WorldWideScience

Sample records for science objectives include

  1. Life sciences recruitment objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, J. Richard

    1992-01-01

    The goals of the Life Sciences Division of the Office of Space Sciences and Application are to ensure the health, well being and productivity of humans in space and to acquire fundamental scientific knowledge in space life sciences. With these goals in mind Space Station Freedom represents substantial opportunities and significant challenges to the Life Sciences Division. For the first time it will be possible to replicate experimental data from a variety of simultaneously exposed species with appropriate controls and real-time analytical capabilities over extended periods of time. At the same time, a system for monitoring and ameliorating the physiological adaptations that occur in humans subjected to extended space flight must be evolved to provide the continuing operational support to the SSF crew. To meet its goals, and take advantage of the opportunities and overcome the challenges presented by Space Station Freedom, the Life Sciences Division is developing a suite of discipline-focused sequence. The research phase of the Life Sciences Space Station Freedom Program will commence with the utilization flights following the deployment of the U.S. laboratory module and achievement of Man Tended Capability. Investigators that want the Life Sciences Division to sponsor their experiment on SSF can do so in one of three ways: submitting a proposal in response to a NASA Research Announcement (NRA), submitting a proposal in response to an Announcement of Opportunity (AO), or submitting an unsolicited proposal. The scientific merit of all proposals will be evaluated by peer review panels. Proposals will also be evaluated based on relevance to NASA's missions and on the results of an Engineering and Cost Analyses. The Life Sciences Division expects that the majority of its funding opportunities will be announced through NRA's. It is anticipated that the first NRA will be released approximately three years before first element launch (currently scheduled for late 1995

  2. Swarm Science objectives and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Lühr, Hermann; Hulot, Gauthier

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA’s Living Planet Programme to be launched in 2009. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution. The innovative constellation concept and a unique set of dedicated instrume......Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA’s Living Planet Programme to be launched in 2009. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution. The innovative constellation concept and a unique set of dedicated...... instruments will provide the necessary observations that are required to separate and model the various sources of the geomagnetic field. This will provide new insights into the Earth system by improving our understanding of the Earth’s interior and Sun-Earth connection processes....

  3. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  4. NASA's Earth Science Enterprise: Future Science Missions, Objectives and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid

    1998-01-01

    NASA has been actively involved in studying the planet Earth and its changing environment for well over thirty years. Within the last decade, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise has become a major observational and scientific element of the U.S. Global Change Research Program. NASA's Earth Science Enterprise management has developed a comprehensive observation-based research program addressing all the critical science questions that will take us into the next century. Furthermore, the entire program is being mapped to answer five Science Themes (1) land-cover and land-use change research (2) seasonal-to-interannual climate variability and prediction (3) natural hazards research and applications (4) long-term climate-natural variability and change research and (5) atmospheric ozone research. Now the emergence of newer technologies on the horizon and at the same time continuously declining budget environment has lead to an effort to refocus the Earth Science Enterprise activities. The intent is not to compromise the overall scientific goals, but rather strengthen them by enabling challenging detection, computational and space flight technologies those have not been practically feasible to date. NASA is planning faster, cost effective and relatively smaller missions to continue the science observations from space for the next decade. At the same time, there is a growing interest in the world in the remote sensing area which will allow NASA to take advantage of this by building strong coalitions with a number of international partners. The focus of this presentation is to provide a comprehensive look at the NASA's Earth Science Enterprise in terms of its brief history, scientific objectives, organization, activities and future direction.

  5. Student Motivation in Science Subjects in Tanzania, Including Students' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkimbili, Selina Thomas; Ødegaard, Marianne

    2017-12-01

    Fostering and maintaining students' interest in science is an important aspect of improving science learning. The focus of this paper is to listen to and reflect on students' voices regarding the sources of motivation for science subjects among students in community secondary schools with contextual challenges in Tanzania. We conducted a group-interview study of 46 Form 3 and Form 4 Tanzanian secondary school students. The study findings reveal that the major contextual challenges to student motivation for science in the studied schools are limited resources and students' insufficient competence in the language of instruction. Our results also reveal ways to enhance student motivation for science in schools with contextual challenges; these techniques include the use of questioning techniques and discourse, students' investigations and practical work using locally available materials, study tours, more integration of classroom science into students' daily lives and the use of real-life examples in science teaching. Also we noted that students' contemporary life, culture and familiar language can be utilised as a useful resource in facilitating meaningful learning in science in the school. Students suggested that, to make science interesting to a majority of students in a Tanzanian context, science education needs to be inclusive of students' experiences, culture and contemporary daily lives. Also, science teaching and learning in the classroom need to involve learners' voices.

  6. Clinton administration budget includes mixed bag for science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    The $1,766 trillion federal budget proposal that the Clinton Administration rolled out on February 1—which promises to protect Social Security and Medicare and work within mandated budget caps—generally provides favorable news for federally funded science research and development.Within the 17% ($592 billion) of the federal budget earmarked for discretionary spending, the Administration's budget proposal increases funding for nondefense research and development for the seventh year in a row. This includes increased funding for a number of science accounts and money for a series of new science initiatives.

  7. Graph comprehension in science and mathematics education: Objects and categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voetmann Christiansen, Frederik; May, Michael

    types of registers. In the second part of the paper, we consider how diagrams in science are often composites of iconic and indexical elements, and how this fact may lead to confusion for students. In the discussion the utility of the Peircian semiotic framework for educational studies......, the typological mistake of considering graphs as images is discussed related to litterature, and two examples from engineering education are given. The educational implications for science and engineering are discussed, with emphasis on the need for students to work explicitly with conversions between different...... of representational forms in science is discussed, and how the objects of mathematics and science relate to their semiotic representations....

  8. Planning for Planetary Science Mission Including Resource Prospecting, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advances in computer-aided mission planning can enhance mission operations and science return for surface missions to Mars, the Moon, and beyond. While the...

  9. 34 CFR 364.42 - What objectives and information must be included in the State plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What objectives and information must be included in the State plan? 364.42 Section 364.42 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE...

  10. Evolution of NASA's Earth Science Digital Object Identifier Registration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanchoo, Lalit; James, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project has implemented a fully automated system for assigning Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) to Earth Science data products being managed by its network of 12 distributed active archive centers (DAACs). A key factor in the successful evolution of the DOI registration system over last 7 years has been the incorporation of community input from three focus groups under the NASA's Earth Science Data System Working Group (ESDSWG). These groups were largely composed of DOI submitters and data curators from the 12 data centers serving the user communities of various science disciplines. The suggestions from these groups were formulated into recommendations for ESDIS consideration and implementation. The ESDIS DOI registration system has evolved to be fully functional with over 5,000 publicly accessible DOIs and over 200 DOIs being held in reserve status until the information required for registration is obtained. The goal is to assign DOIs to the entire 8000+ data collections under ESDIS management via its network of discipline-oriented data centers. DOIs make it easier for researchers to discover and use earth science data and they enable users to provide valid citations for the data they use in research. Also for the researcher wishing to reproduce the results presented in science publications, the DOI can be used to locate the exact data or data products being cited.

  11. Multi-Objective Dynamic Economic Dispatch of Microgrid Systems Including Vehicle-to-Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of electric vehicles (EVs, this paper establishes the load models of EVs under the autonomous charging mode and the coordinated charging and discharging mode. Integrating the EVs into a microgrid system which includes wind turbines (WTs, photovoltaic arrays (PVs, diesel engines (DEs, fuel cells (FCs and a storage battery (BS, this paper establishes multi-objective economic dispatch models of a microgrid, including the lowest operating cost, the least carbon dioxide emissions, and the lowest pollutant treatment cost. After converting the multi-objective functions to a single objective function by using the judgment matrix method, we analyze the dynamic economic dispatch of the microgrid system including vehicle-to-grid (V2G with an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm under different operation control strategies. With the example system, the proposed models and strategies are verified and analyzed. Simulation results show that the microgrid system with EVs under the coordinated charging and discharging mode has better operation economics than the autonomous charging mode. Meanwhile, the greater the load fluctuation is, the higher the operating cost of the microgrid system is.

  12. Gaia: Science with 1 billion objects in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusti, Timo

    2018-02-01

    Gaia is an operational satellite in the ESA science programme. It is gathering data for more than a billion objects. Gaia measures positions and motions of stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, but captures many asteroids and extragalactic sources as well. The first data release has already been made and exploitation by the world-wide scientific community is underway. Further data releases will be made with further increasing accuracy. Gaia is well underway to provide its promised set of fundamental astronomical data.

  13. Representing uncertainty in objective functions: extension to include the influence of serial correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croke, B. F.

    2008-12-01

    The role of performance indicators is to give an accurate indication of the fit between a model and the system being modelled. As all measurements have an associated uncertainty (determining the significance that should be given to the measurement), performance indicators should take into account uncertainties in the observed quantities being modelled as well as in the model predictions (due to uncertainties in inputs, model parameters and model structure). In the presence of significant uncertainty in observed and modelled output of a system, failure to adequately account for variations in the uncertainties means that the objective function only gives a measure of how well the model fits the observations, not how well the model fits the system being modelled. Since in most cases, the interest lies in fitting the system response, it is vital that the objective function(s) be designed to account for these uncertainties. Most objective functions (e.g. those based on the sum of squared residuals) assume homoscedastic uncertainties. If model contribution to the variations in residuals can be ignored, then transformations (e.g. Box-Cox) can be used to remove (or at least significantly reduce) heteroscedasticity. An alternative which is more generally applicable is to explicitly represent the uncertainties in the observed and modelled values in the objective function. Previous work on this topic addressed the modifications to standard objective functions (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, RMSE, chi- squared, coefficient of determination) using the optimal weighted averaging approach. This paper extends this previous work; addressing the issue of serial correlation. A form for an objective function that includes serial correlation will be presented, and the impact on model fit discussed.

  14. Science Goals, Objectives, and Investigations of the 2016 Europa Lander Science Definition Team Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Kevin P.; Murray, Alison; Garvin, James; and the Europa Lander Science Definition Team, Project Science Team, and Project Engineering Team.

    2017-10-01

    In June of 2016 NASA convened a 21-person team of scientists to establish the science goals, objectives, investigations, measurement requirements, and model payload of a Europa lander mission concept. The NASA HQ Charter goals, in priority order, are as follows:1) Search for evidence of life on Europa, 2) Assess the habitability of Europa via in situ techniques uniquely available to a lander mission, 3) Characterize surface and subsurface properties at the scale of the lander to support future exploration of Europa.Within Goal 1, four Objectives were developed for seeking signs of life. These include the need to: a) detect and characterize any organic indicators of past or present life, b) identify and characterize morphological, textural, and other indicators of life, c) detect and characterize any inorganic indicators of past or present life, and d) determine the provenance of Lander-sampled material. Goal 2 focuses on Europa’s habitability and ensures that even in the absence of the detection of any potential biosignatures, significant ocean world science is still achieved. Goal 3 ensures that the landing site region is quantitatively characterized in the context needed for Goals 1 and 2, and that key measurements about Europa’s ice shell are made to enable future exploration.Critically, scientific success cannot be, and should never be, contingent on finding signs of life - such criteria would be levying requirements on how the universe works. Rather, scientific success is defined here as achieving a suite of measurements such that if convincing signs of life are present on Europa’s surface they could be detected at levels comparable to those found in benchmark environments on Earth, and, further, that even if no potential biosignatures are detected, the science return of the mission will significantly advance our fundamental understanding of Europa’s chemistry, geology, geophysics, and habitability.

  15. Geometrical objects architecture and the mathematical sciences 1400-1800

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This volume explores the mathematical character of architectural practice in diverse pre- and early modern contexts. It takes an explicitly interdisciplinary approach, which unites scholarship in early modern architecture with recent work in the history of science, in particular, on the role of practice in the scientific revolution. As a contribution to architectural history, the volume contextualizes design and construction in terms of contemporary mathematical knowledge, attendant forms of mathematical practice, and relevant social distinctions between the mathematical professions. As a contribution to the history of science, the volume presents a series of micro-historical studies that highlight issues of process, materiality, and knowledge production in specific, situated, practical contexts. Our approach sees the designer’s studio, the stone-yard, the drawing floor, and construction site not merely as places where the architectural object takes shape, but where mathematical knowledge itself is depl...

  16. The patent, object of research in Information Science and Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Quoniam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study are addressed some dimensions of intellectual property, especially patents and their way of making some tangible outcomes of research and development, playing a key role in the field of strategy, involving the returns on investments and exploration rights to certain inventions. However, the general objective of this study is to present aspects of the information available in patent applications and the possibility of using them to transfer technology between countries, organizations, contribute to the research of social responsibility, valuing natural resources and provide access to medicines, once these are aspects little attention in the literature. Considering the patent as an object of study in the humanities and social sciences, is evidenced by the cases cited, the potential contribution to innovation, research and development organizations, regions and countries.

  17. Objectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Daston, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Objectivity has a history, and it is full of surprises. In Objectivity, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison chart the emergence of objectivity in the mid-nineteenth-century sciences--and show how the concept differs from its alternatives, truth-to-nature and trained judgment. This is a story of lofty epistemic ideals fused with workaday practices in the making of scientific images. From the eighteenth through the early twenty-first centuries, the images that reveal the deepest commitments of the empirical sciences--from anatomy to crystallography--are those featured in scientific atlases, the compendia that teach practitioners what is worth looking at and how to look at it. Galison and Daston use atlas images to uncover a hidden history of scientific objectivity and its rivals. Whether an atlas maker idealizes an image to capture the essentials in the name of truth-to-nature or refuses to erase even the most incidental detail in the name of objectivity or highlights patterns in the name of trained judgment is a...

  18. Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs). LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Science and Technology Div.

    This guide lists information sources dealing with unidentified flying objects (UFOs). Not meant to be a comprehensive bibliography, this compilation is designed--as the name of the series implies--to put the reader "on target." Included are: (1) subject headings used by the Library of Congress, under which publications on this subject…

  19. Optimisation of chromatographic resolution using objective functions including both time and spectral information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Lapasió, J R; Pous-Torres, S; Ortiz-Bolsico, C; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C

    2015-01-16

    The optimisation of the resolution in high-performance liquid chromatography is traditionally performed attending only to the time information. However, even in the optimal conditions, some peak pairs may remain unresolved. Such incomplete resolution can be still accomplished by deconvolution, which can be carried out with more guarantees of success by including spectral information. In this work, two-way chromatographic objective functions (COFs) that incorporate both time and spectral information were tested, based on the peak purity (analyte peak fraction free of overlapping) and the multivariate selectivity (figure of merit derived from the net analyte signal) concepts. These COFs are sensitive to situations where the components that coelute in a mixture show some spectral differences. Therefore, they are useful to find out experimental conditions where the spectrochromatograms can be recovered by deconvolution. Two-way multivariate selectivity yielded the best performance and was applied to the separation using diode-array detection of a mixture of 25 phenolic compounds, which remained unresolved in the chromatographic order using linear and multi-linear gradients of acetonitrile-water. Peak deconvolution was carried out using the combination of orthogonal projection approach and alternating least squares. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The OCO-3 Mission: Science Objectives and Instrument Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldering, A.; Basilio, R. R.; Bennett, M. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory 3 (OCO-3) will continue global CO2 and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) using the flight spare instrument from OCO-2. The instrument is currently being tested, and will be packaged for installation on the International Space Station (ISS) (launch readiness in early 2018.) This talk will focus on the science objectives, updated simulations of the science data products, and the outcome of recent instrument performance tests. The low-inclination ISS orbit lets OCO-3 sample the tropics and sub-tropics across the full range of daylight hours with dense observations at northern and southern mid-latitudes (+/- 52º). The combination of these dense CO2 and SIF measurements provides continuity of data for global flux estimates as well as a unique opportunity to address key deficiencies in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. The instrument utilizes an agile, 2-axis pointing mechanism (PMA), providing the capability to look towards the bright reflection from the ocean and validation targets. The PMA also allows for a snapshot mapping mode to collect dense datasets over 100km by 100km areas. Measurements over urban centers could aid in making estimates of fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Similarly, the snapshot mapping mode can be used to sample regions of interest for the terrestrial carbon cycle. In addition, there is potential to utilize data from ISS instruments ECOSTRESS (ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station) and GEDI (Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation), which measure other key variables of the control of carbon uptake by plants, to complement OCO-3 data in science analysis. In 2017, the OCO-2 instrument was transformed into the ISS-ready OCO-3 payload. The transformed instrument was thoroughly tested and characterized. Key characteristics, such as instrument ILS, spectral resolution, and radiometric performance will be described. Analysis of direct sun measurements taken during testing

  1. RESOLVE: Bridge between early lunar ISRU and science objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G.; Sanders, G.; Larson, W.; Johnson, K.

    2007-08-01

    and make direct measurements. With this in mind, NASA initiated development of a payload named RESOLVE (Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction) that could be flown to the lunar poles and answer the questions surrounding the hydrogen: what's its form? how much is there? how deep or distributed is it? To do this, RESOLVE will use a drill to take a 1-2 meter core sample, crush and heat sample segments of the core in an oven and monitor the amount and type of volatile gases that evolve with a gas chromatograph (GC). RESOLVE will also selectively capture both hydrogen gas and water as a secondary method of quantification. A specialized camera that is coupled with a Raman spectrometer will allow core samples to be microscopically examined while also determining its mineral composition and possible water content before heating. Because RESOLVE is aimed at demonstrating capabilities and techniques that might be later used for ISRU, a multi-use oven is utilized with the ability to produce oxygen using the hydrogen reduction method. SCIENCE BENEFITS: In the process of answering the hydrogen question, the RESOLVE instrument suite will provide data that can address a number of other scientific questions and debate issues, especially the sources of volatiles and reactions that might take place in cold traps. It should be noted that the original instrument suite for RESOLVE was selected to accomplish the largest number of ISRU and science objectives as possible within the limited funding available. Complementary instruments are noted when additional science objectives can be accomplished. Incorporation of these new instruments into RESOLVE and potential partnerships is an area of near-term interest. Sources of Volatiles: The main proposed sources are episodic comet impacts, moreor- less continuous micrometeorite (both comet and asteroidal) impacts, solar wind bombardment, occasional volcanic emissions from the interior, and episodic delivery of

  2. A Model for the Design of Puzzle-Based Games Including Virtual and Physical Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melero, Javier; Hernandez-Leo, Davinia

    2014-01-01

    Multiple evidences in the Technology-Enhanced Learning domain indicate that Game-Based Learning can lead to positive effects in students' performance and motivation. Educational games can be completely virtual or can combine the use of physical objects or spaces in the real world. However, the potential effectiveness of these approaches…

  3. Life science research objectives and representative experiments for the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine C. (Editor); Arno, Roger D. (Editor); Mains, Richard (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A workshop was convened to develop hypothetical experiments to be used as a baseline for space station designer and equipment specifiers to ensure responsiveness to the users, the life science community. Sixty-five intra- and extramural scientists were asked to describe scientific rationales, science objectives, and give brief representative experiment descriptions compatible with expected space station accommodations, capabilities, and performance envelopes. Experiment descriptions include hypothesis, subject types, approach, equipment requirements, and space station support requirements. The 171 experiments are divided into 14 disciplines.

  4. Design Guide for Earth System Science Education: Common Student Learning Objectives and Special Pedagogical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the NASA-supported undergraduate Earth System Science Education (ESSE) program, fifty-seven institutions have developed and implemented a wide range of Earth system science (ESS) courses, pedagogies, and evaluation tools. The Teaching, Learning, and Evaluation section of USRA's online ESSE Design Guide showcases these ESS learning environments. This Design Guide section also provides resources for faculty who wish to develop ESS courses. It addresses important course design issues including prior student knowledge and interests, student learning objectives, learning resources, pedagogical approaches, and assessments tied to student learning objectives. The ESSE Design Guide provides links to over 130 ESS course syllabi at introductory, senior, and graduate levels. ESS courses over the past 15 years exhibit common student learning objectives and unique pedagogical approaches. From analysis of ESS course syllabi, seven common student learning objectives emerged: 1) demonstrate systems thinking, 2) develop an ESS knowledge base, 3) apply ESS to the human dimension, 4) expand and apply analytical skills, 5) improve critical thinking skills, 6) build professional/career skills, and 7) acquire an enjoyment and appreciation for science. To meet these objectives, ESSE often requires different ways of teaching than in traditional scientific disciplines. This presentation will highlight some especially successful pedagogical approaches for creating positive and engaging ESS learning environments.

  5. Ethical objections against including life-extension costs in cost-effectiveness analysis: a consistent approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandjour, Afschin; Müller, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    One of the major ethical concerns regarding cost-effectiveness analysis in health care has been the inclusion of life-extension costs ("it is cheaper to let people die"). For this reason, many analysts have opted to rule out life-extension costs from the analysis. However, surprisingly little has been written in the health economics literature regarding this ethical concern and the resulting practice. The purpose of this work was to present a framework and potential solution for ethical objections against life-extension costs. This work found three levels of ethical concern: (i) with respect to all life-extension costs (disease-related and -unrelated); (ii) with respect to disease-unrelated costs only; and (iii) regarding disease-unrelated costs plus disease-related costs not influenced by the intervention. Excluding all life-extension costs for ethical reasons would require-for reasons of consistency-a simultaneous exclusion of savings from reducing morbidity. At the other extreme, excluding only disease-unrelated life-extension costs for ethical reasons would require-again for reasons of consistency-the exclusion of health gains due to treatment of unrelated diseases. Therefore, addressing ethical concerns regarding the inclusion of life-extension costs necessitates fundamental changes in the calculation of cost effectiveness.

  6. Science Communication Through Art: Objectives, Challenges, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesen, Amy E; Rogan, Ama; Blum, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    The arts are becoming a favored medium for conveying science to the public. Tracking trending approaches, such as community-engaged learning, alongside challenges and goals can help establish metrics to achieve more impactful outcomes, and to determine the effectiveness of arts-based science communication for raising awareness or shaping public policy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Science Integrating Learning Objectives: A Cooperative Learning Group Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The integration of agricultural and science curricular content that capitalizes on natural and inherent connections represents a challenge for secondary agricultural educators. The purpose of this case study was to create information about the employment of Cooperative Learning Groups (CLG) to enhance the science integrating learning objectives…

  8. The laboratory in higher science education: Problems, premises and objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, P.A.; Meester, M.A.M.

    1988-01-01

    A university study in the natural sciences, devoid of a practical component such as laboratory work is virtually unthinkable. One could even go so far as saying that it is extremely rare for anyone to question the necessity of laboratory work in either high school or university science

  9. Smart learning objects for smart education in computer science theory, methodology and robot-based implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Stuikys, Vytautas

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents the challenges, vision and context to design smart learning objects (SLOs) through Computer Science (CS) education modelling and feature model transformations. It presents the latest research on the meta-programming-based generative learning objects (the latter with advanced features are treated as SLOs) and the use of educational robots in teaching CS topics. The introduced methodology includes the overall processes to develop SLO and smart educational environment (SEE) and integrates both into the real education setting to provide teaching in CS using constructivist a

  10. Appropriating religion: understanding religion as an object of science

    OpenAIRE

    Donald Wiebe

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the author focuses on the study of religion as a scientific project, for it is the scientific interest in religion which has constituted the grounds for admitting the study of religion into the curriculum of the modern Western university. Despite that academic legitimation, however, the study of religion in the setting of the modern research university is not held in high esteem relative to the other sciences. It if the scientific study of religion is to be legitimately ensconc...

  11. Appropriating religion: understanding religion as an object of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Wiebe

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author focuses on the study of religion as a scientific project, for it is the scientific interest in religion which has constituted the grounds for admitting the study of religion into the curriculum of the modern Western university. Despite that academic legitimation, however, the study of religion in the setting of the modern research university is not held in high esteem relative to the other sciences. It if the scientific study of religion is to be legitimately ensconced in the modern research university, the notion of religion will have to be wholly appropriated by science; only then will we be able to establish a conceptual foundation from which to make valid knowledge claims about religion on a level commensurate with the pronouncements of the natural and social sciences. Indeed, to go one step further, given the hold on the concept of religion by those committed to the humanistic study of religion, we might need to talk here not of the appropriation but of expropriation of religion by science—that is, of wresting ownership of the concept from the humanists by using it solely as a taxonomic device to differentiate and explain a peculiar range of human behaviour demonstrated in religious practices.

  12. Causality and complexity: the myth of objectivity in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulecky, Donald C

    2007-10-01

    Two distinctly different worldviews dominate today's thinking in science and in the world of ideas outside of science. Using the approach advocated by Robert M. Hutchins, it is possible to see a pattern of interaction between ideas in science and in other spheres such as philosophy, religion, and politics. Instead of compartmentalizing these intellectual activities, it is worthwhile to look for common threads of mutual influence. Robert Rosen has created an approach to scientific epistemology that might seem radical to some. However, it has characteristics that resemble ideas in other fields, in particular in the writings of George Lakoff, Leo Strauss, and George Soros. Historically, the atmosphere at the University of Chicago during Hutchins' presidency gave rise to Rashevsky's relational biology, which Rosen carried forward. Strauss was writing his political philosophy there at the same time. One idea is paramount in all this, and it is Lakoff who gives us the most insight into how the worldviews differ using this idea. The central difference has to do with causality, the fundamental concept that we use to build a worldview. Causal entailment has two distinct forms in Lakoff 's analysis: direct causality and complex causality. Rosen's writings on complexity create a picture of complex causality that is extremely useful in its detail, grounding in the ideas of Aristotle. Strauss asks for a return to the ancients to put philosophy back on track. Lakoff sees the weaknesses in Western philosophy in a similar way, and Rosen provides tools for dealing with the problem. This introduction to the relationships between the thinking of these authors is meant to stimulate further discourse on the role of complex causal entailment in all areas of thought, and how it brings them together in a holistic worldview. The worldview built on complex causality is clearly distinct from that built around simple, direct causality. One important difference is that the impoverished causal

  13. Science Objectives and Design of the European Seas Observatory NETwork (ESONET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, H.; Géli, L.; Karstensen, J.; Colaço, A.; Lampitt, R.; Greinert, J.; Phannkuche, O.; Auffret, Y.

    2009-04-01

    important feedbacks of potential ecological change be on biogeochemical cycles? What are the factors that control the distribution and abundance of marine life and what will the influence of anthropogenic change be? We will outline a set of science objectives and observation parameters to be collected at all ESONET sites, as well as a set of rather specific objectives and thus parameters that might only be measured at some sites. We will also present the preliminary module specifications now being considered by ESONET. In a practical sense the observatory design has been divided into those that will be included in a so called ‘generic' module and those that will be part of science-specific modules. Outlining preliminary module specifications is required to move forward with studies of observatory design and operation. These specifications are importantly provisional and can be updated as science needs and feasibility change. A functional cleavage not only comes between aspects that are considered generic or specific, but also the settings in which those systems will be used. For example, some modules will be on the seabed and some will be moored in the water column. In order to address many of the questions posed above ESONET users will require other supporting data from other programs from local to international levels. Examples of these other data sources include satellite oceanographic data, climatic data, air-sea interface data, and the known distribution and abundances of marine fauna. Thus the connection of ESONET to other programs is integral to its success. The development of ESONET provides a substantial opportunity for ocean science to evolve in Europe. Furthermore, ESONET and several other developing ocean observatory programs are integrating into larger science frameworks including the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Global Monitoring of Environment and Security (GMES) programs. It is only in a greater integrated framework that the full

  14. The Role of Authentic Objects in Museums of the History of Science and Technology: Findings from a Visitor Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampp, Constanze; Schwan, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    One characteristic of science centers and science museums is that they communicate scientific findings by presenting real scientific objects. In particular, science museums focus on the historical context of scientific discoveries by displaying authentic objects, defined as original objects that once served a science-related, real-world purpose…

  15. SUSTAINABILITY LOGISTICS BASING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OBJECTIVE DEMONSTRATION; SELECTED TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-22

    BASING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OBJECTIVE – DEMONSTRATION; SELECTED TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT by Gregg J. Gildea Paul D. Carpenter Benjamin J...Campbell William F. Harris* Michael A. McCluskey** and José A. Miletti*** *General Dynamics Information Technology Fairfax, VA 22030 **Maneuver...SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OBJECTIVE – DEMONSTRATION; SELECTED TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  16. The language of objects: Christian Jürgensen Thomsen's science of the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskildsen, Kasper Risbjerg

    2012-03-01

    The Danish amateur scholar Christian Jürgensen Thomsen has often been described as a founder of modern "scientific" archaeology. Thomsen's innovation, this essay argues, reflects developments within neighboring fields, such as philology and history. He reacted against historians who limited themselves to histories of texts and therefore abandoned the earliest human history. Instead, he proposed a new history of objects, which included the entire history of humankind. Thomsen's work as director of the Royal Museum of Nordic Antiquities in Copenhagen was especially important for this renewal. The arrangement of artifacts not only helped him formulate his theories, but also allowed him to present his arguments in a language of objects. At the same time, Thomsen's definition of archaeology as a museum science placed his branch of archaeology in a closer relationship with other museum sciences, such as geology and comparative anatomy. From the 1840s, Thomsen's museum became a model for how the study of human artifacts could deliver scientific insights into human nature and the laws of human development.

  17. Coupled orbit-attitude motion of high area-to-mass ratio (HAMR) objects including efficient self-shadowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Früh, Carolin; Jah, Moriba K.

    2014-02-01

    This paper shows the effect of self-shadowing on the coupled attitude-orbit dynamics of objects with high area-to-mass ratios (HAMR) in simulating standard multi layer insulation materials (MLI) as tilted single rigid sheets. Efficient and computationally fast self-shadowing methods have been developed. This includes an approximate self-shadowing method and a rapid exact self-shadowing method. Accuracy considerations are made and the effect of a chosen tessellation is shown. The coupled orbit-attitude perturbations of solar radiation pressure and Earth gravity field are taken into account. The results are compared to the attitude-orbit dynamics, when neglecting self-shadowing effects. An averaged physical shadow-map model is developed and compared to the full self-shadowing simulation. The combined effect of solar radiation pressure and self-shadowing leads to a rapid spin-up of the objects, even though they have uniform reflection properties. As a result, the observed brightness of these objects is subject to rapid changes.

  18. Web-Scale Discovery Services Retrieve Relevant Results in Health Sciences Topics Including MEDLINE Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Margaret Stovold

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Hanneke, R., & O’Brien, K. K. (2016. Comparison of three web-scale discovery services for health sciences research. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 104(2, 109-117. http://dx.doi.org/10.3163/1536-5050.104.2.004 Abstract Objective – To compare the results of health sciences search queries in three web-scale discovery (WSD services for relevance, duplicate detection, and retrieval of MEDLINE content. Design – Comparative evaluation and bibliometric study. Setting – Six university libraries in the United States of America. Subjects – Three commercial WSD services: Primo, Summon, and EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS. Methods – The authors collected data at six universities, including their own. They tested each of the three WSDs at two data collection sites. However, since one of the sites was using a legacy version of Summon that was due to be upgraded, data collected for Summon at this site were considered obsolete and excluded from the analysis. The authors generated three questions for each of six major health disciplines, then designed simple keyword searches to mimic typical student search behaviours. They captured the first 20 results from each query run at each test site, to represent the first “page” of results, giving a total of 2,086 total search results. These were independently assessed for relevance to the topic. Authors resolved disagreements by discussion, and calculated a kappa inter-observer score. They retained duplicate records within the results so that the duplicate detection by the WSDs could be compared. They assessed MEDLINE coverage by the WSDs in several ways. Using precise strategies to generate a relevant set of articles, they conducted one search from each of the six disciplines in PubMed so that they could compare retrieval of MEDLINE content. These results were cross-checked against the first 20 results from the corresponding query in the WSDs. To aid investigation of overall

  19. Improvement on a science curriculum including experimental demonstration of environmental radioactivity for secondary school students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kenji; Matsubara, Shizuo; Aiba, Yoshio; Eriguchi, Hiroshi; Kiyota, Saburo; Takeyama, Tetsuji.

    1988-01-01

    A science curriculum previously prepared for teaching environmental radioactivity was modified on the basis of the results of trial instructions in secondary schools. The main subject of the revised curriculum is an understanding of the natural radioactivity through the experimental demonstration about air-borne β and γ ray emitters. The other subjects included are the radioactive decay, the biological effects of radiation, the concept of risk-benefit balance (acceptable level) and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and radiation. The work sheets and reference data prepared as learning materials are in two levels corresponding to the ability of students for this curriculum. (author)

  20. Data Stewardship in the Ocean Sciences Needs to Include Physical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M.; Lehnert, K.

    2016-02-01

    Across the Ocean Sciences, research involves the collection and study of samples collected above, at, and below the seafloor, including but not limited to rocks, sediments, fluids, gases, and living organisms. Many domains in the Earth Sciences have recently expressed the need for better discovery, access, and sharing of scientific samples and collections (EarthCube End-User Domain workshops, 2012 and 2013, http://earthcube.org/info/about/end-user-workshops), as has the US government (OSTP Memo, March 2014). iSamples (Internet of Samples in the Earth Sciences) is a Research Coordination Network within the EarthCube program that aims to advance the use of innovative cyberinfrastructure to support and advance the utility of physical samples and sample collections for science and ensure reproducibility of sample-based data and research results. iSamples strives to build, grow, and foster a new community of practice, in which domain scientists, curators of sample repositories and collections, computer and information scientists, software developers and technology innovators engage in and collaborate on defining, articulating, and addressing the needs and challenges of physical samples as a critical component of digital data infrastructure. A primary goal of iSamples is to deliver a community-endorsed set of best practices and standards for the registration, description, identification, and citation of physical specimens and define an actionable plan for implementation. iSamples conducted a broad community survey about sample sharing and has created 5 different working groups to address the different challenges of developing the internet of samples - from metadata schemas and unique identifiers to an architecture for a shared cyberinfrastructure to manage collections, to digitization of existing collections, to education, and ultimately to establishing the physical infrastructure that will ensure preservation and access of the physical samples. Repositories that curate

  1. Science, Neutrality and Objectivity in Nuclear Research: Shared References or Ideal Types?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovy, Michel; Laes, Erik; Eggermont, Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    search for another kind of social order and another kind of globalization in which more bridges are built up towards more varied components of the society. Of course this ideal only can be achieved if the task of organizing the expression of the silent majority is given to actors who profit from a more transparent democracy... which is not the first professional mandate of the expert. But instead of blaming most experts not to deal with political and social debates, we could ask them to help making them more objective and neutral. The role of regulator should be a better integration of experts in an organised theatre of debates that offers experts the right to expresses their point of view as social actors and also offers society to approach what's the experts' methodology. On a similar way, 'Society's' representatives also have to share these values for including more extended interactions regarding subject matter (safety, welfare, health, innovation ... ), in time (next generations and also to shorten the delay between setting nuclear plants and waste management debates) and space (international level instead of local mono-cultural involved parties). Science, objectivity and neutrality could then better be reintegrated in the global debate about nuclear waste management because they would be better shared among shareholders. A double price is then to be paid: the risk that the scientist's aim won't be achieved in 'the same time schedule' as other social actors, and the laymen will have to confront their wishes with some 'scientific obduracy' (presented then as a strong consensus that doesn't need to be build at that moment among scientists). In this way, some confusion can be avoided between the legitimacy of a scientific methodology and the legitimacy of the reasons to use it

  2. Reaching Consensus on Essential Biomedical Science Learning Objectives in a Dental Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Leandra; Walton, Joanne N; Walker, Judith; von Bergmann, HsingChi

    2016-04-01

    This article describes how the University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry reached consensus on essential basic biomedical science objectives for DMD students and applied the information to the renewal of its DMD curriculum. The Delphi Method was used to build consensus among dental faculty members and students regarding the relevance of over 1,500 existing biomedical science objectives. Volunteer panels of at least three faculty members (a basic scientist, a general dentist, and a dental specialist) and a fourth-year dental student were formed for each of 13 biomedical courses in the first two years of the program. Panel members worked independently and anonymously, rating each course objective as "need to know," "nice to know," "irrelevant," or "don't know." Panel members were advised after each round which objectives had not yet achieved a 75% consensus and were asked to reconsider their ratings. After a maximum of three rounds to reach consensus, a second group of faculty experts reviewed and refined the results to establish the biomedical science objectives for the renewed curriculum. There was consensus on 46% of the learning objectives after round one, 80% after round two, and 95% after round three. The second expert group addressed any remaining objectives as part of its review process. Only 47% of previous biomedical science course objectives were judged to be essential or "need to know" for the general dentist. The consensus reached by participants in the Delphi Method panels and a second group of faculty experts led to a streamlined, better integrated DMD curriculum to prepare graduates for future practice.

  3. Analysis of Nature of Science Included in Recent Popular Writing Using Text Mining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; McComas, William F.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the inclusion of nature of science (NOS) in popular science writing to determine whether it could serve supplementary resource for teaching NOS and to evaluate the accuracy of text mining and classification as a viable research tool in science education research. Four groups of documents published from 2001 to 2010 were…

  4. Values and Objectivity in Science: Value-Ladenness, Pluralism and the Epistemic Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Martin

    2013-10-01

    My intention is to cast light on the characteristics of epistemic or fundamental research (in contrast to application-oriented research). I contrast a Baconian notion of objectivity, expressing a correspondence of the views of scientists to the facts, with a pluralist notion, involving a critical debate between conflicting approaches. These conflicts include substantive hypotheses or theories but extend to values as well. I claim that a plurality of epistemic values serves to accomplish a non-Baconian form of objectivity that is apt to preserve most of the intuitions tied to the objectivity of science. For instance, pluralism is the only way to cope with the challenge of preference bias. Furthermore, the plurality of epistemic values cannot be substantially reduced by exploring the empirical success of scientific theories distinguished in light of particular such values. However, in addition to pluralism at the level of theories and value-commitments alike, scientific research is also characterized by a joint striving for consensus which I trace back to a shared epistemic attitude. This attitude manifests itself, e.g., in the willingness of scientists to subject their claims to empirical scrutiny and to respect rational argument. This shared epistemic attitude is embodied in rules adopted by the scientific community concerning general principles of dealing with knowledge claims. My contention is that pluralism and consensus formation can be brought into harmony by placing them at different levels of consideration: at the level of scientific reasoning and at the level of social conventions regarding how to deal with claims put forward within the scientific community.

  5. Science objectives of the magnetic field experiment onboard Aditya-L1 spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vipin K.; Srivastava, Nandita; Ghosh, S. S.; Srikar, P. T.; Subhalakshmi, Krishnamoorthy

    2018-01-01

    The Aditya-L1 is first Indian solar mission scheduled to be placed in a halo orbit around the first Lagrangian point (L1) of Sun-Earth system in the year 2018-19. The approved scientific payloads onboard Aditya-L1 spacecraft includes a Fluxgate Digital Magnetometer (FGM) to measure the local magnetic field which is necessary to supplement the outcome of other scientific experiments onboard. The in-situ vector magnetic field data at L1 is essential for better understanding of the data provided by the particle and plasma analysis experiments, onboard Aditya-L1 mission. Also, the dynamics of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) can be better understood with the help of in-situ magnetic field data at the L1 point region. This data will also serve as crucial input for the short lead-time space weather forecasting models. The proposed FGM is a dual range magnetic sensor on a 6 m long boom mounted on the Sun viewing panel deck and configured to deploy along the negative roll direction of the spacecraft. Two sets of sensors (tri-axial each) are proposed to be mounted, one at the tip of boom (6 m from the spacecraft) and other, midway (3 m from the spacecraft). The main science objective of this experiment is to measure the magnitude and nature of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) locally and to study the disturbed magnetic conditions and extreme solar events by detecting the CME from Sun as a transient event. The proposed secondary science objectives are to study the impact of interplanetary structures and shock solar wind interaction on geo-space environment and to detect low frequency plasma waves emanating from the solar corona at L1 point. This will provide a better understanding on how the Sun affects interplanetary space. In this paper, we shall give the main scientific objectives of the magnetic field experiment and brief technical details of the FGM onboard Aditya-1 spacecraft.

  6. Sustainability Logistics Basing - Science and Technology Objective - Demonstration; Industry Assessment and Demonstration Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-14

    TECHNICAL REPORT AD ________________ NATICK/TR-17/019 SUSTAINABILITY ...LOGISTICS BASING – SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY OBJECTIVE – DEMONSTRATION; INDUSTRY ASSESSMENT AND DEMONSTRATION FINAL REPORT by Elizabeth D. Swisher and...Benjamin J. Campbell August 2017 Final Report December 2014 – February 2016 Approved for public release; distribution is

  7. Consistency from the perspective of an experimental systems approach to the sciences and their epistemic objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jörg Rheinberger

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the development of the modern sciences is rooted in experiment. Yet for a long time, experimentation did not occupy a prominent role, neither in philosophy nor in history of science. With the 'practical turn' in studying the sciences and their history, this has begun to change. This paper is concerned with systems and cultures of experimentation and the consistencies that are generated within such systems and cultures. The first part of the paper exposes the forms of historical and structural coherence that characterize the experimental exploration of epistemic objects. In the second part, a particular experimental culture in the life sciences is briefly described as an example. A survey will be given of what it means and what it takes to analyze biological functions in the test tube.

  8. Korea's Contribution to Radiological Research Included in Science Citation Index Expanded, 1986-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, You Jin; Yoon, Dae Young; Lim, Kyoung Ja; Baek, Sora; Seo, Young Lan; Yun, Eun Joo; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon; Lee, Hyun; Ju, Young Su

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate scientific papers published by Korean radiologists in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) radiology journals, between 1986 and 2010. The Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge-Web of Science (SCIE) database was searched for all articles published by Korean radiologists, in SCIE radiology journals, between 1986 and 2010. We performed the analysis by typing 'Korea' and 'radiol' in the address section and selecting the subject area of 'Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, and Medical Imaging' with the use of the general search function of the software. Analyzed parameters included the total number of publications, document types, journals, and institutions. In addition, we analyzed where Korea ranks, compared to other countries, in terms of the number of published articles. All these data were analyzed according to five time periods: 1986-1990, 1991-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005, and 2006-2010. Overall, 4974 papers were published by Korean radiologists, in 99 different SCIE journals, between 1986 and 2010, of which 4237 (85.2%) were article-type papers. Of the total 115395 articles, worldwide, published in radiology journals, Korea's share was 3.7%, with an upward trend over time (p < 0.005). The journal with the highest number of articles was the American Journal of Roentgenology (n 565, 13.3%). The institution which produced the highest number of publications was Seoul National University (n = 932, 22.0%). The number of scientific articles published by Korean radiologists in the SCIE radiology journals has increased significantly between 1986 and 2010. Korea was ranked 4th among countries contributing to radiology research during the last 5 years.

