WorldWideScience

Sample records for science instruments including

  1. The Science of String Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Rossing, Thomas D

    2010-01-01

    Many performing musicians, as well as instrument builders, are coming to realize the importance of understanding the science of musical instruments. This book explains how string instruments produce sound. It presents basic ideas in simple language, and it also translates some more sophisticated ideas in non-technical language. It should be of interest to performers, researchers, and instrument makers alike.

  2. The Juno Gravity Science Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Sami W.; Bolton, Scott J.; Buccino, Dustin R.; Cornish, Timothy P.; Folkner, William M.; Formaro, Roberto; Iess, Luciano; Jongeling, Andre P.; Lewis, Dorothy K.; Mittskus, Anthony P.; Mukai, Ryan; Simone, Lorenzo

    2017-11-01

    The Juno mission's primary science objectives include the investigation of Jupiter interior structure via the determination of its gravitational field. Juno will provide more accurate determination of Jupiter's gravity harmonics that will provide new constraints on interior structure models. Juno will also measure the gravitational response from tides raised on Jupiter by Galilean satellites. This is accomplished by utilizing Gravity Science instrumentation to support measurements of the Doppler shift of the Juno radio signal by NASA's Deep Space Network at two radio frequencies. The Doppler data measure the changes in the spacecraft velocity in the direction to Earth caused by the Jupiter gravity field. Doppler measurements at X-band (˜ 8 GHz) are supported by the spacecraft telecommunications subsystem for command and telemetry and are used for spacecraft navigation as well as Gravity Science. The spacecraft also includes a Ka-band (˜ 32 GHz) translator and amplifier specifically for the Gravity Science investigation contributed by the Italian Space Agency. The use of two radio frequencies allows for improved accuracy by removal of noise due to charged particles along the radio signal path.

  3. Critical Science Instrument Alignment of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Scott O.; Kubalak, David A.; Gracey, Renee M.; Sabatke, Derek S.; Howard, Joseph M.; Telfer, Randal C.; Zielinski, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the critical instrument alignment terms associated with the six-degree of freedom alignment of each the Science Instrument (SI) in the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), including focus, pupil shear, pupil clocking, and boresight. We present the test methods used during cryogenic-vacuum tests to directly measure the performance of each parameter, the requirements levied on each, and the impact of any violations of these requirements at the instrument and Observatory level.

  4. Bright THz Instrument and Nonlinear THz Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-30

    Report: Bright THz Instrument and Nonlinear THz Science The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and...Number: W911NF-16-1-0436 Organization: University of Rochester Title: Bright THz Instrument and Nonlinear THz Science Report Term: 0-Other Email: xi...exploring new cutting-edge research and broader applications, following the significant development of THz science and technology in the late 80’s, is the

  5. INSTRUMENTALISM IN SCIENCE: COMMENTS AND CRITICISMS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    that guide the scientist in making his decisions or a perceived system of procedural rules. ... to science, information and theories than an ... instrumentalists try to provide the foundation of ..... instrumentalism, which are practical rather than.

  6. Data Science and Some Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina SBUGHEA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is addressed to beginners, who want to form an overview on the field of Data Science, on the skills needed to access available IT tools, for obtaining meaningful and valuable analyzes in developing new strategies.

  7. Increased Science Instrumentation Funding Strengthens Mars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lee D.; Graff, T. G.

    2012-01-01

    As the strategic knowledge gaps mature for the exploration of Mars, Mars sample return (MSR), and Phobos/Deimos missions, one approach that becomes more probable involves smaller science instrumentation and integrated science suites. Recent technological advances provide the foundation for a significant evolution of instrumentation; however, the funding support is currently too small to fully utilize these advances. We propose that an increase in funding for instrumentation development occur in the near-term so that these foundational technologies can be applied. These instruments would directly address the significant knowledge gaps for humans to Mars orbit, humans to the Martian surface, and humans to Phobos/ Deimos. They would also address the topics covered by the Decadal Survey and the Mars scientific goals, objectives, investigations and priorities as stated by the MEPAG. We argue that an increase of science instrumentation funding would be of great benefit to the Mars program as well as the potential for human exploration of the Mars system. If the total non-Earth-related planetary science instrumentation budget were increased 100% it would not add an appreciable amount to the overall NASA budget and would provide the real potential for future breakthroughs. If such an approach were implemented in the near-term, NASA would benefit greatly in terms of science knowledge of the Mars, Phobos/Deimos system, exploration risk mitigation, technology development, and public interest.

  8. Astrbiology Science and Technology for Instrument Development (ASTID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Astrobiology Science and Technology for Instrument Development (ASTID) develops instrumentation capabilities to help meet Astrobiology science requirements on...

  9. Developing the TRYAD Science Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, K. T.; Jenke, P.; Briggs, M. S.; Fuchs, J.; Capps, L.

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are brief MeV gamma-ray flashes that are associated with thunderstorms, around 12km in altitude, and are viewed by orbiting satellites. These bright flashes of high energy photons were discovered in 1994. The two major models for TGFs that originate in thunderstorms are the Lightning Leader and Relativistic Feedback Discharge (RFD) model. Both depend on energetic electrons radiating via bremsstrahlung emission. The Lightning Leader model theorizes that lightning step leaders can accelerate electrons to relativistic speeds. The RFD model states that an energetic seed particle can be accelerated to relativistic speeds by strong electric fields inside of a thunderstorm. The main difference in the results of the two models is as follows; the Lightning Leader model results in a wider beam of gamma-rays than the RFD model because the electric field of a thunderstorm is more structured than that of lightning. The TRYAD mission will be the first to fly two detectors, inside CubeSats, in formation to detect TGFs from multiple points in the sky. The data from the CubeSats and the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) will likely provide enough insight to constrain or eliminate some of the existing models for TGFs.This summer was spent testing components and constructing the engineering model of the scientific instrument that will be used to detect TGFs. The detector is made up of four lead-doped plastic scintillators which are coupled to arrays of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). The signal from the SiPM array is then fed into a discriminator where a lower energy estimate can be determined and photon counts are recorded. I will present the progress made over the summer constructing the engineering model.

  10. Purging sensitive science instruments with nitrogen in the STS environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, J. M.; Noel, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    Potential contamination of extremely sensitive science instruments during prelaunch, launch, and earth orbit operations are a major concern to the Galileo and International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM) Programs. The Galileo Program is developing a system to purify Shuttle supplied nitrogen gas for in-flight purging of seven imaging and non-imaging science instruments. Monolayers of contamination deposited on critical surfaces can degrade some instrument sensitivities as much as fifty percent. The purging system provides a reliable supply of filtered and fried nitrogen gas during these critical phases of the mission when the contamination potential is highest. The Galileo and ISPM Programs are including the system as Airborne Support Equipment (ASE).

  11. Integrated Instrument Simulator Suites for Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanelli, Simone; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Matsui, Toshihisa; Hostetler, Chris; Hair, John; Butler, Carolyn; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Niamsuwan, Noppasin; Johnson, Michael P.; Jacob, Joseph C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Earth Observing System Simulators Suite (NEOS3) is a modular framework of forward simulations tools for remote sensing of Earth's Atmosphere from space. It was initiated as the Instrument Simulator Suite for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (ISSARS) under the NASA Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program of the Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) to enable science users to perform simulations based on advanced atmospheric and simple land surface models, and to rapidly integrate in a broad framework any experimental or innovative tools that they may have developed in this context. The name was changed to NEOS3 when the project was expanded to include more advanced modeling tools for the surface contributions, accounting for scattering and emission properties of layered surface (e.g., soil moisture, vegetation, snow and ice, subsurface layers). NEOS3 relies on a web-based graphic user interface, and a three-stage processing strategy to generate simulated measurements. The user has full control over a wide range of customizations both in terms of a priori assumptions and in terms of specific solvers or models used to calculate the measured signals.This presentation will demonstrate the general architecture, the configuration procedures and illustrate some sample products and the fundamental interface requirements for modules candidate for integration.

  12. The GLAST LAT Instrument Science Operations Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Robert A.; SLAC

    2007-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is scheduled for launch in late 2007. Operations support and science data processing for the Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument on GLAST will be provided by the LAT Instrument Science Operations Center (ISOC) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The ISOC supports GLAST mission operations in conjunction with other GLAST mission ground system elements and supports the research activities of the LAT scientific collaboration. The ISOC will be responsible for monitoring the health and safety of the LAT, preparing command loads for the LAT, maintaining embedded flight software which controls the LAT detector and data acquisition flight hardware, maintaining the operating configuration of the LAT and its calibration, and applying event reconstruction processing to down-linked LAT data to recover information about detected gamma-ray photons. The SLAC computer farm will be used to process LAT event data and generate science products, to be made available to the LAT collaboration through the ISOC and to the broader scientific community through the GLAST Science Support Center at NASA/GSFC. ISOC science operations will optimize the performance of the LAT and oversee automated science processing of LAT data to detect and monitor transient gamma-ray sources

  13. Advanced Instrumentation for Ultrafast Science at the LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrah, Nora [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2015-10-13

    This grant supported a Single Investigator and Small Group Research (SISGR) application to enable multi-user research in Ultrafast Science using the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the world’s first hard x-ray free electron laser (FEL) which lased for the first time at 1.5 Å on April 20, 2009. The goal of our proposal was to enable a New Era of Science by requesting funds to purchase and build Advanced Instrumentation for Ultrafast Science (AIUS), to utilize the intense, short x-ray pulses produced by the LCLS. The proposed instrumentation will allow peer review selected users to probe the ultrasmall and capture the ultrafast. These tools will expand on the investment already made in the construction of the light source and its instrumentation in both the LCLS and LUSI projects. The AIUS will provide researchers in the AMO, Chemical, Biological and Condensed Matter communities with greater flexibility in defining their scientific agenda at the LCLS. The proposed instrumentation will complement and significantly augment the present AMO instrument (funded through the LCLS project) through detectors and capabilities not included in the initial suite of instrumentation at the facility. We have built all of the instrumentations and they have been utilized by scientists. Please see report attached.

  14. Instrumentation between science, state and industry

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Terry

    2001-01-01

    these. In this book, we appropriate their conception of research-technology, and ex­ tend it to many other phenomena which are less stable and less localized in time and space than the Zeeman/Cotton situation. In the following pages, we use the concept for instances where research activities are orientated primarily toward technologies which facilitate both the production of scientific knowledge and the production of other goods. In particular, we use the tenn for instances where instruments and meth­ ods· traverse numerous geographic and institutional boundaries; that is, fields dis­ tinctly different and distant from the instruments' and methods' initial focus. We suggest that instruments such as the ultra-centrifuge, and the trajectories of the men who devise such artefacts, diverge in an interesting way from other fonns of artefacts and careers in science, metrology and engineering with which students of science and technology are more familiar. The instrument systems developed by re­ search-technolo...

  15. A Computer-Based Instrument That Identifies Common Science Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrabee, Timothy G.; Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the rationale for and development of a computer-based instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. The instrument, known as the Science Beliefs Test, is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. The use of an online data collection system…

  16. Instrumentation for Scientific Computing in Neural Networks, Information Science, Artificial Intelligence, and Applied Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    include Security Classification) Instrumentation for scientific computing in neural networks, information science, artificial intelligence, and...instrumentation grant to purchase equipment for support of research in neural networks, information science, artificail intellignece , and applied mathematics...in Neural Networks, Information Science, Artificial Intelligence, and Applied Mathematics Contract AFOSR 86-0282 Principal Investigator: Stephen

  17. Advances in SPECT Instrumentation (Including Small Animal Scanners). Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Domenico, G.; Zavattini, G.

    2009-01-01

    Fundamental major efforts have been devoted to the development of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging modality over the last few decades. Recently, a novel surge of interest in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) technology has occurred, particularly after the introduction of the hybrid SPECT-CT imaging system. This has led to a flourishing of investigations in new types of detectors and collimators, and to more accurate refinement of reconstruction algorithms. Along with SPECT-CT, new, fast gamma cameras have been developed for dedicated cardiac imaging. The existing gap between PET and SPECT in sensitivity and spatial resolution is progressively decreasing, and this trend is particularly apparent in the field of small animal imaging where the most important advances have been reported in SPECT tomographs. An outline of the basic features of SPECT technology, and of recent developments in SPECT instrumentation for both clinical applications and basic biological research on animal models is described. (author)

  18. New sources and instrumentation for neutron science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Alina, E-mail: a.gil@ajd.czest.pl [Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, JD University, Al. Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland)

    2011-04-01

    Neutron-scattering research has a lot to do with our everyday lives. Things like medicine, food, electronics, cars and airplanes have all been improved by neutron-scattering research. Neutron research also helps scientists improve materials used in a multitude of different products, such as high-temperature superconductors, powerful lightweight magnets, stronger, lighter plastic products etc. Neutron scattering is one of the most effective ways to obtain information on both, the structure and the dynamics of condensed matter. Most of the world's neutron sources were built decades ago, and although the uses and demand for neutrons have increased throughout the years, few new sources have been built. The new construction, accelerator-based neutron source, the spallation source will provide the most intense pulsed neutron beams in the world for scientific research and industrial development. In this paper it will be described what neutrons are and what unique properties make them useful for science, how spallation source is designed to produce neutron beams and the experimental instruments that will use those beams. Finally, it will be described how past neutron research has affected our everyday lives and what we might expect from the most exciting future applications.

  19. New sources and instrumentation for neutron science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Alina

    2011-01-01

    Neutron-scattering research has a lot to do with our everyday lives. Things like medicine, food, electronics, cars and airplanes have all been improved by neutron-scattering research. Neutron research also helps scientists improve materials used in a multitude of different products, such as high-temperature superconductors, powerful lightweight magnets, stronger, lighter plastic products etc. Neutron scattering is one of the most effective ways to obtain information on both, the structure and the dynamics of condensed matter. Most of the world's neutron sources were built decades ago, and although the uses and demand for neutrons have increased throughout the years, few new sources have been built. The new construction, accelerator-based neutron source, the spallation source will provide the most intense pulsed neutron beams in the world for scientific research and industrial development. In this paper it will be described what neutrons are and what unique properties make them useful for science, how spallation source is designed to produce neutron beams and the experimental instruments that will use those beams. Finally, it will be described how past neutron research has affected our everyday lives and what we might expect from the most exciting future applications.

  20. New seismic instrumentation packaged for all terrestrial environments (including the quietest observatories!).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Tim; Devanney, Peter; Bainbridge, Geoff; Townsend, Bruce

    2017-04-01

    The march to make every type of seismometer, weak to strong motion, reliable and economically deployable in any terrestrial environment continues with the availability of three new sensors and seismic systems including ones with over 200dB of dynamic range. Until recently there were probably 100 pier type broadband sensors for every observatory type pier, not the types of deployments geoscientists are needing to advance science and monitoring capability. Deeper boreholes are now the recognized quieter environments for best observatory class instruments and these same instruments can now be deployed in direct burial environments which is unprecedented. The experiences of facilities in large deployments of broadband seismometers in continental scale rolling arrays proves the utility of packaging new sensors in corrosion resistant casings and designing in the robustness needed to work reliably in temporary deployments. Integrating digitizers and other sensors decreases deployment complexity, decreases acquisition and deployment costs, increases reliability and utility. We'll discuss the informed evolution of broadband pier instruments into the modern integrated field tools that enable economic densification of monitoring arrays along with supporting new ways to approach geoscience research in a field environment.

  1. NASA SMD Airborne Science Capabilities for Development and Testing of New Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fladeland, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The SMD NASA Airborne Science Program operates and maintains a fleet of highly modified aircraft to support instrument development, satellite instrument calibration, data product validation and earth science process studies. This poster will provide an overview of aircraft available to NASA researchers including performance specifications and modifications for instrument support, processes for requesting aircraft time and developing cost estimates for proposals, and policies and procedures required to ensure safety of flight.

  2. Using and Developing Measurement Instruments in Science Education: A Rasch Modeling Approach. Science & Engineering Education Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng

    2010-01-01

    This book meets a demand in the science education community for a comprehensive and introductory measurement book in science education. It describes measurement instruments reported in refereed science education research journals, and introduces the Rasch modeling approach to developing measurement instruments in common science assessment domains,…

  3. Student Motivation in Science Subjects in Tanzania, Including Students' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkimbili, Selina Thomas; Ødegaard, Marianne

    2017-12-01

    Fostering and maintaining students' interest in science is an important aspect of improving science learning. The focus of this paper is to listen to and reflect on students' voices regarding the sources of motivation for science subjects among students in community secondary schools with contextual challenges in Tanzania. We conducted a group-interview study of 46 Form 3 and Form 4 Tanzanian secondary school students. The study findings reveal that the major contextual challenges to student motivation for science in the studied schools are limited resources and students' insufficient competence in the language of instruction. Our results also reveal ways to enhance student motivation for science in schools with contextual challenges; these techniques include the use of questioning techniques and discourse, students' investigations and practical work using locally available materials, study tours, more integration of classroom science into students' daily lives and the use of real-life examples in science teaching. Also we noted that students' contemporary life, culture and familiar language can be utilised as a useful resource in facilitating meaningful learning in science in the school. Students suggested that, to make science interesting to a majority of students in a Tanzanian context, science education needs to be inclusive of students' experiences, culture and contemporary daily lives. Also, science teaching and learning in the classroom need to involve learners' voices.

  4. Low-T, Low-Q Cryocoolers for Science Instruments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the planned research is to advance the current space science instruments through the development of light weight and low power cryocoolers. Currently,...

  5. Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) science instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, R.; Hing, S.M.; Leidich, C.A.; Fazio, G.; Houck, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Concepts of scientific instruments designed to perform infrared astronomical tasks such as imaging, photometry, and spectroscopy are discussed as part of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) project under definition study at NASA/Ames Research Center. The instruments are: the multiband imaging photometer, the infrared array camera, and the infrared spectograph. SIRTF, a cryogenically cooled infrared telescope in the 1-meter range and wavelengths as short as 2.5 microns carrying multiple instruments with high sensitivity and low background performance, provides the capability to carry out basic astronomical investigations such as deep search for very distant protogalaxies, quasi-stellar objects, and missing mass; infrared emission from galaxies; star formation and the interstellar medium; and the composition and structure of the atmospheres of the outer planets in the solar sytem. 8 refs

  6. Data, instruments, and theory a dialectical approach to understanding science

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, Robert John

    1985-01-01

    Robert John Ackermann deals decisively with the problem of relativism that has plagued post-empiricist philosophy of science. Recognizing that theory and data are mediated by data domains (bordered data sets produced by scientific instruments), he argues that the use of instruments breaks the dependency of observation on theory and thus creates a reasoned basis for scientific objectivity.

  7. Wavefront-Error Performance Characterization for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) Science Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronstein, David L.; Smith, J. Scott; Zielinski, Thomas P.; Telfer, Randal; Tournois, Severine C.; Moore, Dustin B.; Fienup, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The science instruments (SIs) comprising the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) were tested in three cryogenic-vacuum test campaigns in the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)'s Space Environment Simulator (SES). In this paper, we describe the results of optical wavefront-error performance characterization of the SIs. The wavefront error is determined using image-based wavefront sensing (also known as phase retrieval), and the primary data used by this process are focus sweeps, a series of images recorded by the instrument under test in its as-used configuration, in which the focal plane is systematically changed from one image to the next. High-precision determination of the wavefront error also requires several sources of secondary data, including 1) spectrum, apodization, and wavefront-error characterization of the optical ground-support equipment (OGSE) illumination module, called the OTE Simulator (OSIM), 2) plate scale measurements made using a Pseudo-Nonredundant Mask (PNRM), and 3) pupil geometry predictions as a function of SI and field point, which are complicated because of a tricontagon-shaped outer perimeter and small holes that appear in the exit pupil due to the way that different light sources are injected into the optical path by the OGSE. One set of wavefront-error tests, for the coronagraphic channel of the Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) Longwave instruments, was performed using data from transverse translation diversity sweeps instead of focus sweeps, in which a sub-aperture is translated andor rotated across the exit pupil of the system.Several optical-performance requirements that were verified during this ISIM-level testing are levied on the uncertainties of various wavefront-error-related quantities rather than on the wavefront errors themselves. This paper also describes the methodology, based on Monte Carlo simulations of the wavefront-sensing analysis of focus-sweep data, used to establish the

  8. Clinton administration budget includes mixed bag for science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    The $1,766 trillion federal budget proposal that the Clinton Administration rolled out on February 1—which promises to protect Social Security and Medicare and work within mandated budget caps—generally provides favorable news for federally funded science research and development.Within the 17% ($592 billion) of the federal budget earmarked for discretionary spending, the Administration's budget proposal increases funding for nondefense research and development for the seventh year in a row. This includes increased funding for a number of science accounts and money for a series of new science initiatives.

  9. Remote Instrumentation for eScience and Related Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Lawenda, Marcin; Meyer, Norbert; Pugliese, Roberto; Węglarz, Jan; Zappatore, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Making scientific instruments a manageable resource over distributed computing infrastructures such as the grid has been a key focal point of e-science research in recent years. It is now known by the generic term ‘remote instrumentation’, and is the subject of this useful volume that covers a range of perspectives on the topic reflected by the contributions to the 2010 workshop on remote instrumentation held in Poznań, Poland. E-science itself is a complex set of disciplines requiring computationally intensive distributed operations, high-speed networking, and collaborative working tools. As such, it is most often (and correctly) associated with grid- and cloud-computing infrastructures and middleware. The contributions to this publication consider broader aspects of the theme of remote instrumentation applied to e-science, as well as exploring related technologies that enable the implementation of truly distributed and coordinated laboratories. Among the topics discussed are remote instrumentation and ...

  10. Status of the JWST Integrated Science Instrument Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Dunn, Jamie; Kimble, Randy A.; Lambros, Scott; Lundquist, Ray; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Van Campen, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) is the science instrument payload of the JWST. It is one of three system elements that comprise the JWST space vehicle. It consists of four science sensors, a fine guidance sensor, and nine other subsystems that support them. At 1.4 metric tons, it comprises approximately 20% of the JWST mass. The ISIM is currently at 100% integration and has completed 2 of 3 planned element-level space simulation tests. The ISIM is on schedule to be delivered for integration with the Optical Telescope Element during 2015. In this poster, we present an overview of the ISIM and its status.

  11. Science Driven Instrumentation for LCLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, John [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bergmann, Uwe [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Brunger, Axel [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bostedt, Christoph [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Boutet, Sebastien [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bozek, John [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cocco, Daniele [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Devereaux, Tom [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ding, Yuantao [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Durr, Hermann [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fritz, David [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gaffney, Kelly [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Galayda, John [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Goldstein, Julia [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Guhr, Markus [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hastings, Jerome [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Heimann, Philip [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hodgson, Keith [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Huang, Zirong [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kelez, Nicholas [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Montanez, Paul [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2014-03-24

    The world’s first x-ray free electron laser (XFEL), LCLS, has now been operating for more than three years and all six experimental stations are supporting user science and producing high impact scientific results. Other countries are rapidly catching up and a second XFEL, SACLA, is already operating in Japan with others coming on line in Germany, Korea and Switzerland within the next three to five years. In order to increase capability and capacity of LCLS, the Department of Energy has funded LCLS-II.

  12. Downhole instrument including a flexible probe which can travel freely around bends in a borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson III, B. W. O.

    1985-01-01

    Bore hole instrument and methods of manufacturing and using the same. The instrument includes an elongated flexible probe which is inserted into a bore hole and can travel freely around bends of relatively short radius in the hole. The probe includes a plurality of sensors, explosive charges or the like which are spaced apart and embedded in a flexible body comprising a mass of cushioning material, with a flexible outer casing of fabric having a high tensile strength. The probe is driven into a bore hole in piston-like fashion, and the flexible body enables the probe to travel freely around bends of relatively short radius. Instrumentation for processing signals from the probe is located at the surface of the earth, and a flexible cable interconnects the instrumentation with the probe

  13. The OCO-3 Mission: Science Objectives and Instrument Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldering, A.; Basilio, R. R.; Bennett, M. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory 3 (OCO-3) will continue global CO2 and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) using the flight spare instrument from OCO-2. The instrument is currently being tested, and will be packaged for installation on the International Space Station (ISS) (launch readiness in early 2018.) This talk will focus on the science objectives, updated simulations of the science data products, and the outcome of recent instrument performance tests. The low-inclination ISS orbit lets OCO-3 sample the tropics and sub-tropics across the full range of daylight hours with dense observations at northern and southern mid-latitudes (+/- 52º). The combination of these dense CO2 and SIF measurements provides continuity of data for global flux estimates as well as a unique opportunity to address key deficiencies in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. The instrument utilizes an agile, 2-axis pointing mechanism (PMA), providing the capability to look towards the bright reflection from the ocean and validation targets. The PMA also allows for a snapshot mapping mode to collect dense datasets over 100km by 100km areas. Measurements over urban centers could aid in making estimates of fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Similarly, the snapshot mapping mode can be used to sample regions of interest for the terrestrial carbon cycle. In addition, there is potential to utilize data from ISS instruments ECOSTRESS (ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station) and GEDI (Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation), which measure other key variables of the control of carbon uptake by plants, to complement OCO-3 data in science analysis. In 2017, the OCO-2 instrument was transformed into the ISS-ready OCO-3 payload. The transformed instrument was thoroughly tested and characterized. Key characteristics, such as instrument ILS, spectral resolution, and radiometric performance will be described. Analysis of direct sun measurements taken during testing

  14. Portable instrumentation for quantitatively measuring radioactive surface contaminations, including 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodzinski, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    In order to measure the effectiveness of decontamination efforts, a quantitative analysis of the radiocontamination is necessary, both before and after decontamination. Since it is desirable to release the decontaminated material for unrestricted use or disposal, the assay equipment must provide adequate sensitivity to measure the radioactivity at or below the release limit. In addition, the instrumentation must be capable of measuring all kinds of radiocontaminants including fission products, activation products, and transuranic materials. Finally, the survey instrumentation must be extremely versatile in order to assay the wide variety of contaminated surfaces in many environments, some of which may be extremely hostile or remote. This communication describes the development and application of portable instrumentation capable of quantitatively measuring most transuranics, activation products, and fission products, including 90 Sr, on almost any contaminated surface in nearly any location

  15. Design and validation of a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Patricia Reda

    National standards for K--12 science education address all aspects of science education, with their main emphasis on curriculum---both science subject matter and the process involved in doing science. Standards for science teacher education programs have been developing along a parallel plane, as is self-efficacy research involving classroom teachers. Generally, studies about efficacy have been dichotomous---basing the theoretical underpinnings on the work of either Rotter's Locus of Control theory or on Bandura's explanations of efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancy. This study brings all three threads together---K--12 science standards, teacher education standards, and efficacy beliefs---in an instrument designed to measure science teacher efficacy with items based on identified critical attributes of standards-based science teaching and learning. Based on Bandura's explanation of efficacy being task-specific and having outcome expectancy, a developmental, systematic progression from standards-based strategies and activities to tasks to critical attributes was used to craft items for a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument. Demographic questions related to school characteristics, teacher characteristics, preservice background, science teaching experience, and post-certification professional development were included in the instrument. The instrument was completed by 102 middle level science teachers, with complete data for 87 teachers. A principal components analysis of the science teachers' responses to the instrument resulted in two components: Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Teaching (BAT, reliability = .92) and Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Student Achievement (BASA, reliability = .82). Variables that were characteristic of professional development activities, science content preparation, and school environment were identified as members of the sets of variables predicting the BAT and BASA

  16. Smartphone measurement engineering - Innovative challenges for science & education, instrumentation & training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, D.; Dittrich, P.-G.; Duentsch, E.

    2010-07-01

    Smartphones have an enormous conceptual and structural influence on measurement science & education, instrumentation & training. Smartphones are matured. They became convenient, reliable and affordable. In 2009 worldwide 174 million Smartphones has been delivered. Measurement with Smartphones is ready for the future. In only 10 years the German vision industry tripled its global sales volume to one Billion Euro/Year. Machine vision is used for mobile object identification, contactless industrial quality control, personalized health care, remote facility and transport management, safety critical surveillance and all tasks which are too complex for the human eye or too monotonous for the human brain. Aim of the paper is to describe selected success stories for the application of Smartphones for measurement engineering in science and education, instrumentation and training.

  17. Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation at the National Science Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczynski, Peter; Neff, James E.

    2018-01-01

    Over its more than thirty-year history, the Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation (ATI) program within the Division of Astronomical Sciences has provided grants to support the development and deployment of detectors and instrumentation for ground-based astronomy. This program has enabled scientific advances in diverse fields from solar physics to exoplanets to cosmology. ATI has provided instrumentation for both small and large observatories from radio through visible wavebands. It has played a role in the early development of major initiatives such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. Technology development for astronomy unfolds over a longer period than the lifetime of a single grant. This review will consider ATI from an historical perspective to assess its impact on astronomy.

  18. Remote Access to Instrumental Analysis for Distance Education in Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Kennepohl

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Remote access to experiments offers distance educators another tool to integrate a strong laboratory component within a science course. Since virtually all modern chemical instrumental analysis in industry now use devices operated by a computer interface, remote control of instrumentation is not only relatively facile, it enhances students’ opportunity to learn the subject matter and be exposed to “real world” contents. Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (NAIT and Athabasca University are developing teaching laboratories based on the control of analytical instruments in real-time via an Internet connection. Students perform real-time analysis using equipment, methods, and skills that are common to modern analytical laboratories (or sophisticated teaching laboratories. Students obtain real results using real substances to arrive at real conclusions, just as they would if they were in a physical laboratory with the equipment; this approach allows students to access to conduct instrumental science experiments, thus providing them with an advantageous route to upgrade their laboratory skills while learning at a distance.

  19. Mars Science Laboratory Using Laser Instrument, Artist's Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This artist's conception of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory portrays use of the rover's ChemCam instrument to identify the chemical composition of a rock sample on the surface of Mars. ChemCam is innovative for planetary exploration in using a technique referred to as laser breakdown spectroscopy to determine the chemical composition of samples from distances of up to about 8 meters (25 feet) away. ChemCam is led by a team at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements in Toulouse, France. Mars Science Laboratory, a mobile robot for investigating Mars' past or present ability to sustain microbial life, is in development at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory for a launch opportunity in 2009. The mission is managed by JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  20. Development and Validation of Nature of Science Instrument for Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacieminoglu, Esme; Yilmaz-Tüzün, Özgül; Ertepinar, Hamide

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop and validate an instrument for assessing elementary students' nature of science (NOS) views and to explain the elementary school students' NOS views, in terms of varying grade levels and gender. The sample included 782 students enrolled in sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Exploratory factor analysis…

  1. Preliminary Analysis of Assessment Instrument Design to Reveal Science Generic Skill and Chemistry Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarni, Woro; Sudarmin; Supartono, Wiyanto

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to design assessment instrument to evaluate science generic skill (SGS) achievement and chemistry literacy in ethnoscience-integrated chemistry learning. The steps of tool designing refers to Plomp models including 1) Investigation Phase (Prelimenary Investigation); 2) Designing Phase (Design); 3)…

  2. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised

  3. Recycled material-based science instruments to support science education in rural area at Central Sulawesi District of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M.; Supriyatman; Saehana, S.

    2018-03-01

    It has been successfully designing low cost of science experiment from recycled materials. The science instruments were produced to explain expansion concept and hydrostatic pressure inside the liquid. Science instruments were calibrated and then validated. It was also implemented in science learning.

  4. Planning for Planetary Science Mission Including Resource Prospecting, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advances in computer-aided mission planning can enhance mission operations and science return for surface missions to Mars, the Moon, and beyond. While the...

  5. Prototyping a Global Soft X-Ray Imaging Instrument for Heliophysics, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, M. R.; Porter, F. S.; Sibeck, D. G.; Carter, J. A.; Chiao, M. P.; Chornay, D. J.; Cravens, T.; Galeazzi, M.; Keller, J. W.; Koutroumpa, D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We describe current progress in the development of a prototype wide field-of-view soft X-ray imager that employs Lobstereye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The prototype will provide proof-of-concept for a future flight instrument capable of imaging the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere. Such an instrument was proposed for the ESA AXIOM mission.

  6. Prototyping a Global Soft X-ray Imaging Instrument for Heliophysics, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Porter, F. Scott; Sibeck, David G.; Carter, Jenny A.; Chiao, Meng P.; Chornay, Dennis J.; Cravens, Thomas; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Keller, John W.; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; hide

    2012-01-01

    We describe current progress in the development of a prototype wide field-of-view soft X-ray imager that employs Lobster-eye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The prototype will provide proof-of-concept for a future flight instrument capable of imaging the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere. Such an instrument was proposed for the FSA AXIOM mission

  7. SOFIA science instruments: commissioning, upgrades and future opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erin C.; Miles, John W.; Helton, L. Andrew; Sankrit, Ravi; Andersson, B. G.; Becklin, Eric E.; De Buizer, James M.; Dowell, C. D.; Dunham, Edward W.; Güsten, Rolf; Harper, Doyal A.; Herter, Terry L.; Keller, Luke D.; Klein, Randolf; Krabbe, Alfred; Logsdon, Sarah; Marcum, Pamela M.; McLean, Ian S.; Reach, William T.; Richter, Matthew J.; Roellig, Thomas L.; Sandell, Göran; Savage, Maureen L.; Temi, Pasquale; Vacca, William D.; Vaillancourt, John E.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey E.; Young, Erick T.

    2014-07-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is the world's largest airborne observatory, featuring a 2.5 meter effective aperture telescope housed in the aft section of a Boeing 747SP aircraft. SOFIA's current instrument suite includes: FORCAST (Faint Object InfraRed CAmera for the SOFIA Telescope), a 5-40 μm dual band imager/grism spectrometer developed at Cornell University; HIPO (High-speed Imaging Photometer for Occultations), a 0.3-1.1μm imager built by Lowell Observatory; GREAT (German Receiver for Astronomy at Terahertz Frequencies), a multichannel heterodyne spectrometer from 60-240 μm, developed by a consortium led by the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy; FLITECAM (First Light Infrared Test Experiment CAMera), a 1-5 μm wide-field imager/grism spectrometer developed at UCLA; FIFI-LS (Far-Infrared Field-Imaging Line Spectrometer), a 42-200 μm IFU grating spectrograph completed by University Stuttgart; and EXES (Echelon-Cross-Echelle Spectrograph), a 5-28 μm highresolution spectrometer designed at the University of Texas and being completed by UC Davis and NASA Ames Research Center. HAWC+ (High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera) is a 50-240 μm imager that was originally developed at the University of Chicago as a first-generation instrument (HAWC), and is being upgraded at JPL to add polarimetry and new detectors developed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). SOFIA will continually update its instrument suite with new instrumentation, technology demonstration experiments and upgrades to the existing instrument suite. This paper details the current instrument capabilities and status, as well as the plans for future instrumentation.

  8. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  9. The design and implementation of the Dynamic Ionosphere Cubesat Experiment (DICE) science instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Steven Reed

    Dynamic Ionosphere Cubesat Experiment (DICE) is a satellite project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to study the ionosphere, more particularly Storm Enhanced Densities (SED) with a payload consisting of plasma diagnostic instrumentation. Three instruments onboard DICE include an Electric Field Probe (EFP), Ion Langmuir Probe (ILP), and Three Axis Magnetometer (TAM). The EFP measures electric fields from +/-8V and consists of three channels a DC to 40Hz channel, a Floating Potential Probe (FPP), and an spectrographic channel with four bands from 16Hz to 512Hz. The ILP measures plasma densities from 1x104 cm--3 to 2x107 cm--3. The TAM measures magnetic field strength with a range +/-0.5 Gauss with a sensitivity of 2nT. To achieve desired mission requirements careful selection of instrument requirements and planning of the instrumentation design to achieve mission success. The analog design of each instrument is described in addition to the digital framework required to sample the science data at a 70Hz rate and prepare the data for the Command and Data Handing (C&DH) system. Calibration results are also presented and show fulfillment of the mission and instrumentation requirements.

  10. Measuring primary teachers' attitudes toward teaching science: development of the dimensions of attitude toward science (DAS) instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Julie Henriëtte

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a valid and reliable instrument which measures the attitude of in-service and pre-service primary teachers toward teaching science, called the Dimensions of Attitude Toward Science (DAS) Instrument. Attention to the attitudes of primary teachers toward teaching science is

  11. Measuring Primary Teachers' Attitudes toward Teaching Science: Development of the Dimensions of Attitude toward Science (DAS) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Juliette

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a valid and reliable instrument which measures the attitude of in-service and pre-service primary teachers toward teaching science, called the Dimensions of Attitude Toward Science (DAS) Instrument. Attention to the attitudes of primary teachers toward teaching science is of fundamental importance to the…

  12. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  13. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  14. What Are They Thinking? The Development and Use of an Instrument that Identifies Common Science Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles R.; Larrabee, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the rationale for, and development of, an online instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. Science Beliefs is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. It utilizes a true or false, along with a written-explanation, format. The true or…

  15. A new instrument to assess physician skill at thoracic ultrasound, including pleural effusion markup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamonsen, Matthew; McGrath, David; Steiler, Geoff; Ware, Robert; Colt, Henri; Fielding, David

    2013-09-01

    To reduce complications and increase success, thoracic ultrasound is recommended to guide all chest drainage procedures. Despite this, no tools currently exist to assess proceduralist training or competence. This study aims to validate an instrument to assess physician skill at performing thoracic ultrasound, including effusion markup, and examine its validity. We developed an 11-domain, 100-point assessment sheet in line with British Thoracic Society guidelines: the Ultrasound-Guided Thoracentesis Skills and Tasks Assessment Test (UGSTAT). The test was used to assess 22 participants (eight novices, seven intermediates, seven advanced) on two occasions while performing thoracic ultrasound on a pleural effusion phantom. Each test was scored by two blinded expert examiners. Validity was examined by assessing the ability of the test to stratify participants according to expected skill level (analysis of variance) and demonstrating test-retest and intertester reproducibility by comparison of repeated scores (mean difference [95% CI] and paired t test) and the intraclass correlation coefficient. Mean scores for the novice, intermediate, and advanced groups were 49.3, 73.0, and 91.5 respectively, which were all significantly different (P < .0001). There were no significant differences between repeated scores. Procedural training on mannequins prior to unsupervised performance on patients is rapidly becoming the standard in medical education. This study has validated the UGSTAT, which can now be used to determine the adequacy of thoracic ultrasound training prior to clinical practice. It is likely that its role could be extended to live patients, providing a way to document ongoing procedural competence.

  16. Development of perceived instrumentality for mathematics, reading and science curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Steve L.

    Perceptions of instrumentality (PI) are the connections one sees between a current activity and a future goal. With high PI, one is motivated to persist with quality effort because the current activity, even when difficult, is perceived as aligned with, and progress toward, the goal. Conversely, with low PI, one is motivated to relinquish effort in pursuit of other, more meaningful goals. In view of the alarming dropout rates in this country, it appears that PI research has much to offer in understanding students' motivations to stay in school and hence to become employed in their field of choice. Because academic achievement motivation can be affected by gender and ethnicity, particularly for specific components of the curriculum, and because curricular content varies across grade levels and school settings, this line of research offers significant potential for understanding and improving student outcomes. This research examined the development of PI among suburban 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th graders from a school district in the southwestern United States. Twelve hundred students completed a one-time paper and pencil survey measuring the perceived instrumentality of mathematics, literacy and science courses in terms of the students' occupational choices. MANOVA was used to determine factors that may affect students' overall PI and individual subject PI. Grade, gender, ethnicity, occupational choice, expectancy and value were the independent variables. A school setting variable was examined for effects on 12th graders. For the 8th through 12th grade sample, significant main effects were observed for grade, gender, minority status, occupational choice and expectancy on PI. Results show that PI is highest in the 6 th grade. Males reported higher Math PI than females. Females reported higher Reading PI and Science PI than males. Minority students reported lower overall PI and Science PI than non-minority students. Students who aspire to professional careers report the

  17. ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter Instrument Modelling Approach to Streamline Science Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Fernandez, Michela; Frew, David; Ashman, Michael; Cardesin Moinelo, Alejandro; Garcia Beteta, Juan Jose; Geiger, Bernhard; Metcalfe, Leo; Nespoli, Federico; Muniz Solaz, Carlos

    2018-05-01

    ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) science operations activities are centralised at ESAC's Science Operations Centre (SOC). The SOC receives the inputs from the principal investigators (PIs) in order to implement and deliver the spacecraft pointing requests and instrument timelines to the Mission Operations Centre (MOC). The high number of orbits per planning cycle has made it necessary to abstract the planning interactions between the SOC and the PI teams at the observation level. This paper describes the modelling approach we have conducted for TGOís instruments to streamline science operations. We have created dynamic observation types that scale to adapt to the conditions specified by the PI teams including observation timing, and pointing block parameters calculated from observation geometry. This approach is considered and improvement with respect to previous missions where the generation of the observation pointing and commanding requests was performed manually by the instrument teams. Automation software assists us to effectively handle the high density of planned orbits with increasing volume of scientific data and to successfully meet opportunistic scientific goals and objectives. Our planning tool combines the instrument observation definition files provided by the PIs together with the flight dynamics products to generate the Pointing Requests and the instrument timeline (ITL). The ITL contains all the validated commands at the TC sequence level and computes the resource envelopes (data rate, power, data volume) within the constraints. At the SOC, our main goal is to maximise the science output while minimising the number of iterations among the teams, ensuring that the timeline does not violate the state transitions allowed in the Mission Operations Rules and Constraints Document.

  18. Optical instrumentation for science and formation flying with a starshade observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stefan; Scharf, Daniel; Cady, Eric; Liebe, Carl; Tang, Hong

    2015-09-01

    In conjunction with a space telescope of modest size, a starshade enables observation of small exoplanets close to the parent star by blocking the direct starlight while the planet light remains unobscured. The starshade is flown some tens of thousands of kilometers ahead of the telescope. Science instruments may include a wide field camera for imaging the target exoplanetary system as well as an integral field spectrometer for characterization of exoplanet atmospheres. We show the preliminary designs of the optical instruments for observatories such as Exo-S, discuss formation flying and control, retargeting maneuvers and other aspects of a starshade mission. The implementation of a starshade-ready WFIRST-AFTA is discussed and we show how a compact, standalone instrument package could be developed as an add-on to future space telescopes, requiring only minor additions to the telescope spacecraft.

  19. Construction and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Taiwanese Elementary Students' Attitudes toward Their Science Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Ling; Berlin, Donna

    2010-12-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the attitudes toward science class of fourth- and fifth-grade students in an Asian school culture. Specifically, the development focused on three science attitude constructs-science enjoyment, science confidence, and importance of science as related to science class experiences. A total of 265 elementary school students in Taiwan responded to the instrument developed. Data analysis indicated that the instrument exhibited satisfactory validity and reliability with the Taiwan population used. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.93 for the entire instrument indicating a satisfactory level of internal consistency. However, both principal component analysis and parallel analysis showed that the three attitude scales were not unique and should be combined and used as a general "attitudes toward science class" scale. The analysis also showed that there were no gender or grade-level differences in students' overall attitudes toward science class.

  20. On DESTINY Science Instrument Electrical and Electronics Subsystem Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhner, Semion; Benford, Dominic J.; Lauer, Tod R.

    2009-01-01

    Future space missions are going to require large focal planes with many sensing arrays and hundreds of millions of pixels all read out at high data rates'' . This will place unique demands on the electrical and electronics (EE) subsystem design and it will be critically important to have high technology readiness level (TRL) EE concepts ready to support such missions. One such omission is the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) charged with making precise measurements of the expansion rate of the universe to reveal vital clues about the nature of dark energy - a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to increase the rate of the expansion. One of three JDEM concept studies - the Dark Energy Space Telescope (DESTINY) was conducted in 2008 at the NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland. This paper presents the EE subsystem framework, which evolved from the DESTINY science instrument study. It describes the main challenges and implementation concepts related to the design of an EE subsystem featuring multiple focal planes populated with dozens of large arrays and millions of pixels. The focal planes are passively cooled to cryogenic temperatures (below 140 K). The sensor mosaic is controlled by a large number of Readout Integrated Circuits and Application Specific Integrated Circuits - the ROICs/ASICs in near proximity to their sensor focal planes. The ASICs, in turn, are serviced by a set of "warm" EE subsystem boxes performing Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based digital signal processing (DSP) computations of complex algorithms, such as sampling-up-the-ramp algorithm (SUTR), over large volumes of fast data streams. The SUTR boxes are supported by the Instrument Control/Command and Data Handling box (ICDH Primary and Backup boxes) for lossless data compression, command and low volume telemetry handling, power conversion and for communications with the spacecraft. The paper outlines how the JDEM DESTINY concept

  1. ANALYZE THE KNOWLEDGE INQUIRY SCIENCE PHYSICS TEACHER CANDIDATES WITH ESSENCE INQUIRY SCIENCE TEST INSTRUMENT OPTIKA GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Bunawan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this research to explore the relationship between ability of the knowledge essential features inquiry science and their reasons underlying sense of scientific inquiry for physics teacher candidates on content geometrical optics. The essential features of inquiry science are components that should arise during the learning process subject matter of geometrical optics reflectance of light on a flat mirror, the reflection of light on curved mirrors and refraction of light at the lens. Five of essential features inquiry science adopted from assessment system developed by the National Research Council. Content geometrical optics developed from an analysis of a college syllabus material. Based on the study of the essential features of inquiry and content develop the multiple choice diagnostic test three tier. Data were taken from the students who are taking courses in optics and wave from one the LPTK in North Sumatra totaled 38 students. Instruments showed Cronbach alpha reliability of 0.67 to test the essential features of inquiry science and 0.61 to there as on geometrical optics science inquiry.

