting physical oceanography instruments in their classroom. The online interactive curriculum models the Next Generation Science Standards encouraging active inquiry and critical thinking with intellectually stimulating problem- solving, enabling students to gain critical insight and skill while investigating some of the most provocative questions of our time, and seeing scientists as
... advice in the areas of science and statistics for the purpose of enhancing the overall impact and... designated six (6) subcommittees: National Institute of Justice (NIJ); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP); Bureau of Justice Assistance; Quality and...
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Science; High Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of... Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP). Federal Advisory Committee Act (Public Law 92- 463, 86 Stat. 770) requires...; High Energy Physics Advisory Panel; U.S. Department of Energy; SC-25/ Germantown Building, 1000...
Heacock, Lucy Vogel
The continuous underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), referred to as the leaky pipeline, has been examined from multiple perspectives internationally, while the attitudes and perceptions of preadolescent girls regarding STEM remain largely ignored. Employing a constructivist paradigm, this qualitative case study explored the perceptions and attitudes of 40 public elementary school female students across three grade levels regarding science, scientists, and career aspirations. Mixed-methods data collections included three survey instruments combined with semi-structured interviews. Self-efficacy, stereotype threat, and career choice theory provided the framework for the overarching research question: What are the attitudes and perceptions of female preadolescent students at the third, fourth, and fifth grade levels regarding science and scientists, and how might these dispositions affect their early development of STEM career aspirations and interests? The Three-Dimensions of Student Attitude Towards Science (TDSAS) instrument informed the exploration of self-efficacy; the modified Draw-A-Scientist Test (mDAST) and Rubric informed the exploration of stereotype threat; and the STEM-Career Interest Survey (CIS) informed the exploration of career aspirations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six participants. Results from this study indicated that the majority of the preadolescent girls thought science was an important topic to study and displayed an attitude of self-confident ability to learn science and be successful in science class. They highly enjoyed scientific experimentation and deeply valued problem solving. While they inferred they did not experience gender bias, the girls did engage in stereotyping scientists. Over half the girls expected to use science in their future careers, while a minority had already determined they wanted to be scientists when they grow up. The study concludes with
Ehrlinger, Joyce; Plant, E Ashby; Hartwig, Marissa K; Vossen, Jordan J; Columb, Corey J; Brewer, Lauren E
Women are vastly underrepresented in the fields of computer science and engineering (CS&E). We examined whether women might view the intellectual characteristics of prototypical individuals in CS&E in more stereotype-consistent ways than men might and, consequently, show less interest in CS&E. We asked 269 U.S. college students (187, 69.5% women) to describe the prototypical computer scientist (Study 1) or engineer (Study 2) through open-ended descriptions as well as through a set of trait ratings. Participants also rated themselves on the same set of traits and rated their similarity to the prototype. Finally, participants in both studies were asked to describe their likelihood of pursuing future college courses and careers in computer science (Study 1) or engineering (Study 2). Across both studies, we found that women offered more stereotype-consistent ratings than did men of the intellectual characteristics of prototypes in CS (Study 1) and engineering (Study 2). Women also perceived themselves as less similar to the prototype than men did. Further, the observed gender differences in prototype perceptions mediated the tendency for women to report lower interest in CS&E fields relative to men. Our work highlights the importance of prototype perceptions for understanding the gender gap in CS&E and suggests avenues for interventions that may increase women's representation in these vital fields.
Sub-seafloor scientific research has the power to spark the imaginations of elementary age children with its mysterious nature, cutting-edge research, and its connections to kid friendly science topics, such as volcanoes, the extinction of dinosaurs and the search for extraterrestrial life. These factors have been utilized to create two interactive eBooks for elementary students and teachers, integrating high quality science information, highly engaging and age-appropriate illustrations, and rhyming text. One book introduces children to the research and discoveries of the JOIDES Resolution research vessel. The second focuses on the discoveries of microbial life in the sub-seafloor. The eBooks present information as traditional, linear, illustrated children's books, but the eBook format allows the book to be available online for free to anyone and allows teachers to project the book on a classroom screen so all students can easily see the illustrations. The iPad versions also provide an interactive, learner-led educational experience, where cognitively appropriate videos, photos and other forms of information can be accessed with the tap of a finger to answer reader questions and enrich their learning experience. These projects provide an example and model of the products that can result from high level and meaningful partnerships between scientists, educators, artists and writers.
Choi, Bernard C K; Li, Liping; Lu, Yaogui; Zhang, Li R; Zhu, Yao; Pak, Anita W P; Chen, Yue; Little, Julian
Bridging the gap between science and policy is an important task in evidence-informed policy making. The objective of this study is to prioritize ways to bridge the gap. The study was based on an online survey of high-ranking scientists and policy makers who have a senior position in universities and governments in the health sector in China and Canada. The sampling frame comprised of universities with schools of public health and medicine and various levels of government in health and public health. Participants included university presidents and professors, and government deputy ministers, directors general and directors working in the health field. Fourteen strategies were presented to the participants for ranking as current ways and ideal ways in the future to bridge the gap between science and policy. Over a 3-month survey period, there were 121 participants in China and 86 in Canada with response rates of 30.0 and 15.9 %, respectively. The top strategies selected by respondents included focus on policy (conducting research that focuses on policy questions), science-policy forums, and policy briefs, both as current ways and ideal ways to bridge the gap between science and policy. Conferences were considered a priority strategy as a current way, but not an ideal way in the future. Canadian participants were more in favor of using information technology (web-based portals and email updates) than their Chinese counterparts. Among Canadian participants, two strategies that were ranked low as current ways (collaboration in study design and collaboration in analysis) became a priority as ideal ways. This could signal a change in thinking in shifting the focus from the "back end" or "downstream" (knowledge dissemination) of the knowledge transfer process to the "front end" or "upstream" (knowledge generation). Our international study has confirmed a number of previously reported priority strategies to bridge the gap between science and policy. More importantly, our
Reeder, Robert Edward
Forty-five textbooks of biology, chemistry, and physics (new and traditional curricula) were analyzed for the extent to which they devoted words to scientists. Each scientist named in each text was identified, and word counts were established for the total words devoted to each scientist and the number of these words which were humanistic by the…
out, is it acceptable to require patients who have been successfully treated with heroin in Canada, to be forced to move back to less effective treatments (treatments that failed to be efficacious in the past? This essay discusses this dilemma and places it in the broader context of ethics, science, and health policy. It makes the case for continuation of the current successful patients in heroin treatment and the institution of heroin treatment to all Canadian patients living with active addictions who qualify.
Sexual harassment within the marine sciences and the ethical dilemmas of collaboration: a case study in the education and reportino methods available to scientists, students, and staff on board a federal research vessel
Within the Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines, a disparity between male and female involvement persists on the order of about 3:1. While roughly 40% of men with STEM degrees go on to pursue STEM jobs, just 26% of women with STEM degrees hold jobs within the STEM field. There are a number of contributing factors to these disparities, but one pernicious factor is the issue of sexual harassment and discrimination. For the marine sciences this is an especially concerning issue because our field research frequently takes place hundreds of miles offshore. Despite education and policy initiatives, sexual harassment pervades many research vessels and is often never addressed, discouraging female involvement and limiting the opportunities available to women. Ethical dilemmas develop when administrators do not want to risk limited field schedules and funding while investigations are conducted and harassment issues resolved. Additionally, scientists and staff often collaborate between institutions, benefitting science but blurring the lines of responsibility. In one such case, administrators within a federal research office declined to report sexual harassment taking place between contracted crew members on their research vessel. The lengthy review process and lack of culpability discourages reporting of sexual harassment and allows problematic situations to occur. This case study reviews the reporting mechanisms currently in place, the barriers to reporting, and the proposed methods for more effectively resolving discriminatory workplaces. Collaboration within marine science is an absolute necessity, and our research benefits from diverse working groups. As marine scientists we have an ethical responsibility to ensure safe working environments for both the scientists and the staff who make our research possible.
Article denouncing the supposed impartiality of signatories of a report released by the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), which accused the Bush administration of systemically suborning objective science to a political agenda (1 page).
... fluctuation in microbial populations. The EPA Office of the Science Advisor's Risk Assessment Forum has.... Kathryn Gallagher, Executive Director, Risk Assessment Forum, Office of the Science Advisor US EPA, Mail... person or organization may nominate qualified individuals in the areas of expertise described above for...
Yore, Larry D.; Hand, Brian M.; Prain, Vaughan
This study attempted to establish an image of a science writer based on a synthesis of writing theory, models, and research literature on academic writing in science and other disciplines and to contrast this image with an actual prototypical image of scientists as writers of science. The synthesis was used to develop a questionnaire to assess scientists' writing habits, beliefs, strategies, and perceptions about print-based language. The questionnaire was administered to 17 scientists from science and applied science departments of a large Midwestern land grant university. Each respondent was interviewed following the completion of the questionnaire with a custom-designed semistructured protocol to elaborate, probe, and extend their written responses. These data were analyzed in a stepwise fashion using the questionnaire responses to establish tentative assertions about the three major foci (type of writing done, criteria of good science writing, writing strategies used) and the interview responses to verify these assertions. Two illustrative cases (a very experienced, male physical scientist and a less experienced, female applied biological scientist) were used to highlight diversity in the sample. Generally, these 17 scientists are driven by the academy's priority of publishing their research results in refereed, peer-reviewed journals. They write their research reports in isolation or as a member of a large research team, target their writing to a few journals that they also read regularly, use writing in their teaching and scholarship to inform and persuade science students and other scientists, but do little border crossing into other discourse communities. The prototypical science writer found in this study did not match the image based on a synthesis of the writing literature in that these scientists perceived writing as knowledge telling not knowledge building, their metacognition of written discourse was tacit, and they used a narrow array of genre
Salvaggio, R. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
In the fall of 1991, through the coordinating efforts of the University of New Mexico and Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Pilot Project on Women and Science was initiated as a year-long study of women scientists at both the university and the laboratory. Its purpose was to gather information directly from women scientists in an attempt to analyze and make recommendations concerning the professional and cultural environment for women in the sciences. This report is an initial attempt to understand the ways in which women scientists view themselves, their profession, and the scientific culture they inhabit. By recording what these women say about their backgrounds and educational experiences, their current positions, the difficult negotiations many have made between their personal and professional lives, and their relative positions inside and outside the scientific community, the report calls attention both to the individual perspectives offered by these women and to the common concerns they share.
Walcott, Phyllis B.
Four units focusing on 16 different Black scientists or inventors who have contributed to American life and research are presented. As part of an interdisciplinary high school science course, the units are designed to help students develop an understanding of and appreciation for the talents of the individuals studied, motivate minority students…
Southward, 55, will takeover next May as the European Space Agency's science director. He will need to balance the aspirations of scientist from the organisations 15 member states with calls to tie the agency more closely to the business and security industries (1 page).
With the proliferation of digital technologies, scientists are exploring various methods for the integration of data to produce scientific discoveries. To maximize the potential of data for science advancement, proper stewardship must be provided to ensure data integrity and usability both for the short- and the long-term. In order to assist…
The BES user facilities provide open access to specialized instrumentation and expertise that enable scientific users from universities, national laboratories, and industry to carry out experiments and develop theories that could not be done at their home institutions. These forefront research facilities require resource commitments well beyond the scope of any non-government institution and open up otherwise inaccessible facets of Nature to scientific inquiry. For approved, peer-reviewed projects, instrument time is available without charge to researchers who intend to publish their results in the open literature. These large-scale user facilities have made significant contributions to various scientific fields, including chemistry, physics, geology, materials science, environmental science, biology, and biomedical science. Over 16,000 scientists and engineers.pdf file (27KB) conduct experiments at BES user facilities annually. Thousands of other researchers collaborate with these users and analyze the data measured at the facilities to publish new scientific findings in peer-reviewed journals.
Johnson, S.W.; Marshall, M.G.; Harrington, M.W.
The United States Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology (OST) has established a program responsible for collecting, administering, continuously updating, and disseminating data on developing technologies intended for the clean-up of the department's weapons complex. The basis of this program originated from information related activities begun in 1991 and has grown to become a state-of-the-art data and information infrastructure, providing a broad range of capabilities that harmonize both the internal and external data and communication requirements of this office. A decision assistance functionality has been maintained and incorporated for use in coordination with a broader information management concept. The OST information inventory maintains operational data sets and information representative of OST activities. The following paper summarizes the operational activities of the Information for Decisions program
Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Brown, Molly
NASA conducted a workshop in July 2009 to bring together their experts in the climate science and climate impacts domains with their institutional stewards. The workshop serves as a pilot for how a federal agency can start to: a) understand current and future climate change risks, b) develop a list of vulnerable institutional capabilities and assets, and c) develop next steps so flexible adaptation strategies can be developed and implemented. 63 attendees (26 scientists and over 30 institutional stewards) participated in the workshop, which extended across all or part of three days.
Elaine Howard Ecklund
Full Text Available Scholars partly attribute the low number of women in academic science to the impact of the science career on family life. Yet, the picture of how men and women in science--at different points in the career trajectory--compare in their perceptions of this impact is incomplete. In particular, we know little about the perceptions and experiences of junior and senior scientists at top universities, institutions that have a disproportionate influence on science, science policy, and the next generation of scientists. Here we show that having fewer children than wished as a result of the science career affects the life satisfaction of science faculty and indirectly affects career satisfaction, and that young scientists (graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who have had fewer children than wished are more likely to plan to exit science entirely. We also show that the impact of science on family life is not just a woman's problem; the effect on life satisfaction of having fewer children than desired is more pronounced for male than female faculty, with life satisfaction strongly related to career satisfaction. And, in contrast to other research, gender differences among graduate students and postdoctoral fellows disappear. Family factors impede talented young scientists of both sexes from persisting to research positions in academic science. In an era when the global competitiveness of US science is at risk, it is concerning that a significant proportion of men and women trained in the select few spots available at top US research universities are considering leaving science and that such desires to leave are related to the impact of the science career on family life. Results from our study may inform university family leave policies for science departments as well as mentoring programs in the sciences.
Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Lincoln, Anne E
Scholars partly attribute the low number of women in academic science to the impact of the science career on family life. Yet, the picture of how men and women in science--at different points in the career trajectory--compare in their perceptions of this impact is incomplete. In particular, we know little about the perceptions and experiences of junior and senior scientists at top universities, institutions that have a disproportionate influence on science, science policy, and the next generation of scientists. Here we show that having fewer children than wished as a result of the science career affects the life satisfaction of science faculty and indirectly affects career satisfaction, and that young scientists (graduate students and postdoctoral fellows) who have had fewer children than wished are more likely to plan to exit science entirely. We also show that the impact of science on family life is not just a woman's problem; the effect on life satisfaction of having fewer children than desired is more pronounced for male than female faculty, with life satisfaction strongly related to career satisfaction. And, in contrast to other research, gender differences among graduate students and postdoctoral fellows disappear. Family factors impede talented young scientists of both sexes from persisting to research positions in academic science. In an era when the global competitiveness of US science is at risk, it is concerning that a significant proportion of men and women trained in the select few spots available at top US research universities are considering leaving science and that such desires to leave are related to the impact of the science career on family life. Results from our study may inform university family leave policies for science departments as well as mentoring programs in the sciences.
Wilmo Ernesto Francisco Junior
Full Text Available Considering the influence of literature on people lives, this study investigates elements concerning views about scientists and scientific work presented in Deception Point, a novel by Dan Brown. Multiple aspects to represent the scientist figure, life and work, emerge from the novel and problematize characteristics that can be considered as a common sense view, or others perspectives based on more contemporaneous philosophical thoughts on science. Reading and analyzing this novel could be an interesting opportunity to insert elements of history and philosophy of science under different focus. This study discusses some elements, from excerpts of the novel, which may become possibilities for debates in Science classes at schools, and in teacher education.
Kinkade, Robert G.; Bedarf, Erwin W.
Evaluated were the role and importance of request-receiver feedback in an information system. Participants were 50 university biological scientists who agreed to place requests for information by telephone with a specially established clearinghouse. One type of receiver was a scientist holding a Ph.D. in biochemistry, with over 20 years biological…
Gorell, F. R.; Martinez, C.
NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration (OE) was created in response to the recommendations of the President's Panel on Ocean Exploration in 2000. With the establishment of OE, NOAA developed a great opportunity to reach out to teachers, students, and the general public to share the excitement of discovery. As exciting expeditions are the core of our NOAA program, outreach efforts are focused around these cruises. Through various initiatives, OE works with the science community to share the excitement of ocean science and discovery with a wide variety of audiences. Initiatives include media events held during port calls, media conference calls arranged with scientists at sea, journalists' participation in expeditions, and select interviews with scientist-explorers. NOAA OE is now poised to initiate a major ongoing satellite-based education and public outreach program from its new dedicated research vessel, the Okeanos Explorer that will become operational in 2008. Through telepresence technology designed by the Institute for Exploration (IFE) in Mystic, CT, expeditions can be managed `virtually' by scientists working from Science Command Centers on land, live education broadcasts can be produced in real-time, and media events can be held through shore-based consoles connected to scientists at sea. Three pilot programs were successfully completed in the past few years demonstrating the potential for this new technology to allow for unlimited access to data, including video, from expeditions, sharing in real-time the excitement of discovery through multiple virtual pathways. News media provide a powerful means to inform and educate the public. In some cases, scientists may believe that interaction with media representatives poses risks unmatched by rewards. While it is important to serve the public's right to know, scientist-explorers on NOAA-sponsored ocean expeditions have a recognized interest in protecting certain data, including images, for a number of legitimate
In the scientific community, the symposium is one formal structure of conversation. Scientists routinely hold symposiums to gather and talk about a common topic. To model this method of communication in the classroom, the author designed an activity in which students conduct their own science symposiums. This article presents the science symposium…
Kuchner, Marc J
It's a tough time to be a scientist: universities are shutting science departments, funding organisations are facing flat budgets, and many newspapers have dropped their science sections altogether. But according to Marc Kuchner, this anti-science climate doesn't have to equal a career death knell - it just means scientists have to be savvier about promoting their work and themselves. In "Marketing for Scientists", he provides clear, detailed advice about how to land a good job, win funding, and shape the public debate. As an astrophysicist at NASA, Kuchner knows that "marketing" can seem like a superficial distraction, whether your daily work is searching for new planets or seeking a cure for cancer. In fact, he argues, it's a critical component of the modern scientific endeavour, not only advancing personal careers but also society's knowledge. Kuchner approaches marketing as a science in itself. He translates theories about human interaction and sense of self into methods for building relationships - one o...
Rubin, Edna; Cohen, Ariel
This study investigated the image of scientists held by Israeli pre-service teachers, the majority of whom were female. The population consisted of students belonging to two cultures, Hebrew-speaking and Arabic-speaking. The DAST ('Draw-a-Scientist-Test') tool and other tools, some of which were developed specifically for this research, tested the image of the scientist as perceived by the participants. It was found that the image of the scientist is perceived as predominantly male, a physicist or a chemist, working in a laboratory typical of the eighteenth, nineteenth or the early-twentieth century. Students did not differentiate between scientists and inventors. Different images were held in the two cultures. Most of the Arabic-speaking students put Classical Islamic scientists near the top of their lists and thought of the scientist as an Arab male, while the Hebrew-speaking students' was as a typical Western male. Recommendations, resulting from the findings, for developing a new learning unit for the purpose of altering stereotypes are suggested.
Mabry, Patricia L; Olster, Deborah H; Morgan, Glen D; Abrams, David B
Fueled by the rapid pace of discovery, humankind's ability to understand the ultimate causes of preventable common disease burdens and to identify solutions is now reaching a revolutionary tipping point. Achieving optimal health and well-being for all members of society lies as much in the understanding of the factors identified by the behavioral, social, and public health sciences as by the biological ones. Accumulating advances in mathematical modeling, informatics, imaging, sensor technology, and communication tools have stimulated several converging trends in science: an emerging understanding of epigenomic regulation; dramatic successes in achieving population health-behavior changes; and improved scientific rigor in behavioral, social, and economic sciences. Fostering stronger interdisciplinary partnerships to bring together the behavioral-social-ecologic models of multilevel "causes of the causes" and the molecular, cellular, and, ultimately, physiological bases of health and disease will facilitate breakthroughs to improve the public's health. The strategic vision of the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is rooted in a collaborative approach to addressing the complex and multidimensional issues that challenge the public's health. This paper describes OBSSR's four key programmatic directions (next-generation basic science, interdisciplinary research, systems science, and a problem-based focus for population impact) to illustrate how interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary perspectives can foster the vertical integration of research among biological, behavioral, social, and population levels of analysis over the lifespan and across generations. Interdisciplinary and multilevel approaches are critical both to the OBSSR's mission of integrating behavioral and social sciences more fully into the NIH scientific enterprise and to the overall NIH mission of utilizing science in the pursuit of
Thanks to the rapid developments in science and technology in recent decades, especially in the past two decades, forensic sciences have been making invaluable contributions to criminal justice systems. With scientific evaluation of physical evidence, policing has become more effective in fighting crime and criminals. On the other hand, law enforcement personnel have made mistakes during the detection, protection, collection, and evaluation of physical evidence. Law enforcement personnel, especially patrol officers, have been criticized for ignoring or overlooking physical evidence at crime scenes. This study, conducted in a large American police department, was aimed to determine the perceptions of patrol officers, their supervisors and administrators, detectives, and crime scene technicians about the forensic science needs of patrol officers. The results showed no statistically significant difference among the perceptions of the said groups. More than half of the respondents perceived that 14 out of 16 areas of knowledge were important for patrol officers to have: crime scene documentation, evidence collection, interviewing techniques, firearm evidence, latent and fingerprint evidence, blood evidence, death investigation information, DNA evidence, document evidence, electronically recorded evidence, trace evidence, biological fluid evidence, arson and explosive evidence, and impression evidence. Less than half of the respondents perceived forensic entomology and plant evidence as important for patrol officers.
This collective case study examines how four contemporary British scientists and popular science writers, Stephen Hawking, Richard Dawkins, Susan Greenfield and James Lovelock, are portrayed in mass media as celebrities. It finds that the scientists’ private and public lives merge in their representations, their images commodified and marketed by the cultural industries, their mediated personae embodying abstract ideas of truth and reason. The celebrity scientists base their authority on thei...
Reyes Gonzalez, Leonardo; Veloso, Francisco
This paper analyzes the influence key scientists have in the development of a science and technology system. In particular, this work appraises the influence that star scientists have on the productivity and impact of young faculty, as well as on the likelihood that these young researchers become a leading personality in science. Our analysis confirms previous results that eminent scientist have a prime role in the development of a scientific system, especially within the context of an emerging economy like Mexico. In particular, in terms of productivity and visibility, this work shows that between 1984 and 2001 the elite group of physicists in Mexico (approximate 10% of all scientists working in physics and its related fields) published 42% of all publications, received 50% of all citations and bred 18% to 26% of new entrants. In addition our work shows that scientists that enter the system by the hand of a highly productive researcher increased their productivity on average by 28% and the ones that did it by the hand of a highly visible scientist received on average 141% more citations, vis-à-vis scholars that did not published their first manuscripts with an eminent scientist. Furthermore, scholars that enter the system by the hand of a highly productive researcher were on average 2.5 more likely to also become a star. PMID:29543855
Reyes Gonzalez, Leonardo; González Brambila, Claudia N; Veloso, Francisco
This paper analyzes the influence key scientists have in the development of a science and technology system. In particular, this work appraises the influence that star scientists have on the productivity and impact of young faculty, as well as on the likelihood that these young researchers become a leading personality in science. Our analysis confirms previous results that eminent scientist have a prime role in the development of a scientific system, especially within the context of an emerging economy like Mexico. In particular, in terms of productivity and visibility, this work shows that between 1984 and 2001 the elite group of physicists in Mexico (approximate 10% of all scientists working in physics and its related fields) published 42% of all publications, received 50% of all citations and bred 18% to 26% of new entrants. In addition our work shows that scientists that enter the system by the hand of a highly productive researcher increased their productivity on average by 28% and the ones that did it by the hand of a highly visible scientist received on average 141% more citations, vis-à-vis scholars that did not published their first manuscripts with an eminent scientist. Furthermore, scholars that enter the system by the hand of a highly productive researcher were on average 2.5 more likely to also become a star.
Full Text Available This article explores whether some scientists have now actually been developing a type of science apt to be published as a piece of news, yet lacking a relevant scientific interest. Possibly, behind this behaviour there may be the present working culture, in which scientists live under the pressure of the dictatorship of the Science Citation Index (SCI of the reference journals. This hypothesis is supported by a study demonstrating that there is a direct relation between publishing scientific results in the press and a subsequent increase in the SCI index. Many cases are here described, selected among the papers published in Nature that – according to experts – have a media interest rather than a scientific one. Furthermore, the case of the Dolly sheep cloning is studied as a paradigm for a situation in which media coverage actually destroyed the research group.
Full Text Available This article explores whether some scientists have now actually been developing a type of science apt to be published as a piece of news, yet lacking a relevant scientific interest. Possibly, behind this behaviour there may be the present working culture, in which scientists live under the pressure of the dictatorship of the Science Citation Index (SCI of the reference journals. This hypothesis is supported by a study demonstrating that there is a direct relation between publishing scientific results in the press and a subsequent increase in the SCI index. Many cases are here described, selected among the papers published in Nature that – according to experts – have a media interest rather than a scientific one. Furthermore, the case of the Dolly sheep cloning is studied as a paradigm for a situation in which media coverage actually destroyed the research group.
Abraham, J. A.; Weymann, R.; Mandia, S. A.; Ashley, M.
Scientific studies which directly impact the larger society require an engagement between the scientists and the larger public. With respect to research on climate change, many third-party groups report on scientific findings and thereby serve as an intermediary between the scientist and the public. In many cases, the third-party reporting misinterprets the findings and conveys inaccurate information to the media and the public. To remedy this, many scientists are now taking a more active role in conveying their work directly to interested parties. In addition, some scientists are taking the further step of engaging with the general public to answer basic questions related to climate change - even on sub-topics which are unrelated to scientists' own research. Nevertheless, many scientists are reluctant to engage the general public or the media. The reasons for scientific reticence are varied but most commonly are related to fear of public engagement, concern about the time required to properly engage the public, or concerns about the impact to their professional reputations. However, for those scientists who are successful, these engagement activities provide many benefits. Scientists can increase the impact of their work, and they can help society make informed choices on significant issues, such as mitigating global warming. Here we provide some concrete steps that scientists can take to ensure that their public engagement is successful. These steps include: (1) cultivating relationships with reporters, (2) crafting clear, easy to understand messages that summarize their work, (3) relating science to everyday experiences, and (4) constructing arguments which appeal to a wide-ranging audience. With these steps, we show that scientists can efficiently deal with concerns that would otherwise inhibit their public engagement. Various resources will be provided that allow scientists to continue work on these key steps.
To provide needed technologies for site remediation, the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology (OST) is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater. The Technology Investment Decision model serves as a framework for technology management in OST. Seven technology maturation stages are used in the model. These stages run from basic research through implementation. The Innovative Technology Summary Reports (ITSRs) provide a technical synopsis of an individual technology that has been developed. An ITSR is prepared for each technology that is successfully demonstrated in the field. The information required to produce an ITSR is collected as the technology matures through the Technology Investment Decision Process. As of July 1996 there have been thirteen ITSRs completed. This paper describes those thirteen technologies
... nitrogen in the environment. At the global scale, reactive nitrogen from human activities now exceeds that... in the environment and that nitrogen cycling through biogeochemical pathways has a variety of... a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board Integrated Nitrogen Committee AGENCY...
21 October 2008 - LHC Inauguration - European Commissioner for Science and Research J. Potocnik welcomed by CERN Director-General R. Aymar, CERN Chief Scientific Officer J. Engelen and CERN Financial Officer S. Lettow.
CERN Photo Service
21 October 2008 - LHC Inauguration - European Commissioner for Science and Research J. Potocnik welcomed by CERN Director-General R. Aymar, CERN Chief Scientific Officer J. Engelen and CERN Financial Officer S. Lettow.
... Secretary, 200 Independence Ave. SW., Washington, DC 20201, 202-690-7151. Part A, Office of the Secretary... AR. 10 Organization, delete ``E. Office of the Chief Scientist (ARC)'' and replace it with ``E. Office of Science and Technology (ARC).'' III. Under Section AR.10 Organization, add a new line, ``I...
Clune, T.; Seablom, M. S.; Moe, K.
The NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) regularly makes investments for nurturing advanced concepts in information technology to enable rapid, low-cost acquisition, processing and visualization of Earth science data in support of future NASA missions and climate change research. In 2012, the National Research Council published a mid-term assessment of the 2007 decadal survey for future spacemissions supporting Earth science and applications . The report stated, "Earth sciences have advanced significantly because of existing observational capabilities and the fruit of past investments, along with advances in data and information systems, computer science, and enabling technologies." The report found that NASA had responded favorably and aggressively to the decadal survey and noted the role of the recent ESTO solicitation for information systems technologies that partnered with the NASA Applied Sciences Program to support the transition into operations. NASA's future missions are key stakeholders for the ESTO technology investments. Also driving these investments is the need for the Agency to properly address questions regarding the prediction, adaptation, and eventual mitigation of climate change. The Earth Science Division has championed interdisciplinary research, recognizing that the Earth must be studied as a complete system in order toaddress key science questions . Information technology investments in the low-mid technology readiness level (TRL) range play a key role in meeting these challenges. ESTO's Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program invests in higher risk / higher reward technologies that solve the most challenging problems of the information processing chain. This includes the space segment, where the information pipeline begins, to the end user, where knowledge is ultimatelyadvanced. The objectives of the program are to reduce the risk, cost, size, and development time of Earth Science space-based and ground
The Department of Energy's Office of Science (Science) and its facility contractors are aggressive users of information technology (IT) to support fundamental research in areas such as energy, environmental remediation and computational sciences. Of its $4 billion Fiscal Year 2008 budget, Science spent about $287 million to manage its IT program. This included cyber security activities, acquisition of hardware and software, and support service costs used to maintain the operating environments necessary to support the missions of the program. Prior Office of Inspector General reports have identified various issues with Science's management of its IT programs and resources. For instance, our report on Facility Contractor Acquisition and Management of Information Technology Hardware (DOE/IG-0768, June 2007) noted that the Science sites reviewed spent more than necessary when acquiring IT hardware. In another example, our review of The Department's Efforts to Implement Common Information Technology Services at Headquarters (DOE/IG-0763, March 2007) disclosed that Science's reluctance to adopt the Department of Energy Common Operating Environment (DOE-COE) at Headquarters contributed to the Department's inability to fully realize potential cost savings through consolidation and economies of scale. In light of the magnitude of the Office of Science IT program and previously identified program weaknesses, we initiated this audit to determine whether Science adequately managed its IT resources. Science had taken a number of actions to improve its cyber security posture and align its program to Federal requirements. Yet, our review disclosed that it had not taken some basic steps to enhance security and reduce costs. In particular, we found that: (1) For their non-scientific computing environments, all seven of the field sites reviewed (two Federal, five contractor) had implemented security configurations that were less stringent than those included
Estes, John E.
This document constitutes the final technical report for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Grant NAGW-3172. This grant was instituted to provide for the conduct of research under the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA's) Universities Earth System Scientist Program (UESSP) for the Office of Mission to Planet Earth (OMTPE) at NASA Headquarters. USRA was tasked with the following requirements in support of the Universities Earth System Scientists Programs: (1) Bring to OMTPE fundamental scientific and technical expertise not currently resident at NASA Headquarters covering the broad spectrum of Earth science disciplines; (2) Conduct basic research in order to help establish the state of the science and technological readiness, related to NASA issues and requirements, for the following, near-term, scientific uncertainties, and data/information needs in the areas of global climate change, clouds and radiative balance, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and the processes that control them, solid earth, oceans, polar ice sheets, land-surface hydrology, ecological dynamics, biological diversity, and sustainable development; (3) Evaluate the scientific state-of-the-field in key selected areas and to assist in the definition of new research thrusts for missions, including those that would incorporate the long-term strategy of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). This will, in part, be accomplished by study and evaluation of the basic science needs of the community as they are used to drive the development and maintenance of a global-scale observing system, the focused research studies, and the implementation of an integrated program of modeling, prediction, and assessment; and (4) Produce specific recommendations and alternative strategies for OMTPE that can serve as a basis for interagency and national and international policy on issues related to Earth sciences.
Hagan, Wendy L.
Project G.R.O.W. is an ecology-based research project developed for high school biology students. The curriculum was designed based on how students learn and awareness of the nature of science and scientific practices so that students would design and carry out scientific investigations using real data from a local coastal wetland. This was a scientist-teacher collaboration between a CSULB biologist and high school biology teacher. Prior to implementing the three-week research project, students had multiple opportunities to practice building requisite skills via 55 lessons focusing on the nature of science, scientific practices, technology, Common Core State Standards of reading, writing, listening and speaking, and Next Generation Science Standards. Project G.R.O.W. culminated with student generated research papers and oral presentations. Outcomes reveal students struggle with constructing explanations and the use of Excel to create meaningful graphs. They showed gains in data organization, analysis, teamwork and aspects of the nature of science.
This teacher education program will provide a model for recruiting, educating and retaining high ability students to become mathematics and science lead teachers in elementary schools. The quality experiences and support provided these students will help them develop the knowledge and attitudes necessary to provide leadership for elementary mathematics and science programs. Students will have research experiences at the Ames Laboratory, high quality field experiences with nationally recognized mathematics and science teachers in local schools and opportunities to meaningfully connect these two experiences. This program, collaboratively designed and implemented by scientists, teacher educators and classroom teachers, should provide a replicatable model for other teacher education institutions. In addition, materials developed for the project should help other laboratories interface more effectively with K-8 schools and help other teacher education programs incorporate real science and mathematics experience into their curriculum.
Abell, Sandra; Martini, Mariana; George, Melissa
Describes a science methods course for elementary education majors in which students investigated the phases of the moon. Concludes that students did not make direct connections between their science learning activities and the nature of science. Provides a set of recommendations related to the nature of science and moon study. (Contains 27…
Ballabeni, Andrea; Boggio, Andrea; Hemenway, David
Basic research in the biomedical field generates both knowledge that has a value per se regardless of its possible practical outcome and knowledge that has the potential to produce more practical benefits. Policies can increase the benefit potential to society of basic biomedical research by offering various kinds of incentives to basic researchers. In this paper we argue that soft incentives or "nudges" are particularly promising. However, to be well designed, these incentives must take into account the motivations, goals and views of the basic scientists. In the paper we present the results of an investigation that involved more than 300 scientists at Harvard Medical School and affiliated institutes. The results of this study suggest that some soft incentives could be valuable tools to increase the transformative value of fundamental investigations without affecting the spirit of the basic research and scientists' work satisfaction. After discussing the findings, we discuss a few examples of nudges for basic researchers in the biomedical fields.
Roberts, Scott F; Fischhoff, Martin A; Sakowski, Stacey A; Feldman, Eva L
Significant increases in National Institutes of Health (NIH) spending on medical research have not produced corresponding increases in new treatments and cures. Instead, laboratory discoveries remain in what has been termed the "valley of death," the gap between bench research and clinical application. Recently, there has been considerable discussion in the literature and scientific community about the causes of this phenomenon and how to bridge the abyss. In this article, the authors examine one possible explanation: Clinician-scientists' declining role in the medical research enterprise has had a dilatory effect on the successful translation of laboratory breakthroughs into new clinical applications. In recent decades, the percentage of MDs receiving NIH funding has drastically decreased compared with PhDs. The growing gap between the research and clinical enterprises has resulted in fewer scientists with a true understanding of clinical problems as well as scientists who are unable to or uninterested in gleaning new basic research hypotheses from failed clinical trials. The NIH and many U.S. medical schools have recognized the decline of the clinician-scientist as a major problem and adopted innovative programs to reverse the trend. However, more radical action may be required, including major changes to the NIH peer-review process, greater funding for translational research, and significantly more resources for the training, debt relief, and early career support of potential clinician-scientists. Such improvements are required for clinician-scientists to conduct translational research that bridges the valley of death and transforms biomedical research discoveries into tangible clinical treatments and technologies.
Almgren, Ann [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DeMar, Phil [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Vetter, Jeffrey [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Riley, Katherine [Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne, IL (United States); Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bard, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Coffey, Richard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Science Network; Dosanjh, Sudip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hack, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Monga, Inder [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Science Network; Papka, Michael E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Science Network; Straatsma, Tjerk [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wells, Jack [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bernholdt, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bethel, Wes [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bosilca, George [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Cappello, Frank [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gamblin, Todd [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Habib, Salman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hill, Judy [Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hollingsworth, Jeffrey K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); McInnes, Lois Curfman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mohror, Kathryn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moore, Shirley [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moreland, Ken [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roser, Rob [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Shende, Sameer [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Shipman, Galen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Samuel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
The widespread use of computing in the American economy would not be possible without a thoughtful, exploratory research and development (R&D) community pushing the performance edge of operating systems, computer languages, and software libraries. These are the tools and building blocks — the hammers, chisels, bricks, and mortar — of the smartphone, the cloud, and the computing services on which we rely. Engineers and scientists need ever-more specialized computing tools to discover new material properties for manufacturing, make energy generation safer and more efficient, and provide insight into the fundamentals of the universe, for example. The research division of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Advanced Scientific Computing and Research (ASCR Research) ensures that these tools and building blocks are being developed and honed to meet the extreme needs of modern science. See also http://exascaleage.org/ascr/ for additional information.
The 1983 annual report highlights research in five areas funded by the Ecological Sciences Division of the Office of Energy Research. The five areas include: western semi-arid ecosystems; marine sciences; mobilization fate and effects of chemical wastes; radionuclide fate and effects; and statistical and quantitative research. The work was accomplished under 19 individual projects. Individual projects are indexed separately
The 1983 annual report highlights research in five areas funded by the Ecological Sciences Division of the Office of Energy Research. The five areas include: western semi-arid ecosystems; marine sciences; mobilization fate and effects of chemical wastes; radionuclide fate and effects; and statistical and quantitative research. The work was accomplished under 19 individual projects. Individual projects are indexed separately.
Gorm Hansen, Birgitte
their core i nterests, 2) developing a selfsupply of industry interests by becoming entrepreneurs and thus creating their own compliant industry partner and 3) balancing resources within a larger collective of researchers, thus countering changes in the influx of funding caused by shifts in political...... knowledge", Danish research policy seems to have helped develop politically and economically "robust scientists". Scientific robustness is acquired by way of three strategies: 1) tasting and discriminating between resources so as to avoid funding that erodes academic profiles and push scientists away from...
Skinner, Ellen; Saxton, Emily; Currie, Cailin; Shusterman, Gwen
As part of long-standing efforts to promote undergraduates' success in science, researchers have investigated the instructional strategies and motivational factors that promote student learning and persistence in science coursework and majors. This study aimed to create a set of brief measures that educators and researchers can use as tools to examine the undergraduate motivational experience in science classes. To identify key motivational processes, we drew on self-determination theory (SDT), which holds that students have fundamental needs - to feel competent, related, and autonomous - that fuel their intrinsic motivation. When educational experiences meet these needs, students engage more energetically and learn more, cumulatively contributing to a positive identity as a scientist. Based on information provided by 1013 students from 8 classes in biology, chemistry, and physics, we constructed conceptually focused and psychometrically sound survey measures of three sets of motivational factors: (1) students' appraisals of their own competence, autonomy, and relatedness; (2) the quality of students' behavioural and emotional engagement in academic work; and (3) students' emerging identities as scientists, including their science identity, purpose in science, and science career plans. Using an iterative confirmatory process, we tested short item sets for unidimensionality and internal consistency, and then cross-validated them. Tests of measurement invariance showed that scales were generally comparable across disciplines. Most importantly, scales and final course grades showed correlations consistent with predictions from SDT. These measures may provide a window on the student motivational experience for educators, researchers, and interventionists who aim to improve the quality of undergraduate science teaching and learning.
Saundry, Peter [National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington, DC (United States)
On January 28-30, 2014, the National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) hosted its 14th National Confrerence and Global Forum on Science, Policy and the Environment: Building Climate Solutions. The conference was held at the Hyatt Regency Crystal City near the Washington, DC National Airport. The conference engaged over 1,100 key individuals from a variety of fields, including natural and social sciences, humanities and engineering and government and policy, as well as business and civil society. They developed actionable partnerships, strategies and tactics that advanced solutions minimizing the impacts of anthropogenic climate change. The conference was organized around the two major areas where climate actions are necessary:  The Built Environment; and,  Agriculture and Natural Resources. This “multi-sector approach” of the conference enables participants to work across traditional boundaries of discipline, science, policy and application by engaging a diverse team of scientists, public- and private-sector program managers, and policy-makers. The confernce was two and a half days long. During this time, over 200 speakers presented in 8 keynote addresses, 7 plenary roundtable discussions, 30 symposia and 23 workshops. The goal of the workshops was to generate additional action through development of improved strategies, tools, and partnerships. During the workshops, participants developed actionable outcomes, committed to further collaboration and implementation, and outlined follow-up activities for post-conference. A list of recommendations from the workshop follows this summary. NCSE’s annual conference has become a signature event for the organization, recognized for its notable presenters, innovative programming, and outcome-oriented approach. Each year, over 1,100 participants attend the event, representing federal agencies, higher education institutions, state and local governments, non-governmental and civic organizations
The importance of science to the economy and for the progression of society is widely acknowledged. Yet, there are concerns that minority ethnic students in the UK are underrepresented, and even excluded, from post-compulsory science education and careers "in" science. Drawing on an exploratory study of 46 semi-structured interviews with…
Kruse, Jerrid W.; Wilcox, Jesse L.
Just as science education is too often limited to the acquisition of facts, technology education is too often limited to proficient use of technology. Neither of these goals fully realize a robust definition of science and technology literacy. To achieve greater science and technology literacy, students must understand the natures of both science…
Galindo, Charles; Allen, Jaclyn; Garcia, Javier; Hrrera, Stephanie
The National Math and Science Initiative states that American students are falling behind in the essential subjects of math and science, putting our position in the global economy at risk a foreboding statement that has caused the U.S. to re-evaluate how we view STEM education. Developing science and engineering related out of school programs that expose middle school students to math and science in a nontraditional university environment has the potential to motivate young students to look at the physical sciences in an exciting out of the norm environment.
[Applications and spproved projects of general program, young scientist fund and fund for less developed region of national natural science funds in discipline of Chinese materia medica, NSFC in 2011].