  9. Including plasma and fusion topics in the science education in school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Shinichiro

    2015-01-01

    Yutori education (more relaxed education policy) started with the revision of the Courses of Study to introduce 'five-day week system' in 1989, continued with the reduction of the content of school lessons by 30% in 1998, and ended with the introduction of the New Courses of Study in 2011. Focusing on science education, especially in the topics of plasma and nuclear fusion, the modality of the education system in Japan is discussed considering the transition of academic performance based on the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) in comparison with the examples in other countries. Particularly, the issues with high school textbooks are pointed out from the assessment of current textbooks, and the significance and the need for including the topic of 'plasma' in them are stated. Lastly, in order to make the general public acknowledged with plasma and nuclear fusion, it is suggested to include them also in junior high school textbooks, by briefly mentioning the terms related to plasma, solar wind, aurora phenomenon, and nuclear fusion energy. (S.K.)

  10. From object to subject: hybrid identities of indigenous women in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Elizabeth

    2008-12-01

    The use of hybridity today suggests a less coherent, unified and directed process than that found in the Enlightenment science's cultural imperialism, but regardless of this neither concept exists outside power and inequality. Hence, hybridity raises the question of the terms of the mixture and the conditions of mixing. Cultural hybridity produced by colonisation, under the watchful eye of science at the time, and the subsequent life in a modern world since does not obscure the power that was embedded in the moment of colonisation. Indigenous identities are constructed within and by cultural power. While we all live in a global society whose consequences no one can escape, we remain unequal participants and globalisation remains an uneven process. This article argues that power has become a constitutive element in our own hybrid identities in indigenous people's attempts to participate in science and science education. Using the indigenous peoples of Aotearoa New Zealand (called Māori) as a site of identity construction, I argue that the move from being the object of science to the subject of science, through science education in schools, brings with it traces of an earlier meaning of `hybridity' that constantly erupts into the lives of Māori women scientists.

  11. The Manchester Fly Facility: Implementing an objective-driven long-term science communication initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjai; Prokop, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Science communication is increasingly important for scientists, although research, teaching and administration activities tend to eat up our time already, and budgets for science communication are usually low. It appears impossible to combine all these tasks and, in addition, to develop engagement activities to a quality and impact that would make the efforts worth their while. Here we argue that these challenges are easier addressed when centering science communication initiatives on a long-term vision with a view to eventually forming outreach networks where the load can be shared whilst being driven to higher momentum. As one example, we explain the science communication initiative of the Manchester Fly Facility. It aims to promote public awareness of research using the model organism Drosophila, which is a timely, economic and most efficient experimental strategy to drive discovery processes in the biomedical sciences and must have a firm place in the portfolios of funding organisations. Although this initiative by the Manchester Fly Facility is sustained on a low budget, its long-term vision has allowed gradual development into a multifaceted initiative: (1) targeting university students via resources and strategies for the advanced training in fly genetics; (2) targeting the general public via science fairs, educational YouTube videos, school visits, teacher seminars and the droso4schools project; (3) disseminating and marketing strategies and resources to the public as well as fellow scientists via dedicated websites, blogs, journal articles, conference presentations and workshops - with a view to gradually forming networks of drosophilists that will have a greater potential to drive the science communication objective to momentum and impact. Here we explain the rationales and implementation strategies for our various science communication activities - which are similarly applicable to other model animals and other areas of academic science - and share our

  12. A framework for employing femtosatellites in planetary science missions, including a proposed mission concept for Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Tracie Renea Conn

    Over the past 15 years, there has been a growing interest in femtosatellites, a class of tiny satellites having mass less than 100 grams. Research groups from Peru, Spain, England, Canada, and the United States have proposed femtosat designs and novel mission concepts for them. In fact, Peru made history in 2013 by releasing the first - and still only - femtosat tracked from LEO. However, femtosatellite applications in interplanetary missions have yet to be explored in detail. An interesting operations concept would be for a space probe to release numerous femtosatellites into orbit around a planetary object of interest, thereby augmenting the overall data collection capability of the mission. A planetary probe releasing hundreds of femtosats could complete an in-situ, simultaneous 3D mapping of a physical property of interest, achieving scientific investigations not possible for one probe operating alone. To study the technical challenges associated with such a mission, a conceptual mission design is proposed where femtosats are deployed from a host satellite orbiting Titan. The conceptual mission objective is presented: to study Titan's dynamic atmosphere. Then, the design challenges are addressed in turn. First, any science payload measurements that the femtosats provide are only useful if their corresponding locations can be determined. Specifically, what's required is a method of position determination for femtosatellites operating beyond Medium Earth Orbit and therefore beyond the help of GPS. A technique is presented which applies Kalman filter techniques to Doppler shift measurements, allowing for orbit determination of the femtosats. Several case studies are presented demonstrating the usefulness of this approach. Second, due to the inherit power and computational limitations in a femtosatellite design, establishing a radio link between each chipsat and the mothersat will be difficult. To provide a mathematical gain, a particular form of forward error

  13. Science objectives and first results from the SMART-1/AMIE multicolour micro-camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, J.-L.; Beauvivre, S.; Cerroni, P.; de Sanctis, M. C.; Pinet, P.; Chevrel, S.; Langevin, Y.; Barucci, M. A.; Plancke, P.; Koschny, D.; Almeida, M.; Sodnik, Z.; Mancuso, S.; Hofmann, B. A.; Muinonen, K.; Shevchenko, V.; Shkuratov, Yu.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Foing, B. H.

    The Advanced Moon micro-Imager Experiment (AMIE), on-board SMART-1, the first European mission to the Moon, is an imaging system with scientific, technical and public outreach objectives. The science objectives are to image the lunar South Pole, permanent shadow areas (ice deposit), eternal light (crater rims), ancient lunar non-mare volcanism, local spectrophotometry and physical state of the lunar surface, and to map high latitudes regions (south) mainly at far side (South Pole Aitken basin). The technical objectives are to perform a Laserlink experiment (detection of laser beam emitted by ESA/Tenerife ground station), flight demonstration of new technologies and on-board autonomy navigation. The public outreach and educational objectives are to promote planetary exploration and space. We present here the first results obtained during the cruise phase.

  14. Boundary objects in complementary and alternative medicine: acupuncture vs. Christian Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Kellie

    2015-03-01

    Nearly four in ten American use complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) each year. Even with a large number of patients, CAM practitioners face scrutiny from physicians and biomedical researchers who, in an era of evidence-based medicine, argue there is little evidence to support CAM treatments. Examining how CAM has or has not been integrated into American health care is crucial in understanding the contemporary boundaries of healthcare systems. An analytical tool from science and technology studies, boundary objects, can help scholars of medicine understand which practices become integrated into these systems. Using a comparative analysis based on archival and interview data, this paper examines the use of boundary objects in two alternative medical practices - acupuncture and Christian Science. While boundary objects alone cannot explain what health practices succeed or fail, juxtaposing the use of boundary objects by different CAM groups identifies the work boundary objects do to facilitate integration and the conditions under which they "work." I find that acupuncturists' use of sterile needles as a boundary objects assists in their effective integration into U.S. healthcare because needles are both a symbol of biomedical prowess and a potentially unsafe device requiring regulation. Christian Scientists' use of the placebo effect as a boundary object has not succeeded because they fail to acknowledge the different contextual definitions of the placebo effect in biomedical communities. This comparative analysis highlights how context affects which boundary objects "work" for CAM practices and theorizes why alternative health practices succeed or fail to become integrated into healthcare systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.

    2012-12-27

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006), as well as several other published DQOs. The intent of this report is to determine the necessary steps required to ensure that radioactive emissions to the air from the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) headquartered at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Sequim Marine Research Operations (Sequim Site) on Washington State’s Olympic Peninsula are managed in accordance with regulatory requirements and best practices. The Sequim Site was transitioned in October 2012 from private operation under Battelle Memorial Institute to an exclusive use contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Pacific Northwest Site Office.

  16. `INCLUDING' Partnerships to Build Authentic Research Into K-12 Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, M.; Lev, E.; Newton, R.; Xu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Opportunities for authentic research experiences have been shown effective for recruiting and retaining students in STEM fields. Meaningful research experiences entail significant time in project design, modeling ethical practice, providing training, instruction, and ongoing guidance. We propose that in order to be sustainable, a new instructional paradigm is needed, one that shifts from being top-weighted in instruction to a distributed weight model. This model relies on partnerships where everyone has buy-in and reaps rewards, establishing broadened networks for support, and adjusting the mentoring model. We use our successful Secondary School Field Research Program as a model for this new paradigm. For over a decade this program has provided authentic geoscience field research for an expanding group of predominantly inner city high school youth from communities underrepresented in the sciences. The program has shifted the balance with returning participants now serving as undergraduate mentors for the high school student `researchers', providing much of the ongoing training, instruction, guidance and feedback needed. But in order to be sustainable and impactful we need to broaden our base. A recent NSF-INCLUDES pilot project has allowed us to expand this model, linking schools, informal education non-profits, other academic institutions, community partners and private funding agencies into geographically organized `clusters'. Starting with a tiered mentoring model with scientists as consultants, teachers as team members, undergraduates as team leaders and high school students as researchers, each cluster will customize its program to reflect the needs and strengths of the team. To be successful each organization must identify how the program fits their organizational goals, the resources they can contribute and what they need back. Widening the partnership base spreads institutional commitments for research scientists, research locations and lab space

  17. Various Political and Social Challenges Including Wars and Displacement in Empowering Women and Girls in Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer Narli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Poor gender ratio in science and engineering has been a global concern, despite growing number of female scientists in the world. Women’s empowerment in science is key to achieve human progress and dignity and directly related to accomplishing SDG 16: "Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels". What are the challenges that hinder women and girls’ progress in science? Added to several challenges discussed below, wars and displaced population create obstacles for female education and women’s advancement in science and technology. There are some challenges that have prevailed for the last two decades (e.g. economic insecurity and new challenges that are the results of the new forms wars, civil wars and extremism (e.g., large scale armed conflicts that involves state and non-state actors which have produced large numbers of displaced women in the Middle East who lost their jobs and isolated elsewhere, many young displaced females and refugees and who have no access to formal education and who face health risks in conflict and displacement settings, and new forms of gender discrimination produced by religious extremism.......

  18. Including an Exam P/1 Prep Course in a Growing Actuarial Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the actuarial science program at our university and the development of a course to enhance students' problem solving skills while preparing them for Exam P/1 of the Society of Actuaries (SOA) and the Casualty Actuary Society (CAS). The Exam P/1 prep course, formally titled Mathematical Foundations of…

  19. The Delphi Technique in Identifying Learning Objectives for the Development of Science, Technology and Society Modules for Palestinian Ninth Grade Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abualrob, Marwan M. A.; Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines how learning objectives based upon science, technology and society (STS) elements for Palestinian ninth grade science textbooks were identified, which was part of a bigger study to establish an STS foundation in the ninth grade science curriculum in Palestine. First, an initial list of STS elements was determined. Second,…

  20. Hurricane Sandy science plan: impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskie, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: • Coastal topography and bathymetry • Impacts to coastal beaches and barriers

  1. The Tools Used by Science Teachers and Their Relevance to Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulaş KUBAT

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to reveal the views of science teachers on the use of tools in the learning-teaching process. Well-designed tools provide a rich learning environment. In this research qualitative research method was used. Semi-structured interview form was used as data collection tool. The working group consisted of 16 science teachers. According to the findings of the research, teachers use the most experimental materials as tools and teaching materials and 4 + 4 + 4 system creates problems for tools and materials. In addition, teachers have emphasized the problem of lack of material development. They indicated that well designed tools contribute to the achievement of objectives

  2. Alignment of Assessment Objectives with Instructional Objectives Using Revised Bloom's Taxonomy--The Case for Food Science and Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jideani, V. A.; Jideani, I. A.

    2012-01-01

    Nine food science and technology (FST) subjects were assessed for alignment between the learning outcomes and assessment using revised Bloom's taxonomy (RBT) of cognitive knowledge. Conjoint analysis was used to estimate the utilities of the levels of cognitive, knowledge, and the attribute importance (cognitive process and knowledge dimension)…

  3. Science case and requirements for the MOSAIC concept for a multi-object spectrograph for the European extremely large telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, C.J.; Puech, M.; Bonifacio, P.; Hammer, F.; Jagourel, P.; Caffau, E.; Disseau, K.; Flores, H.; Huertas-Company, M.; Mei, S.; Aussel, H.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 18 months we have revisited the science requirements for a multi-object spectrograph (MOS) for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). These efforts span the full range of E-ELT science and include input from a broad cross-section of astronomers across the ESO partner countries. In this contribution we summarise the key cases relating to studies of high-redshift galaxies, galaxy evolution, and stellar populations, with a more expansive presentation of a new case relating to detection of exoplanets in stellar clusters. A general requirement is the need for two observational modes to best exploit the large (=40 arcmin 2 ) patrol field of the E-ELT. The first mode ('high multiplex') requires integrated-light (or coarsely resolved) optical/near-IR spectroscopy of ≥100 objects simultaneously. The second ('high definition'), enabled by wide-field adaptive optics, requires spatially-resolved, near-IR of ≥10 objects/sub-fields. Within the context of the conceptual study for an ELT-MOS called MOSAIC, we summarise the top level requirements from each case and introduce the next steps in the design process. (authors)

  4. Exploring the impact of learning objects in middle school mathematics and science classrooms: A formative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin H. Kay

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study offers a formative analysis of the impact of learning objects in middle school mathematics and science classrooms. Five reliable and valid measure of effectiveness were used to examine the impact of learning objects from the perspective of 262 students and 8 teachers (14 classrooms in science or mathematics. The results indicate that teachers typically spend 1-2 hours finding and preparing for learning-object based lesson plans that focus on the review of previous concepts. Both teachers and students are positive about the learning benefits, quality, and engagement value of learning objects, although teachers are more positive than students. Student performance increased significantly, over 40%, when learning objects were used in conjunction with a variety of teaching strategies. It is reasonable to conclude that learning objects have potential as a teaching tool in a middle school environment. L’impacte des objets d’apprentissage dans les classes de mathématique et de sciences à l’école intermédiaire : une analyse formative Résumé : Cette étude présente une analyse formative de l’impacte des objets d’apprentissage dans les classes de mathématique et de sciences à l’école intermédiaire. Cinq mesures de rendement fiables et valides ont été exploitées pour examiner l’effet des objets d’apprentissage selon 262 élèves et 8 enseignants (414 classes en science ou mathématiques. Les résultats indiquent que les enseignants passent typiquement 1-2 heures pour trouver des objets d’apprentissage et préparer les leçons associées qui seraient centrées sur la revue de concepts déjà vus en classe. Quoique les enseignants aient répondu de façon plus positive que les élèves, les deux groupes ont répondu positivement quant aux avantages au niveau de l’apprentissage, à la qualité ainsi qu’à la valeur motivationnelle des objets d’apprentissage. Le rendement des élèves aurait aussi augment

  5. Advanced information science and object-oriented technology for information management applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, J.R.; Swietlik, C.E.

    1996-10-01

    The role of the military has been undergoing rapid change since the fall of the Berlin Wall. The kinds of missions the US military has been asked to participate in have often fallen into the category of {open_quotes}Military Operations Other Than War{close_quotes} and those involving military responses have been more of a surgical nature directed against different kinds of threats, like rogue states or in response to terrorist actions. As a result, the requirements on the military planner and analyst have also had to change dramatically. For example, preparing response options now requires rapid turnaround and a highly flexible simulation capability. This in turn requires that the planner or analyst have access to sophisticated information science and simulation technologies. In this paper, we shall discuss how advanced information science and object-oriented technologies can be used in advanced information management applications. We shall also discuss how these technologies and tools can be applied to DoD applications by presenting examples with a system developed at Argonne, the Dynamic Information Architecture System (DIAS). DIAS has been developed to exploit advanced information science and simulation technologies to provide tools for future planners and analysts.

  6. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) -- Science Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovitz, Nicholas; Thirouin, Audrey; Binzel, Richard; Burt, Brian; Christensen, Eric; DeMeo, Francesca; Endicott, Thomas; Hinkle, Mary; Mommert, Michael; Person, Michael; Polishook, David; Siu, Hosea; Thomas, Cristina; Trilling, David; Willman, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System through their compositional links to meteorites. As tracers of other parts of the Solar System they provide insight to more distant populations. Their small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them ideal laboratories for studying ongoing processes of planetary evolution. Knowledge of their physical properties is essential to impact hazard assessment. And the proximity of NEOs to Earth make them favorable targets for a variety of planetary mission scenarios. However, in spite of their importance, only the largest NEOs are well studied and a representative sample of physical properties for sub-km NEOs does not exist.MANOS is a multi-year physical characterization survey, originally awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS is targeting several hundred mission-accessible, sub-km NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths to provide a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). Accessing these targets is enabled through classical, queue, and target-of-opportunity observations carried out at 1- to 8-meter class facilities in the northern and southern hemispheres. Our observing strategy is designed to rapidly characterize newly discovered NEOs before they fade beyond observational limits.Early progress from MANOS includes: (1) the de-biased taxonomic distribution of spectral types for NEOs smaller than ~100 meters, (2) the distribution of rotational properties for approximately 100 previously unstudied NEOs, (3) detection of the fastest known rotation period of any minor planet in the Solar System, (4) an investigation of the influence of planetary encounters on the rotational properties of NEOs, (5) dynamical models for the evolution of the overall NEO population over the past 0.5 Myr, and (6) development of a new set of online tools at asteroid.lowell.edu that will enable near realtime public dissemination of our data products while

  7. Application of Digital Object Identifiers to data sets at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, B.; Ostrenga, D.; Johnson, J. E.; Savtchenko, A. K.; Shen, S.; Teng, W. L.; Wei, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) are applied to selected data sets at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). The DOI system provides an Internet resolution service for unique and persistent identifiers of digital objects. Products assigned DOIs include data from the NASA MEaSUREs Program, the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and EOS Aura High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS). DOIs are acquired and registered through EZID, California Digital Library and DataCite. GES DISC hosts a data set landing page associated with each DOI containing information on and access to the data including a recommended data citation when using the product in research or applications. This work includes participation with the earth science community (e.g., Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation) and the NASA Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project to identify, establish and implement best practices for assigning DOIs and managing supporting information, including metadata, for earth science data sets. Future work includes (1) coordination with NASA mission Science Teams and other data providers on the assignment of DOIs for other GES DISC data holdings, particularly for future missions such as Orbiting Carbon Observatory -2 and -3 (OCO-2, OCO-3) and projects (MEaSUREs 2012), (2) construction of landing pages that are both human and machine readable, and (3) pursuing the linking of data and publications with tools such as the Thomson Reuters Data Citation Index.

  8. The Development, Field Testing and Evaluation of Three Hierarchies of Behaviorally Stated Objectives for the Chemistry Content of a Course of Instruction in Physical Science for Pre-Service Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Robert Alden

    The purpose of this research was to develop hierarchies of behavioral objectives for the chemistry content of a one-semester course in physical science for preservice associate degree nursing students. Each of three content objectives was expressed by a series of behaviorally stated objectives which included a terminal objective for a unit of…

  9. Viewing and Editing Earth Science Metadata MOBE: Metadata Object Browser and Editor in Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, A.; Helly, J.

    2002-12-01

    Metadata is an important, yet often neglected aspect of successful archival efforts. However, to generate robust, useful metadata is often a time consuming and tedious task. We have been approaching this problem from two directions: first by automating metadata creation, pulling from known sources of data, and in addition, what this (paper/poster?) details, developing friendly software for human interaction with the metadata. MOBE and COBE(Metadata Object Browser and Editor, and Canonical Object Browser and Editor respectively), are Java applications for editing and viewing metadata and digital objects. MOBE has already been designed and deployed, currently being integrated into other areas of the SIOExplorer project. COBE is in the design and development stage, being created with the same considerations in mind as those for MOBE. Metadata creation, viewing, data object creation, and data object viewing, when taken on a small scale are all relatively simple tasks. Computer science however, has an infamous reputation for transforming the simple into complex. As a system scales upwards to become more robust, new features arise and additional functionality is added to the software being written to manage the system. The software that emerges from such an evolution, though powerful, is often complex and difficult to use. With MOBE the focus is on a tool that does a small number of tasks very well. The result has been an application that enables users to manipulate metadata in an intuitive and effective way. This allows for a tool that serves its purpose without introducing additional cognitive load onto the user, an end goal we continue to pursue.

  10. Including Media in Field Research and Becoming Part of the Science Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    There are two primary strategies that I have pursued over the last decade to engage the media, policy makers, and public; after two decades of typical scientific publication methods. An effective method to engage the media with our ongoing 32 year glacier field research program has been to invite media members to join us in the field. From climate videographers to traditional reporters we have had a member of the media with us in nine of the last ten field seasons; two in 2015. The resulting stories have led to several awards for the journalists and an ongoing relationship with our research program. The second part of this science research communication strategy is to have readily available material on specific topics for the media to utilize; this requires social media outreach. The primary outlet media find is the AGU Blog: From a Glacier's Perspective. This blog pubishes two articles a week on a specific glacier's response to climate change. The blog yields on average a media contact on every fourth blog post in 2015. The contacts revolve around specific local glacier information published on the blog. The goal of each blog post is to tell a story about how each glacier is impacted by climate change.

  11. Subjective and objective measurement of the intelligibility of synthesized speech impaired by the very low bit rate STANAG 4591 codec including packet loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Počta, P.; Beerends, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the intelligibility of speech coded by the STANAG 4591 standard codec, including packet loss, using synthesized speech input. Both subjective and objective assessments are used. It is shown that this codec significantly degrades intelligibility when compared to a standard

  12. Professional Development for Researchers in Solid Earth Science Evolved to Include Scientific and Educational Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Olds, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    Integrated measures of crustal deformation provide valuable insight about tectonic and human-induced processes for scientists and educators alike. UNAVCO in conjunction with EarthScope initiated a series of short courses for researchers to learn the processing and interpretation of data from new technologies such as high precision GPS, Strainmeter, InSar and LiDAR that provide deformation information relevant to many geoscience sub-disciplines. Intensive short courses of a few days and the widespread availability of processed data through large projects such as EarthScope and GEON enable more geoscientists to incorporate these data into diverse projects. Characteristics of the UNAVCO Short Course Series, reaching over 400 participants since 2005, include having short course faculty who have pioneered development of each technology; open web-access to course materials; processing software installed on class-ready computers; no course fees; scholarships for students, post-doctoral fellows, and emerging faculty when needed; formative evaluation of the courses; community-based decisions on topics; and recruitment of participants across relevant geoscience disciplines. In 2009, when EarthScope airborne LiDAR data became available to the public through OpenTopographhy, teaching materials were provided to these researchers to incorporate the latest technologies into teaching. Multiple data sets across technologies have been developed with instructions on how to access the various data sets and incorporate them into geological problem sets. Courses in GPS, airborne LiDAR, strainmeter, and InSAR concentrate on data processing with examples of various geoscience applications. Ground-based LiDAR courses also include data acquisition. Google Earth is used to integrate various forms of data in educational applications. Various types of EarthScope data can now be used by a variety of geoscientists, and the number of scientists who have the skills and tools to use these various

  13. Objectives, priorities, reliable knowledge, and science-based management of Missouri River interior least terns and piping plovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, Mark; Anteau, Michael J.; Shaffer, Terry; Sovada, Marsha; Stucker, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Supporting recovery of federally listed interior least tern (Sternula antillarum athalassos; tern) and piping plover (Charadrius melodus; plover) populations is a desirable goal in management of the Missouri River ecosystem. Many tools are implemented in support of this goal, including habitat management, annual monitoring, directed research, and threat mitigation. Similarly, many types of data can be used to make management decisions, evaluate system responses, and prioritize research and monitoring. The ecological importance of Missouri River recovery and the conservation status of terns and plovers place a premium on efficient and effective resource use. Efficiency is improved when a single data source informs multiple high-priority decisions, whereas effectiveness is improved when decisions are informed by reliable knowledge. Seldom will a single study design be optimal for addressing all data needs, making prioritization of needs essential. Data collection motivated by well-articulated objectives and priorities has many advantages over studies in which questions and priorities are determined retrospectively. Research and monitoring for terns and plovers have generated a wealth of data that can be interpreted in a variety of ways. The validity and strength of conclusions from analyses of these data is dependent on compatibility between the study design and the question being asked. We consider issues related to collection and interpretation of biological data, and discuss their utility for enhancing the role of science in management of Missouri River terns and plovers. A team of USGS scientists at Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center has been conducting tern and plover research on the Missouri River since 2005. The team has had many discussions about the importance of setting objectives, identifying priorities, and obtaining reliable information to answer pertinent questions about tern and plover management on this river system. The objectives of this

  14. Astronautics and aeronautics, 1973: Chronology of science, technology and policy. [including artificial satellites, space probes, and manned space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A brief chronological account is presented of key events of the year in aerospace sciences. Dates, actions, hardware, persons, scientific discoveries are recorded along with plans, decisions, achievements and preliminary evaluations of results. Samples of public reaction and social impact are included. Sources are identified and an index is provided to aid in tracing related events through the year. The index also serves as a glossary of acronyms and abbreviations.

  15. On the possibility of study the surface structure of small bio-objects, including fragments of nucleotide chains, by means of electron interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namiot, V.A., E-mail: vnamiot@gmail.co [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Vorobyovy Gory, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-20

    We propose a new method to study the surface of small bio-objects, including macromolecules and their complexes. This method is based on interference of low-energy electrons. Theoretically, this type of interference may allow to construct a hologram of the biological object, but, unlike an optical hologram, with the spatial resolution of the order of inter-atomic distances. The method provides a possibility to construct a series of such holograms at various levels of electron energies. In theory, obtaining such information would be enough to identify the types of molecular groups existing on the surface of the studied object. This method could also be used for 'fast reading' of nucleotide chains. It has been shown how to depose a long linear molecule as a straight line on a substrate before carrying out such 'reading'.

  16. Public status toward radiation and irradiated potatoes at 'Youngster's Science Festival' in several cities including Tokyo, Osaka, and Hiroshima, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Hayashi, Toshio; Kakefu, Tomohisa; Nishihara, Hideaki

    2000-01-01

    'Youngster's Science Festival' has been held in several big cities in various districts in Japan for the purpose of induction of young students' interests in science and scientific experiments. On the basis of the survey results from the participants of the 'Radiation Fair' in Osaka, Japan, which was presented at the last IMRP, we expanded the area of survey and distributed questionnaires to the visitors of the above event to inquire their status toward radiation and irradiated products including irradiated potatoes. The survey results indicated the same trends as that of the 'Radiation Fair' survey. That is, more than half of the older visitors (16 years old and upward) indicated that they recognized the word of 'radiation' when they were at elementary school and the most significant sources of this information were school lessons and the mass media. We will discuss the relationship between consumer's image toward radiation and the description of radiation related topic in school textbooks. (author)

  17. Lessons learned from curriculum changes and setting curriculum objectives at the University of Pennsylvania's Earth and Environmental Science Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    Recent restructuring of the University of Pennsylvania’s curriculum, including a revised multi-disciplinary Environmental Studies major and a proposed Environmental Science major has led to several changes, including a mandatory junior research seminar. Feedback from students indicates that a more structured curriculum has helped guide them through the multi-disciplinary Environmental Studies major. The addition of mandatory courses in Statistics, Geographical and Environmental Modeling, as well as Economics and Policy has ensured that students have important skills needed to succeed after graduation. We have compiled a curriculum objective matrix to clarify both the broad and focused objectives of our curriculum and how each course helps to fulfill these objectives. An important aspect of both majors is the Senior Thesis. The junior research seminar was recently revised to help students prepare for their thesis research. Topic selection, library research, data presentation, basic research methods, advisor identification, and funding options are discussed. Throughout the course, faculty from within the department lecture about their research and highlight opportunities for undergraduates. In one assignment, students are given a few types of datasets and asked to present the data and error analysis in various formats using different software (SPSS and Excel). The final paper was a research proposal outlining the student’s Senior Thesis. Based on both the university and instructor written course evaluations, students felt they benefited most from writing their senior thesis proposal; doing assignments on data analysis, library research and critical analysis; and the faculty research lectures. The lessons learned in restructuring this flexible major and providing a research seminar in the junior year may benefit other departments considering such changes.

  18. Tactical Approaches for Trading Science Objectives Against Measurements and Mission Design: Science Traceability Techniques at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, A. E., III

    2017-12-01

    The most common approaches to identifying the most effective mission design to maximize science return from a potential set of competing alternative design approaches are often inefficient and inaccurate. Recently, Team-X at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory undertook an effort to improve both the speed and quality of science - measurement - mission design trade studies. We will report on the methodology & processes employed and their effectiveness in trade study speed and quality. Our results indicate that facilitated subject matter expert peers are the keys to speed and quality improvements in the effectiveness of science - measurement - mission design trade studies.

  19. Modifying the Sleep Treatment Education Program for Students to include technology use (STEPS-TECH): Intervention effects on objective and subjective sleep outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larissa K; Cucalon, Maria S

    2017-12-01

    University students often have sleep issues that arise from poor sleep hygiene practices and technology use patterns. Yet, technology-related behaviors are often neglected in sleep hygiene education. This study examined whether the Sleep Treatment Education Program for Students-modified to include information regarding managing technology use (STEPS-TECH)-helps improve both subjective and objective sleep outcomes among university students. Results of an experimental study among 78 university students showed improvements in objective indicators of sleep quantity (total sleep time) and sleep quality (less awakenings) during the subsequent week for students in the STEPS-TECH intervention group compared to a control group. Exploratory analyses indicated that effects were driven by improvements in weekend days immediately following the intervention. There were also no intervention effects on subjective sleep quality or quantity outcomes. In terms of self-reported behavioral responses to educational content in the intervention, there were no group differences in sleep hygiene practices or technology use before bedtime. However, the intervention group reported less technology use during sleep periods than the control group. These preliminary findings suggest that STEPS-TECH may be a useful educational tool to help improve objective sleep and reduce technology use during sleep periods among university students. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Alice in Oman: A Study on Object-First Approaches in Computer Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Khizar; Al-Shukaili, Naeem Ali; Sultan, Khalid

    2017-01-01

    The success of university-level education depends on the quality of underlying school education and any deficiency therein may be detrimental to a student's career. This may be more glaring with Computer Science education, given its mercurial nature. In the developing countries, the Computer Science school curricula are usually stuffed with…

  1. V. M. BEKHTEREV IN RUSSIAN CHILD SCIENCE, 1900S-1920S: "OBJECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY"/"REFLEXOLOGY" AS A SCIENTIFIC MOVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byford, Andy

    2016-01-01

    In the early 20(th) century the child population became a major focus of scientific, professional and public interest. This led to the crystallization of a dynamic field of child science, encompassing developmental and educational psychology, child psychiatry and special education, school hygiene and mental testing, juvenile criminology and the anthropology of childhood. This article discusses the role played in child science by the eminent Russian neurologist and psychiatrist Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev. The latter's name is associated with a distinctive program for transforming the human sciences in general and psychology in particular that he in the 1900s labelled "objective psychology" and from the 1910s renamed "reflexology." The article examines the equivocal place that Bekhterev's "objective psychology" and "reflexology" occupied in Russian/Soviet child science in the first three decades of the 20(th) century. While Bekhterev's prominence in this field is beyond doubt, analysis shows that "objective psychology" and "reflexology" had much less success in mobilizing support within it than certain other movements in this arena (for example, "experimental pedagogy" in the pre-revolutionary era); it also found it difficult to compete with the variety of rival programs that arose within Soviet "pedology" during the 1920s. However, this article also demonstrates that the study of child development played a pivotal role in Bekhterev's program for the transformation of the human sciences: it was especially important to his efforts to ground in empirical phenomena and in concrete research practices a new ontology of the psychological, which, the article argues, underpinned "objective psychology"/"reflexology" as a transformative scientific movement. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Determining the Factors That Affect the Objectives of Pre-Service Science Teachers to Perform Outdoor Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir, Ersin; Erten, Sinan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether pre-service teachers have an aim to perform outdoor education activities within the scope of science and technology course; by which factors this aim is affected, through The Theory of Planned Behaviour and the opinions of pre-service teachers. Accordingly, the study was designed as mixed research…

  3. Analysis of scientific papers included in the sciences citation index expanded written by South korean plastic surgeons: 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Ju Young; Mun, Goo-Hyun; Jeon, Byung-Joon; Lim, So-Young; Pyon, Jai-Kyong; Bang, Sa-Ik; Oh, Kap Sung; Shin, Myoung-Soo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to analyze scientific papers published by South Korean plastic surgeons in journals included in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE), and to evaluate the publication and research activities of Korean plastic surgeon. We conducted a survey of SCIE papers in the field of plastic surgery published by South Korean authors between 2001 and 2010 using Web of Science software. We further analyzed these results according to the number of publications per year, journals, institution, and type of papers. We also compared the total number of citations to published scientific papers. We analyzed the rank of South Korea among other countries in representative journals. Overall, 667 papers were published by South Korean authors between 2001 and 2010. The number of publications increased dramatically from 2003 (n=31) to 2010 (n=139). Subsequently, the ten most productive Korean medical colleges were identified. All published papers received 2,311 citations and the citation to paper ratio was 3.49. The rank of Korea among other countries in terms of the number of published papers remained in the top 10 during the recent 10 years. Publication output of Korean plastic surgeon over the last 10 years showed a remarkable growth in terms of quantity and quality. Currently, Korea is among the top six countries in representative plastic surgery journals. Korean plastic surgeons have played a central role in this progress, and it is anticipated that they will continue to do so in the future.

  4. 75 FR 16514 - Bayer Material Science, LLC, Formally Known as Sheffield Plastics, Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-71,045] Bayer Material Science... January 8th, 2010, applicable to workers of Bayer Material Science, LLC, formally known as Sheffield... polycarbonate film products. Information shows that Bayer Material Science, LLC was formally known as Sheffield...

  5. Teacher-Made Tactile Science Materials with Critical and Creative Thinking Activities for Learners Including Those with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, Jolene K.; Gray, Phyllis; Kuhn, Mason A.; Clausen, Courtney K.; Smith, Latisha L.; Alsubia, Sukainah A.; Ghayoorad, Maryam; Rule, Audrey C.; Schneider, Jean Suchsland

    2014-01-01

    Gifted students with visual impairments are twice exceptional learners and may not evidence their advanced science aptitudes without appropriate accommodations for learning science. However, effective tactile science teaching materials may be easily made. Recent research has shown that when tactile materials are used with "all" students…

  6. NEOSURVEY 1: INITIAL RESULTS FROM THE WARM SPITZER EXPLORATION SCIENCE SURVEY OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECT PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, PO Box 6010, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Hora, Joseph; Fazio, Giovanni; Smith, Howard [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-65, Cambridge, MA 02138-1516 (United States); Chesley, Steve [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Emery, Joshua [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tennessee, 306 EPS Building, 1412 Circle Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Harris, Alan [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489, Berlin (Germany); Mueller, Michael [SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, PO Box 800, 9700AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-12-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are small solar system bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth’s orbit. We are carrying out a Warm Spitzer Cycle 11 Exploration Science program entitled NEOSurvey—a fast and efficient flux-limited survey of 597 known NEOs in which we derive a diameter and albedo for each target. The vast majority of our targets are too faint to be observed by NEOWISE, though a small sample has been or will be observed by both observatories, which allows for a cross-check of our mutual results. Our primary goal is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties. We present here the first results from this new program: fluxes and derived diameters and albedos for 80 NEOs, together with a description of the overall program and approach, including several updates to our thermal model. The largest source of error in our diameter and albedo solutions, which derive from our single-band thermal emission measurements, is uncertainty in η , the beaming parameter used in our thermal modeling; for albedos, improvements in solar system absolute magnitudes would also help significantly. All data and derived diameters and albedos from this entire program are being posted on a publicly accessible Web page at nearearthobjects.nau.edu.

  7. NEOSURVEY 1: INITIAL RESULTS FROM THE WARM SPITZER EXPLORATION SCIENCE SURVEY OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECT PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph; Fazio, Giovanni; Smith, Howard; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Joshua; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are small solar system bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth’s orbit. We are carrying out a Warm Spitzer Cycle 11 Exploration Science program entitled NEOSurvey—a fast and efficient flux-limited survey of 597 known NEOs in which we derive a diameter and albedo for each target. The vast majority of our targets are too faint to be observed by NEOWISE, though a small sample has been or will be observed by both observatories, which allows for a cross-check of our mutual results. Our primary goal is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties. We present here the first results from this new program: fluxes and derived diameters and albedos for 80 NEOs, together with a description of the overall program and approach, including several updates to our thermal model. The largest source of error in our diameter and albedo solutions, which derive from our single-band thermal emission measurements, is uncertainty in η , the beaming parameter used in our thermal modeling; for albedos, improvements in solar system absolute magnitudes would also help significantly. All data and derived diameters and albedos from this entire program are being posted on a publicly accessible Web page at nearearthobjects.nau.edu.

  8. Korea's Contribution to Radiological Research Included in Science Citation Index Expanded, 1986-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, You Jin; Yoon, Dae Young; Lim, Kyoung Ja; Baek, Sora; Seo, Young Lan; Yun, Eun Joo; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon [Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun; Ju, Young Su [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To evaluate scientific papers published by Korean radiologists in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) radiology journals, between 1986 and 2010. The Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge-Web of Science (SCIE) database was searched for all articles published by Korean radiologists, in SCIE radiology journals, between 1986 and 2010. We performed the analysis by typing 'Korea' and 'radiol' in the address section and selecting the subject area of 'Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, and Medical Imaging' with the use of the general search function of the software. Analyzed parameters included the total number of publications, document types, journals, and institutions. In addition, we analyzed where Korea ranks, compared to other countries, in terms of the number of published articles. All these data were analyzed according to five time periods: 1986-1990, 1991-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005, and 2006-2010. Overall, 4974 papers were published by Korean radiologists, in 99 different SCIE journals, between 1986 and 2010, of which 4237 (85.2%) were article-type papers. Of the total 115395 articles, worldwide, published in radiology journals, Korea's share was 3.7%, with an upward trend over time (p < 0.005). The journal with the highest number of articles was the American Journal of Roentgenology (n 565, 13.3%). The institution which produced the highest number of publications was Seoul National University (n = 932, 22.0%). The number of scientific articles published by Korean radiologists in the SCIE radiology journals has increased significantly between 1986 and 2010. Korea was ranked 4th among countries contributing to radiology research during the last 5 years.

  9. A SEARCH FOR L/T TRANSITION DWARFS WITH Pan-STARRS1 AND WISE: DISCOVERY OF SEVEN NEARBY OBJECTS INCLUDING TWO CANDIDATE SPECTROSCOPIC VARIABLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, William M. J.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Deacon, Niall R.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Redstone, Joshua; Price, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    We present initial results from a wide-field (30,000 deg 2 ) search for L/T transition brown dwarfs within 25 pc using the Pan-STARRS1 and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) surveys. Previous large-area searches have been incomplete for L/T transition dwarfs, because these objects are faint in optical bands and have near-infrared (near-IR) colors that are difficult to distinguish from background stars. To overcome these obstacles, we have cross-matched the Pan-STARRS1 (optical) and WISE (mid-IR) catalogs to produce a unique multi-wavelength database for finding ultracool dwarfs. As part of our initial discoveries, we have identified seven brown dwarfs in the L/T transition within 9-15 pc of the Sun. The L9.5 dwarf PSO J140.2308+45.6487 and the T1.5 dwarf PSO J307.6784+07.8263 (both independently discovered by Mace et al.) show possible spectroscopic variability at the Y and J bands. Two more objects in our sample show evidence of photometric J-band variability, and two others are candidate unresolved binaries based on their spectra. We expect our full search to yield a well-defined, volume-limited sample of L/T transition dwarfs that will include many new targets for study of this complex regime. PSO J307.6784+07.8263 in particular may be an excellent candidate for in-depth study of variability, given its brightness (J = 14.2 mag) and proximity (11 pc)

  10. A SEARCH FOR L/T TRANSITION DWARFS WITH Pan-STARRS1 AND WISE: DISCOVERY OF SEVEN NEARBY OBJECTS INCLUDING TWO CANDIDATE SPECTROSCOPIC VARIABLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, William M. J.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Deacon, Niall R. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Dupuy, Trent J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Redstone, Joshua [Facebook, 335 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10017-4677 (United States); Price, P. A., E-mail: wbest@ifa.hawaii.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We present initial results from a wide-field (30,000 deg{sup 2}) search for L/T transition brown dwarfs within 25 pc using the Pan-STARRS1 and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) surveys. Previous large-area searches have been incomplete for L/T transition dwarfs, because these objects are faint in optical bands and have near-infrared (near-IR) colors that are difficult to distinguish from background stars. To overcome these obstacles, we have cross-matched the Pan-STARRS1 (optical) and WISE (mid-IR) catalogs to produce a unique multi-wavelength database for finding ultracool dwarfs. As part of our initial discoveries, we have identified seven brown dwarfs in the L/T transition within 9-15 pc of the Sun. The L9.5 dwarf PSO J140.2308+45.6487 and the T1.5 dwarf PSO J307.6784+07.8263 (both independently discovered by Mace et al.) show possible spectroscopic variability at the Y and J bands. Two more objects in our sample show evidence of photometric J-band variability, and two others are candidate unresolved binaries based on their spectra. We expect our full search to yield a well-defined, volume-limited sample of L/T transition dwarfs that will include many new targets for study of this complex regime. PSO J307.6784+07.8263 in particular may be an excellent candidate for in-depth study of variability, given its brightness (J = 14.2 mag) and proximity (11 pc)

  11. Pre-Service Teachers' Knowledge and Teaching Comfort Levels for Agricultural Science and Technology Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; White, Judith McIntosh; Degenhart, Shannon; Pannkuk, Tim; Kujawski, Jenna

    2007-01-01

    Self-efficacy beliefs are defined as context-specific assessments of one's competence to perform specific tasks, influence one's efforts, persistence, and resilience to succeed in a given task. Such beliefs are important determinants when considering agricultural science teachers' subject matter knowledge, teaching comfort levels, and their…

  12. Are Scientists Objective? An Investigation of Appraisal Resources in English Popular Science Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaii, Esmat; Atai, Mahmood Reza; Saidi, Mavadat

    2017-01-01

    With the increasingly growing technological advances and their consequences for societies, the public has the right to be engaged in the outcomes of science. On the one hand, the public are interested in acquiring information about the results of scientists' experiments. On the other hand, the scientists are willing to share their feelings about…

  13. Cultivating the Capacity for Formal Reasoning: Objectives and Procedures in an Introductory Physical Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arons, A. B.