  2. The Calibration Target for the Mars 2020 SHERLOC Instrument: Multiple Science Roles for Future Manned and Unmanned Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Bhartia, R.; Beegle, L.; Burton, A.; Ross, A.; Shahar, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman & Luminescence for Organics & Chemicals (SHERLOC) instrument is a deep ultraviolet (UV) Raman/fluorescence instrument selected as part of the Mars 2020 rover instrument suite. SHERLOC will be mounted on the rover arm and its primary role is to identify carbonaceous species in martian samples, which may be selected for inclusion into a returnable sample cache. The SHERLOC instrument will require the use of a calibration target, and by design, multiple science roles will be addressed in the design of the target. Samples of materials used in NASA Extravehicular Mobility unit (EMU, or "space suit") manufacture have been included in the target to serve as both solid polymer calibration targets for SHERLOC instrument function, as well as for testing the resiliency of those materials under martian ambient conditions. A martian meteorite will also be included in the target to serve as a well-characterized example of a martian rock that contains trace carbonaceous material. This rock will be the first rock that we know of that has completed a round trip between planets and will therefore serve an EPO role to attract public attention to science and planetary exploration. The SHERLOC calibration target will address a wide range of NASA goals to include basic science of interest to both the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD).

  3. Progress in instrumentation and control including the man-machine interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.; Pedersen, T.; Neboyan, V.

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses benefits and difficulties associated with the use of new digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems for nuclear applications. The rapid development of information technology has not been used to the same extent in the nuclear industry as in conventional industries. The most important reason for this under-representation is a de-facto moratorium for construction of new plants. In old nuclear power plants (NPPs) the new technology is used in modernisation projects and valuable experience has been obtained. The licensing of programmable systems presents new challenges especially for safety systems where a very high integrity is required. The paper discusses various aspects related to the use of the new systems for nuclear applications, it gives references to ongoing work of international organisations and to research that is seen as an effort to solve problems related to implementation of the new systems for nuclear applications. (author)

  4. Development of an instrument to measure student attitudes toward science fairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Claudia A.

    Science fairs are woven into the very fabric of science instruction in the United States and in other countries. Even though thousands of students participate in science fairs every year, no instrument to measure student attitudes toward partaking in this hands-on learning experience has been fully developed and available for school administrators and teachers to assess the perceived value that current students attribute to participation in science fairs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to continue the development and refinement of an instrument that measured student attitudes towards science fairs based on an unpublished instrument created by Michael (2005). The instrument developed and tested using 110 students at two different middle schools in southwest Virginia. The instrument consisted of 45 questions. After applying a principal component factor analysis, the instrument was reduced to two domains, enjoyment and value. The internal consistency of the instrument was calculated using Cronbach's alpha and showed good internal consistency of .89 between the two domains. Further analysis was conducted using a Pearson product-moment test and showed a significant positive correlation between enjoyment and value (r = .78). Demographic information was explored concerning the domains using a series of statistical tests, and results revealed no significant differences among race and science fair category. However, a significant difference was found among gender and students who won awards and those who did not. The conclusion was that further development and refinement of the instrument should be conducted.

  5. New instruments and science around SINQ. Lecture notes of the 4. summer school on neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furrer, A.

    1996-01-01

    The spallation neutron source at PSI will be commissioned towards the end of this year together with a set of first generation instruments. This facility should then be available for the initial scientific work after spring next year. One of the main goals of this year's summer school for neutron scattering was therefore the preparation of the potential customers at this facility for its scientific exploitation. In order to give them the - so to speak - last finish, we have dedicated the school to the discussion of the instruments at SINQ and their scientific potential. These proceedings are divided into two parts: Part A gives a complete description of the first-generation instruments and sample environment at SINQ. For all the instruments the relevant parameters for planning experiments are listed. Part A is completed by G. Bauer's summary on experimental facilities and future developments at SINQ. Part B presents the lecture notes dealing with relevant applications of neutron based techniques in science and technology. The summary lecture by S.W. Lovesey is also included. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  6. New instruments and science around SINQ. Lecture notes of the 4. summer school on neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furrer, A [ed.

    1996-11-01

    The spallation neutron source at PSI will be commissioned towards the end of this year together with a set of first generation instruments. This facility should then be available for the initial scientific work after spring next year. One of the main goals of this year`s summer school for neutron scattering was therefore the preparation of the potential customers at this facility for its scientific exploitation. In order to give them the - so to speak - last finish, we have dedicated the school to the discussion of the instruments at SINQ and their scientific potential. These proceedings are divided into two parts: Part A gives a complete description of the first-generation instruments and sample environment at SINQ. For all the instruments the relevant parameters for planning experiments are listed. Part A is completed by G. Bauer`s summary on experimental facilities and future developments at SINQ. Part B presents the lecture notes dealing with relevant applications of neutron based techniques in science and technology. The summary lecture by S.W. Lovesey is also included. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  7. INSTRUMENTS OF SUPPORT FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FUNDED BY LEADING DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina E. Ilina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: one of the key aspects of the knowledge economy development is the growing significance of the results of research and development. The education and basic research play a key role in this process. Funding for education and fundamental science is carried out mainly at the expense of the state resources, including a system of foundations for scientific, engineering and innovation activities in Russia. The purpose of this article is to present recommendations for improving the tools of domestic foundations in funding fundamental research and development, including education and training. The propositions are made with a comparative analysis of the domestic and foreign science foun dations’ activities. Materials and Methods: the authors used analysis, comparison, induction, deduction, graphical analysis, generalisation and other scientific methods during the study. Results: the lack of comparability between domestic and foreign scientific funds in the volume of funding allocated for basic research and development is revealed. This situation affects the scientific research. The foreign foundations have a wide range of instruments to support research projects at all stages of the life cycle of grants for education and training prior to release of an innovative product to market (the use of “innovation elevator” system. The Russian national scientific foundations have no such possibilities. The authors guess that the Russian organisations ignore some of the instruments for supporting research and development. Use of these tools could enhance the effectiveness of research projects. According to the study of domestic and foreign experience in supporting research and development, the authors proposed a matrix composed of instruments for support in the fields of basic scientific researches and education with such phases of the project life cycle as “research” and “development”. Discussion and Conclusions: the foreign science

  8. Instruments of Science and Citizenship: Science Education for Dutch Orphans During the Late Eighteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lissa L.

    2012-01-01

    One of the two most extensive instrument collections in the Netherlands during the second half of the eighteenth century—rivaling the much better known collection at the University of Leiden—belonged to an orphanage in The Hague that was specially established to mold hand-picked orphans into productive citizens. (The other was housed at the Mennonite Seminary in Amsterdam, for use in the education of its students.) The educational program at this orphanage, one of three established by the Fundatie van Renswoude, grew out of a marriage between the socially-oriented generosity of the wealthy Baroness van Renswoude and the pedagogical vision of the institute's director and head teacher—a vision that fit with the larger movement of oeconomic patriotism. Oeconomic patriotism, similar to `improvement' and oeconomic movements in other European countries and their colonies, sought to tie the investigation of nature to an improvement of society's material and moral well-being. Indeed, it was argued that these two facets of society should be viewed as inseparable from each other, distinguishing the movement from more modern conceptions of economics. While a number of the key figures in this Dutch movement also became prominent Patriots during the revolutionary period at the end of the century, fighting against the House of Orange, they did not have a monopoly on oeconomic ideas of societal improvement. This is demonstrated by the fact that an explicitly pro-Orangist society, Mathesis Scientiarum Genitrix, was organized in 1785 to teach science and mathematics to poor boys and orphans for very similar reasons: to turn them into productive and useful citizens. As was the case with the Fundatie van Renswoude, a collection of instruments was assembled to help make this possible. This story is of interest because it discusses a hitherto under-examined use to which science education was put during this period, by revealing the link between such programs and the highly

  9. History of Computer Science as an Instrument of Enlightenment

    OpenAIRE

    Fet , Yakov

    2013-01-01

    Part 6: Putting the History of Computing into Different Contexts; International audience; This report focuses on the dangerous problems that are currently facing the society – the negative phenomena in development of education and science. The most important way to solve this problem seems to be education and enlightenment. It is assumed that in the history of Computer Science, the intellectual and moral heritage of this history contains a wealth of material that can be used for the dissemina...

  10. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.

    1995-01-01

    This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs

  11. System Definition of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Ray; Aymergen, Cagatay; VanCampen, Julie; Abell, James; Smith, Miles; Driggers, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    The Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) provides the critical functions and the environment for the four science instruments on JWST. This complex system development across many international organizations presents unique challenges and unique solutions. Here we describe how the requirement flow has been coordinated through the documentation system, how the tools and processes are used to minimize impact to the development of the affected interfaces, how the system design has matured, how the design review process operates, and how the system implementation is managed through reporting to ensure a truly world class scientific instrument compliment is created as the final product.

  12. Instrument development for materials science research at WNR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, J.; Silver, R.N.; Soper, A.; Vergamini, P.J.; Goldstone, J.; Larson, A.; Seeger, P.A.; Yarnell, J.

    1980-01-01

    The neutron scattering program at the Los Alamos spallation neutron source is based on the operational WNR facility which provides up to 11 μA of 800 MeV protons to a target in pulse widths up to 8 μs at 120 Hz. The immediate goals of the program are: to gain experience with neutron instrumentation at spallation neutron sources; and to explore the scientific potential for condensed matter research at these sources. The proton storage ring (PSR) funded for construction will provide 100 μA in 0.27 μs pulses at 12 Hz, therefore greatly improving intensity, time-of-flight (TOF) resolution, and repetition rate. The initial emphasis, given limited manpower and resources, has been placed on developing a set of prototype instruments which are relatively easy to implement and which take advantage of the unique characteristics of the present WNR when compared with reactor neutron sources

  13. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  14. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  15. The Atomic, Molecular and Optical Science instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, Ken R. [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, 348 Via Pueblo, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Bucher, Maximilian; Bozek, John D.; Carron, Sebastian; Castagna, Jean-Charles [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Coffee, Ryan [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Pulse Institute, Stanford University and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Curiel, G. Ivan; Holmes, Michael; Krzywinski, Jacek; Messerschmidt, Marc; Minitti, Michael; Mitra, Ankush; Moeller, Stefan; Noonan, Peter; Osipov, Timur; Schorb, Sebastian; Swiggers, Michele; Wallace, Alexander; Yin, Jing [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Bostedt, Christoph, E-mail: bostedt@slac.stanford.edu [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Pulse Institute, Stanford University and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2015-04-17

    A description of the Atomic, Molecular and Optical Sciences (AMO) instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source is presented. Recent scientific highlights illustrate the imaging, time-resolved spectroscopy and high-power density capabilities of the AMO instrument. The Atomic, Molecular and Optical Science (AMO) instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) provides a tight soft X-ray focus into one of three experimental endstations. The flexible instrument design is optimized for studying a wide variety of phenomena requiring peak intensity. There is a suite of spectrometers and two photon area detectors available. An optional mirror-based split-and-delay unit can be used for X-ray pump–probe experiments. Recent scientific highlights illustrate the imaging, time-resolved spectroscopy and high-power density capabilities of the AMO instrument.

  16. The Preschool Rating Instrument for Science and Mathematics (PRISM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, Kimberly; Stevenson-Garcia, Judi; Jung, Kwanghee; Frede, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, few valid and reliable assessments were available to measure young children's mathematics and science learning in a "comprehensive" way. Now, a number of mathematics assessments have been developed and subjected to testing (Klein, Starkey, & Wakeley, 2000; Ginsburg, 2008; Clements & Sarama, 2008), and progress has…

  17. The EGSE science software of the IBIS instrument on-board INTEGRAL satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Rosa, Giovanni; Fazio, Giacomo; Segreto, Alberto; Gianotti, Fulvio; Stephen, John; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2000-01-01

    IBIS (Imager on Board INTEGRAL Satellite) is one of the key instrument on-board the INTEGRAL satellite, the follow up mission of the high energy missions CGRO and Granat. The EGSE of IBIS is composed by a Satellite Interface Simulator, a Control Station and a Science Station. Here are described the solutions adopted for the architectural design of the software running on the Science Station. Some preliminary results are used to show the science functionality, that allowed to understand the instrument behavior, all along the test and calibration campaigns of the Engineering Model of IBIS

  18. Review of decametric radio astronomy - instruments and science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, W.C.; Cane, H.V.

    1987-01-01

    The techniques and instruments used in Galactic and extragalactic radio astronomy at dkm wavelengths are surveyed, and typical results are summarized. Consideration is given to the large specialized phased arrays used for early surveys, the use of wideband elements to increase frequency agility, experimental VLBI observations, and limitations on ground-based observations below about 10 MHz (where the proposed LF Space Array, with resolution 0.5-5 arcmin, could make a major contribution). Observations discussed cover the Galactic center, the Galactic background radiation, SNRs, compact Galactic sources, the ISM, and large extragalactic sources. 38 references

  19. Integrating Instrumental Data Provides the Full Science in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, M.; Boghosian, A.; Bell, R. E.; Frearson, N.

    2017-12-01

    Looking at data sparks questions, discussion and insights. By integrating multiple data sets we deepen our understanding of how cryosphere processes operate. Field collected data provide measurements from multiple instruments supporting rapid insights. Icepod provides a platform focused on the integration of multiple instruments. Over the last three seasons, the ROSETTA-Ice project has deployed Icepod to comprehensively map the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. This integrative data collection along with new methods of data visualization allows us to answer questions about ice shelf structure and evolution that arise during data processing and review. While data are vetted and archived in the field to confirm instruments are operating, upon return to the lab data are again reviewed for accuracy before full analysis. Recent review of shallow ice radar data from the Beardmore Glacier, an outlet glacier into the Ross Ice Shelf, presented an abrupt discontinuity in the ice surface. This sharp 8m surface elevation drop was originally interpreted as a processing error. Data were reexamined, integrating the simultaneously collected shallow and deep ice radar with lidar data. All the data sources showed the surface discontinuity, confirming the abrupt 8m drop in surface elevation. Examining high resolution WorldView satellite imagery revealed a persistent source for these elevation drops. The satellite imagery showed that this tear in the ice surface was only one piece of a larger pattern of "chatter marks" in ice that flows at a rate of 300 m/yr. The markings are buried over a distance of 30 km or after 100 years of travel down Beardmore Glacier towards the front of the Ross Ice Shelf. Using Icepod's lidar and cameras we map this chatter mark feature in 3D to reveal its full structure. We use digital elevation models from WorldView to map the other along flow chatter marks. In order to investigate the relationship between these surface features and basal crevasses, the deep ice

  20. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.

    2008-01-01

    A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.

  1. Data from the Mars Science Laboratory CheMin XRD/XRF Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, David; Blake, David; Bristow, Tom; DesMarais, David; Achilles, Cherie; Anderson, Robert; Crips, Joy; Morookian, John Michael; Spanovich, Nicole; Vasavada, Ashwin; hide

    2013-01-01

    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity uses a Co tube source and a CCD detector to acquire mineralogy from diffracted primary X-rays and chemical information from fluoresced X-rays. CheMin has been operating at the MSL Gale Crater field site since August 5, 2012 and has provided the first X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses in situ on a body beyond Earth. Data from the first sample collected, the Rocknest eolian soil, identify a basaltic mineral suite, predominantly plagioclase (approx.An50), forsteritic olivine (approx.Fo58), augite and pigeonite, consistent with expectation that detrital grains on Mars would reflect widespread basaltic sources. Minor phases (each XRD. This amorphous component is attested to by a broad rise in background centered at approx.27deg 2(theta) (Co K(alpha)) and may include volcanic glass, impact glass, and poorly crystalline phases including iron oxyhydroxides; a rise at lower 2(theta) may indicate allophane or hisingerite. Constraints from phase chemistry of the crystalline components, compared with a Rocknest bulk composition from the APXS instrument on Curiosity, indicate that in sum the amorphous or poorly crystalline components are relatively Si, Al, Mg-poor and enriched in Ti, Cr, Fe, K, P, S, and Cl. All of the identified crystalline phases are volatile-free; H2O, SO2 and CO2 volatile releases from a split of this sample analyzed by the SAM instrument on Curiosity are associated with the amorphous or poorly ordered materials. The Rocknest eolian soil may be a mixture of local detritus, mostly crystalline, with a regional or global set of dominantly amorphous or poorly ordered components. The Rocknest sample was targeted by MSL for "first time analysis" to demonstrate that a loose deposit could be scooped, sieved to <150 microns, and delivered to instruments in the body of the rover. A drilled sample of sediment in outcrop is anticipated. At the time of writing this abstract, promising outcrops are

  2. Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehrer, W.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs

  3. International Conference on Bio-Medical Instrumentation and related Engineering and Physical Sciences (BIOMEP 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The International Conference on Bio-Medical Instrumentation and related Engineering and Physical Sciences (BIOMEP 2015) took place in the Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Athens, Greece on June 18-20, 2015 and was organized by the Department of Biomedical Engineering. The scope of the conference was to provide a forum on the latest developments in Biomedical Instrumentation and related principles of Physical and Engineering sciences. Scientists and engineers from academic, industrial and health disciplines were invited to participate in the Conference and to contribute both in the promotion and dissemination of the scientific knowledge.

  4. Cryo-Vacuum Testing of the Integrated Science Instrument Module for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Davila, P. S.; Drury, M. P.; Glazer, S. D.; Krom, J. R.; Lundquist, R. A.; Mann, S. D.; McGuffey, D. B.; Perry, R. L.; Ramey, D. D.

    2011-01-01

    With delivery of the science instruments for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) expected in 2012, current plans call for the first cryo-vacuum test of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) to be carried out at GSFC in early 2013. Plans are well underway for conducting this ambitious test, which will perform critical verifications of a number of optical, thermal, and operational requirements of the IS 1M hardware, at its deep cryogenic operating temperature. We describe here the facilities, goals, methods, and timeline for this important Integration & Test milestone in the JWST program.

  5. Nuclear instrument engineering - the measuring and informative basis of nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, V.V.; Krasheninnikov, I.S.; Murin, I.D.; Stas', K.N.

    1977-01-01

    The cornerstones of developing nuclear instrument engineering in the USSR are shortly discussed. The industry is based on a well developed theory. A system approach is a characteristic feature of the present-day measuring and control systems engineering. Major functions of reactor instruments measuring different types of ionizing radiation are discussed at greater length. Nuclear measuring and control instruments and methods are widely used in different fields of science and technoloay and in different industries in the USSR. The efficient and safe operation of a nuclear facility is underlined to depend strongly upon a correlation between a technological process and the information and control system of the facility

  6. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.; Colsher, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the parameters which are important to positron-imaging instruments. It summarizes the options which various groups have explored in designing tomographs and the methods which have been developed to overcome some of the limitations inherent in the technique as well as in present instruments. The chapter is not presented as a defense of positron imaging versus single-photon or other imaging modality, neither does it contain a description of various existing instruments, but rather stresses their common properties and problems. Design parameters which are considered are resolution, sampling requirements, sensitivity, methods of eliminating scattered radiation, random coincidences and attenuation. The implementation of these parameters is considered, with special reference to sampling, choice of detector material, detector ring diameter and shielding and variations in point spread function. Quantitation problems discussed are normalization, and attenuation and random corrections. Present developments mentioned are noise reduction through time-of-flight-assisted tomography and signal to noise improvements through high intrinsic resolution. Extensive bibliography. (U.K.)

  7. Examining the Teaching of Science, and Technology and Engineering Content and Practices: An Instrument Modification Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Wells, John G.; Parkes, Kelly A.

    2017-01-01

    A modified Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) (Piburn & Sawada, 2000) instrument was used to separately examine eight technology and engineering (T&E) educators' teaching of science, and T&E content and practices, as called for by the "Standards for Technological Literacy: Content for the Study of Technology"…

  8. The Astronomy and Space Science Concept Inventory: Assessment Instruments Aligned with the K-12 National Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of an item test bank and associated instruments based on those K-12 national standards which involve astronomy and space science. Utilizing hundreds of studies in the science education research literature on student misconceptions, we have constructed 211 unique items that measure the degree to which students abandon such ideas for accepted scientific views. Piloted nationally with 7599 students and their 88 teachers spanning grades 5-12, the items reveal a range of interesting results, particularly student difficulties in mastering the NRC Standards and AAAS Benchmarks. Teachers generally perform well on items covering the standards of the grade level at which they teach, exhibiting few misconceptions of their own. Teachers dramatically overestimate their students’ performance, perhaps because they are unaware of their students’ misconceptions. Examples are given showing how the developed instruments can be used to assess the effectiveness of instruction and to evaluate the impact of professional development activities for teachers.

  9. Cryo Testing of tbe James Webb Space Telescope's Integrated Science Instrument Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCampen, Julie

    2004-01-01

    The Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) of the James Webb Space Telescope will be integrated and tested at the Environmental Test Facilities at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The cryogenic thermal vacuum testing of the ISIM will be the most difficult and problematic portion of the GSFC Integration and Test flow. The test is to validate the coupled interface of the science instruments and the ISIM structure and to sufficiently stress that interface while validating image quality of the science instruments. The instruments and the structure are not made from the same materials and have different CTE. Test objectives and verification rationale are currently being evaluated in Phase B of the project plan. The test program will encounter engineering challenges and limitations, which are derived by cost and technology many of which can be mitigated by facility upgrades, creative GSE, and thorough forethought. The cryogenic testing of the ISIM will involve a number of risks such as the implementation of unique metrology techniques, mechanical, electrical and optical simulators housed within the cryogenic vacuum environment. These potential risks are investigated and possible solutions are proposed.

  10. Developing instruments concerning scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science: a validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate two survey instruments to evaluate high school students' scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science. The initial relationships between the sampled students' scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science were also investigated. A final valid sample of 600 volunteer Taiwanese high school students participated in this survey by responding to the Scientific Epistemic Beliefs Instrument (SEBI) and the Goal Orientations in Learning Science Instrument (GOLSI). Through both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, the SEBI and GOLSI were proven to be valid and reliable for assessing the participants' scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science. The path analysis results indicated that, by and large, the students with more sophisticated epistemic beliefs in various dimensions such as Development of Knowledge, Justification for Knowing, and Purpose of Knowing tended to adopt both Mastery-approach and Mastery-avoidance goals. Some interesting results were also found. For example, the students tended to set a learning goal to outperform others or merely demonstrate competence (Performance-approach) if they had more informed epistemic beliefs in the dimensions of Multiplicity of Knowledge, Uncertainty of Knowledge, and Purpose of Knowing.

  11. The Use of Cronbach's Alpha When Developing and Reporting Research Instruments in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Keith S.

    2017-06-01

    Cronbach's alpha is a statistic commonly quoted by authors to demonstrate that tests and scales that have been constructed or adopted for research projects are fit for purpose. Cronbach's alpha is regularly adopted in studies in science education: it was referred to in 69 different papers published in 4 leading science education journals in a single year (2015)—usually as a measure of reliability. This article explores how this statistic is used in reporting science education research and what it represents. Authors often cite alpha values with little commentary to explain why they feel this statistic is relevant and seldom interpret the result for readers beyond citing an arbitrary threshold for an acceptable value. Those authors who do offer readers qualitative descriptors interpreting alpha values adopt a diverse and seemingly arbitrary terminology. More seriously, illustrative examples from the science education literature demonstrate that alpha may be acceptable even when there are recognised problems with the scales concerned. Alpha is also sometimes inappropriately used to claim an instrument is unidimensional. It is argued that a high value of alpha offers limited evidence of the reliability of a research instrument, and that indeed a very high value may actually be undesirable when developing a test of scientific knowledge or understanding. Guidance is offered to authors reporting, and readers evaluating, studies that present Cronbach's alpha statistic as evidence of instrument quality.

  12. Experimental innovations in surface science a guide to practical laboratory methods and instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, John T

    2015-01-01

    This book is a new edition of a classic text on experimental methods and instruments in surface science. It offers practical insight useful to chemists, physicists, and materials scientists working in experimental surface science. This enlarged second edition contains almost 300 descriptions of experimental methods. The more than 50 active areas with individual scientific and measurement concepts and activities relevant to each area are presented in this book. The key areas covered are: Vacuum System Technology, Mechanical Fabrication Techniques, Measurement Methods, Thermal Control, Delivery of Adsorbates to Surfaces, UHV Windows, Surface Preparation Methods, High Area Solids, Safety. The book is written for researchers and graduate students.

  13. Smartphone measurement engineering - Innovative challenges for science and education, instrumentation and training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, D; Dittrich, P-G; Duentsch, E [Senior Network Manager NEMO SpectroNet, Technologie- und Innovationspark Jena GmbH, Wildenbruchstrasse 15, D-07745 Jena (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Smartphones have an enormous conceptual and structural influence on measurement science and education, instrumentation and training. Smartphones are matured. They became convenient, reliable and affordable. In 2009 worldwide 174 million Smartphones has been delivered. Measurement with Smartphones is ready for the future. In only 10 years the German vision industry tripled its global sales volume to one Billion Euro/Year. Machine vision is used for mobile object identification, contactless industrial quality control, personalized health care, remote facility and transport management, safety critical surveillance and all tasks which are too complex for the human eye or too monotonous for the human brain. Aim of the paper is to describe selected success stories for the application of Smartphones for measurement engineering in science and education, instrumentation and training.

  14. Smartphone measurement engineering - Innovative challenges for science and education, instrumentation and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, D; Dittrich, P-G; Duentsch, E

    2010-01-01

    Smartphones have an enormous conceptual and structural influence on measurement science and education, instrumentation and training. Smartphones are matured. They became convenient, reliable and affordable. In 2009 worldwide 174 million Smartphones has been delivered. Measurement with Smartphones is ready for the future. In only 10 years the German vision industry tripled its global sales volume to one Billion Euro/Year. Machine vision is used for mobile object identification, contactless industrial quality control, personalized health care, remote facility and transport management, safety critical surveillance and all tasks which are too complex for the human eye or too monotonous for the human brain. Aim of the paper is to describe selected success stories for the application of Smartphones for measurement engineering in science and education, instrumentation and training.

  15. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-07-01

    Developments discussed include a transistorized- power supply for the Beckman DU spectrophotometer, a master clock pulse generator, a modular printing unit, a flash photolysis setup, a glove box assembly for a Perkin-Elmer infrared spectrophotometer, and a Faraday balance for measuring the magnetic susceptibilities of actinide compounds. (WHK)

  16. Improvement on a science curriculum including experimental demonstration of environmental radioactivity for secondary school students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kenji; Matsubara, Shizuo; Aiba, Yoshio; Eriguchi, Hiroshi; Kiyota, Saburo; Takeyama, Tetsuji.

    1988-01-01

    A science curriculum previously prepared for teaching environmental radioactivity was modified on the basis of the results of trial instructions in secondary schools. The main subject of the revised curriculum is an understanding of the natural radioactivity through the experimental demonstration about air-borne β and γ ray emitters. The other subjects included are the radioactive decay, the biological effects of radiation, the concept of risk-benefit balance (acceptable level) and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and radiation. The work sheets and reference data prepared as learning materials are in two levels corresponding to the ability of students for this curriculum. (author)

  17. Evolution and validation of a personal form of an instrument for assessing science laboratory classroom environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Barry J.; Giddings, Geoffrey J.; McRobbie, Campbell J.

    The research reported in this article makes two distinctive contributions to the field of classroom environment research. First, because existing instruments are unsuitable for science laboratory classes, the Science Laboratory Environment Inventory (SLEI) was developed and validated. Second, a new Personal form of the SLEI (involving a student's perceptions of his or her own role within the class) was developed and validated in conjunction with the conventional Class form (involving a student's perceptions of the class as a whole), and its usefulness was investigated. The instrument was cross-nationally fieldtested with 5,447 students in 269 senior high school and university classes in six countries, and cross-validated with 1,594 senior high school students in 92 classes in Australia. Each SLEI scale exhibited satisfactory internal consistency reliability, discriminant validity, and factorial validity, and differentiated between the perceptions of students in different classes. A variety of applications with the new instrument furnished evidence about its usefulness and revealed that science laboratory classes are dominated by closed-ended activities; mean scores obtained on the Class form were consistently somewhat more favorable than on the corresponding Personal form; females generally held more favorable perceptions than males, but these differences were somewhat larger for the Personal form than the Class form; associations existed between attitudinal outcomes and laboratory environment dimensions; and the Class and Personal forms of the SLEI each accounted for unique variance in student outcomes which was independent of that accounted for by the other form.

  18. Detection Limit of Smectite by Chemin IV Laboratory Instrument: Preliminary Implications for Chemin on the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archilles, Cherie; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Blake, D. F.

    2011-01-01

    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is an miniature X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument capable of detecting the mineralogical and elemental compositions of rocks, outcrops and soils on the surface of Mars. CheMin uses a microfocus-source Co X-ray tube, a transmission sample cell, and an energy-discriminating X-ray sensitive CCD to produce simultaneous 2-D XRD patterns and energy-dispersive X-ray histograms from powdered samples. CRISM and OMEGA have identified the presence of phyllosilicates at several locations on Mars including the four candidate MSL landing sites. The objective of this study was to conduct preliminary studies to determine the CheMin detection limit of smectite in a smectite/olivine mixed mineral system.

  19. Slit-scanning technique using standard cell sorter instruments for analyzing and sorting nonacrocentric human chromosomes, including small ones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rens, W.; van Oven, C. H.; Stap, J.; Jakobs, M. E.; Aten, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the performance of two types of standard flow cell sorter instruments, a System 50 Cytofluorograph and a FACSTar PLUS cell sorter, for the on-line centromeric index (CI) analysis of human chromosomes. To optimize the results, we improved the detection efficiency for centromeres

  20. Astro 101 Students' Perceptions of Science: Results from the "Thinking about Science Survey Instrument"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Mendelsohn, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    What are the underlying worldviews and beliefs about the role of science in society held by students enrolled in a college-level, general education, introductory astronomy course (Astro 101)--and are those beliefs affected by active engagement instruction shown to significantly increase students' conceptual knowledge and reasoning abilities…

  1. The Development of the Chemin Mineralogy Instrument and Its Deployment on Mars (and Latest Results from the Mars Science Laboratory Rover Curiosity)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David F.

    2014-01-01

    The CheMin instrument (short for "Chemistry and Mineralogy") on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity is one of two "laboratory quality" instruments on board the Curiosity rover that is exploring Gale crater, Mars. CheMin is an X-ray diffractometer that has for the first time returned definitive and fully quantitative mineral identifications of Mars soil and drilled rock. I will describe CheMin's 23-year development from an idea to a spacecraft qualified instrument, and report on some of the discoveries that Curiosity has made since its entry, descent and landing on Aug. 6, 2012, including the discovery and characterization of the first habitable environment on Mars.

  2. Data Stewardship in the Ocean Sciences Needs to Include Physical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M.; Lehnert, K.

    2016-02-01

    Across the Ocean Sciences, research involves the collection and study of samples collected above, at, and below the seafloor, including but not limited to rocks, sediments, fluids, gases, and living organisms. Many domains in the Earth Sciences have recently expressed the need for better discovery, access, and sharing of scientific samples and collections (EarthCube End-User Domain workshops, 2012 and 2013, http://earthcube.org/info/about/end-user-workshops), as has the US government (OSTP Memo, March 2014). iSamples (Internet of Samples in the Earth Sciences) is a Research Coordination Network within the EarthCube program that aims to advance the use of innovative cyberinfrastructure to support and advance the utility of physical samples and sample collections for science and ensure reproducibility of sample-based data and research results. iSamples strives to build, grow, and foster a new community of practice, in which domain scientists, curators of sample repositories and collections, computer and information scientists, software developers and technology innovators engage in and collaborate on defining, articulating, and addressing the needs and challenges of physical samples as a critical component of digital data infrastructure. A primary goal of iSamples is to deliver a community-endorsed set of best practices and standards for the registration, description, identification, and citation of physical specimens and define an actionable plan for implementation. iSamples conducted a broad community survey about sample sharing and has created 5 different working groups to address the different challenges of developing the internet of samples - from metadata schemas and unique identifiers to an architecture for a shared cyberinfrastructure to manage collections, to digitization of existing collections, to education, and ultimately to establishing the physical infrastructure that will ensure preservation and access of the physical samples. Repositories that curate

  3. The Instrument Implementation of Two-tier Multiple Choice to Analyze Students’ Science Process Skill Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarmin Sukarmin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to analyze the profile of students’ science process skill (SPS by using instrument two-tier multiple choice. This is a descriptive research that describes the profile of students’ SPS. Subjects of the research were 10th-grade students from high, medium and low categorized school. Instrument two-tier multiple choice consists of 30 question that contains an indicator of SPS. The indicator of SPS namely formulating a hypothesis, designing experiment, analyzing data, applying the concept, communicating, making a conclusion. Based on the result of the research and analysis, it shows that: 1 the average of indicator achievement of science process skill at high categorized school on formulating hypothesis is 74,55%, designing experiment is 74,89%, analyzing data is 67,89%, applying concept is 52,89%, communicating is 80,22%, making conclusion is 76%, 2. the average of indicator achievement of science process skill at medium categorized school on formulating hypothesis is 53,47%, designing experiment is 59,86%, analyzing data is 42,22%, applying concept is 33,19%, communicating is 76,25%, making conclusion is 61,53%, 3 the average of indicator achievement of science process skill at low categorized school on formulating hypothesis is 51%, designing experiment is 55,17%, analyzing data is 39,17%, applying concept is 35,83%, communicating is 58,83%, making conclusion is 58%.

  4. Synchrotron light sources and free-electron lasers accelerator physics, instrumentation and science applications

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Shaukat; Schneider, Jochen; Hastings, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    Hardly any other discovery of the nineteenth century did have such an impact on science and technology as Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen’s seminal find of the X-rays. X-ray tubes soon made their way as excellent instruments for numerous applications in medicine, biology, materials science and testing, chemistry and public security. Developing new radiation sources with higher brilliance and much extended spectral range resulted in stunning developments like the electron synchrotron and electron storage ring and the freeelectron laser. This handbook highlights these developments in fifty chapters. The reader is given not only an inside view of exciting science areas but also of design concepts for the most advanced light sources. The theory of synchrotron radiation and of the freeelectron laser, design examples and the technology basis are presented. The handbook presents advanced concepts like seeding and harmonic generation, the booming field of Terahertz radiation sources and upcoming brilliant light sources dri...

  5. The Nature of Science Instrument-Elementary (NOSI-E): the end of the road?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Shelagh M; O'Dwyer, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    This research continues prior work published in this journal (Peoples, O'Dwyer, Shields and Wang, 2013). The first paper described the scale development, psychometric analyses and part-validation of a theoretically-grounded Rasch-based instrument, the Nature of Science Instrument-Elementary (NOSI-E). The NOSI-E was designed to measure elementary students' understanding of the Nature of Science (NOS). In the first paper, evidence was provided for three of the six validity aspects (content, substantive and generalizability) needed to support the construct validity of the NOSI-E. The research described in this paper examines two additional validity aspects (structural and external). The purpose of this study was to determine which of three competing internal models provides reliable, interpretable, and responsive measures of students' understanding of NOS. One postulate is that the NOS construct is unidimensional;. alternatively, the NOS construct is composed of five independent unidimensional constructs (the consecutive approach). Lastly, the NOS construct is multidimensional and composed of five inter-related but separate dimensions. The vast body of evidence supported the claim that the NOS construct is multidimensional. Measures from the multidimensional model were positively related to student science achievement and students' perceptions of their classroom environment; this provided supporting evidence for the external validity aspect of the NOS construct. As US science education moves toward students learning science through engaging in authentic scientific practices and building learning progressions (NRC, 2012), it will be important to assess whether this new approach to teaching science is effective, and the NOSI-E may be used as a measure of the impact of this reform.

  6. EU Science Diplomacy and Framework Programs as Instruments of STI Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. А. Ibragimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the tools that the EU in interactions with third countries in the field of STI uses. The EU is a pioneer in the use of science and technology in the international arena, the creation of strategic bilateral agreements on science and technology and the conduct of political dialogues at the highest political level (at the country and regional levels. The EU actively uses its foreign policy instruments of influence, including the provision of access to its framework programs to researchers from third countries, as well as scientific diplomacy. The success of these programs and scientific diplomacy shows the effectiveness of the EU as a global actor. In its foreign policy global innovation strategy, the EU proceeds from the premise that no state in the world today can cope independently with modern global challenges such as climate change, migration, terrorism, etc. Therefore, the solution of these issues requires both an expert evaluation from an independent world scientific community, and the perseverance of diplomats and officials of branch ministries of national states capable of conveying the views of their government in international negotiations and defending national interests of the country to find a solution that suits everyone. The EU has the resources to create a "cumulative effect" by developing and applying common norms on the territory of theUnion, analyzing the innovation policies of member states and the possibility of sharing best practices. At the same time, the EU shares its vision of problems, values and priorities with partners and uses the tools of "soft power" (including its smart and normative force and scientific diplomacy in the field of STI. The soft power of the EU in the field of STI lies in the attractiveness of the EU as a research area in which it is possible to conduct modern high-quality international research with the involvement of scientific teams from different countries in both physical

  7. Training Early Career Scientists in Flight Instrument Design Through Experiential Learning: NASA Goddard's Planetary Science Winter School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, L. V.; Lakew, B.; Bracken, J.; Brown, T.; Rivera, R.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Planetary Science Winter School (PSWS) is a Goddard Space Flight Center-sponsored training program, managed by Goddard's Solar System Exploration Division (SSED), for Goddard-based postdoctoral fellows and early career planetary scientists. Currently in its third year, the PSWS is an experiential training program for scientists interested in participating on future planetary science instrument teams. Inspired by the NASA Planetary Science Summer School, Goddard's PSWS is unique in that participants learn the flight instrument lifecycle by designing a planetary flight instrument under actual consideration by Goddard for proposal and development. They work alongside the instrument Principal Investigator (PI) and engineers in Goddard's Instrument Design Laboratory (IDL; idc.nasa.gov), to develop a science traceability matrix and design the instrument, culminating in a conceptual design and presentation to the PI, the IDL team and Goddard management. By shadowing and working alongside IDL discipline engineers, participants experience firsthand the science and cost constraints, trade-offs, and teamwork that are required for optimal instrument design. Each PSWS is collaboratively designed with representatives from SSED, IDL, and the instrument PI, to ensure value added for all stakeholders. The pilot PSWS was held in early 2015, with a second implementation in early 2016. Feedback from past participants was used to design the 2017 PSWS, which is underway as of the writing of this abstract.

  8. Development and validation of an instrument to evaluate science teachers' assessment beliefs and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Evrim

    The primary purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to examine science teachers' assessment beliefs and practices in science classrooms. The present study also investigated the relationship between teachers' beliefs and practices in terms of assessment issues in science, their perceptions of the factors that influenced their assessment practices and their feelings towards high-stakes testing. The participants of the study were 408 science teachers teaching at middle and high school levels in the State of Florida. Data were collected through two modes of administration of the instrument as a paper-and-pencil and a web-based form. The response rate for paper-and-pencil administration was estimated as 68% whereas the response for the web administration was found to be 27%. Results from the various dimensions of validity and reliability analyses revealed that the 24 item-four-factor belief and practice measures were psychometrically sound and conceptually anchored measures of science teachers' assessment beliefs and self-reported practices. Reliability estimates for the belief measure ranged from .83 to .91 whereas alpha values for the practice measure ranged from .56 to .90. Results from the multigroup analysis supported that the instrument has the same theoretical structure across both administration groups. Therefore, future researchers may use either a paper-and-pencil or web-based format of the instrument. This study underscored a discrepancy between what teachers believe and how they act in classroom settings. It was emphasized that certain factors were mediating the dynamics between the belief and the practice. The majority of teachers reported that instruction time, class size, professional development activities, availability of school funding, and state testing mandates impact their assessment routines. Teachers reported that both the preparation process and the results of the test created unbelievable tension both on students and

  9. Analysis of Nature of Science Included in Recent Popular Writing Using Text Mining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; McComas, William F.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the inclusion of nature of science (NOS) in popular science writing to determine whether it could serve supplementary resource for teaching NOS and to evaluate the accuracy of text mining and classification as a viable research tool in science education research. Four groups of documents published from 2001 to 2010 were…

  10. The development and validation of a two-tiered multiple-choice instrument to identify alternative conceptions in earth science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, Katherine Anna

    This study was to determine reliability and validity for a two-tiered, multiple- choice instrument designed to identify alternative conceptions in earth science. Additionally, this study sought to identify alternative conceptions in earth science held by preservice teachers, to investigate relationships between self-reported confidence scores and understanding of earth science concepts, and to describe relationships between content knowledge and alternative conceptions and planning instruction in the science classroom. Eighty-seven preservice teachers enrolled in the MAT program participated in this study. Sixty-eight participants were female, twelve were male, and seven chose not to answer. Forty-seven participants were in the elementary certification program, five were in the middle school certification program, and twenty-nine were pursuing secondary certification. Results indicate that the two-tiered, multiple-choice format can be a reliable and valid method for identifying alternative conceptions. Preservice teachers in all certification areas who participated in this study may possess common alternative conceptions previously identified in the literature. Alternative conceptions included: all rivers flow north to south, the shadow of the Earth covers the Moon causing lunar phases, the Sun is always directly overhead at noon, weather can be predicted by animal coverings, and seasons are caused by the Earth's proximity to the Sun. Statistical analyses indicated differences, however not all of them significant, among all subgroups according to gender and certification area. Generally males outperformed females and preservice teachers pursuing middle school certification had higher scores on the questionnaire followed by those obtaining secondary certification. Elementary preservice teachers scored the lowest. Additionally, self-reported scores of confidence in one's answers and understanding of the earth science concept in question were analyzed. There was a

  11. Polychromatic X-ray Micro- and Nano-Beam Science and Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, G. E.; Larson, B. C.; Liu, W.; Barabash, R. I.; Specht, E. D.; Pang, J. W. L.; Budai, J. D.; Tischler, J. Z.; Khounsary, A.; Liu, C.; Macrander, A. T.; Assoufid, L.

    2007-01-01

    Polychromatic x-ray micro- and nano-beam diffraction is an emerging nondestructive tool for the study of local crystalline structure and defect distributions. Both long-standing fundamental materials science issues, and technologically important questions about specific materials systems can be uniquely addressed. Spatial resolution is determined by the beam size at the sample and by a knife-edge technique called differential aperture microscopy that decodes the origin of scattering from along the penetrating x-ray beam. First-generation instrumentation on station 34-ID-E at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) allows for nondestructive automated recovery of the three-dimensional (3D) local crystal phase and orientation. Also recovered are the local elastic-strain and the dislocation tensor distributions. New instrumentation now under development will further extend the applications of polychromatic microdiffraction and will revolutionize materials characterization.

  12. Polychromatic X-ray Micro- and Nano-Beam Science and Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.; Larson, Ben C.; Liu, Wenjun; Barabash, Rozaliya; Specht, Eliot D; Pang, Judy; Budai, John D.; Tischler, Jonathan Zachary; Khounsary, Ali; Liu, Chian; Macrander, Albert T.; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2007-01-01

    Polychromatic x-ray micro- and nano-beam diffraction is an emerging nondestructive tool for the study of local crystalline structure and defect distributions. Both long-standing fundamental materials science issues, and technologically important questions about specific materials systems can be uniquely addressed. Spatial resolution is determined by the beam size at the sample and by a knife-edge technique called differential aperture microscopy that decodes the origin of scattering from along the penetrating x-ray beam. First-generation instrumentation on station 34-ID-E at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) allows for nondestructive automated recovery of the three-dimensional (3D) local crystal phase and orientation. Also recovered are the local elastic-strain and the dislocation tensor distributions. New instrumentation now under development will further extend the applications of polychromatic microdiffraction and will revolutionize materials characterization

  13. Health-related quality of life and hand eczema--a comparison of two instruments, including factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenhammar, Lena-Marie; Nyfjäll, Mats; Lindberg, Magnus; Meding, Birgitta

    2004-06-01

    Hand eczema is a disease of long duration, affecting the individual and society. The purpose of this study of 100 patients (51 females and 49 males) at an occupational dermatology clinic was to investigate whether the generic questionnaire Short Form-36 (SF-36), and the dermatology-specific Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) are appropriate for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with hand eczema, and whether gender differences in HRQL could be detected. HRQL was affected by hand eczema, measured with both SF-36 and DLQI. The SF-36 showed more impaired HRQL for females than for males, in the mental health dimension, whereas no gender-related differences were detected with the DLQI. To compare the instruments we used factor analysis, with a polychoric correlation matrix as input, thus taking the ordinal aspect of the data into account. There was a high correlation between the instruments for physical health, but lower for mental health. In this context our interpretation of the factor analysis is that the SF-36 measures mental health better than the DLQI. The SF-36 therefore appears suitable for use in future studies for measuring HRQL, and gender differences in HRQL, in persons with reported hand eczema.