Han, Liwei; Wang, Yueyun; He, Wenbin; Zhang, Junjie; Bi, Minggang; Shang, Hongcai; Shang, Deyang; Wang, Chang'en
The applications accepted and approved by general program, young scientist fund and fund for less developed region of national natural science funds in the discipline of Chinese materia medica, NSFC in 2011 have been introduced. The character and problems in these applications have been analyzed to give a reference to the scientists in the field of Chinese material medica.
Full Text Available Effective integration in science and knowledge co-production is a challenge that crosses research boundaries, climate regions, languages and cultures. Early career scientists are crucial in the identification of, and engagement with, obstacles and opportunities in the development of innovative solutions to complex and interconnected problems. On 25–31 May 2014, International Council for Science and International Social Science Council, in collaboration with the International Network of Next-Generation Ecologists and Institute for New Economic Thinking: Young Scholars Initiative, assembled a group of early career researchers with diverse backgrounds and research perspectives to reflect on and debate relevant issues around ecosystems and human wellbeing in the transition towards green economy, funded by the German Research Foundation, at Villa Vigoni, Italy. As a group of young scientists, we have come to a consensus that collaboration and communication among a diverse group of peers from different geographic regions could break down the barriers to multi-disciplinary research designed to solve complex global-scale problems. We also propose to establish a global systematic thinking to monitor global socio-ecological systems and to develop criteria for a “good” anthropocene. Finally, we aim to bridge gaps among research, the media, and education from a governance perspective linking with “sustainable development goals”.
Literary fiction has seldom been seriously considered as a mode of science communication. Here, I review novels from the 19th century canon of English literature in which characters either have, or aspire to have, substantive professional scientific roles to see what insights they provide into the practice of science in the Victorian and Edwardian eras. They reflect the historical transition of science from an intellectual hobby to a paid occupation, but also reveal that while a career in science became possible for a wider range of people, it seldom allowed these new entrants to undertake fundamental scientific research.
In the collection of works there are the abstracts of reports included in the program of XIII International Telecommunication Conference of students and young scientists Young people and science which took place in the Internet in November-December, 2009 on the NRNU MEPhI site http://www.molod.mephi.ru/. The topics of the conference cover a wide range of problems: applied physics and energetics, ecology, development of new materials, medical physics, nanotechnologies, automatics and electronics, information-telecommunication systems and others [ru
Wright, D. J.
In the early 1990s the author came of age as the technology driving the geographic information system or GIS was beginning to successfully 'handle' geospatial data at a range of scales and formats, and a wide array of information technology products emerged from an expanding GIS industry. However, that small community struggled to reflect the diverse research efforts at play in understanding the deeper issues surrounding geospatial data, and the impediments to that effective use of that data. It was from this need that geographic information science or GIScience arose, to ensure in part that GIS did not fall into the trap of being a technology in search of applications, a one-time, one-off, non-intellectual 'bag of tricks' with no substantive theory underpinning it, and suitable only for a static period of time (e.g., Goodchild, 1992). The community has since debated the issue of "tool versus science' which has also played a role in defining GIS as an actual profession. In turn, GIS has contributed to "methodological versus substantive" questions in science, leading to understandings of how the Earth works versus how the Earth should look. In the author's experience, the multidimensional structuring and scaling data, with integrative and innovative approaches to analyzing, modeling, and developing extensive and spatial data from selected places on land and at sea, have revealed how theory and application are in no way mutually exclusive, and it may often be application that advances theory, rather than vice versa. Increasingly, both the system and science of geographic information have welcomed strong collaborations among computer scientists, information scientists, and domain scientists to solve complex scientific questions. As such, they have paralleled the emergence and acceptance of "data science." And now that we are squarely in an era of regional- to global-scale observation and simulation of the Earth, produce data that are too big, move too fast, and do not
Patchen, Amie K.; Zhang, Lin; Barnett, Michael
This study examines an out-of-school time program targeting elementary-aged youth from populations that are typically underrepresented in science fields (primarily African-American, Hispanic, and/or English Language Learner participants). The program aimed to foster positive attitudes toward science among youth by engaging them in growing plants…
Faller, S. Elisabeth
Science teachers are often charged with providing discipline-specific literacy instruction. However, little is known about the reading and writing genres, or text types, typically found in these classrooms. In particular, there is a lack of knowledge about what opportunities adolescents have to engage with the genres privileged in science to learn…
Heilbronner, Nancy N.
Parents and teachers may suspect early science talent in children, which frequently manifests itself through insatiable curiosity and an intense interest in one or more areas of science. However, sometimes they struggle with identification and then knowing what to do to nurture these talents. The author of this practical article provides a…
Counsell, Shelly L.; Wright, Brian L.
Physical science activities provide multiple and varied opportunities for young children to actively observe, engage in, interact with, and interpret experiences in the physical world within diverse, inclusive settings. If all learners are to gain access to, fully participate in, and achieve maximum profit from early science opportunities,…
Harigel, G G
This seminar is intended to give some practical help for CERN guides,who are confronted with questions from visitors concerning the purpose of research in general and - in paticular - of the work in our laboratory, its possible application and benefits.The dual use of scientific results will be emphasised by examples across natural sciences. Many investigations were neutral,others aimed at peaceful and beneficial use for humanity, a few were made for destructive purposes. Researchers have no or very little influence on the application of their results. The interplay between natural scientists ,social scientists,politicians,and their dependence on economic factors will be discussed.
Červinková, Alice; Linková, Marcela
Roč. 4, 1-2 (2005), s. 23-31 ISSN 1214-1909. [International Networking for Young Scientists Event with Jenny Simanowitz and . Vídeň, 28.02.05-01.03.05] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05OK459 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : young women researchers * networking Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://www.zenyaveda.cz/html/index.php?s1=1&s2=3&s3=4&lng=12&PHPSESSID=f20860b9711b5929d6c2a4dbc16511bb
... of nationally and internationally recognized scientists and engineers with demonstrated expertise and..., invasive species, water chemistry, environmental engineering, environmental monitoring, and environmental...
Ballabeni, Andrea; Boggio, Andrea; Hemenway, David
Basic research in the biomedical field generates both knowledge that has a value per se regardless of its possible practical outcome and knowledge that has the potential to produce more practical benefits. Policies can increase the benefit potential to society of basic biomedical research by offering various kinds of incentives to basic researchers. In this paper we argue that soft incentives or “nudges” are particularly promising. However, to be well designed, these incentives must take into account the motivations, goals and views of the basic scientists. In the paper we present the results of an investigation that involved more than 300 scientists at Harvard Medical School and affiliated institutes. The results of this study suggest that some soft incentives could be valuable tools to increase the transformative value of fundamental investigations without affecting the spirit of the basic research and scientists’ work satisfaction. After discussing the findings, we discuss a few examples of nudges for basic researchers in the biomedical fields. PMID:24795807
Costas, Rodrigo; van Leeuwen, Thed N; van Raan, Anthony F J
The obsolescence and "durability" of scientific literature have been important elements of debate during many years, especially regarding the proper calculation of bibliometric indicators. The effects of "delayed recognition" on impact indicators have importance and are of interest not only to bibliometricians but also among research managers and scientists themselves. It has been suggested that the "Mendel syndrome" is a potential drawback when assessing individual researchers through impact measures. If publications from particular researchers need more time than "normal" to be properly acknowledged by their colleagues, the impact of these researchers may be underestimated with common citation windows. In this paper, we answer the question whether the bibliometric indicators for scientists can be significantly affected by the Mendel syndrome. Applying a methodology developed previously for the classification of papers according to their durability (Costas et al., J Am Soc Inf Sci Technol 61(8):1564-1581, 2010a; J Am Soc Inf Sci Technol 61(2):329-339, 2010b), the scientific production of 1,064 researchers working at the Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC) in three different research areas has been analyzed. Cases of potential "Mendel syndrome" are rarely found among researchers and these cases do not significantly outperform the impact of researchers with a standard pattern of reception in their citations. The analysis of durability could be included as a parameter for the consideration of the citation windows used in the bibliometric analysis of individuals.
Nadeau, P. A.; Flores, K. E.; Zirakparvar, N. A.; Grcevich, J.; Ustunisik, G. K.; Kinzler, R. J.; Macdonald, M.; Mathez, E. A.; Mac Low, M.
Educators and research scientists at the American Museum of Natural History are collaborating to implement a teacher education program with the goal of addressing a critical shortage of qualified Earth Science teachers in New York State (NYS), particularly in high-needs schools with diverse populations. This pilot program involves forging a one-of-a-kind partnership between a world-class research museum and high-needs schools in New York City. By placing teaching candidates in such schools, the project has potential to engage, motivate, and improve Earth Science achievement and interest in STEM careers of thousands of students from traditionally underrepresented populations including English language learners, special education students, and racial minority groups. The program, which is part of the state's Race to the Top initiative, is approved by the NYS Board of Regents and will prepare a total of 50 candidates in two cohorts to earn a Board of Regents-awarded Masters of Arts in Teaching (MAT) degree with a specialization in Earth Science for grades 7-12. The museum is in a unique position of being able to break traditional educational barriers as a result of a long history of interdisciplinary collaborations between educators and research scientists, as well as being the only stand-alone science graduate degree-granting museum in the United States. The intensive 15-month curriculum for MAT candidates comprises one summer of museum teaching residency, a full academic year of residency in high-needs public schools, one summer of science research residency, and concurrent graduate-level courses in Earth and space sciences, pedagogy, and adolescent psychology. We emphasize field-based geological studies and experiential learning, in contrast to many traditional teacher education programs. In an effort to ensure that MAT candidates have a robust knowledge base in Earth science, and per NYS Department of Education requirements, we selected candidates with strong
Reint-Jan Renes; Sander Hermsen; Remko van der Lugt; Sander Mulder
Designing solutions for complex behaviour change processes can be greatly aided by integrating insights from the behavioural sciences into design practice. However, this integration is hampered by the relative inaccessibility of behavioral scientific knowledge. Working in a multidisciplinary of
Mirkin, B M; Naumova, L G
L.G. Ramensky (1884-1953) was an outstanding Soviet geobotanist of the first part of XX century. Considered is his theoretical legacy and its contribution to modern vegetation science. L.G. Ramensky formulated the principle of vegetation continuum based on which the modern paradigm of vegetation science has been put into shape. The scientist made a contribution to the development of such important theoretical conceptions as types of plant strategy, coenosis and coenobiosis (coexistence of species), patterns of interannual variability in plant communities, ecological successions. The unique ecological scales were established by L.G. Ramensky that characterize the distribution of 1400 species over the gradients of soil moistening, richness, and salinization as well as moistening variability, pastoral digression, and alluvial intensity. He came out against mechanistic notions by V.N. Sukachev on a biogeocoenosis structure. The scientist did not offer his own method of plant communities classification but his well-reasoned criticism of dominant classification played a great role in adoption of floristical classification principles (Braun-Blanquet approach) by phytocenology in our country.
Developing Marine Science Instructional Materials Using Integrated Scientist-Educator Collaborative Design Teams: A Discussion of Challenges and Success Developing Real Time Data Projects for the COOL Classroom
McDonnell, J.; Duncan, R. G.; Glenn, S.
Current reforms in science education place increasing demands on teachers and students to engage not only with scientific content but also to develop an understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry (AAAS, 1993; NRC, 1996). Teachers are expected to engage students with authentic scientific practices including posing questions, conducting observations, analyzing data, developing explanations and arguing about them using evidence. This charge is challenging for many reasons most notably the difficulty in obtaining meaningful data about complex scientific phenomena that can be used to address relevant scientific questions that are interesting and understandable to K-12 students. We believe that ocean sciences provide an excellent context for fostering scientific inquiry in the classroom. Of particular interest are the technological and scientific advances of Ocean Observing Systems, which allow scientists to continuously interact with instruments, facilities, and other scientists to explore the earth-ocean- atmosphere system remotely. Oceanographers are making long-term measurements that can also resolve episodic oceanic processes on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales crucial to resolving scientific questions related to Earth's climate, geodynamics, and marine ecosystems. The availability of a diverse array of large data sets that are easily accessible provides a unique opportunity to develop inquiry-based learning environments in which students can explore many important questions that reflect current research trends in ocean sciences. In addition, due to the interdisciplinary nature of the ocean sciences these data sets can be used to examine ocean phenomena from a chemical, physical, or biological perspective; making them particularly useful for science teaching across the disciplines. In this session we will describe some of the efforts of the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence- Mid Atlantic (COSEE MA) to develop instructional materials
Saunders, W. S. A.; Van Dissen, R. J.
`It's Our Fault' (IOF) is an end-to-end research programme aimed at positioning Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand, to become a more resilient city through a comprehensive study of the likelihood of large Wellington earthquakes, the effects of these earthquakes, and their impacts on humans and the built environment. For over 10 years the IOF programme has facilitated end-user engagement, and produced a great number of publications on the results of the hazard and risk research. Nevertheless, much of this research was not being applied to local council policies being formulated to intensify development in one of the most susceptible locations in the Wellington region. We explore why this was the case, and offer suggestions on how to bridge the gap between science and practice.The example is a statutory plan change which allowed for an increased level of development and encouraged mixed-use development in a location of high susceptibility from multiple hazards including fault rupture, ground shaking, subsidence, sea level rise, liquefaction, flooding, and tsunami. Prior to the plan change, the land use was predominantly business and commercial; this plan change proposed introducing residential, educational and emergency facilities, thereby increasing exposure within an area already known to be "risky". Being a good `corporate citizen' of the city involved, GNS Science lodged a submission opposing the plan change based on the range of natural hazards that were not addressed in the plan change. Scientists were involved in public meetings, met with the Mayor, and attended a hearing. While the plan change still went ahead, natural hazard provisions were improved through the submission process. Many aspects of the submission were based around communicating the natural hazard research undertaken within the IOF project.Land use planning provides a key opportunity to reduce future risks from natural hazards, and scientist have a key role in contributing to
Buxner, Sanlyn; Jones, Andrea; Bleacher, Lora; Wasser, Molly; Day, Brian; Bakerman, Maya; Shaner, Andrew; Joseph, Emily; International Observe the Moon Night Coordinating Committee
International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN) is an annual worldwide event, held in the fall, that celebrates lunar and planetary science and exploration. InOMN is sponsored by NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in collaboration with NASA’s Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI), the NASA’s Heliophysics Education Consortium, CosmoQuest, Night Sky Network, and Science Festival Alliance. Other key partners include the NASA Museum Alliance, Night Sky Network, and NASA Solar System Ambassadors.In 2017 InOMN will be held on October 28th, and will engage thousands of people across the globe to observe and learn about the Moon and its connection to planetary science. This year, we have partnered with the NASA Science Mission Directorate total solar eclipse team to highlight InOMN as an opportunity to harness and sustain the interest and momentum in space science and observation following the August 21st eclipse. Since 2010, over 3,800 InOMN events have been registered engaging over 550,000 visitors worldwide. Most InOMN events are held in the United States, with strong representation from many other countries. We will present current results from the 2017 InOMN evaluation.Through InOMN, we annually provide resources such as event-specific Moon maps, presentations, advertising materials, and certificates of participation. Additionally, InOMN highlights partner resources such as online interfaces including Moon Trek (https://moontrek.jpl.nasa.gov) and CosmoQuest (https://cosmoquest.org/x/) to provide further opportunities to engage with NASA science.Learn more about InOMN at http://observethemoonnight.org.