    1976-01-01

    Describes special factors and procedures which are utilized in an introductory physical science course for nonscience majors. It is designed to enable students who are at a concrete or transitional stage to attain the formal operational level of development. (Author/SL)

  14. From Object to Subject: Hybrid Identities of Indigenous Women in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The use of hybridity today suggests a less coherent, unified and directed process than that found in the Enlightenment science's cultural imperialism, but regardless of this neither concept exists outside power and inequality. Hence, hybridity raises the question of the terms of the mixture and the conditions of mixing. Cultural hybridity produced…

  15. Climate-related Indicators and Data Provenance: Evaluating Coupled Boundary Objects for Science, Innovation, and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, A.; Young, A.; Brody, C.; Gerst, M.; Kenney, M. A.; Lamoureux, A.; Rice, A.; Wolfinger, F.

    2015-12-01

    Boundary object theory focuses on the role of artifacts, such as indicator images, in translation and communication across the boundaries of social groups. We use this framework for understanding how data can communicate across contexts to answer the question: Can coupling climate-related indicators with data provenance support scientific innovation and science translation? To address this question we conducted a study to understand the features and capabilities necessary for indicators and data provenance for scientific uses, using the recently online-released U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) Indicators and Global Change Information System (GCIS) as linked boundary objects. We conducted semi-structured interviews with professional researchers in which we asked the researchers to explore and describe what they observed that was useful or frustrating for a subset of the USGCRP Indicators, related GCIS content, and other similar indicator and metadata websites. Participants found these sites' navigation and the labeling and description of their assets frustrating and confusing, but were able to clearly articulate the metadata and provenance information they needed to both understand and trust the indicators. In addition to identifying desired features that are likely to be specific to this audience (e.g., references or citations for indicators), scientists wanted clear, easier-to-access provenance information of the type usually recommended for documenting research data. Notably, they felt the information would be best presented in a fashion accessible to a broader audience, as those with more technical expertise should be able to infer additional contextual details given the provenance information that they had identified as key. Such results are useful for the improvement of indicator systems, such as the prototype released by USGCRP. We note in particular that the consistency of responses across the multi-disciplinary sample, which included scholars in

  16. The ChemCam Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science Objectives and Mast Unit Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, S.; Wiens, R.C.; Saccoccio, M.; Barraclough, B.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Mangold, N.; Baratoux, D.; Bender, S.; Berger, G.; Bernardin, J.; Berthé, M.; Bridges, N.; Blaney, D.; Bouyé, M.; Caïs, P.; Clark, B.; Clegg, S.; Cousin, A.; Cremers, D.; Cros, A.; DeFlores, L.; Derycke, C.; Dingler, B.; Dromart, G.; Dubois, B.; Dupieux, M.; Durand, E.; d'Uston, L.; Fabre, C.; Faure, B.; Gaboriaud, A.; Gharsa, T.; Herkenhoff, K.; Kan, E.; Kirkland, L.; Kouach, D.; Lacour, J.-L.; Langevin, Y.; Lasue, J.; Le Mouélic, S.; Lescure, M.; Lewin, E.; Limonadi, D.; Manhès, G.; Mauchien, P.; McKay, C.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Michel, Y.; Miller, E.; Newsom, Horton E.; Orttner, G.; Paillet, A.; Parès, L.; Parot, Y.; Pérez, R.; Pinet, P.; Poitrasson, F.; Quertier, B.; Sallé, B.; Sotin, Christophe; Sautter, V.; Séran, H.; Simmonds, J.J.; Sirven, J.-B.; Stiglich, R.; Striebig, N.; Thocaven, J.-J.; Toplis, M.J.; Vaniman, D.

    2012-01-01

    ChemCam is a remote sensing instrument suite on board the "Curiosity" rover (NASA) that uses Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to provide the elemental composition of soils and rocks at the surface of Mars from a distance of 1.3 to 7 m, and a telescopic imager to return high resolution context and micro-images at distances greater than 1.16 m. We describe five analytical capabilities: rock classification, quantitative composition, depth profiling, context imaging, and passive spectroscopy. They serve as a toolbox to address most of the science questions at Gale crater. ChemCam consists of a Mast-Unit (laser, telescope, camera, and electronics) and a Body-Unit (spectrometers, digital processing unit, and optical demultiplexer), which are connected by an optical fiber and an electrical interface. We then report on the development, integration, and testing of the Mast-Unit, and summarize some key characteristics of ChemCam. This confirmed that nominal or better than nominal performances were achieved for critical parameters, in particular power density (>1 GW/cm2). The analysis spot diameter varies from 350 μm at 2 m to 550 μm at 7 m distance. For remote imaging, the camera field of view is 20 mrad for 1024×1024 pixels. Field tests demonstrated that the resolution (˜90 μrad) made it possible to identify laser shots on a wide variety of images. This is sufficient for visualizing laser shot pits and textures of rocks and soils. An auto-exposure capability optimizes the dynamical range of the images. Dedicated hardware and software focus the telescope, with precision that is appropriate for the LIBS and imaging depths-of-field. The light emitted by the plasma is collected and sent to the Body-Unit via a 6 m optical fiber. The companion to this paper (Wiens et al. this issue) reports on the development of the Body-Unit, on the analysis of the emitted light, and on the good match between instrument performance and science specifications.

  17. [Rationalities of knowledge production: on transformations of objects, technologies and information in biomedicine and the life sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Norbert W

    2009-09-01

    Since decades, scientific change has been interpreted in the light of paradigm shifts and scientific revolutions. The Kuhnian interpretation of scientific change however is now more and more confronted with non-disciplinary thinking in both, science and studies on science. This paper explores how research in biomedicine and the life sciences can be characterized by different rationalities, sometimes converging, sometimes contradictory, all present at the same time with varying ways of influence, impact, and visibility. In general, the rationality of objects is generated by fitting new objects and findings into a new experimental context. The rationality of hypotheses is a move towards the construction of novel explanatory tools and models. This is often inseparable meshing with the third, the technological rationality, in which a technology-driven, self-supporting and sometimes self-referential refinement of methods and technologies comes along with an extension into other fields. During the second and the third phase, the new and emerging fields tend to expand their explanatory reach not only across disciplinary boundaries but also into the social sphere, creating what has been characterized as "exceptionalism" (e.g. genetic exceptionalism or neuro-exceptionalism). Finally, recent biomedicine and life-sciences reach a level in which experimental work becomes more and more data-driven because the technologically constructed experimental systems generate a plethora of findings (data) which at some point start to blur the original hypotheses. For the rationality of information the materiality of research practices becomes secondary and research objects are more and more getting out of sight. Finally, the credibility of science as a practice becomes more and more dependent on consensus about the applicability and relevance of its results. The rationality of interest (and accountability) has become more and more characteristic for a research process which is no longer

  18. The Science Case for Multi-Object Spectroscopy on the European ELT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, Chris; Puech, Mathieu; Afonso, Jose; Almaini, Omar; Amram, Philippe; Aussel, Hervé; Barbuy, Beatriz; Basden, Alistair; Bastian, Nate; Battaglia, Giuseppina; Biller, Beth; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Bouché, Nicholas; Bunker, Andy; Caffau, Elisabetta; Charlot, Stephane; Cirasuolo, Michele; Clenet, Yann; Combes, Francoise; Conselice, Chris; Contini, Thierry; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel; Dalton, Gavin; Davies, Ben; de Koter, Alex; Disseau, Karen; Dunlop, Jim; Epinat, Benoît; Fiore, Fabrizio; Feltzing, Sofia; Ferguson, Annette; Flores, Hector; Fontana, Adriano; Fusco, Thierry; Gadotti, Dimitri; Gallazzi, Anna; Gallego, Jesus; Giallongo, Emanuele; Gonçalves, Thiago; Gratadour, Damien; Guenther, Eike; Hammer, Francois; Hill, Vanessa; Huertas-Company, Marc; Ibata, Roridgo; Kaper, Lex; Korn, Andreas; Larsen, Søren; Le Fèvre, Olivier; Lemasle, Bertrand; Maraston, Claudia; Mei, Simona; Mellier, Yannick; Morris, Simon; Östlin, Göran; Paumard, Thibaut; Pello, Roser; Pentericci, Laura; Peroux, Celine; Petitjean, Patrick; Rodrigues, Myriam; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Lucía; Rouan, Daniel; Sana, Hugues; Schaerer, Daniel; Telles, Eduardo; Trager, Scott; Tresse, Laurence; Welikala, Niraj; Zibetti, Stefano; Ziegler, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    This White Paper presents the scientific motivations for a multi-object spectrograph (MOS) on the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). The MOS case draws on all fields of contemporary astronomy, from extra-solar planets, to the study of the halo of the Milky Way and its satellites, and from

  19. Presuppositions and the challenge to objectivity in late-modern philosophy of science: causes and possible remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Coletto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The history of late-modern philosophy of science introduces us to a growing emphasis on presuppositions accompanied by a growing relativistic attitude concerning the possibility of scientific objectivity. Aspects of the latter historical developments are traced in some of the most important philosophers of science of the 20th century. An analysis of the possible causes of the phenomenon is also provided. The predominance of the freedom- pole of the humanist ground motive requires a conception of science in which the creative presuppositions of the knowing agent play an increasingly crucial role. Two “remedies” for a more balanced understanding of the role of presuppositions are indicated. The first one has to do with the recognition of a broad variety of ideological standpoints, stemming from different religious commitments. The second one recommends the recognition of the universal order for reality, which implies two consequences. First, our presuppositions do not have the power of determining our scientific observations of reality completely. Second, scientific research does not proceed only according to our presuppositional frameworks but follows a structural order. A few reflections on the nature of scientific objectivity conclude the article.

  20. The Science Case for Multi-Object Spectroscopy on the European ELT

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Chris; Puech, Mathieu; Afonso, Jose; Almaini, Omar; Amram, Philippe; Aussel, Hervé; Barbuy, Beatriz; Basden, Alistair; Bastian, Nate; Battaglia, Giuseppina; Biller, Beth; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Bouché, Nicholas; Bunker, Andy; Caffau, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    This White Paper presents the scientific motivations for a multi-object spectrograph (MOS) on the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). The MOS case draws on all fields of contemporary astronomy, from extra-solar planets, to the study of the halo of the Milky Way and its satellites, and from resolved stellar populations in nearby galaxies out to observations of the earliest 'first-light' structures in the partially-reionised Universe. The material presented here results from thorough di...

  1. Object Persistence Enhances Spatial Navigation: A Case Study in Smartphone Vision Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverence, Brandon M; Scholl, Brian J

    2015-07-01

    Violations of spatiotemporal continuity disrupt performance in many tasks involving attention and working memory, but experiments on this topic have been limited to the study of moment-by-moment on-line perception, typically assessed by passive monitoring tasks. We tested whether persisting object representations also serve as underlying units of longer-term memory and active spatial navigation, using a novel paradigm inspired by the visual interfaces common to many smartphones. Participants used key presses to navigate through simple visual environments consisting of grids of icons (depicting real-world objects), only one of which was visible at a time through a static virtual window. Participants found target icons faster when navigation involved persistence cues (via sliding animations) than when persistence was disrupted (e.g., via temporally matched fading animations), with all transitions inspired by smartphone interfaces. Moreover, this difference occurred even after explicit memorization of the relevant information, which demonstrates that object persistence enhances spatial navigation in an automatic and irresistible fashion. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Science Archive: Migrating a Multi-Terabyte Astronomical Archive from Object to Relational DBMS

    CERN Document Server

    Thakar, A R; Kunszt, Peter Z; Gray, J; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Kunszt, Peter Z.; Gray, Jim

    2004-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Science Archive is the first in a series of multi-Terabyte digital archives in Astronomy and other data-intensive sciences. To facilitate data mining in the SDSS archive, we adapted a commercial database engine and built specialized tools on top of it. Originally we chose an object-oriented database management system due to its data organization capabilities, platform independence, query performance and conceptual fit to the data. However, after using the object database for the first couple of years of the project, it soon began to fall short in terms of its query support and data mining performance. This was as much due to the inability of the database vendor to respond our demands for features and bug fixes as it was due to their failure to keep up with the rapid improvements in hardware performance, particularly faster RAID disk systems. In the end, we were forced to abandon the object database and migrate our data to a relational database. We describe below the technical issu...

  3. Why Inquiry? Primary Teachers' Objectives in Choosing Inquiry- and Context-Based Instructional Strategies to Stimulate Students' Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walan, Susanne; Nilsson, Pernilla; Ewen, Birgitta Mc

    2017-10-01

    Studies have shown that there is a need for pedagogical content knowledge among science teachers. This study investigates two primary teachers and their objectives in choosing inquiry- and context-based instructional strategies as well as the relation between the choice of instructional strategies and the teachers' knowledge about of students' understanding and intended learning outcomes. Content representations created by the teachers and students' experiences of the enacted teaching served as foundations for the teachers' reflections during interviews. Data from the interviews were analyzed in terms of the intended, enacted, and experienced purposes of the teaching and, finally, as the relation between intended, enacted, and experienced purposes. Students' experiences of the teaching were captured through a questionnaire, which was analyzed inductively, using content analysis. The results show that the teachers' intended teaching objectives were that students would learn about water. During the enacted teaching, it seemed as if the inquiry process was in focus and this was also how many of the students experienced the objectives of the activities. There was a gap between the intended and experienced objectives. Hardly any relation was found between the teachers' choice of instructional strategies and their knowledge about students' understanding, with the exception that the teacher who also added drama wanted to support her students' understanding of the states of water.

  4. Effectiveness of interventions on physical activity in overweight or obese children: a systematic review and meta-analysis including studies with objectively measured outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooijen, C F J; Galanti, M R; Engström, K; Möller, J; Forsell, Y

    2017-02-01

    There is no consensus on interventions to be recommended in order to promote physical activity among overweight or obese children. The objective of this review was to assess the effects on objectively measured physical activity, of interventions promoting physical activity among overweight or obese children or adolescents, compared to no intervention or to interventions without a physical activity component. Publications up to December 2015 were located through electronic searches for randomized controlled trials resulting in inclusion of 33 studies. Standardized mean differences from baseline to post-intervention and to long-term follow-up were determined for intervention and control groups and meta-analysed using random effects models. The meta-analysis showed that interventions had no effect on total physical activity of overweight and obese children, neither directly post-intervention (-0.02 [-0.15, 0.11]) nor at long-term follow-up (0.07 [-0.27, 0.40]). Separate analyses by typology of intervention (with or without physical fitness, behavioural or environmental components) showed similar results (no effect). In conclusion, there is no evidence that currently available interventions are able to increase physical activity among overweight or obese children. This questions the contribution of physical activity to the treatment of overweight and obesity in children in the studied interventions and calls for other treatment strategies. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  5. Target objectives in Spanish Marine Science within the European context (2003-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Morales-Nin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the marine projects funded by the Spanish RTD funding agency between 2003 and 2007 in the framework of the European policies, showed that although the funds available have increased (232 projects and 33 Million € from 2003 to 2007 there are still research and strategic areas that are not covered. The relevance of marine related services and economic revenues for Spain requires that a strategy is developed to address the challenges that are emerging due to the growing competing uses of the sea, which include maritime transport, fishing, aquaculture, leisure activities, off-shore energy production and other forms of seabed exploitation. By helping to develop a more sophisticated understanding of the impact of human activities on marine systems, scientific research and technology may provide the key to carrying out sea-based activities without degrading the environment, and to predicting and mitigating as far as possible the effects of climate change.

  6. Wildlife underpasses on U.S. 64 in North Carolina: integrating management and science objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mark D.; Van Manen, Frank T.; Wilson, Travis W.; Cox, David R.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter on wildlife underpasses on U.S. Highway 64 in North Carolina is from a book on highways, wildlife, and habitat connectivity. U.S. 64 is an important route in North Carolina connecting major population centers and highways that underwent a major upgrade from a two-lane rural road to a major highway. New routes were proposed for a large portion of the project (28 miles) to improve driver safety and increase speed limits to 70 miles per hour (from the previously posted 55 mph). The authors review the geographical, historical, political, and social setting; the roadway and environmental issues; the rationale for the project; critical factors; outcomes of the project; and lessons learned. The area of the project supports high wildlife densities, including American black bears, white-tailed deer, red wolves, and bobcats. Critical factors to be incorporated into wildlife mitigation measures: driver safety, underpass construction costs, and permitting by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The U.S. 64 underpasses, completed in 2005, were the first in North Carolina designed specifically for wildlife and according to specifications provided by the North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission (NCWRC). The authors describe the underpass specifications recommended based on this project, including size, control of public access, fencing, gates, and maintenance (notably vegetation management). The authors conclude that one of the most beneficial outcomes of this project was the fact that, since the completion of the U.S. 64 underpasses, the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) routinely considers wildlife passageways for road projects in the state.

  7. Round table: moderated by Marco Bersanelli and François Bouchet - What next? science objectives and required observations: Objective: Open discussion of what are the strengths and weaknesses of possible future experiments, complementarity, what is our target science for the M5 proposal and what is the best strategy to get it

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Round table: moderated by Marco Bersanelli and François Bouchet - What next? science objectives and required observations: Objective: Open discussion of what are the strengths and weaknesses of possible future experiments, complementarity, what is our target science for the M5 proposal and what is the best strategy to get it

  8. Design space for space design: Dialogs through boundary objects at the intersections of art, design, science, and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Pangaro, Paul

    2017-05-01

    For over half a century space exploration has been dominated by engineering and technology driven practices. This paradigm leaves limited room for art and design. Yet in other parts of our lives, art and design play important roles: they stimulate new ideas and connect people to their experiences and to each other at a deeper level, while affecting our worldview as we evolve our cognitive models. We develop these models through circular conversations with our environment, through perception and making sense through our sensory systems and responding back through language and interactions. Artists and designers create artifacts through conversation cycles of sense-giving and sense-making, thus increasing variety in the world in the form of evolving messages. Each message becomes information when the observer decodes it, through multiple sense-making and re-sampling cycles. The messages form triggers to the cognitive state of the observer. Having a shared key between the artist/designer and the observer-for example, in the form of language, gestures, and artistic/design styles-is fundamental to encode and decode the information, in conversations. Art, design, science, and engineering, are all creative practices. Yet, they often speak different languages, where some parts may correspond, while others address a different variety in a cybernetic sense. These specialized languages within disciplines streamline communications, but limit variety. Thus, different languages between disciplines may introduce communication blocks. Nevertheless, these differences are desired as they add variety to the interactions, and could lead to novel discourses and possibilities. We may dissolve communication blocks through the introduction of boundary objects in the intersection of multiple disciplines. Boundary objects can ground ideas and bridge language diversity across disciplines. These artifacts are created to facilitate circular cybernetic conversations, supporting convergence

  9. Reliability and Validity of Objective Structured Clinical Examination for Residents of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Jalilian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Objective structured clinical examination (OSCE is used for the evaluation of the clinical competence in medicine for which it is essential to measure validity and reliability. This study aimed to investigate the validity and reliability of OSCE for residents of obstetrics and gynecology at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2011.Methods: A descriptive-correlation study was designed and the data of OSCE for obstetrics and gynecology were collected via learning behavior checklists in method stations and multiple choice questions in question stations. The data were analyzed through Pearson correlation coefficient and Cronbach's alpha, using SPSS software (version 16. To determine the criterion validity, correlation of OSCE scores with scores of resident promotion test, direct observation of procedural skills, and theoretical knowledge was determined; for reliability, however, Cronbach's alpha was used. Total sample consisted of 25 participants taking part in 14 stations. P value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant.Results: The mean OSCE scores was 22.66 (±6.85. Criterion validity of the stations with resident promotion theoretical test, first theoretical knowledge test, second theoretical knowledge, and direct observation of procedural skills (DOPS was 0.97, 0.74, 0.49, and 0.79, respectively. In question stations, criterion validity was 0.15, and total validity of OSCE was 0.77.Conclusion: Findings of the present study indicated acceptable validity and reliability of OSCE for residents of obstetrics and gynecology.

  10. Mercury Science Objectives and Traceability Within the BepiColombo Project: Optimising the Science Output of the Next Mission to Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, S.; Benkhoff, J.; Bentley, M.; Cornet, T.; Moissl, R.; Munoz, C.; Zender, J.

    2018-05-01

    The BepiColombo Science Ground Segment is developing, in collaboration with the instrument teams, targeted science traceability matrix of each instrument. They are defined in such a way that they can be tracked during the observation lifecycle.

  11. Asteroid Moon Micro-imager Experiment (amie) For Smart-1 Mission, Science Objectives and Devel- Opment Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, J.-L.; Heather, D.; Dunkin, S.; Roussel, F.; Beauvivre, S.; Kraenhenbuehl, D.; Plancke, P.; Lange-Vin, Y.; Pinet, P.; Chevrel, S.; Cerroni, P.; de Sanctis, M.-C.; Dillelis, A.; Sodnik, Z.; Koschny, D.; Barucci, A.; Hofmann, B.; Josset, M.; Muinonen, K.; Pironnen, J.; Ehrenfreud, P.; Shkuratov, Y.; Shevchenko, V.

    The Asteroid Moon micro-Imager Experiment (AMIE), which will be on board the first ESA SMART-1 mission to the Moon (launch foreseen late 2002), is an imaging sys- tem with scientific, technical and public outreach oriented objectives. The science objectives are to imagine the Lunar South Pole (Aitken basin), permanent shadow areas (ice deposit), eternal light (crater rims), ancient Lunar Non- mare volcanism, local spectro-photometry and physical state of the lunar surface, and to map high latitudes regions (south) mainly at far side (Fig. 1). The technical objectives are to perform a laser-link experiment (detection of laser beam emitted by ESA Tenerife ground station), flight demonstration of new technologies, navigation aid (feasi- bility study), and on-board autonomy investigations. Figure 3: AMIE camera (light source and a photodiode to verify the stability of the incident flux. The optical system is com- posed of a lens to insure good focusing on the samples (focus with the camera is at distance > 100m) and a mirror to image downwards. The samples used were anorthosite from northern Finland, basalt from Antarctis, meteorites and other lunar analog materials. A spectralon panel has also been used to have flat fields references. The samples were imaged with dif- Figure 1: SMART-1 camera imaging the Moon (simulated view) ferent phase angles. Figure 4 shows images obtained with In order to have spectral information of the surface of the basalt and olivine samples, with different integration times Moon, the camera is equipped with a set of filters (Fig. 2), in order to have information in all areas. introduced between the CCD and the teleobjective. Bandpass-filter No Filter, 750 nm (1) AR coating (3) Bandpass-filter 915 nm (2) Longpass-filter 960 nm (4) Band- Band- Figure 4: Basalt and Olivine sample ­ entire image (left) and passfilter passfilter 915 nm 750 nm visible part () (6) (7) Bandpass- More than 150 images were acquired during this validation filter 847

  12. Examining the relationship between school district size and science achievement in Texas including rural school administrator perceptions of challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Matthew James

    Rural and small schools have almost one-third of all public school enrollment in America, yet typically have the fewest financial and research based resources. Educational models have been developed with either the urban or suburban school in mind, and the rural school is often left with no other alternative except this paradigm. Rural based educational resources are rare and the ability to access these resources for rural school districts almost non-existent. Federal and state based education agencies provide some rural educational based programs, but have had virtually no success in answering rural school issues. With federal and state interest in science initiatives, the challenge that rural schools face weigh in. To align with that focus, this study examined Texas middle school student achievement in science and its relationship with school district enrollment size. This study involved a sequential transformative mixed methodology with the quantitative phase driving the second qualitative portion. The quantitative research was a non-experimental causal-comparative study conducted to determine whether there is a significant difference between student achievement on the 2010 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills 8 th grade science results and school district enrollment size. The school districts were distributed into four categories by size including: a) small districts (32-550); b) medium districts (551-1500); c) large districts (1501-6000); and d) mega-sized districts (6001-202,773). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the district averages from the 2010 TAKS 8th grade science assessment results and the four district enrollment groups. The second phase of the study was qualitative utilizing constructivism and critical theory to identify the issues facing rural and small school administrators concerning science based curriculum and development. These themes and issues were sought through a case study method and through use of semi

  13. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  14. V. M. BEKHTEREV IN RUSSIAN CHILD SCIENCE, 1900S–1920S: “OBJECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY”/“REFLEXOLOGY” AS A SCIENTIFIC MOVEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In the early 20th century the child population became a major focus of scientific, professional and public interest. This led to the crystallization of a dynamic field of child science, encompassing developmental and educational psychology, child psychiatry and special education, school hygiene and mental testing, juvenile criminology and the anthropology of childhood. This article discusses the role played in child science by the eminent Russian neurologist and psychiatrist Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev. The latter's name is associated with a distinctive program for transforming the human sciences in general and psychology in particular that he in the 1900s labelled “objective psychology” and from the 1910s renamed “reflexology.” The article examines the equivocal place that Bekhterev's “objective psychology” and “reflexology” occupied in Russian/Soviet child science in the first three decades of the 20th century. While Bekhterev's prominence in this field is beyond doubt, analysis shows that “objective psychology” and “reflexology” had much less success in mobilizing support within it than certain other movements in this arena (for example, “experimental pedagogy” in the pre‐revolutionary era); it also found it difficult to compete with the variety of rival programs that arose within Soviet “pedology” during the 1920s. However, this article also demonstrates that the study of child development played a pivotal role in Bekhterev's program for the transformation of the human sciences: it was especially important to his efforts to ground in empirical phenomena and in concrete research practices a new ontology of the psychological, which, the article argues, underpinned “objective psychology”/“reflexology” as a transformative scientific movement. PMID:26910603

  15. Autonomous Trans-Antartic expeditions: an initiative for advancing planetary mobility system technology while addressing Earth science objectives in Antartica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.; Schenker, P.; Blamont, J.

    2001-01-01

    A workshop on Antartic Autonomous Scientific Vehicles and Traverses met at the National Geographic Society in February to discuss scientific objectives and benefits of the use of rovers such as are being developed for use in planetary exploration.

  16. Analysis of scientific papers in the field of radiology and medical imaging included in Science Citation Index expanded and published by Turkish authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Erhan; Karçaaltincaba, Muşturay

    2010-09-01

    We aimed to analyze scientific papers published by Turkish authors in "radiology, nuclear medicine and medical imaging" journals included in the Science Citation Index Expanded and compared the number of published scientific papers from Turkey and other countries. We retrospectively searched all papers published by Turkish authors between 1945 and 2008 by using Web of Science software. We performed the analysis by typing "Turkey" in the address section and all radiology and medical imaging journals in the source title section using the general search function of the software. We further analyzed these results by using "analyze" function of the software according to the number of publications per year, journals, institution and type of papers. We also calculated total number of citations to published scientific papers using citation report function. We analyzed the rank of Turkey among other countries in terms of the number of published papers. Overall, 4,532 papers were published between 1945 and 2008. The first paper was published in 1976. Number of publications increased dramatically from 1976 (n = 1) to 2008 (n = 383). The top 5 journals publishing papers from Turkish authors were European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (n = 328), Clinical Nuclear Medicine (n = 296), European Journal of Radiology (n = 289), European Radiology (n = 207) and Journal of Clinical Ultrasound (n = 186). All published papers received 18,419 citations and citation to paper ratio was 4.06. The rank of Turkey among other countries in terms of published papers improved during the last 25 years. Number of papers from Turkey published in radiology and medical imaging journals has increased at the start of the new millennium. Currently, Turkey is among the top 12 countries when the number of scientific papers published in radiology journals is taken into consideration.

  17. Aiming for long-term, objective-driven science communication in the UK [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Prokop

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Communicating science to wider lay audiences is an increasingly important part of a scientist's remit, and is something that many scientists are keen to embrace. However, based on surveys carried out amongst the UK public, as well as our own experiences in developing and delivering such activities, we believe that they are not always as effective at engaging members of the general public as they could be. In this opinion article we argue that in order to achieve more effective science communication, we need more objective-driven and long-term initiatives. As well as being implemented by the scientists themselves, funding organisations can play an important role in helping to drive such initiatives, and we suggest a list of actionable items that might allow for some of these ideas to be implemented.

  18. Compte rendu de : Charles T. Wolfe and Ofer Gal (eds., The body as object and instrument of knowledge. Embodied empiricism in early modern science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Joly

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage collectif, qui résulte en partie des travaux d’un atelier sur l’empirisme incarné dans la science moderne qui s’est tenu à l’université de Sydney en février 2009, rassemble quinze communications regroupées en trois parties : « The Body as Object », « The Body as Instrument », « Embodies Minds ». L’objectif des auteurs est de corriger la conception dominante que se font les historiens des sciences et de la philosophie de l’émergence de la philosophie expérimentale, et de l’empirism...

  19. How to Motivate Science Teachers to Use Science Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Trna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A science experiment is the core tool in science education. This study describes the science teachers' professional competence to implement science experiments in teaching/learning science. The main objective is the motivation of science teachers to use science experiments. The presented research tries to answer questions aimed at the science teachers' skills to use science experiments in teaching/learning science. The research discovered the following facts: science teachers do not include science experiments in teaching/learning in a suitable way; are not able to choose science experiments corresponding to the teaching phase; prefer teachers' demonstration of science experiments; are not able to improvise with the aids; use only a few experiments. The important research result is that an important motivational tool for science teachers is the creation of simple experiments. Examples of motivational simple experiments used into teachers' training for increasing their own creativity and motivation are presented.

  20. What drives the gender gap in STEM? The SAGA Science, Technology and Innovation Gender Objectives List (STI GOL) as a new approach to linking indicators to STI policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, E.; Schaaper, M.; Bello, A.

    2016-07-01

    There is a large imbalance in the participation of women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields across all of Latin American countries despite the fact that the region has one of the highest proportions of female researchers worldwide (44% according to UIS statistics). Female researchers face persisting institutional and cultural barriers, which limit the development of their careers and constrains their access to decision-making positions. In this framework, UNESCO has launched the STEM and Gender Advancement (SAGA) project, which has for objective to address the gender gap in STEM fields in all countries at all levels of education and research as well as to promote women’s participation in science. SAGA is a global UNESCO project with the support of the Swedish Government through the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida). One of the outcomes of this project is the SAGA Science, Technology and Innovation Gender Objectives List (STI GOL), which is an innovative tool that aids in the identification of gaps in the policy mix. Additionally, the STI GOL configures the conceptual backbone of the SAGA project, by linking gender equality STI policy instruments with indicators. By using the STI GOL, and identifying the gender gaps, policy-makers will be able to implement evidence-based policies in STEM fields. The SAGA STI GOL is a new and innovative way of contributing to the development of effective gender sensitive policies in STI fields, both in education and in the workplace. Likewise, it enables the categorization of STI policies and instruments, with the objective of identifying gaps in the policy mix and aid in the creation and design of evidence-based public policies to promote gender equality. (Author)

  1. Scientists’ Prioritization of Communication Objectives for Public Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Amid calls from scientific leaders for their colleagues to become more effective public communicators, this study examines the objectives that scientists’ report drive their public engagement behaviors. We explore how scientists evaluate five specific communication objectives, which include informing the public about science, exciting the public about science, strengthening the public’s trust in science, tailoring messages about science, and defending science from misinformation. We use insights from extant research, the theory of planned behavior, and procedural justice theory to identify likely predictors of scientists' views about these communication objectives. Results show that scientists most prioritize communication designed to defend science from misinformation and educate the public about science, and least prioritize communication that seeks to build trust and establish resonance with the public. Regression analyses reveal factors associated with scientists who prioritize each of the five specific communication objectives. Our findings highlight the need for communication trainers to help scientists select specific communication objectives for particular contexts and audiences. PMID:26913869

  2. Scientists' Prioritization of Communication Objectives for Public Engagement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Dudo

    Full Text Available Amid calls from scientific leaders for their colleagues to become more effective public communicators, this study examines the objectives that scientists' report drive their public engagement behaviors. We explore how scientists evaluate five specific communication objectives, which include informing the public about science, exciting the public about science, strengthening the public's trust in science, tailoring messages about science, and defending science from misinformation. We use insights from extant research, the theory of planned behavior, and procedural justice theory to identify likely predictors of scientists' views about these communication objectives. Results show that scientists most prioritize communication designed to defend science from misinformation and educate the public about science, and least prioritize communication that seeks to build trust and establish resonance with the public. Regression analyses reveal factors associated with scientists who prioritize each of the five specific communication objectives. Our findings highlight the need for communication trainers to help scientists select specific communication objectives for particular contexts and audiences.

  3. Pacific Research Platform - Creation of a West Coast Big Data Freeway System Applied to the CONNected objECT (CONNECT) Data Mining Framework for Earth Science Knowledge Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellars, S. L.; Nguyen, P.; Tatar, J.; Graham, J.; Kawsenuk, B.; DeFanti, T.; Smarr, L.; Sorooshian, S.; Ralph, M.

    2017-12-01

    A new era in computational earth sciences is within our grasps with the availability of ever-increasing earth observational data, enhanced computational capabilities, and innovative computation approaches that allow for the assimilation, analysis and ability to model the complex earth science phenomena. The Pacific Research Platform (PRP), CENIC and associated technologies such as the Flash I/O Network Appliance (FIONA) provide scientists a unique capability for advancing towards this new era. This presentation reports on the development of multi-institutional rapid data access capabilities and data pipeline for applying a novel image characterization and segmentation approach, CONNected objECT (CONNECT) algorithm to study Atmospheric River (AR) events impacting the Western United States. ARs are often associated with torrential rains, swollen rivers, flash flooding, and mudslides. CONNECT is computationally intensive, reliant on very large data transfers, storage and data mining techniques. The ability to apply the method to multiple variables and datasets located at different University of California campuses has previously been challenged by inadequate network bandwidth and computational constraints. The presentation will highlight how the inter-campus CONNECT data mining framework improved from our prior download speeds of 10MB/s to 500MB/s using the PRP and the FIONAs. We present a worked example using the NASA MERRA data to describe how the PRP and FIONA have provided researchers with the capability for advancing knowledge about ARs. Finally, we will discuss future efforts to expand the scope to additional variables in earth sciences.

  4. DARE: Unesco Computerized Data Retrieval System for Documentation in the Social and Human Sciences (Including an Analysis of the Present System).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasarhelyi, Paul

    The new data retrieval system for the social sciences which has recently been installed in the UNESCO Secretariat in Paris is described in this comprehensive report. The computerized system is designed to facilitate the existing storage systems in the circulation of information, data retrieval, and indexing services. Basically, this report…

  5. Scoping Review on Research on Food conducted in the Faculty of Social Sciences. Including other Institutions in the Norwich Research Park and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Howard Wilsher, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Executive summary The scoping review was commissioned to examine what research on food has been conducted in the Faculty of Social Sciences (SSF) at the University of East Anglia (UEA) since 2005. The aim of the report is to facilitate collaborative research between SSF and the rest of the Norwich Research Park (NRP), in particular, the Institute of Food Research (IFR). However, it is important to contextualise this beyond the NRP as the Eastern Academic Research Consortium (EARC) provides fu...

  6. Object and Objective Lost?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the erosion and problematization of ‘the organization’ as a demarcated entity. Utilizing Foucault's reflections on ‘state-phobia’ as a source of inspiration, I show how an organization-phobia has gained a hold within Organization Theory (OT). By attending to the history...... of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OT has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming theoretically deconstructed and associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history......, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OT. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OT intellectual credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia...

  7. Science from the inside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumey, Chris

    2009-09-01

    Most scientists think of science as completely objective, but lab studies by social scientists - including several carried out in nanotechnology labs - suggest that it is more subjective than many scientists realize. Chris Toumey looks at the results of these studies.

  8. Life into Space: Space Life Sciences Experiments, Ames Research Center, Kennedy Space Center, 1991-1998, Including Profiles of 1996-1998 Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Kenneth (Editor); Etheridge, Guy (Editor); Callahan, Paul X. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    We have now conducted space life sciences research for more than four decades. The continuing interest in studying the way living systems function in space derives from two main benefits of that research. First, in order for humans to engage in long-term space travel, we must understand and develop measures to counteract the most detrimental effects of space flight on biological systems. Problems in returning to the conditions of Earth must be kept to a manageable level. Second, increasing our understanding of how organisms function in the absence of gravity gives us new understanding of fundamental biological processes. This information can be used to improve human health and the quality of life on Earth.

  9. Searching for Meaning in Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkheimer, Glenn D.; McLeod, Richard J.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses how science programs K-16 should be developed to meet the modern objectives of science education and restore its true meaning. The theories of Phenix and Ausubel are included in this discussion. (HM)

  10. The h index of the presidents of the American Psychological Association (APA through journal articles included in the Web of Science database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualberto Buela-Casal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio descriptivo analiza los índices h de los presidentes de la American Psychological Association (APA desde 1940 hasta la actualidad. El índice h se calcula teniendo en cuenta el número de artículos publicados en las revistas de la Web of Science (WOS y las citas recibidas por los mismos en dicha base de datos. No se estableció un periodo de búsqueda y, por tanto, se analizaron todos los resultados incluidos en la WOS. El número total de resultados analizados fue de 16.676, de los cuales 3.734 fueron de los presidentes de la APA. Los resultados se presentan en forma de ranking y ponen de manifiesto que Albert Bandura y Alan Kazdin son los presidentes con un índice h más elevado, y en entre estos y los demás existe una diferencia considerable. Los resultados hacen especular que el criterio de productividad en artículos científicos no fue el criterio más importante para presidir esta institución.

  11. Dense Plasma Focus: physics and applications (radiation material science, single-shot disclosure of hidden illegal objects, radiation biology and medicine, etc.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribkov, V. A.; Miklaszewski, R.; Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E.; Chernyshova, M.; Pisarczyk, T.; Pimenov, V. N.; Demina, E. V.; Niemela, J.; Crespo, M.-L.; Cicuttin, A.; Tomaszewski, K.; Sadowski, M. J.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Pytel, K.; Zawadka, A.; Giannini, G.; Longo, F.; Talab, A.; Ul'yanenko, S. E.

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents some outcomes obtained during the year of 2013 of the activity in the frame of the International Atomic Energy Agency Co-ordinated research project "Investigations of Materials under High Repetition and Intense Fusion-Relevant Pulses". The main results are related to the effects created at the interaction of powerful pulses of different types of radiation (soft and hard X-rays, hot plasma and fast ion streams, neutrons, etc. generated in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) facilities) with various materials including those that are counted as perspective ones for their use in future thermonuclear reactors. Besides we discuss phenomena observed at the irradiation of biological test objects. We examine possible applications of nanosecond powerful pulses of neutrons to the aims of nuclear medicine and for disclosure of hidden illegal objects. Special attention is devoted to discussions of a possibility to create extremely large and enormously diminutive DPF devices and probabilities of their use in energetics, medicine and modern electronics.

  12. VIRTOPSY--scientific documentation, reconstruction and animation in forensic: individual and real 3D data based geo-metric approach including optical body/object surface and radiological CT/MRI scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Buck, Ursula; Aghayev, Emin; Jackowski, Christian; Vock, Peter; Sonnenschein, Martin; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2005-03-01

    Until today, most of the documentation of forensic relevant medical findings is limited to traditional 2D photography, 2D conventional radiographs, sketches and verbal description. There are still some limitations of the classic documentation in forensic science especially if a 3D documentation is necessary. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate new 3D real data based geo-metric technology approaches. This paper present approaches to a 3D geo-metric documentation of injuries on the body surface and internal injuries in the living and deceased cases. Using modern imaging methods such as photogrammetry, optical surface and radiological CT/MRI scanning in combination it could be demonstrated that a real, full 3D data based individual documentation of the body surface and internal structures is possible in a non-invasive and non-destructive manner. Using the data merging/fusing and animation possibilities, it is possible to answer reconstructive questions of the dynamic development of patterned injuries (morphologic imprints) and to evaluate the possibility, that they are matchable or linkable to suspected injury-causing instruments. For the first time, to our knowledge, the method of optical and radiological 3D scanning was used to document the forensic relevant injuries of human body in combination with vehicle damages. By this complementary documentation approach, individual forensic real data based analysis and animation were possible linking body injuries to vehicle deformations or damages. These data allow conclusions to be drawn for automobile accident research, optimization of vehicle safety (pedestrian and passenger) and for further development of crash dummies. Real 3D data based documentation opens a new horizon for scientific reconstruction and animation by bringing added value and a real quality improvement in forensic science.

  13. Development of a Repeatable Protocol to Uniformly Coat Internal Complex Geometries of Fine Featured 3D Printed Objects with Ceramic Material, including Determination of Viscosity Limits to Properly Coat Certain Pore Sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-18

    HEPA filters are commonly used in air filtration systems ranging in application from simple home systems to the more advanced networks used in research and development. Currently, these filters are most often composed of glass fibers with diameter on the order of one micron with polymer binders. These fibers, as well as the polymers used, are known to be fragile and can degrade or become extremely brittle with heat, severely limiting their use in high temperature applications. Ceramics are one promising alternative and can enhance the filtration capabilities compared to the current technology. Because ceramic materials are more thermally resistant and chemically stable, there is great interest in developing a repeatable protocol to uniformly coat fine featured polymer objects with ceramic material for use as a filter. The purpose of this experiment is to determine viscosity limits that are able to properly coat certain pore sizes in 3D printed objects, and additionally to characterize the coatings themselves. Latex paint was used as a surrogate because it is specifically designed to produce uniform coatings.

  14. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    Give us the tools: science and technology for development. Ottawa, ...... altered technical rela- tionships among the factors used in the process of production, and the en- .... to ourselves only the rights of audit and periodic substantive review." If a ...... and destroying scarce water reserves, recreational areas and a generally.