  14. The Student Actions Coding Sheet (SACS): An Instrument for Illuminating the Shifts toward Student-Centered Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Ibrahim; Campbell, Todd; Abd-Hamid, Nor Hashidah

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the development of an instrument to investigate the extent to which student-centered actions are occurring in science classrooms. The instrument was developed through the following five stages: (1) student action identification, (2) use of both national and international content experts to establish content validity, (3)…

  15. The ChemCam Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Body Unit and Combined System Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiens, Roger C.; Barraclough, Bruce; Barkley, Walter C.; Bender, Steve; Bernardin, John; Bultman, Nathan; Clanton, Robert C.; Clegg, Samuel; Delapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Enemark, Don; Flores, Mike; Hale, Thomas; Lanza, Nina; Lasue, Jeremie; Latino, Joseph; Little, Cynthia; Morrison, Leland; Nelson, Tony; Romero, Frank; Salazar, Steven; Stiglich, Ralph; Storms, Steven; Trujillo, Tanner; Ulibarri, Mike; Vaniman, David; Whitaker, Robert; Witt, James; Maurice, Sylvestre; Bouye, Marc; Cousin, Agnes; Cros, Alain; D'Uston, Claude; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Kouach, Driss; Lasue, Jeremie; Pares, Laurent; Poitrasson, Franck; Striebig, Nicolas; Thocaven, Jean-Jacques; Saccoccio, Muriel; Perez, Rene; Bell, James F. III; Hays, Charles; Blaney, Diana; DeFlores, Lauren; Elliott, Tom; Kan, Ed; Limonadi, Daniel; Lindensmith, Chris; Miller, Ed; Reiter, Joseph W.; Roberts, Tom; Simmonds, John J.; Warner, Noah; Blank, Jennifer; Bridges, Nathan; Cais, Phillippe; Clark, Benton; Cremers, David; Dyar, M. Darby; Fabre, Cecile; Herkenhoff, Ken; Kirkland, Laurel; Landis, David; Langevin, Yves; Lanza, Nina; Newsom, Horton; Ollila, Ann; LaRocca, Frank; Ott, Melanie; Mangold, Nicolas; Manhes, Gerard; Mauchien, Patrick; Blank, Jennifer; McKay, Christopher; Mooney, Joe; Provost, Cheryl; Morris, Richard V.; Sautter, Violaine; Sautter, Violaine; Waterbury, Rob; Wong-Swanson, Belinda; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Vaniman, David

    2012-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity provides remote compositional information using the first laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) on a planetary mission, and provides sample texture and morphology data using a remote micro-imager (RMI). Overall, ChemCam supports MSL with five capabilities: remote classification of rock and soil characteristics; quantitative elemental compositions including light elements like hydrogen and some elements to which LIBS is uniquely sensitive (e.g., Li, Be, Rb, Sr, Ba); remote removal of surface dust and depth profiling through surface coatings; context imaging; and passive spectroscopy over the 240-905 nm range. ChemCam is built in two sections: The mast unit, consisting of a laser, telescope, RMI, and associated electronics, resides on the rover's mast, and is described in a companion paper. ChemCam's body unit, which is mounted in the body of the rover, comprises an optical de-multiplexer, three spectrometers, detectors, their coolers, and associated electronics and data handling logic. Additional instrument components include a 6 m optical fiber which transfers the LIBS light from the telescope to the body unit, and a set of onboard calibration targets. ChemCam was integrated and tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory where it also underwent LIBS calibration with 69 geological standards prior to integration with the rover. Post-integration testing used coordinated mast and instrument commands, including LIBS line scans on rock targets during system-level thermal-vacuum tests. In this paper we describe the body unit, optical fiber, and calibration targets, and the assembly, testing, and verification of the instrument prior to launch. (authors)

  16. Korea's Contribution to Radiological Research Included in Science Citation Index Expanded, 1986-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, You Jin; Yoon, Dae Young; Lim, Kyoung Ja; Baek, Sora; Seo, Young Lan; Yun, Eun Joo; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon; Lee, Hyun; Ju, Young Su

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate scientific papers published by Korean radiologists in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) radiology journals, between 1986 and 2010. The Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge-Web of Science (SCIE) database was searched for all articles published by Korean radiologists, in SCIE radiology journals, between 1986 and 2010. We performed the analysis by typing 'Korea' and 'radiol' in the address section and selecting the subject area of 'Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, and Medical Imaging' with the use of the general search function of the software. Analyzed parameters included the total number of publications, document types, journals, and institutions. In addition, we analyzed where Korea ranks, compared to other countries, in terms of the number of published articles. All these data were analyzed according to five time periods: 1986-1990, 1991-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005, and 2006-2010. Overall, 4974 papers were published by Korean radiologists, in 99 different SCIE journals, between 1986 and 2010, of which 4237 (85.2%) were article-type papers. Of the total 115395 articles, worldwide, published in radiology journals, Korea's share was 3.7%, with an upward trend over time (p < 0.005). The journal with the highest number of articles was the American Journal of Roentgenology (n 565, 13.3%). The institution which produced the highest number of publications was Seoul National University (n = 932, 22.0%). The number of scientific articles published by Korean radiologists in the SCIE radiology journals has increased significantly between 1986 and 2010. Korea was ranked 4th among countries contributing to radiology research during the last 5 years.

  17. Including plasma and fusion topics in the science education in school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Shinichiro

    2015-01-01

    Yutori education (more relaxed education policy) started with the revision of the Courses of Study to introduce 'five-day week system' in 1989, continued with the reduction of the content of school lessons by 30% in 1998, and ended with the introduction of the New Courses of Study in 2011. Focusing on science education, especially in the topics of plasma and nuclear fusion, the modality of the education system in Japan is discussed considering the transition of academic performance based on the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) in comparison with the examples in other countries. Particularly, the issues with high school textbooks are pointed out from the assessment of current textbooks, and the significance and the need for including the topic of 'plasma' in them are stated. Lastly, in order to make the general public acknowledged with plasma and nuclear fusion, it is suggested to include them also in junior high school textbooks, by briefly mentioning the terms related to plasma, solar wind, aurora phenomenon, and nuclear fusion energy. (S.K.)

  18. Factor analysis for instruments of science learning motivation and its implementation for the chemistry and biology teacher candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, A. T.; Ridlo, S.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the learning motivation of science instruments and compare the learning motivation of science from chemistry and biology teacher candidates. Kuesioner Motivasi Sains (KMS) in Indonesian adoption of the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ II) consisting of 25 items with a 5-point Likert scale. The number of respondents for the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) test was 312. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO), determinant, Bartlett’s Sphericity, Measures of Sampling Adequacy (MSA) tests against KMS using SPSS 20.0, and Lisrel 8.51 software indicate eligible indications. However testing of Communalities obtained results that there are 4 items not qualified, so the item is discarded. The second test, all parameters of eligibility and has a magnitude of Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA), P-Value for the Test of Close Fit (RMSEA <0.05), Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) was good. The new KMS with 21 valid items and composite reliability of 0.9329 can be used to test the level of learning motivation of science which includes Intrinsic Motivation, Sefl-Efficacy, Self-Determination, Grade Motivation and Career Motivation for students who master the Indonesian language. KMS trials of chemistry and biology teacher candidates obtained no significant difference in the learning motivation between the two groups.

  19. Measuring social science concepts in pharmacy education research: From definition to item analysis of self-report instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cor, M Ken

    Interpreting results from quantitative research can be difficult when measures of concepts are constructed poorly, something that can limit measurement validity. Social science steps for defining concepts, guidelines for limiting construct-irrelevant variance when writing self-report questions, and techniques for conducting basic item analysis are reviewed to inform the design of instruments to measure social science concepts in pharmacy education research. Based on a review of the literature, four main recommendations emerge: These include: (1) employ a systematic process of conceptualization to derive nominal definitions; (2) write exact and detailed operational definitions for each concept, (3) when creating self-report questionnaires, write statements and select scales to avoid introducing construct-irrelevant variance (CIV); and (4) use basic item analysis results to inform instrument revision. Employing recommendations that emerge from this review will strengthen arguments to support measurement validity which in turn will support the defensibility of study finding interpretations. An example from pharmacy education research is used to contextualize the concepts introduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Impact of Crosstalk in the X-IFU Instrument on Athena Science Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartog, R. Den; Peille, P.; Dauser, T.; Jackson, B.; Bandler, S.; Barret, D.; Brand, T.; Herder, J-W Den; Kiviranta, M.; Kuur, J. Van Der; hide

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a first assessment of the impact of various forms of instrumental crosstalk on the science performance of the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) on the Athena X-ray mission. This assessment is made using the SIXTE end-to-end simulator in the context of one of the more technically challenging science cases for the XIFU instrument. Crosstalk considerations may influence or drive various aspects of the design of the array of high-count-rate Transition Edge Sensor (TES) detectors and its Frequency Domain Multiplexed (FDM) readout architecture. The Athena X-ray mission was selected as the second L-class mission in ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015–25 plan, with alaunch foreseen in 2028, to address the theme ''Hot and Energetic Universe"1. One of the two instruments on boardAthena is the X-ray Integral Field Unit2 (X-IFU) which is based on an array of 3800 Transition Edge Sensors (TES's)operated at a temperature of 90 mK. The science cases pose an interesting challenge for this instrument, as they requirea combination of high energy resolution (2.5 eV FWHM or better), high spatial resolution (5 arcsec or better) and highcount rate capability (several tens of counts per second per detector for point sources as bright as 10 mCrab).The performance at the single sensor level has been demonstrated3, but the operation of such detectors in an array, usingmultiplexed readout, brings additional challenges, both for the design of the array in which the sensors are placed and forthe readout of the sensors. The readout of the detector array will be based on Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM)4.In this system of detectors and readout, crosstalk can arise through various mechanisms: on the TES array, neighboringsensors can couple through thermal crosstalk. Detectors adjacent in carrier frequency may suffer from electrical crosstalkdue to the finite width of the bandpass filters, and shared sources of impedance in their signal lines. The signals from theindividual

  1. Search for Chemical Biomarkers on Mars Using the Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Conrad, P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Eigenbrode, J.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2011-01-01

    One key goal for the future exploration of Mars is the search for chemical biomarkers including complex organic compounds important in life on Earth. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will provide the most sensitive measurements of the organic composition of rocks and regolith samples ever carried out in situ on Mars. SAM consists of a gas chromatograph (GC), quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), and tunable laser spectrometer to measure volatiles in the atmosphere and released from rock powders heated up to 1000 C. The measurement of organics in solid samples will be accomplished by three experiments: (1) pyrolysis QMS to identify alkane fragments and simple aromatic compounds; pyrolysis GCMS to separate and identify complex mixtures of larger hydrocarbons; and (3) chemical derivatization and GCMS extract less volatile compounds including amino and carboxylic acids that are not detectable by the other two experiments.

  2. Las Ciencias instrumentales en la Investigación Biomédica Instrumental Sciences in Biomedical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Roma Millán

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Hay una serie de ciencias que se hacen imprescindibles para poder investigar e interpretar los resultados científicos, son la ciencias que llamamos instrumentales o auxiliares. Entre ellas se encuentran la Demografía, la Epidemiología y la Bioestadística. Además, hay que tomar en consideración las técnicas de investigación cualitativa, el conjunto de estrategias e instrumentos de búsqueda de información bibliográfica y, también las metodologías de presentación de resultados. Finalmente, no puede olvidarse la ética, en sus dos componentes de bioética y de ética del trabajo científico, si queremos desarrollar un trabajo siguiendo el método científico. Este capítulo explica cuál es la función de estas disciplinas en el seno de la investigación científica y del desarrollo de proyectos.Some scientific disciplines are essential for research and scientific results interpretation. Instrumental or auxiliary sciences include Demography, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics. Also, it is necessary to take into account the techniques for qualitative research, the strategies and instruments for bibliographic information and the methodology for scientific results presentation. Finally, to develop a project according to the scientific method, it is necessary to consider ethics, in its two components: bioethics and the ethics of scientific method. This report explains which is the function of these instrumental and auxiliary sciences in the context of the scientific research and the development of scientific projects.

  3. Latest developments of neutron scattering instrumentation at the Juelich Centre for Neutron Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Jülich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS) is operating a number of world-class neutron scattering instruments situated at the most powerful and advanced neutron sources (FRM II, ILL and SNS) and is continuously undertaking significant efforts in the development and upgrades to keep this instrumentation in line with the continuously changing scientific request. These developments are mostly based upon the latest progress in neutron optics and polarized neutron techniques. For example, the low-Q limit of the suite of small angle-scattering instruments has been extended to 4·10 -5 Å -1 by the successful use of focusing optics. A new generation of correction elements for the neutron spin-echo spectrometer has allowed for the use of the full field integral available, thus pushing further the instrument resolution. A significant progress has been achieved in the developments of 3 He neutron spin filters for purposes of the wide-angle polarization analysis for off-specular reflectometry and (grazing incidence) small-angle neutron scattering, e.g. the on-beam polarization of 3 He in large cells is allowing to achieve a high neutron beam polarization without any degradation in time. The wide Q-range polarization analysis using 3 He neutron spin filters has been implemented for small-angle neutron scattering that lead to the reduction up to 100 times of the intrinsic incoherent background from non-deuterated biological molecules. Also the work on wide-angle XYZ magnetic cavities (Magic PASTIS) will be presented. (author)

  4. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 38-40: Optical Instruments; Diffraction; and Alternating Current Circuits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  5. Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex II: Neutron Scattering Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Nakajima

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The neutron instruments suite, installed at the spallation neutron source of the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC, is reviewed. MLF has 23 neutron beam ports and 21 instruments are in operation for user programs or are under commissioning. A unique and challenging instrumental suite in MLF has been realized via combination of a high-performance neutron source, optimized for neutron scattering, and unique instruments using cutting-edge technologies. All instruments are/will serve in world-leading investigations in a broad range of fields, from fundamental physics to industrial applications. In this review, overviews, characteristic features, and typical applications of the individual instruments are mentioned.

  6. Web-Scale Discovery Services Retrieve Relevant Results in Health Sciences Topics Including MEDLINE Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Margaret Stovold

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Hanneke, R., & O’Brien, K. K. (2016. Comparison of three web-scale discovery services for health sciences research. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 104(2, 109-117. http://dx.doi.org/10.3163/1536-5050.104.2.004 Abstract Objective – To compare the results of health sciences search queries in three web-scale discovery (WSD services for relevance, duplicate detection, and retrieval of MEDLINE content. Design – Comparative evaluation and bibliometric study. Setting – Six university libraries in the United States of America. Subjects – Three commercial WSD services: Primo, Summon, and EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS. Methods – The authors collected data at six universities, including their own. They tested each of the three WSDs at two data collection sites. However, since one of the sites was using a legacy version of Summon that was due to be upgraded, data collected for Summon at this site were considered obsolete and excluded from the analysis. The authors generated three questions for each of six major health disciplines, then designed simple keyword searches to mimic typical student search behaviours. They captured the first 20 results from each query run at each test site, to represent the first “page” of results, giving a total of 2,086 total search results. These were independently assessed for relevance to the topic. Authors resolved disagreements by discussion, and calculated a kappa inter-observer score. They retained duplicate records within the results so that the duplicate detection by the WSDs could be compared. They assessed MEDLINE coverage by the WSDs in several ways. Using precise strategies to generate a relevant set of articles, they conducted one search from each of the six disciplines in PubMed so that they could compare retrieval of MEDLINE content. These results were cross-checked against the first 20 results from the corresponding query in the WSDs. To aid investigation of overall

  7. `INCLUDING' Partnerships to Build Authentic Research Into K-12 Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, M.; Lev, E.; Newton, R.; Xu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Opportunities for authentic research experiences have been shown effective for recruiting and retaining students in STEM fields. Meaningful research experiences entail significant time in project design, modeling ethical practice, providing training, instruction, and ongoing guidance. We propose that in order to be sustainable, a new instructional paradigm is needed, one that shifts from being top-weighted in instruction to a distributed weight model. This model relies on partnerships where everyone has buy-in and reaps rewards, establishing broadened networks for support, and adjusting the mentoring model. We use our successful Secondary School Field Research Program as a model for this new paradigm. For over a decade this program has provided authentic geoscience field research for an expanding group of predominantly inner city high school youth from communities underrepresented in the sciences. The program has shifted the balance with returning participants now serving as undergraduate mentors for the high school student `researchers', providing much of the ongoing training, instruction, guidance and feedback needed. But in order to be sustainable and impactful we need to broaden our base. A recent NSF-INCLUDES pilot project has allowed us to expand this model, linking schools, informal education non-profits, other academic institutions, community partners and private funding agencies into geographically organized `clusters'. Starting with a tiered mentoring model with scientists as consultants, teachers as team members, undergraduates as team leaders and high school students as researchers, each cluster will customize its program to reflect the needs and strengths of the team. To be successful each organization must identify how the program fits their organizational goals, the resources they can contribute and what they need back. Widening the partnership base spreads institutional commitments for research scientists, research locations and lab space

  8. Development and Large-Scale Validation of an Instrument to Assess Arabic-Speaking Students' Attitudes Toward Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Summers, Ryan; Said, Ziad; Wang, Shuai; Culbertson, Michael

    2015-11-01

    This study is part of a large-scale project focused on 'Qatari students' Interest in, and Attitudes toward, Science' (QIAS). QIAS aimed to gauge Qatari student attitudes toward science in grades 3-12, examine factors that impact these attitudes, and assess the relationship between student attitudes and prevailing modes of science teaching in Qatari schools. This report details the development and validation of the 'Arabic-Speaking Students' Attitudes toward Science Survey' (ASSASS), which was specifically developed for the purposes of the QIAS project. The theories of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRAPB) [Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (2005). The influence of attitudes on behavior. In D. Albarracín, B. T. Johnson, & M. P. Zanna (Eds.), The handbook of attitudes (pp. 173-221). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum] guided the instrument development. Development and validation of the ASSASS proceeded in 3 phases. First, a 10-member expert panel examined an initial pool of 74 items, which were revised and consolidated into a 60-item version of the instrument. This version was piloted with 369 Qatari students from the target schools and grade levels. Analyses of pilot data resulted in a refined version of the ASSASS, which was administered to a national probability sample of 3027 participants representing all students enrolled in grades 3-12 in the various types of schools in Qatar. Of the latter, 1978 students completed the Arabic version of the instrument. Analyses supported a robust, 5-factor model for the instrument, which is consistent with the TRAPB framework. The factors were: Attitudes toward science and school science, unfavorable outlook on science, control beliefs about ability in science, behavioral beliefs about the consequences of engaging with science, and intentions to pursue science.

  9. Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Students' Motivation and Self-Regulation in Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayutham, Sunitadevi; Aldridge, Jill; Fraser, Barry

    2011-10-01

    Students' motivational beliefs and self-regulatory practices have been identified as instrumental in influencing the engagement of students in the learning process. An important aim of science education is to empower students by nurturing the belief that they can succeed in science learning and to cultivate the adaptive learning strategies required to help to bring about that success. This article reports the development and validation of an instrument to measure salient factors related to the motivation and self-regulation of students in lower secondary science classrooms. The development of the instrument involved identifying key determinants of students' motivation and self-regulation in science learning based on theoretical and research underpinnings. Once the instrument was developed, a pilot study involving 52 students from two Grade 8 science classes was undertaken. Quantitative data were collected from 1,360 students in 78 classes across Grades 8, 9, and 10, in addition to in-depth qualitative information gathered from 10 experienced science teachers and 12 Grade 8 students. Analyses of the data suggest that the survey has strong construct validity when used with lower secondary students. This survey could be practically valuable as a tool for gathering information that may guide classroom teachers in refocusing their teaching practices and help to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programmes.

  10. Optimization of biological and instrumental detection of explosives and ignitable liquid residues including canines, SPME/ITMS and GC/MSn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furton, Kenneth G.; Harper, Ross J.; Perr, Jeannette M.; Almirall, Jose R.

    2003-09-01

    A comprehensive study and comparison is underway using biological detectors and instrumental methods for the rapid detection of ignitable liquid residues (ILR) and high explosives. Headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) has been demonstrated to be an effective sampling method helping to identify active odor signature chemicals used by detector dogs to locate forensic specimens as well as a rapid pre-concentration technique prior to instrumental detection. Common ignitable liquids and common military and industrial explosives have been studied including trinitrotoluene, tetryl, RDX, HMX, EGDN, PETN and nitroglycerine. This study focuses on identifying volatile odor signature chemicals present, which can be used to enhance the level and reliability of detection of ILR and explosives by canines and instrumental methods. While most instrumental methods currently in use focus on particles and on parent organic compounds, which are often involatile, characteristic volatile organics are generally also present and can be exploited to enhance detection particularly for well-concealed devices. Specific examples include the volatile odor chemicals 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and cyclohexanone, which are readily available in the headspace of the high explosive composition C-4; whereas, the active chemical cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene-2,4,6-trinitramine (RDX) is not. The analysis and identification of these headspace 'fingerprint' organics is followed by double-blind dog trials of the individual components using certified teams in an attempt to isolate and understand the target compounds to which dogs are sensitive. Studies to compare commonly used training aids with the actual target explosive have also been undertaken to determine their suitability and effectiveness. The optimization of solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with ion trap mobility spectrometry (ITMS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (GC/MSn) is detailed including interface development

  11. In Situ Analysis of Martian Phyllosilicates Using the Chemin Minerological Instrument on Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David F.

    2008-01-01

    The CheMin minerological instrument on Mars Science Laboratory (MSL'09) [1] will return quantitive Xray diffraction data (XRD) and quantative X-ray fluorescence data (XRF;14

  12. Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI): Complete Flight Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Bose, Deepak; Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Kuhl, Christopher A.; Santos, Jose A.; Wright, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry vehicle (EV) successfully entered the Mars atmosphere and landed the Curiosity rover safely on the surface of the planet in Gale crater on August 6, 2012. MSL carried the MSL Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Instrumentation (MEDLI). MEDLI delivered the first in-depth understanding of the Mars entry environments and the response of the entry vehicle to those environments. MEDLI was comprised of three major subsystems: the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS), the MEDLI Integrated Sensor Plugs (MISP), and the Sensor Support Electronics (SSE). Ultimately, the entire MEDLI sensor suite consisting of both MEADS and MISP provided measurements that were used for trajectory reconstruction and engineering validation of aerodynamic, atmospheric, and thermal protection system (TPS) models in addition to Earth-based systems testing procedures. This report contains in-depth hardware descriptions, performance evaluation, and data information of the three MEDLI subsystems.

  13. Various Political and Social Challenges Including Wars and Displacement in Empowering Women and Girls in Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer Narli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Poor gender ratio in science and engineering has been a global concern, despite growing number of female scientists in the world. Women’s empowerment in science is key to achieve human progress and dignity and directly related to accomplishing SDG 16: "Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels". What are the challenges that hinder women and girls’ progress in science? Added to several challenges discussed below, wars and displaced population create obstacles for female education and women’s advancement in science and technology. There are some challenges that have prevailed for the last two decades (e.g. economic insecurity and new challenges that are the results of the new forms wars, civil wars and extremism (e.g., large scale armed conflicts that involves state and non-state actors which have produced large numbers of displaced women in the Middle East who lost their jobs and isolated elsewhere, many young displaced females and refugees and who have no access to formal education and who face health risks in conflict and displacement settings, and new forms of gender discrimination produced by religious extremism.......

  14. Including an Exam P/1 Prep Course in a Growing Actuarial Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the actuarial science program at our university and the development of a course to enhance students' problem solving skills while preparing them for Exam P/1 of the Society of Actuaries (SOA) and the Casualty Actuary Society (CAS). The Exam P/1 prep course, formally titled Mathematical Foundations of…

  15. Recalibration of the Mars Science Laboratory ChemCam instrument with an expanded geochemical database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Samuel M.; Wiens, Roger C.; Anderson, Ryan; Forni, Olivier; Frydenvang, Jens; Lasue, Jeremie; Cousin, Agnes; Payre, Valerie; Boucher, Tommy; Dyar, M. Darby; McLennan, Scott M.; Morris, Richard V.; Graff, Trevor G.; Mertzman, Stanley A; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Belgacem, Ines; Newsom, Horton E.; Clark, Ben C.; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; McInroy, Rhonda E.; Martinez, Ronald; Gasda, Patrick J.; Gasnault, Olivier; Maurice, Sylvestre

    2017-01-01

    The ChemCam Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity has obtained > 300,000 spectra of rock and soil analysis targets since landing at Gale Crater in 2012, and the spectra represent perhaps the largest publicly-available LIBS datasets. The compositions of the major elements, reported as oxides (SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, FeOT, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O), have been re-calibrated using a laboratory LIBS instrument, Mars-like atmospheric conditions, and a much larger set of standards (408) that span a wider compositional range than previously employed. The new calibration uses a combination of partial least squares (PLS1) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) algorithms, together with a calibration transfer matrix to minimize differences between the conditions under which the standards were analyzed in the laboratory and the conditions on Mars. While the previous model provided good results in the compositional range near the average Mars surface composition, the new model fits the extreme compositions far better. Examples are given for plagioclase feldspars, where silicon was significantly over-estimated by the previous model, and for calcium-sulfate veins, where silicon compositions near zero were inaccurate. The uncertainties of major element abundances are described as a function of the abundances, and are overall significantly lower than the previous model, enabling important new geochemical interpretations of the data.

  16. The ChemCam Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science Objectives and Mast Unit Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, S.; Wiens, R.C.; Saccoccio, M.; Barraclough, B.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Mangold, N.; Baratoux, D.; Bender, S.; Berger, G.; Bernardin, J.; Berthé, M.; Bridges, N.; Blaney, D.; Bouyé, M.; Caïs, P.; Clark, B.; Clegg, S.; Cousin, A.; Cremers, D.; Cros, A.; DeFlores, L.; Derycke, C.; Dingler, B.; Dromart, G.; Dubois, B.; Dupieux, M.; Durand, E.; d'Uston, L.; Fabre, C.; Faure, B.; Gaboriaud, A.; Gharsa, T.; Herkenhoff, K.; Kan, E.; Kirkland, L.; Kouach, D.; Lacour, J.-L.; Langevin, Y.; Lasue, J.; Le Mouélic, S.; Lescure, M.; Lewin, E.; Limonadi, D.; Manhès, G.; Mauchien, P.; McKay, C.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Michel, Y.; Miller, E.; Newsom, Horton E.; Orttner, G.; Paillet, A.; Parès, L.; Parot, Y.; Pérez, R.; Pinet, P.; Poitrasson, F.; Quertier, B.; Sallé, B.; Sotin, Christophe; Sautter, V.; Séran, H.; Simmonds, J.J.; Sirven, J.-B.; Stiglich, R.; Striebig, N.; Thocaven, J.-J.; Toplis, M.J.; Vaniman, D.

    2012-01-01

    ChemCam is a remote sensing instrument suite on board the "Curiosity" rover (NASA) that uses Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to provide the elemental composition of soils and rocks at the surface of Mars from a distance of 1.3 to 7 m, and a telescopic imager to return high resolution context and micro-images at distances greater than 1.16 m. We describe five analytical capabilities: rock classification, quantitative composition, depth profiling, context imaging, and passive spectroscopy. They serve as a toolbox to address most of the science questions at Gale crater. ChemCam consists of a Mast-Unit (laser, telescope, camera, and electronics) and a Body-Unit (spectrometers, digital processing unit, and optical demultiplexer), which are connected by an optical fiber and an electrical interface. We then report on the development, integration, and testing of the Mast-Unit, and summarize some key characteristics of ChemCam. This confirmed that nominal or better than nominal performances were achieved for critical parameters, in particular power density (>1 GW/cm2). The analysis spot diameter varies from 350 μm at 2 m to 550 μm at 7 m distance. For remote imaging, the camera field of view is 20 mrad for 1024×1024 pixels. Field tests demonstrated that the resolution (˜90 μrad) made it possible to identify laser shots on a wide variety of images. This is sufficient for visualizing laser shot pits and textures of rocks and soils. An auto-exposure capability optimizes the dynamical range of the images. Dedicated hardware and software focus the telescope, with precision that is appropriate for the LIBS and imaging depths-of-field. The light emitted by the plasma is collected and sent to the Body-Unit via a 6 m optical fiber. The companion to this paper (Wiens et al. this issue) reports on the development of the Body-Unit, on the analysis of the emitted light, and on the good match between instrument performance and science specifications.

  17. Science and the Large Hadron Collider: a probe into instrumentation, periodization and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Arpita

    2012-01-01

    On September 19, 2008, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Switzerland, began the world’s highest energy experiments as a probe into the structure of matter and forces of nature. Just nine days after the gala start-up, an explosion occurred in the LHC tunnel that brought the epic collider to a complete standstill. In light of the catastrophic incident that disrupted the operation of the LHC, the paper investigates the relation of temporality to the cycle of work in science, and raises the question: What kind of methodological value should we ascribe to events such as crises or breakdowns? Drawing upon and integrating classical anthropological themes with two and a half years of fieldwork at the LHC particle accelerator complex, the paper explores how the incident in September, which affected the instrument, acquaints us with the distribution of work in the laboratory. The incident discloses that the organization of science is not a homogenous ensemble, but marked by an enormous diversity of tasks and p...

  18. Hurricane Sandy science plan: impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskie, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: • Coastal topography and bathymetry • Impacts to coastal beaches and barriers

  19. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) imaging spectrometerfor lunar science: Instrument description, calibration, on‐orbit measurements, science data calibration and on‐orbit validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Pieters,; P. Mouroulis,; M. Eastwood,; J. Boardman,; Green, R.O.; Glavich, T.; Isaacson, P.; Annadurai, M.; Besse, S.; Cate, D.; Chatterjee, A.; Clark, R.; Barr, D.; Cheek, L.; Combe, J.; Dhingra, D.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Goswami, J.N.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Head, J.; Hovland, L.; Hyman, S.; Klima, R.; Koch, T.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, A.S.K.; Lee, K.; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; McLaughlin, S.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Rodriguez, J.; Runyon, C.; Sellar, G.; Smith, C.; Sobel, H.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Thaisen, K.; Tompkins, S.; Tseng, H.; Vane, G.; Varanasi, P.; White, M.; Wilson, D.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Discovery Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was selected to pursue a wide range of science objectives requiring measurement of composition at fine spatial scales over the full lunar surface. To pursue these objectives, a broad spectral range imaging spectrometer with high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio capable of measuring compositionally diagnostic spectral absorption features from a wide variety of known and possible lunar materials was required. For this purpose the Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was designed and developed that measures the spectral range from 430 to 3000 nm with 10 nm spectral sampling through a 24 degree field of view with 0.7 milliradian spatial sampling. The instrument has a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 400 for the specified equatorial reference radiance and greater than 100 for the polar reference radiance. The spectral cross-track uniformity is >90% and spectral instantaneous field-of-view uniformity is >90%. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper was launched on Chandrayaan-1 on the 22nd of October. On the 18th of November 2008 the Moon Mineralogy Mapper was turned on and collected a first light data set within 24 h. During this early checkout period and throughout the mission the spacecraft thermal environment and orbital parameters varied more than expected and placed operational and data quality constraints on the measurements. On the 29th of August 2009, spacecraft communication was lost. Over the course of the flight mission 1542 downlinked data sets were acquired that provide coverage of more than 95% of the lunar surface. An end-to-end science data calibration system was developed and all measurements have been passed through this system and delivered to the Planetary Data System (PDS.NASA.GOV). An extensive effort has been undertaken by the science team to validate the Moon Mineralogy Mapper science measurements in the context of the mission objectives. A focused spectral, radiometric

  20. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) imaging spectrometer for lunar science: Instrument description, calibration, on-orbit measurements, science data calibration and on-orbit validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R.O.; Pieters, C.; Mouroulis, P.; Eastwood, M.; Boardman, J.; Glavich, T.; Isaacson, P.; Annadurai, M.; Besse, S.; Barr, D.; Buratti, B.; Cate, D.; Chatterjee, A.; Clark, R.; Cheek, L.; Combe, J.; Dhingra, D.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Goswami, J.N.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Head, J.; Hovland, L.; Hyman, S.; Klima, R.; Koch, T.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, A.S.K.; Lee, Kenneth; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; McLaughlin, S.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Rodriquez, J.; Runyon, C.; Sellar, G.; Smith, C.; Sobel, H.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Thaisen, K.; Tompkins, S.; Tseng, H.; Vane, G.; Varanasi, P.; White, M.; Wilson, D.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Discovery Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was selected to pursue a wide range of science objectives requiring measurement of composition at fine spatial scales over the full lunar surface. To pursue these objectives, a broad spectral range imaging spectrometer with high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio capable of measuring compositionally diagnostic spectral absorption features from a wide variety of known and possible lunar materials was required. For this purpose the Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was designed and developed that measures the spectral range from 430 to 3000 nm with 10 nm spectral sampling through a 24 degree field of view with 0.7 milliradian spatial sampling. The instrument has a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 400 for the specified equatorial reference radiance and greater than 100 for the polar reference radiance. The spectral cross-track uniformity is >90% and spectral instantaneous field-of-view uniformity is >90%. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper was launched on Chandrayaan-1 on the 22nd of October. On the 18th of November 2008 the Moon Mineralogy Mapper was turned on and collected a first light data set within 24 h. During this early checkout period and throughout the mission the spacecraft thermal environment and orbital parameters varied more than expected and placed operational and data quality constraints on the measurements. On the 29th of August 2009, spacecraft communication was lost. Over the course of the flight mission 1542 downlinked data sets were acquired that provide coverage of more than 95% of the lunar surface. An end-to-end science data calibration system was developed and all measurements have been passed through this system and delivered to the Planetary Data System (PDS.NASA.GOV). An extensive effort has been undertaken by the science team to validate the Moon Mineralogy Mapper science measurements in the context of the mission objectives. A focused spectral, radiometric

  1. View of Nature of Science (VNOS Form B: An Instrument for Assessing Preservice Teachers View of Nature of Science at Borneo University Tarakan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listiani Listiani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available NOS form B is an instrument that has been developed and revised to assess the view of nature of science of preservice science teachers through nature of science aspects.Indeed, students and teachers have to have the view of nature of science to avoid misconceptions of science concepts. Unfortunately, research on the view of Nature of Science is less conducted in Indonesia. This is a qualitative research that was conducted in Borneo University Tarakan. Respondents are preservice biology teachers in the sixth semester. The first step of this research is translating and adapting the VNOS form B into Bahasa Indonesia to make sure that the instrument is culturally fit to Indonesian and the transadapted instrument then given to the respondents. The result shows that the VNOS form B can be applied to assess the view of nature of science of preservice biology teachers. However, the result also shows that most of preservice biology teachers have few understanding on aspects of nature of scince.

  2. New instrument for measuring student beliefs about physics and learning physics: The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W. K.; Perkins, K. K.; Podolefsky, N. S.; Dubson, M.; Finkelstein, N. D.; Wieman, C. E.

    2006-06-01

    The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) is a new instrument designed to measure student beliefs about physics and about learning physics. This instrument extends previous work by probing additional aspects of student beliefs and by using wording suitable for students in a wide variety of physics courses. The CLASS has been validated using interviews, reliability studies, and extensive statistical analyses of responses from over 5000 students. In addition, a new methodology for determining useful and statistically robust categories of student beliefs has been developed. This paper serves as the foundation for an extensive study of how student beliefs impact and are impacted by their educational experiences. For example, this survey measures the following: that most teaching practices cause substantial drops in student scores; that a student’s likelihood of becoming a physics major correlates with their “Personal Interest” score; and that, for a majority of student populations, women’s scores in some categories, including “Personal Interest” and “Real World Connections,” are significantly different from men’s scores.

  3. High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments: HOPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyon, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The project called High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS) has been funded by NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program during April, 2012 â€" April, 2015. HOPS is an enabler for science missions with extremely high data processing rates. In this three-year effort of HOPS, Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) and 3-D Winds were of interest in particular. As for ASCENDS, HOPS replaces time domain data processing with frequency domain processing while making the real-time on-board data processing possible. As for 3-D Winds, HOPS offers real-time high-resolution wind profiling with 4,096-point fast Fourier transform (FFT). HOPS is adaptable with quick turn-around time. Since HOPS offers reusable user-friendly computational elements, its FPGA IP Core can be modified for a shorter development period if the algorithm changes. The FPGA and memory bandwidth of HOPS is 20 GB/sec while the typical maximum processor-to-SDRAM bandwidth of the commercial radiation tolerant high-end processors is about 130-150 MB/sec. The inter-board communication bandwidth of HOPS is 4 GB/sec while the effective processor-to-cPCI bandwidth of commercial radiation tolerant high-end boards is about 50-75 MB/sec. Also, HOPS offers VHDL cores for the easy and efficient implementation of ASCENDS and 3-D Winds, and other similar algorithms. A general overview of the 3-year development of HOPS is the goal of this presentation.

  4. The Student Actions Coding Sheet (SACS): An instrument for illuminating the shifts toward student-centered science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Ibrahim; Campbell, Todd; Hashidah Abd-Hamid, Nor

    2011-07-01

    This study describes the development of an instrument to investigate the extent to which student-centered actions are occurring in science classrooms. The instrument was developed through the following five stages: (1) student action identification, (2) use of both national and international content experts to establish content validity, (3) refinement of the item pool based on reviewer comments, (4) pilot testing of the instrument, and (5) statistical reliability and item analysis leading to additional refinement and finalization of the instrument. In the field test, the instrument consisted of 26 items separated into four categories originally derived from student-centered instruction literature and used by the authors to sort student actions in previous research. The SACS was administered across 22 Grade 6-8 classrooms by 22 groups of observers, with a total of 67 SACS ratings completed. The finalized instrument was found to be internally consistent, with acceptable estimates from inter-rater intraclass correlation reliability coefficients at the p Observation Protocol. Based on the analyses completed, the SACS appears to be a useful instrument for inclusion in comprehensive assessment packages for illuminating the extent to which student-centered actions are occurring in science classrooms.

  5. Academic Research Equipment in the Physical and Computer Sciences and Engineering. An Analysis of Findings from Phase I of the National Science Foundation's National Survey of Academic Research Instruments and Instrumentation Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf, Kenneth; White, Kristine

    This report presents information from phase I of a survey designed to develop quantitative indicators of the current national stock, cost/investment, condition, obsolescence, utilization, and need for major research instruments in academic settings. Data for phase I (which focused on the physical and computer sciences and engineering) were…

  6. Investigating the Quality of Project-Based Science and Technology Learning Environments in Elementary School: A Critical Review of Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Miranda; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim; Laevers, Ferre

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a systematic review of instruments that have the potential to measure the quality of project-based science and technology (S&T) learning environments in elementary school. To this end, a comprehensive literature search was undertaken for the large field of S&T learning environments. We conducted a horizontal bottom-up…

  7. Improving Student Perceptions of Science through the Use of State-of-the-Art Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurentz, David J.; Kerns, Stefanie L.; Shibley, Lisa R.

    2011-01-01

    Access to state-of-the-art instrumentation, namely nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, early in the college curriculum was provided to undergraduate students in an effort to improve student perceptions of science. Proton NMR spectroscopy was introduced as part of an aspirin synthesis in a guided-inquiry approach to spectral…

  8. High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Ng, Tak-Kwong; Lin, Bing; Hu, Yongxiang; Harrison, Wallace

    2014-01-01

    A new development of on-board data processing platform has been in progress at NASA Langley Research Center since April, 2012, and the overall review of such work is presented in this paper. The project is called High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS) and focuses on a high-speed scalable data processing platform for three particular National Research Council's Decadal Survey missions such as Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS), Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystems (ACE), and Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN) 3-D Winds. HOPS utilizes advanced general purpose computing with Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based algorithm implementation techniques. The significance of HOPS is to enable high speed on-board data processing for current and future science missions with its reconfigurable and scalable data processing platform. A single HOPS processing board is expected to provide approximately 66 times faster data processing speed for ASCENDS, more than 70% reduction in both power and weight, and about two orders of cost reduction compared to the state-of-the-art (SOA) on-board data processing system. Such benchmark predictions are based on the data when HOPS was originally proposed in August, 2011. The details of these improvement measures are also presented. The two facets of HOPS development are identifying the most computationally intensive algorithm segments of each mission and implementing them in a FPGA-based data processing board. A general introduction of such facets is also the purpose of this paper.

  9. The development and validation of the Self-Efficacy Beliefs about Equitable Science Teaching and learning instrument for prospective elementary teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Jennifer M.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop, validate and establish the reliability of an instrument to assess the self-efficacy beliefs of prospective elementary teachers with regards to science teaching and learning for diverse learners. The study used Bandura's theoretical framework, in that the instrument would use the self-efficacy construct to explore the beliefs of prospective elementary science teachers with regards to science teaching and learning to diverse learners: specifically the two dimensions of self-efficacy beliefs defined by Bandura (1977): personal self-efficacy and outcome expectancy. A seven step plan was designed and followed in the process of developing the instrument, which was titled the Self-Efficacy Beliefs about Equitable Science Teaching or SEBEST. Diverse learners as recognized by Science for All Americans (1989) are "those who in the past who have largely been bypassed in science and mathematics education: ethnic and language minorities and girls" (p. xviii). That definition was extended by this researcher to include children from low socioeconomic backgrounds based on the research by Gomez and Tabachnick (1992). The SEBEST was administered to 226 prospective elementary teachers at The Pennsylvania State University. Using the results from factor analyses, Coefficient Alpha, and Chi-Square a 34 item instrument was found to achieve the greatest balance across the construct validity, reliability and item balance with the content matrix. The 34 item SEBEST was found to load purely on four factors across the content matrix thus providing evidence construct validity. The Coefficient Alpha reliability for the 34 item SEBEST was .90 and .82 for the PSE sub-scale and .78 for the OE sub-scale. A Chi-Square test (X2 = 2.7 1, df = 7, p > .05) was used to confirm that the 34 items were balanced across the Personal Self-Efficacy/Outcome Expectancy and Ethnicity/LanguageMinority/Gender Socioeconomic Status/dimensions of the content matrix. Based on

  10. Including Media in Field Research and Becoming Part of the Science Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    There are two primary strategies that I have pursued over the last decade to engage the media, policy makers, and public; after two decades of typical scientific publication methods. An effective method to engage the media with our ongoing 32 year glacier field research program has been to invite media members to join us in the field. From climate videographers to traditional reporters we have had a member of the media with us in nine of the last ten field seasons; two in 2015. The resulting stories have led to several awards for the journalists and an ongoing relationship with our research program. The second part of this science research communication strategy is to have readily available material on specific topics for the media to utilize; this requires social media outreach. The primary outlet media find is the AGU Blog: From a Glacier's Perspective. This blog pubishes two articles a week on a specific glacier's response to climate change. The blog yields on average a media contact on every fourth blog post in 2015. The contacts revolve around specific local glacier information published on the blog. The goal of each blog post is to tell a story about how each glacier is impacted by climate change.

  11. Strategy For Implementing The UN "Zero-Gravity Instrument Project" To Promote Space Science Among School Children In Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, O.; Agbaje, G.; Akinyede, J.

    2015-12-01

    The United Nations "Zero Gravity Instrument Project" (ZGIP) is one of the activities coordinated under the Space Education Outreach Program (SEOP) of the African Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in English (ARCSSTE-E) to popularize space science among pre-collegiate youths in Nigeria. The vision of ZGIP is to promote space education and research in microgravity. This paper will deliberate on the strategy used to implement the ZGIP to introduce school children to authentic scientific data and inquiry. The paper highlights how the students learned to collect scientific data in a laboratory environment, analyzed the data with specialized software, obtained results, interpreted and presented the results of their study in a standard format to the scientific community. About 100 school children, aged between 7 and 21 years, from ten public and private schools located in Osun State, Nigeria participated in the pilot phase of the ZGIP which commenced with a 1-day workshop in March 2014. During the inauguration workshop, the participants were introduced to the environment of outer space, with special emphasis on the concept of microgravity. They were also taught the basic principle of operation of the Clinostat, a Zero-Gravity Instrument donated to ARCSSTE-E by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UN-OOSA), Vienna, under the Human Space Technology Initiative (UN-HSTI). At the end of the workshop, each school designed a project, and had a period of 1 week, on a planned time-table, to work in the laboratory of ARCSSTE-E where they utilized the clinostat to examine the germination of indigenous plant seeds in simulated microgravity conditions. The paper also documents the post-laboratory investigation activities, which included presentation of the results in a poster competition and an evaluation of the project. The enthusiasm displayed by the students, coupled with the favorable responses recorded during an oral interview conducted to

  12. Intellectual property as an instrument of interaction between government, business, science and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitenko, S. M.; Mesyats, M. A.; Rozhkova, O. V.