Sciences.For checking educational achievement, a student self-assessment and mentor assessment were performed in 3status, at the beginning of the course, after 2 months and after 4 months.Results: The gap between design and implementation was at least 14.1%. More than 75% of mentors had desirable conditions in terms of scientific, educational and professional competencies from the perspective of students but mentor physicians' abilities in basic skills of practice was lower compared with educational and professional abilities. Students’ skills at the beginning of the first two months of office-based course internship was lower than expected in all areas and at the end of the 4-month course learning reached 95% to 100%. Per capita, variety and number of patients referring to teach students (90.6% of the centers were sufficient. 66.7% of mentor physicians were interested in working as a general physician and 42.7% were interested in teaching students. 52.8% of mentor physicians did not receive any fee and 100% of the recipients were not satisfied with the amount of the fee. In 81.2% of health care centers, work and training space was appropriate and there were some difficulties about equipment.Conclusions: The results of this study showed that health centers are appropriate educational setting for general medical students' office-based course and effective on promoting their essential skills of practice. Although educational and professional competencies of about 75% of mentors was desirable but the necessity of considering mentors' training, becoming more familiar with the goals and standards of the program, as well as the promotion of knowledge at the same time with considering financial motives and job promotion can play an important role in presenting this program. The need to pay attention to provide basic facilities in the centers, as well as continuous and periodic evaluation are other recommendations of the study.Keywords: EVALUATION, OFFICE-BASED COURSE
Salmun, H.; Buonaiuto, F. S.
The Catalyst Scholarship Program at Hunter College of The City University of New York (CUNY) was established with a four-year award from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to fund scholarships for academically talented but financially disadvantaged students majoring in four disciplines of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Led by Earth scientists the Program awarded scholarships to students in their junior or senior years majoring in computer science, geosciences, mathematics and physics to create two cohorts of students that spent a total of four semesters in an interdisciplinary community. The program included mentoring of undergraduate students by faculty and graduate students (peer-mentoring), a sequence of three semesters of a one-credit seminar course and opportunities to engage in research activities, research seminars and other enriching academic experiences. Faculty and peer-mentoring were integrated into all parts of the scholarship activities. The one-credit seminar course, although designed to expose scholars to the diversity STEM disciplines and to highlight research options and careers in these disciplines, was thematically focused on geoscience, specifically on ocean and atmospheric science. The program resulted in increased retention rates relative to institutional averages. In this presentation we will discuss the process of establishing the program, from the original plans to its implementation, as well as the impact of this multidisciplinary approach to geoscience education at our institution and beyond. An overview of accomplishments, lessons learned and potential for best practices will be presented.
Biocca, Alan; Carlson, Rich; Chen, Jackie; Cotter, Steve; Tierney, Brian; Dattoria, Vince; Davenport, Jim; Gaenko, Alexander; Kent, Paul; Lamm, Monica; Miller, Stephen; Mundy, Chris; Ndousse, Thomas; Pederson, Mark; Perazzo, Amedeo; Popescu, Razvan; Rouson, Damian; Sekine, Yukiko; Sumpter, Bobby; Dart, Eli; Wang, Cai-Zhuang -Z; Whitelam, Steve; Zurawski, Jason
The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivityfor the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office ofScience programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.
Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian; Biocca, A.; Carlson, R.; Chen, J.; Cotter, S.; Dattoria, V.; Davenport, J.; Gaenko, A.; Kent, P.; Lamm, M.; Miller, S.; Mundy, C.; Ndousse, T.; Pederson, M.; Perazzo, A.; Popescu, R.; Rouson, D.; Sekine, Y.; Sumpter, B.; Wang, C.-Z.; Whitelam, S.; Zurawski, J.
The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.
L'Astorina, Alba; Tomasoni, Irene
The Education system is increasingly interested in a more interactive dialogue with scientists in order to make science taught at school more aware of the models and the ways in which knowledge is produced, revised and discussed within the scientific community. Not always, in fact, the ministerial programs, the media, and the textbooks adopted by schools seem to be able to grasp the content and the procedures of the scientific knowledge as it is today being developed, sometimes spreading the idea of a monolithic and static science, with no reference to revisions, uncertainties, errors and disputes that, on the opposite, characterize the debate about science. On the other side, scientists, that in several surveys define students and teachers as one of the key groups that are most important to communicate with, often do not seem to be aware that scientific knowledge is continuously revised by the school and its protagonists. Science teaching, in all classes, has a highly educational role, as it offers the opportunity to value individual differences, to make students acquire specific tools and methods that enable them understand the world and critically interact with it. In this process of conscious learning, in which teachers play the role of tutors, the student participates actively bringing his tacit knowledge and beliefs. In this context, an educational proposal has recently been developed by the Italian National Research Council (CNR), aimed at starting a new dialogue between Education and Research. It's a way to encourage the technical and scientific culture among young people and a mutual exchange between the two main actors of the scientific production and promotion, considering weaknesses and strengths of the relationship between these two systems. In this proposal, students and teachers follow side by side a group of CNR scientists involved in an ongoing research project based on the use of innovative methodologies of aerospace Earth Observation (EO) for
Croney, C C; Apley, M; Capper, J L; Mench, J A; Priest, S
Contemporary animal agriculture is increasingly criticized on ethical grounds. Consequently, current policy and legislative discussions have become highly controversial as decision makers attempt to reconcile concerns about the impacts of animal production on animal welfare, the environment, and on the efficacy of antibiotics required to ensure human health with demands for abundant, affordable, safe food. Clearly, the broad implications for US animal agriculture of what appears to be a burgeoning movement relative to ethical food production must be understood by animal agriculture stakeholders. The potential effects of such developments on animal agricultural practices, corporate marketing strategies, and public perceptions of the ethics of animal production must also be clarified. To that end, it is essential to acknowledge that people's beliefs about which food production practices are appropriate are tied to diverse, latent value systems. Thus, relying solely on scientific information as a means to resolve current debates about animal agriculture is unlikely to be effective. The problem is compounded when scientific information is used inappropriately or strategically to advance a political agenda. Examples of the interface between science and ethics in regards to addressing currently contentious aspects of food animal production (animal welfare, antimicrobial use, and impacts of animal production practices on the environment) are reviewed. The roles of scientists and science in public debates about animal agricultural practices are also examined. It is suggested that scientists have a duty to contribute to the development of sound policy by providing clear and objectively presented information, by clarifying misinterpretations of science, and by recognizing the differences between presenting data vs. promoting their own value judgments in regard to how and which data should be used to establish policy. Finally, the role of the media in shaping public opinions
Recently, several behavioral sciences became increasingly interested in investigating biological and evolutionary foundations of (human) social behavior. In this light, prosocial behavior is seen as a core element of human nature. A central role within this perspective plays the "social brain" that is not only able to communicate with the environment but rather to interact directly with other brains via neuronal mind reading capacities such as empathy. From the perspective of a sociologist, this paper investigates what "social" means in contemporary behavioral and particularly brain sciences. It will be discussed what "social" means in the light of social neuroscience and a glance into the history of social psychology and the brain sciences will show that two thought traditions come together in social neuroscience, combining an individualistic and an evolutionary notion of the "social." The paper concludes by situating current research on prosocial behavior in broader social discourses about sociality and society, suggesting that to naturalize prosocial aspects in human life is a current trend in today's behavioral sciences and beyond.
Thomas A. Waldrop; Helen H. Mohr; Zoe Hoyle
The Appalachian region stretches along the Blue Ridge Mountains from Pennsylvania south into Georgia and Alabama. The regionâs lands shelter some of the greatest biological diversity in the United States. The heavily forested public lands are in great need of science-based fire management after decades of fire suppression. Fire-related research is relatively new to the...
Lombardo, Luigi; Cigala, Valeria; Rizzi, Jonathan; Craciun, Iulya; Gain, Animesh Kumar; Albano, Raffaele
Alongside with other major EGU divisions, Natural Hazard has recently formed his Early Career Scientist (ECS) team, known as NhET. NhET was born in 2016 and its scope includes various activities for the EGU members, the international scientific community as well as for the general public. We are a group of six early career researchers, either PhDs or Post-Docs, from different fields of Natural Hazard, keen to promote knowledge exchanges and collaborations. This is done by organizing courses, training sessions and social activities, especially targeting ECSs, during the EGU General Assembly for this year and the next to come. Outside the timeframe of the EGU conference, we constantly promote EGU contents for our division. This is done through the division website (http://www.egu.eu/nh), a mailing list (https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/nhet) and social media. With respect to the latter, a new Facebook page will be launched shortly and other platforms such as Twitter will be used to reach a broader audience. These platforms will foster the transmission of Natural Hazard topics to anyone who is interested. The main content will be researchers' interviews, information about open positions, trainings, open source software, conferences together with news on hazards and their anthropic and environmental impacts. We are NhET and we invite you all to follow and collaborate with us for a more dynamic, efficient and widespread scientific communication.
Brancaccio-Taras, Loretta; Gull, Kelly A.; Ratti, Claudia
The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) has a history of providing a wide range of faculty development opportunities. Recently, ASM developed the Science Teaching Fellows Program (STF) for early career biologists and postdoctoral students to explore student-centered teaching and develop the skills needed to succeed in positions that have a significant teaching component. Participants were selected to STF through a competitive application process. The STF program consisted of a series of s...
Patchen, Amie K.; Zhang, Lin; Barnett, Michael
This study examines an out-of-school time program targeting elementary-aged youth from populations that are typically underrepresented in science fields (primarily African-American, Hispanic, and/or English Language Learner participants). The program aimed to foster positive attitudes toward science among youth by engaging them in growing plants hydroponically (in water without soil). Participants' attitudes toward science, including anxiety, desire, and self-concept, were examined through pre-post survey data ( n = 234) over the course of an afterschool program at three separate sites. Data showed that participants' anxiety decreased and desire increased for both male and female participants over the program. Self-concept increased for female participants at all three sites but did not change significantly for male participants. Participants' first language (English or Spanish) was not a factor in attitude outcomes. The primarily positive outcomes suggest that hydroponics can be a useful educational platform for engaging participants in garden-based programming year round, particularly for settings that do not have the physical space or climate to conduct outdoor gardening. Similarities in positive attitude outcomes at the three sites despite differences in format, implementation, and instructor background experience suggest that the program is resilient to variation in context. Understanding which aspects of the program facilitated positive outcomes in the varied contexts could be useful for the design of future programs.
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Culture in Catalonia and, specifically, science had an important rebirth in the second half of the 19th century. But, due to the lack of State support, development of earth physical sciences in Catalonia at the beginning of the 20th century was almost a private enterprise. This situation caused dispersion of the efforts that, in any case, were extensive. The study of the evolution of earth sciences and the recovery and study of the accumulated data in such circumstances requires relying heavily on manuscript information. The present study deals with the problems and possibilities of this situation, shows some study cases and extracts some conclusions of general interest from them.
Snyder, Sandra F.; Meier, Kirsten M.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Poston, Ted M.; Rhoads, Kathleen
The Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) manages the contract for operations at the U.S. Depart¬ment of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site in Richland, Washington. Radiological operations at the DOE-SC PNNL Site expanded in 2010 with the completion of facilities at the Physical Sciences Facility. As a result of the expanded radiological work at the site, the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) has required that offsite environmental surveillance be conducted as part of the PNNL Site Radioactive Air Emissions License. The environ¬mental monitoring and surveillance requirements of various orders, regulations, and guidance documents consider emission levels and subsequent risk of negative human and environmental impacts. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) describes air surveillance activities at the DOE-SC PNNL Site. The determination of offsite environmental surveillance needs evolved out of a Data Quality Objectives process (Barnett et al. 2010) and Implementation Plan (Snyder et al. 2010). The entire EMP is a compilation of several documents, which include the Main Document (this text), Attachment 1: Sampling and Analysis Plan, Attachment 2: Data Management Plan, and Attachment 3: Dose Assessment Guidance.
Haines-Stiles, G.; Akuginow, E.; Morris, K.
In 1980, Carl Sagan's COSMOS received ratings of some 16 million and won three Emmys and a Peabody award. Sagan was hailed as a 'Showman of Science' by Time magazine, confirming his status as a science superstar. Haines-Stiles, 1st author for this presentation, was a Senior Producer and series director on what was for several decades PBS's highest-rated science series. Some researchers still consider primetime series on national networks as THE way to engage and inform audiences. But a revolution in both the making and consuming of science film and television has transformed the media landscape from high profile series such as COSMOS to more of a 'horizontal' ecosystem in which different formats for diverse audiences via multiple distribution networks are the norm. From the early 1990's the Internet has played an increasingly prominent role in this revolution. In 1993, Haines-Stiles and Akuginow added interactivity to traditional one-way TV broadcasts with 'Dale's Dive Diary,' in what was arguably the world's first science blog, detailing online the joys and rigors of working in Antarctica. Increasingly, the evolution of media allowed for the documentation of the process of doing science along with "eureka" discoveries and press conference results. In POLAR-PALOOZA (PPZA) this new perspective was further extended by taking Arctic and Antarctic researchers on the road to science museums in some 25 communities across the USA for spoken-word performances supported by High Definition video profiles of scientists at work at remote locations. In one instance, a researcher was given a crash course in videography and loaned a low-cost prosumer camcorder to take with her to the heart of East Antarctica. Excellent video was captured, and made part of large screen presentations in IMAX-scale theaters. In addition to the Summative Evaluation (required by project sponsors, NSF and NASA) which focused on audience responses, a recent research paper by communications scholar, Kim
Abelmann, W H; Nave, B D; Wilkerson, L
The MD program of the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology was founded in 1970. One of its goals was the application of the academic resources of the two universities to the education of leaders in academic medicine and biomedical sciences. The first MD class was admitted in 1971. Prerequisites for admission are a strong background in quantitative sciences and demonstrated interest in research. Research and a thesis are obligatory. Enrollment in a PhD program is elective. Questionnaires were sent to 293 alumni who graduated from the MD program between 1975 and 1988, followed up by letters and telephone calls. By 1988, 296 students had graduated, 207 with an MD only, 89 with MD-PhD degrees. Follow-up by questionnaires of 293 living graduates (92%), plus indirect data on 11 others, revealed that 212 (75%) held faculty appointments in 64 medical schools. Overall, 73.5% of respondents were engaged in research: 68% of MDs and 86% of MD-PhDs. One hundred and four (38%) respondents spent more than 50% of their time on research: 54 (29%) of MDs and 50 (60%) of MD-PhDs. Seventy-five percent of respondents were active in teaching. Our experience indicates that both an MD-PhD program and a research-oriented MD program are effective in producing physician-scientists and leaders in academic medicine.