  15. Research in Biological and Medical Sciences, Including Biochemistry, Communicable Disease and Immunology, Internal Medicine, Nuclear Medicine, Physiology, Psychiatry, Surgery and Veterinary Medicine. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    during the past fiscal year include 45 ovario- hysterectomles, one caesarean section, one fracture repair, one patent ductus arteriosus repair, one...Following closure of the thoracotomy, SOD was down by 60% and VQJ was> 80% of control levels. SOD and VQO did not relate to each other in a parallel...tions. Two patents were applied for, one for the Electronic Debubbler Circuit and one for the Improved Flow Cell. A paper on this latest

  16. RD and D-Programme 2004. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste, including social science research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    feature of this RD and D-Programme is that we also present our programme for social science research, which was requested by several reviewing bodies in connection with the review of RD and D-Programme 2001. Finally, the programmes for alternative methods, decommissioning and other long-lived waste are also described in this RD and D-Programme. In the review statement regarding RD and D-Programme 2001 which SKI submitted to the Government in March 2002, the Inspectorate called for a report that would explain more clearly SKB's plans for the remainder of the nuclear fuel programme. As a reason for this request, SKI said that the competent authorities will need to know which regulatory reviews are anticipated over the next ten years and the extent to which these reviews depend on each other. Such a report is appended to this RD and D-Programme. It is our hope that the above structure and perspective provide a clear picture of how far the technology development work has come and what factors are most important for safety in the deep repository.

  17. RD and D-Programme 2004. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste, including social science research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    new feature of this RD and D-Programme is that we also present our programme for social science research, which was requested by several reviewing bodies in connection with the review of RD and D-Programme 2001. Finally, the programmes for alternative methods, decommissioning and other long-lived waste are also described in this RD and D-Programme. In the review statement regarding RD and D-Programme 2001 which SKI submitted to the Government in March 2002, the Inspectorate called for a report that would explain more clearly SKB's plans for the remainder of the nuclear fuel programme. As a reason for this request, SKI said that the competent authorities will need to know which regulatory reviews are anticipated over the next ten years and the extent to which these reviews depend on each other. Such a report is appended to this RD and D-Programme. It is our hope that the above structure and perspective provide a clear picture of how far the technology development work has come and what factors are most important for safety in the deep repository.

  18. RD and D-Programme 2004. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste, including social science research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    feature of this RD and D-Programme is that we also present our programme for social science research, which was requested by several reviewing bodies in connection with the review of RD and D-Programme 2001. Finally, the programmes for alternative methods, decommissioning and other long-lived waste are also described in this RD and D-Programme. In the review statement regarding RD and D-Programme 2001 which SKI submitted to the Government in March 2002, the Inspectorate called for a report that would explain more clearly SKB's plans for the remainder of the nuclear fuel programme. As a reason for this request, SKI said that the competent authorities will need to know which regulatory reviews are anticipated over the next ten years and the extent to which these reviews depend on each other. Such a report is appended to this RD and D-Programme. It is our hope that the above structure and perspective provide a clear picture of how far the technology development work has come and what factors are most important for safety in the deep repository

  19. The development of small, cabled, real-time video based observation systems for near shore coastal marine science including three examples and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Gerry; Okuda, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The effects of climate change on the near shore coastal environment including ocean acidification, accelerated erosion, destruction of coral reefs, and damage to marine habitat have highlighted the need for improved equipment to study, monitor, and evaluate these changes [1]. This is especially true where areas of study are remote, large, or beyond depths easily accessible to divers. To this end, we have developed three examples of low cost and easily deployable real-time ocean observation platforms. We followed a scalable design approach adding complexity and capability as familiarity and experience were gained with system components saving both time and money by reducing design mistakes. The purpose of this paper is to provide information for the researcher, technician, or engineer who finds themselves in need of creating or acquiring similar platforms.

  20. Strategic Approaches to Trading Science Objectives Against Measurements and Mission Design: Mission Architecture and Concept Maturation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, K. E.; Nash, A. E., III

    2017-12-01

    Earth Science missions are increasingly challenged to improve our state of the art through more sophisticated hypotheses and inclusion of advanced technologies. However, science return needs to be constrained to the cost environment. Selectable mission concepts are the result of an overlapping Venn diagram of compelling science, feasible engineering solutions, and programmatic acceptable costs, regardless of whether the science investigation is Earth Venture or Decadal class. Since the last Earth Science and Applications Decadal Survey released in 2007, many new advanced technologies have emerged, in instrument, SmallSat flight systems, and launch service capabilities, enabling new mission architectures. These mission architectures may result in new thinking about how we achieve and collect science measurements, e.g., how to improve time-series measurements. We will describe how the JPL Formulation Office is structured to integrate methods, tools, and subject matter experts to span the mission concept development lifecycle, and assist Principal Investigators in maturing their mission ideas into realizable concepts.

  1. The pedagogical possibilities in the education of scientific research methodology in information science and the scientific objects of this field: durkheim approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco das Chagas de Souza

    2003-01-01

    This article results of bibliographical, exploratory and qualitative research. Its argues that three approaches are gifts in the educational process of discipline of the Scientific Research Methodology in Information Science. They are the social facts of the Information Science, the types of the research and the social theory. It sees that the pedagogical possibilities of the education of Scientific Methodology in Information Science are related with the practical one of the writing which dep...

  2. Dense Plasma Focus: physics and applications (radiation material science, single-shot disclosure of hidden illegal objects, radiation biology and medicine, etc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribkov, V A; Miklaszewski, R; Paduch, M; Zielinska, E; Chernyshova, M; Pisarczyk, T; Sadowski, M J; Pimenov, V N; Demina, E V; Niemela, J; Crespo, M-L; Cicuttin, A; Tomaszewski, K; Skladnik-Sadowska, E; Pytel, K; Zawadka, A; Giannini, G; Longo, F; Talab, A; Ul'yanenko, S E

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents some outcomes obtained during the year of 2013 of the activity in the frame of the International Atomic Energy Agency Co-ordinated research project 'Investigations of Materials under High Repetition and Intense Fusion-Relevant Pulses'. The main results are related to the effects created at the interaction of powerful pulses of different types of radiation (soft and hard X-rays, hot plasma and fast ion streams, neutrons, etc. generated in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) facilities) with various materials including those that are counted as perspective ones for their use in future thermonuclear reactors. Besides we discuss phenomena observed at the irradiation of biological test objects. We examine possible applications of nanosecond powerful pulses of neutrons to the aims of nuclear medicine and for disclosure of hidden illegal objects. Special attention is devoted to discussions of a possibility to create extremely large and enormously diminutive DPF devices and probabilities of their use in energetics, medicine and modern electronics. (paper)

  3. BL Lacertae objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.J.; Veron, P.

    1977-01-01

    The properties of BL Lacertae objects are discussed including their spectra, variability, and brightness. The historical development of observation, and the conclusion that these objects are possibly quasar-related objects rather than variable stars as originally supposed are treated. The possible mechanisms for the unusual luminosity of these objects are considered

  4. On the Meaning of Element in the Science of Italic Tradition, the Question of Physical Objectivity (and/or Physical Meaning) and Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Giuseppe

    2006-06-01

    It is questioned: Is quantum mechanics a new science or a new (or rather old) philosophy of physical science? It is shown that Einstein's attempt in his article of 1935 to bring the concept of "element" from the classical (we call it Italic) philosophical-epistemological tradition, which goes under the names of Pythagoras Parmenides, Democritus, and Newton, into quantum mechanical theory is unclear, inadequate and contradictory.

  5. Elegant objects

    CERN Document Server

    Bugayenko, Yegor

    2017-01-01

    There are 23 practical recommendations for object-oriented programmers. Most of them are completely against everything you've read in other books. For example, static methods, NULL references, getters, setters, and mutable classes are called evil. Compound variable names, validators, private static literals, configurable objects, inheritance, annotations, MVC, dependency injection containers, reflection, ORM and even algorithms are our enemies.

  6. Objective lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  7. A Mathematical Sciences Program at an Upper-Division Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetz, Frank J.

    1978-01-01

    The conception, objectives, contents, and limitations of a degree program in the mathematical sciences at Pennsylvania State University, Capitol Campus, are discussed. Career goals that may be pursued include: managerial, science, education, actuarial, and computer. (MP)

  8. WFIRST Project Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The WFIRST Project is a joint effort between GSFC and JPL. The project scientists and engineers are working with the community Science Definition Team to define the requirements and initial design of the mission. The objective is to design an observatory that meets the WFIRST science goals of the Astr02010 Decadal Survey for minimum cost. This talk will be a report of recent project activities including requirements flowdown, detector array development, science simulations, mission costing and science outreach. Details of the interim mission design relevant to scientific capabilities will be presented.

  9. Big Java late objects

    CERN Document Server

    Horstmann, Cay S

    2012-01-01

    Big Java: Late Objects is a comprehensive introduction to Java and computer programming, which focuses on the principles of programming, software engineering, and effective learning. It is designed for a two-semester first course in programming for computer science students.

  10. Extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1976-01-01

    After some disconnected comments on the MIT bag and string models for extended hadrons, I review current understanding of extended objects in classical conventional relativistic field theories and their quantum mechanical interpretation

  11. Illustrating phallic worship: uses of material objects and the production of sexual knowledge in eighteenth-century antiquarianism and early twentieth-century sexual science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Jana; Fisher, Kate; Grove, Jen; Langlands, Rebecca

    2017-07-03

    This article reveals previously overlooked connections between eighteenth-century antiquarianism and early twentieth-century sexual science by presenting a comparative reading of two illustrated books: An Account of the Remains of the Worship of Priapus , by British antiquarian scholar Richard Payne Knight (1750-1824), and Die Weltreise eines Sexualforschers (The World Journey of a Sexologist), by German sexual scientist Magnus Hirschfeld (1868-1935). A close analysis of these publications demonstrates the special status of material artefacts and the strategic engagement with visual evidence in antiquarian and scientific writings about sex. Through its exploration of the similarities between antiquarian and sexual scientific thought, the article demonstrates the centrality of material culture to the production of sexual knowledge in the Western world. It also opens up new perspectives on Western intellectual history and on the intellectual origins of sexual science. While previous scholarship has traced the beginnings of sexual science back to nineteenth-century medical disciplines, this article shows that sexual scientists drew upon different forms of evidence and varied methodologies to produce sexual knowledge and secure scientific authority. As such, sexual science needs to be understood as a field with diverse intellectual roots that can be traced back (at least) to the eighteenth century.

  12. Trusted Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMPBELL, PHILIP L.; PIERSON, LYNDON G.; WITZKE, EDWARD L.

    1999-01-01

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  13. A Scale to Assess Science Activity Videos (SASAV): The Study of Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Yilmaz; Bakirci, Hasan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop an assessment scale for science activity videos that can be used to determine qualified science activity videos that can fulfill the objectives of activity based science education, help teachers to evaluate any science activity videos and decide whether to include into science learning process. The subjects…

  14. The Language of Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Kasper Risbjerg

    2012-01-01

    The Danish amateur scholar Christian Jürgensen Thomsen has often been described as a founder of modern “scientific” archaeology. Thomsen's innovation, this essay argues, reflects developments within neighboring fields, such as philology and history. He reacted against historians who limited....... The arrangement of artifacts not only helped him formulate his theories, but also allowed him to present his arguments in a language of objects. At the same time, Thomsen's definition of archaeology as a museum science placed his branch of archaeology in a closer relationship with other museum sciences...

  15. Storyboard GALILEO CRUISE SCIENCE OPPORTUNITIES describes asteroid encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Storyboard with mosaicked image of an asteroid and entitled GALILEO CRUISE SCIENCE OPPORTUNITIES describes asteroid objectives. These objectives include: first asteroid encounter; surface geology, composition size, shape, mass; and relation of primitive bodies to meteorites.

  16. Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2009-01-01

    -- an outline which at the same time indicates the need for transformations of the Durkheimian model on decisive points. Thus, thirdly, it returns to Durkheim and undertakes to develop his concepts in a direction suitable for a sociological theory of fashion. Finally, it discusses the theoretical implications......This article attempts to create a framework for understanding modern fashion phenomena on the basis of Durkheim's sociology of religion. It focuses on Durkheim's conception of the relation between the cult and the sacred object, on his notion of 'exteriorisation', and on his theory of the social...... symbol in an attempt to describe the peculiar attraction of the fashion object and its social constitution. However, Durkheim's notions of cult and ritual must undergo profound changes if they are to be used in an analysis of fashion. The article tries to expand the Durkheimian cult, radically enlarging...

  17. Utilities objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, Y.; Fabian, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)

  18. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  19. Sustainability Logistics Basing - Science and Technology Objective - Demonstration; 50, 300, 1000- Person Base Camp, Analysis of FY12 Operationally Relevant Technical Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-10

    Moreover, while fuel and water consumption , waste generation, and Soldier Operational Quality of Life (QoL (O)) are key metrics in the design and...values shown do not include fuel used outside of the basecamp for missions. The water values shown do not include water for human consumption . The...for the analysis of materiel and non-materiel solutions that could reduce fuel and water consumption as well as generation and back-haul of waste in

  20. Utilizing Provenance in Reusable Research Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihao Yuan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Science is conducted collaboratively, often requiring the sharing of knowledge about computational experiments. When experiments include only datasets, they can be shared using Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs or Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs. An experiment, however, seldom includes only datasets, but more often includes software, its past execution, provenance, and associated documentation. The Research Object has recently emerged as a comprehensive and systematic method for aggregation and identification of diverse elements of computational experiments. While a necessary method, mere aggregation is not sufficient for the sharing of computational experiments. Other users must be able to easily recompute on these shared research objects. Computational provenance is often the key to enable such reuse. In this paper, we show how reusable research objects can utilize provenance to correctly repeat a previous reference execution, to construct a subset of a research object for partial reuse, and to reuse existing contents of a research object for modified reuse. We describe two methods to summarize provenance that aid in understanding the contents and past executions of a research object. The first method obtains a process-view by collapsing low-level system information, and the second method obtains a summary graph by grouping related nodes and edges with the goal to obtain a graph view similar to application workflow. Through detailed experiments, we show the efficacy and efficiency of our algorithms.

  1. A história da ciência e o objeto de seu estudo: confrontos entre a ciência periférica, a ciência central e a ciência marginal History of science and its object of study: confrontations amongst peripheral science, mainstream science and marginal science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. L. Filgueiras

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The historiography of science has undergone a profound change from the traditional perspective of a few decades ago, according to which only mainstream science was worth pursuing as a research field. Such a restricted outlook was not conducive to a thorough understanding of the whole process of the construction of science. New approaches have breathed new life into the discipline, taking into account not only scientific endeavours from so-called peripheral societies, but also from different quarters within or close to the central groups. From this a new and far more interesting view has emerged, showing a complex and richer texture.

  2. TESS Objects of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Natalia; Glidden, Ana; Fausnaugh, Michael; TESS Team

    2018-01-01

    We describe the search for TESS Objects of Interest (TOIs), led by the MIT branch of the TESS Science Office (TSO). TSO has developed a tool called TESS Exoplanet Vetter (TEV) to facilitate this process. Individuals independently examine data validation products for each target and assign a category to the object: planet candidate, eclipsing binary, other astrophysical, stellar variability, or instrument noise/systematic. TEV assigns a preliminary follow-up priority designation to each object and allows for modification when final dispositions are decided on in a group setting. When all targets are vetted, TEV exports a catalogue of TOIs which is delivered to the TESS Follow-Up Observing Program (TFOP), working with ExoFOP-TESS, and made publicly available on the official TESS website and the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST).

  3. Space physics strategy-implementation study. Volume 1: Goals, objectives, strategy. A report to the Space Physics Subcommittee of the Space Science and Applications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Space physics is defined as the study of the heliosphere as one system; that is, of the Sun and solar wind, and their interactions with the upper atmospheres, ionospheres, and magnetospheres of the planets and comets, with energetic particles, and with the interstellar medium. This report contains a number of reports by different panels on the major topics in the space physics program including: (1) the cosmic and heliospheric physics program for the years 1995 to 2010; (2) ionosphere, thermosphere, and mesosphere studies; (3) magnetospheric physics; (4) solar physics; and (5) space physics theory.

  4. Islam and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdus

    The following sections are included: * The Holy Quran and Science * Modem Science, A Greco- Islamic Legacy * The Decline of Sciences in Islam * The Limitations of Science * Faith and Science * The Present Picture of Sciences in the Islamic Countries * Renaissance of Sciences in Islam * Steps Needed for Building up Sciences in the Islamic Countries * Science Education * Science Foundations in Islam * Technology in Our Countries * Concluding Remarks * REFERENCES

  5. Sciences & Nature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... Sciences & Nature, the Scientific Journal edited by the University of ... Subjects covered include agronomy, sciences of the earth, environment, biological, ...

  6. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high ..... circulation patterns include the nutrient-rich Somali ...... matical Structures in Computer Science 24: e240311.

  7. Nuclear Energy General Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way it achieves this objective is to issue publications in various series. Two of these series are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III, paragraph A.6, of the IAEA Statute, the IAEA safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are primarily written in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own activities. The principal users are Member State regulatory bodies and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series consists of reports designed to encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia and politicians, among others. The information is presented in guides, reports on the status of technology and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The series complements the IAEA's safety standards, and provides detailed guidance, experience, good practices and examples on the five areas covered in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series. The Nuclear Energy Basic Principles is the highest level publication in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and describes the rationale and vision for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It presents eight Basic Principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. The Nuclear Energy Series Objectives are the second level publications. They describe what needs to be

  8. A Learning Research Informed Design and Evaluation of a Web-Enhanced Object Oriented Programming Seminar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgantaki, Stavroula C.; Retalis, Symeon D.

    2007-01-01

    "Object-Oriented Programming" subject is included in the ACM Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate and Graduate Degree Programs in Computer Science as well as in Curriculum for K-12 Computer Science. In a few research studies learning problems and difficulties have been recorded, and therefore, specific pedagogical guidelines and…

  9. Mitos da didática das ciências acerca dos motivos para incluir a Natureza da Ciência no ensino das ciências Science Education myths about the reasons to include the Nature of Science in science teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Acevedo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Em certas situações, a Didática das Ciências transmite como mitos algumas crenças que não estão suficientemente sustentadas pela investigação que ela própria produz. Este artigo mostra dois desses mitos relacionados com os motivos que se costumam apontar para incluir a Natureza da Ciência no ensino das ciências, como sejam a suposta relação entre a prática docente e as crenças sobre a Natureza da Ciência, e a crença de que a sua compreensão é um fator chave na hora de tomar melhores decisões cívicas em questões tecnocientíficas de interesse social. A análise que se apresenta realizou-se mediante a revisão de diversos resultados de investigações procedentes da própria Didática das Ciências e também da Psicologia das Decisões. A conclusão aponta para considerar que outros fatores influenciam mais, tornando muito menos lineares essas hipotéticas relações do que alguns especialistas pensam e mais complexa a problemática abordada.In some situations Science Education transmits as myths various beliefs as myths that are not enough sustained by the research in its own domain. This paper shows two of these myths related to the reasons usually pointed in orderfor includinge the Nature of Science in science teaching:, such as the supposed relationship between the educational practice and the beliefs about the Nature of Science, and also the belief that its understanding of the Nature of Science is a key factor in when making better civicdecisions as citizens in technical socioscientific oscientific issues. with social interest The analysis was carried out by means of athe review of several results from the own Science Education Research, and also from the Psychology of Decisions. The conclusion seems to be clear: other factors are of a greater influence, making those hypothetical relations much less linear than some experts wcould think, and making the questions much more complex. the presented question.

  10. Program summaries for 1979: energy sciences programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report describes the objectives of the various research programs being conducted by the Chemical Sciences, Metallurgy and Materials Science, and Process Science divisions of the BNL Dept. of Energy and Environment. Some of the more significant accomplishments during 1979 are also reported along with plans for 1980. Some of the topics under study include porphyrins, combustion, coal utilization, superconductors, semiconductors, coal, conversion, fluidized-bed combustion, polymers, etc. (DLC)

  11. Reversing the Objective: Adding Guinea Pig Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    This article explores objectification in science and science education, i.e., the way material is turned into an object of interest to scientists. Drawing on sociological and anthropological drama theory, it examines how objectification does and does not occur in classrooms and schools. To understand the role and relationship of the object to the…

  12. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'. The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in member States, implementing organizations, academia and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. The Nuclear Energy Basic Principles is the highest level publication in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series, and describes the rationale and vision for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It presents eight Basic Principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. The Nuclear Energy Series Objectives are the second level publications. They describe what needs to be considered and the specific goals to be achieved at different stages of implementation, all of which are consistent with the Basic Principles

  13. Technical objectives of inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, R.J.; Stewart, K.B.; Schneider, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The various technical objectives of inspection are discussed in a very general manner. The discussion includes how the inspection function is related to the assumed threat, the various degrees of assurance and reliance on criteria, and the hierarchy of assurance which is obtained from the various types or levels of inspection

  14. Testing object Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grüner, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we provide a unit testing approach for multi-purposes object-oriented programming languages in the style of Java and C#. Our approach includes the definition of a test specification language which results from extending the programming language with new designated specification

  15. Radioactive Waste Management Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way it achieves this objective is to issue publications in various series. Two of these series are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III, paragraph A.6, of the IAEA Statute, the IAEA safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are primarily written in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own activities. The principal users are Member State regulatory bodies and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series consists of reports designed to encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia and politicians, among others. The information is presented in guides, reports on the status of technology and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The series complements the IAEA's safety standards, and provides detailed guidance, experience, good practices and examples on the five areas covered in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series. The Nuclear Energy Basic Principles is the highest level publication in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and describes the rationale and vision for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It presents eight Basic Principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. The Nuclear Energy Series Objectives are the second level publications. They describe what needs to be

  16. The Human Factor in Innovation and Productivity Including an Analysis of Hearings on the Human Factor. Report by the Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology, Transmitted to the Committee on Science and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session. Serial FF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Science and Technology.

    The House Committee on Science and Technology, Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology, sponsored an American Association for the Advancement of Science seminar (July 28, 1981) and 6 days of hearings (September 9-17, 1981) on "The Human Factor in Innovation and Productivity." These hearings were designed to increase knowledge…

  17. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  18. KEPLER SCIENCE OPERATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, Michael R.; Bryson, Steve T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Koch, David G.; Smith, Marcie; Sobeck, Charles K.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey E.; Hall, Jennifer; Klaus, Todd C.; Middour, Chris; Thompson, Richard S.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Stober, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Kepler's mission design includes a comprehensive plan for commissioning and science operations. The commissioning phase completed all critical tasks and accomplished all mission objectives within a week of the pre-launch plan. Since the start of science data collection, the nominal timeline has been interrupted by two safe-mode events, several losses of fine point, and some small pointing adjustments. The most important anomalies are understood and mitigated, so Kepler's technical performance has improved significantly over this period, and the prognosis for mission success is excellent. The Kepler data archive is established and hosting data for the science team, guest observers, and the public. The first data to become publicly available include the monthly full-frame images and the light curves for targets that are dropped from the exoplanet program or released after publication. Data are placed in the archive on a quarterly basis; the Kepler Results Catalog will be released annually starting in 2011.

  19. Review Statement and Evaluation of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co's RDandD Programme 2004. Programme for Research, Development and Demonstration of Methods for the Management and Disposal of Nuclear Waste, including Social Science Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    verify the models in time prior to a licence application. Furthermore, the authorities assume that more long-term biosphere issues are being taken into account in SKB's new plan of action. - In its biosphere research, SKB should take into account the possibility of using radionuclide concentrations and flows as complementary safety indicators. - SKB should more clearly explain how it will ensure that studied climate scenarios will shed light on the most important climate-related stresses on the barrier function. - It is justifiable for the research conducted by SKB and Sweden in the area of PandT to maintain its current level so that international developments can be followed and to maintain and develop scientific and technical expertise in areas of importance for nuclear safety. - A clarification of the account of deep boreholes prior to the ultimate choice of a method and prior to licensing under the Environmental Code is needed. A comparison should be made with the KBS-3 method which utilizes safety assessment methodology including simple calculations. - SKB needs to intensify the work on decommissioning issues and in order to present detailed plans and considerations in RDandD Programme 2007. - SKB should investigate the shortest time required for the start of a licensing process for the disposal of decommissioning waste. - In the next RDandD programme, SKB should provide a more detailed description of the programme for long-lived low and intermediate-level waste. - SKB should take into account the viewpoint that long-term interim storage of waste while waiting for the construction of a repository should, as far as possible, be avoided and take this into consideration in its planning. - It is positive that SKB has incorporated social science research into its programme, since the findings from the research should be useful for the stakeholders to apply the research findings in ongoing and future consultation processes for an encapsulation plant and repository

  20. Review Statement and Evaluation of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co's RDandD Programme 2004. Programme for Research, Development and Demonstration of Methods for the Management and Disposal of Nuclear Waste, including Social Science Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    verify the models in time prior to a licence application. Furthermore, the authorities assume that more long-term biosphere issues are being taken into account in SKB's new plan of action. - In its biosphere research, SKB should take into account the possibility of using radionuclide concentrations and flows as complementary safety indicators. - SKB should more clearly explain how it will ensure that studied climate scenarios will shed light on the most important climate-related stresses on the barrier function. - It is justifiable for the research conducted by SKB and Sweden in the area of PandT to maintain its current level so that international developments can be followed and to maintain and develop scientific and technical expertise in areas of importance for nuclear safety. - A clarification of the account of deep boreholes prior to the ultimate choice of a method and prior to licensing under the Environmental Code is needed. A comparison should be made with the KBS-3 method which utilizes safety assessment methodology including simple calculations. - SKB needs to intensify the work on decommissioning issues and in order to present detailed plans and considerations in RDandD Programme 2007. - SKB should investigate the shortest time required for the start of a licensing process for the disposal of decommissioning waste. - In the next RDandD programme, SKB should provide a more detailed description of the programme for long-lived low and intermediate-level waste. - SKB should take into account the viewpoint that long-term interim storage of waste while waiting for the construction of a repository should, as far as possible, be avoided and take this into consideration in its planning. - It is positive that SKB has incorporated social science research into its programme, since the findings from the research should be useful for the stakeholders to apply the research findings in ongoing and future consultation processes for an encapsulation plant and repository.

  1. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  2. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  3. Life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, L. (ed.)

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  4. Life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, L.

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs

  5. My Summer with Science Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Marissa

    This past summer I interned at the American Institute of Physics and helped research and write articles for the FYI Science Policy Bulletin. FYI is an objective digest of science policy developments in Washington, D.C. that impact the greater physical sciences community. Over the course of the summer, I independently attended, analyzed, and reported on a variety of science, technology, and funding related events including congressional hearings, government agency advisory committee meetings, and scientific society events. I wrote and co-wrote three articles on basic energy research legislation, the National Institute of Standards and Technology improvement act, and the National Science Foundation's big ideas for future investment. I had the opportunity to examine some challenging questions such as what is the role of government in funding applied research? How should science priorities be set? What is the right balance of funding across different agencies and programs? I learned about how science policy is a two-way street: science is used to inform policy decisions and policy is made to fund and regulate the conduct of science. I will conclude with how my summer working with FYI showed me the importance of science advocacy, being informed, and voting. Society of Physics Students.

  6. Media, journalism, objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlajki Emil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the text around the themes: Media and Journalism, are confronted two directions of opinions: humanism and elitism. Humanism believes that media and journalism must be metaphysically objective: able to tell the truth regardless of time, place and terms of events. Another approach, elitism, is connected with Hegel's philosophy of history. Hegel's conceptual apparatus includes: Idea, History dialectic, 'cunning mind,' self- development and self-realization. In this context, media and journalism are considered as organic unity, an inseparable part of some dialectical totality. More specifically media and journalism can be objective only if they defend concrete ideological assumptions of society to which they belong. Any other understanding of these two concepts is non-objective, mere moralizing and / or demagoguery.

  7. Science & the Senses: Perceptions & Deceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Science requires the acquisition and analysis of empirical (sense-derived) data. Given the same physical objects or phenomena, the sense organs of all people do not respond equally to these stimuli, nor do their minds interpret sensory signals identically. Therefore, teachers should develop lectures on human sensory systems that include some…

  8. Molecular sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The research in molecular sciences summarized includes photochemistry, radiation chemistry, geophysics, electromechanics, heavy-element oxidizers , heavy element chemistry collisions, atoms, organic solids. A list of publications is included

  9. Science Process Skills in Science Curricula Applied in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumusak, Güngör Keskinkiliç

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important objectives of the science curricula is to bring in science process skills. The science process skills are skills that lie under scientific thinking and decision-making. Thus it is important for a science curricula to be rationalized in such a way that it brings in science process skills. New science curricula were…

  10. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  11. Neutron radiography with 252Cf in forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cason, J.L.

    1972-01-01

    Equipment and methods for neutron radiographic examination of objects in forensic science are described. Examples discussed include booby-trapped ammunition, bomb in a matchbook, gun barrel analysis, narcotics in pen, and chemicals and metals in body tissue

  12. Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, G. J.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Kiehl, J. T.; Schmidt, C.

    2010-12-01

    We are in an era of rapidly changing communication media, which is driving a major evolution in the modes of communicating science. In the past, a mainstay of scientific communication in popular media was through science “translators”; science journalists and presenters. These have now nearly disappeared and are being replaced by widespread dissemination through, e.g., the internet, blogs, YouTube and journalists who often have little scientific background and sharp deadlines. Thus, scientists are required to assume increasing responsibility for translating their scientific findings and calibrating their communications to non-technical audiences, a task for which they are often ill prepared, especially when it comes to controversial societal issues such as tobacco, evolution, and most recently climate change (Oreskes and Conway 2010). Such issues have been politicized and hi-jacked by ideological belief systems to such an extent that constructive dialogue is often impossible. Many scientists are excellent communicators, to their peers. But this requires careful attention to detail and logical explanation, open acknowledgement of uncertainties, and dispassionate delivery. These qualities become liabilities when communicating to a non-scientific audience where entertainment, attention grabbing, 15 second sound bites, and self assuredness reign (e.g. Olson 2009). Here we report on a program initiated by NCAR and UCAR to develop new approaches to science communication and to equip present and future scientists with the requisite skills. If we start from a sound scientific finding with general scientific consensus, such as the warming of the planet by greenhouse gases, then the primary emphasis moves from the “science” to the “art” of communication. The art cannot have free reign, however, as there remains a strong requirement for objectivity, honesty, consistency, and above all a resistance to advocating particular policy positions. Targeting audience

  13. An outline of object-oriented philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Graham

    2013-01-01

    This article summarises the principles of object-oriented philosophy and explains its similarities with, and differences from, the outlook of the natural sciences. Like science, the object-oriented position avoids the notion (quite common in philosophy) that the human-world relation is the ground of all others, such that scientific statements about the world would only be statements about the world as it is for humans. But unlike science, object-oriented metaphysics treats artificial, social, and fictional entities in the same way as natural ones, and also holds that the world can only be known allusively rather than directly.

  14. Object width modulates object-based attentional selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Joseph C; Neppi-Modona, Marco; Strother, Lars; Behrmann, Marlene; Shomstein, Sarah

    2018-04-24

    Visual input typically includes a myriad of objects, some of which are selected for further processing. While these objects vary in shape and size, most evidence supporting object-based guidance of attention is drawn from paradigms employing two identical objects. Importantly, object size is a readily perceived stimulus dimension, and whether it modulates the distribution of attention remains an open question. Across four experiments, the size of the objects in the display was manipulated in a modified version of the two-rectangle paradigm. In Experiment 1, two identical parallel rectangles of two sizes (thin or thick) were presented. Experiments 2-4 employed identical trapezoids (each having a thin and thick end), inverted in orientation. In the experiments, one end of an object was cued and participants performed either a T/L discrimination or a simple target-detection task. Combined results show that, in addition to the standard object-based attentional advantage, there was a further attentional benefit for processing information contained in the thick versus thin end of objects. Additionally, eye-tracking measures demonstrated increased saccade precision towards thick object ends, suggesting that Fitts's Law may play a role in object-based attentional shifts. Taken together, these results suggest that object-based attentional selection is modulated by object width.

  15. Quasi-objects, Cult Objects and Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2011-01-01

    This article attempts to rehabilitate the concept of fetishism and to contribute to the debate on the social role of objects as well as to fashion theory. Extrapolating from Michel Serres’ theory of the quasi-objects, I distinguish two phenomenologies possessing almost opposite characteristics. T...... as a unique opportunity for studying the interchange between these two forms of fetishism and their respective phenomenologies. Finally, returning to Serres, I briefly consider the theoretical consequences of introducing the fashion object as a quasi-object.......This article attempts to rehabilitate the concept of fetishism and to contribute to the debate on the social role of objects as well as to fashion theory. Extrapolating from Michel Serres’ theory of the quasi-objects, I distinguish two phenomenologies possessing almost opposite characteristics....... These two phenomenologies are, so I argue, essential to quasi-object theory, yet largely ignored by Serres’ sociological interpreters. They correspond with the two different theories of fetishism found in Marx and Durkheim, respectively. In the second half of the article, I introduce the fashion object...

  16. Early object relations into new objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious

  17. Student science enrichment training program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, S.S.

    1994-08-01

    This is a report on the Student Science Enrichment Training Program, with special emphasis on chemical and computer science fields. The residential summer session was held at the campus of Claflin College, Orangeburg, SC, for six weeks during 1993 summer, to run concomitantly with the college`s summer school. Fifty participants selected for this program, included high school sophomores, juniors and seniors. The students came from rural South Carolina and adjoining states which, presently, have limited science and computer science facilities. The program focused on high ability minority students, with high potential for science engineering and mathematical careers. The major objective was to increase the pool of well qualified college entering minority students who would elect to go into science, engineering and mathematical careers. The Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics and engineering at Claflin College received major benefits from this program as it helped them to expand the Departments of Chemistry, Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science as a result of additional enrollment. It also established an expanded pool of well qualified minority science and mathematics graduates, which were recruited by the federal agencies and private corporations, visiting Claflin College Campus. Department of Energy`s relationship with Claflin College increased the public awareness of energy related job opportunities in the public and private sectors.

  18. Learning Object Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)

  19. Career education attitudes and practices of K-12 science educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Walter S.

    A random sample of 400 K-12 science educators who were members of the National Science Teachers Association were surveyed regarding their attitude toward and practice of career education in their science teaching. These science teachers rejected a narrowly vocational view, favoring instead a conception of career education which included self-perception, values analysis, and vocational skills objectives. The science educators affirmed the importance of career education for a student's education, asserted career education ought to be taught in their existing science courses, and expressed a willingness to do so. Fewer than one-third of the science teachers, however, reported incorporating career education at least on a weekly basis in their science lessons. The major impediment to including more career education in science teaching was seen to be their lack of knowledge of methods and materials relevant to science career education, rather than objections from students, parents, or administrators; their unwillingness; or their evaluation of career education as unimportant. Thus, in order to improve this aspect of science teaching, science teachers need more concrete information about science career education applications.

  20. Race, time and folded objects: the HeLa error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M'charek, A.

    2014-01-01

    Given their commitment to practices science studies have bestowed considerable attention upon objects. We have the boundary object, the standardized package, the network object, the immutable mobile, the fluid object, even a fire object has entered the scene. However, these objects do not provide us

  1. Suggestive Objects at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2009-01-01

    In Western secular societies, spiritual life is no longer limited to classical religious institutions but can also be found at workplace organizations. While spirituality is conventionally understood as a subjective and internal process, this paper proposes the concept of ‘suggestive objects......’, constructed by combining insights from Gabriel Tarde's sociology with Bruno Latour's actor-network theory, to theorize the material dimension of organizational spirituality. The sacred in organizations arises not from the internalization of collective values but through the establishment of material...... scaffolding. This has deep implications for our understanding of the sacred, including a better appreciation of the way that suggestive objects make the sacred durable, the way they organize it....

  2. DOLIB: Distributed Object Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Azevedo, E.F.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

  3. DOLIB: Distributed Object Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

  4. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science. The journal has a new and more modern layout, published online only, and the editorial. Board was increased to include more disciplines pertaining to marine sciences. While important chal- lenges still lie ahead, we are steadily advancing our standard to increase visibility and dissemination throughout the global ...

  5. Changes in the Perceptions of the Nature of Science and Religious Belief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflalo, Ester

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the nature of science (NOS) is one of the challenging objectives in science education due, in part, to the complex relationship between religion and science. This study examines how NOS teaching affects the perception of the NOS amongst religious, as compared to secular, students. The participants included 205 religious and secular…

  6. The role of metadata in managing large environmental science datasets. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melton, R.B.; DeVaney, D.M. [eds.] [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); French, J. C. [Univ. of Virginia, (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to bring together computer science researchers and environmental sciences data management practitioners to consider the role of metadata in managing large environmental sciences datasets. The objectives included: establishing a common definition of metadata; identifying categories of metadata; defining problems in managing metadata; and defining problems related to linking metadata with primary data.

  7. Mastering object-oriented Python

    CERN Document Server

    Lott, Steven F

    2014-01-01

    This book follows a standard tutorial approach with approximately 750 code samples spread through the 19 chapters. This amounts to over 5,900 lines of code that illustrate each concept.This book is aimed at programmers who have already learned the basics of object-oriented Python and need to write more sophisticated, flexible code that integrates seamlessly with the rest of Python. This book assumes a computer science background, with experience of common Python design patterns.

  8. Increasing Robotic Science Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The principal objectives are to demonstrate robotic-based scientific investigations and resource prospecting, and develop and demonstrate modular science instrument...

  9. Science Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect our nation and promote world stability Science & ; Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Science Highlights Lab Organizations Science Programs Applied

  10. The sciences of science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischhoff, Baruch

    2013-08-20

    The May 2012 Sackler Colloquium on "The Science of Science Communication" brought together scientists with research to communicate and scientists whose research could facilitate that communication. The latter include decision scientists who can identify the scientific results that an audience needs to know, from among all of the scientific results that it would be nice to know; behavioral scientists who can design ways to convey those results and then evaluate the success of those attempts; and social scientists who can create the channels needed for trustworthy communications. This overview offers an introduction to these communication sciences and their roles in science-based communication programs.

  11. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ... consist of special issues on major events or important thematic issues. ... of sources, including plant and animal by- products.

  12. Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  13. Informação como objeto para construção do corpus interdisciplinar entre Ciência da Informação e Ciência da Administração | Information from object to construction to interdisciplinary corpus between Information Science and Administrative Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Francisco Cavalcante de Oliveira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Descrição e análise dos fundamentos teóricos e procedimentos metodológicos para a construção de um corpus interdisciplinar, compreendido como “o conjunto de categorias interdisciplinares afins e de significados próximos, valorizados por duas ou mais Ciências”, nesta pesquisa entre a Ciência da Informação e a Ciência da Administração, com base na informação e gestão da informação. As etapas de seu desenvolvimento incluem o referencial teórico em torno da interdisciplinaridade das áreas estudadas, especialmente Heckhausen; pesquisa documental para identificação dos autores de Ciência da Informação e de Ciência da Administração, identificados via Currículo Lattes e Diretório de Grupos de Pesquisa do CNPq e autores estrangeiros por meio do Google. A partir da análise de citação e a análise de conteúdo em revistas brasileiras de Administração e Ciência da Informação selecionadas e da identificação dos conceitos contidos em artigos, foi construído o corpus interdisciplinar. Esta metodologia tem aplicação mais ampla e pode ser adotada em pesquisas semelhantes de interdisciplinaridade de outros campos do conhecimento. Palavras-chave interdisciplinaridade; Ciência da Informação; Ciência da Administração; informação; metodologia da pesquisa; corpus interdisciplinar; gestão da informação. Abstract A description and analysis of the theoretical foundations and methodological procedures in the development of an interdisciplinary corpus, defined/described as “a group of related interdisciplinary categories and similar meanings, recognized by two or more Sciences”, the article presents results of research between Information Science and Administrative Science, based on information and information management. The stages of its development include the theoretical referential that surrounds the interdisciplinarity of the studied areas, especially Heckhausen: documental research for the

  14. Objectives and Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segalman, D.J.

    1998-11-30

    a significant exposure to biomedical topics and the integration of those topics with chemical (electrical or mechanical) engineering. o We shall provide unique opportunities for our students to work with clinicians and researchers in hospitals and other medical institutions. combined criteria a-k of ABET and 1-6 of AICHE (or IEEE or ASME) in some sensible manner. Here I have just estimated the number of distinct criteria that would be extracted from the AICHE paragraphs. These criteria are necessarily included because of the objective to producing chemical (electrical or mechanical) engineers. every student who desires an internship or independent study at a medical institution will be placed. a majority of our students will take either the FE exam or the M-CAT exam. demonstrating a commitment to professionalism and to life-long learning. a majority of our students will go on to graduate school or other post-graduate school. (I do not assert that this sort of outcome is appropriate to all excellent schools. In the case of this hypothetical school though, this outcome might be a reasonable expectation.) medical schools will rank our school as among the best from which to admit

  15. Taxonomies of Educational Objective Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Ghanem Nayef; Nik Rosila Nik Yaacob; Hairul Nizam Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights an effort to study the educational objective domain taxonomies including Bloom’s taxonomy, Lorin Anderson’s taxonomy, and Wilson’s taxonomy. In this study a comparison among these three taxonomies have been done. Results show that Bloom’s taxonomy is more suitable as an analysis tool to Educational Objective domain.

  16. The New Outlook for Science. Science and Belief: from Copernicus to Darwin, Block VI, Units 15-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Open Univ., Walton, Bletchley, Bucks (England).

    This text contains units 15-16 in the Open University course, Science and Belief: from Copernicus to Darwin. It is an inter-faculty second level course in the history of science. Unit 15 is concerned with Nature and History and includes uniformitarianism, human history, evolutionism, and Darwinism. Unit objectives, readings, and questions with the…

  17. Numerical Analysis Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Michael

    1997-08-01

    The Numerical Analysis Objects project (NAO) is a project in the Mathematics Department of IBM's TJ Watson Research Center. While there are plenty of numerical tools available today, it is not an easy task to combine them into a custom application. NAO is directed at the dual problems of building applications from a set of tools, and creating those tools. There are several "reuse" projects, which focus on the problems of identifying and cataloging tools. NAO is directed at the specific context of scientific computing. Because the type of tools is restricted, problems such as tools with incompatible data structures for input and output, and dissimilar interfaces to tools which solve similar problems can be addressed. The approach we've taken is to define interfaces to those objects used in numerical analysis, such as geometries, functions and operators, and to start collecting (and building) a set of tools which use these interfaces. We have written a class library (a set of abstract classes and implementations) in C++ which demonstrates the approach. Besides the classes, the class library includes "stub" routines which allow the library to be used from C or Fortran, and an interface to a Visual Programming Language. The library has been used to build a simulator for petroleum reservoirs, using a set of tools for discretizing nonlinear differential equations that we have written, and includes "wrapped" versions of packages from the Netlib repository. Documentation can be found on the Web at "http://www.research.ibm.com/nao". I will describe the objects and their interfaces, and give examples ranging from mesh generation to solving differential equations.