    2017-09-01

    This article is devoted to research the characteristics associated with pledge of intellectual property in foreign and domestic practice. Holding intellectual property objects’ pledge transactions accelerates the pace of creating innovative systems in the economy. In present paper the modern scheme for bank loan, financing secured with patented intellectual property is researched. The authors give the brief description of features of pledge security registration for loans in some Europe countries. The Europe Union experience shows that as collateral for monetary loans can be used trademarks, patents on the intellectual property, as well as their registration requests. Russian experience of the pledge operations of the intellectual property is too small. This way of bank lending is at an early stage of development. The main constraint is the difficulty of assessing the value of the pledged intellectual property as intangible assets. However, taking into account world and domestic practice this direction for Russian market is estimated by the authors as promising one. Pledge transactions take place within the framework of the Quadruple-Helix Model concept that involves four participants: “science”, “business”, “government” and “society”. Intellectual property are estimates by the authors as an instrument of interaction between government, business, science and society.

  13. A framework for employing femtosatellites in planetary science missions, including a proposed mission concept for Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Tracie Renea Conn

    Over the past 15 years, there has been a growing interest in femtosatellites, a class of tiny satellites having mass less than 100 grams. Research groups from Peru, Spain, England, Canada, and the United States have proposed femtosat designs and novel mission concepts for them. In fact, Peru made history in 2013 by releasing the first - and still only - femtosat tracked from LEO. However, femtosatellite applications in interplanetary missions have yet to be explored in detail. An interesting operations concept would be for a space probe to release numerous femtosatellites into orbit around a planetary object of interest, thereby augmenting the overall data collection capability of the mission. A planetary probe releasing hundreds of femtosats could complete an in-situ, simultaneous 3D mapping of a physical property of interest, achieving scientific investigations not possible for one probe operating alone. To study the technical challenges associated with such a mission, a conceptual mission design is proposed where femtosats are deployed from a host satellite orbiting Titan. The conceptual mission objective is presented: to study Titan's dynamic atmosphere. Then, the design challenges are addressed in turn. First, any science payload measurements that the femtosats provide are only useful if their corresponding locations can be determined. Specifically, what's required is a method of position determination for femtosatellites operating beyond Medium Earth Orbit and therefore beyond the help of GPS. A technique is presented which applies Kalman filter techniques to Doppler shift measurements, allowing for orbit determination of the femtosats. Several case studies are presented demonstrating the usefulness of this approach. Second, due to the inherit power and computational limitations in a femtosatellite design, establishing a radio link between each chipsat and the mothersat will be difficult. To provide a mathematical gain, a particular form of forward error

  14. The SPICE concept - An approach to providing geometric and other ancillary information needed for interpretation of data returned from space science instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Charles H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The Navigation Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF), acting under the direction of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications, and with substantial participation of the planetary science community, is designing and implementing an ancillary data system - called SPICE - to assist scientists in planning and interpreting scientific observations taken from spaceborne instruments. The principal objective of the implemented SPICE system is that it will hold the essential geometric and related ancillary information needed to recover the full value of science instrument data, and that it will facilitate correlations of individual instrument datasets with data obtained from other instruments on the same or other spacecraft.

  15. Professional Development for Researchers in Solid Earth Science Evolved to Include Scientific and Educational Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Olds, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    Integrated measures of crustal deformation provide valuable insight about tectonic and human-induced processes for scientists and educators alike. UNAVCO in conjunction with EarthScope initiated a series of short courses for researchers to learn the processing and interpretation of data from new technologies such as high precision GPS, Strainmeter, InSar and LiDAR that provide deformation information relevant to many geoscience sub-disciplines. Intensive short courses of a few days and the widespread availability of processed data through large projects such as EarthScope and GEON enable more geoscientists to incorporate these data into diverse projects. Characteristics of the UNAVCO Short Course Series, reaching over 400 participants since 2005, include having short course faculty who have pioneered development of each technology; open web-access to course materials; processing software installed on class-ready computers; no course fees; scholarships for students, post-doctoral fellows, and emerging faculty when needed; formative evaluation of the courses; community-based decisions on topics; and recruitment of participants across relevant geoscience disciplines. In 2009, when EarthScope airborne LiDAR data became available to the public through OpenTopographhy, teaching materials were provided to these researchers to incorporate the latest technologies into teaching. Multiple data sets across technologies have been developed with instructions on how to access the various data sets and incorporate them into geological problem sets. Courses in GPS, airborne LiDAR, strainmeter, and InSAR concentrate on data processing with examples of various geoscience applications. Ground-based LiDAR courses also include data acquisition. Google Earth is used to integrate various forms of data in educational applications. Various types of EarthScope data can now be used by a variety of geoscientists, and the number of scientists who have the skills and tools to use these various

  16. Astronautics and aeronautics, 1973: Chronology of science, technology and policy. [including artificial satellites, space probes, and manned space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A brief chronological account is presented of key events of the year in aerospace sciences. Dates, actions, hardware, persons, scientific discoveries are recorded along with plans, decisions, achievements and preliminary evaluations of results. Samples of public reaction and social impact are included. Sources are identified and an index is provided to aid in tracing related events through the year. The index also serves as a glossary of acronyms and abbreviations.

  17. Chiropractic treatment including instrument-assisted manipulation for non-specific dizziness and neck pain in community-dwelling older people: a feasibility randomised sham-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Julie C; French, Simon D; Hartvigsen, Jan; Azari, Michael F

    2018-01-01

    Dizziness in older people is a risk factor for falls. Neck pain is associated with dizziness and responds favourably to neck manipulation. However, it is unknown if chiropractic intervention including instrument-assisted manipulation of the neck in older people with neck pain can also improve dizziness. This parallel two-arm pilot trial was conducted in Melbourne, Australia over nine months (October 2015 to June 2016). Participants aged 65-85 years, with self-reported chronic neck pain and dizziness, were recruited from the general public through advertisements in local community newspapers and via Facebook. Participants were randomised using a permuted block method to one of two groups: 1) Activator II™-instrument-assisted cervical and thoracic spine manipulation plus a combination of: light massage; mobilisation; range of motion exercises; and home advice about the application of heat, or 2) Sham-Activator II™-instrument-assisted manipulation (set to zero impulse) plus gentle touch of cervical and thoracic spinal regions. Participants were blinded to group allocation. The interventions were delivered weekly for four weeks. Assessments were conducted one week pre- and post-intervention. Clinical outcomes were assessed blindly and included: dizziness (dizziness handicap inventory [DHI]); neck pain (neck disability index [NDI]); self-reported concerns of falling; mood; physical function; and treatment satisfaction. Feasibility outcomes included recruitment rates, compliance with intervention and outcome assessment, study location, success of blinding, costs and harms. Out of 162 enquiries, 24 participants were screened as eligible and randomised to either the chiropractic ( n  = 13) or sham ( n  = 11) intervention group. Compliance was satisfactory with only two participants lost to follow up; thus, post-intervention data for 12 chiropractic intervention and 10 sham intervention participants were analysed. Blinding was similar between groups. Mild harms

  18. OCEANUS: A high science return Uranus orbiter with a low-cost instrument suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, C. M.; Bramson, A. M.; Blum, L. W.; Chilton, H. T.; Chopra, A.; Chu, C.; Das, A.; Davis, A. B.; Delgado, A.; Fulton, J.; Jozwiak, L. M.; Khayat, A.; Landis, M. E.; Molaro, J. L.; Slipski, M.; Valencia, S.; Watkins, J.; Young, C. L.; Budney, C. J.; Mitchell, K. L.

    2018-07-01

    Ice-giant-sized planets are the most common type of observed exoplanet, yet the two ice giants in our own solar system (Uranus and Neptune) are the least explored class of planet, having only been observed through ground-based observations and a single flyby each by Voyager 2 approximately 30 years ago. These single flybys were unable to characterize the spatial and temporal variability in ice giant magnetospheres, some of the most odd and intriguing magnetospheres in the solar system. They also offered only limited constraints on the internal structure of ice giants; understanding the internal structure of a planet is important for understanding its formation and evolution. The most recent planetary science Decadal Survey by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, "Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022," identified the ice giant Uranus as the third highest priority for a Flagship mission in the decade 2013-2022. However, in the event that NASA or another space agency is unable to fly a Flagship-class mission to an ice giant in the next decade, this paper presents a mission concept for a focused, lower cost Uranus orbiter called OCEANUS (Origins and Composition of the Exoplanet Analog Uranus System). OCEANUS would increase our understanding of the interior structure of Uranus, its magnetosphere, and how its magnetic field is generated. These goals could be achieved with just a magnetometer and the spacecraft's radio system. This study shows that several of the objectives outlined by the Decadal Survey, including one of the two identified as highest priority, are within reach for a New-Frontiers-class mission.

  19. Optical Manufacturing and Testing Requirements Identified by the NASA Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Barney, Rich; Bauman, Jill; Feinberg, Lee; Mcleese, Dan; Singh, Upendra

    2011-01-01

    In August 2010, the NASA Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) commissioned an assessment of 15 different technology areas of importance to the future of NASA. Technology assessment #8 (TA8) was Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems (SIOSS). SIOSS assess the needs for optical technology ranging from detectors to lasers, x-ray mirrors to microwave antenna, in-situ spectrographs for on-surface planetary sample characterization to large space telescopes. The needs assessment looked across the entirety of NASA and not just the Science Mission Directorate. This paper reviews the optical manufacturing and testing technologies identified by SIOSS which require development in order to enable future NASA high priority missions.

  20. Reusing Joint Polar Satellite System (jpss) Ground System Components to Process AURA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (omi) Science Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, J. F.; Jain, P.; Johnson, J.; Doiron, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    New Earth observation instruments are planned to enable advancements in Earth science research over the next decade. Diversity of Earth observing instruments and their observing platforms will continue to increase as new instrument technologies emerge and are deployed as part of National programs such as Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite system (GOES), Landsat as well as the potential for many CubeSat and aircraft missions. The practical use and value of these observational data often extends well beyond their original purpose. The practicing community needs intuitive and standardized tools to enable quick unfettered development of tailored products for specific applications and decision support systems. However, the associated data processing system can take years to develop and requires inherent knowledge and the ability to integrate increasingly diverse data types from multiple sources. This paper describes the adaptation of a large-scale data processing system built for supporting JPSS algorithm calibration and validation (Cal/Val) node to a simplified science data system for rapid application. The new configurable data system reuses scalable JAVA technologies built for the JPSS Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Test, and Evaluation (GRAVITE) system to run within a laptop environment and support product generation and data processing of AURA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) science products. Of particular interest are the root requirements necessary for integrating experimental algorithms and Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) data access libraries into a science data production system. This study demonstrates the ability to reuse existing Ground System technologies to support future missions with minimal changes.

  1. Pre-flight calibration and initial data processing for the ChemCam laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, R.C.; Maurice, S.; Lasue, J.; Forni, O.; Anderson, R.B.; Clegg, S.; Bender, S.; Blaney, D.; Barraclough, B.L.; Cousin, A.; DeFlores, L.; Delapp, D.; Dyar, M.D.; Fabre, C.; Gasnault, O.; Lanza, N.; Mazoyer, J.; Melikechi, N.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Newsom, H.; Ollila, A.; Perez, R.; Tokar, R.; Vaniman, D.

    2013-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument package on the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, is the first planetary science instrument to employ laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine the compositions of geological samples on another planet. Pre-processing of the spectra involves subtracting the ambient light background, removing noise, removing the electron continuum, calibrating for the wavelength, correcting for the variable distance to the target, and applying a wavelength-dependent correction for the instrument response. Further processing of the data uses multivariate and univariate comparisons with a LIBS spectral library developed prior to launch as well as comparisons with several on-board standards post-landing. The level-2 data products include semi-quantitative abundances derived from partial least squares regression. A LIBS spectral library was developed using 69 rock standards in the form of pressed powder disks, glasses, and ceramics to minimize heterogeneity on the scale of the observation (350–550 μm dia.). The standards covered typical compositional ranges of igneous materials and also included sulfates, carbonates, and phyllosilicates. The provenance and elemental and mineralogical compositions of these standards are described. Spectral characteristics of this data set are presented, including the size distribution and integrated irradiances of the plasmas, and a proxy for plasma temperature as a function of distance from the instrument. Two laboratory-based clones of ChemCam reside in Los Alamos and Toulouse for the purpose of adding new spectra to the database as the need arises. Sensitivity to differences in wavelength correlation to spectral channels and spectral resolution has been investigated, indicating that spectral registration needs to be within half a pixel and resolution needs to match within 1.5 to 2.6 pixels. Absolute errors are tabulated for derived compositions of each major element in each standard using PLS regression

  2. Public status toward radiation and irradiated potatoes at 'Youngster's Science Festival' in several cities including Tokyo, Osaka, and Hiroshima, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Hayashi, Toshio; Kakefu, Tomohisa; Nishihara, Hideaki

    2000-01-01

    'Youngster's Science Festival' has been held in several big cities in various districts in Japan for the purpose of induction of young students' interests in science and scientific experiments. On the basis of the survey results from the participants of the 'Radiation Fair' in Osaka, Japan, which was presented at the last IMRP, we expanded the area of survey and distributed questionnaires to the visitors of the above event to inquire their status toward radiation and irradiated products including irradiated potatoes. The survey results indicated the same trends as that of the 'Radiation Fair' survey. That is, more than half of the older visitors (16 years old and upward) indicated that they recognized the word of 'radiation' when they were at elementary school and the most significant sources of this information were school lessons and the mass media. We will discuss the relationship between consumer's image toward radiation and the description of radiation related topic in school textbooks. (author)

  3. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  4. SPESS: A New Instrument for Measuring Student Perceptions in Earth and Ocean Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Allison; Lane, Erin; Kennedy, Ben; Frappé-Sénéclauze, Tom-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and results of a new tool used for measuring shifts in students' perceptions of earth and ocean sciences called the Student Perceptions about Earth Sciences Survey (SPESS). The survey measures where students lie on the novice--expert continuum, and how their perceptions change after taking one or more earth and…

  5. Quantitative x-ray microanalysis in an AEM: instrumental considerations and applications to materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaluzec, N.J.

    1979-01-01

    There are a wide variety of instrumental problems which are present to some degree in all AEM instruments. The nature and magnitude of these artifacts can in some instances preclude the simple quantitative interpretation of the recorded x-ray emission spectrum using a thin-film electron excitation model; however, by judicious modifications to the instrument these complications can be effectively eliminated. The specific operating conditions of the microscope necessarily vary from one analysis to another depending on the type of specimen and experiment being performed. In general, however, the overall performance of the AEM system during x-ray analysis is optimized using the highest attainable incident electron energy; selecting the maximum probe diameter and probe current consistent with experimental limitations; and positioning the x-ray detector in a geometry such that it records information from the electron entrance surface of the specimen

  6. "Designing Instrument for Science Classroom Learning Environment in Francophone Minority Settings: Accounting for Voiced Concerns among Teachers and Immigrant/Refugee Students"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolivar, Bathélemy

    2015-01-01

    The three-phase process "-Instrument for Minority Immigrant Science Learning Environment," an 8-scale, 32-item see Appendix I- (I_MISLE) instrument when completed by teachers provides an accurate description of existing conditions in classrooms in which immigrant and refugee students are situated. Through the completion of the instrument…

  7. Analysis of scientific papers included in the sciences citation index expanded written by South korean plastic surgeons: 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Ju Young; Mun, Goo-Hyun; Jeon, Byung-Joon; Lim, So-Young; Pyon, Jai-Kyong; Bang, Sa-Ik; Oh, Kap Sung; Shin, Myoung-Soo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to analyze scientific papers published by South Korean plastic surgeons in journals included in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE), and to evaluate the publication and research activities of Korean plastic surgeon. We conducted a survey of SCIE papers in the field of plastic surgery published by South Korean authors between 2001 and 2010 using Web of Science software. We further analyzed these results according to the number of publications per year, journals, institution, and type of papers. We also compared the total number of citations to published scientific papers. We analyzed the rank of South Korea among other countries in representative journals. Overall, 667 papers were published by South Korean authors between 2001 and 2010. The number of publications increased dramatically from 2003 (n=31) to 2010 (n=139). Subsequently, the ten most productive Korean medical colleges were identified. All published papers received 2,311 citations and the citation to paper ratio was 3.49. The rank of Korea among other countries in terms of the number of published papers remained in the top 10 during the recent 10 years. Publication output of Korean plastic surgeon over the last 10 years showed a remarkable growth in terms of quantity and quality. Currently, Korea is among the top six countries in representative plastic surgery journals. Korean plastic surgeons have played a central role in this progress, and it is anticipated that they will continue to do so in the future.

  8. 75 FR 16514 - Bayer Material Science, LLC, Formally Known as Sheffield Plastics, Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-71,045] Bayer Material Science... January 8th, 2010, applicable to workers of Bayer Material Science, LLC, formally known as Sheffield... polycarbonate film products. Information shows that Bayer Material Science, LLC was formally known as Sheffield...

  9. Teacher-Made Tactile Science Materials with Critical and Creative Thinking Activities for Learners Including Those with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, Jolene K.; Gray, Phyllis; Kuhn, Mason A.; Clausen, Courtney K.; Smith, Latisha L.; Alsubia, Sukainah A.; Ghayoorad, Maryam; Rule, Audrey C.; Schneider, Jean Suchsland

    2014-01-01

    Gifted students with visual impairments are twice exceptional learners and may not evidence their advanced science aptitudes without appropriate accommodations for learning science. However, effective tactile science teaching materials may be easily made. Recent research has shown that when tactile materials are used with "all" students…

  10. The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) on RBSP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Acuna, M.; MacDowall, R. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Averkamp, T.; Bodet, D.; Bounds, S. R.; Chutter, M.; Connerney, J.; Crawford, D.; Dolan, J. S.; Dvorsky, R.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Howard, J.; Jordanova, V.; Johnson, R. A.; Kirchner, D. L.; Mokrzycki, B.; Needell, G.; Odom, J.; Mark, D.; Pfaff Jr, R.; Phillips, J. R.; Piker, C. V.; Remington, S. L.; Rowland, D.; Santolík, Ondřej; Schnurr, R.; Sheppard, D.; Smith, C. W.; Thorne, R. M.; Tyler, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 179, 1-4 (2013), s. 127-181 ISSN 0038-6308 Grant - others: NASA (US) 921647 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : radiation belt physics * wave measurements * magnetometer measurements * space flight instruments * RBSP * radiation belt storm probes * Van Allen probes * whistler waves * geomagnetic storms * space weather Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 5.874, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11214-013-9993-6#page-1

  11. Test and Delivery of the Chemin Mineralogical Instrument for Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D.; Anderson, R.; Bish, D.; Chipera, S.; Chemtob, S.; Crisp, J.; DesMarais, D. J.; Downs, R.; Feldman, S.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The CheMin mineralogical instrument on MSL will return quantitative powder X-ray diffraction data (XRD) and qualitative X-ray fluorescence data (XRF; 14

  12. Korea's Contribution to Radiological Research Included in Science Citation Index Expanded, 1986-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, You Jin; Yoon, Dae Young; Lim, Kyoung Ja; Baek, Sora; Seo, Young Lan; Yun, Eun Joo; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon [Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun; Ju, Young Su [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To evaluate scientific papers published by Korean radiologists in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) radiology journals, between 1986 and 2010. The Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge-Web of Science (SCIE) database was searched for all articles published by Korean radiologists, in SCIE radiology journals, between 1986 and 2010. We performed the analysis by typing 'Korea' and 'radiol' in the address section and selecting the subject area of 'Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, and Medical Imaging' with the use of the general search function of the software. Analyzed parameters included the total number of publications, document types, journals, and institutions. In addition, we analyzed where Korea ranks, compared to other countries, in terms of the number of published articles. All these data were analyzed according to five time periods: 1986-1990, 1991-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005, and 2006-2010. Overall, 4974 papers were published by Korean radiologists, in 99 different SCIE journals, between 1986 and 2010, of which 4237 (85.2%) were article-type papers. Of the total 115395 articles, worldwide, published in radiology journals, Korea's share was 3.7%, with an upward trend over time (p < 0.005). The journal with the highest number of articles was the American Journal of Roentgenology (n 565, 13.3%). The institution which produced the highest number of publications was Seoul National University (n = 932, 22.0%). The number of scientific articles published by Korean radiologists in the SCIE radiology journals has increased significantly between 1986 and 2010. Korea was ranked 4th among countries contributing to radiology research during the last 5 years.

  13. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instruments Module (ISIM) Cryo-Vacuum (CV) Test Campaign Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Calinda; Whitehouse, Paul; Lui, Yan; Banks, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    JWST Integrated Science Instruments Module (ISIM) has completed its system-level testing program at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). In March 2016, ISIM was successfully delivered for integration with the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) after the successful verification of the system through a series of three cryo-vacuum (CV) tests. The first test served as a risk reduction test; the second test provided the initial verification of the fully-integrated flight instruments; and the third test verified the system in its final flight configuration. The complexity of the mission has generated challenging requirements that demand highly reliable system performance and capabilities from the Space Environment Simulator (SES) vacuum chamber. As JWST progressed through its CV testing campaign, deficiencies in the test configuration and support equipment were uncovered from one test to the next. Subsequent upgrades and modifications were implemented to improve the facility support capabilities required to achieve test requirements. This paper: (1) provides an overview of the integrated mechanical and thermal facility systems required to achieve the objectives of JWST ISIM testing, (2) compares the overall facility performance and instrumentation results from the three ISIM CV tests, and (3) summarizes lessons learned from the ISIM testing campaign.

  14. Onboard calibration igneous targets for the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Chemistry Camera laser induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabre, C., E-mail: cecile.fabre@g2r.uhp-nancy.fr [G2R, Nancy Universite (France); Maurice, S.; Cousin, A. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Wiens, R.C. [LANL, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Forni, O. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Sautter, V. [MNHN, Paris (France); Guillaume, D. [GET, Toulouse (France)

    2011-03-15

    Accurate characterization of the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on-board composition targets is of prime importance for the ChemCam instrument. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) science and operations teams expect ChemCam to provide the first compositional results at remote distances (1.5-7 m) during the in situ analyses of the Martian surface starting in 2012. Thus, establishing LIBS reference spectra from appropriate calibration standards must be undertaken diligently. Considering the global mineralogy of the Martian surface, and the possible landing sites, three specific compositions of igneous targets have been determined. Picritic, noritic, and shergottic glasses have been produced, along with a Macusanite natural glass. A sample of each target will fly on the MSL Curiosity rover deck, 1.56 m from the ChemCam instrument, and duplicates are available on the ground. Duplicates are considered to be identical, as the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the composition dispersion is around 8%. Electronic microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) analyses give evidence that the chemical composition of the four silicate targets is very homogeneous at microscopic scales larger than the instrument spot size, with RSD < 5% for concentration variations > 0.1 wt.% using electronic microprobe, and < 10% for concentration variations > 0.01 wt.% using LA ICP-MS. The LIBS campaign on the igneous targets performed under flight-like Mars conditions establishes reference spectra for the entire mission. The LIBS spectra between 240 and 900 nm are extremely rich, hundreds of lines with high signal-to-noise, and a dynamical range sufficient to identify unambiguously major, minor and trace elements. For instance, a first LIBS calibration curve has been established for strontium from [Sr] = 284 ppm to [Sr] = 1480 ppm, showing the potential for the future calibrations for other major or minor

  15. Onboard calibration igneous targets for the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Chemistry Camera laser induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, C.; Maurice, S.; Cousin, A.; Wiens, R.C.; Forni, O.; Sautter, V.; Guillaume, D.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate characterization of the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on-board composition targets is of prime importance for the ChemCam instrument. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) science and operations teams expect ChemCam to provide the first compositional results at remote distances (1.5-7 m) during the in situ analyses of the Martian surface starting in 2012. Thus, establishing LIBS reference spectra from appropriate calibration standards must be undertaken diligently. Considering the global mineralogy of the Martian surface, and the possible landing sites, three specific compositions of igneous targets have been determined. Picritic, noritic, and shergottic glasses have been produced, along with a Macusanite natural glass. A sample of each target will fly on the MSL Curiosity rover deck, 1.56 m from the ChemCam instrument, and duplicates are available on the ground. Duplicates are considered to be identical, as the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the composition dispersion is around 8%. Electronic microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) analyses give evidence that the chemical composition of the four silicate targets is very homogeneous at microscopic scales larger than the instrument spot size, with RSD 0.1 wt.% using electronic microprobe, and 0.01 wt.% using LA ICP-MS. The LIBS campaign on the igneous targets performed under flight-like Mars conditions establishes reference spectra for the entire mission. The LIBS spectra between 240 and 900 nm are extremely rich, hundreds of lines with high signal-to-noise, and a dynamical range sufficient to identify unambiguously major, minor and trace elements. For instance, a first LIBS calibration curve has been established for strontium from [Sr] = 284 ppm to [Sr] = 1480 ppm, showing the potential for the future calibrations for other major or minor elements.

  16. Employing the Five-Factor Mentoring Instrument: Analysing Mentoring Practices for Teaching Primary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Peter; Usak, Muhammet; Savran-Gencer, Ayse

    2009-01-01

    Primary science education is a concern around the world and quality mentoring within schools can develop pre-service teachers' practices. A five-factor model for mentoring has been identified, namely, personal attributes, system requirements, pedagogical knowledge, modelling, and feedback. Final-year pre-service teachers (mentees, n = 211) from…

  17. Pre-flight calibration and initial data processing for the ChemCam laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiens, R.C., E-mail: rwiens@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Maurice, S.; Lasue, J.; Forni, O. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse (France); Anderson, R.B. [United States Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Clegg, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Bender, S. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Blaney, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Barraclough, B.L. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Cousin, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse (France); Deflores, L. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Delapp, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Dyar, M.D. [Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, MA (United States); Fabre, C. [Georessources, Nancy (France); Gasnault, O. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse (France); Lanza, N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Mazoyer, J. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Meudon (France); Melikechi, N. [Delaware State University, Dover, DE (United States); Meslin, P.-Y. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse (France); Newsom, H. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); and others

    2013-04-01

    The ChemCam instrument package on the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, is the first planetary science instrument to employ laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine the compositions of geological samples on another planet. Pre-processing of the spectra involves subtracting the ambient light background, removing noise, removing the electron continuum, calibrating for the wavelength, correcting for the variable distance to the target, and applying a wavelength-dependent correction for the instrument response. Further processing of the data uses multivariate and univariate comparisons with a LIBS spectral library developed prior to launch as well as comparisons with several on-board standards post-landing. The level-2 data products include semi-quantitative abundances derived from partial least squares regression. A LIBS spectral library was developed using 69 rock standards in the form of pressed powder disks, glasses, and ceramics to minimize heterogeneity on the scale of the observation (350–550 μm dia.). The standards covered typical compositional ranges of igneous materials and also included sulfates, carbonates, and phyllosilicates. The provenance and elemental and mineralogical compositions of these standards are described. Spectral characteristics of this data set are presented, including the size distribution and integrated irradiances of the plasmas, and a proxy for plasma temperature as a function of distance from the instrument. Two laboratory-based clones of ChemCam reside in Los Alamos and Toulouse for the purpose of adding new spectra to the database as the need arises. Sensitivity to differences in wavelength correlation to spectral channels and spectral resolution has been investigated, indicating that spectral registration needs to be within half a pixel and resolution needs to match within 1.5 to 2.6 pixels. Absolute errors are tabulated for derived compositions of each major element in each standard using PLS regression

  18. Instruments for radiation measurement in life sciences (5). Development of imaging technology in life science. 4. Real-time bioradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toru; Iwamoto, Akinori; Tsuboi, Hisashi; Katoh, Toru; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Kazawa, Erito; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Real-time bioradiography, new bioradiography method, can collect and produce image of metabolism and function of cell in real-time. The principles of instrumentation, development process and the application examples of neuroscience and biomedical gerontology are stated. The bioradiography method, the gas-tissue live-cell autoradiography method and the real-time bioradiography method are explained. As the application examples, the molecular mechanism of oxidative stress at brain ischemia and the analysis of SOD gene knockout animals are reported. Comparison between FDG-PET of epileptic brain and FDG- bioradiography image of live-cell of brain tissue, the real-time bioradiography system, improvement of image by surface treatment, the detection limit of β + ray from F 18 , image of living-slices of brain tissue by FDG-real-time bioradiography and radioluminography, continuous FDG image of living-slices of rat brain tissue, and analysis of carbohydrate metabolism of living-slices of brain tissue of mouse lacking SOD gene during aerophobia and reoxygenation process are reported. (S.Y.)

  19. Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes: Year 2 - instrument validation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R.; Minnick, K.

    1997-01-01

    Our overall purpose for this multi-year project was to develop an alternative assessment format measuring rural middle school students understanding of science concepts and processes and the interrelationships among them. This kind of understanding is called structural knowledge. We had 3 major interrelated goals: (1) Synthesize the existing literature and critically evaluate the actual and potential use of measures of structural knowledge in science education. (2) Develop a structural knowledge alternative assessment format. (3) Examine the validity of our structural knowledge format. We accomplished the first two goals during year 1. The structural knowledge assessment we identified and developed further was a select-and-fill-in concept map format. The goal for our year 2 work was to begin to validate this assessment approach. This final report summarizes our year 2 work.

  20. Laboratory Scale X-ray Fluorescence Tomography: Instrument Characterization and Application in Earth and Environmental Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforce, Brecht; Vermeulen, Bram; Garrevoet, Jan; Vekemans, Bart; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Janssen, Colin; Vincze, Laszlo

    2016-03-15

    A new laboratory scale X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging instrument, based on an X-ray microfocus tube equipped with a monocapillary optic, has been developed to perform XRF computed tomography experiments with both higher spatial resolution (20 μm) and a better energy resolution (130 eV @Mn-K(α)) than has been achieved up-to-now. This instrument opens a new range of possible applications for XRF-CT. Next to the analytical characterization of the setup by using well-defined model/reference samples, demonstrating its capabilities for tomographic imaging, the XRF-CT microprobe has been used to image the interior of an ecotoxicological model organism, Americamysis bahia. This had been exposed to elevated metal (Cu and Ni) concentrations. The technique allowed the visualization of the accumulation sites of copper, clearly indicating the affected organs, i.e. either the gastric system or the hepatopancreas. As another illustrative application, the scanner has been employed to investigate goethite spherules from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, revealing the internal elemental distribution of these valuable distal ejecta layer particles.

  1. A brief history of science as seen through the development of scientific instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Crump, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    From earliest pre-history, with the dawning understanding of fire and its many uses, up to the astonishing advances of the twenty-first century, Thomas Crump traces the ever more sophisticated means employed in our attempts to understand the universe. The result is a vigorous and readable account of how our curious nature has continually pushed forward the frontiers of science and, as a consequence, human civilization.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF COMBINATION NON-MEDICAL TREATMENT INCLUDING FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMED ELECTRICAL STIMULATION ON THE CLINICAL AND INSTRUMENTAL PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH CEREBRAL PALSY WITH SPASTIC DIPLEGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Eliseev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy is the leading cause of physical disability in pediatric  age. The search for new methods and improvement of old rehabil- itation techniques is ongoing, due to low efficacy of the latter. Aim: To assess the efficacy of a func- tional programmed electrical muscle stimulation as a part  of combination treatment of patients with cerebral palsy in the form of spastic diplegia. Materials and methods: We analyzed the results of treatment of 71 children with cerebral palsy and spastic diplegia, who had  been  randomized  into two groups  depending on the type of treatment. In  the  first group,  the  patients  (n = 38 received a course of functional programmed electric stim- ulation  in combination with  other  non-medical treatment  methods.  The  second   group   (n = 33 underwent a usual  course  of electrical  stimula- tion in combination with non-medical  treatment, similar to that  in the first group. The third group (control   included   41   children   without    cere- bral palsy. Clinical and  instrumental parameters were  assessed  in all study  participants. Results: After the course of combination treatment in the group  1, the  tonus  of m. gastrocnemius was de- creased significantly by 41%, that of the posterior group  of femur muscles by 43%, adductor group of femur muscles by 36%. In the group  2, the re- spective parameters decreased by 24, 21 and 21%. Muscle power  endurance was  increased  signifi- cantly in patients of both groups: that of long back extensors by 12.5 and 6.2 sec, of m. rectus abdomi- nis by 10.6 sec and 5.2 sec, of gluteal muscles by 9.3 and 4.6 sec, of m. quadriceps  by 19.8 and 7.2 sec, of m. anterior  tibialis by 12.1 and 4.6 sec, respec- tively. After the  treatment, the  active movement volume in the large joints of lower extremities  in the group 1 patients  improved as follows: by 15.6° in hip joints, by 11.1° in knee joints and by

  3. Enhnacing the science of the WFIRST coronagraph instrument with post-processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, Laurent; WFIRST CGI data analysis and post-processing WG

    2018-01-01

    We summarize the results of a three years effort investigating how to apply to the WFIRST coronagraph instrument (CGI) modern image analysis methods, now routinely used with ground-based coronagraphs. In this post we quantify the gain associated post-processing for WFIRST-CGI observing scenarios simulated between 2013 and 2017. We also show based one simulations that spectrum of planet can be confidently retrieved using these processing tools with and Integral Field Spectrograph. We then discuss our work using CGI experimental data and quantify coronagraph post-processing testbed gains. We finally introduce stability metrics that are simple to define and measure, and place useful lower bound and upper bounds on the achievable RDI post-processing contrast gain. We show that our bounds hold in the case of the testbed data.

  4. The Goldstone solar system radar: A science instrument for planetary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorsky, J. D.; Renzetti, N. A.; Fulton, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) station at NASA's Deep Space Communications Complex in California's Mojave Desert is described. A short chronological account of the GSSR's technical development and scientific discoveries is given. This is followed by a basic discussion of how information is derived from the radar echo and how the raw information can be used to increase understanding of the solar system. A moderately detailed description of the radar system is given, and the engineering performance of the radar is discussed. The operating characteristics of the Arcibo Observatory in Puerto Rico are briefly described and compared with those of the GSSR. Planned and in-process improvements to the existing radar, as well as the performance of a hypothetical 128-m diameter antenna radar station, are described. A comprehensive bibliography of referred scientific and engineering articles presenting results that depended on data gathered by the instrument is provided.

  5. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mast cameras and Descent imager: Investigation and instrument descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Michal C.; Ravine, Michael A.; Caplinger, Michael A.; Tony Ghaemi, F.; Schaffner, Jacob A.; Maki, Justin N.; Bell, James F.; Cameron, James F.; Dietrich, William E.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Edwards, Laurence J.; Garvin, James B.; Hallet, Bernard; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Heydari, Ezat; Kah, Linda C.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Olson, Timothy S.; Parker, Timothy J.; Rowland, Scott K.; Schieber, Juergen; Sletten, Ron; Sullivan, Robert J.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Aileen Yingst, R.; Duston, Brian M.; McNair, Sean; Jensen, Elsa H.

    2017-08-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Mast camera and Descent Imager investigations were designed, built, and operated by Malin Space Science Systems of San Diego, CA. They share common electronics and focal plane designs but have different optics. There are two Mastcams of dissimilar focal length. The Mastcam-34 has an f/8, 34 mm focal length lens, and the M-100 an f/10, 100 mm focal length lens. The M-34 field of view is about 20° × 15° with an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 218 μrad; the M-100 field of view (FOV) is 6.8° × 5.1° with an IFOV of 74 μrad. The M-34 can focus from 0.5 m to infinity, and the M-100 from 1.6 m to infinity. All three cameras can acquire color images through a Bayer color filter array, and the Mastcams can also acquire images through seven science filters. Images are ≤1600 pixels wide by 1200 pixels tall. The Mastcams, mounted on the 2 m tall Remote Sensing Mast, have a 360° azimuth and 180° elevation field of regard. Mars Descent Imager is fixed-mounted to the bottom left front side of the rover at 66 cm above the surface. Its fixed focus lens is in focus from 2 m to infinity, but out of focus at 66 cm. The f/3 lens has a FOV of 70° by 52° across and along the direction of motion, with an IFOV of 0.76 mrad. All cameras can acquire video at 4 frames/second for full frames or 720p HD at 6 fps. Images can be processed using lossy Joint Photographic Experts Group and predictive lossless compression.

  6. The instrumental blank of the Mars Science Laboratory alpha particle X-ray spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.L., E-mail: icampbel@uoguelph.ca [Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    The alpha particle X-ray spectrometers on the Mars exploration rovers Spirit and Opportunity accomplished extensive elemental analysis of the Martian surface through a combination of XRF and PIXE. An advanced APXS is now part of the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover. APXS spectra contain contributions which enhance elemental peak areas but which do not arise from these elements within the sample under study, thereby introducing error into derived concentrations. A detailed examination of these effects in the MSL APXS enables us to test two schemes for making the necessary corrections.

  7. Development of the science instrument CLUPI: the close-up imager on board the ExoMars rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, J.-L.; Beauvivre, S.; Cessa, V.; Martin, P.

    2017-11-01

    First mission of the Aurora Exploration Programme of ESA, ExoMars will demonstrate key flight and in situ enabling technologies, and will pursue fundamental scientific investigations. Planned for launch in 2013, ExoMars will send a robotic rover to the surface of Mars. The Close-UP Imager (CLUPI) instrument is part of the Pasteur Payload of the rover fixed on the robotic arm. It is a robotic replacement of one of the most useful instruments of the field geologist: the hand lens. Imaging of surfaces of rocks, soils and wind drift deposits at high resolution is crucial for the understanding of the geological context of any site where the Pasteur rover may be active on Mars. At the resolution provided by CLUPI (approx. 15 micrometer/pixel), rocks show a plethora of surface and internal structures, to name just a few: crystals in igneous rocks, sedimentary structures such as bedding, fracture mineralization, secondary minerals, details of the surface morphology, sedimentary bedding, sediment components, surface marks in sediments, soil particles. It is conceivable that even textures resulting from ancient biological activity can be visualized, such as fine lamination due to microbial mats (stromatolites) and textures resulting from colonies of filamentous microbes, potentially present in sediments and in palaeocavitites in any rock type. CLUPI is a complete imaging system, consisting of an APS (Active Pixel Sensor) camera with 27° FOV optics. The sensor is sensitive to light between 400 and 900 nm with 12 bits digitization. The fixed focus optics provides well focused images of 4 cm x 2.4 cm rock area at a distance of about 10 cm. This challenging camera system, less than 200g, is an independent scientific instrument linked to the rover on board computer via a SpaceWire interface. After the science goals and specifications presentation, the development of this complex high performance miniaturized imaging system will be described.

  8. Real-Time On-Board Airborne Demonstration of High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Ng, Tak-Kwong; Davis, Mitchell J.; Adams, James K.; Bowen, Stephen C.; Fay, James J.; Hutchinson, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The project called High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS) has been funded by NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program since April, 2012. The HOPS team recently completed two flight campaigns during the summer of 2014 on two different aircrafts with two different science instruments. The first flight campaign was in July, 2014 based at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) in Hampton, VA on the NASA's HU-25 aircraft. The science instrument that flew with HOPS was Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) funded by NASA's Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). The second campaign was in August, 2014 based at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) in Palmdale, CA on the NASA's DC-8 aircraft. HOPS flew with the Multifunctional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL) instrument developed by Excelis Inc. The goal of the campaigns was to perform an end-to-end demonstration of the capabilities of the HOPS prototype system (HOPS COTS) while running the most computationally intensive part of the ASCENDS algorithm real-time on-board. The comparison of the two flight campaigns and the results of the functionality tests of the HOPS COTS are presented in this paper.

  9. With hiccups and bumps: the development of a Rasch-based instrument to measure elementary students' understanding of the nature of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Shelagh M; O'Dwyer, Laura M; Shields, Katherine A; Wang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    This research describes the development process, psychometric analyses and part validation study of a theoretically-grounded Rasch-based instrument, the Nature of Science Instrument-Elementary (NOSI-E). The NOSI-E was designed to measure elementary students' understanding of the Nature of Science (NOS). Evidence is provided for three of the six validity aspects (content, substantive and generalizability) needed to support the construct validity of the NOSI-E. A future article will examine the structural and external validity aspects. Rasch modeling proved especially productive in scale improvement efforts. The instrument, designed for large-scale assessment use, is conceptualized using five construct domains. Data from 741 elementary students were used to pilot the Rasch scale, with continuous improvements made over three successive administrations. The psychometric properties of the NOSI-E instrument are consistent with the basic assumptions of Rasch measurement, namely that the items are well-fitting and invariant. Items from each of the five domains (Empirical, Theory-Laden, Certainty, Inventive, and Socially and Culturally Embedded) are spread along the scale's continuum and appear to overlap well. Most importantly, the scale seems appropriately calibrated and responsive for elementary school-aged children, the target age group. As a result, the NOSI-E should prove beneficial for science education research. As the United States' science education reform efforts move toward students' learning science through engaging in authentic scientific practices (NRC, 2011), it will be important to assess whether this new approach to teaching science is effective. The NOSI-E can be used as one measure of whether this reform effort has an impact.

  10. Study on a conceptual design of a data acquisition and instrument control system for experimental suites at materials and life science facility (MLF) of J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kenji; Nakatani, Takeshi; Torii, Shuki; Higemoto, Wataru; Otomo, Toshiya

    2006-02-01

    The JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency)-KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization) joint project, Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), is now under construction. Materials and Life Science Facility (MLF) is one of planned facilities in this research complex. The neutron and muon sources will be installed at MLF and world's highest class intensive beam, which is utilized for variety of scientific research subject, will be delivered. To discuss the necessary computing environments for neutron and muon instruments at J-PARC, the MLF computing environment group (MLF-CEG) has been organized. We, members of the DAQ subgroup (DAQ-SG) are responsible for considering data acquisition and instrument control systems for the experimental suites at MLF. In the framework of the MLF-CEG, we are surveying the computer resources which is required for data acquisition and instrument control at future instruments, current situation of existing facilities and possible solutions those we can achieve. We are discussing the most suitable system that can bring out full performance of our instruments. This is the first interim report of the DAQ-SG, in which our activity of 2003-2004 is summarized. In this report, a conceptual design of the software, the related a data acquisition and instrument control system for experimental instruments at MLF are proposed. (author)

  11. The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Monitor the Implementation of Social Constructivist Learning Environments in Grade 9 Science Classrooms in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckay, Melanie B.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.

    2015-02-01

    This article describes the development and validation of an instrument that can be used to assess students' perceptions of their learning environment as a means of monitoring and guiding changes toward social constructivist learning environments. The study used a mixed-method approach with priority given to the quantitative data collection. During the quantitative data collection phase, a new instrument—the Social Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (SCLES)—was developed and used to collect data from 1,955 grade 9 science students from 52 classes in 50 schools in the Western Cape province, South Africa. The data were analysed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the new instrument, which assessed six dimensions of the classroom learning environment, namely, Working with Ideas, Personal Relevance, Collaboration, Critical Voice, Uncertainty in Science and Respect for Difference. Two dimensions were developed specifically for the present study in order to contextualise the questionnaire to the requirements of the new South African curriculum (namely, Metacognition and Respect for Difference). In the qualitative data collection phase, two case studies were used to investigate whether profiles of class mean scores on the new instrument could provide an accurate and "trustworthy" description of the learning environment of individual science classes. The study makes significant contributions to the field of learning environments in that it is one of the first major studies of its kind in South Africa with a focus on social constructivism and because the instrument developed captures important aspects of the learning environment associated with social constructivism.