Millette, Patricia M.
Authentic field geology research is a inquiry method that encourages students to interact more with their local environment, and by solving genuine puzzles, begin to increase their intuitive understanding of the nature and processes of science. The goal of the current study was to determine if conducting authentic field research and giving high school students the opportunity to present findings to adult audiences outside of the school setting 1) enhances students' understanding of the nature of science, and 2) affects students views of themselves as researchers. To accomplish this, ninth-grade students from a public school in northern New England engaged in a community-initiated glacial geology problem, completed a field research investigation, and presented their findings at several professional conferences. Following the completion of this student-centered field research, I investigated its effects by using a mixed methods approach consisting of qualitative and quantitative data from two sources. These included selected questions from an open-response survey (VNOS-c), and interviews that were conducted with fifteen of the students of different ages and genders. Findings show that conducting original field research seems to have a positive influence on these students' understanding of the NOS as well as the processes of science. Many of the students reported feelings of accomplishment, acceptance of responsibility for the investigation, a sense of their authentic contribution to the body of scientific knowledge in the world, and becoming scientists. This type of authentic field investigation is significant because recent reforms in earth-science education stress the importance of students learning about the nature and processes of scientific knowledge along with science content.
There is an increasing trend for the focus of biology to be determined more by administrators who have short-term pecuniary interests in science rather than by individuals who are “doing science” to further the fundamental human desire to understand ourselves, the natural environment, and our place in the world, though questioning. We feel that this ceding of the scope of science from the questioners to the administrators is at variance with the traditions of science, which heretofore have resulted in the remarkable advancements made in the field of biology. In contrast to the plethora of day-to-day conversations on how to fit into the administrators' directives, this essay provides a historical context, particularly though its extensive bibliography, to encourage today's biologists to question authority and question nature. “If it be of importance and of use to us to know the principles of the element we breathe, surely it is not of much less importance nor of much less use to comprehend the principles, and endeavour at the improvement of those laws, by which alone we breathe it in security.”—Jeremy Bentham1 PMID:19513206
National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.
The data presented in this report are estimates based on information produced by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Scientific and Technical Personnel Characteristics System (STPCS) and other systems of the Foundation, other government agencies and private organizations. Information includes: (1) the U.S. science/engineering force grew by 2%…
Until recently much science communication focused on press conferences and results, "Eureka"-moments issued from podiums. Recent documentaries, however, such as PARTICLE FEVER and THE YEAR OF PLUTO go behind the scenes to show long years of effort, and occasional failures, revealing a more honest—and more engaging—picture of how science is actually done. Audiences respond when researchers show a more human face, and candid moments of stress and exhaustion as well as exhilaration make eventual results more meaningful. This presentation will offer evidence that this approach is also effective on contested topics such as climate change, where long-term relationships between journalists and researchers can help structure communications that avoid distracting controversies. A cameraman spends a full week with ornithologist George Divoky on remote Cooper Island, Alaska: the resulting video podcast informs a stage play in London, and George goes on the road with POLAR-PALOOZA across America and internationally, sharing stories about the birds he studies and the polar bears he has to increasingly avoid, as climate change brings them onshore in search of food. POLAR-PALOOZA also introduced Richard Alley and other Arctic and Antarctic scientists to a team of producers and directors, resulting in a 3-part PBS series and museum outreach that is able to present climate change science in an authoritative and apolitical way. That leads, in turn, to leading researchers including video and more visually-dynamic approaches in communicating their work to the public. An upcoming public television series, THE CROWD & THE CLOUD, will devote one program to insights about climate change gained over decades of interaction between producers and scientists. Many mainstream media outlets have cut back on science coverage and released their dedicated "beat" reporters. However a wealth of new channels offer venues for this approach, and falling prices for high quality cameras and editing
Kenny, Michael G
In 1974 a British biologist, John Randal Baker (1900-1984), published a large and controversial book simply entitled Race that reiterated persistent eugenicist themes concerning the relation between race, intelligence, and progress. The history of Baker's book is a case study in the politics of scientific publishing, and his ideas influenced scholars associated with later works such as The Bell Curve. Baker, a student of Julian Huxley, was a longtime participant in the British eugenics movement and opponent of what he took to be a facile belief in human equality. In 1942, together with Michael Polanyi, he founded the Society for Freedom in Science to oppose those who advocated the central planning of scientific research. Baker's eugenics, political activities, and views on race express an elitist individualism, associated with the conservative wing of the eugenics movement, that this paper explores in the context of his career as a whole.
Brancaccio-Taras, Loretta; Gull, Kelly A; Ratti, Claudia
The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) has a history of providing a wide range of faculty development opportunities. Recently, ASM developed the Science Teaching Fellows Program (STF) for early career biologists and postdoctoral students to explore student-centered teaching and develop the skills needed to succeed in positions that have a significant teaching component. Participants were selected to STF through a competitive application process. The STF program consisted of a series of six webinars. In preparation for each webinar, participants completed a pre-webinar assignment. After each webinar, fellows practiced what they learned by completing a post-webinar assignment. In a survey used to assess the impact of STF, participants reported greater knowledge of the webinar-based instructional topics and a sense of being part of an educational community and were more confident about varied teaching methods.
Bagwell, Ross; Peters, Byron; Berrick, Stephen
NASAs Earth Observing System Data Information System (EOSDIS) manages Earth Observation satellites and the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), where the data is stored and processed. The challenge is that Earth Observation data is complicated. There is plenty of data available, however, the science teams have had a top-down approach: define what it is you are trying to study -select a set of satellite(s) and sensor(s), and drill down for the data.Our alternative is to take a bottom-up approach using eight environmental fields of interest as defined by the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) called Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs): Disaster Resilience (DR) Public Health Surveillance (PHS) Energy and Mineral Resource Management (EMRM) Water Resources Management (WRM) Infrastructure and Transport Management (ITM) Sustainable Urban Development (SUD) Food Security and Sustainable Agriculture (FSSA) Biodiversity and Ecosystems Sustainability (BES).
Bertram, M. A.; Thompson, L.; Ackerman, T. P.
The University of Washington is adapting a popular UW Atmospheric Sciences course on Climate and Climate Change for the high school environment. In the process, a STEM-focused teaching and learning community has formed. With the support of NASA Global Climate Change Education 20 teachers have participated in an evolving professional development program that brings those actively engaged in research together with high school teachers passionate about bringing a formal climate science course into the high school. Over a period of several months participating teachers work through the UW course homework and delve deeply into specific subject areas. Then, during a week-long summer institute, scientists bring their particular expertise (e.g. radiation, modeling) to the high school teachers through lectures or labs. Together they identify existing lectures, textbook material and peer-reviewed resources and labs available through the internet that can be used to effectively teach the UW material to the high school students. Through this process the scientists learn how to develop teaching materials around their area of expertise, teachers engage deeply in the subject matter, and both the university and high school teachers are armed with the tools to effectively teach a STEM-focused introductory course in climate science. To date 12 new hands-on modules have been completed or are under development, exploring ice-cores, isotopes, historical temperature trends, energy balance, climate models, and more. Two modules have been tested in the classroom and are ready for peer-review through well-respected national resources such as CLEAN or the National Earth Science Teachers Association; three others are complete and will be implemented in a high school classroom this year, and the remainder under various stages of development. The UWHS ATMS 211 course was piloted in two APES (Advanced Placement Environmental Science classrooms) in Washington State in 2011/2012. The high school
Buxner, S.; Jones, A. P.; Bleacher, L.; Wasser, M. L.; Day, B. H.; Shaner, A. J.; Bakerman, M. N.; Joseph, E.
International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN) is an annual worldwide event, held in the fall, that celebrates lunar and planetary science and exploration. InOMN is sponsored by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in collaboration with NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI), the NASA's Heliophysics Education Consortium, CosmoQuest, Night Sky Network, and Science Festival Alliance. Other key partners include the NASA Museum Alliance, Night Sky Network, and NASA Solar System Ambassadors. In 2017, InOMN will bring together thousands of people across the globe to observe and learn about the Moon and its connection to planetary science. We are partnering with the NASA Science Mission Directorate total solar eclipse team to highlight InOMN as an opportunity to harness and sustain the interest and momentum in space science and observation following the August 21st eclipse. This is part of a new partnership with the Sun-Earth Day team, through the Heliophysics Education Consortium, to better connect the two largest NASA-sponsored public engagement events, increase participation in both events, and share best practices in implementation and evaluation between the teams. Over 3,800 InOMN events have been registered between 2010 and 2016, engaging over 550,000 visitors worldwide. Most InOMN events are held in the United States, with strong representation from many other countries. InOMN events are evaluated to determine the value of the events and to allow us to improve the experience for event hosts and visitors. Our results show that InOMN events are hosted by scientists, educators, and citizen enthusiasts around the world who leverage InOMN to bring communities together, get visitors excited and learn about the Moon - and beyond, and share resources to extend engagement in lunar and planetary science and observation. Through InOMN, we annually provide resources such as event-specific Moon maps, presentations, advertising materials, and
Ellwood, Robin B.
This research investigated how student social interactions within two approaches to an inquiry-based science curriculum could be related to student motivation and achievement outcomes. This qualitative case study consisted of two cases, Off-Campus and On-Campus, and used ethnographic techniques of participant observation. Research participants included eight eighth grade girls, aged thirteen to fourteen years old. Data sources included formal and informal participant interviews, participant journal reflections, curriculum artifacts including quizzes, worksheets, and student-generated research posters, digital video and audio recordings, photographs, and researcher field notes. Data were transcribed verbatim and coded, then collapsed into emergent themes using NVIVO 9. The results of this research illustrate how setting conditions that promote focused concentration and communicative interactions can be positively related to student motivation and achievement outcomes in inquiry-based science. Participants in the Off-Campus case experienced more frequent states of focused concentration and out performed their peers in the On-Campus case on forty-six percent of classroom assignments. Off-Campus participants also designed and implemented a more cognitively complex research project, provided more in-depth analyses of their research results, and expanded their perceptions of what it means to act like a scientist to a greater extent than participants in the On-Campus case. These results can be understood in relation to Flow Theory. Student interactions that promoted the criteria necessary for initiating flow, which included having clearly defined goals, receiving immediate feedback, and maintaining a balance between challenges and skills, fostered enhanced student motivation and achievement outcomes. This research also illustrates the positive gains in motivation and achievement outcomes that emerge from student experiences with extended time in isolated areas referred to
Thakore, Bhoomi K; Naffziger-Hirsch, Michelle E; Richardson, Jennifer L; Williams, Simon N; McGee, Richard
Approaches to training biomedical scientists have created a talented research community. However, they have failed to create a professional workforce that includes many racial and ethnic minorities and women in proportion to their representation in the population or in PhD training. This is particularly true at the faculty level. Explanations for the absence of diversity in faculty ranks can be found in social science theories that reveal processes by which individuals develop identities, experiences, and skills required to be seen as legitimate within the profession. Using the social science theories of Communities of Practice, Social Cognitive Career Theory, identity formation, and cultural capital, we have developed and are testing a novel coaching-based model to address some of the limitations of previous diversity approaches. This coaching intervention (The Academy for Future Science Faculty) includes annual in-person meetings of students and trained faculty Career Coaches, along with ongoing virtual coaching, group meetings and communication. The model is being tested as a randomized controlled trial with two cohorts of biomedical PhD students from across the U.S., one recruited at the start of their PhDs and one nearing completion. Stratification into the experimental and control groups, and to coaching groups within the experimental arms, achieved equal numbers of students by race, ethnicity and gender to the extent possible. A fundamental design element of the Academy is to teach and make visible the social science principles which highly influence scientific advancement, as well as acknowledging the extra challenges faced by underrepresented groups working to be seen as legitimate within the scientific communities. The strategy being tested is based upon a novel application of the well-established principles of deploying highly skilled coaches, selected and trained for their ability to develop talents of others. This coaching model is intended to be a
This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1986. The program is focused on terrestrial, subsurface, and coastal marine systems, and this research forms the basis, in conjunction with remote sensing, for definition and quantification of processes leading to impacts at the global level. This report is organized into sections devoted to Detection and Management of Change in Terrestrial Systems, Biogeochemical Phenomena, Subsurface Microbiology and Transport, Marine Sciences, and Theoretical (Quantitative) Ecology. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual projects.
... nominations of women and men of all racial and ethnic groups. The EPA SAB Staff Office will acknowledge... factors); (b) availability and willingness to serve; (c) absence of financial conflicts of interest; (d... Staff Office's evaluation of an absence of financial conflicts of interest will include a review of the...
Financial Officer Finance Section Office of the Chief Operating Officer Facilities Engineering Services Accelerator Division Accelerator Physics Center Office of the Chief Safety Officer Environment, Safety, Health and Quality Section Office of the Chief Project Officer Office of Project Support Services Office of
Meinke, Bonnie K.; Smith, Denise A.; Bleacher, Lora; Hauck, Karin; Soeffing, Cassie; NASA SMD E/PO Community
The NASA Astrophysics Science Education and Public Outreach Forum (SEPOF) coordinates the work of individual NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Astrophysics EPO projects and their teams to bring the NASA science education resources and expertise to libraries nationwide. The Astrophysics Forum assists scientists and educators with becoming involved in SMD E/PO (which is uniquely poised to foster collaboration between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogy expertise) and makes SMD E/PO resources and expertise accessible to the science and education communities. The NASA Science4Girls and Their Families initiative partners NASA science education programs with public libraries to provide NASA-themed hands-on education activities for girls and their families. As such, the initiative engages girls in all four NASA science discipline areas (Astrophysics, Earth Science, Planetary Science, and Heliophysics), which enables audiences to experience the full range of NASA science topics and the different career skills each requires. The events focus on engaging this particular underserved and underrepresented audience in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) via use of research-based best practices, collaborations with libraries, partnerships with local and national organizations, and remote engagement of audiences.