  18. Science outside the laboratory measurement in field science and economics

    CERN Document Server

    Boumans, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    The conduct of most of social science occurs outside the laboratory. Such studies in field science explore phenomena that cannot for practical, technical, or ethical reasons be explored under controlled conditions. These phenomena cannot be fully isolated from their environment or investigated by manipulation or intervention. Yet measurement, including rigorous or clinical measurement, does provide analysts with a sound basis for discerning what occurs under field conditions, and why. In Science Outside the Laboratory, Marcel Boumans explores the state of measurement theory, its reliability, and the role expert judgment plays in field investigations from the perspective of the philosophy of science. Its discussion of the problems of passive observation, the calculus of observation, the two-model problem, and model-based consensus uses illustrations drawn primarily from economics. Rich in research and discussion, the volume clarifies the extent to which measurement provides valid information about objects an...

  19. Acoustic Characterization of Mesoscale Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, D; Huber, R; Chambers, D; Cole, G; Balogun, O; Spicer, J; Murray, T

    2007-03-13

    This report describes the science and engineering performed to provide state-of-the-art acoustic capabilities for nondestructively characterizing mesoscale (millimeter-sized) objects--allowing micrometer resolution over the objects entire volume. Materials and structures used in mesoscale objects necessitate the use of (1) GHz acoustic frequencies and (2) non-contacting laser generation and detection of acoustic waves. This effort demonstrated that acoustic methods at gigahertz frequencies have the necessary penetration depth and spatial resolution to effectively detect density discontinuities, gaps, and delaminations. A prototype laser-based ultrasonic system was designed and built. The system uses a micro-chip laser for excitation of broadband ultrasonic waves with frequency components reaching 1.0 GHz, and a path-stabilized Michelson interferometer for detection. The proof-of-concept for mesoscale characterization is demonstrated by imaging a micro-fabricated etched pattern in a 70 {micro}m thick silicon wafer.

  20. Object 'Ukryttya' 1986-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Krasnov, V.A.; Rud'ko, V.M.; Shcherbin, V.N.

    2006-01-01

    This monograph summarizes the materials pertaining to 'Ukryttya' Object state. The results of researches of fuel containing materials conditions and of forecast of their future behavior are demonstrated, aerosol characterizations, mechanisms of production of liquid radioactive waste, radiation conditions at SO industrial site and NSC assembly site, as well as analysis of 'Ukryttya' Objects environmental impact, are performed. The conditions of 'Ukryttya' Object building structures are described. Preparation and realization of international projects for conversion of 'Ukryttya' Object into an ecologically safe system, including the 'Ukryttya' Implementation Plan (SIP), are considered

  1. International Conference on Emerging Trends in Science, Engineering and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Caroline, B; Jayanthi, J

    2012-01-01

    The present book is based on the research papers presented in the International Conference on Emerging Trends in Science, Engineering and Technology 2012, held at Tiruchirapalli, India. The papers presented bridges the gap between science, engineering and technology. This book covers a variety of topics, including mechanical, production, aeronautical, material science, energy, civil and environmental energy, scientific management, etc. The prime objective of the book is to fully integrate the scientific contributions from academicians, industrialists and research scholars.

  2. A sociohistorical examination of George Herbert Mead's approach to science education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michelle L

    2016-07-01

    Although George Herbert Mead is widely known for his social psychological work, his views on science education also represent a significant, yet sometimes overlooked contribution. In a speech delivered in March 1906 entitled "The Teaching of Science in College," Mead calls for cultural courses on the sciences, such as sociology of science or history of science courses, to increase the relevancy of natural and physical science courses for high school and university students. These views reflect Mead's perspective on a number of traditional dualisms, including objectivity versus subjectivity and the social sciences versus natural and physical sciences. Taking a sociohistorical outlook, I identify the context behind Mead's approach to science education, which includes three major influences: (1) German intellectual thought and the Methodenstreit debate, (2) pragmatism and Darwin's theory of evolution, and (3) social reform efforts in Chicago and the General Science Movement. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Science and Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravetz, David

    2005-01-01

    This article is for teachers looking for new ways to motivate students, increase science comprehension, and understanding without using the old standard expository science textbook. This author suggests reading a science fiction novel in the science classroom as a way to engage students in learning. Using science fiction literature and language…

  4. Specification of Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    relation over two objects and an event. In the model, objects can be composed by parallel composition, encapsulation, and hiding of operations. Refinement between objects is defined as fair trace inclusion.A specification language is presented where objects can be specified operationally by abstract...

  5. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Mutihac, R.C.

    1999-09-01

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  6. Designing the Object Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filip, Diane; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    The Object Game is an exploratory design game and an experiment of developing a tangible object that can spark dialogue and retrospection between collaborative partners and act as a boundary object. The objective of this article is to show and elaborate on the development of the Object Game......, and to provide case examples of the game in action. The Object Game has two parts – Story-building and Co-rating of objects – with the aim of stimulating a collaborative reflection on knowledge sharing with different objects. In Story-building, the participants visualize their knowledge sharing process...... these facilitated knowledge transfer, knowledge exchange, knowledge generation, and knowledge integration. The participants collaborative reflected on their use of different objects for knowledge sharing and learn which objects have been effective (and which have not been effective) in their collaborative...

  7. Objectives of the symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, R.V.

    1992-01-01

    The author defined the objectives of the symposium as follows: to present and examine the recent evidence associating clusters of leukemia with sources of ionizing radiation; to examine the statistical basis for the analysis of clustering; to examine the underlying assumptions in epidemiological studies that clusters must have an environmental cause; to examine the extent to which we can take into account the biological causes of non-randomness in populations, particularly those of geographic and genetic origin; to evaluate the relative merits of different kinds of epidemiological studies for yielding significant information concerning clustering; to consider the potential utility of combining the results from existing studies, and whether new epidemiological studies might be helpful; to consider what other directions, including application of the technologies of molecular biology, are likely to help clarify the underlying mechanisms or causes

  8. Revolutionary Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2016-03-01

    On rare occasions in the history of science, remarkable discoveries transform human society and forever alter mankind's view of the world. Examples of such discoveries include the heliocentric theory, Newtonian physics, the germ theory of disease, quantum theory, plate tectonics and the discovery that DNA carries genetic information. The science philosopher Thomas Kuhn famously described science as long periods of normality punctuated by times of crisis, when anomalous observations culminate in revolutionary changes that replace one paradigm with another. This essay examines several transformative discoveries in the light of Kuhn's formulation. We find that each scientific revolution is unique, with disparate origins that may include puzzle solving, serendipity, inspiration, or a convergence of disparate observations. The causes of revolutionary science are varied and lack an obvious common structure. Moreover, it can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between so-called normal and revolutionary science. Revolutionary discoveries often emerge from basic science and are critically dependent on nonrevolutionary research. Revolutionary discoveries may be conceptual or technological in nature, lead to the creation of new fields, and have a lasting impact on many fields in addition to the field from which they emerge. In contrast to political revolutions, scientific revolutions do not necessarily require the destruction of the previous order. For humanity to continue to benefit from revolutionary discoveries, a broad palette of scientific inquiry with a particular emphasis on basic science should be supported. Copyright © 2016 Casadevall and Fang.

  9. Science packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

  10. Identification of computer graphics objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossinskyi Yu.M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the use of computer graphics methods in problems of creating drawings, charts, drafting, etc. The widespread use of these methods requires the development of efficient algorithms for the identification of objects of drawings. The article analyzes the model-making algorithms for this problem and considered the possibility of reducing the time using graphics editing operations. Editing results in such operations as copying, moving and deleting objects specified images. These operations allow the use of a reliable identification of images of objects methods. For information on the composition of the image of the object along with information about the identity and the color should include information about the spatial location and other characteristics of the object (the thickness and style of contour lines, fill style, and so on. In order to enable the pixel image analysis to structure the information it is necessary to enable the initial code image objects color. The article shows the results of the implementation of the algorithm of encoding object identifiers. To simplify the process of building drawings of any kind, and reduce time-consuming, method of drawing objects identification is proposed based on the use as the ID information of the object color.

  11. Object feature extraction and recognition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Min; Xiang Rujian; Wan Yongxing

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of objects, especially flying objects, are analyzed, which include characteristics of spectrum, image and motion. Feature extraction is also achieved. To improve the speed of object recognition, a feature database is used to simplify the data in the source database. The feature vs. object relationship maps are stored in the feature database. An object recognition model based on the feature database is presented, and the way to achieve object recognition is also explained

  12. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  13. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohske Takahashi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  14. Selecting and implementing scientific objectives. [for Voyager 1 and 2 planetary encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, E. D.; Stembridge, C. H.; Doms, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    The procedures used to select and implement scientific objectives for the Voyager 1 and 2 planetary encounters are described. Attention is given to the scientific tradeoffs and engineering considerations must be addressed at various stages in the mission planning process, including: the limitations of ground and spacecraft communications systems, ageing of instruments in flight, and instrument calibration over long distances. The contribution of planetary science workshops to the definition of scientific objectives for deep space missions is emphasized.

  15. Actuarial Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Bette

    1982-01-01

    Details are provided of a program on actuarial training developed at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Binghamton through the Department of Mathematical Sciences. An outline of its operation, including a few statistics on students in the program, is included. (MP)

  16. Objectivity And Moral Relativism

    OpenAIRE

    Magni, Sergio Filippo

    2017-01-01

    The relativity of morals has usually been taken as an argument against the objectivity of ethics. However, a more careful analysis can show that there are forms of moral objectivism which have relativistic implications, and that moral relativism can be compatible with the objectivity of ethics. Such an objectivity is not always in contrast to moral relativism and it is possible to be relativists without having to give up the claim of objectivity in ethics

  17. Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  18. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  19. Repurposing learning object components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbert, K.; Jovanovic, J.; Gasevic, D.; Duval, E.; Meersman, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an ontology-based framework for repurposing learning object components. Unlike the usual practice where learning object components are assembled manually, the proposed framework enables on-the-fly access and repurposing of learning object components. The framework supports two

  20. Geomorphology, Science (Experimental): 5343.09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Performance objectives are stated for this secondary school instructional unit concerned with aspects of earth science with emphases on the internal and external forces that bring about changes in the earth's crust. Lists of films and state-adopted and other texts are presented. Included are a course outline summarizing the unit content; numerous…

  1. Programming Paradigms in Computer Science Education

    OpenAIRE

    Bolshakova, Elena

    2005-01-01

    Main styles, or paradigms of programming – imperative, functional, logic, and object-oriented – are shortly described and compared, and corresponding programming techniques are outlined. Programming languages are classified in accordance with the main style and techniques supported. It is argued that profound education in computer science should include learning base programming techniques of all main programming paradigms.

  2. The sciences of science communication

    OpenAIRE

    Fischhoff, Baruch

    2013-01-01

    The May 2012 Sackler Colloquium on “The Science of Science Communication” brought together scientists with research to communicate and scientists whose research could facilitate that communication. The latter include decision scientists who can identify the scientific results that an audience needs to know, from among all of the scientific results that it would be nice to know; behavioral scientists who can design ways to convey those results and then evaluate the success of those attempts; a...

  3. X-Informatics: Practical Semantic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borne, K. D.

    2009-12-01

    The discipline of data science is merging with multiple science disciplines to form new X-informatics research disciplines. They are almost too numerous to name, but they include geoinformatics, bioinformatics, cheminformatics, biodiversity informatics, ecoinformatics, materials informatics, and the emerging discipline of astroinformatics. Within any X-informatics discipline, the information granules are unique to that discipline -- e.g., gene sequences in bio, the sky object in astro, and the spatial object in geo (such as points, lines, and polygons in the vector model, and pixels in the raster model). Nevertheless the goals are similar: transparent data re-use across subdisciplines and within education settings, information and data integration and fusion, personalization of user interactions with the data collection, semantic search and retrieval, and knowledge discovery. The implementation of an X-informatics framework enables these semantic e-science research goals. We describe the concepts, challenges, and new developments associated with the new discipline of astroinformatics, and how geoinformatics provides valuable lessons learned and a model for practical semantic science within a traditional science discipline through the accretion of data science methodologies (such as formal metadata creation, data models, data mining, information retrieval, knowledge engineering, provenance, taxonomies, and ontologies). The emerging concept of data-as-a-service (DaaS) builds upon the concept of smart data (or data DNA) for intelligent data management, automated workflows, and intelligent processing. Smart data, defined through X-informatics, enables several practical semantic science use cases, including self-discovery, data intelligence, automatic recommendations, relevance analysis, dimension reduction, feature selection, constraint-based mining, interdisciplinary data re-use, knowledge-sharing, data use in education, and more. We describe these concepts within the

  4. Persistent Identifiers as Boundary Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, M. A.; Fox, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    In 1989, Leigh Star and Jim Griesemer defined the seminal concept of `boundary objects'. These `objects' are what Latour calls `immutable mobiles' that enable communication and collaboration across difference by helping meaning to be understood in different contexts. As Star notes, they are a sort of arrangement that allow different groups to work together without (a priori) consensus. Part of the idea is to recognize and allow for the `interpretive flexibility' that is central to much of the `constructivist' approach in the sociology of science. Persistent Identifiers (PIDs) can clearly act as boundary objects, but people do not usually assume that they enable interpretive flexibility. After all, they are meant to be unambiguous, machine-interpretable identifiers of defined artifacts. In this paper, we argue that PIDs can fill at least two roles: 1) That of the standardized form, where there is strong agreement on what is being represented and how and 2) that of the idealized type, a more conceptual concept that allows many different representations. We further argue that these seemingly abstract conceptions actually help us implement PIDs more effectively to link data, publications, various other artifacts, and especially people. Considering PIDs as boundary objects can help us address issues such as what level of granularity is necessary for PIDs, what metadata should be directly associated with PIDs, and what purpose is the PID serving (reference, provenance, credit, etc.). In short, sociological theory can improve data sharing standards and their implementation in a way that enables broad interdisciplinary data sharing and reuse. We will illustrate this with several specific examples of Earth science data.

  5. Teaching Object Permanence: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Susan M.; Vargas, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    "Object permanence," also known as "object concept" in the field of visual impairment, is one of the most important early developmental milestones. The achievement of object permanence is associated with the onset of representational thought and language. Object permanence is important to orientation, including the recognition of landmarks.…

  6. Science and data science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blei, David M; Smyth, Padhraic

    2017-08-07

    Data science has attracted a lot of attention, promising to turn vast amounts of data into useful predictions and insights. In this article, we ask why scientists should care about data science. To answer, we discuss data science from three perspectives: statistical, computational, and human. Although each of the three is a critical component of data science, we argue that the effective combination of all three components is the essence of what data science is about.

  7. Objects, materiality and meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function...... of the object, and the designers aim is therefore to tune both in order to achieve a desired goal. To do so the designer basically has 2 options: Alteration of the physical shape of the object and the selection of materials. Through the manipulation of shape and materials can symbolic and sensory information...... be written into the object. The materials are therefore carriers of communication, even though this is dependent of the cultural context and the environment which the object will be part of. However the designer has only minor influence on those....

  8. Fuzzy-like multiple objective multistage decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiuping

    2014-01-01

    Decision has inspired reflection of many thinkers since the ancient times. With the rapid development of science and society, appropriate dynamic decision making has been playing an increasingly important role in many areas of human activity including engineering, management, economy and others. In most real-world problems, decision makers usually have to make decisions sequentially at different points in time and space, at different levels for a component or a system, while facing multiple and conflicting objectives and a hybrid uncertain environment where fuzziness and randomness co-exist in a decision making process. This leads to the development of fuzzy-like multiple objective multistage decision making. This book provides a thorough understanding of the concepts of dynamic optimization from a modern perspective and presents the state-of-the-art methodology for modeling, analyzing and solving the most typical multiple objective multistage decision making practical application problems under fuzzy-like un...

  9. Neuroscience discipline science plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Over the past two decades, NASA's efforts in the neurosciences have developed into a program of research directed at understanding the acute changes that occur in the neurovestibular and sensorimotor systems during short-duration space missions. However, the proposed extended-duration flights of up to 28 days on the Shuttle orbiter and 6 months on Space Station Freedom, a lunar outpost, and Mars missions of perhaps 1-3 years in space, make it imperative that NASA's Life Sciences Division begin to concentrate research in the neurosciences on the chronic effects of exposure to microgravity on the nervous system. Major areas of research will be directed at understanding (1) central processing, (2) motor systems, (3) cognitive/spatial orientation, and (4) sensory receptors. The purpose of the Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive area of neurosciences. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas of nervous system function. It contains a general plan that will be used by NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

  10. Network science

    CERN Document Server

    Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Networks are everywhere, from the Internet, to social networks, and the genetic networks that determine our biological existence. Illustrated throughout in full colour, this pioneering textbook, spanning a wide range of topics from physics to computer science, engineering, economics and the social sciences, introduces network science to an interdisciplinary audience. From the origins of the six degrees of separation to explaining why networks are robust to random failures, the author explores how viruses like Ebola and H1N1 spread, and why it is that our friends have more friends than we do. Using numerous real-world examples, this innovatively designed text includes clear delineation between undergraduate and graduate level material. The mathematical formulas and derivations are included within Advanced Topics sections, enabling use at a range of levels. Extensive online resources, including films and software for network analysis, make this a multifaceted companion for anyone with an interest in network sci...

  11. What is a Planet?-Categorizing Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.

    2009-05-01

    Observing, communicating, comparing, organizing, relating, and inferring are fundamental to scientific thinking processes. Teaching this way, rather than just teaching "the facts,” is also important for developing the critical thinking skills of our future generations of a scientifically literate society. Since the IAU started its discussions on a definition of a planet in 2005, I have been presenting a hands-on activity called "What is a Planet?” at the annual meeting of the DPS. This activity has been designed for short (20 minute) to long (two hour) presentations depending on the venue and the audience. This has been presented to elementary-grade students, middle school students, K-12 teachers, and scientists and educators. Depending on the amount of time available, I show students how people, as well as scientists group or categorize things such as plants and animals, cats and dog, etc. The students are then broken up into groups. Science is usually done by teams of scientists working together, not as individuals working alone. I assess their prior knowledge (how many planets, their names, their properties, etc.). They also do a hands-on group activity where they group/categorize ten spheres by their properties (size, color, etc.). Finally we discuss the process by which the IAU came up with a definition of a planet. I then discuss with them why some scientists, including myself, do not agree with this definition: as with the spheres, there may be more than one "right” answer. There are many ways to look at the properties of objects in the Solar System and group them into planets and other designations. This is the way that science should be done, to look at all of the properties of an object and categorize them in a meaningful way. There may be more than one right answer.

  12. The Development of Interactive World Wide Web Based Teaching Material in Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeid, Niamh Nic

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development of a Web-based tutorial in the forensic science teaching program at the University of Strathclyde (Scotland). Highlights include the theoretical basis for course development; objectives; Web site design; student feedback; and staff feedback. (LRW)

  13. Real Objects Can Impede Conditional Reasoning but Augmented Objects Do Not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuri; Sugimoto, Yutaro; Ueda, Kazuhiro

    2018-03-01

    In this study, Knauff and Johnson-Laird's (2002) visual impedance hypothesis (i.e., mental representations with irrelevant visual detail can impede reasoning) is applied to the domain of external representations and diagrammatic reasoning. We show that the use of real objects and augmented real (AR) objects can control human interpretation and reasoning about conditionals. As participants made inferences (e.g., an invalid one from "if P then Q" to "P"), they also moved objects corresponding to premises. Participants who moved real objects made more invalid inferences than those who moved AR objects and those who did not manipulate objects (there was no significant difference between the last two groups). Our results showed that real objects impeded conditional reasoning, but AR objects did not. These findings are explained by the fact that real objects may over-specify a single state that exists, while AR objects suggest multiple possibilities. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  14. Nanomaterials science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Rohrer

    2010-01-01

    technology revolution. Interfaces gave them their functions, and shaping them into ever-smaller functional components made them indispensably omnipresent as transistors—produced in billions per person and per year—and they are no doubt the rulers of today's technical world.The semiconductor and transistor serve as an inspiring example of functionalizing materials. The developments of microelectronics profited very much from scalability, that is, the properties and functions do not change significantly with size. Therefore, every step toward smaller dimensions was a technical and commercial challenge with risks well under control. The transition to the nanoscale, however, is discontinuous. Examples of this transition are the local probe methods that exploit the mechanically controlled proximity to the object under consideration and that have become indispensable as microscopes and as measuring and modifying tools, the size of molecular components that are much smaller than the smallest possibly achievable transistor, the properties and functions of materials below a critical size as mentioned above, the continuum properties versus discrete ones, and novel concepts inspired by living nature. Those novel concepts include growing circuits first and building the active components at the nodes afterwards and measuring weak by weak, small by small, and many by many. It is these discontinuous steps that make the nanoscale different, not just smaller. They pose exciting challenges, open great opportunities and nearly unlimited possibilities, but they also carry serious technical, commercial, environmental, and health risks.The nanoscale is also a great opportunity for materials science in general. Materials science is interdisciplinary per se. A materials scientist should have a reasonable understanding of physics, chemistry, engineering, and more recently, also biology. Certainly one can always team up with representatives from other disciplines and forge collaborations. However

  15. Applications of Nuclear Science for Stewardship Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizewski, Jolie A

    2013-01-01

    Stewardship science is research important to national security interests that include stockpile stewardship science, homeland security, nuclear forensics, and non-proliferation. To help address challenges in stewardship science and workforce development, the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances (SSAA) was inaugurated ten years ago by the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U. S. Department of Energy. The goal was to enhance connections between NNSA laboratories and the activities of university scientists and their students in research areas important to NNSA, including low-energy nuclear science. This paper presents an overview of recent research in low-energy nuclear science supported by the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances and the applications of this research to stewardship science.

  16. Reasoning about Function Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordio, Martin; Calcagno, Cristiano; Meyer, Bertrand; Müller, Peter; Tschannen, Julian

    Modern object-oriented languages support higher-order implementations through function objects such as delegates in C#, agents in Eiffel, or closures in Scala. Function objects bring a new level of abstraction to the object-oriented programming model, and require a comparable extension to specification and verification techniques. We introduce a verification methodology that extends function objects with auxiliary side-effect free (pure) methods to model logical artifacts: preconditions, postconditions and modifies clauses. These pure methods can be used to specify client code abstractly, that is, independently from specific instantiations of the function objects. To demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we have implemented an automatic prover, which verifies several non-trivial examples.

  17. Birth of the Object: Detection of Objectness and Extraction of Object Shape through Object Action Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk; Pugeault, Nicolas; Baseski, Emre

    2008-01-01

    We describe a process in which the segmentation of objects as well as the extraction of the object shape becomes realized through active exploration of a robot vision system. In the exploration process, two behavioral modules that link robot actions to the visual and haptic perception of objects...... interact. First, by making use of an object independent grasping mechanism, physical control over potential objects can be gained. Having evaluated the initial grasping mechanism as being successful, a second behavior extracts the object shape by making use of prediction based on the motion induced...... system, knowledge about its own embodiment as well as knowledge about geometric relationships such as rigid body motion. This prior knowledge allows the extraction of representations that are semantically richer compared to many other approaches....

  18. Herbig-Haro objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Progress in the understanding of Herbig-Haro (HH) objects is reviewed. The results of optical studies of the proper motions and alignments, variability, and polarization of HH objects and the results of spectroscopic studies are discussed. Ground-based infrared studies and far-infrared observations are reviewed. Findings on the properties of molecular clouds associated with HH objects, on gas flows associated with HH IR stars, on maser emission, and on radio continuum observations are considered. A history of proposed excitation mechanisms for HH objects is briefly presented, and the salient shock-wave calculations aimed at synthesizing the spectra of HH objects are summarized along with hypotheses that have been advanced about the origin of the objects. 141 references

  19. Propelling Extended Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  20. BL Lacertae objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    An overview is given of the principal characteristics and problems associated with the prototype BL Lacertae. The most important characteristics of this group and its relevance, the consideration of a few particular objects in moderate detail, the relation between these objects QSOs, and normal galaxies, and finally the possible physical nature of BL Lac objects and the important questions they raise are treated. 15 references

  1. Objective-C

    CERN Document Server

    DeVoe, Jiva

    2011-01-01

    A soup-to-nuts guide on the Objective-C programming language. Objective-C is the language behind Cocoa and Cocoa Touch, which is the Framework of applications written for the Macintosh, iPod touch, iPhone, and iPad platforms. Part of the Developer Reference series covering the hottest Apple topics, this book covers everything from the basics of the C language to advanced aspects of Apple development. You'll examine Objective-C and high-level subjects of frameworks, threading, networking, and much more.: Covers the basics of the C language and then quickly moves onto Objective-C and more advanc

  2. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples...

  3. The Implementation and Development of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination in the Community Pharmacy Course of a Select Gulf-Region Academic Institution (Ras Al Khaimah College of Pharmaceutical Sciences): A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azzawi, Amad Mohammed Jamil; Nagavi, B.G.; Hachim, Mahmood Y.; Mossa, Omar H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) were used to assess translational pharmacotherapeutic skills of a Gulf-region representative academic institution. Aim: The aim of the current study was to assess the clinical skills of students enrolled within the third year Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) programme within Ras Al…

  4. Exotic objects of atomic physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eletskii, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    There has been presented a short survey of physical properties, methods of production and exploration as well as directions of practical usage of the objects of atomic physics which are not yet described in detail in modern textbooks and manuals intended for students of technical universities. The family of these objects includes negative and multicharged ions, Rydberg atoms, excimer molecules, clusters. Besides of that, in recent decades this family was supplemented with new nanocarbon structures such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene. The textbook “Exotic objects of atomic physics” [1] edited recently contains some information on the above-listed objects of the atomic physics. This textbook can be considered as a supplement to classic courses of atomic physics teaching in technical universities.

  5. FOREWORD Nanomaterials science Nanomaterials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Heinrich

    2010-10-01

    . Interfaces gave them their functions, and shaping them into ever-smaller functional components made them indispensably omnipresent as transistors—produced in billions per person and per year—and they are no doubt the rulers of today's technical world. The semiconductor and transistor serve as an inspiring example of functionalizing materials. The developments of microelectronics profited very much from scalability, that is, the properties and functions do not change significantly with size. Therefore, every step toward smaller dimensions was a technical and commercial challenge with risks well under control. The transition to the nanoscale, however, is discontinuous. Examples of this transition are the local probe methods that exploit the mechanically controlled proximity to the object under consideration and that have become indispensable as microscopes and as measuring and modifying tools, the size of molecular components that are much smaller than the smallest possibly achievable transistor, the properties and functions of materials below a critical size as mentioned above, the continuum properties versus discrete ones, and novel concepts inspired by living nature. Those novel concepts include growing circuits first and building the active components at the nodes afterwards and measuring weak by weak, small by small, and many by many. It is these discontinuous steps that make the nanoscale different, not just smaller. They pose exciting challenges, open great opportunities and nearly unlimited possibilities, but they also carry serious technical, commercial, environmental, and health risks. The nanoscale is also a great opportunity for materials science in general. Materials science is interdisciplinary per se. A materials scientist should have a reasonable understanding of physics, chemistry, engineering, and more recently, also biology. Certainly one can always team up with representatives from other disciplines and forge collaborations. However, an effective team

  6. Forensic Science--A Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.

    1973-01-01

    Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

  7. Programs as Data Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second Symposium on Programs as Data Objects, PADO 2001, held in Aarhus, Denmark, in May 2001. The 14 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 30 submissions. Various aspects of looking at programs as data objects...... are covered from the point of view of program analysis, program transformation, computational complexity, etc....

  8. Exhibiting Epistemic Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybjerg, Karin

    2017-01-01

    of exhibiting epistemic objects that utilize their knowledge-generating potential and allow them to continue to stimulate curiosity and generate knowledge in the exhibition. The epistemic potential of the objects can then be made to work together with the function of the exhibition as a knowledge-generating set...

  9. Object permanence in lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Anja M; Wright, Patricia C; Szelistowski, William A

    2009-03-01

    Object permanence, the ability to mentally represent objects that have disappeared from view, should be advantageous to animals in their interaction with the natural world. The objective of this study was to examine whether lemurs possess object permanence. Thirteen adult subjects representing four species of diurnal lemur (Eulemur fulvus rufus, Eulemur mongoz, Lemur catta and Hapalemur griseus) were presented with seven standard Piagetian visible and invisible object displacement tests, plus one single visible test where the subject had to wait predetermined times before allowed to search, and two invisible tests where each hiding place was made visually unique. In all visible tests lemurs were able to find an object that had been in clear view before being hidden. However, when lemurs were not allowed to search for up to 25-s, performance declined with increasing time-delay. Subjects did not outperform chance on any invisible displacements regardless of whether hiding places were visually uniform or unique, therefore the upper limit of object permanence observed was Stage 5b. Lemur species in this study eat stationary foods and are not subject to stalking predators, thus Stage 5 object permanence is probably sufficient to solve most problems encountered in the wild.

  10. Investigating Music Information Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberger, Lynnsey K.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation, titled "Investigating Music Information Objects," is a study of the nature, description, representations, and ideas related to music information objects (MIOs). This research study investigates how music practitioners from various traditions describe and conceptualize MIOs, using a theoretical framework to classify…

  11. Gamifying Video Object Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spampinato, Concetto; Palazzo, Simone; Giordano, Daniela

    2017-10-01

    Video object segmentation can be considered as one of the most challenging computer vision problems. Indeed, so far, no existing solution is able to effectively deal with the peculiarities of real-world videos, especially in cases of articulated motion and object occlusions; limitations that appear more evident when we compare the performance of automated methods with the human one. However, manually segmenting objects in videos is largely impractical as it requires a lot of time and concentration. To address this problem, in this paper we propose an interactive video object segmentation method, which exploits, on one hand, the capability of humans to identify correctly objects in visual scenes, and on the other hand, the collective human brainpower to solve challenging and large-scale tasks. In particular, our method relies on a game with a purpose to collect human inputs on object locations, followed by an accurate segmentation phase achieved by optimizing an energy function encoding spatial and temporal constraints between object regions as well as human-provided location priors. Performance analysis carried out on complex video benchmarks, and exploiting data provided by over 60 users, demonstrated that our method shows a better trade-off between annotation times and segmentation accuracy than interactive video annotation and automated video object segmentation approaches.

  12. Objects of Desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Dave

    2000-01-01

    Describes learning objects, also known as granules, chunks, or information nuggets, and likens them to help screens. Discusses concerns about how they can go wrong: (1) faulty pretest questions; (2) missing links in the learning object chain; (3) poor frames of reference; and (4) lack of customization. (JOW)

  13. Per Object statistical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    of a specific class in turn, and uses as pair of PPO stages to derive the statistics and then assign them to the objects' Object Variables. It may be that this could all be done in some other, simply way, but several other ways that were tried did not succeed. The procedure ouptut has been tested against...

  14. On Objects and Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugster, Patrick Thomas; Guerraoui, Rachid; Damm, Christian Heide

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents linguistic primitives for publish/subscribe programming using events and objects. We integrate our primitives into a strongly typed object-oriented language through four mechanisms: (1) serialization, (2) multiple sub typing, (3) closures, and (4) deferred code evaluation. We...

  15. Stability of multihypernuclear objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, M.; Rather, Asloob A.; Usmani, A.A.; Patra, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    In present work, we analyze the stability of multi-hypernuclear objects having higher content of strangeness. The aim of this work is to test the stability of such objects which might be produced in heavy-ion reactions. Studies of such type of systems might have great implication to nuclear-astrophysics

  16. Cultivating objects in interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2014-01-01

    is chapter explores patterns of repeated orientations to physical objects in interactants’ visuo-spatial and haptic surround. A number of examples are presented from advice-giving activities in various institutional settings, where participants-in-interaction initially draw on material objects...

  17. Piles of objects

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Shu-Wei; Keyser, John

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for directly modeling piles of objects in multi-body simulations. Piles of objects represent some of the more interesting, but also most time-consuming portion of simulation. We propose a method for reducing computation in many

  18. Object oriented programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to object oriented programming techniques. It tries to explain the concepts by using analogies with traditional programming. The object oriented approach not inherently difficult, but most programmers find a relatively high threshold in learning it. Thus, this paper will attempt to convey the concepts with examples rather than explain the formal theory

  19. Science in Science Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allday, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Offers some suggestions as to how science fiction, especially television science fiction programs such as "Star Trek" and "Star Wars", can be drawn into physics lessons to illuminate some interesting issues. (Author/KHR)

  20. Beginning Objective-C

    CERN Document Server

    Dovey, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective-C is today's fastest growing programming language, at least in part due to the popularity of Apple's Mac, iPhone and iPad. Beginning Objective-C is for you if you have some programming experience, but you're new to the Objective-C programming language and you want a modern-and fast-way forwards to your own coding projects. Beginning Objective-C offers you a modern programmer's perspective on Objective-C courtesy of two of the best iOS and Mac developers in the field today, and gets you programming to the best of your ability in this important language.  It gets you rolling fast into

  1. Hardware Objects for Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Thalinger, Christian; Korsholm, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Java, as a safe and platform independent language, avoids access to low-level I/O devices or direct memory access. In standard Java, low-level I/O it not a concern; it is handled by the operating system. However, in the embedded domain resources are scarce and a Java virtual machine (JVM) without...... an underlying middleware is an attractive architecture. When running the JVM on bare metal, we need access to I/O devices from Java; therefore we investigate a safe and efficient mechanism to represent I/O devices as first class Java objects, where device registers are represented by object fields. Access...... to those registers is safe as Java’s type system regulates it. The access is also fast as it is directly performed by the bytecodes getfield and putfield. Hardware objects thus provide an object-oriented abstraction of low-level hardware devices. As a proof of concept, we have implemented hardware objects...

  2. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robering, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which these obj......Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples...

  3. 'Shelter' object safety. Structural aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivosheev, P.I.; Nemchinov, Yu.I.; Bambura, A.N.; Sokolov, A.P.; Shenderovich, V.Ya.; Vasyagin, R.V.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Shcherbin, V.N.; Rud'ko, V.M.; Tokarevskij, V.V.; Belousov, E.L.; Khejger, D.; Gorodetskij, L.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997 the group of the international experts including Ukrainian organizations and 'Shelter' Object ChNPP are developed the plan of SO transformation into ecological safe status (plan SIP). The realization of the plan was carried out on basis of international tender. The results of structural aspects of SO safety and it transformation into ecological safe state (ESS) are resented in this report

  4. Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences focuses on publishing articles relating to education and sciences. It publishes ... The objective is to create forum for researchers in education and sciences. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  5. Workshop objectives and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The overall aim of the Workshop was to create a platform in order to better understand different approaches to managing uncertainty in post-closure safety cases and regulatory approaches in different national waste management programmes. The principal objectives of the Workshop were to: - To identify common elements in different approaches for managing uncertainty. - To facilitate information exchange and to promote discussion on different technical approaches to the management and characterisation of uncertainty and on the role of risk. - To explore the merits of alternative approaches to risk-informed decision making. - To identify the potential for further developments of methods or strategies to support the management of uncertainties. The workshop was organised into plenary sessions and working group discussions: The first plenary session focused on establishing a framework for understanding the management of uncertainties and the use of risk. It comprised oral presentations drawing on a range of experience from both active participants in the development and assessment of safety cases and keynotes presentations by external participants involved in risk management in other sectors. The working group discussions covered three technical themes: Risk management and decision making. Regulatory requirements and review of uncertainty and risk in safety cases. Practical approaches and tools for the management of uncertainties and the assignment of probabilities, the use of expert judgements, and the presentation of information on uncertainties and risk were examined. The aim of the working groups was to develop an understanding of the specific issues, and to identify any further activities that will support the development and/or evaluation of safety cases. The round up plenary session brought together information and conclusions from each of the working groups. Common elements in the different approaches to treating uncertainty and risk were identified, along with

  6. Systems Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Alexander; Hammond, Debora; Jackson, Michael; Laszlo, Alexander; Mitroff, Ian; Snowden, Dave; Troncale, Len; Carr-Chellman, Alison; Spector, J. Michael; Wilson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of systems science were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Alexander Christakis, Debora Hammond, Michael Jackson, Alexander Laszlo, Ian Mitroff, Dave…

  7. Cognitive Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocking, Rodney R.; Mestre, Jose P.

    The focus of this paper is on cognitive science as a model for understanding the application of human skills toward effective problem-solving. Sections include: (1) "Introduction" (discussing information processing framework, expert-novice distinctions, schema theory, and learning process); (2) "Application: The Expert-Novice…

  8. Organizational Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beriwal, Madhu; Clegg, Stewart; Collopy, Fred; McDaniel, Reuben, Jr.; Morgan, Gareth; Sutcliffe, Kathleen; Kaufman, Roger; Marker, Anthony; Selwyn, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of organizational science, broadly defined as including many fields--organizational behavior and development, management, workplace performance, and so on--were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might…

  9. Adhesion science

    CERN Document Server

    Comyn, John

    1997-01-01

    The use of adhesives is widespread and growing, and there are few modern artefacts, from the simple cereal packet, to the jumbo jet, that are without this means of joining. Adhesion Science provides an illuminating account of the science underlying the use of adhesives, a branch of chemical technology which is fundamental to the science of coatings and composite materials and to the performance of all types of bonded structures. This book guides the reader through the essential basic polymer science, and the chemistry of adhesives in use at present. It discusses surface preparation for adhesive bonding, and the use of primers and coupling agents. There is a detailed chapter on contact angles and what can be predicted from them. A simple guide on stress distribution joints and how this relates to testing is included. It also examines the interaction of adhesives and the environment, including an analysis of the resistance of joints to water, oxygen and ultra-violet light. Adhesion Science provides a comprehens...

  10. Objectivity in psychosocial measurement: what, why, how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, W P

    2000-01-01

    This article raises and tries to answer questions concerning what objectivity in psychosocial measurement is, why it is important, and how it can be achieved. Following in the tradition of the Socratic art of maiuetics, objectivity is characterized by the separation of meaning from the geometric, metaphoric, or numeric figure carrying it, allowing an ideal and abstract entity to take on a life of its own. Examples of objective entities start from anything teachable and learnable, but for the purposes of measurement, the meter, gram, volt, and liter are paradigmatic because of their generalizability across observers, instruments, laboratories, samples, applications, etc. Objectivity is important because it is only through it that distinct conceptual entities are meaningfully distinguished. Seen from another angle, objectivity is important because it defines the conditions of the possibility of shared meaning and community. Full objectivity in psychosocial measurement can be achieved only by attending to both its methodological and its social aspects. The methodological aspect has recently achieved some notice in psychosocial measurement, especially in the form of Rasch's probabilistic conjoint models. Objectivity's social aspect has only recently been noticed by historians of science, and has not yet been systematically incorporated in any psychosocial science. An approach to achieving full objectivity in psychosocial measurement is adapted from the ASTM Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method (ASTM Committee E-11 on Statistical Methods, 1992).

  11. Functional Object Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raket, Lars Lau

    We propose a direction it the field of statistics which we will call functional object analysis. This subfields considers the analysis of functional objects defined on continuous domains. In this setting we will focus on model-based statistics, with a particularly emphasis on mixed......-effect formulations, where the observed functional signal is assumed to consist of both fixed and random functional effects. This thesis takes the initial steps toward the development of likelihood-based methodology for functional objects. We first consider analysis of functional data defined on high...

  12. Exploring science through science fiction

    CERN Document Server

    Luokkala, Barry B

    2014-01-01

    How does Einstein’s description of space and time compare with Dr. Who? Can James Bond really escape from an armor-plated railroad car by cutting through the floor with a laser concealed in a wristwatch? What would it take to create a fully-intelligent android, such as Star Trek’s Commander Data? How might we discover intelligent civilizations on other planets in the galaxy? Is human teleportation possible? Will our technological society ever reach the point at which it becomes lawful to discriminate on the basis of genetic information, as in the movie GATTACA? Exploring Science Through Science Fiction addresses these and other interesting questions, using science fiction as a springboard for discussing fundamental science concepts and cutting-edge science research. The book is designed as a primary text for a college-level course which should appeal to students in the fine arts and humanities as well as to science and engineering students. It includes references to original research papers, landmark scie...

  13. Nuclear Science Curriculum and Curriculum para la Ciencia Nuclear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Nuclear Society, La Grange Park, IL.

    This document presents a course in the science of nuclear energy, units of which may be included in high school physics, chemistry, and biology classes. It is intended for the use of teachers whose students have already completed algebra and chemistry or physics. Included in this paper are the objectives of this course, a course outline, a…

  14. Exploring Pulses through Math, Science, and Nutrition Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Diane K.; Mandal, Bidisha; Wallace, Michael L.; Riddle, Lee Anne; Kerr, Susan; Atterberry, Kelly Ann; Miles, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 includes pulses as a required component of the school lunch menu standard. Pulses are nutritionally important staple food crops, and include dry beans, dry peas, garbanzo beans, and lentils. This current study examined the short-term effectiveness of a Science, Technology, Engineering,…

  15. Mechanical science

    CERN Document Server

    Bolton, W C

    2013-01-01

    This book gives comprehensive coverage of mechanical science for HNC/HND students taking mechanical engineering courses, including all topics likely to be covered in both years of such courses, as well as for first year undergraduate courses in mechanical engineering. It features 500 problems with answers and 200 worked examples. The third edition includes a new section on power transmission and an appendix on mathematics to help students with the basic notation of calculus and solution of differential equations.

  16. Reasoning about cardinal directions between extended objects

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Weiming; Zhang, Xiaotong; Li, Sanjiang; Ying, Mingsheng

    2010-01-01

    Direction relations between extended spatial objects are important commonsense knowledge. Recently, Goyal and Egenhofer proposed a formal model, known as Cardinal Direction Calculus (CDC), for representing direction relations between connected plane regions. CDC is perhaps the most expressive qualitative calculus for directional information, and has attracted increasing interest from areas such as artificial intelligence, geographical information science, and image retrieval. Given a network ...

  17. Piles of objects

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Shu-Wei

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for directly modeling piles of objects in multi-body simulations. Piles of objects represent some of the more interesting, but also most time-consuming portion of simulation. We propose a method for reducing computation in many of these situations by explicitly modeling the piles that the objects may form into. By modeling pile behavior rather than the behavior of all individual objects, we can achieve realistic results in less time, and without directly modeling the frictional component that leads to desired pile shapes. Our method is simple to implement and can be easily integrated with existing rigid body simulations. We observe notable speedups in several rigid body examples, and generate a wider variety of piled structures than possible with strict impulse-based simulation. © 2010 ACM.