  12. Advanced optical instruments technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Mike; Chrisp, Michael; Cheng, Li-Jen; Eng, Sverre; Glavich, Thomas; Goad, Larry; Jones, Bill; Kaarat, Philip; Nein, Max; Robinson, William

    1992-08-01

    The science objectives for proposed NASA missions for the next decades push the state of the art in sensitivity and spatial resolution over a wide range of wavelengths, including the x-ray to the submillimeter. While some of the proposed missions are larger and more sensitive versions of familiar concepts, such as the next generation space telescope, others use concepts, common on the Earth, but new to space, such as optical interferometry, in order to provide spatial resolutions impossible with other concepts. However, despite their architecture, the performance of all of the proposed missions depends critically on the back-end instruments that process the collected energy to produce scientifically interesting outputs. The Advanced Optical Instruments Technology panel was chartered with defining technology development plans that would best improve optical instrument performance for future astrophysics missions. At this workshop the optical instrument was defined as the set of optical components that reimage the light from the telescope onto the detectors to provide information about the spatial, spectral, and polarization properties of the light. This definition was used to distinguish the optical instrument technology issues from those associated with the telescope, which were covered by a separate panel. The panel identified several areas for optical component technology development: diffraction gratings; tunable filters; interferometric beam combiners; optical materials; and fiber optics. The panel also determined that stray light suppression instruments, such as coronagraphs and nulling interferometers, were in need of general development to support future astrophysics needs.

  13. Measurement Instrument for Scientific Teaching (MIST): A Tool to Measure the Frequencies of Research-Based Teaching Practices in Undergraduate Science Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Mary F; Knight, Jennifer K; Couch, Brian A

    2017-01-01

    The Scientific Teaching (ST) pedagogical framework provides various approaches for science instructors to teach in a way that more closely emulates how science is practiced by actively and inclusively engaging students in their own learning and by making instructional decisions based on student performance data. Fully understanding the impact of ST requires having mechanisms to quantify its implementation. While many useful instruments exist to document teaching practices, these instruments only partially align with the range of practices specified by ST, as described in a recently published taxonomy. Here, we describe the development, validation, and implementation of the Measurement Instrument for Scientific Teaching (MIST), a survey derived from the ST taxonomy and designed to gauge the frequencies of ST practices in undergraduate science courses. MIST showed acceptable validity and reliability based on results from 7767 students in 87 courses at nine institutions. We used factor analyses to identify eight subcategories of ST practices and used these categories to develop a short version of the instrument amenable to joint administration with other research instruments. We further discuss how MIST can be used by instructors, departments, researchers, and professional development programs to quantify and track changes in ST practices. © 2017 M. F. Durham et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  14. Proceeding of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research of Nuclear Science and Technology: Book I. Physics, Reactor Physics and Nuclear Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The proceeding contains papers presented on Scientific Meeting and Presentation on on Basic Research of Nuclear Science and Technology, held in Yogyakarta, 25-27 April 1995. This proceeding is part one from two books published for the meeting contains papers on Physics, Reactor Physics and Nuclear Instrumentation as results of research activities in National Atomic Energy Agency. There are 39 papers indexed individually. (ID)

  15. Proceeding of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology. Part I : Physics, Reactor Physics and Nuclear Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudjatmoko; Karmanto, Eko Edy; Supartini, Endang

    1996-04-01

    Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology is a routine activity was held by PPNY BATAN for monitoring the research Activity which achieved in BATAN. The Proceeding contains a proposal about basic which has physics; reactor physics and nuclear instrumentation. This proceedings is the first part from two part which published in series. There are 33 articles which have separated index

  16. Weather Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  17. The Math–Biology Values Instrument: Development of a Tool to Measure Life Science Majors’ Task Values of Using Math in the Context of Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sarah E.; Runyon, Christopher; Aikens, Melissa L.

    2017-01-01

    In response to calls to improve the quantitative training of undergraduate biology students, there have been increased efforts to better integrate math into biology curricula. One challenge of such efforts is negative student attitudes toward math, which are thought to be particularly prevalent among biology students. According to theory, students’ personal values toward using math in a biological context will influence their achievement and behavioral outcomes, but a validated instrument is needed to determine this empirically. We developed the Math–Biology Values Instrument (MBVI), an 11-item college-level self-­report instrument grounded in expectancy-value theory, to measure life science students’ interest in using math to understand biology, the perceived usefulness of math to their life science career, and the cost of using math in biology courses. We used a process that integrates multiple forms of validity evidence to show that scores from the MBVI can be used as a valid measure of a student’s value of math in the context of biology. The MBVI can be used by instructors and researchers to help identify instructional strategies that influence math–biology values and understand how math–biology values are related to students’ achievement and decisions to pursue more advanced quantitative-based courses. PMID:28747355

  18. The Math-Biology Values Instrument: Development of a Tool to Measure Life Science Majors' Task Values of Using Math in the Context of Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sarah E; Runyon, Christopher; Aikens, Melissa L

    2017-01-01

    In response to calls to improve the quantitative training of undergraduate biology students, there have been increased efforts to better integrate math into biology curricula. One challenge of such efforts is negative student attitudes toward math, which are thought to be particularly prevalent among biology students. According to theory, students' personal values toward using math in a biological context will influence their achievement and behavioral outcomes, but a validated instrument is needed to determine this empirically. We developed the Math-Biology Values Instrument (MBVI), an 11-item college-level self--report instrument grounded in expectancy-value theory, to measure life science students' interest in using math to understand biology, the perceived usefulness of math to their life science career, and the cost of using math in biology courses. We used a process that integrates multiple forms of validity evidence to show that scores from the MBVI can be used as a valid measure of a student's value of math in the context of biology. The MBVI can be used by instructors and researchers to help identify instructional strategies that influence math-biology values and understand how math-biology values are related to students' achievement and decisions to pursue more advanced quantitative-based courses. © 2017 S. E. Andrews et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  19. The PESPERF Scale: An Instrument for Measuring Service Quality in the School of Physical Education and Sports Sciences (PESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Suleyman M.; Kara, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: HEdPERF (Higher Education PERFormance) is one of the most recently developed scales in the literature to measure service quality in higher education. However, HEdPERF is designed to measure service quality at a macro level (university level) and may be considered as a more generic measurement instrument. In higher education, new scales…

  20. What Do You Know about Alternative Energy? Development and Use of a Diagnostic Instrument for Upper Secondary School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Irene Poh-Ai; Johari, Marliza; Said, Hardimah; Treagust, David F.

    2015-01-01

    The need for renewable and non-fossil fuels is now recognised by nations throughout the world. Consequently, an understanding of alternative energy is needed both in schools and in everyday life-long learning situations. This study developed a two-tier instrument to diagnose students' understanding and alternative conceptions about alternative…

  1. Construction and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Problem-Solving Skills of Suburban High School Physical Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herak, Patrick James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a problem-solving instrument that could easily be used by a classroom teacher. The research questions were (1) can the Problem-Solving Skills Assessments (PSSAs) differentiate between students with varying levels of selected problem-solving skills? (2) Can the PSSAs measure student growth due to…

  2. Detection of Reduced Nitrogen Compounds at Rocknest Using the Sample Analysis At Mars (SAM) Instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J. C.; Steele, A.; Brunner, A.; Coll, P.; Eigenbrode, J.; Franz, H. B.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D.; Jones, J. H.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity Rover detected nitrogen-bearing compounds during the pyrolysis of Rocknest material at Gale Crater. Hydrogen cyanide and acetonitrile were identified by the quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) both in direct evolved gas analysis (EGA). SAM carried out four separate analyses from Rocknest Scoop 5. A significant low temperature release was present in Rocknest runs 1-4, while a smaller high temperature release was also seen in Rocknest runs 1-3. Here we evaluate whether these compounds are indigenous to Mars or a pyrolysis product resulting from known terrestrial materials that are part of the SAM derivatization.

  3. Examining the relationship between school district size and science achievement in Texas including rural school administrator perceptions of challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Matthew James

    Rural and small schools have almost one-third of all public school enrollment in America, yet typically have the fewest financial and research based resources. Educational models have been developed with either the urban or suburban school in mind, and the rural school is often left with no other alternative except this paradigm. Rural based educational resources are rare and the ability to access these resources for rural school districts almost non-existent. Federal and state based education agencies provide some rural educational based programs, but have had virtually no success in answering rural school issues. With federal and state interest in science initiatives, the challenge that rural schools face weigh in. To align with that focus, this study examined Texas middle school student achievement in science and its relationship with school district enrollment size. This study involved a sequential transformative mixed methodology with the quantitative phase driving the second qualitative portion. The quantitative research was a non-experimental causal-comparative study conducted to determine whether there is a significant difference between student achievement on the 2010 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills 8 th grade science results and school district enrollment size. The school districts were distributed into four categories by size including: a) small districts (32-550); b) medium districts (551-1500); c) large districts (1501-6000); and d) mega-sized districts (6001-202,773). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the district averages from the 2010 TAKS 8th grade science assessment results and the four district enrollment groups. The second phase of the study was qualitative utilizing constructivism and critical theory to identify the issues facing rural and small school administrators concerning science based curriculum and development. These themes and issues were sought through a case study method and through use of semi

  4. Compte rendu de : Charles T. Wolfe and Ofer Gal (eds., The body as object and instrument of knowledge. Embodied empiricism in early modern science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Joly

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage collectif, qui résulte en partie des travaux d’un atelier sur l’empirisme incarné dans la science moderne qui s’est tenu à l’université de Sydney en février 2009, rassemble quinze communications regroupées en trois parties : « The Body as Object », « The Body as Instrument », « Embodies Minds ». L’objectif des auteurs est de corriger la conception dominante que se font les historiens des sciences et de la philosophie de l’émergence de la philosophie expérimentale, et de l’empirism...

  5. Early modern mathematical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jim

    2011-12-01

    In considering the appropriate use of the terms "science" and "scientific instrument," tracing the history of "mathematical instruments" in the early modern period is offered as an illuminating alternative to the historian's natural instinct to follow the guiding lights of originality and innovation, even if the trail transgresses contemporary boundaries. The mathematical instrument was a well-defined category, shared across the academic, artisanal, and commercial aspects of instrumentation, and its narrative from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century was largely independent from other classes of device, in a period when a "scientific" instrument was unheard of.

  6. Design requirements for the SWIFT instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahnama, P; McDade, I; Shepherd, G; Gault, W

    2013-01-01

    The Stratospheric Wind Interferometer for Transport studies (SWIFT) instrument is a proposed limb-viewing satellite instrument that employs the method of Doppler Michelson interferometry to measure stratospheric wind velocities and ozone densities in the altitude range of 15–45 km. The values of the main instrument parameters including filter system parameters and Michelson interferometer parameters are derived using simulations and analyses. The system design requirements for the instrument and spacecraft are presented and discussed. Some of the retrieval-imposed design requirements are also discussed. Critical design issues are identified. The design optimization process is described. The sensitivity of wind measurements to instrument characteristics is investigated including the impact on critical design issues. Using sensitivity analyses, the instrument parameters were iteratively optimized in order to meet the science objectives. It is shown that wind measurements are sensitive to the thermal sensitivity of the instrument components, especially the narrow filter and the Michelson interferometer. The optimized values of the main system parameters including Michelson interferometer optical path difference, instrument visibility, instrument responsivity and knowledge of spacecraft velocity are reported. This work also shows that the filter thermal drift and the Michelson thermal drift are two main technical risks. (paper)

  7. The Development and Validation of Test Instruments to Measure Observation and Comparison in Junior High School Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, Harold Ralph

    This study attempted to design tests for the purpose of measuring the acquisition of the science skills of observation and comparison, to determine if these skills, as measured by these tests, could be differentially improved using differing amounts of training, and to determine the effects of race and cultural status on performance with the…

  8. Health physics instrument manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupton, E.D.

    1978-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide apprentice health physics surveyors and other operating groups not directly concerned with radiation detection instruments a working knowledge of the radiation detection and measuring instruments in use at the Laboratory. The characteristics and applications of the instruments are given. Portable instruments, stationary instruments, personnel monitoring instruments, sample counters, and miscellaneous instruments are described. Also, information sheets on calibration sources, procedures, and devices are included. Gamma sources, beta sources, alpha sources, neutron sources, special sources, a gamma calibration device for badge dosimeters, and a calibration device for ionization chambers are described

  9. Banque d’instruments de mesure en recherche : Une innovation au service des membres chercheurs en sciences infirmières

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Le May

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Résumé : Introduction : Face aux difficultés que rencontrent ses enseignants et étudiants à retrouver des instruments de mesure valides dans les bases de données, le Réseau de Recherche en Interventions en Sciences Infirmières du Québec (RRISIQ a récemment choisi de développer une banque d’instruments de mesure accessible et bien documentée utilisant le logiciel bibliographique Zotero. Cet article a pour but de décrire la Banque d’instruments du RRISIQ, d’en exposer les défis et ses perspectives de développement. Description : La Banque comprend plus de 1400 liens ou références à des instruments de mesure reliés aux interventions cliniques, à l’organisation des services infirmiers et à la formation infirmière. L’utilisateur a accès à des références bibliographiques d’articles scientifiques sur les instruments, en anglais et en français. En naviguant dans la Banque, il clique sur l'article de son choix, obtenant ainsi une description bibliographique complète, dont une adresse web lui permettant d’accéder en ligne au plein texte. Résultats : La Banque d’instruments Zotero nécessite un faible coût d’entretien technique pour effectuer des sauvegardes, résoudre les difficultés et gérer les demandes d'accès. Elle est appréciée par ses utilisateurs. Discussion : La Banque prendra de l’ampleur dans les années à venir et des démarches sont actuellement réalisées par l’équipe pour la publiciser davantage auprès de ses membres et de leurs étudiants. L’équipe envisage de la rendre disponible à d’autres équipes de recherche du Québec.

  10. International Conferences and Young Scientists Schools on Computational Information Technologies for Environmental Sciences (CITES) as a professional growth instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, E. P.; Lykosov, V. N.; Genina, E. Yu; Gordova, Yu E.

    2017-11-01

    The paper describes a regular events CITES consisting of young scientists school and international conference as a tool for training and professional growth. The events address the most pressing issues of application of information-computational technologies in environmental sciences and young scientists’ training, diminishing a gap between university graduates’ skill and concurrent challenges. The viability of the approach to the CITES organization is proved by the fact that single event organized in 2001 turned into a series, quite a few young participants successfully defended their PhD thesis and a number of researchers became Doctors of Science during these years. Young researchers from Russia and foreign countries show undiminishing interest to these events.

  11. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Areas being investigated for instrumentation improvement during low-level pollution monitoring include laser opto-acoustic spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, optical fluorescence spectroscopy, liquid crystal gas detectors, advanced forms of atomic absorption spectroscopy, electro-analytical chemistry, and mass spectroscopy. Emphasis is also directed toward development of physical methods, as opposed to conventional chemical analysis techniques for monitoring these trace amounts of pollution related to energy development and utilization

  12. Analysis of scientific papers in the field of radiology and medical imaging included in Science Citation Index expanded and published by Turkish authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Erhan; Karçaaltincaba, Muşturay

    2010-09-01

    We aimed to analyze scientific papers published by Turkish authors in "radiology, nuclear medicine and medical imaging" journals included in the Science Citation Index Expanded and compared the number of published scientific papers from Turkey and other countries. We retrospectively searched all papers published by Turkish authors between 1945 and 2008 by using Web of Science software. We performed the analysis by typing "Turkey" in the address section and all radiology and medical imaging journals in the source title section using the general search function of the software. We further analyzed these results by using "analyze" function of the software according to the number of publications per year, journals, institution and type of papers. We also calculated total number of citations to published scientific papers using citation report function. We analyzed the rank of Turkey among other countries in terms of the number of published papers. Overall, 4,532 papers were published between 1945 and 2008. The first paper was published in 1976. Number of publications increased dramatically from 1976 (n = 1) to 2008 (n = 383). The top 5 journals publishing papers from Turkish authors were European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (n = 328), Clinical Nuclear Medicine (n = 296), European Journal of Radiology (n = 289), European Radiology (n = 207) and Journal of Clinical Ultrasound (n = 186). All published papers received 18,419 citations and citation to paper ratio was 4.06. The rank of Turkey among other countries in terms of published papers improved during the last 25 years. Number of papers from Turkey published in radiology and medical imaging journals has increased at the start of the new millennium. Currently, Turkey is among the top 12 countries when the number of scientific papers published in radiology journals is taken into consideration.

  13. Introduction to instrumentation and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Northrop, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Weighing in on the growth of innovative technologies, the adoption of new standards, and the lack of educational development as it relates to current and emerging applications, the third edition of Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements uses the authors' 40 years of teaching experience to expound on the theory, science, and art of modern instrumentation and measurements (I&M). What's New in This Edition: This edition includes material on modern integrated circuit (IC) and photonic sensors, micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) and nano-electro-mechanical (NEM) sensors, chemical and radiation sensors, signal conditioning, noise, data interfaces, and basic digital signal processing (DSP), and upgrades every chapter with the latest advancements. It contains new material on the designs of micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) sensors, adds two new chapters on wireless instrumentation and microsensors, and incorporates extensive biomedical examples and problems. Containing 13 chapters, this third edition: Describ...

  14. ``I Just Want The Credit!'' - Perceived Instrumentality as the Main Characteristic of Boys' Motivation in a Grade 11 Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieswandt, Martina; Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2008-01-01

    This case study examines the motivational structure of a group of male students ( n = 10) in a grade 11 General Science class at an independent single-sex school. We approach the concept of motivation through the integration of three different theoretical approaches: sociocultural theory, future time perspective and achievement goal theory. This framework allows us to stress the dialectical interdependence of motivation, as expressed through individual goals, and the socially and culturally influenced origins of these goals. Our results suggest that the boys internalised the administrative description of the course as meeting a diploma requirement, which they expressed in their perception of the course as being for “non-science” people who “just need a credit.” However, we also found situational changes in students’ motivational structure towards more intrinsic orientations when they were engaged in topics with personal everyday and future relevance. These situational changes in students’ goal structures illustrate that our participants did not internalise classroom and school goal messages wholly and, instead, selectively and constructively transformed these goal messages depending on their own motivational structure and beliefs. These results stress the importance of teachers scaffolding not only for conceptual learning but also for student motivation in science classes, especially those that purposefully teach towards scientific literacy.

  15. Instruments for radiation measurement in life sciences (5), ''Development of imaging technology in life sciences'' III. Development of small animal PET scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaya, Taiga; Murayama, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the requisites for small animal PET scanners, present state of their market and of their development in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Relative to the apparatus clinically used, the requisites involve the high spatial resolution of 0.8-1.5 mm and high sensitivity of the equipment itself due to low dose of the tracer to be given to animals. At present, more than 20 institutions like universities, research facilities and companies are developing the PET equipment for small animals and about 10 machines are in the market. However, their resolution and sensitivity are not fully satisfactory and for their improvement, investigators are paying attention to the gamma ray measurement by depth-of-interaction (DOI) method. NIRS has been also developing the machine jPET-D4 and has proposed to manufacture jPET-RD having 4-layer DOI detectors with the absolute central sensitivity as high as 14.7%. jPET-RD is to have the spatial resolution as high as <1mm (central view) and -1.4 mm (periphery). (T.I.)

  16. Chemistry {ampersand} Materials Science progress report summary of selected research and development topics, FY97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, L.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains summaries of research performed in the Chemistry and Materials Science division. Topics include Metals and Ceramics, High Explosives, Organic Synthesis, Instrument Development, and other topics.

  17. Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photinos, Panos

    2017-12-01

    'Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment' offers a basic understanding of sound, musical instruments and music equipment, geared towards a general audience and non-science majors. The book begins with an introduction of the fundamental properties of sound waves, and the perception of the characteristics of sound. The relation between intensity and loudness, and the relation between frequency and pitch are discussed. The basics of propagation of sound waves, and the interaction of sound waves with objects and structures of various sizes are introduced. Standing waves, harmonics and resonance are explained in simple terms, using graphics that provide a visual understanding. The development is focused on musical instruments and acoustics. The construction of musical scales and the frequency relations are reviewed and applied in the description of musical instruments. The frequency spectrum of selected instruments is explored using freely available sound analysis software. Sound amplification and sound recording, including analog and digital approaches, are discussed in two separate chapters. The book concludes with a chapter on acoustics, the physical factors that affect the quality of the music experience, and practical ways to improve the acoustics at home or small recording studios. A brief technical section is provided at the end of each chapter, where the interested reader can find the relevant physics and sample calculations. These quantitative sections can be skipped without affecting the comprehension of the basic material. Questions are provided to test the reader's understanding of the material. Answers are given in the appendix.

  18. "A bare outpost of learned European culture on the edge of the jungles of Java": Johan Maurits Mohr (1716-1775) and the emergence of instrumental and institutional science in Dutch colonial Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidervaart, Huib J; Van Gent, Rob H

    2004-03-01

    The transits of Venus in 1761 and 1769 appear to mark the starting point of instrumental science in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). This essay examines the conditions that triggered and constituted instrumental and institutional science on Indonesian soil in the late eighteenth century. In 1765 the Reverend J. M. Mohr, whose wife had received a large inheritance, undertook to build a fully equipped private observatory in Batavia (now Jakarta). There he made several major astronomical and meteorological observations. Mohr's initiative inspired other Europeans living on Java around 1770 to start a scientific movement. Because of the lack of governmental and other support, it was not until 1778 that this offspring of the Dutch-Indonesian Enlightenment became a reality. The Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen tried from the beginning to put into effect the program Mohr had outlined. The members even bought his instruments from his widow, intending to continue his measurements. For a number of reasons, however, this instrumental program was more than the society could support. Around 1790 instrumental science in the former Dutch East Indies came to a standstill, not to be resumed for several decades.

  19. DARE: Unesco Computerized Data Retrieval System for Documentation in the Social and Human Sciences (Including an Analysis of the Present System).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasarhelyi, Paul

    The new data retrieval system for the social sciences which has recently been installed in the UNESCO Secretariat in Paris is described in this comprehensive report. The computerized system is designed to facilitate the existing storage systems in the circulation of information, data retrieval, and indexing services. Basically, this report…

  20. Instrumental interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani , Annie

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The expression instrumental interaction as been introduced by Claude Cadoz to identify a human-object interaction during which a human manipulates a physical object - an instrument - in order to perform a manual task. Classical examples of instrumental interaction are all the professional manual tasks: playing violin, cutting fabrics by hand, moulding a paste, etc.... Instrumental interaction differs from other types of interaction (called symbolic or iconic interactio...

  1. Instrumentation and control and human machine interface science and technology road-map in support of advanced reactors and fuel programs in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D. W.; Arndt, S. A.; Bond, L. J.; Dudenhoeffer, D.; Hallbert, B.; Holcomb, D. E.; Wood, R. T.; Naser, J. A.; O'Hara, J.; Quinn, E. L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current status of the Instrumentation, Control and Human Machine Interface (ICHMI) Science and Technology road-map being developed to address the major challenges in this technical area for the Gen IV and other U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) initiatives that support future deployments of nuclear energy systems. Reliable, capable ICHMI systems will be necessary for the advanced nuclear plants to be economically competitive. ICHMI enables measurement, control, protection, monitoring, and maintenance for processes and components. Through improvements in the technologies and demonstration of their use to facilitate licensing, ICHMI can contribute to the reduction of plant operations and maintenance costs while helping to ensure high plant availability. The impact of ICHMI can be achieved through effective use of the technologies to improve operational efficiency and optimize use of human resources. However, current licensing experience with digital I and C systems has provided lessons learned concerning the difficulties that can be encountered when introducing advanced technologies with expanded capabilities. Thus, in the development of advanced nuclear power designs, it will be important to address both the technical foundations of ICHMI systems as well as their licensing considerations. The ICHMI road-map will identify the necessary research, development and demonstration activities that are essential to facilitate necessary technology advancement and resolve outstanding issues. (authors)

  2. Instrumentation and control and human machine interface science and technology Road-map in support of advanced reactors and fuel programs in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D. W.; Arndt, S. A.; Dudenhoeffer, D.; Hallbert, B.; Bond, L. J.; Holcomb, D. E.; Wood, R. T.; Naser, J. A.; O'Hara, J.; Quinn, E. L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current status of the Instrumentation, Control and Human Machine Interface (ICHMI) Science and Technology Road-map (Reference xi) that was developed to address the major challenges in this technical area for the Gen IV and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiatives that support future deployments of nuclear energy systems. Reliable, capable ICHMI systems will be necessary for the advanced nuclear plants to be economically competitive. ICHMI enables measurement, control, protection, monitoring, and maintenance for processes and components. Through improvements in the technologies and demonstration of their use to facilitate licensing, ICHMI can contribute to the reduction of plant operations and maintenance costs while helping to ensure high plant availability. The impact of ICHMI can be achieved through effective use of the technologies to improve operational efficiency and optimize use of human resources. However, current licensing experience with digital I and C systems has provided lessons learned concerning the difficulties that can be encountered when introducing advanced technologies with expanded capabilities. Thus, in the development of advanced nuclear power designs, it will be important to address both the technical foundations of ICHMI systems and their licensing considerations. The ICHMI Road-map will identify the necessary research, development and demonstration activities that are essential to facilitate necessary technology advancement and resolve outstanding issues. (authors)

  3. A Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (MVP-SEM) for the Surface of Mars: An Instrument for the Planetary Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunson, J.; Gaskin, J. A.; Danilatos, G.; Doloboff, I. J.; Effinger, M. R.; Harvey, R. P.; Jerman, G. A.; Klein-Schoder, R.; Mackie, W.; Magera, B.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope(MVP-SEM) project, funded by the NASA Planetary Instrument Concepts for the Advancement of Solar System Observations (PICASSO) Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Science (ROSES), will build upon previous miniaturized SEM designs for lunar and International Space Station (ISS) applications and recent advancements in variable pressure SEM's to design and build a SEM to complete analyses of samples on the surface of Mars using the atmosphere as an imaging medium. By the end of the PICASSO work, a prototype of the primary proof-of-concept components (i.e., the electron gun, focusing optics and scanning system)will be assembled and preliminary testing in a Mars analog chamber at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will be completed to partially fulfill Technology Readiness Level to 5 requirements for those components. The team plans to have Secondary Electron Imaging(SEI), Backscattered Electron (BSE) detection, and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) capabilities through the MVP-SEM.

  4. Instrumentation and Control and Human Machine Interface Science and Technology Roadmap in Support of Advanced Reactors and Fuel Programs in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Don W.; Arndt, Steven A.; Dudenhoeffer, Donald D.; Hallbert, Bruce P.; Bond, Leonard J.; Holcomb, David E.; Wood, Richard T.; Naser, Joseph A.; O'Hara, John M.; Quinn, Edward L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current status of the Instrumentation, Control and Human Machine Interface (ICHMI) Science and Technology Roadmap (Reference xi) that was developed to address the major challenges in this technical area for the Gen IV and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiatives that support future deployments of nuclear energy systems. Reliable, capable ICHMI systems will be necessary for the advanced nuclear plants to be economically competitive. ICHMI enables measurement, control, protection, monitoring, and maintenance for processes and components. Through improvements in the technologies and demonstration of their use to facilitate licensing, ICHMI can contribute to the reduction of plant operations and maintenance costs while helping to ensure high plant availability. The impact of ICHMI can be achieved through effective use of the technologies to improve operational efficiency and optimize use of human resources. However, current licensing experience with digital I and C systems has provided lessons learned concerning the difficulties that can be encountered when introducing advanced technologies with expanded capabilities. Thus, in the development of advanced nuclear power designs, it will be important to address both the technical foundations of ICHMI systems and their licensing considerations. The ICHMI roadmap will identify the necessary research, development and demonstration activities that are essential to facilitate necessary technology advancement and resolve outstanding issues

  5. Scoping Review on Research on Food conducted in the Faculty of Social Sciences. Including other Institutions in the Norwich Research Park and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Howard Wilsher, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Executive summary The scoping review was commissioned to examine what research on food has been conducted in the Faculty of Social Sciences (SSF) at the University of East Anglia (UEA) since 2005. The aim of the report is to facilitate collaborative research between SSF and the rest of the Norwich Research Park (NRP), in particular, the Institute of Food Research (IFR). However, it is important to contextualise this beyond the NRP as the Eastern Academic Research Consortium (EARC) provides fu...

  6. The scientific use of technological instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Mieke; Hansson, Sven Ove

    2015-01-01

    One of the most obvious ways in which the natural sciences depend on technology is through the use of instruments. This chapter presents a philosophical analysis of the role of technological instruments in science. Two roles of technological instruments in scientific practices are distinguished:

  7. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  8. OSIRIS (Observing System Including PolaRisation in the Solar Infrared Spectrum) instrument: a multi-directional, polarized radiometer in the visible and shortwave infrared, airborne prototype of 3MI / EPS-SG Eumetsat - ESA mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, C.; Auriol, F.; Nicolas, J. M.; Parol, F.; Riedi, J.; Djellali, M. S.; Cornet, C.; Waquet, F.; Catalfamo, M.; Delegove, C.; Loisil, R.

    2017-12-01

    OSIRIS instrument largely inherits from the POLDER concept developed and operated between 1991 (first airborne prototype) and 2013 (end of the POLDER-3/PARASOL space-borne mission). It consists in two optical systems, one covering the visible to near infrared range (440, 490, 670, 763, 765, 870, 910 and 940 nm) and a second one for the shortwave infrared (940, 1020, 1240, 1360, 1620 and 2200 nm). Each optical system is composed of a wide field-of-view optics (114° and 105° respectively) associated to two rotating wheels with interferential filters (spectral) and analyzers filters (polarization) respectively, and a 2D array of detectors. For each channel, radiance is measured once without analyzer, followed by sequential measurements with the three analyzers shifted by an angle of 60° to reconstruct the total and polarized radiances. The complete acquisition sequence for all spectral channels last a couple of seconds according to the chosen measurement protocol. Thanks to the large field of view of the optics, any target is seen under several viewing angles during the aircraft motion. In a first step we will present the new ground characterization of the instrument based on laboratory measurements (linearity, flat-field, absolute calibration, induced polarization, polarizers efficiency and position), the radiometric model and the Radiometric Inverted Model (RIM) used to develop the Level 1 processing chain that is used to produce level 1 products (normalized radiances, polarized or not, with viewing geometries) from the instrument generated level 0 files (Digital Counts) and attitude information from inertial system. The stray light issues will be specifically discussed. In a second step we will present in-flight radiometric and geometric methods applied to OSIRIS data in order to control and validate ground-based calibrated products: molecular scattering method and sun-glint cross-band method for radiometric calibration, glories, rainbows and sun-glint targets

  9. Radiation protection instrument 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Radiation Protection Instrument, 1993 (Legislative Instrument 1559) prescribes the powers and functions of the Radiation Protection Board established under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission by the Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993 (P.N.D.C. Law 308). Also included in the Legislative Instrument are schedules on control and use of ionising radiation and radiation sources as well as procedures for notification, licensing and inspection of ionising radiation facilities. (EAA)

  10. The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSats: instrument capabilities and early science analysis on the quiet Sun, active regions, and flares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christopher S.; Woods, Tom; Caspi, Amir; Dennis, Brian R.; MinXSS Instrument Team, NIST-SURF Measurement Team

    2018-01-01

    Detection of soft X-rays (sxr) from the Sun provide direct information on coronal plasma at temperatures in excess of ~1 MK, but there have been relatively few solar spectrally resolved measurements from 0.5 – 10. keV. The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat is the first solar science oriented CubeSat mission flown for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, and has provided measurements from 0.8 -12 keV, with resolving power ~40 at 5.9 keV, at a nominal ~10 second time cadence. MinXSS design and development has involved over 40 graduate students supervised by professors and professionals at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Instrument radiometric calibration was performed at the National Institute for Standard and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF) and spectral resolution determined from radioactive X-ray sources. The MinXSS spectra allow for determining coronal abundance variations for Fe, Mg, Ni, Ca, Si, S, and Ar in active regions and during flares. Measurements from the first of the twin CubeSats, MinXSS-1, have proven to be consistent with the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 0.1 – 0.8 nm energy flux. Simultaneous MinXSS-1 and Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observations have provided the most complete sxr spectral coverage of flares in recent years. These combined measurements are vital in estimating the heating flare loops by non-thermal accelerated electrons. MinXSS-1 measurements have been combined with the Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT) and Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO-AIA) to further constrain the coronal temperature distribution during quiescent times. The structure of the temperature distribution (especially for T > 5 MK) is important for deducing heating processes in the solar atmosphere. MinXSS-1 observations yield some of the tightest constraints on the high temperature component of the coronal plasma, in the

  11. Life into Space: Space Life Sciences Experiments, Ames Research Center, Kennedy Space Center, 1991-1998, Including Profiles of 1996-1998 Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Kenneth (Editor); Etheridge, Guy (Editor); Callahan, Paul X. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    We have now conducted space life sciences research for more than four decades. The continuing interest in studying the way living systems function in space derives from two main benefits of that research. First, in order for humans to engage in long-term space travel, we must understand and develop measures to counteract the most detrimental effects of space flight on biological systems. Problems in returning to the conditions of Earth must be kept to a manageable level. Second, increasing our understanding of how organisms function in the absence of gravity gives us new understanding of fundamental biological processes. This information can be used to improve human health and the quality of life on Earth.

  12. Instrumentation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides instrumentation support for flight tests of prototype weapons systems using a vast array of airborne sensors, transducers, signal conditioning and encoding...

  13. Designing Chemistry Practice Exams for Enhanced Benefits: An Instrument for Comparing Performance and Mental Effort Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, Karen J.; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    The design and use of a chemistry practice exam instrument that includes a measure for student mental effort is described in this paper. Use of such an instrument can beneficial to chemistry students and chemistry educators as well as chemical education researchers from both a content and cognitive science perspective. The method for calculating…

  14. The h index of the presidents of the American Psychological Association (APA through journal articles included in the Web of Science database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualberto Buela-Casal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio descriptivo analiza los índices h de los presidentes de la American Psychological Association (APA desde 1940 hasta la actualidad. El índice h se calcula teniendo en cuenta el número de artículos publicados en las revistas de la Web of Science (WOS y las citas recibidas por los mismos en dicha base de datos. No se estableció un periodo de búsqueda y, por tanto, se analizaron todos los resultados incluidos en la WOS. El número total de resultados analizados fue de 16.676, de los cuales 3.734 fueron de los presidentes de la APA. Los resultados se presentan en forma de ranking y ponen de manifiesto que Albert Bandura y Alan Kazdin son los presidentes con un índice h más elevado, y en entre estos y los demás existe una diferencia considerable. Los resultados hacen especular que el criterio de productividad en artículos científicos no fue el criterio más importante para presidir esta institución.

  15. Measurement, instrumentation, and sensors handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Eren, Halit

    2014-01-01

    The Second Edition of the bestselling Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook brings together all aspects of the design and implementation of measurement, instrumentation, and sensors. Reflecting the current state of the art, it describes the use of instruments and techniques for performing practical measurements in engineering, physics, chemistry, and the life sciences and discusses processing systems, automatic data acquisition, reduction and analysis, operation characteristics, accuracy, errors, calibrations, and the incorporation of standards for control purposes. Organized acco

  16. Experimenting with string musical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2012-03-01

    What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a Science of Sound & Light course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when used in physics, represent reality that can actually be observed, in this case, the operation of string musical instruments.

  17. Experimenting with String Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a "Science of Sound & Light" course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when…

  18. SMAP Instrument Mechanical System Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimko, Eric; French, Richard; Riggs, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, scheduled for launch by the end of 2014, is being developed to measure the soil moisture and soil freeze/thaw state on a global scale over a three-year period. The accuracy, resolution, and global coverage of SMAP measurements are invaluable across many science and applications disciplines including hydrology, climate, carbon cycle, and the meteorological, environment, and ecology applications communities. The SMAP observatory is composed of a despun bus and a spinning instrument platform that includes both a deployable 6 meter aperture low structural frequency Astromesh reflector and a spin control system. The instrument section has engendered challenging mechanical system issues associated with the antenna deployment, flexible antenna pointing in the context of a multitude of disturbances, spun section mass properties, spin control system development, and overall integration with the flight system on both mechanical and control system levels. Moreover, the multitude of organizations involved, including two major vendors providing the spin subsystem and reflector boom assembly plus the flight system mechanical and guidance, navigation, and control teams, has led to several unique system engineering challenges. Capturing the key physics associated with the function of the flight system has been challenging due to the many different domains that are applicable. Key interfaces and operational concepts have led to complex negotiations because of the large number of organizations that integrate with the instrument mechanical system. Additionally, the verification and validation concerns associated with the mechanical system have had required far-reaching involvement from both the flight system and other subsystems. The SMAP instrument mechanical systems engineering issues and their solutions are described in this paper.

  19. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubbes, W.F.; Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Instrumentation is developed for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to meet several different (and sometimes conflicting) objectives. This paper addresses instrumentation development for data needs that are related either directly or indirectly to a repository site, but does not touch on instrumentation for work with waste forms or other materials. Consequently, this implies a relatively large scale for the measurements, and an in situ setting for instrument performance. In this context, instruments are needed for site characterization to define phenomena, develop models, and obtain parameter values, and for later design and performance confirmation testing in the constructed repository. The former set of applications is more immediate, and is driven by the needs of program design and performance assessment activities. A host of general technical and nontechnical issues have arisen to challenge instrumentation development. Instruments can be classed into geomechanical, geohydrologic, or other specialty categories, but these issues cut across artificial classifications. These issues are outlined. Despite this imposing list of issues, several case histories are cited to evaluate progress in the area

  20. Systematic evaluation program review of NRC Safety Topic VI-10.A associated with the electrical, instrumentation and control portions of the testing of reactor trip system and engineered safety features, including response time for the Dresden station, Unit II nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Leger-Barter, G.

    1980-11-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation and review of NRC Safety Topic VI-10.A, associated with the electrical, instrumentation, and control portions of the testing of reactor trip systems and engineered safety features including response time for the Dresden II nuclear power plant, using current licensing criteria

  1. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    Give us the tools: science and technology for development. Ottawa, ...... altered technical rela- tionships among the factors used in the process of production, and the en- .... to ourselves only the rights of audit and periodic substantive review." If a ...... and destroying scarce water reserves, recreational areas and a generally.

  2. Research in Biological and Medical Sciences, Including Biochemistry, Communicable Disease and Immunology, Internal Medicine, Nuclear Medicine, Physiology, Psychiatry, Surgery and Veterinary Medicine. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    during the past fiscal year include 45 ovario- hysterectomles, one caesarean section, one fracture repair, one patent ductus arteriosus repair, one...Following closure of the thoracotomy, SOD was down by 60% and VQJ was> 80% of control levels. SOD and VQO did not relate to each other in a parallel...tions. Two patents were applied for, one for the Electronic Debubbler Circuit and one for the Improved Flow Cell. A paper on this latest

  3. Instrumentation for environmental monitoring: biomedical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    An update is presented to Volume four of the six-volume series devoted to a survey of instruments useful for measurements in biomedicine related to environmental research and monitoring. Results of the survey are given as descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Methods of detection and analysis of gaseous organic pollutants and metals, including Ni and As are presented. Instrument techniques and notes are included on atomic spectrometry and uv and visible absorption instrumentation

  4. Instrument validation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, B.A.; Daymo, E.A.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Zhang, J.

    1996-06-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company Project W-211 is responsible for providing the system capabilities to remove radioactive waste from ten double-shell tanks used to store radioactive wastes on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The project is also responsible for measuring tank waste slurry properties prior to injection into pipeline systems, including the Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System. This report summarizes studies of the appropriateness of the instrumentation specified for use in Project W-211. The instruments were evaluated in a test loop with simulated slurries that covered the range of properties specified in the functional design criteria. The results of the study indicate that the compact nature of the baseline Project W-211 loop does not result in reduced instrumental accuracy resulting from poor flow profile development. Of the baseline instrumentation, the Micromotion densimeter, the Moore Industries thermocouple, the Fischer and Porter magnetic flow meter, and the Red Valve Pressure transducer meet the desired instrumental accuracy. An alternate magnetic flow meter (Yokagawa) gave nearly identical results as the baseline fischer and Porter. The Micromotion flow meter did not meet the desired instrument accuracy but could potentially be calibrated so that it would meet the criteria. The Nametre on-line viscometer did not meet the desired instrumental accuracy and is not recommended as a quantitative instrument although it does provide qualitative information. The recommended minimum set of instrumentation necessary to ensure the slurry meets the Project W-058 acceptance criteria is the Micromotion mass flow meter and delta pressure cells

  5. NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) Science Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James J.

    2011-01-01

    NPP Instruments are: (1) well understood thanks to instrument comprehensive test, characterization and calibration programs. (2) Government team ready for October 25 launch followed by instrument activation and Intensive Calibration/Validation (ICV). NPP Data Products preliminary work includes: (1) JPSS Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR) team ready to support NPP ICV and operational data products. (2) NASA NPP science team ready to support NPP ICV and EOS data continuity.

  6. RD and D-Programme 2004. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste, including social science research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    feature of this RD and D-Programme is that we also present our programme for social science research, which was requested by several reviewing bodies in connection with the review of RD and D-Programme 2001. Finally, the programmes for alternative methods, decommissioning and other long-lived waste are also described in this RD and D-Programme. In the review statement regarding RD and D-Programme 2001 which SKI submitted to the Government in March 2002, the Inspectorate called for a report that would explain more clearly SKB's plans for the remainder of the nuclear fuel programme. As a reason for this request, SKI said that the competent authorities will need to know which regulatory reviews are anticipated over the next ten years and the extent to which these reviews depend on each other. Such a report is appended to this RD and D-Programme. It is our hope that the above structure and perspective provide a clear picture of how far the technology development work has come and what factors are most important for safety in the deep repository.

  7. RD and D-Programme 2004. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste, including social science research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    new feature of this RD and D-Programme is that we also present our programme for social science research, which was requested by several reviewing bodies in connection with the review of RD and D-Programme 2001. Finally, the programmes for alternative methods, decommissioning and other long-lived waste are also described in this RD and D-Programme. In the review statement regarding RD and D-Programme 2001 which SKI submitted to the Government in March 2002, the Inspectorate called for a report that would explain more clearly SKB's plans for the remainder of the nuclear fuel programme. As a reason for this request, SKI said that the competent authorities will need to know which regulatory reviews are anticipated over the next ten years and the extent to which these reviews depend on each other. Such a report is appended to this RD and D-Programme. It is our hope that the above structure and perspective provide a clear picture of how far the technology development work has come and what factors are most important for safety in the deep repository.

  8. RD and D-Programme 2004. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste, including social science research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    feature of this RD and D-Programme is that we also present our programme for social science research, which was requested by several reviewing bodies in connection with the review of RD and D-Programme 2001. Finally, the programmes for alternative methods, decommissioning and other long-lived waste are also described in this RD and D-Programme. In the review statement regarding RD and D-Programme 2001 which SKI submitted to the Government in March 2002, the Inspectorate called for a report that would explain more clearly SKB's plans for the remainder of the nuclear fuel programme. As a reason for this request, SKI said that the competent authorities will need to know which regulatory reviews are anticipated over the next ten years and the extent to which these reviews depend on each other. Such a report is appended to this RD and D-Programme. It is our hope that the above structure and perspective provide a clear picture of how far the technology development work has come and what factors are most important for safety in the deep repository

  9. Instrumental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-15

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  10. Instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-01

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  11. LOFT instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixby, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A description of instrumentation used in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) large break Loss-of-Coolant Experiments is presented. Emphasis is placed on hydraulic and thermal measurements in the primary system piping and components, reactor vessel, and pressure suppression system. In addition, instrumentation which is being considered for measurement of phenomena during future small break testing is discussed. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 BRE [de

  12. 2015 Science Mission Directorate Technology Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seablom, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The role of the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) is to enable NASA to achieve its science goals in the context of the Nation's science agenda. SMD's strategic decisions regarding future missions and scientific pursuits are guided by Agency goals, input from the science community including the recommendations set forth in the National Research Council (NRC) decadal surveys and a commitment to preserve a balanced program across the major science disciplines. Toward this end, each of the four SMD science divisions -- Heliophysics, Earth Science, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics -- develops fundamental science questions upon which to base future research and mission programs. Often the breakthrough science required to answer these questions requires significant technological innovation, e.g., instruments or platforms with capabilities beyond the current state of the art. SMD's targeted technology investments fill technology gaps, enabling NASA to build the challenging and complex missions that accomplish groundbreaking science.

  13. The development of small, cabled, real-time video based observation systems for near shore coastal marine science including three examples and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Gerry; Okuda, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The effects of climate change on the near shore coastal environment including ocean acidification, accelerated erosion, destruction of coral reefs, and damage to marine habitat have highlighted the need for improved equipment to study, monitor, and evaluate these changes [1]. This is especially true where areas of study are remote, large, or beyond depths easily accessible to divers. To this end, we have developed three examples of low cost and easily deployable real-time ocean observation platforms. We followed a scalable design approach adding complexity and capability as familiarity and experience were gained with system components saving both time and money by reducing design mistakes. The purpose of this paper is to provide information for the researcher, technician, or engineer who finds themselves in need of creating or acquiring similar platforms.