... a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board Exposure and Human Health Committee (EHHC) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff... Science Advisory Board can be found on the SAB Web site at http://www.epa.gov/sab . SUPPLEMENTARY...
Full Text Available A new scientometric indicator, the h-index, has been recently proposed (Hirsch JE. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2005; 102: 16569-16572. The index avoids some shortcomings of the calculation of the total number of citations as a parameter to evaluate scientific performance. Although it has become known only recently, it has had widespread acceptance. A comparison of the average h-index of members of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences (BAS and of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA (NAS-USA was carried out for 10 different areas of science. Although, as expected, the comparison was unfavorable to the members of the BAS, the imbalance was distinct in different areas. Since these two academies represent, to a significant extent, the science of top quality produced in each country, the comparison allows the identification of the areas in Brazil that are closer to the international stakeholders of scientific excellence. The areas of Physics and Mathematics stand out in this context. The heterogeneity of the h-index in the different areas, estimated by the median dispersion of the index, is significantly higher in the BAS than in the NAS-USA. No elements have been collected in the present study to provide an explanation for this fact.
"The Office of Science (SC) of the Department of Energy (DOE) hereby announces its continuing interest in receiving grant applications for support of work in the following program areas: Basic Energy Sciences, High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, Advanced Scientific Computing Research, Fusion Energy Sciences, Biological and Environmental Research, and Energy Research Analyses".
Moeller, Detlev [Brandenburgische Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Luftchemie und Luftreinhaltung
Non-chemists in environmental sciences and engineering (e.g. physicists, biologists, ecologists, geographers, soil scientists, hydrologists, meteorologists, economists, engineers) need chemical basic knowledge for understanding chemical processes in the environment. This book focuses on general and fundamental chemistry (including required physics) such as properties and bonding of matter, chemical kinetics and mechanisms, phase and chemical equilibrium, the basic features of air (gases), water (liquids) and soil (solids) and the most important substances and their reactions in the environment. Selected key environmental chemical processes are shortly characterised in the light of multi-component and multiphase chemistry. This book is also useful for chemists who are beginning work on environmental issues.
In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb
Non-chemists in environmental sciences and engineering (e.g. physicists, biologists, ecologists, geographers, soil scientists, hydrologists, meteorologists, economists, engineers) need chemical basic knowledge for understanding chemical processes in the environment. This book focuses on general and fundamental chemistry (including required physics) such as properties and bonding of matter, chemical kinetics and mechanisms, phase and chemical equilibrium, the basic features of air (gases), water (liquids) and soil (solids) and the most important substances and their reactions in the environment. Selected key environmental chemical processes are shortly characterised in the light of multi-component and multiphase chemistry. This book is also useful for chemists who are beginning work on environmental issues.
Grove, L.K. [ed.; Wildung, R.E.
The 1992 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year 1992. This report consists of four volumes oriented to particular segments of the PNL program, describing research performed for the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research in the Office of Energy Research. The parts of the 1992 Annual Report are: Biomedical Sciences; Environmental Sciences; Atmospheric Sciences; and Physical Sciences. This Report is Part 2: Environmental Sciences. Included in this report are developments in Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development, Interactions with Educational Institutions, Technology Transfer, Publications, and Presentations. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. The Technology Transfer section of this report describes a number of examples in which fundamental research is laying the groundwork for the technology needed to resolve important environmental problems. The Interactions with Educational Institutions section of the report illustrates the results of a long-term, proactive program to make PNL facilities available for university and preuniversity education and to involve educational institutions in research programs. The areas under investigation include the effect of geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in deep subsurface environments, ways to address subsurface heterogeneity, and ways to determine the key biochemical and physiological pathways (and DNA markers) that control nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and the response of these systems to disturbance and climatic change.
Dart, Eli [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States)
The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In December 2011, ESnet and the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), of the DOE Office of Science (SC), organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by FES. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.
Search The Education Office FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions Click on the question to see the answer and the difference between the Education Office and the Lederman Science Center? The Education Office is store selling logo items and science toys. The Education Office staff works on both the 15th floor of
Fisher, E R; Partin, K M
Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required.
Lefkowitz, Robert J
Growing up in a middle-class Jewish home in the Bronx, I had only one professional goal: to become a physician. However, as with most of my Vietnam-era MD colleagues, I found my residency training interrupted by the Doctor Draft in 1968. Some of us who were academically inclined fulfilled this obligation by serving in the US Public Health Service as commissioned officers stationed at the National Institutes of Health. This experience would eventually change the entire trajectory of my career. Here I describe how, over a period of years, I transitioned from the life of a physician to that of a physician-scientist; my 50 years of work on cellular receptors; and some miscellaneous thoughts on subjects as varied as Nobel prizes, scientific lineages, mentoring, publishing, and funding.
Scientists in less-developed countries (LDCs) that undertake nuclear programs become involved in political decisions on manpower and resource allocations that will preclude other options. Controversy over the adoption of sophisticated technology has put those who see science as the servant of society in conflict with those who see the pursuit of science as a social service. The role model which LDC scientists present in this issue has given them increasing power, which can be either in accord with or in conflict with the perceived national interest. 29 references
Lange, B. A.; Bottoms, J.
science industry through a student satellite development program is one of the best methods of developing the next generation of space and earth science engineers and scientists.
Separate abstracts were prepared for the 38 reports for this Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1981 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. This part dealt with research conducted in the ecological sciences
Separate abstracts were prepared for the 38 reports for this Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1981 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. This part dealt with research conducted in the ecological sciences.
The programs of the Office of Energy Research provide basic science support for energy technologies as well as advancing understanding in general science and training future scientists. Energy Research provides insights into fundamental science and associated phenomena and develops new or advanced concepts and techniques. Research of this type has been supported by the Department of Energy and its predecessors for over 40 years and includes research in the natural and physical sciences, including high energy and nuclear physics; magnetic fusion energy; biological and environmental research; and basic energy sciences research in the materials, chemical, and applied mathematical sciences, engineering and geosciences, and energy biosciences. These basic research programs help build the science and technology base that underpins energy development by Government and industry
... nominations of women and men of all racial and ethnic groups. The EPA SAB Staff Office will acknowledge... willingness to serve; (c) absence of financial conflicts of interest; (d) absence of an appearance of a lack... an absence of financial conflicts of interest will include a review of the ``Confidential Financial...
... diverse candidates, EPA encourages nominations of women and men of all racial and ethnic groups. The EPA... experience (primary factors); (b) availability and willingness to serve; (c) absence of financial conflicts... viewpoints. The SAB Staff Office's evaluation of an absence of financial conflicts of interest will include a...
... encourages nominations of women and men of all racial and ethnic groups. The EPA SAB Staff Office will... willingness to serve; (c) absence of financial conflicts of interest; (d) absence of an appearance of a lack... an absence of financial conflicts of interest will include a review of the ``Confidential Financial...
... [email protected] . General information about the EEC can be found on the EPA SAB Web site at http... Dr. David Jewett at (580) 436-8560 or [email protected] . The EPA Office of Water technical... (acceptable file format: Adobe Acrobat PDF, MS Word, WordPerfect, MS PowerPoint, or Rich Text files...
Black, Christine; Harris, Bethany; Mahraj, Katy; Schnitzer, Anna Ercoli; Rosenzweig, Merle
Librarians have traditionally facilitated research development resulting in grants through performing biomedical literature searches for researchers. The librarians at the Taubman Health Sciences Library of the University of Michigan have taken additional steps forward by instituting a proactive approach to assisting investigators. To accomplish this, the librarians have taken part in a collaborative effort with the University of Michigan Medical School Office of Research. Through this partnership, both units have created and adopted various techniques intended to facilitate the submission of grants, thus allowing researchers more time to conduct their primary activities.
The US National Academy of Sciences has teamed up with Hollywood to improve the quality of science portrayed in films, TV shows and video games. The new Science and Entertainment Exchange (SEE) aims to create better links between entertainment-industry professionals and scientists to improve the credibility of programming related to science.
Nelson, John C. (Editor)
This document includes information on all peer reviewed projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Life Sciences Division during fiscal year 1997. This document will be published annually and made available to scientists in the space life sciences field both as a hard copy and as an interactive internet web page.
Nelson, John C. (Editor)
This document includes information on all peer reviewed projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Life Sciences Division during fiscal year 1996. This document will be published annually and made available to scientists in the space life sciences field both as a hard copy and as an interactive Internet web page.
Enevoldsen, A. A. G.; Culp, S.; Trinh, A.
During the International Year of Astronomy, Pacific Science Center is hosting a photography exhibit: Scientists Like Me: Faces of Discovery. The exhibit contains photographs of real, current astronomers and scientists working in astronomy and aerospace-related fields from many races, genders, cultural affiliations and walks of life. The photographs were taken and posters designed by Alyssa Trinh and Sarah Culp, high school interns in Discovery Corps, Pacific Science Center's youth development program. The direct contact between the scientists and the interns helps the intended audience of teachers and families personally connect with scientists. The finished posters from this exhibit are available online (http://pacificsciencecenter.org/scientists) for teachers to use in their classrooms, in addition to being displayed at Pacific Science Center and becoming part of Pacific Science Center's permanent art rotation. The objective of this project was to fill a need for representative photographs of scientists in the world community. It also met two of the goals of International Year of Astronomy: to provide a modern image of science and scientists, and to improve the gender-balanced representation of scientists at all levels and promote greater involvement by all people in scientific and engineering careers. We would like to build on the success of this project and create an annual summer internship, with different interns, focusing on creating posters for different fields of science.
Any quantitative work in earth sciences requires mathematical analysis and mathematical methods are essential to the modelling and analysis of the geological, geophysical and environmental processes involved. This book provides an introduction to the fundamental mathematics that all earth scientists need.
Lumetta, C.C. [ed.; Park, J.F.
This report summarizes FY 1993 progress in biological and general life sciences research programs conducted for the Department of Energy`s Office of Health and Environmental REsearch (OHER) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This research provides knowledge of fundamental principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of exposure to energy-related radiation and chemicals. The Biological Research section contains reports of studies using laboratory animals, in vitro cell systems, and molecular biological systems. This research includes studies of the impact of radiation, radionuclides, and chemicals on biological responses at all levels of biological organization. The General Life Sciences Research section reports research conducted for the OHER human genome program.
The vision described here builds on the present U.S. activities in fusion plasma and materials science relevant to the energy goal and extends plasma science at the frontier of discovery. The plan is founded on recommendations made by the National Academies, a number of recent studies by the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC), and the Administration’s views on the greatest opportunities for U.S. scientific leadership.This report highlights five areas of critical importance for the U.S. fusion energy sciences enterprise over the next decade: 1) Massively parallel computing with the goal of validated whole-fusion-device modeling will enable a transformation in predictive power, which is required to minimize risk in future fusion energy development steps; 2) Materials science as it relates to plasma and fusion sciences will provide the scientific foundations for greatly improved plasma confinement and heat exhaust; 3) Research in the prediction and control of transient events that can be deleterious to toroidal fusion plasma confinement will provide greater confidence in machine designs and operation with stable plasmas; 4) Continued stewardship of discovery in plasma science that is not expressly driven by the energy goal will address frontier science issues underpinning great mysteries of the visible universe and help attract and retain a new generation of plasma/fusion science leaders; 5) FES user facilities will be kept world-leading through robust operations support and regular upgrades. Finally, we will continue leveraging resources among agencies and institutions and strengthening our partnerships with international research facilities.
The need for a transparent, ethical, and successful relationship between academic scientists and the pharmaceutical industry: a view of the Group for the Respect of Ethics and Excellence in Science (GREES).
Bruyere, O; Kanis, J A; Ibar-Abadie, M-E; Alsayed, N; Brandi, M L; Burlet, N; Cahall, D L; Chines, A; Devogelaer, J-P; Dere, W; Goel, N; Hughes, N; Kaufman, J-M; Korte, S; Mitlak, B H; Niese, D; Rizzoli, R; Rovati, L C; Reginster, J-Y
This paper provides recommendations for fair and unbiased relationship between academic scientists and the pharmaceutical industry. Real or perceived problems in the relationship between academics and the industry have been the subject of much recent debate. It has been suggested that academic clinicians should sever all links with the industry-a view that is rarely challenged. Academic experts and members of the pharmaceutical industry were invited to an expert consensus meeting to debate this topic. This meeting was organized by the Group for the Respect of Ethics and Excellence in Science. Conflict of interest, competing interest, right and duties of academic scientist, authorship, and staff and student education were discussed. Guidelines for a transparent, ethical, strong, and successful partnership between the academic scientist and the pharmaceutical industry have been provided. The Group support interactions between the industry and clinicians provided that it is transparent and ethical.
Eberle, J.; Gerlach, R.; Hese, S.; Schmullius, C.
To provide earth observation products in the area of Siberia, the Siberian Earth System Science Cluster (SIB-ESS-C) was established as a spatial data infrastructure at the University of Jena (Germany), Department for Earth Observation. This spatial data infrastructure implements standards published by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the International Organizsation for Standardization (ISO) for data discovery, data access, data processing and data analysis. The objective of SIB-ESS-C is to faciliate environmental research and Earth system science in Siberia. The region for this project covers the entire Asian part of the Russian Federation approximately between 58°E - 170°W and 48°N - 80°N. To provide discovery, access and analysis services a webportal was published for searching and visualisation of available data. This webportal is based on current web technologies like AJAX, Drupal Content Management System as backend software and a user-friendly surface with Drag-n-Drop and further mouse events. To have a wide range of regular updated earth observation products, some products from sensor MODIS at the satellites Aqua and Terra were processed. A direct connection to NASA archive servers makes it possible to download MODIS Level 3 and 4 products and integrate it in the SIB-ESS-C infrastructure. These data can be downloaded in a file format called Hierarchical Data Format (HDF). For visualisation and further analysis, this data is reprojected, converted to GeoTIFF and global products clipped to the project area. All these steps are implemented as an automatic process chain. If new MODIS data is available within the infrastructure this process chain is executed. With the link to a MODIS catalogue system, the system gets new data daily. With the implemented analysis processes, timeseries data can be analysed, for example to plot a trend or different time series against one another. Scientists working in this area and working with MODIS data can make use
... modeling; atmospheric science and engineering; ecology and ecological risk assessment; epidemiology... assessment; environmental modeling; industrial ecology; environmental engineering; environmental medicine... ``Ethics Requirements for Advisors'' link on the blue navigational bar on the SAB Web site at http://www...