  18. Safety objectives for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    This is the third year in which the CERN Management has presented annual safety objectives for the Organization, the “HSE Objectives”.   The HSE objectives for 2014, which were announced by the Director-General at his traditional New Year’s address to the staff and were presented at the first Enlarged Directorate meeting of the year, have been drawn up and agreed in close collaboration between the DSOs, the HSE Unit and the DG himself. From safety in the workplace to radiation and environmental protection, the document emphasises that “Safety is a priority for CERN” and that safety policy is a key element in how the Organization is run. And, like all policies, it generates objectives that “serve as a general framework for action”. The HSE objectives are broken down into the following fields: occupational health and safety on sites and in the workplace, radiation protection, radiation safety, environmental protection, emerge...

  19. Registration of Space Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Tedd, Bernhard

    2017-07-01

    Space objects are subject to registration in order to allocate "jurisdiction and control" over those objects in the sovereign-free environment of outer space. This approach is similar to the registration of ships in view of the high sea and for aircrafts with respect to the international airspace. Registration is one of the basic principles of space law, starting with UN General Assembly Resolution 1721 B (XVI) of December 20, 1961, followed by Resolution 1962 (XVIII) of December 13, 1963, then formulated in Article VIII of the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 and as specified in the Registration Convention of 1975. Registration of space objects can be seen today as a principle of customary international law, relevant for each spacefaring state. Registration is divided into a national and an international level. The State Party establishes a national registry for its space objects, and those registrations have to be communicated via diplomatic channel to the UN Register of space objects. This UN Register is handled by the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) and is an open source of information for space objects worldwide. Registration is linked to the so-called launching state of the relevant space object. There might be more than one launching state for the specific launch event, but only one state actor can register a specific space object. The state of registry gains "jurisdiction and control" over the space object and therefore no double registration is permissible. Based on the established UN Space Law, registration practice was subject to some adaptions due to technical developments and legal challenges. After the privatization of the major international satellite organizations, a number of non-registrations had to be faced. The state actors reacted with the UN Registration Practice Resolution of 2007 as elaborated in the Legal Subcommittee of UNCOPUOS, the Committee for the Peaceful Use of Outer Space. In this context an UNOOSA Registration Information

  20. Protected Objects in Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvengreen, Hans Henrik; Schwarzer, Jens Christian

    1998-01-01

    We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library.......We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library....

  1. CODAS object monitoring service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, M.R.; Rainford, M.

    2001-01-01

    The primary Control and Data Acquisition System (CODAS) of JET is based on a TCP/IP network of more than 150 computers. The CODAS computers provide the JET machine control and data acquisition for over 70,000 digital and analog signals. The Object Monitoring Service (OMS) is used by applications for monitoring objects for presentation to the JET machine operators and for the operation of individual software components (such as valve state, access control, mimic definition changes and internal data distribution). Each server typically handles connections from around 60 clients monitoring upwards of 2000 objects. Some servers have over 150 clients and 5000 objects. Acquisition libraries are dynamically linked into a running server as required either to acquire data values for objects or to forward requests to other OMS servers. A mechanism involving dynamic linking allows new libraries to be integrated without stopping or changing running software. OMS provides a very reliable and highly successful 'data-type independent' means of monitoring many different objects. It allows applications to take advantage of new data sources, without the need to change existing code

  2. Center for Environmental Health Sciences

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The primary research objective of the Center for Environmental Health Sciences (CEHS) at the University of Montana is to advance knowledge of environmental impacts...

  3. Western Nuclear Science Alliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Reese; George Miller; Stephen Frantz; Denis Beller; Denis Beller; Ed Morse; Melinda Krahenbuhl; Bob Flocchini; Jim Elliston

    2010-12-07

    The primary objective of the INIE program is to strengthen nuclear science and engineering programs at the member institutions and to address the long term goal of the University Reactor Infrastructure and Education Assistance Program.

  4. Objectivity and Ideology

    CERN Document Server

    Prieto,L

    1976-01-01

    Conférence donné par le Prof.Luis J.Prieto, Argentin, qui était Prof.à Cordoba, Buenos Aires, Alger et Paris et appelé à l'Université de Genève (analyse du langage, structure social....) Il parle des problèmes epistomologiques (science de l'homme)et reflexion sur l'expérience scientifique.

  5. Objects of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald David Hoffman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexist-ing physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have defi-nite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are com-pendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a conscious agent. We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale.

  6. History and Philosophy of Science as a Guide to Understanding Nature of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Niaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nature of science (NOS is considered to be a controversial topic by historians, philosophers of science and science educators. It is paradoxical that we all teach science and still have difficulties in understanding what science is and how it develops and progresses. A major obstacle in understanding NOS is that science is primarily ‘unnatural’, that is it cannot be learned by a simple observation of phenomena. In most parts of the world history and philosophy of science are ‘inside’ science content and as such can guide our understanding of NOS. However, some science educators consider the ‘historical turn’ as dated and hence neglect the historical approach and instead emphasize the model based naturalist view of science. The objective of this presentation is to show that the historical approach is very much a part of teaching science and actually complements naturalism. Understanding NOS generally requires two aspects of science: Domain general and domain specific. In the classroom this can be illustrated by discussing the atomic models developed in the early 20th century which constitute the domain specific aspect of NOS. This can then lead to an understanding of the tentative nature of science that is a domain general aspect of NOS. A review of the literature in science education reveals three views (among others of understanding NOS: a Consensus view: It attempts to include only those domain-general NOS aspects that are the least controversial (Lederman, Abd-El-Khalick; b Family resemblance view: Based on the ideas of Wittgenstein, this view promotes science as a cognitive system (Irzik, Nola; c Integrated view: this view postulates that both domain general and domain specific aspects of NOS are not dichotomous but rather need to be integrated and are essential if we want students to understand ‘science in the making’ (Niaz. The following framework helps to facilitate integration: i Elaboration of a theoretical framework

  7. Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2010-01-01

    We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

  8. Student science enrichment training program: Progress report, June 1, 1988--May 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, S.S.

    1989-04-21

    This is a status report on a Student Science Enrichment Training Program held at the campus of Claflin College, Orangeburg, SC. The topics of the report include the objectives of the project, participation experienced, financial incentives and support for the program, curriculum description, and estimated success of the program in stimulating an occupational interest in science and research fields by the students.

  9. Far Out: Some Approaches to Teaching the Speculative Literature of Science Fiction and the Supernatural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Angeles City Schools, CA. Div. of Instructional Planning and Services.

    This curriculum guide contains course descriptions (for minicourses and semester-long courses), outlines, and class projects for teaching science fiction and the supernatural in junior and senior high schools. The eight course descriptions include objectives, methods, activities, and resources and materials. Lists of science fiction books and…

  10. EMEN2: an object oriented database and electronic lab notebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Ian; Langley, Ed; Chiu, Wah; Ludtke, Steven J

    2013-02-01

    Transmission electron microscopy and associated methods, such as single particle analysis, two-dimensional crystallography, helical reconstruction, and tomography, are highly data-intensive experimental sciences, which also have substantial variability in experimental technique. Object-oriented databases present an attractive alternative to traditional relational databases for situations where the experiments themselves are continually evolving. We present EMEN2, an easy to use object-oriented database with a highly flexible infrastructure originally targeted for transmission electron microscopy and tomography, which has been extended to be adaptable for use in virtually any experimental science. It is a pure object-oriented database designed for easy adoption in diverse laboratory environments and does not require professional database administration. It includes a full featured, dynamic web interface in addition to APIs for programmatic access. EMEN2 installations currently support roughly 800 scientists worldwide with over 1/2 million experimental records and over 20 TB of experimental data. The software is freely available with complete source.

  11. The ALMA early science view of FUor/EXor objects - IV. Misaligned outflows in the complex star-forming environment of V1647 Ori and McNeil's Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principe, David A.; Cieza, Lucas; Hales, Antonio; Zurlo, Alice; Williams, Jonathan; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Dary; Canovas, Hector; Casassus, Simon; Mužić, Koraljka; Perez, Sebastian; Tobin, John J.; Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2018-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the star-forming environment surrounding V1647 Ori, an outbursting FUor/EXor pre-main sequence star. Dust continuum and the (J = 2 - 1) 12CO, 13CO, C18O molecular emission lines were observed to characterize the V1647 Ori circumstellar disc and any large scale molecular features present. We detect continuum emission from the circumstellar disc and determine a radius r = 40 au, inclination i = 17°+6-9 and total disc mass of Mdisc of ∼0.1 M⊙. We do not identify any disc structures associated with nearby companions, massive planets or fragmentation. The molecular cloud environment surrounding V1647 Ori is both structured and complex. We confirm the presence of an excavated cavity north of V1647 Ori and have identified dense material at the base of the optical reflection nebula (McNeil's Nebula) that is actively shaping its surrounding environment. Two distinct outflows have been detected with dynamical ages of ∼11 700 and 17 200 yr. These outflows are misaligned suggesting disc precession over ∼5500 yr as a result of anisotropic accretion events is responsible. The collimated outflows exhibit velocities of ∼2 km s-1, similar in velocity to that of other FUor objects presented in this series, but significantly slower than previous observations and model predictions. The V1647 Ori system is seemingly connected by an 'arm' of material to a large unresolved structure located ∼20 arcsec to the west. The complex environment surrounding V1647 Ori suggests it is in the early stages of star formation, which may relate to its classification as both a FUor and EXor type object.

  12. Future of nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A report is presented by the Ad Hoc Panel on the Future of Nuclear Science on its assessment of the scientific objectives and unexplored questions of nuclear science and recommendations of the manpower, funding, and facilities required to realize its full potential. Nuclear research and its facilities and budgetary, sociological, and application aspects of this research are considered

  13. Information Science: Science or Social Science?

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramana Aithal; Paul P.K.,; Bhuimali A.

    2017-01-01

    Collection, selection, processing, management, and dissemination of information are the main and ultimate role of Information Science and similar studies such as Information Studies, Information Management, Library Science, and Communication Science and so on. However, Information Science deals with some different characteristics than these subjects. Information Science is most interdisciplinary Science combines with so many knowledge clusters and domains. Information Science is a broad disci...

  14. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Milutinović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of science and technology parks is necessarily accompanied by the establishment of a base of professional staff as the foundation of the park and the base of the potential management that will manage the park and the professional staff. Science and Technology Park is a broader term used to describe a variety of attempts directed at enhancing the entrepreneurship development by means of establishing knowledge – based, small and medium-sized enterprises. The enterprise at the top of the technology pyramid receives support in the form of capital, administration, space and access to new information technologies. The overall objective of the development of industrial enterprises in the technology park is the introduction of economically profitable production with the efficient usage of nonrenewable resources and the application of the highest environmental standards. Achieving the primary developmental objective of the Technology Park includes: creating a favorable business atmosphere in the local community, attractive to both foreign and domestic investors – providing support to the establishment of small and medium-sized enterprises using different models of joint ventures and direct foreign investment.

  15. [Medicine and conscientious objection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, K

    2007-01-01

    Conscientious objection to democratically accepted laws in democratic societies is a fact, both among citizens and among professionals. Due respect for laws is a prima facie duty in these societies. But democratic justice must at the same time respect peoples' conscience for it constitutes the ethical identity of individuals. And both law and ethics are necessary - although neither of them is sufficient - for its realization. The problem of conscientious objection among healthcare professionals is analysed from this standpoint and the conclusion is that objection is not an absolute right to exemption from several duties, but that the responsibility of the professional and of the institutions towards the citizenry must always be taken into account. Some solutions are suggested that try to protect both the professionals and the citizens in a bi-directional way.

  16. Soviet science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, Z.A.

    1979-01-01

    In this brief history of science in the Soviet Union the emphasis is on the interaction between scientific and technological developments and the political objectives of the Soviet government Reference is made to the development of nuclear energy for military and for peaceful purposes. In an appendix, a rather detailed account is given of a 'nuclear disaster in the South Urals area'; reference is made to ecological, genetic and population researches in the areas contaminated by long-lived products of radioactive waste (e.g. Sr-90 and Cs-137). Section headings are: lakes; mammals; population genetics and radiation genetics (covering plants, animals and soil activity). (U.K.)

  17. Effect of objective function on multi-objective inverse planning of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoli; Wu Yican; Song Gang; Wang Shifang

    2006-01-01

    There are two kinds of objective functions in radiotherapy inverse planning: dose distribution-based and Dose-Volume Histogram (DVH)-based functions. The treatment planning in our days is still a trial and error process because the multi-objective problem is solved by transforming it into a single objective problem using a specific set of weights for each object. This work investigates the problem of objective function setting based on Pareto multi-optimization theory, and compares the effect on multi-objective inverse planning of those two kinds of objective functions including calculation time, converge speed, etc. The basis of objective function setting on inverse planning is discussed. (authors)

  18. Pinocchio: Geppetto's transitional object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Zeloni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature has been considered by Freud and others after him, a form of unaware exploration of mind that can leads to discoveries similar to psychoanalysis’s discoveries. From this perspective, the author puts forward the following hypothesis: Pinocchio is a puppet who comes to life and is therefore, from a child's perception, a transitional object according to Winnicott. Consequently Geppetto is nothing more than the involuntary representation of any child interacting with the transitional object. The author explains the results of the analysis of the text in support of the hypothesis and reflects on the impact of The adventure of Pinocchio on the reader.

  19. Object-oriented communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    OOC is a high-level communications protocol based on the object-oriented paradigm. OOC's syntax, semantics, and pragmatics balance simplicity and expressivity for controls environments. While natural languages are too complex, computer protocols are often insufficiently expressive. An object-oriented communications philosophy provides a base for building the necessary high-level communications primitives like I don't understand and the current value of X is K. OOC is sufficiently flexible to express data acquisition, control requests, alarm messages, and error messages in a straightforward generic way. It can be used in networks, for inter-task communication, and even for intra-task communication

  20. Quantum objective realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednorz, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The question of whether quantum measurements reflect some underlying objective reality has no generally accepted answer. We show that a description of such reality is possible under natural conditions such as linearity and causality, although in terms of moments and cumulants of finite order and without relativistic invariance. The proposed construction of observations’ probability distribution originates from weak, noninvasive measurements, with detection error replaced by some external finite noise. The noise allows us to construct microscopic objective reality, but remains dynamically decoupled and hence unobservable at the macroscopic level. (paper)

  1. Learning Objects Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blåbjerg, Niels Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    Learning Objects Web er et DEFF projekt som Aalborg Universitetsbibliotek har initieret. Projektet tager afsæt i de resultater og erfaringer som er opnået med vores tidligere projekt Streaming Webbased Information Modules (SWIM). Vi har et internationalt netværk af interessenter som giver os...... sparring og feedback i forhold til udviklingskoncept både omkring de teoretiske rammer og i forhold til praktisk anvendelse af vores undervisningskoncept. Med disse rygstød og input har vi forfulgt ønsket om at videreudvikle SWIM i det nye projekt Learning Objects Web. Udgivelsesdato: juni...

  2. A Benchmark for Evaluating Moving Object Indexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Su; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Lin, Dan

    2008-01-01

    that targets techniques for the indexing of the current and near-future positions of moving objects. This benchmark enables the comparison of existing and future indexing techniques. It covers important aspects of such indexes that have not previously been covered by any benchmark. Notable aspects covered......Progress in science and engineering relies on the ability to measure, reliably and in detail, pertinent properties of artifacts under design. Progress in the area of database-index design thus relies on empirical studies based on prototype implementations of indexes. This paper proposes a benchmark...... include update efficiency, query efficiency, concurrency control, and storage requirements. Next, the paper applies the benchmark to half a dozen notable moving-object indexes, thus demonstrating the viability of the benchmark and offering new insight into the performance properties of the indexes....

  3. A Framework for Active Objects in .NET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Mircea Suciu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the concern of computer science is to find new methodologies that help decomposing large programs and run them efficiently onto new parallel machines. Thus, the popularity of concurrent object-oriented programming has increased proportionally with the market requirements of concurrent and distributed systems that meet simplicity, modularity and code reusability. The purpose of this paper is to define a class library based on Active Object pattern introduced in [LAV96], which has a high level of extensibility. Class library's main objective is to help in building concurrent object-oriented applications with a minimum effort and using a significant amount of already existing code. This approach addresses the problem of integrating concurrency with object-oriented programming and respects the principles imposed by them. In order to present the main features of our model a sample application is presented.

  4. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-01-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of…

  5. History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oversby, John

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses why the history of science should be included in the science curriculum in schools. He also presents some opportunities that can come out of using historical contexts, and findings from a study assessing the place of history of science in readily available textbooks.

  6. Safety Education and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Richard

    1980-01-01

    Safety education in the science classroom is discussed, including the beginning of safe management, attitudes toward safety education, laboratory assistants, chemical and health regulation, safety aids, and a case study of a high school science laboratory. Suggestions for safety codes for science teachers, student behavior, and laboratory…

  7. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 2 ... email addresses used by the office of Indian Academy of Sciences, including those of the staff, the journals, various programmes, and Current Science, has changed from 'ias.ernet.in' (or 'academy.ias.ernet.in') to 'ias.ac.in'.

  8. SKILL OF TEACHER CANDIDATES IN INTEGRATING THE CONCEPT OF SCIENCE WITH LOCAL WISDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmin -

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Learning science is not limited to reviewing the concepts, but strengthens the identity of a nation that has a diversity of cultures. Science learning objectives that have been set in Indonesia, including the student is able to apply the science wisely, to maintain and preserve the cultural survival. The study aims to measure students' ability to relate concepts of science with local knowledge to use mind maps compiled individually. The results showed that 85% of teacher candidates are able to determine the relationship of science and local knowledge correctly. The ability to link the two domains, through the literature review, observation and interviews.

  9. What the Heck is Science Policy and Who Really Does It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatten, Amy

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this discussion is to provide graduate students and others with insights regarding careers in science policy--how a scientific graduate degree can lead to opportunities beyond the laboratory, combining scientific expertise with diverse interests such as business, international affairs and national security. The topics covered will include: 1) an overview of the U.S. Government bodies and other stakeholders involved in science policy development; 2) case studies to exemplify the ``process'' of science policy formulation; and 3) where/how one might explore a career in science policy. The speaker served from 1999-2004 with White House Office of Science and Technology Policy.

  10. Object-Oriented Programming in High Schools the Turing Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Richard C.

    This paper proposes an approach to introducing object-oriented concepts to high school computer science students using the Object-Oriented Turing (OOT) language. Students can learn about basic object-oriented (OO) principles such as classes and inheritance by using and expanding a collection of classes that draw pictures like circles and happy…

  11. International production on science oriented towards data: analysis of the terms data science and e-science in scopus and the web of science

    OpenAIRE

    Leilah Santiago Bufrem; Fábio Mascarenhas e Silva; Natanael Vitor Sobral; Anna Elizabeth Galvão Coutinho Correia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: current configuration in the dynamics of production and scientific communication reveals the role of Science Oriented Towards Data, a comprehensive conception represented, mainly, by terms such as "e-Science" and "Data Science". Objective: To present the global scientific production on Science Oriented Towards Data by using the terms "e-Science" and "Data Science" in Scopus and the Web of Science during 2006-2016. Methodology: The study is divided into five phases: a) sear...

  12. Boundary-Object Trimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Jensen, Lotte Groth; Udsen, Flemming Witt

    2014-01-01

    implementation, which also coupled the work of medical secretaries more tightly to that of other staff, and led to task drift among professions. Medical secretaries have been relatively invisible to health informatics and CSCW, and we propose the term ‘boundary-object trimming’ to foreground and conceptualize...

  13. The Object of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bean, Jonathan; Figueiredo, Bernardo; Pico Larsen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    The paper outlines a methodological approach for investigating how consumers create brand meaning using the material resources companies provide. The approach draws from Material Engagement Theory—to discuss the role of consumers in creating patterns of meaning by engaging with objects. It also e...

  14. Robust video object cosegmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguan; Shen, Jianbing; Li, Xuelong; Porikli, Fatih

    2015-10-01

    With ever-increasing volumes of video data, automatic extraction of salient object regions became even more significant for visual analytic solutions. This surge has also opened up opportunities for taking advantage of collective cues encapsulated in multiple videos in a cooperative manner. However, it also brings up major challenges, such as handling of drastic appearance, motion pattern, and pose variations, of foreground objects as well as indiscriminate backgrounds. Here, we present a cosegmentation framework to discover and segment out common object regions across multiple frames and multiple videos in a joint fashion. We incorporate three types of cues, i.e., intraframe saliency, interframe consistency, and across-video similarity into an energy optimization framework that does not make restrictive assumptions on foreground appearance and motion model, and does not require objects to be visible in all frames. We also introduce a spatio-temporal scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) flow descriptor to integrate across-video correspondence from the conventional SIFT-flow into interframe motion flow from optical flow. This novel spatio-temporal SIFT flow generates reliable estimations of common foregrounds over the entire video data set. Experimental results show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on a new extensive data set (ViCoSeg).

  15. Business, Economics, Financial Sciences, and Management

    CERN Document Server

    2011 International Conference on Business, Economics, and Financial Sciences, Management (BEFM 2011)

    2012-01-01

    A series of papers on business, economics, and financial sciences, management selected from International Conference on Business, Economics, and Financial Sciences, Management are included in this volume.   Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources and natural resources.   The proceedings of BEFM2011 focuses on the various aspects of advances in Business, Economics, and Financial Sciences, Management and provides a chance for academic and industry professionals to discuss recent progress in the area of Business, Economics, and Financial Scienc...

  16. Science's disparate responsibilities: Patterns across European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejlgaard, Niels

    2018-04-01

    It is a distinctive feature of European science policy that science is expected to meet economic and broader societal objectives simultaneously. Science should be governed democratically and take significant responsibilities towards the economy, the political system and civil society, but the coherency of these multiple claims is underexplored. Using metrics that emerge from both quantitative and qualitative studies, we examine the interrelatedness of different responsibilities at the level of countries. A total of 33 European Union member states and associated countries are included in the analysis. We find no trade-off between economic and broader societal contributions. Europe is, however, characterised by major divisions in terms of the location of science in society. There is a significant East-West divide, and Europe appears to be far from accomplishing an integrated European Research Area.

  17. Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL's Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL) houses 22 research laboratories for conducting a wide-range of research including catalyst formulation, chemical analysis,...

  18. Occupational Exposure of Nanoparticles In Forensic Science: A Need Of Safe Use

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla RK

    2013-01-01

    The rapid advancement in nanotechnology sets new paradigms in science and technology, but simultaneously increased apprehensions about the health risks of nano-objects. Recently, various types of nanoparticles used in several areas of forensic including paint, inks, security document and to develop the latent fingerprint. Objective: Despite bright outlooks of nanoparticles used in various fields of forensic science, an increasing occupational as well as laboratory exposure of nanoparticles...

  19. O objeto das ciências sociais e a virada comunicativa: Adorno após Habermas The object of social sciences and the communicative turn: Adorno after Habermas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Catanzaro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo procura reconsiderar as críticas de Jürgen Habermas à teoria social de Theodor Adorno. Inicialmente, analisamos as razões apresentadas por Habermas para abandonar a crítica dialética do processo de racionalização social. Em seguida, para expor nossas objeções a essa interpretação, reconstruímos duas teses que, embora essenciais à crítica de Adorno ao processo de modernização vigente, foram deslocadas pelo paradigma da ação comunicativa. Por fim, através da relação entre linguagem e racionalidade que Adorno estabelece, sugerimos um tratamento diferente ao lugar da comunicação na constituição das sociedades contemporâneas.The article intends to reconsider the critique of Theodor Adorno's Social Theory formulated by Jürgen Habermas. In the first part of the text we analyze in detail the reasons Habermas enounces to leave behind the dialectical criticism of the process of social rationalization. In order to put forward our objections to Habermas' interpretation we reconstruct, in the second part, two essential thesis, which became displaced by the paradigm of communicative action, and which had served Adorno to elaborate his criticism of the prevailing modernization process. As a conclusion, we propose a different understanding of the roll played by communication in the constitution of contemporary societies, through an analysis - based upon Adorno - of the relationship between language and rationality.

  20. Global Social Challenges: insights from the physical sciences and their relevance to the evolution of social science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The complex challenges confronting humanity today point to the need for new thinking and new theory in the social sciences which overcomes the limitations of compartmentalized, sectoral concepts, strategies and policies and mechanistic approaches to living social systems. The World Academy of Art & Science is convening a consortium of leading institutions and thinkers from different sectors to contribute ideas for formulation of a cohesive framework capable of addressing global social challenges in their totality and complex interrelationships. The objective of my presentation will be to explore the potential for collaboration between the physical and social sciences to arrive at a more cohesive and effective framework by exploring a series of questions, including - - Is an integrated science of society possible that transcends disciplinary boundaries based on common underlying principles as we find in the natural sciences? - To what extent can principles of natural science serve as valid models and a...

  1. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  2. Science of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Santo; Bergstrom, Carl T; Börner, Katy; Evans, James A; Helbing, Dirk; Milojević, Staša; Petersen, Alexander M; Radicchi, Filippo; Sinatra, Roberta; Uzzi, Brian; Vespignani, Alessandro; Waltman, Ludo; Wang, Dashun; Barabási, Albert-László

    2018-03-02

    Identifying fundamental drivers of science and developing predictive models to capture its evolution are instrumental for the design of policies that can improve the scientific enterprise-for example, through enhanced career paths for scientists, better performance evaluation for organizations hosting research, discovery of novel effective funding vehicles, and even identification of promising regions along the scientific frontier. The science of science uses large-scale data on the production of science to search for universal and domain-specific patterns. Here, we review recent developments in this transdisciplinary field. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  3. Near Earth Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    , Near Earth Objects: Asteroids and comets following paths that bring them near the Earth. NEOs have collided with the Earth since its formation, some causing local devastation, some causing global climate changes, yet the threat from a collision with a near Earth object has only recently been recognised...... and accepted. The European Space Agency mission Gaia is a proposed space observatory, designed to perform a highly accurate census of our galaxy, the Milky Way, and beyond. Through accurate measurement of star positions, Gaia is expected to discover thousands of extra-solar planets and follow the bending...... of starlight by the Sun, and therefore directly observe the structure of space-time. This thesis explores several aspects of the observation of NEOs with Gaia, emphasising detection of NEOs and the quality of orbits computed from Gaia observations. The main contribution is the work on motion detection...

  4. The Juno Gravity Science Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Sami W.; Bolton, Scott J.; Buccino, Dustin R.; Cornish, Timothy P.; Folkner, William M.; Formaro, Roberto; Iess, Luciano; Jongeling, Andre P.; Lewis, Dorothy K.; Mittskus, Anthony P.; Mukai, Ryan; Simone, Lorenzo

    2017-11-01

    The Juno mission's primary science objectives include the investigation of Jupiter interior structure via the determination of its gravitational field. Juno will provide more accurate determination of Jupiter's gravity harmonics that will provide new constraints on interior structure models. Juno will also measure the gravitational response from tides raised on Jupiter by Galilean satellites. This is accomplished by utilizing Gravity Science instrumentation to support measurements of the Doppler shift of the Juno radio signal by NASA's Deep Space Network at two radio frequencies. The Doppler data measure the changes in the spacecraft velocity in the direction to Earth caused by the Jupiter gravity field. Doppler measurements at X-band (˜ 8 GHz) are supported by the spacecraft telecommunications subsystem for command and telemetry and are used for spacecraft navigation as well as Gravity Science. The spacecraft also includes a Ka-band (˜ 32 GHz) translator and amplifier specifically for the Gravity Science investigation contributed by the Italian Space Agency. The use of two radio frequencies allows for improved accuracy by removal of noise due to charged particles along the radio signal path.

  5. Material Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Dong Yeon; Kim, Heung

    1987-08-15

    This book introduces material science, which includes key of a high-tech industry, new materials of dream like new metal material and semiconductor, classification of materials, microstructure of materials and characteristic. It mentions magic new materials such as shape memory alloy, fine ceramics, engineering fine ceramics, electronic ceramics, engineering plastic, glass, silicone conductor, optical fiber mixed materials and integrated circuit, challenge for new material and development of new materials.

  6. Material Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Dong Yeon; Kim, Heung

    1987-08-01

    This book introduces material science, which includes key of a high-tech industry, new materials of dream like new metal material and semiconductor, classification of materials, microstructure of materials and characteristic. It mentions magic new materials such as shape memory alloy, fine ceramics, engineering fine ceramics, electronic ceramics, engineering plastic, glass, silicone conductor, optical fiber mixed materials and integrated circuit, challenge for new material and development of new materials.

  7. Science Smiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Science Smiles. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 4 April 1996 pp 4-4 Science Smiles. Chief Editor's column / Science Smiles · R K Laxman · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 3-3 Science Smiles.

  8. Science and Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2001-10-01

    Science and art diverge in that art usually represents a single individual's conception and viewpoint, even when many others are involved in bringing a work to fruition, whereas science progresses by extending consensus among those knowledgeable in a field. Art usually communicates at an emotional level. It values individual expression and impact on the emotions at the expense of objectivity. Science, especially in its archival record, values objectivity and reproducibility and does not express the imagination and joy of discovery inherent in its practice. This is too bad, because it does not give a realistic picture of how science is really done and because individuality and emotion are inherently more interesting than consensus. Leaving out the personal, emotional side can make science seem boring and pedestrian, when exactly the opposite is true. In teaching science we need to remember that communication always benefits from imagination and esthetic sense. If we present science artistically and imaginatively, as well as objectively and precisely, students will develop a more complete understanding of what science and scientists are about--one that is likely to capture their imaginations, emotions, and best efforts.

  9. Legislative objectives and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnoff, G.

    1978-01-01

    The moratorium on reprocessing of spent reactor fuels and proposals of the Federal government to provide storage of spent nuclear fuels are outlined again. Media publicity of failures of the government to deal with past decisions concerning nuclear power is discussed. It is pointed out that equal publicity has not been given to technical publications which indicate that the technology is available for fuel reprocessing and safe storage of radioactive wastes. It is proposed that if public confidence in nuclear energy is to be restored, Congress must limit itself to a directive to DOE to make future decisions concerning reprocessing and storage of spent fuels subject to the oversight of a committee selected by the American Physical Society and the National Academy of Science. The proposal would lead to technology-directed rather than politically-directed decisions concerning the expansion of nuclear power

  10. Unrewarded Object Combinations in Captive Parrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Marie Isabel Auersperg

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In primates, complex object combinations during play are often regarded as precursors of functional behavior. Here we investigate combinatory behaviors during unrewarded object manipulation in seven parrot species, including kea, African grey parrots and Goffin cockatoos, three species previously used as model species for technical problem solving. We further examine a habitually tool using species, the black palm cockatoo. Moreover, we incorporate three neotropical species, the yellow- and the black-billed Amazon and the burrowing parakeet. Paralleling previous studies on primates and corvids, free object-object combinations and complex object-substrate combinations such as inserting objects into tubes/holes or stacking rings onto poles prevailed in the species previously linked to advanced physical cognition and tool use. In addition, free object-object combinations were intrinsically structured in Goffin cockatoos and in kea.

  11. Science data collection with polarimetric SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Woelders, Kim; Madsen, Søren Nørvang

    1996-01-01

    Discusses examples on the use of polarimetric SAR in a number of Earth science studies. The studies are presently being conducted by the Danish Center for Remote Sensing. A few studies of the European Space Agency's EMAC programme are also discussed. The Earth science objectives are presented......, and the potential of polarimetric SAR is discussed and illustrated with data collected by the Danish airborne EMISAR system during a number of experiments in 1994 and 1995. The presentation will include samples of data acquired for the different studies...

  12. A case Study of Applying Object-Relational Persistence in Astronomy Data Archiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, S. S.; Hiriart, R.; Barg, I.; Warner, P.; Gasson, D.

    2005-12-01

    The NOAO Science Archive (NSA) team is developing a comprehensive domain model to capture the science data in the archive. Java and an object model derived from the domain model weil address the application layer of the archive system. However, since RDBMS is the best proven technology for data management, the challenge is the paradigm mismatch between the object and the relational models. Transparent object-relational mapping (ORM) persistence is a successful solution to this challenge. In the data modeling and persistence implementation of NSA, we are using Hibernate, a well-accepted ORM tool, to bridge the object model in the business tier and the relational model in the database tier. Thus, the database is isolated from the Java application. The application queries directly on objects using a DBMS-independent object-oriented query API, which frees the application developers from the low level JDBC and SQL so that they can focus on the domain logic. We present the detailed design of the NSA R3 (Release 3) data model and object-relational persistence, including mapping, retrieving and caching. Persistence layer optimization and performance tuning will be analyzed. The system is being built on J2EE, so the integration of Hibernate into the EJB container and the transaction management are also explored.

  13. Science or Science Fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefsrud, Lianne M.; Meyer, Renate

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the framings and identity work associated with professionals’ discursive construction of climate change science, their legitimation of themselves as experts on ‘the truth’, and their attitudes towards regulatory measures. Drawing from survey responses of 1077 professional......, legitimation strategies, and use of emotionality and metaphor. By linking notions of the science or science fiction of climate change to the assessment of the adequacy of global and local policies and of potential organizational responses, we contribute to the understanding of ‘defensive institutional work...

  14. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area......The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of the test sample by movement of the probe relative to the surface of the test sample into the specific orientation.; The probe may further comprise a contact detector (14) extending from the supporting body arranged so as to contact the surface of the test sample prior to any one of the plurality...

  15. Neoclassical transport including collisional nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, J; Belli, E A

    2011-06-10

    In the standard δf theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction δf is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlüter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  16. A Meditation in Which Consideration Is Given to the Past and Future Engagement of Social Science Generally and Critical Physical Education and Sports Scholarship in Particular with Various Scientific Debates, Including the So-Called "Obesity Epidemic" and Contemporary Manifestations of Biological Determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Michael

    2011-01-01

    My purpose in this paper is to consider the relationship between, on the one hand, critical social science and, on the other hand, existing and emerging sciences of the body. Taking my lead from the sociologist, Steve Fuller, I discuss the ways in which some social scientists, both within and outside physical education and sport, have engaged with…

  17. CLIC expands to include the Southern Hemisphere

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    Australia has recently joined the CLIC collaboration: the enlargement will bring new expertise and resources to the project, and is especially welcome in the wake of CERN budget redistributions following the recent adoption of the Medium Term Plan.   The countries involved in CLIC collaboration With the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding on 26 August 2010, the ACAS network (Australian Collaboration for Accelerator Science) became the 40th member of in the multilateral CLIC collaboration making Australia the 22nd country to join the collaboration. “The new MoU was signed by the ACAS network, which includes the Australian Synchrotron and the University of Melbourne”, explains Jean-Pierre Delahaye, CLIC Study Leader. “Thanks to their expertise, the Australian institutes will contribute greatly to the CLIC damping rings and the two-beam test modules." Institutes from any country wishing to join the CLIC collaboration are invited to assume responsibility o...

  18. Open Issues in Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1995-01-01

    We discuss a number of open issues within object-oriented programming. The central mechanisms of object-oriented programming appeared with Simula, developed more than 30 years ago; these include class, subclass, virtual function, active object and the first application framework, Class Simulation....... The core parts of object-oriented programming should be well understood, but there are still a large number of issues where there is no consensus. The term object-orientation has been applied to many subjects, such as analysis, design implementation, data modeling in databases, and distribution...

  19. War Journalism and 'Objectivity'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel McGoldrick

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article opens by considering an apparent paradox. Many professional journalists, working on many media in many countries, consider themselves 'objective'. They do not, at least, set out to skew their coverage of important issues in favour of one side or the other. And yet much of their coverage of conflicts shows a discernible dominant pattern of War Journalism - biased in favour of war. This is not because of a lack of objectivity, the article suggests, but a surfeit. The set of conventions many editors and reporters regard as defining 'objective' journalism arose in response to economic and political conditions which rewarded news that could commend itself as unobjectionable to the maximum number of potential customers. Three of the most important conventions privilege official sources; a dualistic construction of stories and event, over process. Each of these, when applied to the representation of conflicts, leads readers and audiences - or leaves them - to over-value violent, reactive responses and under-value non-violent, developmental responses. Industry conventions sit uneasily alongside equally time-honoured expectations of journalism. These are encoded in rules and regulations governing the content of broadcast news, in many jurisdictions which have a public service concept for radio and television. In some respects, War Journalism can be shown to make it more difficult for broadcast news services to fulfil their public service obligations. Awareness is now growing, of the tension between these two pressures on journalism and its influence on the way pressing public debates are shaped and mediated. More Peace Journalism would help to bring public service news back into line with legitimate public expectations.

  20. Views of Prospective Science Teachers on Including the Concept of Plasma in Science Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbag, Mustafa Zafer

    2018-01-01

    States of matter are structures that we may easily encounter in the universe as well as our close environment. The plasma state is the fourth state of matter, and it has much different properties in comparison to the solid, liquid and gas states of matter. In order to understand the universe and the environment we live in better, one needs to have…

  1. Object oriented distributed programming: studies and proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerraoui, Rachid

    1992-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the investigation of the object concept in distributed programming. Henceforth, this programming style has become a reality in the computer science world, since it allows to increase of the availability of applications and to decrease their execution time. Nevertheless, designing a distributed application is a hard task: the various abstraction levels that must be considered hinder the software reusability and maintenance, while errors and concurrent accesses are often sources of executions incoherence. The object concept improves the software modularity, and raises the computing abstraction level. Integrating distribution related aspects into the object model brings up the issues of expressing the concurrency and maintaining the coherency. The investigation of these problems in this thesis has been guided by a major concern for the preservation of the intrinsic properties of object-orientation, and the orthogonality of the solutions given. The main contributions of the thesis are: (i) the classification, regarding modularity, of the different design alternatives for object-oriented concurrent languages; (ii) the evaluation of various transactional mechanisms in object-based concurrent languages, and the design of an atomic asynchronous communication protocol named ACS; (iii) the definition of a transaction-based object-oriented concurrent language called KAROS; (iv) the implementation of a modular framework which allows to combine in a same application, various concurrency control and error recovery mechanisms; (v) the identification of a formal property, named general atomicity, which constitutes a correctness criteria for atomic objects specifications. (author) [fr

  2. Remote viewing of objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motin, J.D.; Reformatsky, I.A.; Sinitsyn, P.R.; Ivanov, N.M.; Ivanov, B.I.; Malakhov, I.K.

    1979-01-01

    An object in a nuclear power plant is viewed through a radiation-proof shield by means of an entrance lens, optic fibre bundle and exit lens. The optic fibre bundle being heated to ensure thermostabilization of its light conducting properties in the presence of ionising radiation. Heating is by an electric heating coil. Alternatively, heating may be by argon itself heated by an electric heating element, a coating of resistive heating material, or absorption of neutrons in the material of the fibres or a coating therefor. Viewing may be on a CRT screen. (author)

  3. Part Objects and Their Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1992-01-01

    The notion of location of part objects is introduced, yielding a reference to the containing object. Combined with locally defined objects and classes (block structure), singularly defined part objects, and references to part objects, it is a powerful language mechanism for defining objects...

  4. Science & Engineering Indicators 2016. National Science Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Foundation, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Science and Engineering Indicators" (SEI) is first and foremost a volume of record comprising high-quality quantitative data on the U.S. and international science and engineering enterprise. SEI includes an overview and seven chapters that follow a generally consistent pattern. The chapter titles are as follows: (1) Elementary and…

  5. Object-Based Benefits without Object-Based Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, George Angelo; Fougnie, Daryl; Cormiea, Sarah M

    2012-01-01

    The organization of visual information into objects strongly influences visual memory: Displays with objects defined by two features (e.g. color, orientation) are easier to remember than displays with twice as many objects defined by one feature (Olson & Jiang, 2002). Existing theories suggest that this ‘object-benefit’ is based on object-based limitations in working memory: because a limited number of objects can be stored, packaging features together so that fewer objects have to be remembe...

  6. Morality is real, objective, and natural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermer, Michael

    2016-11-01

    To make the case that morality is real, objective, and natural, it will be argued, first, that morals exist in human nature as part of our evolutionary heritage; that morality involves how we think and act toward other moral agents in terms of whether our thoughts and actions are right or wrong with regard to their survival and flourishing; and that moral progress is real, quantifiable, and the result of our improved understanding of causality in the social and moral sciences in the same manner as our understanding of causality has progressed in the physical and biological sciences. A moral starting point is the survival and flourishing of sentient beings. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Analyzing the Use of Concept Maps in Computer Science: A Systematic Mapping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Vinicius; de Souza, Érica F.; Felizardo, Katia R; Vijaykumar, Nandamudi L.

    2017-01-01

    Context: concept Maps (CMs) enable the creation of a schematic representation of a domain knowledge. For this reason, CMs have been applied in different research areas, including Computer Science. Objective: the objective of this paper is to present the results of a systematic mapping study conducted to collect and evaluate existing research on…

  8. Сontrol systems using mathematical models of technological objects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Сontrol systems using mathematical models of technological objects in the control loop. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... Such mathematical models make it possible to specify the optimal operating modes of the considered ...

  9. Effect of Prior Knowledge of Instructional Objectives on Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    instructional objectives on students' achievement in selected difficult concepts in senior ... nature of science learning in general, and physics learning in particular, as ..... curriculum as perceived by in-service mathematics teachers. Journal of ...

  10. Software bug prediction using object-oriented metrics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dharmendra Lal Gupta

    2 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Mewar University, Chittorgarh 312901, India e-mail: ... the object-oriented technology has been widely accepted ... whereas project metrics cover the number of staff members involved in ...

  11. Object linking in repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, David (Editor); Beck, Jon; Atkins, John; Bailey, Bill

    1992-01-01

    This topic is covered in three sections. The first section explores some of the architectural ramifications of extending the Eichmann/Atkins lattice-based classification scheme to encompass the assets of the full life cycle of software development. A model is considered that provides explicit links between objects in addition to the edges connecting classification vertices in the standard lattice. The second section gives a description of the efforts to implement the repository architecture using a commercially available object-oriented database management system. Some of the features of this implementation are described, and some of the next steps to be taken to produce a working prototype of the repository are pointed out. In the final section, it is argued that design and instantiation of reusable components have competing criteria (design-for-reuse strives for generality, design-with-reuse strives for specificity) and that providing mechanisms for each can be complementary rather than antagonistic. In particular, it is demonstrated how program slicing techniques can be applied to customization of reusable components.