  14. Radiological instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Seibentritt, C.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An instrument is described for measuring radiation, particularly nuclear radiation, comprising: a radiation sensitive structure pivoted toward one end and including a pair of elongated solid members contiguously joined together along their length dimensions and having a common planar interface therebetween. One of the pairs of members is comprised of radiochromic material whose index of refraction changes due to anomolous dispersion as a result of being exposed to nuclear radiation. The pair of members further has mutually different indices of refraction with the member having the larger index of refraction further being transparent for the passage of light and of energy therethrough; means located toward the other end of the structure for varying the angle of longitudinal elevation of the pair of members; means for generating and projecting a beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction. The beam of light is projected toward the planar interface where it is reflected out of the other end of the same member as a first output beam; means projecting a portion of the beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction where it traverses therethrough without reflection and out of the other end of the same member as a second output beam; and means adjacent the structure for receiving the first and second output beams, whereby a calibrated change in the angle of elevation of the structure between positions of equal intensity of the first and second output beams prior to and following exposure provides a measure of the radiation sensed due to a change of refraction of the radiochromic material

  15. Refresher Course on Frontier in Atomospheric Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    This course will include lectures by eminent scientists and visits to the state-of-art computer and instrumentation facilities. It will provide an excellent opportunity to get an insight into the latest developments and modern outlook of atmospheric science for students who plan to make their careers in atmospheric sciences or for ...

  16. Instrumental Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valerio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the history of human kind, since our first ancestors, tools have represented a mean to reach objectives which might otherwise seemed impossibles. In the called New Economy, where tangibles assets appear to be losing the role as the core element to produce value versus knowledge, tools have kept aside man in his dairy work. In this article, the author's objective is to describe, in a simple manner, the importance of managing the organization's group of tools or instruments (Instrumental Capital. The characteristic conditions of this New Economy, the way Knowledge Management deals with these new conditions and the sub-processes that provide support to the management of Instrumental Capital are described.

  17. Computer sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul H.

    1988-01-01

    The Computer Science Program provides advanced concepts, techniques, system architectures, algorithms, and software for both space and aeronautics information sciences and computer systems. The overall goal is to provide the technical foundation within NASA for the advancement of computing technology in aerospace applications. The research program is improving the state of knowledge of fundamental aerospace computing principles and advancing computing technology in space applications such as software engineering and information extraction from data collected by scientific instruments in space. The program includes the development of special algorithms and techniques to exploit the computing power provided by high performance parallel processors and special purpose architectures. Research is being conducted in the fundamentals of data base logic and improvement techniques for producing reliable computing systems.

  18. Innovative instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    At this year's particle physics conference at Brighton, a parallel session was given over to instrumentation and detector development. While this work is vital to the health of research and its continued progress, its share of prime international conference time is limited. Instrumentation can be innovative three times — first when a new idea is outlined, secondly when it is shown to be feasible, and finally when it becomes productive in a real experiment, amassing useful data rather than operational experience. Hyams' examples showed that it can take a long time for a new idea to filter through these successive stages, if it ever makes it at all

  19. Innovative instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1983-11-15

    At this year's particle physics conference at Brighton, a parallel session was given over to instrumentation and detector development. While this work is vital to the health of research and its continued progress, its share of prime international conference time is limited. Instrumentation can be innovative three times — first when a new idea is outlined, secondly when it is shown to be feasible, and finally when it becomes productive in a real experiment, amassing useful data rather than operational experience. Hyams' examples showed that it can take a long time for a new idea to filter through these successive stages, if it ever makes it at all.

  20. Instrumental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Navid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Every neutron scattering experiment requires the choice of a suited neutron diffractometer (or spectrometer in the case of inelastic scattering with its optimal configuration in order to accomplish the experimental tasks in the most successful way. Most generally, the compromise between the incident neutron flux and the instrumental resolution has to be considered, which is depending on a number of optical devices which are positioned in the neutron beam path. In this chapter the basic instrumental principles of neutron diffraction will be explained. Examples of different types of experiments and their respective expectable results will be shown. Furthermore, the production and use of polarized neutrons will be stressed.

  1. Instrumentation renewal at the FIR 1 research reactor in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bars, Bruno; Kall, Leif

    1982-01-01

    The Finnish TRIGA Mark II reactor (FIR 1 100 kW, later 250 kW steady state power and pulsing capability up to 250 MW) has been in operation for 20 years. The reactor is the only research reactor in Finland and is an important research training and service facility, which obviously will be operated for 10...20 years ahead. The mechanical parts of the reactor are in good shape. Some minor modifications have previously been made in the instrumentation. However, the original instrumentation could hardly have been used for 10...20 years ahead without extensive modifications and modernization. After a careful evaluation and planning process the whole reactor instrumentation was renewed in 1981 at a cost of about 400 000 dollar. The renewal was carried out in cooperation with the Central Research Institute for Physics (KFKI) at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, which delivered the nuclear part of the instrumentation and with the Finnish company Valmet Oy Instrument Works, which delivered the conventional instrumentation, including the automatic power control system and the control console. The instrumentation, which is located in-a new isolated control room is based on modern industrial standard modular units with standardized signal ranges, electronic testing possibilities, galvanically isolated outputs etc. The instrument renewal project was brought successfully to completion in November 1981 after only about 10 working days of shut down time. The reactor is now in routine operation and the experiences gained from the new instrumentation are excellent. (author)

  2. Soil monitoring instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities as well as wastes from old waste burial ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. Because of the topic of this workshop, only the assay instrumentation applied specifically to soil monitoring will be discussed here. Four types of soil monitors are described

  3. Soil monitoring instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities, as well as from old waste-burial-ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. The assay instrumentation that is applied specifically to soil monitoring is discussed

  4. Jones' instrument technology

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Ernest Beachcroft; Kingham, Edward G; Radnai, Rudolf

    1985-01-01

    Jones' Instrument Technology, Volume 5: Automatic Instruments and Measuring Systems deals with general trends in automatic instruments and measuring systems. Specific examples are provided to illustrate the principles of such devices. A brief review of a considerable number of standards is undertaken, with emphasis on the IEC625 Interface System. Other relevant standards are reviewed, including the interface and backplane bus standards. This volume is comprised of seven chapters and begins with a short introduction to the principles of automatic measurements, classification of measuring system

  5. The Complexity integrated-Instruments components media of IPA at Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angreni Siska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at describing the complexity of Integrated Instrument Components media (CII in learning of science at Elementary schools in District Siulak Mukai and at Elementary schools in District Siulak. The research applied a descriptive method which included survey forms. Instruments used were observation sheets. The result of the research showed Integrated Instrument Components media (CII natural science that complexity at primary school district Siulak was more complex compared with that at primary school district Siulak Mukai. is better than from primary school district Mukai

  6. Surgical Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankelman, J.; Horeman, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a surgical instrument for minimall-invasive surgery, comprising a handle, a shaft and an actuating part, characterised by a gastight cover surrounding the shaft, wherein the cover is provided with a coupler that has a feed- through opening with a loskable seal,

  7. Optical instrumentation engineering in science, technology and society; Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Technical Meeting, San Mateo, Calif., October 16-18, 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Y. H.

    1973-01-01

    Visual tracking performance in instrumentation is discussed together with photographic pyrometry in an aeroballistic range, optical characteristics of spherical vapor bubbles in liquids, and the automatic detection and control of surface roughness by coherent diffraction patterns. Other subjects explored are related to instruments, sensors, systems, holography, and pattern recognition. Questions of data handling are also investigated, taking into account minicomputer image storage for holographic interferometry analysis, the design of a video amplifier for a 90 MHz bandwidth, and autostereoscopic screens. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  8. Instrument care: everyone's responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée du Toit

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Everyone working in an ophthalmic operating theatre must be competent in the care, handling, storage, and maintenance of instruments. This will help to improve surgical outcomes, maintain an economic and affordable service for patients, and provide a safe environment for the wellbeing of patients and staff.Including instrument care in theatre courses and in-service training is one way of ensuring staff competence.

  9. Nuclear instrumentation for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, Carlos G.; Pita, Antonio; Verrastro, Claudio A.; Maino, Eduardo J.

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear instrumentation for research reactors in Argentina was developed in 70'. A gradual modernization of all the nuclear instrumentation is planned. It includes start-up and power range instrumentation, as well as field monitors, clamp, scram and rod movement control logic. The new instrumentation is linked to a computer network, based on real time operating system for data acquisition, display and logging. This paper describes the modules and whole system aspects. (author). 2 refs

  10. Recent developments in radiation detectors and instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Debashis

    2016-01-01

    Radiation detector is the key component in precise and accurate measurement of the nuclear radiations. The detectors deployed for radiation measurements in broadly classified sectors of Energy, Security, Discovery Science and Health and Environments are in general specific to their applications. The nuclear reactors as well as the fuel processing including waste management in energy sector require wide range/variety of detectors and the instruments for safe and precise generation of power. The security sector has gained importance in radiation monitoring in the present security perspective and there are many challenges in development of detector technology. The Discovery Science or the mega science projects viz CERN, Fermilab, GANIL, INO, MACE telescope, ITER etc have continuously generated new demand on detector related technologies that have been also found to be useful in other applications. Similarly, the health and environment monitoring have been also evolving with new technologies and techniques to address the requirement's arising in projects of new nuclear programs

  11. Large Instrument Development for Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J. Richard; Warnick, Karl F.; Jeffs, Brian D.; Norrod, Roger D.; Lockman, Felix J.; Cordes, James M.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2009-03-01

    This white paper offers cautionary observations about the planning and development of new, large radio astronomy instruments. Complexity is a strong cost driver so every effort should be made to assign differing science requirements to different instruments and probably different sites. The appeal of shared resources is generally not realized in practice and can often be counterproductive. Instrument optimization is much more difficult with longer lists of requirements, and the development process is longer and less efficient. More complex instruments are necessarily further behind the technology state of the art because of longer development times. Including technology R&D in the construction phase of projects is a growing trend that leads to higher risks, cost overruns, schedule delays, and project de-scoping. There are no technology breakthroughs just over the horizon that will suddenly bring down the cost of collecting area. Advances come largely through careful attention to detail in the adoption of new technology provided by industry and the commercial market. Radio astronomy instrumentation has a very bright future, but a vigorous long-term R&D program not tied directly to specific projects needs to be restored, fostered, and preserved.

  12. The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Monitor the Implementation of Social Constructivist Learning Environments in Grade 9 Science Classrooms in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckay, Melanie B.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of an instrument that can be used to assess students' perceptions of their learning environment as a means of monitoring and guiding changes toward social constructivist learning environments. The study used a mixed-method approach with priority given to the quantitative data collection. During…

  13. Instrumentation for mass spectrometry: 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLuckey, S.A.

    1997-08-01

    All mass spectrometry experiments involve the manipulation of material, an interface with the mass spectrometer, ionization, ion manipulation/analysis, detection and data collection/reduction. Each of these elements involve instrumentation. The wide range of species now amenable to mass spectrometry and the diverse areas of physical science in which it plays a role have led to a seemingly unlimited array of instrumental combinations. However, only a limited number of mass analyzers, and their combinations, dominate. The dominant analyzers include time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, the Paul trap, the mass filter, and the sector mass spectrometer. Why there are so few (or so many, depending upon one`s point of view) can be understood upon consideration of a set of mass analyzer figures of merit. These include mass resolution, mass accuracy, mass range, dynamic range, abundance sensitivity, precision, efficiency, speed, MS{sup n} capability, compatibility with the ionizer, cost, and size. The most appropriate form of mass spectrometry is determined by the priorities of the particular measurement placed on the various mass analyzer characteristics and the relative strengths of the analyzers in meeting the requirements. Each of the analyzer types has a unique set of figures of merit that makes it optimally suited for particular applications. This paper discusses these figures of merit, provides data illustrating recent developments for each analyzer type, and gives the figures of merit of each type of analyzer as they stand in 1997. 101 refs., 24 figs.

  14. Education and training in the field of nuclear instrumentation and measurement: CEA/INSTN (National Institute for Nuclear Sciences and Technologies) strategy to improve and develop new pedagogical tools and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitart, Xavier; Foulon, Francois; Bodineau, Jean Christophe; Lescop, Bernard; Massiot, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Part of the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the National Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology (INSTN) is a higher education institution whose mission is to provide students and professionals a high level of scientific and technological qualification in all disciplines related to nuclear energy applications. In this frame, INSTN carries out education and training (E and T) programs in nuclear instrumentation and radioprotection. Its strategy has always been to complete theoretical courses by training courses and laboratory works carried out on an extensive range of training tools that includes a large panel of nuclear instrumentation as well as software applications. Since its creation in 1956, the INSTN has conducted both education and vocational programs on ionizing radiation detection. An extensive range of techniques have commonly been used during practical works with students and employees of companies who need to get the knowledge and specialization in this field. Today, the INSTN is mainly equipped with usual detectors and electronics in large numbers in order to be able to accommodate up to 48 trainees at the same time in two classrooms, with only two trainees for one workstation in order to optimize their learning. In the field of the neutron detection systems, the INSTN has strongly developed its offer taking advantage of the use of research reactors, such as ISIS reactor (700 kW) at Saclay. The implementation of neutron detection systems specific to the courses offers a unique way of observing and analysing the signal coming from neutron detectors, as well as learning how to set the parameters of the detection system in real conditions. Providing the trainees with an extensive overview of each part of the neutron monitoring instrumentation apply to a nuclear reactor, hands-on measurements on the ISIS reactor play a major role in ensuring a practical and comprehensive understanding of the neutron detection system and

  15. Education and training in the field of nuclear instrumentation and measurement: CEA/INSTN (National Institute for Nuclear Sciences and Technologies) strategy to improve and develop new pedagogical tools and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitart, Xavier; Foulon, Francois; Bodineau, Jean Christophe; Lescop, Bernard; Massiot, Philippe [CEA/INSTN Centre des Saclay 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2015-07-01

    Part of the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the National Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology (INSTN) is a higher education institution whose mission is to provide students and professionals a high level of scientific and technological qualification in all disciplines related to nuclear energy applications. In this frame, INSTN carries out education and training (E and T) programs in nuclear instrumentation and radioprotection. Its strategy has always been to complete theoretical courses by training courses and laboratory works carried out on an extensive range of training tools that includes a large panel of nuclear instrumentation as well as software applications. Since its creation in 1956, the INSTN has conducted both education and vocational programs on ionizing radiation detection. An extensive range of techniques have commonly been used during practical works with students and employees of companies who need to get the knowledge and specialization in this field. Today, the INSTN is mainly equipped with usual detectors and electronics in large numbers in order to be able to accommodate up to 48 trainees at the same time in two classrooms, with only two trainees for one workstation in order to optimize their learning. In the field of the neutron detection systems, the INSTN has strongly developed its offer taking advantage of the use of research reactors, such as ISIS reactor (700 kW) at Saclay. The implementation of neutron detection systems specific to the courses offers a unique way of observing and analysing the signal coming from neutron detectors, as well as learning how to set the parameters of the detection system in real conditions. Providing the trainees with an extensive overview of each part of the neutron monitoring instrumentation apply to a nuclear reactor, hands-on measurements on the ISIS reactor play a major role in ensuring a practical and comprehensive understanding of the neutron detection system and

  16. INFORMATION ON FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS INCLUDED IN ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Gust

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This survey aims at emphasizing several aspects of the recognition, measurement and presentation of information on capital assets and how they are reflected in accounting. In this respect, here is a presentation of the calculation, preparation and regulation of impairment that can affect capital assets and the way accounting entries may influence the financial status and performance of a company. Although the bookkeeping variants of asset impairment, namely the Romanian and the international ones, are different, the information reported in annual financial statements is the same and assets are shown at their fair values. The issues approached in the paper herein are vast and they open new prospects to scientific research.

  17. Management of science policy, sociology of science policy and economics of science policy

    CERN Document Server

    Ruivo, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    'Management of science policy, sociology of science policy and economics of science policy' is a theoretical essay on the scientific foundation of science policy (formulation, implementation, instruments and procedures). It can be also used as a textbook.

  18. Magnetospheric Multiscale Instrument Suite Operations and Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Riesberg, L.; Pankratz, C. K.; Panneton, R. S.; Giles, B. L.; Wilder, F. D.; Ergun, R. E.

    2016-03-01

    The four Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft will collect a combined volume of ˜100 gigabits per day of particle and field data. On average, only 4 gigabits of that volume can be transmitted to the ground. To maximize the scientific value of each transmitted data segment, MMS has developed the Science Operations Center (SOC) to manage science operations, instrument operations, and selection, downlink, distribution, and archiving of MMS science data sets. The SOC is managed by the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) in Boulder, Colorado and serves as the primary point of contact for community participation in the mission. MMS instrument teams conduct their operations through the SOC, and utilize the SOC's Science Data Center (SDC) for data management and distribution. The SOC provides a single mission data archive for the housekeeping and science data, calibration data, ephemerides, attitude and other ancillary data needed to support the scientific use and interpretation. All levels of data products will reside at and be publicly disseminated from the SDC. Documentation and metadata describing data products, algorithms, instrument calibrations, validation, and data quality will be provided. Arguably, the most important innovation developed by the SOC is the MMS burst data management and selection system. With nested automation and "Scientist-in-the-Loop" (SITL) processes, these systems are designed to maximize the value of the burst data by prioritizing the data segments selected for transmission to the ground. This paper describes the MMS science operations approach, processes and data systems, including the burst system and the SITL concept.

  19. Nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, Jacky; Fabre, Rene.

    1981-01-01

    This article sums up the Research and Development effort at present being carried out in the five following fields of applications: Health physics and Radioprospection, Control of nuclear reactors, Plant control (preparation and reprocessing of the fuel, testing of nuclear substances, etc.), Research laboratory instrumentation, Detectors. It also sets the place of French industrial activities by means of an estimate of the French market, production and flow of trading with other countries [fr

  20. Divided Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, A.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Although the division of the zodiac into 360° probably derives from Egypt or Assyria around 2000 BC, there is no surviving evidence of Mesopotamian cultures embodying this division into a mathematical instrument. Almost certainly, however, it was from Babylonia that the Greek geometers learned of the 360° circle, and by c. 80 BC they had incorporated it into that remarkably elaborate device gener...

  1. Instrumentation maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, D.A.

    1976-09-01

    It is essential to any research activity that accurate and efficient measurements be made for the experimental parameters under consideration for each individual experiment or test. Satisfactory measurements in turn depend upon having the necessary instruments and the capability of ensuring that they are performing within their intended specifications. This latter requirement can only be achieved by providing an adequate maintenance facility, staffed with personnel competent to understand the problems associated with instrument adjustment and repair. The Instrument Repair Shop at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is designed to achieve this end. The organization, staffing and operation of this system is discussed. Maintenance policy should be based on studies of (1) preventive vs. catastrophic maintenance, (2) records indicating when equipment should be replaced rather than repaired and (3) priorities established to indicate the order in which equipment should be repaired. Upon establishing a workable maintenance policy, the staff should be instructed so that they may provide appropriate scheduled preventive maintenance, calibration and corrective procedures, and emergency repairs. The education, training and experience of the maintenance staff is discussed along with the organization for an efficient operation. The layout of the various repair shops is described in the light of laboratory space and financial constraints

  2. Artificial intelligence programming with LabVIEW: genetic algorithms for instrumentation control and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J H

    1995-06-01

    A genetic algorithm for instrumentation control and optimization was developed using the LabVIEW graphical programming environment. The usefulness of this methodology for the optimization of a closed loop control instrument is demonstrated with minimal complexity and the programming is presented in detail to facilitate its adaptation to other LabVIEW applications. Closed loop control instruments have variety of applications in the biomedical sciences including the regulation of physiological processes such as blood pressure. The program presented here should provide a useful starting point for those wishing to incorporate genetic algorithm approaches to LabVIEW mediated optimization of closed loop control instruments.

  3. Science of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Santo; Bergstrom, Carl T; Börner, Katy; Evans, James A; Helbing, Dirk; Milojević, Staša; Petersen, Alexander M; Radicchi, Filippo; Sinatra, Roberta; Uzzi, Brian; Vespignani, Alessandro; Waltman, Ludo; Wang, Dashun; Barabási, Albert-László

    2018-03-02

    Identifying fundamental drivers of science and developing predictive models to capture its evolution are instrumental for the design of policies that can improve the scientific enterprise-for example, through enhanced career paths for scientists, better performance evaluation for organizations hosting research, discovery of novel effective funding vehicles, and even identification of promising regions along the scientific frontier. The science of science uses large-scale data on the production of science to search for universal and domain-specific patterns. Here, we review recent developments in this transdisciplinary field. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  4. Evaluation of instrumental parameters for obtaining acceptable analytical results of the Dosimetry Laboratory of Chemistry of the Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences, CNEN-NE, Recife, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, V.L.B.; Figueiredo, M.D.C.; Cunha, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Instrumental parameters need to be evaluated for obtaining acceptable analytical results for a specific instrument. The performance of the UV-VIS spectrophotometer can be verified for wavelengths and absorbances with appropriate materials (solutions of different concentrations of K 2 CrO 4 , for example). The aim of this work was to demonstrate the results of the procedures to control the quality of the measurements carried out in the laboratory in the last four years. The samples were analyzed in the spectrophotometer and control graphics were obtained for K 2 CrO 4 and Fe 3+ absorbance values. The variation in the results obtained for the stability of the spectrophotometer and for the control of its calibration did not exceed 2%. (author)

  5. Analysis of students’ science motivation and nature of science comprehension in middle school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizul Ghofar Candra Wicaksono

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the pattern of science motivation and nature of science (NoS and the relationship between science motivation and nature of science in middle school students located in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. The design of this study was survey followed by the correlation study to discover the relationship between science motivation level and nature of science comprehension. This research included 113 students as sample. The instrument used for data collection was SMQ and seven essay test from NoS indicator. This study revealed that the students had a median score of science motivation and the low score in nature of science comprehension. There were students’ science motivation and nature of science comprehension urgently need to be improved. It can be done by developing learning process and any support from school or family.

  6. Remote and Virtual Instrumentation Platform for Distance Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Eppes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This journal presents distance learning using the National Instruments ELVIS II and how Multisim can be combined with ELVIS II for distance learning. National Instrument’s ELVIS II is a new version that can easily be used for e-learning. It features 12 of the commonly used instruments in engineering and science laboratories, including an oscilloscope, a function generator, a variable power supply, and an isolated digital multi-meter in a low-cost and easy-to-use platform and completes integration with Multisim software for SPICE simulation, which simplifies the teaching of circuit design. As NI ELVIS II is based on LabView, designers can easily customize the 12 instruments or can create their own using the provided source code for the instruments.

  7. Nuclear medicine imaging instrumentations for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Hyun; Song, Tae Yong; Choi, Yong

    2004-01-01

    Small animal models are extensively utilized in the study of biomedical sciences. Current animal experiments and analysis are largely restricted to in vitro measurements and need to sacrifice animals to perform tissue or molecular analysis. This prevents researchers from observing in vivo the natural evolution of the process under study. Imaging techniques can provide repeatedly in vivo anatomic and molecular information noninvasively. Small animal imaging systems have been developed to assess biological process in experimental animals and increasingly employed in the field of molecular imaging studies. This review outlines the current developments in nuclear medicine imaging instrumentations including fused multi-modality imaging systems for small animal imaging

  8. Health physics instrumentation needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.; Swinth, K.L.; Kenoyer, J.L.

    1984-10-01

    Deficiencies and desirable improvements can be identified in every technical area in which health physics instruments are employed. The needed improvements cover the full spectrum including long-term reliability, human factors, accuracy, ruggedness, ease of calibration, improved radiation response, and improved mixed field response. Some specific areas of deficiency noted along with needed improvements. 17 references

  9. Status of the Neutron Imaging and Diffraction Instrument IMAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockelmann, Winfried; Burca, Genoveva; Kelleher, Joe F.; Kabra, Saurabh; Zhang, Shu-Yan; Rhodes, Nigel J.; Schooneveld, Erik M.; Sykora, Jeff; Pooley, Daniel E.; Nightingale, Jim B.; Aliotta, Francesco; Ponterio, Rosa C.; Salvato, Gabriele; Tresoldi, Dario; Vasi, Cirino; McPhate, Jason B.; Tremsin, Anton S.

    A cold neutron imaging and diffraction instrument, IMAT, is currently being constructed at the ISIS second target station. IMAT will capitalize on time-of-flight transmission and diffraction techniques available at a pulsed neutron source. Analytical techniques will include neutron radiography, neutron tomography, energy-selective neutron imaging, and spatially resolved diffraction scans for residual strain and texture determination. Commissioning of the instrument will start in 2015, with time-resolving imaging detectors and two diffraction detector prototype modules. IMAT will be operated as a user facility for material science applications and will be open for developments of time-of-flight imaging methods.

  10. MC and A instrumentation catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neymotin, L.; Sviridova, V.

    1998-01-01

    In 1981 and 1985, two editions of a catalog of non-destructive nuclear measurement instrumentation, and material control and surveillance equipment, were published by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The last edition of the catalog included one hundred and twenty-five entries covering a wide range of devices developed in the US and abroad. More than ten years have elapsed since the publication of the more recent Catalog. Devices described in it have undergone significant modifications, and new devices have been developed. Therefore, in order to assist specialists in the field of Material Control and Accounting (MC and A), a new catalog has been created. Work on this instrumentation catalog started in 1997 as a cooperative effort of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), operated by Brookhaven Science Associates under contract to the US Department of Energy, and the All-Russian Research Institute of Automatics (VNIIA), subordinate institute of the Atomic Energy Ministry of the Russian Federation, within the collaborative US-Russia Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) Program. Most of the equipment included in the Catalog are non-destructive assay (NDA) measurement devices employed for purposes of accounting, confirmation, and verification of nuclear materials. Other devices also included in the Catalog are employed in the detection and deterrence of unauthorized access to or removal of nuclear materials (material control: containment and surveillance). Equipment found in the Catalog comprises either: (1) complete devices or systems that can be used for MC and A applications; or (2) parts or components of complete systems, such as multi-channel analyzers, detectors, neutron generators, and software. All devices are categorized by their status of development--from prototype to serial production

  11. MC and A instrumentation catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neymotin, L. [ed.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Sviridova, V. [ed.] [All-Russian Research Inst. of Automatics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-06-01

    In 1981 and 1985, two editions of a catalog of non-destructive nuclear measurement instrumentation, and material control and surveillance equipment, were published by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The last edition of the catalog included one hundred and twenty-five entries covering a wide range of devices developed in the US and abroad. More than ten years have elapsed since the publication of the more recent Catalog. Devices described in it have undergone significant modifications, and new devices have been developed. Therefore, in order to assist specialists in the field of Material Control and Accounting (MC and A), a new catalog has been created. Work on this instrumentation catalog started in 1997 as a cooperative effort of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), operated by Brookhaven Science Associates under contract to the US Department of Energy, and the All-Russian Research Institute of Automatics (VNIIA), subordinate institute of the Atomic Energy Ministry of the Russian Federation, within the collaborative US-Russia Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) Program. Most of the equipment included in the Catalog are non-destructive assay (NDA) measurement devices employed for purposes of accounting, confirmation, and verification of nuclear materials. Other devices also included in the Catalog are employed in the detection and deterrence of unauthorized access to or removal of nuclear materials (material control: containment and surveillance). Equipment found in the Catalog comprises either: (1) complete devices or systems that can be used for MC and A applications; or (2) parts or components of complete systems, such as multi-channel analyzers, detectors, neutron generators, and software. All devices are categorized by their status of development--from prototype to serial production.

  12. ICFA: Instrumentation school

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-10-15

    74 students, including 45 from developing countries, ten lecturers and nine laboratory instructors participated in the novel instrumentation school held in June at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy, sponsored by ICTP and arranged through the Instrumentation Panel of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICF). During the two weeks of the course, students had the chance to construct and test a proportional chamber, measure the lifetime of cosmic ray muons, operate and analyse the performance of an 8-wire imaging drift chamber, or study noise and signal processing using a silicon photodiode.

  13. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  14. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID-20893 (Rev. 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice

  15. Virtual Reality Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low-cost technologies have created a wide interest in virtual reality. In the field of computer music, the term “virtual musical instruments” has been used for a long time to describe software simulations, extensions of existing musical instruments......, and ways to control them with new interfaces for musical expression. Virtual reality musical instruments (VRMIs) that include a simulated visual component delivered via a head-mounted display or other forms of immersive visualization have not yet received much attention. In this article, we present a field...

  16. ICFA: Instrumentation school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    74 students, including 45 from developing countries, ten lecturers and nine laboratory instructors participated in the novel instrumentation school held in June at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy, sponsored by ICTP and arranged through the Instrumentation Panel of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICF). During the two weeks of the course, students had the chance to construct and test a proportional chamber, measure the lifetime of cosmic ray muons, operate and analyse the performance of an 8-wire imaging drift chamber, or study noise and signal processing using a silicon photodiode

  17. Exploring Science Teaching Efficacy of CASE Curriculum Teachers: A Post-Then-Pre Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Jonathan D.; Velez, Jonathan J.; Lambert, Misty D.; Thompson, Greg W.; Burris, Scott; Witt, Phillip A.

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive-correlational study sought to investigate teachers' levels of Personal Science Teaching Efficacy (PSTE) and Science Teaching Outcome Expectancy (STOE) using the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (STEBI). The population included all teachers completing a CASE Institute training session during summer 2010. Assessments…

  18. EOS Reference Handbook 1999: A Guide to NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the Earth Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M. D. (Editor); Greenstone, R. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The content of this handbook includes Earth Science Enterprise; The Earth Observing System; EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS); Data and Information Policy; Pathfinder Data Sets; Earth Science Information Partners and the Working Prototype-Federation; EOS Data Quality: Calibration and Validation; Education Programs; International Cooperation; Interagency Coordination; Mission Elements; EOS Instruments; EOS Interdisciplinary Science Investigations; and Points-of-Contact.

  19. Instruments to assess integrated care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anne Marie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Høst, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although several measurement instruments have been developed to measure the level of integrated health care delivery, no standardised, validated instrument exists covering all aspects of integrated care. The purpose of this review is to identify the instruments concerning how to mea...... was prevalent. It is uncertain whether development of a single 'all-inclusive' model for assessing integrated care is desirable. We emphasise the continuing need for validated instruments embedded in theoretical contexts.......INTRODUCTION: Although several measurement instruments have been developed to measure the level of integrated health care delivery, no standardised, validated instrument exists covering all aspects of integrated care. The purpose of this review is to identify the instruments concerning how...... to measure the level of integration across health-care sectors and to assess and evaluate the organisational elements within the instruments identified. METHODS: An extensive, systematic literature review in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science for the years 1980-2011. Selected...

  20. Technological considerations in emergency instrument preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The types of emergency instrumentation systems necessary to characterize the severity and extent of radiation accidents and to aid in the protection of operating personnel and personnel living near the plant are discussed. These include instruments for direct measurement of the airborne radioactive material within the facility, fixed instrumentation for ambient dose rate monitoring or area monitoring, and portable instruments for environmental monitoring

  1. Pre-Service Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Science and Their Science Learning at Indonesia Open University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadi SUPRAPTO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on attitudes toward (teaching science and the learning of science for primary school among pre-service teachers at the Open University of Indonesia. A three-year longitudinal survey was conducted, involving 379 students as pre-service teachers (PSTs from the Open University in Surabaya regional office. Attitudes toward (teaching science’ (ATS instrument was used to portray PSTs’ preparation for becoming primary school teachers. Data analyses were used, including descriptive analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The model fit of the attitudes toward (teaching science can be described from seven dimensions: self-efficacy for teaching science, the relevance of teaching science, gender-stereotypical beliefs, anxiety in teaching science, the difficulty of teaching science, perceived dependency on contextual factors, and enjoyment in teaching science. The results of the research also described science learning at the Open University of Indonesia looks like. Implications for primary teacher education are discussed.

  2. The Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) Instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutet, Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) has become the first ever operational hard X-ray Free Electron Laser in 2009. It will operate as a user facility capable of delivering unique research opportunities in multiple fields of science. The LCLS and the LCLS Ultrafast Science Instruments (LUSI) construction projects are developing instruments designed to make full use of the capabilities afforded by the LCLS beam. One such instrument is being designed to utilize the LCLS coherent beam to image with high resolution any sub-micron object. This instrument is called the Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument. This instrument will provide a flexible optical system capable of tailoring key beam parameters for the users. A suite of shot-to-shot diagnostics will also be provided to characterize the beam on every pulse. The provided instrumentation will include multi-purpose sample environments, sample delivery and a custom detector capable of collecting 2D data at 120 Hz. In this article, the LCLS will be briefly introduced along with the technique of Coherent X-ray Diffractive Imaging (CXDI). A few examples of scientific opportunities using the CXI instrument will be described. Finally, the conceptual layout of the instrument will be presented along with a description of the key requirements for the overall system and specific devices required.

  3. Scientific Instruments and Epistemology Engines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2012), s. 529-540 ISSN 1210-0250 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/11/2338 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : material culture of science * scientific instruments * epistemology engines * experimental systems Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  4. Increasing Robotic Science Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The principal objectives are to demonstrate robotic-based scientific investigations and resource prospecting, and develop and demonstrate modular science instrument...

  5. Instrumental analysis, second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, G.D.; O'Reilly, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The second edition of Instrumental Analysis is a survey of the major instrument-based methods of chemical analysis. It appears to be aimed at undergraduates but would be equally useful in a graduate course. The volume explores all of the classical quantitative methods and contains sections on techniques that usually are not included in a semester course in instrumentation (such as electron spectroscopy and the kinetic methods). Adequate coverage of all of the methods contained in this book would require several semesters of focused study. The 25 chapters were written by different authors, yet the style throughout the book is more uniform than in the earlier edition. With the exception of a two-chapter course in analog and digital circuits, the book purports to de-emphasize instrumentation, focusing more on the theory behind the methods and the application of the methods to analytical problems. However, a detailed analysis of the instruments used in each method is by no means absent. The book has the favor of a user's guide to analysis

  6. Seismic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The aim of this RFS is to define the type, location and operating conditions for seismic instrumentation needed to determine promptly the seismic response of nuclear power plants features important to safety to permit comparison of such response with that used as the design basis

  7. Meteorological instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    RFS or ''Regles Fondamentales de Surete'' (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety , while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the ''Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires'' or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The purpose of this RFS is to specify the meteorological instrumentation required at the site of each nuclear power plant equipped with at least one pressurized water reactor

  8. Parallel Study of HEND, RAD, and DAN Instrument Response to Martian Radiation and Surface Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiniez Sierra, Luz Maria; Jun, Insoo; Litvak, Maxim; Sanin, Anton; Mitrofanov, Igor; Zeitlin, Cary

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear detection methods are being used to understand the radiation environment at Mars. JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) assets on Mars include: Orbiter -2001 Mars Odyssey [High Energy Neutron Detector (HEND)]; Mars Science Laboratory Rover -Curiosity [(Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD); Dynamic Albedo Neutron (DAN))]. Spacecraft have instruments able to detect ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Instrument response on orbit and on the surface of Mars to space weather and local conditions [is discussed] - Data available at NASA-PDS (Planetary Data System).

  9. Identifying Relevant Anti-Science Perceptions to Improve Science-Based Communication: The Negative Perceptions of Science Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Morgan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Science communicators and scholars have struggled to understand what appears to be increasingly frequent endorsement of a wide range of anti-science beliefs and a corresponding reduction of trust in science. A common explanation for this issue is a lack of science literacy/knowledge among the general public (Funk et al. 2015. However, other possible explanations have been advanced, including conflict with alternative belief systems and other contextual factors, and even cultural factors (Gauchat 2008; Kahan 2015 that are not necessarily due to knowledge deficits. One of the challenges is that there are limited tools available to measure a range of possible underlying negative perceptions of science that could provide a more nuanced framework within which to improve communication around important scientific topics. This project describes two studies detailing the development and validation of the Negative Perceptions of Science Scale (NPSS, a multi-dimensional instrument that taps into several distinct sets of negative science perceptions: Science as Corrupt, Science as Complex, Science as Heretical, and Science as Limited. Evidence for the reliability and validity of the NPSS is described. The sub-dimensions of the NPSS are associated with a range of specific anti-science beliefs across a broad set of topic areas above and beyond that explained by demographics (including education, sex, age, and income, political, and religious ideology. Implications for these findings for improving science communication and science-related message tailoring are discussed.

  10. Combined Raman/Infrared Reflectance Instrument for In Situ Mineral Analysis, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Science Instruments, Observatories, and Sensor Systems Roadmap calls for instruments capable of in situ mineralogical analysis in support of planetary...

  11. Earth, soil and environmental science research facility at sector 13 of the Advanced Photon Source. II. Scientific program and experimental instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, S.; Eng., P.J.; Jaski, Y.R.; Lazaraz, N.; Pluth, J.; Murray, P.; Rarback, H.; Rivers, M. [CARS, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The GSECARS (APS sector 13) scientific program will provide fundamental new information on the deep structure and composition of the Earth and other planets, the formation of economic mineral deposits, the cycles and fate of toxic metals in the environment, and the mechanisms of nutrient uptake and disease in plants. In the four experimental stations (2 per beamline), scientists will have access to three main x-ray techniques: diffraction (microcrystal, powder, diamond anvil cell, and large volume press), fluorescence microprobe, and spectroscopy (conventional, microbeam, liquid and solid surfaces). The high pressure facilities will be capable of x-ray crystallography at P{approx_gt}360 GPa and T{approximately}6000 K with the diamond anvil cell and P{approximately}25 GPa and T{approximately}2500{degree}C with the large volume press. Diffractometers will allow study of 1 micrometer crystals and micro-powders. The microprobe (1 micrometer focused beam) will be capable of chemical analyses in the sub-ppm range using wavelength and energy dispersive detectors. Spectroscopy instrumentation will be available for XANES and EXAFS with microbeams as well as high sensitivity conventional XAS and studies of liquid and solid interfaces. Visiting scientists will be able to setup, calibrate, and test experiments in off-line laboratories with equipment such as micromanipulators, optical microscopes, clean bench, glove boxes, high powered optical and Raman spectrometers. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  13. Predicting Turkish Preservice Elementary Teachers' Orientations to Teaching Science with Epistemological Beliefs, Learning Conceptions, and Learning Approaches in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Elif Adibelli; Deniz, Hasan; Topçu, Mustafa Sami

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated to what extent Turkish preservice elementary teachers' orientations to teaching science could be explained by their epistemological beliefs, conceptions of learning, and approaches to learning science. The sample included 157 Turkish preservice elementary teachers. The four instruments used in the study were School…

  14. Utilizing Multifaceted Rasch Measurement through Facets to Evaluate Science Education Data Sets Composed of Judges, Respondents, and Rating Scale Items: An Exemplar Utilizing the Elementary Science Teaching Analysis Matrix Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, William J.; Townsend, J. Scott; Staver, John R.

    2016-01-01

    When collecting data, science education researchers frequently have multiple respondents evaluate multiple artifacts using multiple criteria. Herein, the authors introduce Multifaceted Rasch Measurement (MFRM) analysis and explain why MFRM must be used when "judges'" data are collected. The authors use data from elementary science…

  15. A Thermal Imaging Instrument with Uncooled Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposed work, we will perform an instrument concept study for sustainable thermal imaging over land with uncooled detectors. We will define the science and...

  16. Instruments to assess self-care among healthy children: A systematic review of measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urpí-Fernández, Ana-María; Zabaleta-Del-Olmo, Edurne; Montes-Hidalgo, Javier; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Roldán-Merino, Juan-Francisco; Lluch-Canut, María-Teresa

    2017-12-01

    To identify, critically appraise and summarize the measurement properties of instruments to assess self-care in healthy children. Assessing self-care is a proper consideration for nursing practice and nursing research. No systematic review summarizes instruments of measurement validated in healthy children. Psychometric review in accordance with the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) panel. MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Open Grey were searched from their inception to December 2016. Validation studies with a healthy child population were included. Search was not restricted by language. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of included studies using the COSMIN checklist. Eleven studies were included in the review assessing the measurement properties of ten instruments. There was a maximum of two studies per instrument. None of the studies evaluated the properties of test-retest reliability, measurement error, criterion validity and responsiveness. Internal consistency and structural validity were rated as "excellent" or "good" in four studies. Four studies were rated as "excellent" in content validity. Cross-cultural validity was rated as "poor" in the two studies (three instruments) which cultural adaptation was carried out. The evidence available does not allow firm conclusions about the instruments identified in terms of reliability and validity. Future research should focus on generate evidence about a wider range of measurement properties of these instruments using a rigorous methodology, as well as instrument testing on different countries and child population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. WFIRST: Data/Instrument Simulation Support at IPAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Seppo; Akeson, Rachel; Armus, Lee; Bennett, Lee; Colbert, James; Helou, George; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Meshkat, Tiffany; Paladini, Roberta; Ramirez, Solange; Wang, Yun; Xie, Joan; Yan, Lin

    2018-01-01

    As part of WFIRST Science Center preparations, the IPAC Science Operations Center (ISOC) maintains a repository of 1) WFIRST data and instrument simulations, 2) tools to facilitate scientific performance and feasibility studies using the WFIRST, and 3) parameters summarizing the current design and predicted performance of the WFIRST telescope and instruments. The simulation repository provides access for the science community to simulation code, tools, and resulting analyses. Examples of simulation code with ISOC-built web-based interfaces include EXOSIMS (for estimating exoplanet yields in CGI surveys) and the Galaxy Survey Exposure Time Calculator. In the future the repository will provide an interface for users to run custom simulations of a wide range of coronagraph instrument (CGI) observations and sophisticated tools for designing microlensing experiments. We encourage those who are generating simulations or writing tools for exoplanet observations with WFIRST to contact the ISOC team so we can work with you to bring these to the attention of the broader astronomical community as we prepare for the exciting science that will be enabled by WFIRST.

  18. Instrumentation calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, D.A.

    1976-08-01

    Procedures for the calibration of different types of laboratory equipment are described. Provisions for maintaining the integrity of reference and working standards traceable back to a national standard are discussed. Methods of validation and certification methods are included. An appendix lists available publications and services of national standardizing agencies

  19. Instruments and accessories for neutron scattering research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshinobu; Morii, Yukio

    2000-04-01

    This report describes neutron scattering instruments and accessories installed by four neutron scattering research groups at the ASRC (Advanced Science Research Center) of the JAERI and the recent topics of neutron scattering research using these instruments. The specifications of nine instruments (HRPD, BIX-I, TAS-1 and PNO in the reactor hall, RESA, BIX-II, TAS-2, LTAS and SANS-J in the guide hall of the JRR-3M) are summarized in this booklet. (author)

  20. IAEA programme on maintenance of nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuister, P.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Medical Applications Section in the Division of Life Sciences of the International Atomic Energy Agency has been engaged since 1975 in activities aimed at the more effective use of nuclear instruments. Activities and achievements are described concerning the conditioning of laboratories, preventive maintenance and repair of instruments, the management thereof, space parts and the promotion of local training in these subjects. (author)

  1. Pancreatitis Quality of Life Instrument: Development of a new instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid Wassef

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The goal of this project was to develop the first disease-specific instrument for the evaluation of quality of life in chronic pancreatitis. Methods: Focus groups and interview sessions were conducted, with chronic pancreatitis patients, to identify items felt to impact quality of life which were subsequently formatted into a paper-and-pencil instrument. This instrument was used to conduct an online survey by an expert panel of pancreatologists to evaluate its content validity. Finally, the modified instrument was presented to patients during precognitive testing interviews to evaluate its clarity and appropriateness. Results: In total, 10 patients were enrolled in the focus groups and interview sessions where they identified 50 items. Once redundant items were removed, the 40 remaining items were made into a paper-and-pencil instrument referred to as the Pancreatitis Quality of Life Instrument. Through the processes of content validation and precognitive testing, the number of items in the instrument was reduced to 24. Conclusions: This marks the development of the first disease-specific instrument to evaluate quality of life in chronic pancreatitis. It includes unique features not found in generic instruments (economic factors, stigma, and spiritual factors. Although this marks a giant step forward, psychometric evaluation is still needed prior to its clinical use.

  2. Optical Performance of Breadboard Amon-Ra Imaging Channel Instrument for Deep Space Albedo Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Hyun Park

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The AmonRa instrument, the primary payload of the international EARTHSHINE mission, is designed for measurement of deep space albedo from L1 halo orbit. We report the optical design, tolerance analysis and the optical performance of the breadborad AmonRa imaging channel instrument optimized for the mission science requirements. In particular, an advanced wavefront feedback process control technique was used for the instrumentation process including part fabrication, system alignment and integration. The measured performances for the complete breadboard system are the RMS 0.091 wave(test wavelength: 632.8 nm in wavefront error, the ensquared energy of 61.7%(in 14 μ m and the MTF of 35.3%(Nyquist frequency: 35.7 mm^{-1} at the center field. These resulting optical system performances prove that the breadboard AmonRa instrument, as built, satisfies the science requirements of the EARTHSHINE mission.