Laursen, Sandra L.; Smith, Lesley K.
How does a scientist find herself standing before a group of lively third-graders? She may be personally motivated-seeking to improve public understanding of scientific issues and the nature of science, or to see her own children receive a good science education-or perhaps she simply enjoys this kind of work [Andrews et al., 2005; Kim and Fortner, 2008]. In addition to internal motivating factors, federal funding agencies have begun to encourage scientists to participate in education and outreach (E/O) related to their research, through NASA program requirements for such activities (see ``Implementing the Office of Space Science Education/Public Outreach Strategy,'' at http://spacescience.nasa.gov/admin/pubs/edu/imp_plan.htm) and the U.S. National Science Foundation's increased emphasis on ``broader impacts'' in merit review of research proposals (see http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2003/nsf032/bicexamples.pdf). Universities, laboratories, and large collaboratives have responded by developing E/O programs that include interaction between students, teachers, and the public in schools; after-school and summer programs; and work through science centers, planetaria, aquaria, and museums.
This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1988. Research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of processes controlling the long-term fate and biological effects of fugitive chemicals and other stressors resulting from energy development. The PNL research program continues to make important contributions to the resolution of important national environmental problems. The research, focused principally on subsurface contaminant transport and detection and management of human-induced changes in biological systems, forms the basis for defining and quantifying processes that affect humans and the environment at the regional and global levels. Each research project forms a component in an integrated laboratory- intermediated scale field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. This approach is providing system-level insights into critical environmental processes. Strong university liaisons now in existence are being markedly expanded so that PNL resources and the specialized technical capabilities in the university community can be more efficiently integrated. Building on PNL technical strengths in geochemistry, environment microbiology, hydrodynamics, and statistical ecology, research in the environmental sciences is in an exciting phase, and new investments have been made in molecular sciences, chemistry, biotechnology, use of remote imagery, and theoretical ecology. The section on exploratory research provides unique insight into the value of these investments and into the future of PNL environmental sciences programs.
Prieto Miranda, Enrique; Barrera Gonzalez, Gisela; Guerra Torres, Mercedes; Mora Lopez, Leonor; Altanes Valentin, Sonia; Rapado Paneque, Manuel; Plasencia Gutierrez, Manuel
The irradiation service is part of the specialized technician scientist services of the Center of Technological Applications and Nuclear Development it belonging to the Radiobiological Department it provides a self shielded laboratory irradiator, PX y 30 type with Cobalt 60 sources, it destined for searches studies, so much basic as applying, in several branches of the science, like the radiobiology, the radiation chemistry, the solid state physics, the medicine, the agriculture and the Pharmaceutical- Medical Industry and besides offering the irradiation service properly with the which have been gotten significant economical outputs. The radiation processing is controlled by means of the dosimetric systems of Freckle, ceric cerous sulfate, Perspex (red, clear and Amber) and dose indicators
A strategic plan for the U.S. space science and applications program during the next 5 to 10 years was developed and published in 1988. Based on the strategies developed by the advisory committees of both the National Academy of Science and NASA, the plan balances major, moderate, and small mission initiatives, the utilization of the Space Station Freedom, and the requirements for a vital research base. The Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) strategic plan is constructed around five actions: establish a set of programmatic themes; establish a set of decision rules; establish a set of priorities for missions and programs within each theme; demonstrate that the strategy will yield a viable program; and check the strategy for consistency within resource constraints. The OSSA plan is revised annually. This OSSA 1990 Strategic Plan refines the 1989 Plan and represents OSSA's initial plan for fulfilling its responsibilities in two major national initiatives. The Plan is now built on interrelated, complementary strategies for the core space science and applications program, for the U.S. Global Change Research Program, and for the Space Exploration Initiative. The challenge is to make sure that the current level of activity is sustained through the end of this century and into the next. The 1990 Plan presents OSSA's strategy to do this.
Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D.
Full Text Available In contrast to previous discussions in the literature treating cosmopolitan and local as two distinct groups of scientists, this paperi demonstrates the notion of cosmopolitan and local as a dual orientation of highly motivated scientists. This dual orientation is derived from institutional motivation, which is a determinant of both high quality basic research and accomplishment of non-research organizational activities. The dual orientation arises in a context of similarity of the institutional goal of science with the goal of the organization; the distinction between groups of locals and cosmopolitans derives from a conflict between two goals.
Rokkan Iversen, K.; Busch, K. T.
Many Early Career Scientists (ECS) share a heart and mind for engaging in Eduaction, Outreach, and Communication (EOC) activities. They often also experience the same frustration due to the limited resources and financial incentives available to support such important projects. The story of the knowledge-based company SALT is a tale of two Norwegian ECSs with a passion for marine science and EOC living their dream - due to the support of private and public funding sources. SALT is located in the small village Svolvær, in the Lofoten Archipelago in Northern-Norway. This small company delivers services and products within research, outreach and consultancy regarding the marine environment. Situated in the very middle of one of the most productive and unique oceanic areas in the world, SALT has a first-row perspective on blue resources, possibilities and challenges. The SALT vision is to provide marine knowledge to politicians and stakeholders, as well as the general public. EOC-projects are an important and prioritized area of this vision, and SALT has taken a broad approach to set such projects into life. SALT are building commercial projects directed towards the tourist and conference industry, as well as more idealistic projects designed to educate and engage children and youth. The total EOC-portifolio of SALT, is therefore as varied as the mixture of different sources funding them. During the first year in business, SALT has proven that it is possible to get funding for innovative EOC-projects in Norway. With the support of Innovation Norway (IN), The Norwegian Research Council (NRC), The RENATE Centre, The Norwegian Centre for Science Education, Nordland County, The Confederation of Norwegian Enterprise (NHO), and an inspiring hub of creative business partners in Lofoten, SALT has managed to realize several EOC-project within a year. SALT is especially grateful that the national structures have acknowledged the importance of innovative EOC- activities also
... disability, please contact Dr. Nugent preferably at least ten days prior to the teleconference to give EPA as... concerning the EPA Science Advisory Board can be found on the EPA Web site at http://www.epa.gov/sab... advisory activity, including its meetings and teleconferences, can be found on the SAB Web site at http...
... contact Dr. Stallworth preferably at least ten days prior to the teleconference to give EPA as much time... information concerning the EPA Science Advisory Board can be found on the EPA Web site at http://www.epa.gov... report. Background information about this SAB advisory activity can be found on the SAB Web site at http...
... the teleconference to give EPA as much time as possible to process your request. Dated: April 26, 2011.... General information concerning the EPA Science Advisory Board can be found on the EPA Web site at http... NAS Comments.'' Background information about this SAB advisory activity can be found on the SAB Web...
... disability, please contact Dr. Nugent preferably at least ten days prior to the teleconference to give EPA as... concerning the EPA Science Advisory Board can be found on the EPA Web site at http://www.epa.gov/sab... advisory activity, including its meetings and teleconferences, can be found on the SAB Web site at http...
... Dr. Nugent preferably at least ten days prior to the teleconference to give EPA as much time as... concerning the EPA Science Advisory Board can be found on the EPA Web site at http://www.epa.gov/sab... found on the SAB Web site at http://yosemite.epa.gov/sab/sabproduct.nsf/fedrgstr_activites/Oil%20Spill...
Andrade, Sally J.; Stigall, Sam; Kappus, Sheryl S.; Ruddock, Maryann; Oburn, Martha
This paper asserts that the continuing decline in admissions to science and engineering graduate programs may lead to a shortage of skilled professionals that undermines the U.S. economy and to a shortage in higher education faculty. The Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation (LSAMP) provides academic activities and retention services to…
... ``Reactive Nitrogen in the United States; an Analysis of Inputs, Flows, Consequences, and Management Options... information concerning the EPA Science Advisory Board can be found on the SAB Web site at http://www.epa.gov... information about this advisory activity can be found on the SAB Web site at http://yosemite.epa.gov/sab...
Perez, D.A. [ed.
This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1991. Each project in the PNL research program is a component in an integrated laboratory, intermediate-scale, and field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. Examples include definition of the role of fundamental geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in the deep subsurface, and determination of the controls on nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and their response to stress at the landscape scale. The Environmental Science Research Center has enable PNL to extend fundamental knowledge of subsurface science to develop emerging new concepts for use in natural systems and in environmental restoration of DOE sites. New PNL investments have been made in developing advanced concepts for addressing chemical desorption kinetics, enzyme transformations and redesign, the role of heterogeneity in contaminant transport, and modeling of fundamental ecological processes.
"Chinese and US scientists have discovered a new particle at the Beijing Electron Position Collider, which is hard to be explained with any known particles, according to scientists from the Institute of High Energy Physics under the Chinese Academy of Sciences Wednesday" (1/2 page).
Seltzer, Richard J.
Students from 25 nations and senior scientists examined ethical and social dimensions of decision making about science and technology during the 1985 Student Pugwash Conference on scientists' individual responsibilities. Working groups focused on toxic wastes, military uses of space, energy and poverty, genetic engineering, and individual rights.…
Shupla, C. B.; Shaner, A. J.; Hackler, A. S.
While some planetary scientists have extensive experience sharing their science with audiences, many can benefit from guidance on giving presentations or conducting activities for students. The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) provides resources and trainings to support planetary scientists in their communication efforts. Trainings have included sessions for students and early career scientists at conferences (providing opportunities for them to practice their delivery and receive feedback for their poster and oral presentations), as well as separate communication workshops on how to engage various audiences. LPI has similarly begun coaching planetary scientists to help them prepare their public presentations. LPI is also helping to connect different audiences and their requests for speakers to planetary scientists. Scientists have been key contributors in developing and conducting activities in LPI education and public events. LPI is currently working with scientists to identify and redesign short planetary science activities for scientists to use with different audiences. The activities will be tied to fundamental planetary science concepts, with basic materials and simple modifications to engage different ages and audience size and background. Input from the planetary science community on these efforts is welcome. Current results and resources, as well as future opportunities will be shared.
McDermott, Mark; Kuhn, Mason
If students are to accurately model how scientists use written communication, they must be given opportunities to use creative means to describe science in the classroom. Scientists often integrate pictures, diagrams, charts, and other modes within text and students should also be encouraged to use multiple modes of communication. This article…
This dissertation explores how scientists and science students respond to fictional, visual media about science. I consider how scientists think about images of science in relation to their own career paths from childhood onwards. I am especially interested in the possibility that entertainment media can inspire young people to learn about science. Such inspiration is badly needed, as schools are failing to provide it. Science education in the United States is in a state of crisis. Studies repeatedly find low levels of science literacy in the U.S. This bleak situation exists during a boom in the popularity of science-oriented television shows and science fiction movies. How might entertainment media play a role in helping young people engage with science? To grapple with these questions, I interviewed a total of fifty scientists and students interested in science careers, representing a variety of scientific fields and demographic backgrounds, and with varying levels of interest in science fiction. Most respondents described becoming attracted to the sciences at a young age, and many were able to identify specific sources for this interest. The fact that interest in the sciences begins early in life, demonstrates a potentially important role for fictional media in the process of inspiration, perhaps especially for children without access to real-life scientists. One key aspect to the appeal of fiction about science is how scientists are portrayed as characters. Scientists from groups traditionally under-represented in the sciences often sought out fictional characters with whom they could identify, and viewers from all backgrounds preferred well-rounded characters to the extreme stereotypes of mad or dorky scientists. Genre is another aspect of appeal. Some respondents identified a specific role for science fiction: conveying a sense of wonder. Visual media introduce viewers to the beauty of science. Special effects, in particular, allow viewers to explore the
The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Groundwater Program Office in fiscal years 1995--1997 and document technical results achieved. One of the first contributions of the project was development and publication of a conceptual hydrologic framework for the Oak Ridge Reservation. This framework then served to guide research to fill important gaps in knowledge and suggest the most cost-effective approaches to site characterization and remediation. Examples of major goals include: quantitative characterization of the role of matrix diffusion in slowing transport of contaminants and impacting the practicality of pump and treat options for aquifer restoration; the importance of geologic structure and preferred flow pathways in the near surface zone (including the role of stormflow); evaluation of the importance of the deep groundwater system in contaminant migration; and acquisition of three-dimensional groundwater flow and contaminant transport simulation capability for fractured porous media
Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Myers, Samuel Maxwell, Jr.; Simmons, Jerry Alvon; McIlroy, Andrew; Vook, Frederick L.; Collis, Samuel Scott; Picraux, Samuel Thomas
In 1957, Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) initiated its first programs in fundamental science, in support of its primary nuclear weapons mission. In 1974, Sandia initiated programs in fundamental science supported by the Department of Energy's Office of Science (DOE-SC). These latter programs have grown to the point where, today in 2011, support of Sandia's programs in fundamental science is dominated by that Office. In comparison with Sandia's programs in technology and mission applications, however, Sandia's programs in fundamental science are small. Hence, Sandia's fundamental science has been strongly influenced by close interactions with technology and mission applications. In many instances, these interactions have been of great mutual benefit, with synergies akin to a positive 'Casimir's spiral' of progress. In this report, we review the history of Sandia's fundamental science programs supported by the Office of Science. We present: (a) a technical and budgetary snapshot of Sandia's current programs supported by the various suboffices within DOE-SC; (b) statistics of highly-cited articles supported by DOE-SC; (c) four case studies (ion-solid interactions, combustion science, compound semiconductors, advanced computing) with an emphasis on mutually beneficial interactions between science, technology, and mission; and (d) appendices with key memos and reminiscences related to fundamental science at Sandia.
2BT UK 19 -P Studies of Extratropical Cyclonic Peter V. Hobbs Storms ; The CYCLES Project Department of Atmospheric AFOSR-ISSA-83-00018 Sciences...and has been a key focus area for several years. With the planning for, and advent of, the National " STORM " Program (outlined recently by a UCAR...United States, Europe and Japan has established that direct fluorination is the most generally applicable technique for the synthesis of novel fluorine