  12. Process Architecture for Managing Digital Object Identifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanchoo, L.; James, N.; Stolte, E.

    2014-12-01

    In 2010, NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project implemented a process for registering Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) for data products distributed by Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). For the first 3 years, ESDIS evolved the process involving the data provider community in the development of processes for creating and assigning DOIs, and guidelines for the landing page. To accomplish this, ESDIS established two DOI User Working Groups: one for reviewing the DOI process whose recommendations were submitted to ESDIS in February 2014; and the other recently tasked to review and further develop DOI landing page guidelines for ESDIS approval by end of 2014. ESDIS has recently upgraded the DOI system from a manually-driven system to one that largely automates the DOI process. The new automated feature include: a) reviewing the DOI metadata, b) assigning of opaque DOI name if data provider chooses, and c) reserving, registering, and updating the DOIs. The flexibility of reserving the DOI allows data providers to embed and test the DOI in the data product metadata before formally registering with EZID. The DOI update process allows the changing of any DOI metadata except the DOI name unless the name has not been registered. Currently, ESDIS has processed a total of 557 DOIs of which 379 DOIs are registered with EZID and 178 are reserved with ESDIS. The DOI incorporates several metadata elements that effectively identify the data product and the source of availability. Of these elements, the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) attribute has the very important function of identifying the landing page which describes the data product. ESDIS in consultation with data providers in the Earth Science community is currently developing landing page guidelines that specify the key data product descriptive elements to be included on each data product's landing page. This poster will describe in detail the unique automated process and

  13. Fuzzy multiple objective decision making methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Young-Jou

    1994-01-01

    In the last 25 years, the fuzzy set theory has been applied in many disciplines such as operations research, management science, control theory, artificial intelligence/expert system, etc. In this volume, methods and applications of crisp, fuzzy and possibilistic multiple objective decision making are first systematically and thoroughly reviewed and classified. This state-of-the-art survey provides readers with a capsule look into the existing methods, and their characteristics and applicability to analysis of fuzzy and possibilistic programming problems. To realize practical fuzzy modelling, it presents solutions for real-world problems including production/manufacturing, location, logistics, environment management, banking/finance, personnel, marketing, accounting, agriculture economics and data analysis. This book is a guided tour through the literature in the rapidly growing fields of operations research and decision making and includes the most up-to-date bibliographical listing of literature on the topi...

  14. Object Signing in Bamboo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Marion

    2000-01-01

    The rapid growth in the Internet has been fueled by an exorbitant number of users, organizations and individuals alike, many relying on e-commerce to conduct business including the transport of files...

  15. Physical Science Informatics: Providing Open Science Access to Microheater Array Boiling Experiment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillen, John; Green, Robert D.; Henrie, Ben; Miller, Teresa; Chiaramonte, Fran

    2014-01-01

    The Physical Science Informatics (PSI) system is the next step in this an effort to make NASA sponsored flight data available to the scientific and engineering community, along with the general public. The experimental data, from six overall disciplines, Combustion Science, Fluid Physics, Complex Fluids, Fundamental Physics, and Materials Science, will present some unique challenges. Besides data in textual or numerical format, large portions of both the raw and analyzed data for many of these experiments are digital images and video, requiring large data storage requirements. In addition, the accessible data will include experiment design and engineering data (including applicable drawings), any analytical or numerical models, publications, reports, and patents, and any commercial products developed as a result of the research. This objective of paper includes the following: Present the preliminary layout (Figure 2) of MABE data within the PSI database. Obtain feedback on the layout. Present the procedure to obtain access to this database.

  16. How Do Turkish Middle School Science Coursebooks Present the Science Process Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Oktay

    2015-01-01

    An important objective in science education is the acquisition of science process skills (SPS) by the students. Therefore, science coursebooks, among the main resources of elementary science curricula, are to convey accurate SPS. This study is a qualitative study based on the content analysis of the science coursebooks used at middle schools. In…

  17. Review of Meeting Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.; Chung, H.-K.

    2011-01-01

    This is the 21st meeting of the International Atomic and Molecular Data Centres Network. The traditional DCN meeting objectives are: to exchange information about activities in the Centres and review progress; to coordinate work in the Centres; to assess priorities in data evaluation and data production; to make plans for specific evaluations; and to evaluate and revise procedures for collection and exchange of bibliographical and numerical data. All of these are objectives for the present meeting too. In addition to the presentations from DCN and prospective DCN members we have two participants from outside the field of fusion data: Dr N. Mason will tell us about coordination of the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre and Dr S. Simakov will describe the manner in which nuclear structure and cross-section database development is coordinated by our colleagues in the Nuclear Data Section. In the discussions on Thursday and Friday there are two topics that need special attention this year: the future of our bibliographical data compilation and ways in which we can strengthen data evaluation activities, all with emphasis on collision processes and plasma-material interaction. The first 3 Data Centre Network meetings were held in 1977, 1980 and 1982 and the reports of those meetings make interesting reading and can still provide inspiration for the present meeting. I show some excerpts in the presentation. In 1977 the emphasis was on the coordination of the bibliographical database, AMBDAS, and a collision data index, CIAMDA, as the initial activities of the Network and of the newly formed IAEA A+M Data Unit. In 1980 the central topic of discussion at the meeting shifted to the numerical database and to data evaluation. The Network recommended that numerical data be reviewed by a selected group of scientists and that no unevaluated numerical A+M collision data should be distributed by the IAEA. The report of the meeting in 1982 shows that the bibliographical

  18. 'Sapphire' project. Objectives and outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkolnik, V.S.

    1997-01-01

    'Sapphire' Project contains the US assistance in purchasing/exporting 600 kg of highly enriched uranium from the State Holding Association 'Ulba' Uranium Plant, and compensatory equipment and service deliveries under the mutually concerted list. The compensatory payments were as separate projects in conformity with Kazakhstan enterprises needs, participation quota of which was determined by the Kazakhstan Government. Realization Milestones. Activity on Separate Projects: - basic 'Sapphire' part includes medical projects; - Kazakhstan Services were equipped with computers by the American International Development Agency for Taxation Services of Kazakhstan and by US Department of Energy for Monitoring preparation of Kazakhstan Atomic energy Agency. - 7 Research projects are being realized via the International Science and Technological Center; - export control. It has been realized as the equipment delivery under the concerted list; - equipping of nuclear materials accounting and control system at 'Ulba' Association enterprises

  19. Assessing Ethics in Secondary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of science courses now include consideration of the ethical implications of science. However, there is little agreement about how ethical reasoning in science should be assessed. This article highlights the conclusions of a seminar on the assessment of ethics in science that was organized by the Nuffield Foundation Curriculum…

  20. Objectives of the symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genter, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this symposium was to discuss the sorts of evidence of molecular alterations in DNA which can be used to study causation of the stochastic effects of importance in radiation protection. Specifically, the aim was to address the following: what sort of indications might show whether a cancer was caused by radiation; whether there is a radiogenic signature to distinguish damage caused by ionizing radiation; whether bio-markers might be available for susceptibility, for exposure, for biological consequences. Despite a number of epidemiological studies (referred to), there is no clear, credible, defensible answer as to whether low-level radiation increases the risk of cancer. A new ethical question is, what rules should be in place for identifying and protecting genetically sensitive individuals. 1 tab

  1. Computer sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul H.

    1988-01-01

    The Computer Science Program provides advanced concepts, techniques, system architectures, algorithms, and software for both space and aeronautics information sciences and computer systems. The overall goal is to provide the technical foundation within NASA for the advancement of computing technology in aerospace applications. The research program is improving the state of knowledge of fundamental aerospace computing principles and advancing computing technology in space applications such as software engineering and information extraction from data collected by scientific instruments in space. The program includes the development of special algorithms and techniques to exploit the computing power provided by high performance parallel processors and special purpose architectures. Research is being conducted in the fundamentals of data base logic and improvement techniques for producing reliable computing systems.

  2. The Use of Theater and the Performing Arts in Science Education and the Teaching of History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Over the past 15 years there has been a surge in the general field of the interaction of STEM and the arts including theatre, music dance and the visual arts leading to STEAM. There seems to be no limits to the amount of creativity and diversity of subject matter especially in areas of biography, major science events, scientific and technical innovation, the benefits and dangers of modern science, and science as metaphor. For the past 15 years, I and my colleagues have been running a science outreach series under the title Science & the Performing Arts at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. The objective is to bring science to students and the public in ways that are engaging, instructive, and artistic and always, content-driven: the medium is the arts; the message is the joy of science. This has resulted in over 120 science and performing arts programs which have been documented on the website http://sciart.commons.gc.cuny.edu/ . The author co-taught a course titled Staging Science, http://sciart.commons.gc.cuny.edu/staging-science/outline-of-the-course-staging-science/ with Marvin Carlson, Professor of Theatre at CUNY. An excellent book, Science on Stage: From Doctor Faustus to Copenhagen by Kirsten Shepherd-Barr, can be used to develop a customized courses on Science, Theatre and History for both science and non-science majors. The book's appendix includes an annotated listing of plays on such subjects as quantum mechanics, chaos theory, evolution, genetics and morality and responsibility. The talk will include many examples how courses on science and theatre can actively engage students and enhance active participation and learning. Supported in part by the National Science Foundation.

  3. Models of science dynamics encounters between complexity theory and information sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Börner, Katy; Besselaar, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Models of science dynamics aim to capture the structure and evolution of science. They are developed in an emerging research area in which scholars, scientific institutions and scientific communications become themselves basic objects of research. In order to understand phenomena as diverse as the structure of evolving co-authorship networks or citation diffusion patterns, different models have been developed. They include conceptual models based on historical and ethnographic observations, mathematical descriptions of measurable phenomena, and computational algorithms. Despite its evident importance, the mathematical modeling of science still lacks a unifying framework and a comprehensive research agenda. This book aims to fill this gap, reviewing and describing major threads in the mathematical modeling of science dynamics for a wider academic and professional audience. The model classes presented here cover stochastic and statistical models, game-theoretic approaches, agent-based simulations, population-dy...

  4. Fire science application and integration in support of decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Zimmerman

    2011-01-01

    Wildland fire management in the United States has historically been a challenging and complex program governed by a multitude of factors including situational status, objectives, operational capability, science and technology, and changes and advances in all these factors. The improvement and advancement of risk-informed decision making has the potential to improve...

  5. Ciencias 1. Manual do Professor (Science 1. Teacher's Manual).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Lucilia

    This is the teacher's guide for Ciencias 1, the first in a series of science books designed for Portuguese-speaking students in elementary schools. The guide contains materials corresponding to the student's book. Included are five sections comprised of 43 lessons. The teacher's guide also contains lesson objectives, suggestions for lesson…

  6. `Drawing the Leaves Anyway': Teachers Embracing Children's Different Ways of Knowing in Preschool Science Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areljung, Sofie; Ottander, Christina; Due, Karin

    2017-12-01

    This study explores if and how teachers combine practices of science and of preschool (children 1-5 years old) into preschool science practice. Views of knowing may differ between science practices, traditionally associated with masculinity and rationality, and preschool practices, traditionally associated with femininity and caring. Recognising this, we have chosen to focus on how teachers' talk constructs and relates to possible ways of gaining knowledge and reaching explanations of phenomena in preschool science. The analysis builds on two concept pairs often associated with gender as well as knowing: objective-subjective and logical-intuitive. The analysed material consists of 11 group interviews where preschool teachers talk about activities concerning science content. Our results show that several ways of knowing are possible in work with science content in preschool. These include ways of knowing more associated with subjectivity, such as `individual liking' and `whole-body perception', as well as more associated with objectivity, such as `noticing differences and similarities'. Furthermore, the results show that the teachers' talk moves readily between possibilities associated with femininity (subjective and intuitive) and masculinity (objective and logical). This indicates that the teachers in this study have found ways to handle science in preschool that goes against presumed tensions between science and preschool practices. The results contribute to more nuanced ways of describing and thinking about science in preschool and pave the way for further development of science education in early childhood education.

  7. Moving object detection using background subtraction

    CERN Document Server

    Shaikh, Soharab Hossain; Chaki, Nabendu

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief presents a comprehensive survey of the existing methodologies of background subtraction methods. It presents a framework for quantitative performance evaluation of different approaches and summarizes the public databases available for research purposes. This well-known methodology has applications in moving object detection from video captured with a stationery camera, separating foreground and background objects and object classification and recognition. The authors identify common challenges faced by researchers including gradual or sudden illumination change, dynamic bac

  8. [Depressive realism: happiness or objectivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birinci, Fatih; Dirik, Gülay

    2010-01-01

    Realism is described as objective evaluations and judgments about the world; however, some research indicates that judgments made by "normal" people include a self-favored, positive bias in the perception of reality. Additionally, some studies report that compared to normal people, such cognitive distortions are less likely among depressive people. These findings gave rise to the depressive realism hypothesis. While results of several studies verify the notion that depressive people evaluate reality more objectively, other studies fail to support this hypothesis. Several causes for these inconsistent findings have been proposed, which can be characterized under 3 headings. One proposed explanation suggests that what is accepted as "realistic" in these studies is not quite objective and is in fact ambiguous. According to another perspective, the term "depressive" used in these studies is inconsistent with the criteria of scientific diagnostic methods. Another suggests that the research results can only be obtained under the specific experimental conditions. General negativity and limited processing are popular approaches used for explaining the depressive realism hypothesis. Nowadays, the debate over this hypothesis continues. The present review focuses on frequently cited research related to depressive realism and discusses the findings.

  9. Breaking object correspondence across saccadic eye movements deteriorates object recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H. Poth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, the presaccadic object is conserved when object correspondence is broken. This helps transsaccadic memory but it may impose attentional costs on object recognition. Therefore, we investigated how breaking object correspondence across the saccade affects postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 1, object correspondence was broken by a brief postsaccadic blank screen. Observers made a saccade to a peripheral object which was displaced during the saccade. This object reappeared either immediately after the saccade or after the blank screen. Within the postsaccadic object, a letter was briefly presented (terminated by a mask. Observers reported displacement direction and letter identity in different blocks. Breaking object correspondence by blanking improved displacement identification but deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. In Experiment 2, object correspondence was broken by changing the object’s contrast-polarity. There were no object displacements and observers only reported letter identity. Again, breaking object correspondence deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. These findings identify transsaccadic object correspondence as a key determinant of object recognition across the saccade. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that breaking object correspondence results in separate representations of presaccadic and postsaccadic objects which then compete for limited attentional processing resources (Schneider, 2013. Postsaccadic

  10. Documentation of Cultural Heritage Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Grobovšek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The first and important phase of documentation of cultural heritage objects is to understand which objects need to be documented. The entire documentation process is determined by the characteristics and scope of the cultural heritage object. The next question to be considered is the expected outcome of the documentation process and the purpose for which it will be used. These two essential guidelines determine each stage of the documentation workflow: the choice of the most appropriate data capturing technology and data processing method, how detailed should the documentation be, what problems may occur, what the expected outcome is, what it will be used for, and the plan for storing data and results. Cultural heritage objects require diverse data capturing and data processing methods. It is important that even the first stages of raw data capturing are oriented towards the applicability of results. The selection of the appropriate working method can facilitate the data processing and the preparation of final documentation. Documentation of paintings requires different data capturing method than documentation of buildings or building areas. The purpose of documentation can also be the preservation of the contemporary cultural heritage to posterity or the basis for future projects and activities on threatened objects. Documentation procedures should be adapted to our needs and capabilities. Captured and unprocessed data are lost unless accompanied by additional analyses and interpretations. Information on tools, procedures and outcomes must be included into documentation. A thorough analysis of unprocessed but accessible documentation, if adequately stored and accompanied by additional information, enables us to gather useful data. In this way it is possible to upgrade the existing documentation and to avoid data duplication or unintentional misleading of users. The documentation should be archived safely and in a way to meet

  11. Space Archaeology: Attribute, Object, Task and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyuan; Guo, Huadong; Luo, Lei; Liu, Chuansheng

    2017-04-01

    Archaeology takes the material remains of human activity as the research object, and uses those fragmentary remains to reconstruct the humanistic and natural environment in different historical periods. Space Archaeology is a new branch of the Archaeology. Its study object is the humanistic-natural complex including the remains of human activities and living environments on the earth surface. The research method, space information technologies applied to this complex, is an innovative process concerning archaeological information acquisition, interpretation and reconstruction, and to achieve the 3-D dynamic reconstruction of cultural heritages by constructing the digital cultural-heritage sphere. Space archaeology's attribute is highly interdisciplinary linking several areas of natural and social and humanities. Its task is to reveal the history, characteristics, and patterns of human activities in the past, as well as to understand the evolutionary processes guiding the relationship between human and their environment. This paper summarizes six important aspects of space archaeology and five crucial recommendations for the establishment and development of this new discipline. The six important aspects are: (1) technologies and methods for non-destructive detection of archaeological sites; (2) space technologies for the protection and monitoring of cultural heritages; (3) digital environmental reconstruction of archaeological sites; (4) spatial data storage and data mining of cultural heritages; (5) virtual archaeology, digital reproduction and public information and presentation system; and (6) the construction of scientific platform of digital cultural-heritage sphere. The five key recommendations for establishing the discipline of Space Archaeology are: (1) encouraging the full integration of the strengths of both archaeology and museology with space technology to promote the development of space technologies' application for cultural heritages; (2) a new

  12. Teaching science in museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Lynn Uyen

    Museums are free-choice, non-threatening, non-evaluative learning and teaching environments. They enable learners to revisit contents, authentic objects, and experiences at their own leisure as they continually build an understanding and appreciation of the concepts. Schools in America have used museums as resources to supplement their curriculum since the 19 th century. Field trip research is predominantly from the teachers' and students' perspectives, and draws attention to the importance for classroom teachers and students to prepare prior to field trips, have tasks, goals, and objectives during their time at the museum, and follow up afterwards. Meanwhile, museum educators' contributions to field trip experiences have been scantily addressed. These educators develop and implement programs intended to help students' explore science concepts and make sense of their experiences, and despite their limited time with students, studies show they can be memorable. First, field trips are a break in the usual routine, and thus have curiosity and attention attracting power. Second, classroom science teaching literature suggests teachers' teaching knowledge and goals can affect their behaviors, and in turn influence student learning. Third, classroom teachers are novices at planning and implementing field trip planners, and museum educators can share this responsibility. But little is reported on how the educators teach, what guides their instruction, how classroom teachers use these lessons, and what is gained from these lessons. This study investigates two of these inquiries. The following research questions guided this investigation. (1) How do educators teaching one-hour, one-time lessons in museums adapt their instruction to the students that they teach? (2) How do time limitations affect instruction? (3) How does perceived variability in entering student knowledge affect instruction? Four educators from two museums took part in this participant observation study to

  13. Social Sciences in Nuclear Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggermont, G

    2001-04-01

    In 1998, an initiative was taken by SCK-CEN to include social sciences and humanities into its research programme. As a result, two working groups were created to discuss two broad items: (1) ethical choices in radiation protection; and (2) the role and culture of nuclear experts. The general objectives of SCK-CEN's social sciences programme are: (1) to improve the nuclear research approach by integrating social sciences - where needed- to solve complex problems in interaction with society; (2) to stimulate university collaboration with social disciplines in learning process towards transdisciplinary and improved social responsibility; (3) to improve the training of nuclear experts of SCK-CEN by gaining insight in their expert culture and implicit ethical choices; (4) to develop projects and an original transdisciplinary programme and project management by involving young and senior scientists, a variety of university opinions and relevant actors from industry and society. Along these lines, projects were developed on sustainability and nuclear development, transgenerational ethics related to disposal of long-lived radioactive waste and cognitive dissonance effects, legal aspects and liability, non-radiological aspects of nuclear emergencies and safety. Progress and major achievements in SCK-CEN's social science programme in 2000 are summarised.

  14. Social Sciences in Nuclear Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, an initiative was taken by SCK-CEN to include social sciences and humanities into its research programme. As a result, two working groups were created to discuss two broad items: (1) ethical choices in radiation protection; and (2) the role and culture of nuclear experts. The general objectives of SCK-CEN's social sciences programme are: (1) to improve the nuclear research approach by integrating social sciences - where needed- to solve complex problems in interaction with society; (2) to stimulate university collaboration with social disciplines in learning process towards transdisciplinary and improved social responsibility; (3) to improve the training of nuclear experts of SCK-CEN by gaining insight in their expert culture and implicit ethical choices; (4) to develop projects and an original transdisciplinary programme and project management by involving young and senior scientists, a variety of university opinions and relevant actors from industry and society. Along these lines, projects were developed on sustainability and nuclear development, transgenerational ethics related to disposal of long-lived radioactive waste and cognitive dissonance effects, legal aspects and liability, non-radiological aspects of nuclear emergencies and safety. Progress and major achievements in SCK-CEN's social science programme in 2000 are summarised

  15. The science writing tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhart, Arthur L.

    This is a two-part dissertation. The primary part is the text of a science-based composition rhetoric and reader called The Science Writing Tool. This textbook has seven chapters dealing with topics in Science Rhetoric. Each chapter includes a variety of examples of science writing, discussion questions, writing assignments, and instructional resources. The purpose of this text is to introduce lower-division college science majors to the role that rhetoric and communication plays in the conduct of Science, and how these skills contribute to a successful career in Science. The text is designed as a "tool kit," for use by an instructor constructing a science-based composition course or a writing-intensive Science course. The second part of this part of this dissertation reports on student reactions to draft portions of The Science Writing Tool text. In this report, students of English Composition II at Northern Virginia Community College-Annandale were surveyed about their attitudes toward course materials and topics included. The findings were used to revise and expand The Science Writing Tool.

  16. Safety objectives for nuclear activities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    This report by the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety presents a concise statement of the basic safety objectives which the Committee considers underlie, or should underlie, the regulations and the licensing and compliance practices of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The report also includes a number of general criteria for achieving these objectives

  17. Using magnetic nanoparticles to manipulate biological objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yi; Gao Yu; Xu Chenjie

    2013-01-01

    The use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for the manipulation of biological objects, including proteins, genes, cellular organelles, bacteria, cells, and organs, are reviewed. MNPs are popular candidates for controlling and probing biological objects with a magnetic force. In the past decade, progress in the synthesis and surface engineering of MNPs has further enhanced this popularity. (topical review - magnetism, magnetic materials, and interdisciplinary research)

  18. Discovery of the Collaborative Nature of Science with Undergraduate Science Majors and Non-Science Majors through the Identification of Microorganisms Enriched in Winogradsky Columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jasmine; Pinedo, Catalina Arango; Forster, Brian M

    2015-12-01

    Today's science classrooms are addressing the need for non-scientists to become scientifically literate. A key aspect includes the recognition of science as a process for discovery. This process relies upon interdisciplinary collaboration. We designed a semester-long collaborative exercise that allows science majors taking a general microbiology course and non-science majors taking an introductory environmental science course to experience collaboration in science by combining their differing skill sets to identify microorganisms enriched in Winogradsky columns. These columns are self-sufficient ecosystems that allow researchers to study bacterial populations under specified environmental conditions. Non-science majors identified phototrophic bacteria enriched in the column by analyzing the signature chlorophyll absorption spectra whereas science majors used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify the general bacterial diversity. Students then compiled their results and worked together to generate lab reports with their final conclusions identifying the microorganisms present in their column. Surveys and lab reports were utilized to evaluate the learning objectives of this activity. In pre-surveys, nonmajors' and majors' answers diverged considerably, with majors providing responses that were more accurate and more in line with the working definition of collaboration. In post-surveys, the answers between majors and nonmajors converged, with both groups providing accurate responses. Lab reports showed that students were able to successfully identify bacteria present in the columns. These results demonstrate that laboratory exercises designed to group students across disciplinary lines can be an important tool in promoting science education across disciplines.

  19. Data quality objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeberer, F.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) spends about $500 million annually in collecting environmental data for scientific research and regulatory decision making. In addition, the regulated community may spend as much as ten times more each year in responding to EPA compliance requirements. Among the EPA and the regulated community there are several important common concerns: both want to make informed decisions using the right type, quality, and quantity of data. Collecting new data is very resource intensive to all parties. Neither EPA nor the regulated community can afford to collect more or open-quotes betterclose quotes data than are really needed; the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process is a systematic planning tool for ensuring that the right data will be collected for arriving at a decision within the desired confidence constraints. Using the DQO process to plan environmental data collections can help improve their effectiveness and efficiency, and enhance the defensibility of the decisions for which the data are used

  20. Data quality objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberer, F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) spends about $500 million annually in collecting environmental data for scientific research and regulatory decision making. In addition, the regulated community may spend as much as ten times more each year in responding to EPA compliance requirements. Among the EPA and the regulated community there are several important common concerns: both want to make informed decisions using the right type, quality, and quantity of data. Collecting new data is very resource intensive to all parties. Neither EPA nor the regulated community can afford to collect more or {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} data than are really needed; the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process is a systematic planning tool for ensuring that the right data will be collected for arriving at a decision within the desired confidence constraints. Using the DQO process to plan environmental data collections can help improve their effectiveness and efficiency, and enhance the defensibility of the decisions for which the data are used.

  1. Beyond the Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Object orientation (OO is regained not only in all components of integrate development media but it remarks in the rest of software world from operating system to last application domain - of course, with different intensity and success. A clear prove of OO application in all situations is the development of a wide range of industrial applications. OO technology allows drawing of relation between the geometry, topology and dimensions of data on a class hierarchy; thus, the observation of the amount of data gained by research in many scientific domains is facilitated through class libraries both for graphic primitives and for events examination. In conformity to all waiting, OO asserts in every distributive system, there are very important the applications for making open systems customer-server and dis-tributed applications in Java. Finally OO application in robot's programming and modeling needn't be omitted. However, far to be panacea, OO has also shades which will be researched so on.

  2. How much is enough? The recurrent problem of setting measurable objectives in conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tear, T.H.; Kareiva, P.; Angermeier, P.L.; Comer, P.; Czech, B.; Kautz, R.; Landon, L.; Mehlman, D.; Murphy, K.; Ruckelshaus, M.; Scott, J.M.; Wilhere, G.

    2005-01-01

    International agreements, environmental laws, resource management agencies, and environmental nongovernmental organizations all establish objectives that define what they hope to accomplish. Unfortunately, quantitative objectives in conservation are typically set without consistency and scientific rigor. As a result, conservationists are failing to provide credible answers to the question "How much is enough?" This is a serious problem because objectives profoundly shape where and how limited conservation resources are spent, and help to create a shared vision for the future. In this article we develop guidelines to help steer conservation biologists and practitioners through the process of objective setting. We provide three case studies to highlight the practical challenges of objective setting in different social, political, and legal contexts. We also identify crucial gaps in our science, including limited knowledge of species distributions and of large-scale, long-term ecosystem dynamics, that must be filled if we hope to do better than setting conservation objectives through intuition and best guesses. ?? 2005 American Institute of Biological Sciences.

  3. The SOLAR-C Mission: Science Objectives and Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Y.; Solar-C Working Group

    2016-04-01

    The SOLAR-C is a Japan-led international solar mission for mid-2020s designed to investigate the magnetic activities of the Sun, focusing on the study in heating and dynamical phenomena of the chromosphere and corona, and to advance algorithms for predicting short and long term solar magnetic activities. For these purposes, SOLAR-C will carry three dedicated instruments; the Solar UV-Vis-IR Telescope (SUVIT), the EUV Spectroscopic Telescope (EUVST) and the High Resolution Coronal Imager (HCI), to jointly observe the entire visible solar atmosphere with essentially the same high spatial resolution (0.1"-0.3"), performing high resolution spectroscopic measurements over all atmospheric regions and spectro-polarimetric measurements from the photosphere through the upper chromosphere. SOLAR-C will also contribute to understand the solar influence on the Sun-Earth environments with synergetic wide-field observations from ground-based and other space missions.

  4. Information as Object of Computer Science in Maritime Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utureanu Simona

    2017-01-01

    The use of Information Technology infrastructures and the Internet, in addition to economic, social and political benefits, may also lead to tensions. The issue of cyber security can be addressed by promoting international maritime cyber security interests in international alliances.

  5. Postmodernism and the Objectivity of the Social Sciences: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Postmodernism and objectivity in the Social Sciences: Redressing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Western Nuclear Science Alliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, Steve; Miller, George; Frantz, Stephen; Beller, Denis; Morse, Ed; Krahenbuhl, Melinda; Flocchini, Bob; Elliston, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The Western Nuclear Science Alliance (WNSA) was formed at Oregon State University (OSU) under the DOE Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education (INIE) program in 2002. The primary objective of the INIE program is to strengthen nuclear science and engineering programs at the member institutions and to address the long term goal of the University Reactor Infrastructure and Education Assistance Program. WNSA has been very effective in meeting these goals. The infrastructure at several of the WNSA university nuclear reactors has been upgraded significantly, as have classroom and laboratory facilities for Nuclear Engineering, Health Physics, and Radiochemistry students and faculty. Major nuclear-related education programs have been inaugurated, including considerable assistance by WNSA universities to other university nuclear programs. Research has also been enhanced under WNSA, as has outreach to pre-college and college students and faculty. The INIE program under WNSA has been an exceptional boost to the nuclear programs at the eight funded WNSA universities. In subsequent years under INIE these programs have expanded even further in terms of new research facilities, research reactor renovations, expanded educational opportunities, and extended cooperation and collaboration between universities, national laboratories, and nuclear utilities.

  8. Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Materials Science Program is structured so that NASA s headquarters is responsible for the program content and selection, through the Enterprise Scientist, and MSFC provides for implementation of ground and flight programs with a Discipline Scientist and Discipline Manager. The Discipline Working Group of eminent scientists from outside of NASA acts in an advisory capacity and writes the Discipline Document from which the NRA content is derived. The program is reviewed approximately every three years by groups such as the Committee on Microgravity Research, the National Materials Advisory Board, and the OBPR Maximization and Prioritization (ReMaP) Task Force. The flight program has had as many as twenty-six principal investigators (PIs) in flight or flight definition stage, with the numbers of PIs in the future dependent on the results of the ReMaP Task Force and internal reviews. Each project has a NASA-appointed Project Scientist, considered a half-time job, who assists the PI in understanding and preparing for internal reviews such as the Science Concept Review and Requirements Definition Review. The Project Scientist also insures that the PI gets the maximum science support from MSFC, represents the PI to the MSFC community, and collaborates with the Project Manager to insure the project is well-supported and remains vital. Currently available flight equipment includes the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) and Microgravity Science Glovebox. Ground based projects fall into one or more of several categories. Intellectual Underpinning of Flight Program projects include theoretical studies backed by modeling and computer simulations; bring to maturity new research, often by young researchers, and may include preliminary short duration low gravity experiments in the KC-135 aircraft or drop tube; enable characterization of data sets from previous flights; and provide thermophysical property determinations to aid PIs. Radiation Shielding and preliminary In

  9. Science and students: Yucca Mountain project's education outreach program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, A.V.; Larkin, E.L.; Reilly, B.; Austin, P.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is very concerned about the lack of understanding of basic science. Increasingly, critical decisions regarding the use of energy, technology, and the environment are being made. A well-educated and science-literate public is vital to the success of these decisions. Science education and school instruction are integral parts of the DOE's public outreach program on the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). Project staff and scientists speak to elementary, junior high, high school, and university students, accepting all speaking invitations. The objectives of this outreach program include the following: (1) educating Nevada students about the concept of a high-level nuclear waste repository; (2) increasing awareness of energy and environmental issues; (3) helping students understand basic concepts of earth science and geology in relation to siting a potential repository; and (4) giving students information about careers in science and engineering

  10. Energy resource allocation using multi-objective goal programming: the case of Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezher, T.; Chedid, R.; Zahabi, W.

    1998-01-01

    The traditional energy-resources allocation problem is concerned with the allocation of limited resources among the end-uses such that the overall return is maximized. In the past, several techniques have been used to deal with such a problem. In this paper, the energy allocation process is looked at from two points of view: economy and environment. The economic objectives include costs, efficiency, energy conservation, and employment generation. The environmental objectives consider environmental friendliness factors. The objective functions are first quantified and then transformed into mathematical language to obtain a multi-objective allocation model based upon pre-emptive goal programming techniques. The proposed method allows decision-makers to encourage or discourage specific energy resources for the various household end-uses. The case of Lebanon is examined to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed technique. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Primary Science Interview: Science Sparks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    In this "Primary Science" interview, Lynne Bianchi talks with Emma Vanstone about "Science Sparks," which is a website full of creative, fun, and exciting science activity ideas for children of primary-school age. "Science Sparks" started with the aim of inspiring more parents to do science at home with their…

  12. Specialized science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2014-04-01

    As the body of scientific knowledge in a discipline increases, there is pressure for specialization. Fields spawn subfields that then become entities in themselves that promote further specialization. The process by which scientists join specialized groups has remarkable similarities to the guild system of the middle ages. The advantages of specialization of science include efficiency, the establishment of normative standards, and the potential for greater rigor in experimental research. However, specialization also carries risks of monopoly, monotony, and isolation. The current tendency to judge scientific work by the impact factor of the journal in which it is published may have roots in overspecialization, as scientists are less able to critically evaluate work outside their field than before. Scientists in particular define themselves through group identity and adopt practices that conform to the expectations and dynamics of such groups. As part of our continuing analysis of issues confronting contemporary science, we analyze the emergence and consequences of specialization in science, with a particular emphasis on microbiology, a field highly vulnerable to balkanization along microbial phylogenetic boundaries, and suggest that specialization carries significant costs. We propose measures to mitigate the detrimental effects of scientific specialism.

  13. Science policy up close

    CERN Document Server

    Marburger, John H

    2015-01-01

    In a career that included tenures as president of Stony Brook University, director of Brookhaven National Laboratory, and science advisor to President George W. Bush, John Marburger (1941 2011) found himself on the front line of battles that pulled science ever deeper into the political arena. From nuclear power to global warming and stem cell research, science controversies, he discovered, are never just about science. Science Policy Up Close" presents Marburger s reflections on the challenges science administrators face in the twenty-first century. In each phase of public service Marburger came into contact with a new dimension of science policy. The Shoreham Commission exposed him to the problem of handling a volatile public controversy over nuclear power. The Superconducting Super Collider episode gave him insights into the collision between government requirements and scientists expectations and feelings of entitlement. The Directorship of Brookhaven taught him how to talk to the public about the risks ...

  14. Effects of Selected Object Characteristics on Object Permanence Test Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingle, Kathleen M.; Lingle, John H.

    A study was conducted to investigate the degree to which both object familiarity and motivational factors influence infants' search behavior in an object permanence test. Infants' search behavior for an unfamiliar test object was compared with search behavior for (a) an experientially familiar object that each infant had played with daily for a…

  15. Programming in an object-oriented environment

    CERN Document Server

    Ege, Raimund K

    1992-01-01

    Programming in an Object-Oriented Environment provides an in-depth look at the concepts behind the technology of object-oriented programming.This book explains why object-oriented programming has the potential to vastly improve the productivity of programmers and how to apply this technology in a practical environment. Many programming examples are included, focusing on how different programming languages support the core of object-oriented concepts. C++ is used as the main sample language throughout this text.This monograph consists of two major parts. Part I provides an introduction to objec

  16. Science blogging

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Christie

    2016-01-01

    Here is the essential how-to guide for communicating scientific research and discoveries online, ideal for journalists, researchers, and public information officers looking to reach a wide lay audience. Drawing on the cumulative experience of twenty-seven of the greatest minds in scientific communication, this invaluable handbook targets the specific questions and concerns of the scientific community, offering help in a wide range of digital areas, including blogging, creating podcasts, tweeting, and more. With step-by-step guidance and one-stop expertise, this is the book every scientist, science writer, and practitioner needs to approach the Wild West of the Web with knowledge and confidence.

  17. Science Night

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Would it surprise you to know that you can measure the speed of light using chocolate and a microwave oven? If you're interested in this and in finding out much more, come along to the Museum of the History of Science on 3 and 4 July 2004, when dozens of companies, institutions, colleges and organizations will be running exhibits, shows, and displays on the theme of counting and measuring. CERN will be there with a display stand that includes two particle detectors. Full details are available from the Museum website at: http://www.lanuitdelascience.ch/

  18. Graphical Abstract: Publishing with Objective Charisma: Breaking Science’s Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Science, Animate Your

    2018-01-01

    Graphical abstract for Doubleday, Z. A., & Connell, S. D. (2017). Publishing with objective charisma: breaking science’s paradox. Trends in ecology & evolution, 32(11), 803-805.Graphical abstract by Animate Your Science (www.animate-science.com)

  19. Sentinel-3 for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, J.; Regner, P.; Desnos, Y. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Scientific Exploitation of Operational Mission (SEOM) programme element (http://seom.esa.int/) is part of the ESA's Fourth Earth Observation Envelope Programme (2013-2017). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM is enabling the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. The Programme is based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings such as the Sentinel-3 for Science Workshop held last June in Venice, Italy (see http://seom.esa.int/S3forScience2015). The 2015 SEOM work plan includes the launch of new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels, the development of open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes, the organization of advanced international training courses, summer schools and educational materials, as well as activities for promoting the scientific use of EO data, also via the organization of Workshops. This paper will report the recommendations from the International Scientific Community concerning the Sentinel-3 Scientific Exploitation, as expressed in Venice, keeping in mind that Sentinel-3 is an operational mission to provide operational services (see http://www.copernicus.eu).

  20. Science at the interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knorr Cetina, K.

    2004-01-01

    Laboratories have advantages One of these is that a laboratory science does not have to put up with its objects of investigation as they occur in nature. First, it does not need to accommodate a natural object where it is, anchored in a natural environment; laboratory sciences bring objects inside and manipulate them on their own terms in the lab. Second, a laboratory science need not accommodate an event when it happens; it can dispense with natural cycles of occurrence and make events happen frequently enough for continuous study. Third, a laboratory science does not have to put up with an object as it is; it can substitute transformed and partial versions. Dissociating natural objects from their environment and re-configuring them in the lab is not simple, but it has epistemic advantages when it can be accomplished. For example, the objects of interest tend to become miniaturized (cell cultures rather than whole plants, image measurements rather than cosmological objects), they tend to become continually available in laboratories world-wide for inquiry, and planetary and stellar time scales are replaced by the time scales of the social order. Laboratories also impose conditions, for example sharp boundaries between the internal and the external world. Most laboratories in the natural sciences have procedures (and walls) to fend off unwanted transgressions of objects from the natural and human environment which they see as potential contaminants. A wild-type mouse in a molecular biology lab is not, for example, an animal caught in the wild. It is a special mouse strain inbred over many generations in breeding labs to serve as a control in relevant experiments. Animals that live in the wild (or in the buildings where labs are located) are strictly prohibited from entering a lab facility as potential disease carriers and pollutants. Laboratories, then, are not only specialized places, they are places that set up barriers against the environment and attempt to raise

  1. Space Sciences Focus Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    To advance our understanding of the space environment (from the Sun to the Earth and beyond) and to advance our ability to operate systems in space that protect life and society. Space Science is distinct from other field, such as astrophysics or cosmology, in that Space Science utilizes in-situ measurements from high altitude rockets, balloons and spacecraft or ground-based measurements of objects and conditions in space.

  2. Case studies in conservation science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisulca, Christina

    The research presented in this dissertation covers three separate topics of conservation as defined by the National Science Foundation: 1) Materials Stabilization, Strengthening, Monitoring, and Repair; 2. Understanding Material Degradation and Aging; and 3) Materials and Structural Characterization of Cultural Heritage Objects (the 'technical study'). The first topic is addressed through a study to assess the consolidant tetraethoxysilane for the stabilization of alum treated wood. Falling under materials degradation studies is a study published in American Museum Novitates to understand how environmental conditions affect the aging of fossil resins from five different deposits. Two separate studies are included in technical study of cultural heritage objects which comprises the third research area of materials characterization. The first is a survey of red dyes used in Chinese paintings from the Ming Dynasty to the Early Republic (1364-1911). The second is a study of the pigments, dyes and binders used in Hawaiian barkcloth (kapa) from the 19th century.

  3. Object Oriented Software Development Using A Use-Cases Approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Object Oriented Software Development Using A Use-Cases Approach. ... to the analysis and design of an online banking system using the Use-Cases method of Jacobson. ... thus bringing the benefits of object orientation into important software projects. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management Vol.

  4. Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Nicholas

    2009-10-01

    Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious

  5. Surface Area Distribution Descriptor for object matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Gafar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Matching 3D objects by their similarity is a fundamental problem in computer vision, computer graphics and many other fields. The main challenge in object matching is to find a suitable shape representation that can be used to accurately and quickly discriminate between similar and dissimilar shapes. In this paper we present a new volumetric descriptor to represent 3D objects. The proposed descriptor is used to match objects under rigid transformations including uniform scaling. The descriptor represents the object by dividing it into shells, acquiring the area distribution of the object through those shells. The computed areas are normalised to make the descriptor scale-invariant in addition to rotation and translation invariant. The effectiveness and stability of the proposed descriptor to noise and variant sampling density as well as the effectiveness of the similarity measures are analysed and demonstrated through experimental results.

  6. COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAVENPORT,J.

    2004-11-01

    The Brookhaven Computational Science Center brings together researchers in biology, chemistry, physics, and medicine with applied mathematicians and computer scientists to exploit the remarkable opportunities for scientific discovery which have been enabled by modern computers. These opportunities are especially great in computational biology and nanoscience, but extend throughout science and technology and include for example, nuclear and high energy physics, astrophysics, materials and chemical science, sustainable energy, environment, and homeland security.

  7. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James; Niles, Paul; Eppler, Dean; Kennedy, Kriss; Lewis, Ruthan; Sullivan, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: This talk will introduce the preliminary findings in support of NASA's Future Capabilities Team. In support of the ongoing studies conducted by NASA's Future Capabilities Team, we are tasked with collecting re-search objectives for the Proving Ground activities. The objectives could include but are certainly not limited to: demonstrating crew well being and performance over long duration missions, characterizing lunar volatiles, Earth monitoring, near Earth object search and identification, support of a far-side radio telescope, and measuring impact of deep space environment on biological systems. Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will be enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long dura-tion spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fun-damental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground. Possible Architectures: Activities and objectives will be accomplished during the Proving Ground phase using a deep space habitat. This habitat will potentially be accompanied by a power/propulsion bus capable of moving the habitat to accomplish different objectives within cis-lunar space. This architecture can also potentially support stag-ing of robotic and tele-robotic assets as well as

  8. The DOE/NREL Environmental Science Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the several of the studies in the Environmental Science Program being sponsored by DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The goal of the Environmental Science Program is to understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources. The Program is regulatory-driven, and focuses on ozone, airborne particles, visibility and regional haze, air toxics, and health effects of air pollutants. Each project in the Program is designed to address policy-relevant objectives. Current projects in the Environmental Science Program have four areas of focus: improving technology for emissions measurements; vehicle emissions measurements; emission inventory development/improvement; ambient impacts, including health effects

  9. The DOE/NREL Environmental Science Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

    2001-05-14

    This paper summarizes the several of the studies in the Environmental Science Program being sponsored by DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The goal of the Environmental Science Program is to understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources. The Program is regulatory-driven, and focuses on ozone, airborne particles, visibility and regional haze, air toxics, and health effects of air pollutants. Each project in the Program is designed to address policy-relevant objectives. Current projects in the Environmental Science Program have four areas of focus: improving technology for emissions measurements; vehicle emissions measurements; emission inventory development/improvement; ambient impacts, including health effects.