  3. Transgressive or Instrumental?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary practices that connect the arts with learning are widespread at all level of educational systems and in organisations, but they include very diverse approaches, multiple methods and background values. Regardless of explicit learning benefits, the arts/learning partnerships bring about...... creativity and the other on practices of arts-integration. My final point rests on the belief that the opposition of transgression and instrumentality is a deceiving perspective on the arts, against the background of the aesthetic plurality and hybridity....

  4. Instrumentation requirements for the ESF thermomechanical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pott, J.; Brechtel, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    In situ thermomechanical experiments are planned as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project that require instruments to measure stress and displacement at temperatures that exceed the typical specifications of existing geotechnical instruments. A high degree of instrument reliability will also be required to satisfy the objectives of the experiments, therefore a study was undertaken to identify areas where improvement in instrument performance was required. A preliminary list of instruments required for the experiments was developed, based on existing test planning and analysis. Projected temperature requirements were compared to specifications of existing instruments to identify instrumentation development needs. Different instrument technologies, not currently employed in geotechnical instrumentation, were reviewed to identify potential improvements of existing designs for the high temperature environment. Technologies with strong potentials to improve instrument performance with relatively high reliability include graphite fiber composite materials, fiber optics, and video imagery

  5. Neutron beam instruments at Harwell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baston, A.H.; Harris, D.H.C.

    1978-11-01

    A list and brief descriptions are given of the neutron beam facilities for U.K. scientists at Harwell and in academic institutions, available under an agreement between the Science Research Council and AERE (Harwell). The list falls under the following headings: reactor instruments (single crystal diffractometers, powder diffractometers, triple axis spectrometers, time-of-flight cold neutron twin rotor spectrometer, beryllium filter spectrometer, MARX spectrometer, Harwell small-angle scattering spectrometer); LINAC instruments (total scattering spectrometer, back scattering spectrometer, active sample spectrometer, inelastic rotor spectrometer, constant Q spectrometer); ancillary equipment (cryostats, superconducting magnets, electromagnets, furnaces). (U.K.)

  6. Proceedings of a workshop on methods for neutron scattering instrumentation design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelm, R.P.

    1997-09-01

    The future of neutron and x-ray scattering instrument development and international cooperation was the focus of the workshop. The international gathering of about 50 participants representing 15 national facilities, universities and corporations featured oral presentations, posters, discussions and demonstrations. Participants looked at a number of issues concerning neutron scattering instruments and the tools used in instrument design. Objectives included: (1) determining the needs of the neutron scattering community in instrument design computer code and information sharing to aid future instrument development, (2) providing for a means of training scientists in neutron scattering and neutron instrument techniques, and (3) facilitating the involvement of other scientists in determining the characteristics of new instruments that meet future scientific objectives, and (4) fostering international cooperation in meeting these needs. The scope of the meeting included: (1) a review of x-ray scattering instrument design tools, (2) a look at the present status of neutron scattering instrument design tools and models of neutron optical elements, and (3) discussions of the present and future needs of the neutron scattering community. Selected papers were abstracted separately for inclusion to the Energy Science and Technology Database

  7. Proceedings of a workshop on methods for neutron scattering instrumentation design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelm, R.P. [ed.] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The future of neutron and x-ray scattering instrument development and international cooperation was the focus of the workshop. The international gathering of about 50 participants representing 15 national facilities, universities and corporations featured oral presentations, posters, discussions and demonstrations. Participants looked at a number of issues concerning neutron scattering instruments and the tools used in instrument design. Objectives included: (1) determining the needs of the neutron scattering community in instrument design computer code and information sharing to aid future instrument development, (2) providing for a means of training scientists in neutron scattering and neutron instrument techniques, and (3) facilitating the involvement of other scientists in determining the characteristics of new instruments that meet future scientific objectives, and (4) fostering international cooperation in meeting these needs. The scope of the meeting included: (1) a review of x-ray scattering instrument design tools, (2) a look at the present status of neutron scattering instrument design tools and models of neutron optical elements, and (3) discussions of the present and future needs of the neutron scattering community. Selected papers were abstracted separately for inclusion to the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Intonation and compensation of fretted string instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varieschi, Gabriele; Gower, Christina

    2011-04-01

    We discuss theoretical and physical models that are useful for analyzing the intonation of musical instruments such as guitars and mandolins and can be used to improve the tuning on these instruments. The placement of frets on the fingerboard is designed according to mathematical rules and the assumption of an ideal string. The analysis becomes more complicated when we include the effects of deformation of the string and inharmonicity due to other string characteristics. As a consequence, perfect intonation of all the notes on the instrument cannot be achieved, but complex compensation procedures can be introduced to minimize the problem. To test the validity of these procedures, we performed extensive measurements using standard monochord sonometers and other acoustical devices, confirming the correctness of our theoretical models. These experimental activities can be integrated into acoustics courses and laboratories and can become a more advanced version of basic experiments with monochords and sonometers. This work was supported by a grant from the Frank R. Seaver College of Science and Engineering, Loyola Marymount University.

  9. The Instrumentation Program for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Simard, Luc; Crampton, David; Ellerbroek, Brent; Boyer, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the current status of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) instrumentation program is presented. Science cases and operational concepts as well as their links to the instruments are continually revisited and updated through a series of workshops and conferences. Work on the three first-light instruments (WFOS IRIS, and IRMS) has made significant progress, and many groups in TMT partner communities are developing future instrument concepts. Other instrument-related subsystems are al...

  10. Payment Instrument Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jacques; Kjeldsen, Martin; Hedman, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have witnessed payment innovations that fundamentally have changed the ways we pay. Payment innovations, such as mobile payments and on-line banking, include characteristics or features that are essential to understand if we want to know how and why payers choose among...... payment innovations. Using the Repertory Grid technique to explore 15 payers’ perception of six payment instruments, including coins, banknotes, debit cards, credit cards, mobile payments, and on-line banking, we identify 16 payment characteristics. The characteristics aggregate seventy-six unique...

  11. Mars Science Laboratory Mission and Science Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotzinger, John P.; Crisp, Joy; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Anderson, Robert C.; Baker, Charles J.; Barry, Robert; Blake, David F.; Conrad, Pamela; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Ferdowski, Bobak; Gellert, Ralf; Gilbert, John B.; Golombek, Matt; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Hassler, Donald M.; Jandura, Louise; Litvak, Maxim; Mahaffy, Paul; Maki, Justin; Meyer, Michael; Malin, Michael C.; Mitrofanov, Igor; Simmonds, John J.; Vaniman, David; Welch, Richard V.; Wiens, Roger C.

    2012-09-01

    Scheduled to land in August of 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission was initiated to explore the habitability of Mars. This includes both modern environments as well as ancient environments recorded by the stratigraphic rock record preserved at the Gale crater landing site. The Curiosity rover has a designed lifetime of at least one Mars year (˜23 months), and drive capability of at least 20 km. Curiosity's science payload was specifically assembled to assess habitability and includes a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and gas analyzer that will search for organic carbon in rocks, regolith fines, and the atmosphere (SAM instrument); an x-ray diffractometer that will determine mineralogical diversity (CheMin instrument); focusable cameras that can image landscapes and rock/regolith textures in natural color (MAHLI, MARDI, and Mastcam instruments); an alpha-particle x-ray spectrometer for in situ determination of rock and soil chemistry (APXS instrument); a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer to remotely sense the chemical composition of rocks and minerals (ChemCam instrument); an active neutron spectrometer designed to search for water in rocks/regolith (DAN instrument); a weather station to measure modern-day environmental variables (REMS instrument); and a sensor designed for continuous monitoring of background solar and cosmic radiation (RAD instrument). The various payload elements will work together to detect and study potential sampling targets with remote and in situ measurements; to acquire samples of rock, soil, and atmosphere and analyze them in onboard analytical instruments; and to observe the environment around the rover. The 155-km diameter Gale crater was chosen as Curiosity's field site based on several attributes: an interior mountain of ancient flat-lying strata extending almost 5 km above the elevation of the landing site; the lower few hundred meters of the mountain show a progression with relative age from clay-bearing to sulfate

  12. Islam and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdus

    The following sections are included: * The Holy Quran and Science * Modem Science, A Greco- Islamic Legacy * The Decline of Sciences in Islam * The Limitations of Science * Faith and Science * The Present Picture of Sciences in the Islamic Countries * Renaissance of Sciences in Islam * Steps Needed for Building up Sciences in the Islamic Countries * Science Education * Science Foundations in Islam * Technology in Our Countries * Concluding Remarks * REFERENCES

  13. Sciences & Nature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... Sciences & Nature, the Scientific Journal edited by the University of ... Subjects covered include agronomy, sciences of the earth, environment, biological, ...

  14. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high ..... circulation patterns include the nutrient-rich Somali ...... matical Structures in Computer Science 24: e240311.

  15. Soil analysis. Modern instrumental technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book covers traditional methods of analysis and specialist monographs on individual instrumental techniques, which are usually not written with soil or plant analysis specifically in mind. The principles of the techniques are combined with discussions of sample preparation and matrix problems, and critical reviews of applications in soil science and related disciplines. Individual chapters are processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  16. Evaluating musical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-01-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians

  17. Instrumental traditions and theories of light the uses of instruments in the optical revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiang

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of the optical revolution in the context of early 19th century Britain. Far from merely involving the replacement of one optical theory by another, the revolution also involved substantial changes in instruments and the practices that surrounded them. People's judgements about classification, explanation and evaluation were affected by the way they used such optical instruments as spectroscopes, telescopes, polarisers, photometers, gratings, prisms and apertures. There were two instrumental traditions in this historical period, each of which nurtured a body of practice that exemplified how optical instruments should be operated, and especially how the eye should be used. These traditions functioned just like paradigms, shaping perspectives and even world views. Readership: Scholars and graduate students in the history of science, history of instrument, philosophy of science and science studies. Can also be used as a textbook in graduate courses on 19th century physics.

  18. Science Operations Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squibb, Gael F.

    1984-10-01

    The operation teams for the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) included scientists from the IRAS International Science Team. The scientific decisions on an hour-to-hour basis, as well as the long-term strategic decisions, were made by science team members. The IRAS scientists were involved in the analysis of the instrument performance, the analysis of the quality of the data, the decision to reacquire data that was contaminated by radiation effects, the strategy for acquiring the survey data, and the process for using the telescope for additional observations, as well as the processing decisions required to ensure the publication of the final scientific products by end of flight operations plus one year. Early in the project, two science team members were selected to be responsible for the scientific operational decisions. One, located at the operations control center in England, was responsible for the scientific aspects of the satellite operations; the other, located at the scientific processing center in Pasadena, was responsible for the scientific aspects of the processing. These science team members were then responsible for approving the design and test of the tools to support their responsibilities and then, after launch, for using these tools in making their decisions. The ability of the project to generate the final science data products one year after the end of flight operations is due in a large measure to the active participation of the science team members in the operations. This paper presents a summary of the operational experiences gained from this scientific involvement.

  19. netherland hydrological modeling instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogewoud, J. C.; de Lange, W. J.; Veldhuizen, A.; Prinsen, G.

    2012-04-01

    Netherlands Hydrological Modeling Instrument A decision support system for water basin management. J.C. Hoogewoud , W.J. de Lange ,A. Veldhuizen , G. Prinsen , The Netherlands Hydrological modeling Instrument (NHI) is the center point of a framework of models, to coherently model the hydrological system and the multitude of functions it supports. Dutch hydrological institutes Deltares, Alterra, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, RWS Waterdienst, STOWA and Vewin are cooperating in enhancing the NHI for adequate decision support. The instrument is used by three different ministries involved in national water policy matters, for instance the WFD, drought management, manure policy and climate change issues. The basis of the modeling instrument is a state-of-the-art on-line coupling of the groundwater system (MODFLOW), the unsaturated zone (metaSWAP) and the surface water system (MOZART-DM). It brings together hydro(geo)logical processes from the column to the basin scale, ranging from 250x250m plots to the river Rhine and includes salt water flow. The NHI is validated with an eight year run (1998-2006) with dry and wet periods. For this run different parts of the hydrology have been compared with measurements. For instance, water demands in dry periods (e.g. for irrigation), discharges at outlets, groundwater levels and evaporation. A validation alone is not enough to get support from stakeholders. Involvement from stakeholders in the modeling process is needed. There fore to gain sufficient support and trust in the instrument on different (policy) levels a couple of actions have been taken: 1. a transparent evaluation of modeling-results has been set up 2. an extensive program is running to cooperate with regional waterboards and suppliers of drinking water in improving the NHI 3. sharing (hydrological) data via newly setup Modeling Database for local and national models 4. Enhancing the NHI with "local" information. The NHI is and has been used for many

  20. Developments in analytical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, G.

    The situation regarding photogrammetric instrumentation has changed quite dramatically over the last 2 or 3 years with the withdrawal of most analogue stereo-plotting machines from the market place and their replacement by analytically based instrumentation. While there have been few new developments in the field of comparators, there has been an explosive development in the area of small, relatively inexpensive analytical stereo-plotters based on the use of microcomputers. In particular, a number of new instruments have been introduced by manufacturers who mostly have not been associated previously with photogrammetry. Several innovative concepts have been introduced in these small but capable instruments, many of which are aimed at specialised applications, e.g. in close-range photogrammetry (using small-format cameras); for thematic mapping (by organisations engaged in environmental monitoring or resources exploitation); for map revision, etc. Another innovative and possibly significant development has been the production of conversion kits to convert suitable analogue stereo-plotting machines such as the Topocart, PG-2 and B-8 into fully fledged analytical plotters. The larger and more sophisticated analytical stereo-plotters are mostly being produced by the traditional mainstream photogrammetric systems suppliers with several new instruments and developments being introduced at the top end of the market. These include the use of enlarged photo stages to handle images up to 25 × 50 cm format; the complete integration of graphics workstations into the analytical plotter design; the introduction of graphics superimposition and stereo-superimposition; the addition of correlators for the automatic measurement of height, etc. The software associated with this new analytical instrumentation is now undergoing extensive re-development with the need to supply photogrammetric data as input to the more sophisticated G.I.S. systems now being installed by clients, instead

  1. 18 CFR 367.2440 - Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Derivative instrument liabilities. This account must include the change in the fair value of all derivative instrument liabilities not designated as cash flow or fair value hedges. Account 426.5, Other deductions... the fair value of the derivative instrument. ...

  2. Report of the Instrumentation Service - Annex C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majstorovic, D.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the tasks and organizational structure of the Instrumentation service. The most important task of this Service is control and maintenance of the reactor control and protection instruments, operation control, and dosimetry system. Besides data about this basic instrumentation, the report includes data about control and maintenance of other electronic equipment related to experimental facilities [sr

  3. Software-Enabled Modular Instrumentation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soijer, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    Like most other types of instrumentation systems, flight test instrumentation is not produced in series; its development is a one-time achievement by a test department. With the introduction of powerful digital computers, instrumentation systems have included data analysis tasks that were previously

  4. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument

  5. EPRTM Reactor neutron instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, Maxime; SALA, Stephanie

    2013-06-01

    The core safety during operation is linked, in particular, to the respect of criteria related to the heat generated in fuel rods and to the heat exchange between the rods and the coolant. This local power information is linked to the power distribution in the core. In order to evaluate the core power distribution, the EPR TM reactor relies on several types of neutron detectors: - ionization chambers located outside the vessel and used for protection and monitoring - a fixed in-core instrumentation based on Cobalt Self Powered Neutron Detectors used for protection and monitoring - a mobile reference in-core instrumentation based on Vanadium aero-balls This document provides a description of this instrumentation and its use in core protection, limitation, monitoring and control functions. In particular, a description of the detectors and the principles of their signal generation is supplied as well as the description of the treatments related to these detectors in the EPR TM reactor I and C systems (including periodical calibration). (authors)

  6. Pre-Service Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Science and Their Science Learning at Indonesia Open University

    OpenAIRE

    Nadi SUPRAPTO; Ali MURSID

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on attitudes toward (teaching) science and the learning of science for primary school among pre-service teachers at the Open University of Indonesia. A three-year longitudinal survey was conducted, involving 379 students as pre-service teachers (PSTs) from the Open University in Surabaya regional office. Attitudes toward (teaching) science’ (ATS) instrument was used to portray PSTs’ preparation for becoming primary school teachers. Data analyses were used, including descrip...

  7. Assessment of the measurement properties of the post stroke motor function instruments available in Brazil: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Elaine; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F; Simões, Luan; Guerra, Ana C C; Lemos, Andrea

    2016-03-15

    While there are several instruments in Brazil that measure motor function in patients after stroke, it is unknown whether the measurement properties of these instruments are appropriate. To identify the motor function instruments available in Brazil for patients after stroke. To assess the methodological quality of the studies and the results related to the measurement properties of these instruments. Two independent reviewers conducted searches on PubMed, LILACS, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Scopus. Studies that aimed to cross-culturally adapt an existing instrument or create a Brazilian instrument and test at least one measurement property related to motor function in patients after stroke were included. The methodological quality of these studies was checked by the COSMIN checklist with 4-point rating scale and the results of the measurement properties were analyzed by the criteria developed by Terwee et al. A total of 11 instruments were considered eligible, none of which were created in Brazil. The process of cross-cultural adaptation was inadequate in 10 out of 11 instruments due to the lack of back-translation or due to inappropriate target population. All of the instruments presented flaws in the measurement properties, especially reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity. The flaws observed in both cross-cultural adaptation process and testing measurement properties make the results inconclusive on the validity of the available instruments. Adequate procedures of cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties of these instruments are strongly needed.

  8. Assessment of the measurement properties of the post stroke motor function instruments available in Brazil: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Lima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background While there are several instruments in Brazil that measure motor function in patients after stroke, it is unknown whether the measurement properties of these instruments are appropriate. Objective To identify the motor function instruments available in Brazil for patients after stroke. To assess the methodological quality of the studies and the results related to the measurement properties of these instruments. Method Two independent reviewers conducted searches on PubMed, LILACS, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Scopus. Studies that aimed to cross-culturally adapt an existing instrument or create a Brazilian instrument and test at least one measurement property related to motor function in patients after stroke were included. The methodological quality of these studies was checked by the COSMIN checklist with 4-point rating scale and the results of the measurement properties were analyzed by the criteria developed by Terwee et al. Results A total of 11 instruments were considered eligible, none of which were created in Brazil. The process of cross-cultural adaptation was inadequate in 10 out of 11 instruments due to the lack of back-translation or due to inappropriate target population. All of the instruments presented flaws in the measurement properties, especially reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity. Conclusion The flaws observed in both cross-cultural adaptation process and testing measurement properties make the results inconclusive on the validity of the available instruments. Adequate procedures of cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties of these instruments are strongly needed.

  9. The Society for Implementation Research Collaboration Instrument Review Project: a methodology to promote rigorous evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C; Stanick, Cameo F; Martinez, Ruben G; Weiner, Bryan J; Kim, Mimi; Barwick, Melanie; Comtois, Katherine A

    2015-01-08

    Identification of psychometrically strong instruments for the field of implementation science is a high priority underscored in a recent National Institutes of Health working meeting (October 2013). Existing instrument reviews are limited in scope, methods, and findings. The Society for Implementation Research Collaboration Instrument Review Project's objectives address these limitations by identifying and applying a unique methodology to conduct a systematic and comprehensive review of quantitative instruments assessing constructs delineated in two of the field's most widely used frameworks, adopt a systematic search process (using standard search strings), and engage an international team of experts to assess the full range of psychometric criteria (reliability, construct and criterion validity). Although this work focuses on implementation of psychosocial interventions in mental health and health-care settings, the methodology and results will likely be useful across a broad spectrum of settings. This effort has culminated in a centralized online open-access repository of instruments depicting graphical head-to-head comparisons of their psychometric properties. This article describes the methodology and preliminary outcomes. The seven stages of the review, synthesis, and evaluation methodology include (1) setting the scope for the review, (2) identifying frameworks to organize and complete the review, (3) generating a search protocol for the literature review of constructs, (4) literature review of specific instruments, (5) development of an evidence-based assessment rating criteria, (6) data extraction and rating instrument quality by a task force of implementation experts to inform knowledge synthesis, and (7) the creation of a website repository. To date, this multi-faceted and collaborative search and synthesis methodology has identified over 420 instruments related to 34 constructs (total 48 including subconstructs) that are relevant to implementation

  10. Nucleonic instruments from VUPJT Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smola, J.

    1986-01-01

    The instruments currently produced by Tesla Premysleni are listed and briefly characterized. They include a low level alpha-beta counter, an automatic low level alpha-beta counter, detection units for environmental sample counting, instruments for measuring specific activity of liquids and radon concentration in water, a radioactive aerosol meter, dose ratemeters, portable alpha-beta indicators for surface contamintion monitoring, neutron monitors, single-, two- and three-channel spectrometric units. (M.D.)

  11. Marketing instruments of foreign trade promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Bjelić Predrag

    2011-01-01

    Instruments of promotion as a part of marketing mix are usually associated with companies but more and more countries use this instrument in order to boost their exports. These foreign trade promotion instruments are now popular in many countries in the world since their use is not opposed to any World Trade Organization rules. Marketing instruments of trade promotions are the most important. They include National Exhibitions and National labels of origin and quality. In order to coordinate t...

  12. Mitos da didática das ciências acerca dos motivos para incluir a Natureza da Ciência no ensino das ciências Science Education myths about the reasons to include the Nature of Science in science teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Acevedo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Em certas situações, a Didática das Ciências transmite como mitos algumas crenças que não estão suficientemente sustentadas pela investigação que ela própria produz. Este artigo mostra dois desses mitos relacionados com os motivos que se costumam apontar para incluir a Natureza da Ciência no ensino das ciências, como sejam a suposta relação entre a prática docente e as crenças sobre a Natureza da Ciência, e a crença de que a sua compreensão é um fator chave na hora de tomar melhores decisões cívicas em questões tecnocientíficas de interesse social. A análise que se apresenta realizou-se mediante a revisão de diversos resultados de investigações procedentes da própria Didática das Ciências e também da Psicologia das Decisões. A conclusão aponta para considerar que outros fatores influenciam mais, tornando muito menos lineares essas hipotéticas relações do que alguns especialistas pensam e mais complexa a problemática abordada.In some situations Science Education transmits as myths various beliefs as myths that are not enough sustained by the research in its own domain. This paper shows two of these myths related to the reasons usually pointed in orderfor includinge the Nature of Science in science teaching:, such as the supposed relationship between the educational practice and the beliefs about the Nature of Science, and also the belief that its understanding of the Nature of Science is a key factor in when making better civicdecisions as citizens in technical socioscientific oscientific issues. with social interest The analysis was carried out by means of athe review of several results from the own Science Education Research, and also from the Psychology of Decisions. The conclusion seems to be clear: other factors are of a greater influence, making those hypothetical relations much less linear than some experts wcould think, and making the questions much more complex. the presented question.

  13. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  14. Instrumentation for tomograph positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenkel, A.D.B.; Castello Branco, L.M.; Reznik, D.S.; Santos, C.A.C.; Borges, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The COPPE's Nuclear Instrumentation Lab. has been developing researches directed towards the implementation of a Computer-Based Tomography System. Basically, the system reported in this paper can be divided into three major parts: the mechanical part, responsible for the physical movement (Stepper-Motors, table, etc.); the electronic part, which controls the mechanical part and handles the data-acquisition process (microcomputer, interfaces, etc.); and finally, the support of a software-oriented system, including control programs and information processing routines. (Author) [pt

  15. Astronomical Instruments in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  16. A GC Instrument Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, D. Bruce

    1999-02-01

    This simulator was developed to help students beginning the study of gas chromatographic instruments to understand their operation. It is not meant to teach chromatographic theory. The instrument simulator is divided into 5 sections. One is for sample preparation. Another is used to manage carrier gases and choose a detector and column. The third sets the conditions for either isothermal or programmed temperature operation. A fourth section models manual injections, and the fifth is the autosampler. The operator has a choice among 6 columns of differing diameters and packing polarities and a choice of either isothermal or simple one-stage temperature programming. The simulator can be operated in either single-sample mode or as a 10-sample autosampler. The integrator has two modes of operation, a "dumb" mode in which only the retention time, area of the peak, and percentage area are listed and a "smart" mode that also lists the components' identities. The identities are obtained from a list of names and retention times created by the operator. Without this list only the percentages and areas are listed. The percentages are based on the areas obtained from the chromatogram and not on the actual percentages assigned during sample preparation. The data files for the compounds used in the simulator are ASCII files and can be edited easily to add more compounds than the 11 included with the simulator. A maximum of 10 components can be used in any one sample. Sample mixtures can be made on a percent-by-volume basis, but not by mass of sample per volume of solvent. A maximum of 30 compounds can be present in any one file, but the number of files is limited only by the operating system. (I suggest that not more than 20 compounds be used in any one file, as scrolling through large numbers of compounds is annoying to say the least.) File construction and layout are discussed in detail in the User's Manual. Chromatograms are generated by calculating a retention time based on

  17. Troubleshooting in nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This report on troubleshooting of nuclear instruments is the product of several scientists and engineers, who are closely associated with nuclear instrumentation and with the IAEA activities in the field. The text covers the following topics: Preamplifiers, amplifiers, scalers, timers, ratemeters, multichannel analyzers, dedicated instruments, tools, instruments, accessories, components, skills, interfaces, power supplies, preventive maintenance, troubleshooting in systems, radiation detectors. The troubleshooting and repair of instruments is illustrated by some real examples

  18. Advances in instrumentation at the W. M. Keck Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Sean M.; Armandroff, Taft E.; Johnson, James; Lewis, Hilton A.; Martin, Christopher; McLean, Ian S.; Wizinowich, Peter

    2012-09-01

    In this paper we describe both recently completed instrumentation projects and our current development efforts in terms of their role in the strategic plan, the key science areas they address, and their performance as measured or predicted. Projects reaching completion in 2012 include MOSFIRE, a near IR multi-object spectrograph, a laser guide star adaptive optics facility on the Keck I telescope, and an upgrade to the guide camera for the HIRES instrument on Keck I. Projects in development include a new seeing limited integral field spectrograph for the visible wavelength range called the Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI), an upgrade to the telescope control systems on both Keck telescopes, a near-IR tip/tilt sensor for the Keck I adaptive optics system, and a new grating for the OSIRIS integral field spectrograph.

  19. A Systematic Review of Instruments to Assess Organizational Readiness for Knowledge Translation in Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Attieh, Randa; Ghandour, El Kebir; Légaré, France; Ouimet, Mathieu; Estabrooks, Carole A.; Grimshaw, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Background The translation of research into practices has been incomplete. Organizational readiness for change (ORC) is a potential facilitator of effective knowledge translation (KT). However we know little about the best way to assess ORC. Therefore, we sought to systematically review ORC measurement instruments. Methods We searched for published studies in bibliographic databases (Pubmed, Embase, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Web of Science, etc.) up to November 1st, 2012. We included publications that developed ORC measures and/or empirically assessed ORC using an instrument at the organizational level in the health care context. We excluded articles if they did not refer specifically to ORC, did not concern the health care domain or were limited to individual-level change readiness. We focused on identifying the psychometric properties of instruments that were developed to assess readiness in an organization prior to implementing KT interventions in health care. We used the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing to assess the psychometric properties of identified ORC measurement instruments. Findings We found 26 eligible instruments described in 39 publications. According to the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 18 (69%) of a total of 26 measurement instruments presented both validity and reliability criteria. The Texas Christian University –ORC (TCU-ORC) scale reported the highest instrument validity with a score of 4 out of 4. Only one instrument, namely the Modified Texas Christian University – Director version (TCU-ORC-D), reported a reliability score of 2 out of 3. No information was provided regarding the reliability and validity of five (19%) instruments. Conclusion Our findings indicate that there are few valid and reliable ORC measurement instruments that could be applied to KT in the health care sector. The TCU-ORC instrument presents the best evidence in terms of validity testing. Future studies using this instrument could

  20. A systematic review of instruments to assess organizational readiness for knowledge translation in health care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre Gagnon

    Full Text Available The translation of research into practices has been incomplete. Organizational readiness for change (ORC is a potential facilitator of effective knowledge translation (KT. However we know little about the best way to assess ORC. Therefore, we sought to systematically review ORC measurement instruments.We searched for published studies in bibliographic databases (Pubmed, Embase, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Web of Science, etc. up to November 1st, 2012. We included publications that developed ORC measures and/or empirically assessed ORC using an instrument at the organizational level in the health care context. We excluded articles if they did not refer specifically to ORC, did not concern the health care domain or were limited to individual-level change readiness. We focused on identifying the psychometric properties of instruments that were developed to assess readiness in an organization prior to implementing KT interventions in health care. We used the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing to assess the psychometric properties of identified ORC measurement instruments.We found 26 eligible instruments described in 39 publications. According to the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 18 (69% of a total of 26 measurement instruments presented both validity and reliability criteria. The Texas Christian University -ORC (TCU-ORC scale reported the highest instrument validity with a score of 4 out of 4. Only one instrument, namely the Modified Texas Christian University - Director version (TCU-ORC-D, reported a reliability score of 2 out of 3. No information was provided regarding the reliability and validity of five (19% instruments.Our findings indicate that there are few valid and reliable ORC measurement instruments that could be applied to KT in the health care sector. The TCU-ORC instrument presents the best evidence in terms of validity testing. Future studies using this instrument could provide more knowledge on its

  1. Instrumentation for PIXE and RBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to give an overview of instrumentation for PIXE and Rutherford backscattering analysis, including hardware and software needed to perform the analysis, including detectors, analyzers, data acquisition systems and data analysis software. It also provides some information on accelerators needed for these applications

  2. The 2007 ESO Instrument Calibration Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufer, Andreas; ESO Workshop

    2008-01-01

    The 2007 ESO Instrument Calibration workshop brought together more than 120 participants with the objective to a) foster the sharing of information, experience and techniques between observers, instrument developers and instrument operation teams, b) review the actual precision and limitations of the applied instrument calibration plans, and c) collect the current and future requirements by the ESO users. These present proceedings include the majority of the workshop’s contributions and document the status quo of instrument calibration at ESO in large detail. Topics covered are: Optical Spectro-Imagers, Optical Multi-Object Spectrographs, NIR and MIR Spectro-Imagers, High-Resolution Spectrographs, Integral Field Spectrographs, Adaptive Optics Instruments, Polarimetric Instruments, Wide Field Imagers, Interferometric Instruments as well as other crucial aspects such as data flow, quality control, data reduction software and atmospheric effects. It was stated in the workshop that "calibration is a life-long l...

  3. Economic instruments for environmental mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, A.

    1995-01-01

    A joint International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)/World Energy Council (WEC) Working Group has been studying a range of policy instruments which are being used or considered for use to address the question of ever increasing energy demand versus environmental protection, and pollution reduction. Economic instruments for such environmental protection include direct regulation, market-based instruments, and voluntary approaches. No single policy or device was likely to suffice in addressing the diversity of environmental problems currently faced. Altering energy prices must be seen in a social context, but some direct regulation may also be inevitable. Generally economic instruments of change were preferred as these were viewed as more flexible and cost-effective. (UK)

  4. Intelligent instrumentation principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuyan, Manabendra

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of microprocessors and digital-processing technologies as catalyst, classical sensors capable of simple signal conditioning operations have evolved rapidly to take on higher and more specialized functions including validation, compensation, and classification. This new category of sensor expands the scope of incorporating intelligence into instrumentation systems, yet with such rapid changes, there has developed no universal standard for design, definition, or requirement with which to unify intelligent instrumentation. Explaining the underlying design methodologies of intelligent instrumentation, Intelligent Instrumentation: Principles and Applications provides a comprehensive and authoritative resource on the scientific foundations from which to coordinate and advance the field. Employing a textbook-like language, this book translates methodologies to more than 80 numerical examples, and provides applications in 14 case studies for a complete and working understanding of the material. Beginn...

  5. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  6. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    can empower performers by producing super instrument works that allow the concert instrument to become an ensemble controlled by a single player. The existing instrumental skills of the performer can be multiplied and the qualities of regular acoustic instruments extended or modified. Such a situation......The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...... have become interested in different ways of “supersizing” acoustic instruments in order to open up previously-unheard instrumental sounds. Super instruments vary a great deal but each has a transformative effect on the identity and performance practice of the performing musician. Furthermore, composers...

  7. THOR Ion Mass Spectrometer instrument - IMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retinò, Alessandro; Kucharek, Harald; Saito, Yoshifumi; Fraenz, Markus; Verdeil, Christophe; Leblanc, Frederic; Techer, Jean-Denis; Jeandet, Alexis; Macri, John; Gaidos, John; Granoff, Mark; Yokota, Shoichiro; Fontaine, Dominique; Berthomier, Matthieu; Delcourt, Dominique; Kistler, Lynn; Galvin, Antoniette; Kasahara, Satoshi; Kronberg, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. Specifically, THOR will study how turbulent fluctuations at kinetic scales heat and accelerate particles in different turbulent environments within the near-Earth space. To achieve this goal, THOR payload is being designed to measure electromagnetic fields and particle distribution functions with unprecedented resolution and accuracy. Here we present the Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) instrument that will measure the full three-dimensional distribution functions of near-Earth main ion species (H+, He+, He++ and O+) at high time resolution (~ 150 ms for H+ , ~ 300 ms for He++) with energy resolution down to ~ 10% in the range 10 eV/q to 30 keV/q and angular resolution ~ 10°. Such high time resolution is achieved by mounting multiple sensors around the spacecraft body, in similar fashion to the MMS/FPI instrument. Each sensor combines a top-hat electrostatic analyzer with deflectors at the entrance together with a time-of-flight section to perform mass selection. IMS electronics includes a fast sweeping high voltage board that is required to make measurements at high cadence. Ion detection includes Micro Channel Plates (MCP) combined with Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) for charge amplification, discrimination and time-to-digital conversion (TDC). IMS is being designed to address many of THOR science requirements, in particular ion heating and acceleration by turbulent fluctuations in foreshock, shock and magnetosheath regions. The IMS instrument is being designed and will be built by an international consortium of scientific institutes with main hardware contributions from France, USA, Japan and Germany.

  8. Aspects of science engagement, student background, and school characteristics: Impacts on science achievement of U.S. students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabau, Larry J.

    Science achievement of U.S. students has lagged significantly behind other nations; educational reformers have suggested science engagement may enhance this critical measure. The 2006 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) was science-focused and measured science achievement along with nine aspects of science engagement: science self-efficacy, science self-concept, enjoyment of science, general interest in learning science, instrumental motivation for science, future-oriented science motivation, general value of science, personal value of science, and science-related activities. I used multilevel modeling techniques to address both aspects of science engagement and science achievement as outcome variables in the context of student background and school characteristics. Treating aspects of science engagement as outcome variables provided tests for approaches for their enhancement; meanwhile, treating science achievement as the outcome variable provided tests for the influence of the aspects of science engagement on science achievement under appropriate controls. When aspects of science engagement were treated as outcome variables, gender and father's SES had frequent (significant) influences, as did science teaching strategies which focused on applications or models and hands-on activities over-and-above influences of student background and other school characteristics. When science achievement was treated as the outcome variable, each aspect of science engagement was significant, and eight had medium or large effect sizes (future-oriented science motivation was the exception). The science teaching strategy which involved hands-on activities frequently enhanced science achievement over-and-above influences of student background and other school characteristics. Policy recommendations for U.S. science educators included enhancing eight aspects of science engagement and implementing two specific science teaching strategies (focus on applications or models

  9. Pre- and In-Service Preschool Teachers' Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Durmus; Tas, Isil; Ogul, Irem Gürgah

    2016-01-01

    In this study, pre- and in-service preschool teachers' science teaching efficacy beliefs were investigated. The sample included 100 pre-service (50 first grades and 50 last grades) and 73 in-service preschool teachers. As a data collection tool "Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument" was used. Findings indicated that in-service…

  10. The Development and Evaluation of a Computer-Simulated Science Inquiry Environment Using Gamified Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fu-Hsing

    2018-01-01

    This study developed a computer-simulated science inquiry environment, called the Science Detective Squad, to engage students in investigating an electricity problem that may happen in daily life. The environment combined the simulation of scientific instruments and a virtual environment, including gamified elements, such as points and a story for…

  11. The Human Factor in Innovation and Productivity Including an Analysis of Hearings on the Human Factor. Report by the Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology, Transmitted to the Committee on Science and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session. Serial FF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Science and Technology.

    The House Committee on Science and Technology, Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology, sponsored an American Association for the Advancement of Science seminar (July 28, 1981) and 6 days of hearings (September 9-17, 1981) on "The Human Factor in Innovation and Productivity." These hearings were designed to increase knowledge…

  12. New Hubble Servicing Mission to upgrade instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    The history of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope is dominated by the familiar sharp images and amazing discoveries that have had an unprecedented scientific impact on our view of the world and our understanding of the universe. Nevertheless, such important contributions to science and humankind have only been possible as result of regular upgrades and enhancements to Hubble’s instrumentation. Using the Space Shuttle for this fifth Servicing Mission underlines the important role that astronauts have played and continue to play in increasing the Space Telescope’s lifespan and scientific power. Since the loss of Columbia in 2003, the Shuttle has been successfully launched on three missions, confirming that improvements made to it have established the required high level of safety for the spacecraft and its crew. “There is never going to be an end to the science that we can do with a machine like Hubble”, says David Southwood, ESA’s Director of Science. “Hubble is our way of exploring our origins. Everyone should be proud that there is a European element to it and that we all are part of its success at some level.” This Servicing Mission will not just ensure that Hubble can function for perhaps as much as another ten years; it will also increase its capabilities significantly in key areas. This highly visible mission is expected to take place in 2008 and will feature several space walks. As part of the upgrade, two new scientific instruments will be installed: the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph and Wide Field Camera 3. Each has advanced technology sensors that will dramatically improve Hubble’s potential for discovery and enable it to observe faint light from the youngest stars and galaxies in the universe. With such an astounding increase in its science capabilities, this orbital observatory will continue to penetrate the most distant regions of outer space and reveal breathtaking phenomena. “Today, Hubble is producing more science than ever before in

  13. An overview of instrumentation for the Large Binocular Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R. Mark

    2012-09-01

    An overview of instrumentation for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) is presented. Optical instrumentation includes the Large Binocular Camera (LBC), a pair of wide-field (27' x 27') mosaic CCD imagers at the prime focus, and the Multi-Object Double Spectrograph (MODS), a pair of dual-beam blue-red optimized long-slit spectrographs mounted at the left and right direct F/15 Gregorian foci incorporating multiple slit masks for multi-object spectroscopy over a 6' field and spectral resolutions of up to 2000. Infrared instrumentation includes the LBT Near-IR Spectroscopic Utility with Camera and Integral Field Unit for Extragalactic Research (LUCI), a modular near-infrared (0.9-2.5 μm) imager and spectrograph pair mounted at the left and right front bent F/15 Gregorian foci and designed for seeing-limited (FOV: 4' × 4') imaging, long-slit spectroscopy, and multiobject spectroscopy utilizing cooled slit masks and diffraction limited (FOV: 0'.5 × 0'.5) imaging and long-slit spectroscopy. Strategic instruments under development that can utilize the full 23-m baseline of the LBT include an interferometric cryogenic beam combiner with near-infrared and thermal-infrared instruments for Fizeau imaging and nulling interferometry (LBTI) and an optical bench near-infrared beam combiner utilizing multi-conjugate adaptive optics for high angular resolution and sensitivity (LINC-NIRVANA). LBTI is currently undergoing commissioning on the LBT and utilizing the installed adaptive secondary mirrors in both single- sided and two-sided beam combination modes. In addition, a fiber-fed bench spectrograph (PEPSI) capable of ultra high resolution spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry (R = 40,000-300,000) will be available as a principal investigator instrument. Over the past four years the LBC pair, LUCI1, and MODS1 have been commissioned and are now scheduled for routine partner science observations. The delivery of both LUCI2 and MODS2 is anticipated before the end of 2012. The

  14. Advanced neutron instrumentation at FRM-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, Winfried

    2003-01-01

    The construction of the new German high flux neutron source FRM-II is finished and FRM-II is waiting for its licence to start nuclear operation. With the beginning of the routine operation 22 instruments will be in action, including 5 irradiation facilities and 17 beam tube instruments, most of them use neutron scattering techniques. Additional instruments are under construction. Some of these instruments are unique, others are expected to be the best of their kind, all instruments are based on innovative techniques. (author)

  15. Materials sciences programs, Fiscal year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Division of Materials Sciences is responsible for basic research and research facilities in materials science topics important to the mission of the Department of Energy. The programmatic divisions under the Office of Basic Energy Sciences are Chemical Sciences, Engineering and Geosciences, and Energy Biosciences. Materials Science is an enabling technology. The performance parameters, economics, environmental acceptability and safety of all energy generation, conversion, transmission and conservation technologies are limited by the properties and behavior of materials. The Materials Sciences programs develop scientific understanding of the synergistic relationship among synthesis, processing, structure, properties, behavior, performance and other characteristics of materials. Emphasis is placed on the development of the capability to discover technologically, economically, and environmentally desirable new materials and processes, and the instruments and national user facilities necessary for achieving such progress. Materials Sciences subfields include: physical metallurgy, ceramics, polymers, solid state and condensed matter physics, materials chemistry, surface science and related disciplines where the emphasis is on the science of materials. This report includes program descriptions for 517 research programs including 255 at 14 DOE National Laboratories, 262 research grants (233 of which are at universities), and 29 Small Business Innovation Research Grants. Five cross-cutting indices located at the rear of this book identify all 517 programs according to principal investigator(s), materials, techniques, phenomena, and environment.

  16. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  17. A selective review of the first 20 years of instrumental variables models in health-services research and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John

    2015-01-01

    The method of instrumental variables (IV) is useful for estimating causal effects. Intuitively, it exploits exogenous variation in the treatment, sometimes called natural experiments or instruments. This study reviews the literature in health-services research and medical research that applies the method of instrumental variables, documents trends in its use, and offers examples of various types of instruments. A literature search of the PubMed and EconLit research databases for English-language journal articles published after 1990 yielded a total of 522 original research articles. Citations counts for each article were derived from the Web of Science. A selective review was conducted, with articles prioritized based on number of citations, validity and power of the instrument, and type of instrument. The average annual number of papers in health services research and medical research that apply the method of instrumental variables rose from 1.2 in 1991-1995 to 41.8 in 2006-2010. Commonly-used instruments (natural experiments) in health and medicine are relative distance to a medical care provider offering the treatment and the medical care provider's historic tendency to administer the treatment. Less common but still noteworthy instruments include randomization of treatment for reasons other than research, randomized encouragement to undertake the treatment, day of week of admission as an instrument for waiting time for surgery, and genes as an instrument for whether the respondent has a heritable condition. The use of the method of IV has increased dramatically in the past 20 years, and a wide range of instruments have been used. Applications of the method of IV have in several cases upended conventional wisdom that was based on correlations and led to important insights about health and healthcare. Future research should pursue new applications of existing instruments and search for new instruments that are powerful and valid.

  18. Spacelab Science Results Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, R. J.; Lundquist, C. A.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Horwitz, J. L.; Germany, G. A.; Cruise, J. F.; Lewis, M. L.; Murphy, K. L.

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with OSTA-1 in November 1981 and ending with Neurolab in March 1998, a total of 36 Shuttle missions carried various Spacelab components such as the Spacelab module, pallet, instrument pointing system, or mission peculiar experiment support structure. The experiments carried out during these flights included astrophysics, solar physics, plasma physics, atmospheric science, Earth observations, and a wide range of microgravity experiments in life sciences, biotechnology, materials science, and fluid physics which includes combustion and critical point phenomena. In all, some 764 experiments were conducted by investigators from the U.S., Europe, and Japan. The purpose of this Spacelab Science Results Study is to document the contributions made in each of the major research areas by giving a brief synopsis of the more significant experiments and an extensive list of the publications that were produced. We have also endeavored to show how these results impacted the existing body of knowledge, where they have spawned new fields, and if appropriate, where the knowledge they produced has been applied.

  19. Declarative flow control for distributed instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvin, Bahram; Taylor, John; Fontenay, Gerald; Callahan, Daniel

    2001-06-01

    We have developed a 'microscopy channel' to advertise a unique set of on-line scientific instruments and to let users join a particular session, perform an experiment, collaborate with other users, and collect data for further analysis. The channel is a collaborative problem solving environment (CPSE) that allows for both synchronous and asynchronous collaboration, as well as flow control for enhanced scalability. The flow control is a declarative feature that enhances software functionality at the experimental scale. Our testbed includes several unique electron and optical microscopes with applications ranging from material science to cell biology. We have built a system that leverages current commercial CORBA services, Web Servers, and flow control specifications to meet diverse requirements for microscopy and experimental protocols. In this context, we have defined and enhanced Instrument Services (IS), Exchange Services (ES), Computational Services (CS), and Declarative Services (DS) that sit on top of CORBA and its enabling services (naming, trading, security, and notification) IS provides a layer of abstraction for controlling any type of microscope. ES provides a common set of utilities for information management and transaction. CS provides the analytical capabilities needed for online microscopy. DS provides mechanisms for flow control for improving the dynamic behavior of the system.