  10. Ghana Science Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entsua-Mensah, C.

    2004-01-01

    This issue of the Ghana Science Abstracts combines in one publication all the country's bibliographic output in science and technology. The objective is to provide a quick reference source to facilitate the work of information professionals, research scientists, lecturers and policy makers. It is meant to give users an idea of the depth and scope and results of the studies and projects carried out. The scope and coverage comprise research outputs, conference proceedings and periodical articles published in Ghana. It does not capture those that were published outside Ghana. Abstracts reported have been grouped under the following subject areas: Agriculture, Biochemistry, Biodiversity conservation, biological sciences, biotechnology, chemistry, dentistry, engineering, environmental management, forestry, information management, mathematics, medicine, physics, nuclear science, pharmacy, renewable energy and science education

  11. Materials Science and Technology Teachers Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieda, Karen J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Bliss, Mary; Pitman, Stan G.; Eschbach, Eugene A.

    2008-09-04

    The Materials Science and Technology (MST) Handbook was developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in Richland, Washington, under support from the U.S. Department of Energy. Many individuals have been involved in writing and reviewing materials for this project since it began at Richland High School in 1986, including contributions from educators at the Northwest Regional Education Laboratory, Central Washington University, the University of Washington, teachers from Northwest Schools, and science and education personnel at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Support for its development was also provided by the U.S. Department of Education. This introductory course combines the academic disciplines of chemistry, physics, and engineering to create a materials science and technology curriculum. The course covers the fundamentals of ceramics, glass, metals, polymers and composites. Designed to appeal to a broad range of students, the course combines hands-on activities, demonstrations and long term student project descriptions. The basic philosophy of the course is for students to observe, experiment, record, question, seek additional information, and, through creative and insightful thinking, solve problems related to materials science and technology. The MST Teacher Handbook contains a course description, philosophy, student learning objectives, and instructional approach and processes. Science and technology teachers can collaborate to build the course from their own interests, strengths, and experience while incorporating existing school and community resources. The course is intended to meet local educational requirements for technology, vocational and science education.

  12. Computational Exposure Science: An Emerging Discipline to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Computational exposure science represents a frontier of environmental science that is emerging and quickly evolving.Objectives: In this commentary, we define this burgeoning discipline, describe a framework for implementation, and review some key ongoing research elements that are advancing the science with respect to exposure to chemicals in consumer products.Discussion: The fundamental elements of computational exposure science include the development of reliable, computationally efficient predictive exposure models; the identification, acquisition, and application of data to support and evaluate these models; and generation of improved methods for extrapolating across chemicals. We describe our efforts in each of these areas and provide examples that demonstrate both progress and potential.Conclusions: Computational exposure science, linked with comparable efforts in toxicology, is ushering in a new era of risk assessment that greatly expands our ability to evaluate chemical safety and sustainability and to protect public health. The National Exposure Research Laboratory’s (NERL’s) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA’s mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD’s research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA’s strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source

  13. Media, risk and science

    CERN Document Server

    Allan, Stuart

    2002-01-01

    How is science represented by the media? Who defines what counts as a risk, threat or hazard, and why? In what ways do media images of science shape public perceptions? What can cultural and media studies tell us about current scientific controversies? "Media, Risk and Science" is an exciting exploration into an array of important issues, providing a much needed framework for understanding key debates on how the media represent science and risk. In a highly effective way, Stuart Allan weaves together insights from multiple strands of research across diverse disciplines. Among the themes he examines are: the role of science in science fiction, such as "Star Trek"; the problem of 'pseudo-science' in "The X-Files"; and how science is displayed in science museums. Science journalism receives particular attention, with the processes by which science is made 'newsworthy' unravelled for careful scrutiny. The book also includes individual chapters devoted to how the media portray environmental risks, HIV-AIDS, food s...

  14. Coping with Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricard, Lykke Margot

    2003-01-01

    Life of Science, edited by Lykke Margot Ricard and Robin Engelhardt. Learning Lab Denmark, Copenhagen, pages 39-45. 2003 Short description: What makes children think about scientific inventions? In this case it was watching the news and listing to parents conversation that made a 12-year old...... schoolboy write an essay on the theme: ?The world would be a better place to live in if?!? Abstract: Science has a long tradition for emphasizing objectivity, but it is the emotional impact of science that makes children interested. Metaphors and personal experiences of the scientist can be a useful...

  15. Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis - Towards a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, Thomas; Hay, Geoffrey J; Kelly, Maggi; Lang, Stefan; Hofmann, Peter; Addink, Elisabeth; Queiroz Feitosa, Raul; van der Meer, Freek; van der Werff, Harald; van Coillie, Frieke; Tiede, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The amount of scientific literature on (Geographic) Object-based Image Analysis - GEOBIA has been and still is sharply increasing. These approaches to analysing imagery have antecedents in earlier research on image segmentation and use GIS-like spatial analysis within classification and feature extraction approaches. This article investigates these development and its implications and asks whether or not this is a new paradigm in remote sensing and Geographic Information Science (GIScience). We first discuss several limitations of prevailing per-pixel methods when applied to high resolution images. Then we explore the paradigm concept developed by Kuhn (1962) and discuss whether GEOBIA can be regarded as a paradigm according to this definition. We crystallize core concepts of GEOBIA, including the role of objects, of ontologies and the multiplicity of scales and we discuss how these conceptual developments support important methods in remote sensing such as change detection and accuracy assessment. The ramifications of the different theoretical foundations between the ' per-pixel paradigm ' and GEOBIA are analysed, as are some of the challenges along this path from pixels, to objects, to geo-intelligence. Based on several paradigm indications as defined by Kuhn and based on an analysis of peer-reviewed scientific literature we conclude that GEOBIA is a new and evolving paradigm.

  16. Tracking in Object Action Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Volker; Herzog, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    the space of the object affordances, i.e., the space of possible actions that are applied on a given object. This way, 3D body tracking reduces to action tracking in the object (and context) primed parameter space of the object affordances. This reduces the high-dimensional joint-space to a low...

  17. Object grammars and random generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dutour

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new systematic approach for the uniform random generation of combinatorial objects. The method is based on the notion of object grammars which give recursive descriptions of objects and generalize context-freegrammars. The application of particular valuations to these grammars leads to enumeration and random generation of objects according to non algebraic parameters.

  18. African Journal of Aquatic Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... The African Journal of Aquatic Science is an international journal devoted to the ... papers and short articles in all the aquatic science fields including limnology, ...

  19. Science Careers and Disabled Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagoda, Sue; Cremer, Bob

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes proceedings and student experiences at the 1980 Science Career Workshop for Physically Disabled Students at the Lawrence Hall of Science (University of California). Includes a description of the key-note speaker's topics, and other workshop activities. (DS)

  20. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Agricultural Sciences including Animal Production, Fisheries, Agronomy, Processing and Agricultural Mechanization. Related ...

  1. Elementary Science Indoors and Out: Teachers, Time, and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Sarah J.; Tugurian, Linda P.; Thomson, Margareta M.

    2013-10-01

    In this article, we present the results from a mixed-methods research study aimed to document indoor and outdoor fifth grade science experiences in one school in the USA in the context of accountability and standardized testing. We used quantitative measures to explore students' science knowledge, environmental attitudes, and outdoor comfort levels, and via qualitative measures, we examined views on science education and environmental issues from multiple sources, including the school's principal, teachers, and students. Students' science knowledge in each of the four objectives specified for grade 5 significantly improved during the school year. Qualitative data collected through interviews and observations found limited impressions of outdoor science. Findings revealed that, despite best intentions and a school culture that supported outdoor learning, it was very difficult in practice for teachers to supplement their classroom science instruction with outdoor activities. They felt constrained by time and heavy content demands and decided that the most efficient way of delivering science instruction was through traditional methods. Researchers discuss potentials and obstacles for the science community to consider in supporting teachers and preparing elementary school teachers to provide students with authentic experiential learning opportunities. We further confront teachers' and students' perceptions that science is always best and most efficiently learned inside the classroom through traditional text-driven instruction.

  2. Visual object recognition and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chu-Yin (Inventor); English, James D. (Inventor); Tardella, Neil M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    This invention describes a method for identifying and tracking an object from two-dimensional data pictorially representing said object by an object-tracking system through processing said two-dimensional data using at least one tracker-identifier belonging to the object-tracking system for providing an output signal containing: a) a type of the object, and/or b) a position or an orientation of the object in three-dimensions, and/or c) an articulation or a shape change of said object in said three dimensions.

  3. First-Class Object Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    Typically, objects are monolithic entities with a fixed interface. To increase the flexibility in this area, this paper presents first-class object sets as a language construct. An object set offers an interface which is a disjoint union of the interfaces of its member objects. It may also be used...... for a special kind of method invocation involving multiple objects in a dynamic lookup process. With support for feature access and late-bound method calls object sets are similar to ordinary objects, only more flexible. The approach is made precise by means of a small calculus, and the soundness of its type...

  4. Electronic Health Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almunawar, Mohammad Nabil; Anshari, Muhammad; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Kisa, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) store health-related patient information in an electronic format, improving the quality of health care management and increasing efficiency of health care processes. However, in existing information systems, health-related records are generated, managed, and controlled by health care organizations. Patients are perceived as recipients of care and normally cannot directly interact with the system that stores their health-related records; their participation in enriching this information is not possible. Many businesses now allow customers to participate in generating information for their systems, strengthening customer relationships. This trend is supported by Web 2.0, which enables interactivity through various means, including social networks. Health care systems should be able to take advantage of this development. This article proposes a novel framework in addressing the emerging need for interactivity while preserving and extending existing electronic medical data. The framework has 3 dimensions of patient health record: personal, social, and medical dimensions. The framework is designed to empower patients, changing their roles from static recipient of health care services to dynamic and active partners in health care processes. PMID:26660486

  5. U-Science (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borne, K. D.

    2009-12-01

    The emergence of e-Science over the past decade as a paradigm for Internet-based science was an inevitable evolution of science that built upon the web protocols and access patterns that were prevalent at that time, including Web Services, XML-based information exchange, machine-to-machine communication, service registries, the Grid, and distributed data. We now see a major shift in web behavior patterns to social networks, user-provided content (e.g., tags and annotations), ubiquitous devices, user-centric experiences, and user-led activities. The inevitable accrual of these social networking patterns and protocols by scientists and science projects leads to U-Science as a new paradigm for online scientific research (i.e., ubiquitous, user-led, untethered, You-centered science). U-Science applications include components from semantic e-science (ontologies, taxonomies, folksonomies, tagging, annotations, and classification systems), which is much more than Web 2.0-based science (Wikis, blogs, and online environments like Second Life). Among the best examples of U-Science are Citizen Science projects, including Galaxy Zoo, Stardust@Home, Project Budburst, Volksdata, CoCoRaHS (the Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow network), and projects utilizing Volunteer Geographic Information (VGI). There are also scientist-led projects for scientists that engage a wider community in building knowledge through user-provided content. Among the semantic-based U-Science projects for scientists are those that specifically enable user-based annotation of scientific results in databases. These include the Heliophysics Knowledgebase, BioDAS, WikiProteins, The Entity Describer, and eventually AstroDAS. Such collaborative tagging of scientific data addresses several petascale data challenges for scientists: how to find the most relevant data, how to reuse those data, how to integrate data from multiple sources, how to mine and discover new knowledge in large databases, how to

  6. FWP executive summaries, Basic Energy Sciences Materials Sciences Programs (SNL/NM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, G.A.

    1997-05-01

    The BES Materials Sciences Program has the central theme of Scientifically Tailored Materials. The major objective of this program is to combine Sandia`s expertise and capabilities in the areas of solid state sciences, advanced atomic-level diagnostics and materials synthesis and processing science to produce new classes of tailored materials as well as to enhance the properties of existing materials for US energy applications and for critical defense needs. Current core research in this program includes the physics and chemistry of ceramics synthesis and processing, the use of energetic particles for the synthesis and study of materials, tailored surfaces and interfaces for materials applications, chemical vapor deposition sciences, artificially-structured semiconductor materials science, advanced growth techniques for improved semiconductor structures, transport in unconventional solids, atomic-level science of interfacial adhesion, high-temperature superconductors, and the synthesis and processing of nano-size clusters for energy applications. In addition, the program includes the following three smaller efforts initiated in the past two years: (1) Wetting and Flow of Liquid Metals and Amorphous Ceramics at Solid Interfaces, (2) Field-Structured Anisotropic Composites, and (3) Composition-Modulated Semiconductor Structures for Photovoltaic and Optical Technologies. The latter is a joint effort with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Separate summaries are given of individual research areas.

  7. Object oriented programming in simulation of ions transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenyong; Wang Tongquan; Xiao Yabin; Dai Hongyi; Chen Yuzhong

    2001-01-01

    Using Object Oriented Programming (OOP) method can make our program more reliable and easier to read, debug, maintain and upgrade. This paper compared FORTRAN90-the language widely used in science computing with C ++ --An Object Oriented Language, and the conclusion was made that although FORTRAN90 have many deficiencies, it can be used in Object Oriented programming. Then OOP method was used in programming of Monte Carlo simulation of ions transport and the general process of OOP was given

  8. Evaluation Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    2018-01-01

    Culturally and politically science is under attack. The core consequence of perceiving and asserting evaluation as science is that it enhances our credibility and effectiveness in supporting the importance of science in our world and brings us together with other scientists to make common cause in supporting and advocating for science. Other…

  9. Science/s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Tricoire

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Un forum a été organisé en mars par la Commission européenne. Il s’appelait « Science in Society ». Depuis 2000 la Commission a mis en place un Plan d’Action élaboré pour que soit promue « la science » au sein du public, afin que les citoyens prennent de bonnes décisions, des décisions informées. Il s’agit donc de développer la réflexivité au sein de la société, pour que cette dernière agisse avec discernement dans un monde qu’elle travaille à rendre durable. ...

  10. Semantic Web Data Discovery of Earth Science Data at NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Mahabaleshwara; Strub, Richard F.; Lynnes, Christopher S.; Fang, Hongliang; Teng, William

    2008-01-01

    Mirador is a web interface for searching Earth Science data archived at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). Mirador provides keyword-based search and guided navigation for providing efficient search and access to Earth Science data. Mirador employs the power of Google's universal search technology for fast metadata keyword searches, augmented by additional capabilities such as event searches (e.g., hurricanes), searches based on location gazetteer, and data services like format converters and data sub-setters. The objective of guided data navigation is to present users with multiple guided navigation in Mirador is an ontology based on the Global Change Master directory (GCMD) Directory Interchange Format (DIF). Current implementation includes the project ontology covering various instruments and model data. Additional capabilities in the pipeline include Earth Science parameter and applications ontologies.

  11. Infrared spectroscopy of evolved objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, D.K.; Roche, P.F.

    1984-01-01

    In this review, the authors are concerned with spectroscopic observations of evolved objects made in the wavelength range 1-300μm. Spectroscopic observations can conveniently be divided into studies of narrow lines, bands and broader continua. The vibrational frequencies of molecular groups fall mainly in this spectral region and appear as vibration-rotation bands from the gas phase, and as less structured, but often broader, features from the solid state. Many ionic lines, including recombination lines of abundant species and fine structure lines of astrophysically important ions also appear in this region. The continuum can arise from a number of mechanisms - photospheric emission, radiation from dust, free-free transitions in ionized gas and non-thermal processes. (Auth.)

  12. Investigations in the Science of Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammrich, Penny L.; Fadigan, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Sisters in Sport Science (SISS) program which provides equitable access for girls to science and mathematics through sports. Includes a sample SISS activity that integrates track and physical sciences. (YDS)

  13. Adobe Boxes: Locating Object Proposals Using Object Adobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhiwen; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Zhu, Lei; Yuan, Junsong

    2016-09-01

    Despite the previous efforts of object proposals, the detection rates of the existing approaches are still not satisfactory enough. To address this, we propose Adobe Boxes to efficiently locate the potential objects with fewer proposals, in terms of searching the object adobes that are the salient object parts easy to be perceived. Because of the visual difference between the object and its surroundings, an object adobe obtained from the local region has a high probability to be a part of an object, which is capable of depicting the locative information of the proto-object. Our approach comprises of three main procedures. First, the coarse object proposals are acquired by employing randomly sampled windows. Then, based on local-contrast analysis, the object adobes are identified within the enlarged bounding boxes that correspond to the coarse proposals. The final object proposals are obtained by converging the bounding boxes to tightly surround the object adobes. Meanwhile, our object adobes can also refine the detection rate of most state-of-the-art methods as a refinement approach. The extensive experiments on four challenging datasets (PASCAL VOC2007, VOC2010, VOC2012, and ILSVRC2014) demonstrate that the detection rate of our approach generally outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, especially with relatively small number of proposals. The average time consumed on one image is about 48 ms, which nearly meets the real-time requirement.

  14. Transforming Elementary Science Teacher Education by Bridging Formal and Informal Science Education in an Innovative Science Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedinger, Kelly; Marbach-Ad, Gili; McGinnis, J. Randy; Hestness, Emily; Pease, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    We investigated curricular and pedagogical innovations in an undergraduate science methods course for elementary education majors at the University of Maryland. The goals of the innovative elementary science methods course included: improving students' attitudes toward and views of science and science teaching, to model innovative science teaching…

  15. K-6 Science Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueford, J. R.; And Others

    A unified science approach is incorporated in this K-6 curriculum mode. The program is organized into six major cycles. These include: (1) science, math, and technology cycle; (2) universe cycle; (3) life cycle; (4) water cycle; (5) plate tectonics cycle; and (6) rock cycle. An overview is provided of each cycle's major concepts. The topic…

  16. Methodological challenges when doing research that includes ethnic minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2016-01-01

    minorities are included. Method: A thorough literature search yielded 21 articles obtained from the scientific databases PubMed, Cinahl, Web of Science and PsychInfo. Analysis followed Arksey and O’Malley’s framework for scoping reviews, applying content analysis. Results: The results showed methodological...

  17. New science on the Open Science Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, R; Altunay, M; Sehgal, C [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Avery, P [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Bejan, A; Gardner, R; Wilde, M [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Blackburn, K [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Blatecky, A; McGee, J [Renaissance Computing Institute, Chapel Hill, NC 27517 (United States); Kramer, B; Olson, D; Roy, A [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Livny, M [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Potekhin, M; Quick, R; Wenaus, T [Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Wuerthwein, F [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)], E-mail: ruth@fnal.gov

    2008-07-15

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) includes work to enable new science, new scientists, and new modalities in support of computationally based research. There are frequently significant sociological and organizational changes required in transformation from the existing to the new. OSG leverages its deliverables to the large-scale physics experiment member communities to benefit new communities at all scales through activities in education, engagement, and the distributed facility. This paper gives both a brief general description and specific examples of new science enabled on the OSG. More information is available at the OSG web site: www.opensciencegrid.org.

  18. New science on the Open Science Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, R; Altunay, M; Sehgal, C; Avery, P; Bejan, A; Gardner, R; Wilde, M; Blackburn, K; Blatecky, A; McGee, J; Kramer, B; Olson, D; Roy, A; Livny, M; Potekhin, M; Quick, R; Wenaus, T; Wuerthwein, F

    2008-01-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) includes work to enable new science, new scientists, and new modalities in support of computationally based research. There are frequently significant sociological and organizational changes required in transformation from the existing to the new. OSG leverages its deliverables to the large-scale physics experiment member communities to benefit new communities at all scales through activities in education, engagement, and the distributed facility. This paper gives both a brief general description and specific examples of new science enabled on the OSG. More information is available at the OSG web site: www.opensciencegrid.org

  19. Implications of perspective in teaching objects first and object design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2005-01-01

    There are an increasing number of books published on the important topics of "object-oriented programming" and "object-oriented design" for use in education. However, object-orientation can be viewed from a number of different perspectives---each perspective having its benefits and liabilities...

  20. Science Fiction and Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Terence

    2002-01-01

    Uses science fiction films such as "Jurassic Park" or "Anaconda" to teach science concepts while fostering student interest. Advocates science fiction as a teaching tool to improve learning and motivation. Describes how to use science fiction in the classroom with the sample activity Twister. (YDS)

  1. Games in Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    , 2007). Some of these newer formats are developed in partnerships between research and education institutions and game developers and are based on learning theory as well as game design methods. Games well suited for creating narrative framework or simulations where students gain first-hand experience......This paper presents a categorisation of science game formats in relation to the educational possibilities or limitations they offer in science education. This includes discussion of new types of science game formats and gamification of science. Teaching with the use of games and simulations...... in science education dates back to the 1970s and early 80s were the potentials of games and simulations was discussed extensively as the new teaching tool ( Ellington et al. , 1981). In the early 90s the first ITC -based games for exploration of science and technical subjects was developed (Egenfeldt...

  2. Nuclear science teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    A Panel of Experts on Nuclear Science Teaching met in Bangkok from 15 to 23 July 1968 to review the present status of an need for teaching of topics related to nuclear science at the secondary and early university level including teacher training, and to suggest appropriate ways of introducing these topics into the science curricula. This report contains the contributions of the members of the Panel, together with the general conclusions and recommendations for the development of school and early university curricula and training programs, for the improvement of teaching materials and for the safest possible handing of radioactive materials in school and university laboratories. It is hoped that the report will be of use to all nuclear scientists and science educators concerned with modernizing their science courses by introducing suitable topics and experiments in nuclear science

  3. An Objective Theory of Probability (Routledge Revivals)

    CERN Document Server

    Gillies, Donald

    2012-01-01

    This reissue of D. A. Gillies highly influential work, first published in 1973, is a philosophical theory of probability which seeks to develop von Mises' views on the subject. In agreement with von Mises, the author regards probability theory as a mathematical science like mechanics or electrodynamics, and probability as an objective, measurable concept like force, mass or charge. On the other hand, Dr Gillies rejects von Mises' definition of probability in terms of limiting frequency and claims that probability should be taken as a primitive or undefined term in accordance with modern axioma

  4. Portsmouth Atmospheric Science School (PASS) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Clarence D.; Hathaway, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Portsmouth Atmospheric Science School Project (PASS) Project was granted a one-year no cost extension for 2001-2002. In year three of the project, objectives and strategies were modified based on the previous year-end evaluation. The recommendations were incorporated and the program was replicated within most of the remaining elementary schools in Portsmouth, Virginia and continued in the four middle schools. The Portsmouth Atmospheric Science School Project is a partnership, which includes Norfolk State University, Cooperating Hampton Roads Organizations for Minorities in Engineering (CHROME), NASA Langley Research Center, and the City of Portsmouth, Virginia Public Schools. The project seeks to strengthen the knowledge of Portsmouth Public Schools students in the field of atmospheric sciences and enhance teacher awareness of hands on activities in the atmospheric sciences. The project specifically seeks to: 1) increase the interest and participation of elementary and middle school students in science and mathematics; 2) strengthen existing science programs; and 3) facilitate greater achievement in core subjects, which are necessary for math, science, and technical careers. Emphasis was placed on providing training activities, materials and resources for elementary students (grades 3 - 5) and middle school students (grades 6 - 8), and teachers through a CHROME club structure. The first year of the project focused on introducing elementary students to concepts and activities in atmospheric science. Year two of the project built on the first year's activities and utilizes advanced topics and activities appropriate for middle school students. During the third year of the project, in addition to the approaches used in years one and two, emphasis was placed on activities that enhanced the Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL).

  5. Two Types of Visual Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypulec Błażej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available While it is widely accepted that human vision represents objects, it is less clear which of the various philosophical notions of ‘object’ adequately characterizes visual objects. In this paper, I show that within contemporary cognitive psychology visual objects are characterized in two distinct, incompatible ways. On the one hand, models of visual organization describe visual objects in terms of combinations of features, in accordance with the philosophical bundle theories of objects. However, models of visual persistence apply a notion of visual objects that is more similar to that endorsed in philosophical substratum theories. Here I discuss arguments that might show either that only one of the above notions of visual objects is adequate in the context of human vision, or that the category of visual objects is not uniform and contains entities properly characterized by different philosophical conceptions.

  6. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-11-09

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  7. Foreign Objects in the Rectum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abscess Anorectal Fistula Foreign Objects in the Rectum Hemorrhoids Levator Syndrome Pilonidal Disease Proctitis Rectal Prolapse (See ... Abscess Anorectal Fistula Foreign Objects in the Rectum Hemorrhoids Levator Syndrome Pilonidal Disease Proctitis Rectal Prolapse NOTE: ...

  8. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-01-08

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  9. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  10. Object Knowledge Modulates Colour Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Witzel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis.

  11. Object knowledge modulates colour appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Valkova, Hanna; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective) colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis. PMID:23145224

  12. Nature of Science Contextualized: Studying Nature of Science with Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tala, Suvi; Vesterinen, Veli-Matti

    2015-01-01

    Understanding nature of science (NOS) is widely considered an important educational objective and views of NOS are closely linked to science teaching and learning. Thus there is a lively discussion about what understanding NOS means and how it is reached. As a result of analyses in educational, philosophical, sociological and historical research,…

  13. Ritualized Space and Objects of Sacrosanctity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    : such areas, buildings, places, and objects, stand out as ritualized physical structures. In the West, historically, such traditions have included hierarchies of sacred places (e.g. Jerusalem, Mecca, Rome), defined by mythical events and religious memory; sacred bodies (dead or alive) as manifested......The idea that formalized performative acts may manifest sacrosanctity spatially or in specific physical objects is often brought out in descriptions of ritual practices. Rituals of sanctification or dedication of sacred areas, temples, churches, and objects of veneration provide well-known examples...... by different kinds of ordination or initiation (e.g. saints, kings, priests, ordinary Christians); sacred buildings, places, and objects (churches and monasteries with their precincts including graveyards; various kinds of vessels, reliquaries, altars, crucifixes, books, thrones, statues, pictures, etc). Each...

  14. Common Core Science Standards: Implications for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Thomas E.; Brigham, Frederick J.; Mastropieri, Margo A.

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core Science Standards represent a new effort to increase science learning for all students. These standards include a focus on English and language arts aspects of science learning, and three dimensions of science standards, including practices of science, crosscutting concepts of science, and disciplinary core ideas in the various…

  15. A Model for Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    1996-01-01

    We present a model for concurrent objects where obejcts interact by taking part in common events that are closely matched to form call-response pairs, resulting in resulting in rendez-vous like communications. Objects are built from primitive objects by parallel composition, encapsulation...

  16. Decoupling Object Detection and Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Michael L.; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether there exists a behavioral dependency between object detection and categorization. Previous work (Grill-Spector & Kanwisher, 2005) suggests that object detection and basic-level categorization may be the very same perceptual mechanism: As objects are parsed from the background they are categorized at the basic level. In…

  17. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon

  18. Theoretical Computer Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    The proceedings contains 8 papers from the Conference on Theoretical Computer Science. Topics discussed include: query by committee, linear separation and random walks; hardness results for neural network approximation problems; a geometric approach to leveraging weak learners; mind change...

  19. Object orientation affects spatial language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burigo, Michele; Sacchi, Simona

    2013-01-01

    Typical spatial descriptions, such as "The car is in front of the house," describe the position of a located object (LO; e.g., the car) in space relative to a reference object (RO) whose location is known (e.g., the house). The orientation of the RO affects spatial language comprehension via the reference frame selection process. However, the effects of the LO's orientation on spatial language have not received great attention. This study explores whether the pure geometric information of the LO (e.g., its orientation) affects spatial language comprehension using placing and production tasks. Our results suggest that the orientation of the LO influences spatial language comprehension even in the absence of functional relationships. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. Practice financing strategies should match investors' objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, S F; Stevenson, P B

    1999-05-01

    To successfully obtain capital financing, a group practice should develop a business plan that is tailored to the needs and objectives of the targeted investors. When evaluating possible funding sources, healthcare financial managers need to consider the group practice's growth objectives, geographic scope, intended use of the funding, and cash-flow potential and/or assets. Potential capital sources include internal funding; investments by healthcare organizations, health plans, private investors, and venture capitalists; borrowing from lenders; and public offerings.

  1. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  2. ROME (Request Object Management Environment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, M.; Good, J. C.; Berriman, G. B.

    2005-12-01

    Most current astronomical archive services are based on an HTML/ CGI architecture where users submit HTML forms via a browser and CGI programs operating under a web server process the requests. Most services return an HTML result page with URL links to the result files or, for longer jobs, return a message indicating that email will be sent when the job is done. This paradigm has a few serious shortcomings. First, it is all too common for something to go wrong and for the user to never hear about the job again. Second, for long and complicated jobs there is often important intermediate information that would allow the user to adjust the processing. Finally, unless some sort of custom queueing mechanism is used, background jobs are started immediately upon receiving the CGI request. When there are many such requests the server machine can easily be overloaded and either slow to a crawl or crash. Request Object Management Environment (ROME) is a collection of middleware components being developed under the National Virtual Observatory Project to provide mechanism for managing long jobs such as computationally intensive statistical analysis requests or the generation of large scale mosaic images. Written as EJB objects within the open-source JBoss applications server, ROME receives processing requests via a servelet interface, stores them in a DBMS using JDBC, distributes the processing (via queuing mechanisms) across multiple machines and environments (including Grid resources), manages realtime messages from the processing modules, and ensures proper user notification. The request processing modules are identical in structure to standard CGI-programs -- though they can optionally implement status messaging -- and can be written in any language. ROME will persist these jobs across failures of processing modules, network outages, and even downtime of ROME and the DBMS, restarting them as necessary.

  3. Water Integration Project Science Strategies White Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alan K. Yonk

    2003-01-01

    This white paper has been prepared to document the approach to develop strategies to address Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) science and technology needs/uncertainties to support completion of INEEL Idaho Completion Project (Environmental Management [EM]) projects against the 2012 plan. Important Idaho Completion Project remediation and clean-up projects include the 2008 OU 10-08 Record of Decision, completion of EM by 2012, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tanks, INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility, and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The objective of this effort was to develop prioritized operational needs and uncertainties that would assist Operations in remediation and clean-up efforts at the INEEL and develop a proposed path forward for the development of science strategies to address these prioritized needs. Fifteen needs/uncertainties were selected to develop an initial approach to science strategies. For each of the 15 needs/uncertainties, a detailed definition was developed. This included extracting information from the past interviews with Operations personnel to provide a detailed description of the need/uncertainty. For each of the 15 prioritized research and development needs, a search was performed to identify the state of the associated knowledge. The knowledge search was performed primarily evaluating ongoing research. The ongoing research reviewed included Environmental Systems Research Analysis, Environmental Management Science Program, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, Inland Northwest Research Alliance, United States Geological Survey, and ongoing Operations supported projects. Results of the knowledge search are documented as part of this document

  4. Water Integration Project Science Strategies White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan K. Yonk

    2003-09-01

    This white paper has been prepared to document the approach to develop strategies to address Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) science and technology needs/uncertainties to support completion of INEEL Idaho Completion Project (Environmental Management [EM]) projects against the 2012 plan. Important Idaho Completion Project remediation and clean-up projects include the 2008 OU 10-08 Record of Decision, completion of EM by 2012, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tanks, INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility, and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The objective of this effort was to develop prioritized operational needs and uncertainties that would assist Operations in remediation and clean-up efforts at the INEEL and develop a proposed path forward for the development of science strategies to address these prioritized needs. Fifteen needs/uncertainties were selected to develop an initial approach to science strategies. For each of the 15 needs/uncertainties, a detailed definition was developed. This included extracting information from the past interviews with Operations personnel to provide a detailed description of the need/uncertainty. For each of the 15 prioritized research and development needs, a search was performed to identify the state of the associated knowledge. The knowledge search was performed primarily evaluating ongoing research. The ongoing research reviewed included Environmental Systems Research Analysis, Environmental Management Science Program, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, Inland Northwest Research Alliance, United States Geological Survey, and ongoing Operations supported projects. Results of the knowledge search are documented as part of this document.

  5. [The role of science in policy making--EuSANH-ISA project, framework for science advice for health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciara, Dorota; Piotrowicz, Maria; Bielska-Lasota, Magdalena; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2012-01-01

    Governments and other authorities (including MPs) should be well informed on issues of science and technology. This is particularly important in the era of evidence-based practice. This implies the need to get expert advice. The process by which scientific knowledge is transmitted, along with proposals how to solve the problem, is called science advice. The main aim of the article is to discuss the issue of science advice--definitions, interaction between science and policymaking, and its position in contemporary policies. The second aim is to present European Science Advisory Network for Health (EuSANH), EuSANH-ISA project, and framework for science advice for health which was developed by participants. Furthermore, the role of civil society in decision-making process and science advice is also discussed. Interaction between scientists and policy-makers are described in terms of science-push approach (technocratic model), policy-pull (decisionistic) and simultaneous push-pull approach (pragmatic). The position of science advice is described in historical perspective from the 50s, especially in the last two decades. Description relies to USA, Canada and UK. Principles of scientific advice to government (Government Office for Science, UK) are quoted. Some important documents related to science advice in EU and UN are mentioned. EuSANH network is described as well as EuSANH-ISA project, with its objectives and outcomes. According to findings of this project, the process of science advice for health should follow some steps: framing the issue to be covered; planning entire process leading to the conclusion; drafting the report; reviewing the report and revision; publishing report and assessing the impact on policy.

  6. Indian Academy of Sciences: Home

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Founded in 1934 by Sir C V Raman the Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore was registered as a Society on 27 April 1934 with the main objective of promoting the progress and upholding the cause of science. The Academy began functioning with 65 Founding Fellows and the formal inauguration took place at the ...

  7. Interdisciplinary Science Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, P. J.; Hine, D.; Barnard, R. T.

    2013-01-01

    Science history shows us that interdisciplinarity is a spontaneous process that is intrinsic to, and engendered by, research activity. It is an activity that is done rather than an object to be designed and constructed. We examine three vignettes from the history of science that display the interdisciplinary process at work and consider the…

  8. Science Unit Plans. PACE '94.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoon, Kenneth J., Ed.; Wiles, Clyde A., Ed.

    This booklet contains mathematics unit plans for Biology, Chemistry, and Physical Science developed by PACE (Promoting Academic Excellence In Mathematics, Science & Technology for Workers of the 21st Century). Each unit plan contains suggested timing, objectives, skills to be acquired, workplace relationships, learning activities with suggested…

  9. SODA: Smart Objects, Dumb Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Shen, Stewart N. T.

    2004-01-01

    We present the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) model for digital libraries (DLs). The SODA model transfers functionality traditionally associated with archives to the archived objects themselves. We are exploiting this shift of responsibility to facilitate other DL goals, such as interoperability, object intelligence and mobility, and heterogeneity. Objects in a SODA DL negotiate presentation of content and handle their own terms and conditions. In this paper we present implementations of our smart objects, buckets, and our dumb archive (DA). We discuss the status of buckets and DA and how they are used in a variety of DL projects.

  10. Salient Object Detection via Structured Matrix Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Houwen; Li, Bing; Ling, Haibin; Hu, Weiming; Xiong, Weihua; Maybank, Stephen J

    2016-05-04

    Low-rank recovery models have shown potential for salient object detection, where a matrix is decomposed into a low-rank matrix representing image background and a sparse matrix identifying salient objects. Two deficiencies, however, still exist. First, previous work typically assumes the elements in the sparse matrix are mutually independent, ignoring the spatial and pattern relations of image regions. Second, when the low-rank and sparse matrices are relatively coherent, e.g., when there are similarities between the salient objects and background or when the background is complicated, it is difficult for previous models to disentangle them. To address these problems, we propose a novel structured matrix decomposition model with two structural regularizations: (1) a tree-structured sparsity-inducing regularization that captures the image structure and enforces patches from the same object to have similar saliency values, and (2) a Laplacian regularization that enlarges the gaps between salient objects and the background in feature space. Furthermore, high-level priors are integrated to guide the matrix decomposition and boost the detection. We evaluate our model for salient object detection on five challenging datasets including single object, multiple objects and complex scene images, and show competitive results as compared with 24 state-of-the-art methods in terms of seven performance metrics.

  11. Bottlenose dolphins perceive object features through echolocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Heidi E; Putman, Erika A; Roitblat, Herbert L

    2003-08-07

    How organisms (including people) recognize distant objects is a fundamental question. The correspondence between object characteristics (distal stimuli), like visual shape, and sensory characteristics (proximal stimuli), like retinal projection, is ambiguous. The view that sensory systems are 'designed' to 'pick up' ecologically useful information is vague about how such mechanisms might work. In echolocating dolphins, which are studied as models for object recognition sonar systems, the correspondence between echo characteristics and object characteristics is less clear. Many cognitive scientists assume that object characteristics are extracted from proximal stimuli, but evidence for this remains ambiguous. For example, a dolphin may store 'sound templates' in its brain and identify whole objects by listening for a particular sound. Alternatively, a dolphin's brain may contain algorithms, derived through natural endowments or experience or both, which allow it to identify object characteristics based on sounds. The standard method used to address this question in many species is indirect and has led to equivocal results with dolphins. Here we outline an appropriate method and test it to show that dolphins extract object characteristics directly from echoes.

  12. Literature and Science Create an Engaging Combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabham, Edna Greene

    1997-01-01

    Discusses programs and research that support the integration of literature and science. Reviews literature selections across a range of genres that complement topics included in middle school science, including science fiction and poetry. Considers resources educators can use to find additional science-related material. (JPB)

  13. Object recognition memory in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Zacnicte; Morrill, Adam; Holcombe, Adam; Johnston, Travis; Gallup, Joshua; Fouad, Karim; Schalomon, Melike; Hamilton, Trevor James

    2016-01-01

    The novel object recognition, or novel-object preference (NOP) test is employed to assess recognition memory in a variety of organisms. The subject is exposed to two identical objects, then after a delay, it is placed back in the original environment containing one of the original objects and a novel object. If the subject spends more time exploring one object, this can be interpreted as memory retention. To date, this test has not been fully explored in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish possess recognition memory for simple 2- and 3-dimensional geometrical shapes, yet it is unknown if this translates to complex 3-dimensional objects. In this study we evaluated recognition memory in zebrafish using complex objects of different sizes. Contrary to rodents, zebrafish preferentially explored familiar over novel objects. Familiarity preference disappeared after delays of 5 mins. Leopard danios, another strain of D. rerio, also preferred the familiar object after a 1 min delay. Object preference could be re-established in zebra danios by administration of nicotine tartrate salt (50mg/L) prior to stimuli presentation, suggesting a memory-enhancing effect of nicotine. Additionally, exploration biases were present only when the objects were of intermediate size (2 × 5 cm). Our results demonstrate zebra and leopard danios have recognition memory, and that low nicotine doses can improve this memory type in zebra danios. However, exploration biases, from which memory is inferred, depend on object size. These findings suggest zebrafish ecology might influence object preference, as zebrafish neophobia could reflect natural anti-predatory behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tribology. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, George D., Comp.

    Tribology is the science and technology of interacting surfaces in relative motion. It incorporates a number of scientific fields, including friction, wear, lubrication, materials science, and various branches of surface physics and surface chemistry. Tribology forms a vital part of engineering science. The interacting surfaces may be on machinery…

  15. E-SCIENCE: AN INTRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    , Sarhan M. Musa

    2017-01-01

    E-science refers to the type of scientific research that uses large-scale computing infrastructure to process very large amount of data. It is an interdisciplinary branch of science that explores and implements information technology platforms, which include computer networks, computer information technology, telecommunication, and computational methods. This paper provides a brief introduction to e-science.

  16. Home | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The 25 July 2016 issue of Current Science includes a compilation of nine articles ... These articles, authored by various medical experts, both from India and outside, ... India's current position on the regulation of Ayurvedic practice, research and ... journal of science education brought out by the Indian Academy of Sciences.

  17. The Need for Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Jane; Goode, Joanna; Bernier, David

    2011-01-01

    Broadening computer science learning to include more students is a crucial item on the United States' education agenda, these authors say. Although policymakers advocate more computer science expertise, computer science offerings in high schools are few--and actually shrinking. In addition, poorly resourced schools with a high percentage of…

  18. Science Curriculum Guide, Level 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newark School District, DE.

    The fourth of four levels in a K-12 science curriculum is outlined. In Level 4 (grades 9-12), science areas include earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics. Six major themes provide the basis for study in all levels (K-12). These are: Change, Continuity, Diversity, Interaction, Limitation, and Organization. In Level 4, all six themes are…

  19. Global Journal of Geological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Geological Sciences is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Geological Sciences including geochemistry, geophysics, engineering geology, hydrogeology, petrology, mineralogy, geochronology, tectonics, mining, structural geology, marine geology, space science etc. Visit the Global Journal Series ...

  20. Astromaterial Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Matthew E.

    Recent work has used large scale molecular dynamics simulations to study the structures and phases of matter in the crusts of neutron stars, with an emphasis on applying techniques in material science to the study of astronomical objects. In the outer crust of an accreting neutron star, a mixture of heavy elements forms following an X-ray burst, which is buried and freezes. We will discuss the phase separation of this mixture, and the composition of the crust that forms. Additionally, calculations of the properties of the crust, such as diffusion coefficients and static structure factors, may be used to interpret observations. Deeper in the neutron star crust, at the base of the inner crust, nuclei are compressed until they touch and form structures which have come to be called 'nuclear pasta.' We study the phases of nuclear pasta with classical molecular dynamics simulations, and discuss how simulations at low density may be relevant to nucleosynthesis in neutron star mergers. Additionally, we discuss the structure factor of nuclear pasta and its impact on the properties of the crust, and use this to interpret observations of crust cooling in low mass X-ray binaries. Lastly, we discuss a correspondence between the structure of nuclear pasta and biophysics.