  20. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  1. Nuclear reactor instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncombe, E.; McGonigal, G.

    1975-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor is described which has an equal number of fuel sub-assemblies and sensing instruments. Each instrument senses temperature and rate of coolant flow of a coolant derived from a group of three sub-assemblies so that an abnormal value for one sub-assembly will be indicated on three instruments thereby providing for redundancy of up to two of the three instruments. The abnormal value may be a precurser to unstable boiling of coolant

  2. Review Statement and Evaluation of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co's RDandD Programme 2004. Programme for Research, Development and Demonstration of Methods for the Management and Disposal of Nuclear Waste, including Social Science Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    verify the models in time prior to a licence application. Furthermore, the authorities assume that more long-term biosphere issues are being taken into account in SKB's new plan of action. - In its biosphere research, SKB should take into account the possibility of using radionuclide concentrations and flows as complementary safety indicators. - SKB should more clearly explain how it will ensure that studied climate scenarios will shed light on the most important climate-related stresses on the barrier function. - It is justifiable for the research conducted by SKB and Sweden in the area of PandT to maintain its current level so that international developments can be followed and to maintain and develop scientific and technical expertise in areas of importance for nuclear safety. - A clarification of the account of deep boreholes prior to the ultimate choice of a method and prior to licensing under the Environmental Code is needed. A comparison should be made with the KBS-3 method which utilizes safety assessment methodology including simple calculations. - SKB needs to intensify the work on decommissioning issues and in order to present detailed plans and considerations in RDandD Programme 2007. - SKB should investigate the shortest time required for the start of a licensing process for the disposal of decommissioning waste. - In the next RDandD programme, SKB should provide a more detailed description of the programme for long-lived low and intermediate-level waste. - SKB should take into account the viewpoint that long-term interim storage of waste while waiting for the construction of a repository should, as far as possible, be avoided and take this into consideration in its planning. - It is positive that SKB has incorporated social science research into its programme, since the findings from the research should be useful for the stakeholders to apply the research findings in ongoing and future consultation processes for an encapsulation plant and repository

  3. Review Statement and Evaluation of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co's RDandD Programme 2004. Programme for Research, Development and Demonstration of Methods for the Management and Disposal of Nuclear Waste, including Social Science Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    verify the models in time prior to a licence application. Furthermore, the authorities assume that more long-term biosphere issues are being taken into account in SKB's new plan of action. - In its biosphere research, SKB should take into account the possibility of using radionuclide concentrations and flows as complementary safety indicators. - SKB should more clearly explain how it will ensure that studied climate scenarios will shed light on the most important climate-related stresses on the barrier function. - It is justifiable for the research conducted by SKB and Sweden in the area of PandT to maintain its current level so that international developments can be followed and to maintain and develop scientific and technical expertise in areas of importance for nuclear safety. - A clarification of the account of deep boreholes prior to the ultimate choice of a method and prior to licensing under the Environmental Code is needed. A comparison should be made with the KBS-3 method which utilizes safety assessment methodology including simple calculations. - SKB needs to intensify the work on decommissioning issues and in order to present detailed plans and considerations in RDandD Programme 2007. - SKB should investigate the shortest time required for the start of a licensing process for the disposal of decommissioning waste. - In the next RDandD programme, SKB should provide a more detailed description of the programme for long-lived low and intermediate-level waste. - SKB should take into account the viewpoint that long-term interim storage of waste while waiting for the construction of a repository should, as far as possible, be avoided and take this into consideration in its planning. - It is positive that SKB has incorporated social science research into its programme, since the findings from the research should be useful for the stakeholders to apply the research findings in ongoing and future consultation processes for an encapsulation plant and repository.

  4. Monte Carlo simulations of neutron scattering instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aestrand, Per-Olof; Copenhagen Univ.; Lefmann, K.; Nielsen, K.

    2001-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation is an important computational tool used in many areas of science and engineering. The use of Monte Carlo techniques for simulating neutron scattering instruments is discussed. The basic ideas, techniques and approximations are presented. Since the construction of a neutron scattering instrument is very expensive, Monte Carlo software used for design of instruments have to be validated and tested extensively. The McStas software was designed with these aspects in mind and some of the basic principles of the McStas software will be discussed. Finally, some future prospects are discussed for using Monte Carlo simulations in optimizing neutron scattering experiments. (R.P.)

  5. Nuclear electronic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F. J.

    2010-01-01

    The activities carried out in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in the field of the nuclear electronic instrumentation included those activities corresponding to the design and production of nuclear instruments in a first stage, as well as the internal activities of design, repair and maintenance that have supported to other projects of the institution during many years. It is mentioned of the presence and constant collaboration of the ININ with the IAEA in different projects and programs. Also, it is mentioned on the establishment of the Radiation Detectors Laboratory, which for their characteristics and repair capacities of radiation detectors of cooled semiconductor, it is only in their specialty. It is emphasized the investigation and the development in the field of new radiation detectors and applications, as well as the important contribution in this field, in institutions like: Mexican Petroleum, National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards and Federal Commission of Electricity. Finally a position of the future of these activities is made, considering the speed of the advances of the electronic and nuclear technology. (Author)

  6. New Life for Astronomical Instruments of the Past at the Astronomical Observatory of Taras Shevchenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantseva, Liliya

    2012-09-01

    Astronomical instruments of the past are certainly valuable artifacts of the history of science and education. Like other collections of scientific equipment, they also demonstrate i) development of scientific and technical ideas, ii) technological features of the historical period, iii) professional features of artists or companies -- manufacturers, and iv) national and local specificity of production. However, astronomical instruments are also devices made for observations of rare phenomena -- solar eclipses, transits of planets of the solar disk, etc. Instruments used to study these rare events were very different for each event, since the science changed quickly between events. The Astronomical Observatory of Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University has a collection of tools made by leading European and local shops from the early nineteenth century. These include tools for optically observing the first artificial Earth satellites, photography, chronometry, and meteorology. In addition, it has assembled a library of descriptions of astronomical instruments and makers'price-lists. Of particular interest are the large stationary tools that are still active in their pavilions. Almost every instrument has a long interesting history. Museification of astronomical instruments gives them a second life, expanding educational programs and tracing the development of astronomy in general and scientific institution and region in particular. It would be advisable to first create a regional database of these rare astronomical instruments (which is already being done in Ukraine), then a common global database. By combining all the historical information about astronomical instruments with the advantages of the Internet, you can show the full evolution of an astronomical instrument with all its features. Time is relentless, and much is destroyed, badly kept and thrown in the garbage. We need time to protect, capture, and tell about it.

  7. Aeroacoustics of Musical Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabre, B.; Gilbert, J.; Hirschberg, Abraham; Pelorson, X.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in the quality of sound produced by musical instruments and their playability. In wind instruments, a hydrodynamic source of sound is coupled to an acoustic resonator. Linear acoustics can predict the pitch of an instrument. This can significantly reduce the trial-and-error process

  8. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  9. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  10. Life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, L. (ed.)

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  11. Life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, L.

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs

  12. Status of safeguards instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higinbotham, W.A.

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is performing safeguards at some nuclear power reactors, 50 bulk processing facilities, and 170 research facilities. Its verification activities require the use of instruments to measure nuclear materials and of surveillance instruments to maintain continuity of knowledge of the locations of nuclear materials. Instruments that are in use and under development to measure weight, volume, concentration, and isotopic composition of nuclear materials, and the major surveillance instruments, are described in connection with their uses at representative nuclear facilities. The current status of safeguards instrumentation and the needs for future development are discussed

  13. Molecular sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The research in molecular sciences summarized includes photochemistry, radiation chemistry, geophysics, electromechanics, heavy-element oxidizers , heavy element chemistry collisions, atoms, organic solids. A list of publications is included

  14. The Ethos of Post-Normal Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kønig, Nicolas; Børsen, Tom; Emmeche, Claus

    2017-01-01

    The norms and values of Post-Normal Science (PNS) are instrumental in guiding science advice practices. In this article, we report work in progress to systematically investigate the norms and values of PNS through a structured review. Anarchive of 397 documents was collected, including documents...... that contribute to the endeavour of ameliorating science advice practices from a PNS perspective. Action and structure-oriented viewpoints are used as complementing perspectives in the analysis of the ethos of PNS. From the action-perspective we study how prototypes of norms and values are reflected upon...... in negotiations of normative issues relating to science advice. From the structural perspective we study how interrelated prototypes of norms and values are presupposed in prescriptions, proscriptions, and goals for science advice practices. Through this analysis we identify a plurality of interrelated prototypes...

  15. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  16. BOMBAY: Instrumentation school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Promising students had a foretaste of the latest laboratory techniques at the ICFA 1993 India School on Instrumentation in High Energy Physics held from February 15-26 and hosted by the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Bombay. The scientific programme was put together by the ICFA Panel for Future Instrumentation, Innovation and Development, chaired by Tord Ekelof (Uppsala). The programme included lectures and topical seminars covering a wide range of detector subjects. In small groups, students got acquainted with modern detector technologies in the laboratory sessions, using experimental setups assembled in various institutes world-wide and shipped to Bombay for the School. The techniques covered included multiwire proportional chambers for detection of particles and photons, gaseous detectors for UV photons and X-ray imaging, the study of charge drift in silicon detectors, measurement of the muon lifetime using liquid scintillators, tracking using scintillating fibres, and electronics for sensitive detectors. The India School was attended by around 80 students from 20 countries; 34 came from Indian universities. It was the fifth in this series, previous Schools having been at Trieste (1987, 1989 and 1991) organized by the ICFA Panel and hosted and sponsored by the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, and in 1990, organized at Rio de Janeiro in collaboration with the Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas. The School was jointly directed by Suresh Tonwar (TIFR), Fabio Sauli (CERN) and Marleigh Sheaff (University of Wisconsin), and sponsored by TIFR and DAE (India), CERN (Switzerland), ICTP and INFN (Italy), British Council and RAL (UK), NSF and DOE (USA), KEK (Japan), IPP (Canada) and DESY (Germany)

  17. From Landsat through SLI: Ball Aerospace Instrument Architecture for Earth Surface Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, P. R.; Gilmore, A. S.; Malone, K. J.; Kampe, T. U.; Good, W. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Landsat legacy spans more than forty years of moderate resolution, multi-spectral imaging of the Earth's surface. Applications for Landsat data include global environmental change, disaster planning and recovery, crop and natural resource management, and glaciology. In recent years, coastal water science has been greatly enhanced by the outstanding on-orbit performance of Landsat 8. Ball Aerospace designed and built the Operational Land Imager (OLI) instrument on Landsat 8, and is in the process of building OLI 2 for Landsat 9. Both of these instruments have the same design however improved performance is expected from OLI 2 due to greater image bit depth (14 bit on OLI 2 vs 12 bit on OLI). Ball Aerospace is currently working on two novel instrument architectures applicable to Sustainable Land Imaging for Landsat 10 and beyond. With increased budget constraints probable for future missions, technological improvements must be included in future instrument architectures to enable increased capabilities at lower cost. Ball presents the instrument architectures and associated capabilities enabling new science in past, current, and future Landsat missions.

  18. Literature Review of Multicultural Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraj, Huda; Carter, Stacy; Burley, Hansel

    2015-01-01

    Demographic changes at the national level emphasize a critical need for multicultural education to be included as part of undergraduate education. This critical review of the literature examines 10 multicultural instruments that are suitable for use in K-12 or higher education institutions. This is a novel literature review in that it is the first…

  19. Proceedings of national symposium on advanced instrumentation for nuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The National Symposium on Advanced Instrumentation for Nuclear Research was held in Bombay during January 27-29, 1993 at BARC. Progress of modern nuclear research is closely related to the availability of state of the art instruments and systems. With the advancements in experimental techniques and sophisticated detector developments, the performance specifications have become more stringent. State of the art techniques and diverse applications of sophisticated nuclear instrumentation systems are discussed along with indigenous efforts to meet the specific instrumentation needs of research programs in nuclear sciences. Papers of relevance to nuclear science and technology are indexed separately. (original)

  20. WFIRST: Update on the Coronagraph Science Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Ewan S.; Cahoy, Kerri; Carlton, Ashley; Macintosh, Bruce; Turnbull, Margaret; Kasdin, Jeremy; WFIRST Coronagraph Science Investigation Teams

    2018-01-01

    The WFIRST Coronagraph instrument (CGI) will enable direct imaging and low resolution spectroscopy of exoplanets in reflected light and imaging polarimetry of circumstellar disks. The CGI science investigation teams were tasked with developing a set of science requirements which advance our knowledge of exoplanet occurrence and atmospheric composition, as well as the composition and morphology of exozodiacal debris disks, cold Kuiper Belt analogs, and protoplanetary systems. We present the initial content, rationales, validation, and verification plans for the WFIRST CGI, informed by detailed and still-evolving instrument and observatory performance models. We also discuss our approach to the requirements development and management process, including the collection and organization of science inputs, open source approach to managing the requirements database, and the range of models used for requirements validation. These tools can be applied to requirements development processes for other astrophysical space missions, and may ease their management and maintenance. These WFIRST CGI science requirements allow the community to learn about and provide insights and feedback on the expected instrument performance and science return.

  1. An introduction to biomedical instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Dewhurst, D J

    1976-01-01

    An Introduction to Biomedical Instrumentation presents a course of study and applications covering the basic principles of medical and biological instrumentation, as well as the typical features of its design and construction. The book aims to aid not only the cognitive domain of the readers, but also their psychomotor domain as well. Aside from the seminar topics provided, which are divided into 27 chapters, the book complements these topics with practical applications of the discussions. Figures and mathematical formulas are also given. Major topics discussed include the construction, handli

  2. 18 CFR 367.1750 - Account 175, Derivative instrument assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the corresponding amount of the change in the fair value of the derivative instrument. ... instrument assets. This account must include the amounts paid for derivative instruments, and the change in the fair value of all derivative instrument assets not designated as cash flow or fair value hedges...

  3. Proceedings of the 38th international instrumentation symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, S.H.; Smith, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    This volume covers the proceedings of a symposium on instrumentation within the Aerospace and Test Measurement Divisions of the Instrument Society of America. Topics covered included: PC control in turbine engine testing, energy measurement of high proton beams, instrumentation for sampling related to the US clean Air Act, and instrumentation for monitoring in-reactor severe fuel damage tests

  4. Report of the Instrumentation Service - Annex C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikic, N.; Majstorovic, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the tasks and organizational structure of the Instrumentation service. The most important task of this Service is control and maintenance of the reactor control and protection instruments, operation control, and dosimetry system. Besides data about this basic instrumentation, the report includes data about control and maintenance of other electronic equipment, inspection of the reactor vessel and spent fuel storage pool and describes activities related to renewal of the equipment [sr

  5. Report of the Instrumentation Service - Annex C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikic, N.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the tasks and organizational structure of the Instrumentation service. The most important task of this Service is control and maintenance of the reactor control and protection instruments, operation control, and dosimetry system. Besides data about this basic instrumentation, the report includes data about control and maintenance of other electronic equipment, inspection of the reactor vessel and spent fuel storage pool and describes activities related control and maintenace of the experimental devices [sr

  6. Report of the Instrumentation Service - Annex C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikic, N.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the tasks and organizational structure of the Instrumentation service. The most important task of this Service is control and maintenance of the reactor control and protection instruments, operation control, and dosimetry system. Besides data about this basic instrumentation, the report includes data about control and maintenance of other electronic equipment, inspection of the reactor vessel and spent fuel storage pool and describes activities related control and maintenace of the experimental devices [sr

  7. Report of the Instrumentation Service - Annex C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majstorovic, D.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the tasks and organizational structure of the Instrumentation service. The most important task of this Service is control and maintenance of the reactor control and protection instruments, operation control, and dosimetry system. Besides data about this basic instrumentation, the report includes data about control and maintenance of other electronic equipment, inspection of the reactor vessel and spent fuel storage pool and describes activities related to renewal of the equipment [sr

  8. Report of the Instrumentation Service - Annex C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majstorovic, D.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the tasks and organizational structure of the Instrumentation service. The most important task of this Service is control and maintenance of the reactor control and protection instruments, operation control, and dosimetry system. Besides data about this basic instrumentation, the report includes data about control and maintenance of other electronic equipment, inspection of the reactor vessel and spent fuel storage pool and describes activities related to renewal of the equipment [sr

  9. Increasing Laser Stability with Improved Electronic Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Daylin; Bennett, Aaron; Erickson, Christopher J.; Jones, Tyler; Durfee, Dallin S.

    2010-03-01

    We present several electronic instruments developed to implement an ultra-stable laser lock. These instruments include a high speed, low noise homodyne photo-detector; an ultrahigh stability, low noise current driver with high modulation bandwidth and digital control; a high-speed, low noise PID controller; a low-noise piezo driver; and a laser diode temperature controller. We will present the theory of operation for these instruments, design and construction techniques, and essential characteristics for each device.

  10. Development of the evaluation instrument use CIPP on the implementation of project assessment topic optik

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaroh, Jati Aurum; Rosana, Dadan; Supahar

    2017-08-01

    This research aims to develop an evaluation instrument models CIPP valid and reliable as well as determine the feasibility and practicality of an evaluation instrument models CIPP. An evaluation instrument models CIPP to evaluate the implementation of the project assessment topic optik to measure problem-solving skills of junior high school class VIII in the Yogyakarta region. This research is a model of development that uses 4-D. Subject of product trials are students in class VIII SMP N 1 Galur and SMP N 1 Sleman. Data collection techniques in this research using non-test techniques include interviews, questionnaires and observations. Validity in this research was analyzed using V'Aikens. Reliability analyzed using ICC. This research uses 7 raters are derived from two lecturers expert (expert judgment), two practitioners (science teacher) and three colleagues. The results of this research is the evaluation's instrument model of CIPP is used to evaluate the implementation of the implementation of the project assessment instruments. The validity result of evaluation instrument have V'Aikens values between 0.86 to 1, which means a valid and 0.836 reliability values into categories so well that it has been worth used as an evaluation instrument.

  11. Refabricated and instrumented fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, K.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel for power reactors capabilities evaluation is strongly based on the intimate knowledge of its behaviour under irradiation. This knowledge can be acquired from refabricated and instrumented fuel rods irradiated at different levels in commercial reactors. This paper presents the development and qualification of a new technique called RECTO related to a double-instrumented rod re-fabrication process developed by CEA/LECA hot laboratory facility at CADARACHE. The technique development includes manufacturing of the properly dimensioned cavity in the fuel pellet stack to house the thermocouple and the use of a newly designed pressure transducer. An analytic irradiation of such a double-instrumented fuel rod will be performed in OSIRIS test reactor starting October 2004. (Author)

  12. HTGR Measurements and Instrumentation Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, Sydney J.; Holcomb, David Eugene; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit

    2012-01-01

    This report provides an integrated overview of measurements and instrumentation for near-term future high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Instrumentation technology has undergone revolutionary improvements since the last HTGR was constructed in the United States. This report briefly describes the measurement and communications needs of HTGRs for normal operations, maintenance and inspection, fuel fabrication, and accident response. The report includes a description of modern communications technologies and also provides a potential instrumentation communications architecture designed for deployment at an HTGR. A principal focus for the report is describing new and emerging measurement technologies with high potential to improve operations, maintenance, and accident response for the next generation of HTGRs, known as modular HTGRs, which are designed with passive safety features. Special focus is devoted toward describing the failure modes of the measurement technologies and assessing the technology maturity.

  13. Report of the 1983 NSAC Instrumentation Subcommittee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This report deals with the present state and future opportunities in instrumentation available to nuclear scientists in the United States to further probe the nature of nuclear matter. The report was written by a group convened by DOE/NSF as a subcommittee of the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC). Findings and recommendations of the subcommittee are detailed

  14. CAMAC instrumentation system: introduction and general description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costrell, L.

    1976-01-01

    The CAMAC instrumentation system is described in a general way in this introductory paper which is followed by papers that discuss the system in greater detail. This paper is an updated version of the introductory paper that appeared in the April 1973 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science

  15. Advanced Instrumentation for Positron Emission Tomography [PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, S. E.; Budinger, T. F.

    1985-04-01

    This paper summarizes the physical processes and medical science goals that underlay modern instrumentation design for Positron Emission Tomography. The paper discusses design factors such as detector material, crystalphototube coupling, shielding geometry, sampling motion, electronics design, time-of-flight, and the interrelationships with quantitative accuracy, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, maximum data rates, and cost.

  16. Affordances of Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and accurate…

  17. Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Thomas, J.; Papanikolas, John, P.

    2011-11-11

    Frontier Research Center UNC EFRC, funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Equipment funded by this congressional award has provided important new capabilities for UNC SERC and has greatly facilitated collaborative research by many multi-institutional teams in the six partner institutions of the UNC EFRC, including Duke University, North Carolina Central University, and North Carolina State University. This state-of-the-art instrumentation has allowed us to design cutting-edge experiments that provide insight into the molecular structure and dynamics of materials and components for solar energy conversion under real working conditions. This research has resulted in ten publications already published or in preparation that acknowledge support from DOE EERE for this congressionally directed project.

  18. Instrumentation a reader

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, P

    1990-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers and articles in instrumentation previously pub­ lished in technical periodicals and journals of learned societies. Our selection has been made to illustrate aspects of current practice and applications of instrumentation. The book does not attempt to be encyclopaedic in its coverage of the subject, but to provide some examples of general transduction techniques, of the sensing of particular measurands, of components of instrumentation systems and of instrumentation practice in two very different environments, the food industry and the nuclear power industry. We have made the selection particularly to provide papers appropriate to the study of the Open University course T292 Instrumentation. The papers have been chosen so that the book covers a wide spectrum of instrumentation techniques. Because of this, the book should be of value not only to students of instrumen­ tation, but also to practising engineers and scientists wishing to glean ideas from areas of instrumen...

  19. Instrumentation for Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and coordinate nuclear instrumentation standards with resulting economies for the nuclear and radiation fields. There was particular emphasis on coordination and management of the Nuclear Instrument Module (NIM) System, U.S. activity involving the CAMAC international standard dataway system, the FASTBUS modular high-speed data acquisition and control system and processing and management of national nuclear instrumentation and detector standards, as well as a modest amount of assistance and consultation services to the Pollutant Characterization and Safety Research Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The principal accomplishments were the development and maintenance of the NIM instrumentation system that is the predominant instrumentation system in the nuclear and radiation fields worldwide, the CAMAC digital interface system in coordination with the ESONE Committee of European Laboratories, the FASTBUS high-speed system and numerous national and international nuclear instrumentation standards

  20. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  1. MEDA, The New Instrument for Mars Environment Analysis for the Mars 2020 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Alvarez, Jose F.; Pena-Godino, Antonio; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Cordoba, Elizabeth; MEDA Team

    2016-08-01

    The Mars 2020 rover mission is part of NASA's Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort of robotic exploration of the red planet. Designed to advance high-priority science goals for Mars exploration, the mission will address key questions about the potential for life on Mars. The mission will also provide opportunities to gather knowledge and demonstrate technologies that address the challenges of future human expeditions to Mars.The Mars Environmental Dynamics Analyzer (MEDA) is an integrated full suite of sensors designed to address the Mars 2020 mission objectives of characterization of dust size and morphology and surface weather measurements.MEDA system consists of one control unit and 10 separated sensor enclosures distributed in different positions along the Mars 2020 rover. MEDA is composed of an ARM-based control computer with its flight software application, two wind sensors including mixed ASICs inside, five air temperature sensors, one sky pointing camera complemented with 16 photo- detectors looking up and around, one thermal infrared sensor using five measurement bands, one relative humidity sensor, one pressure sensor and the harness that interconnects all of them. It is a complex system intended to operate in one of the harshest environments possible, the Mars surface, for many years to come.This will become a short term reality thanks to the combination of a strong international science team driving the science and system requirements working together with a powerful industrial organization to design and build the instrument. The instrument is being built right now, with its Critical Design Review at the end of 2016, and the flight model to be provided in 2018.This paper summarizes the main scientific objective of the MEDA instrument, the links between the Mission and the MEDA science objectives, and the challenging environmental Mars requirements. It will then focus on the engineered definition of the instrument, showing the overall

  2. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Science Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Science Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Sadler, Troy D.

    2016-10-01

    Self-efficacy beliefs that relate to teachers' motivation and performance have been an important area of concern for preservice teacher education. Research suggests high-quality science coursework has the potential to shape preservice teachers' science self-efficacy beliefs. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between science self-efficacy beliefs and science content knowledge. The purpose of this mixed methods study is to investigate changes in preservice teachers' science self-efficacy beliefs and science content knowledge and the relationship between the two variables as they co-evolve in a specialized science content course. Results from pre- and post-course administrations of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument-B (Bleicher, 2004) and a physical science concept test along with semi-structured interviews, classroom observations and artifacts served as data sources for the study. The 18 participants belonged to three groups representing low, medium and high initial levels of self-efficacy beliefs. A repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance design was used to test the significance of differences between the pre- and post-surveys across time. Results indicated statistically significant gains in participants' science self-efficacy beliefs and science conceptual understandings. Additionally, a positive moderate relationship between gains in science conceptual understandings and gains in personal science teaching efficacy beliefs was found. Qualitative analysis of the participants' responses indicated positive shifts in their science teacher self-image and they credited their experiences in the course as sources of new levels of confidence to teach science. The study includes implications for preservice teacher education programs, science teacher education, and research.

  3. The quality of instruments to assess the process of shared decision making: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomhof-Roordink, Hanna; Smith, Ian P.; Scholl, Isabelle; Stiggelbout, Anne M.; Pieterse, Arwen H.

    2018-01-01

    Objective To inventory instruments assessing the process of shared decision making and appraise their measurement quality, taking into account the methodological quality of their validation studies. Methods In a systematic review we searched seven databases (PubMed, Embase, Emcare, Cochrane, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Academic Search Premier) for studies investigating instruments measuring the process of shared decision making. Per identified instrument, we assessed the level of evidence separately for 10 measurement properties following a three-step procedure: 1) appraisal of the methodological quality using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist, 2) appraisal of the psychometric quality of the measurement property using three possible quality scores, 3) best-evidence synthesis based on the number of studies, their methodological and psychometrical quality, and the direction and consistency of the results. The study protocol was registered at PROSPERO: CRD42015023397. Results We included 51 articles describing the development and/or evaluation of 40 shared decision-making process instruments: 16 patient questionnaires, 4 provider questionnaires, 18 coding schemes and 2 instruments measuring multiple perspectives. There is an overall lack of evidence for their measurement quality, either because validation is missing or methods are poor. The best-evidence synthesis indicated positive results for a major part of instruments for content validity (50%) and structural validity (53%) if these were evaluated, but negative results for a major part of instruments when inter-rater reliability (47%) and hypotheses testing (59%) were evaluated. Conclusions Due to the lack of evidence on measurement quality, the choice for the most appropriate instrument can best be based on the instrument’s content and characteristics such as the perspective that they assess. We recommend refinement and validation of

  4. Comprehensive report of aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, and space science applications of the Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The research activities of the Lewis Research Center for 1988 are summarized. The projects included are within basic and applied technical disciplines essential to aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, and space science/applications. These disciplines are materials science and technology, structural mechanics, life prediction, internal computational fluid mechanics, heat transfer, instruments and controls, and space electronics.

  5. Networked Instrumentation Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have developed a networked instrumentation system that connects modern experimental payloads to existing analog and digital communications...

  6. Instrument performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.

    1993-03-01

    Deficiencies exist in both the performance and the quality of health physics instruments. Recognizing the implications of such deficiencies for the protection of workers and the public, in the early 1980s the DOE and the NRC encouraged the development of a performance standard and established a program to test a series of instruments against criteria in the standard. The purpose of the testing was to establish the practicality of the criteria in the standard, to determine the performance of a cross section of available instruments, and to establish a testing capability. Over 100 instruments were tested, resulting in a practical standard and an understanding of the deficiencies in available instruments. In parallel with the instrument testing, a value-impact study clearly established the benefits of implementing a formal testing program. An ad hoc committee also met several times to establish recommendations for the voluntary implementation of a testing program based on the studies and the performance standard. For several reasons, a formal program did not materialize. Ongoing tests and studies have supported the development of specific instruments and have helped specific clients understand the performance of their instruments. The purpose of this presentation is to trace the history of instrument testing to date and suggest the benefits of a centralized formal program

  7. [Controlling instruments in radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M

    2013-10-01

    Due to the rising costs and competitive pressures radiological clinics and practices are now facing, controlling instruments are gaining importance in the optimization of structures and processes of the various diagnostic examinations and interventional procedures. It will be shown how the use of selected controlling instruments can secure and improve the performance of radiological facilities. A definition of the concept of controlling will be provided. It will be shown which controlling instruments can be applied in radiological departments and practices. As an example, two of the controlling instruments, material cost analysis and benchmarking, will be illustrated.

  8. Ocean Optics Instrumentation Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation suites for a wide variety of measurements to characterize the ocean’s optical environment. These packages have been developed to...

  9. Wide Range Vacuum Pumps for the SAM Instrument on the MSL Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Paul; Kline-Schoder, Robert; Farley, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    Creare Incorporated and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center developed and space qualified two wide range pumps (WRPs) that were included in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument. This instrument was subsequently integrated into the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) "Curiosity Rover," launched aboard an Atlas V rocket in 2011, and landed on August 6, 2012, in the Gale Crater on Mars. The pumps have now operated for more than 18 months in the Gale Crater and have been evacuating the key components of the SAM instrument: a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a tunable laser spectrometer, and six gas chromatograph columns. In this paper, we describe the main design challenges and the ways in which they were solved. This includes the custom design of a miniaturized, high-speed motor to drive the turbo drag pump rotor, analysis of rotor dynamics for super critical operation, and bearing/lubricant design/selection.

  10. On Representative Spaceflight Instrument and Associated Instrument Sensor Web Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhner, Semion; Patel, Umeshkumar; Vootukuru, Meg

    2007-01-01

    Sensor Web-based adaptation and sharing of space flight mission resources, including those of the Space-Ground and Control-User communication segment, could greatly benefit from utilization of heritage Internet Protocols and devices applied for Spaceflight (SpaceIP). This had been successfully demonstrated by a few recent spaceflight experiments. However, while terrestrial applications of Internet protocols are well developed and understood (mostly due to billions of dollars in investments by the military and industry), the spaceflight application of Internet protocols is still in its infancy. Progress in the developments of SpaceIP-enabled instrument components will largely determine the SpaceIP utilization of those investments and acceptance in years to come. Likewise SpaceIP, the development of commercial real-time and instrument colocated computational resources, data compression and storage, can be enabled on-board a spacecraft and, in turn, support a powerful application to Sensor Web-based design of a spaceflight instrument. Sensor Web-enabled reconfiguration and adaptation of structures for hardware resources and information systems will commence application of Field Programmable Arrays (FPGA) and other aerospace programmable logic devices for what this technology was intended. These are a few obvious potential benefits of Sensor Web technologies for spaceflight applications. However, they are still waiting to be explored. This is because there is a need for a new approach to spaceflight instrumentation in order to make these mature sensor web technologies applicable for spaceflight. In this paper we present an approach in developing related and enabling spaceflight instrument-level technologies based on the new concept of a representative spaceflight Instrument Sensor Web (ISW).

  11. Teaching science through literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Daniel

    2007-12-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that a multidisciplinary, activity rich science curriculum based around science fiction literature, rather than a conventional text book would increase student engagement with the curriculum and improve student performance on standards-based test instruments. Science fiction literature was chosen upon the basis of previous educational research which indicated that science fiction literature was able to stimulate and maintain interest in science. The study was conducted on a middle school campus during the regular summer school session. Students were self-selected from the school's 6 th, 7th, and 8th grade populations. The students used the science fiction novel Maurice on the Moon as their only text. Lessons and activities closely followed the adventures of the characters in the book. The student's initial level of knowledge in Earth and space science was assessed by a pre test. After the four week program was concluded, the students took a post test made up of an identical set of questions. The test included 40 standards-based questions that were based upon concepts covered in the text of the novel and in the classroom lessons and activities. The test also included 10 general knowledge questions that were based upon Earth and space science standards that were not covered in the novel or the classroom lessons or activities. Student performance on the standards-based question set increased an average of 35% for all students in the study group. Every subgroup disaggregated by gender and ethnicity improved from 28-47%. There was no statistically significant change in the performance on the general knowledge question set for any subgroup. Student engagement with the material was assessed by three independent methods, including student self-reports, percentage of classroom work completed, and academic evaluation of student work by the instructor. These assessments of student engagement were correlated with changes in student performance

  12. SPICE: An innovative, flexible instrument concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Kenji; Cauffman, D. P.; Jurcevich, B.; Mendez, David J.; Ryder, James T.

    1994-01-01

    Studies and plans for orbital capture of cosmic dust and interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) looked very bright with the advent of space station Freedom (SSF) and formal selection of Cosmic Dust Collection Facility (CDCF) as an attached payload in 1990. Unfortunately it has been downhill since its selection, culminating in CDCF being dropped as attached payload in the SSF redesign process this year. This action was without any input from the science or cosmic dust communities. The Exobiology Intact Capture Experiment (Exo-ICE) as an experiment on CDCF was also lost. Without CDCF, no facility-class instrument for cosmic dust studies is available or planned. When CDCF (and Exo-ICE) was selected as a SSF attached payload, an exercise called the small particle intact capture experiment (SPICE) was started for Exo-ICE to develop an understanding and early testing of the necessary expertise and technology for intact capture of cosmic dust and IDP's. This SPICE activity looks to fly small, meter square or less, collection area experiments on early orbital platforms of opportunity such as EURECA, MIR, WESTAR, and others, including the shuttle. The SPICE activity has focused on developing techniques and instrument concepts to capture particles intact and without inadvertent contamination. It began with a survey and screening of available capture media concepts and then focused on the development of a capture medium that can meet these requirements. Evaluation and development of the chosen capture medium, aerogel (a silicon oxide gel), has so far lived up to the expectations of meeting the requirements and is highlighted in a companion paper at this workshop. Others such as McDonnell's Timeband Capture Cell Experiment (TICCE) on EuReCa and Tsuo's GAS-CAN lid experiments on STS 47 and 57 have flown aerogel, but without addressing the contamination issue/requirement, especially regarding organics. Horz, Zolenskym and others have studied and have also been advocates for its

  13. SPICE: An innovative, flexible instrument concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Kenji; Cauffman, D. P.; Jurcevich, B.; Mendez, David J.; Ryder, James T.

    Studies and plans for orbital capture of cosmic dust and interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) looked very bright with the advent of space station Freedom (SSF) and formal selection of Cosmic Dust Collection Facility (CDCF) as an attached payload in 1990. Unfortunately it has been downhill since its selection, culminating in CDCF being dropped as attached payload in the SSF redesign process this year. This action was without any input from the science or cosmic dust communities. The Exobiology Intact Capture Experiment (Exo-ICE) as an experiment on CDCF was also lost. Without CDCF, no facility-class instrument for cosmic dust studies is available or planned. When CDCF (and Exo-ICE) was selected as a SSF attached payload, an exercise called the small particle intact capture experiment (SPICE) was started for Exo-ICE to develop an understanding and early testing of the necessary expertise and technology for intact capture of cosmic dust and IDP's. This SPICE activity looks to fly small, meter square or less, collection area experiments on early orbital platforms of opportunity such as EURECA, MIR, WESTAR, and others, including the shuttle. The SPICE activity has focused on developing techniques and instrument concepts to capture particles intact and without inadvertent contamination. It began with a survey and screening of available capture media concepts and then focused on the development of a capture medium that can meet these requirements. Evaluation and development of the chosen capture medium, aerogel (a silicon oxide gel), has so far lived up to the expectations of meeting the requirements and is highlighted in a companion paper at this workshop. Others such as McDonnell's Timeband Capture Cell Experiment (TICCE) on EuReCa and Tsuo's GAS-CAN lid experiments on STS 47 and 57 have flown aerogel, but without addressing the contamination issue/requirement, especially regarding organics. Horz, Zolenskym and others have studied and have also been advocates for its

  14. Development of Interactive Monitoring System for Neutron Scattering Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Ji Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Neutron scattering instruments in HANARO research reactor have been contributed to various fields of basic science and material engineering. These instruments are open to publics and researchers can apply beam-time and do experiments with instrument scientists. In most cases, these instruments run for several weeks without stopping, and therefore instrument scientist wants to see the instrument status and receive information if the instruments have some problem. This is important for the safety. However, it is very hard to get instrument information outside of instruments. Access from external site is strongly forbidden in the institute due to the network safety, I developed another way to send instrument status information using commercial short messaging service(SMS). In this presentation, detailed features of this system will be shown. As a prototype, this system is being developed for the single instrument: Disk-chopper time-of-flight instruments (DC-TOF). I have successfully developed instruments and operate for several years. This information messaging system can be used for other neutron scattering instruments.

  15. Musical instruments in the 21st century identities, configurations, practices

    CERN Document Server

    Campo, Alberto; Egermann, Hauke; Hardjowirogo, Sarah-Indriyati; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    By exploring the many different types and forms of contemporary musical instruments, this book contributes to a better understanding of the conditions of instrumentality in the 21st century. Providing insights from science, humanities and the arts, authors from a wide range of disciplines discuss the following questions: · What are the conditions under which an object is recognized as a musical instrument? · What are the actions and procedures typically associated with musical instruments? · What kind of (mental and physical) knowledge do we access in order to recognize or use something as a musical instrument? · How is this knowledge being shaped by cultural conventions and temporal conditions? · How do algorithmic processes 'change the game' of musical performance, and as a result, how do they affect notions of instrumentality? · How do we address the question of instrumental identity within an instrument's design process? · What properties can be used to differentiate successful and unsuccessful ins...

  16. Science learning based on local potential: Overview of the nature of science (NoS) achieved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilujeng, Insih; Zuhdan Kun, P.; Suryadarma, IGP.

    2017-08-01

    The research concerned here examined the effectiveness of science learning conducted with local potential as basis from the point of a review of the NoS (nature of science) achieved. It used the non equivalent control group design and took place in the regions of Magelang and Pati, Province of Central Java, and the regions of Bantul and Sleman, Province of the Special Region of Yogyakarta. The research population consisted of students of the first and second grades at each junior high school chosen with research subjects sampled by means of cluster sampling. The instruments used included: a) an observation sheet, b) a written test, and c) a questionnaire. The learning and research instruments had been declared valid and reliable according to previous developmental research. In conclusion, the science learning based on local potential was effective in terms of all the NoS aspects.

  17. Management Approach for Earth Venture Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Diane L.; Dutta, Sanghamitra

    2013-01-01

    The Earth Venture Instrument (EVI) element of the Earth Venture Program calls for developing instruments for participation on a NASA-arranged spaceflight mission of opportunity to conduct innovative, integrated, hypothesis or scientific question-driven approaches to pressing Earth system science issues. This paper discusses the EVI element and the management approach being used to manage both an instrument development activity as well as the host accommodations activity. In particular the focus will be on the approach being used for the first EVI (EVI-1) selected instrument, Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO), which will be hosted on a commercial GEO satellite and some of the challenges encountered to date and corresponding mitigations that are associated with the management structure for the TEMPO Mission and the architecture of EVI.

  18. Scientific instruments, scientific progress and the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, David; Faust, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Philosophers speak of science in terms of theory and experiment, yet when they speak of the progress of scientific knowledge they speak in terms of theory alone. In this article it is claimed that scientific knowledge consists of, among other things, scientific instruments and instrumental techniques and not simply of some kind of justified beliefs. It is argued that one aspect of scientific progress can be characterized relatively straightforwardly - the accumulation of new scientific instruments. The development of the cyclotron is taken to illustrate this point. Eight different activities which promoted the successful completion of the cyclotron are recognised. The importance is in the machine rather than the experiments which could be run on it and the focus is on how the cyclotron came into being, not how it was subsequently used. The completed instrument is seen as a useful unit of scientific progress in its own right. (UK)

  19. LOFT instrumented fuel design and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    A summary description of the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) system instrumented core construction details and operating experience through reactor startup and loss-of-coolant experiment (LOCE) operations performed to date are discussed. The discussion includes details of the test instrumentation attachment to the fuel assembly, the structural response of the fuel modules to the forces generated by a double-ended break of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) coolant pipe at the inlet to the reactor vessel, the durability of the LOFT fuel and test instrumentation, and the plans for incorporation of improved fuel assembly test instrumentation features in the LOFT core

  20. Instrumental methods of analysis, 7th edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, H.H.; Merritt, L.L. Jr.; Dean, J.A.; Settle, F.A. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have prepared an organized and generally polished product. The book is fashioned to be used as a textbook for an undergraduate instrumental analysis course, a supporting textbook for graduate-level courses, and a general reference work on analytical instrumentation and techniques for professional chemists. Four major areas are emphasized: data collection and processing, spectroscopic instrumentation and methods, liquid and gas chromatographic methods, and electrochemical methods. Analytical instrumentation and methods have been updated, and a thorough citation of pertinent recent literature is included

  1. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science. The journal has a new and more modern layout, published online only, and the editorial. Board was increased to include more disciplines pertaining to marine sciences. While important chal- lenges still lie ahead, we are steadily advancing our standard to increase visibility and dissemination throughout the global ...

  2. Reading, writing, drawing and making in the 18th-century instrument trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Florence Grant

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available When George Adams assembled a large collection of philosophical instruments for King George III in the early 1760s, he drew on a variety of printed books as sources of experiments and instrument designs. Most important of these was Mathematical Elements of Natural Philosophy by the Dutch mathematician and philosopher Willem ’s Gravesande, whose own collection of instruments is now in the Museum Boerhaave in Leiden. Papers in the Science Museum archives reveal the specific practices through which Adams used books such as Mathematical Elements in the course of his business. These techniques included commonplacing, a widespread method for organising information in the early-modern period; and physically cutting and pasting fragments from engraved illustrations into new drawings, as part of the process of design. These practices connected mobile print with local networks of production. They fundamentally shaped the group of instruments Adams made for George III, and constitute a material link between two important collections of 18th-century instruments: those of ’s Gravesande in Leiden, and those of George III at the Science Museum in London.

  3. A statistical approach to instrument calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Ziemer; David Strauss

    1978-01-01

    Summary - It has been found that two instruments will yield different numerical values when used to measure identical points. A statistical approach is presented that can be used to approximate the error associated with the calibration of instruments. Included are standard statistical tests that can be used to determine if a number of successive calibrations of the...

  4. Instrument for Airborne Measurement of Carbonyl Sulfide, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposes to develop small, low power instrumentation for the real-time direct measurement of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) in the atmosphere, especially...

  5. Instrument for Airborne Measurement of Carbonyl Sulfide, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II SBIR program, Southwest Sciences will continue the development of small, low power instrumentation for real-time direct measurement of carbonyl...

  6. Overview of LOFT instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixby, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A description of instrumentation used in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) large break Loss-of-Coolant Experiments is presented. Emphasis is placed on hydraulic and thermal measurements in the primary system piping and components, reactor vessel, and pressure suppression system. In addition, instrumentation which is being considered for measurement of phenomena during future small break testing is discussed

  7. Operational and reliability experience with reactor instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, F.; Gow, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    In the last 15 years the CEGB has experienced progressive plant development, integration and changes in operating regime through nine nuclear (gas-cooled reactor) power stations with corresponding instrumentation advances leading towards more refined centralized control. Operation and reliability experience with reactor instrumentation is reported in this paper with reference to the progressive changes related to the early magnox, late magnox and AGR periods. Data on instrumentation reliability in terms of reactor forced outages are presented and show that the instrumentation contributions to loss of generating plant availability are small. Reactor safety circuits, neutron flux and temperature measurements, gas analysis and vibration monitoring are discussed. In reviewing the reactor instrumentation the emphasis is on reporting recent experience, particularly on AGR equipment, but overall performance and changes to magnox equipment are included so that some appreciation can be obtained of instrumentation requirements with respect to plant lifetimes. (author)

  8. New developments in instrumentation at the W. M. Keck Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Sean M.; Armandroff, Taft E.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Johnson, James; Larkin, James E.; Lewis, Hilton A.; Martin, Christopher; Matthews, Keith Y.; Prochaska, J. X.; Wizinowich, Peter

    2014-07-01

    The W. M. Keck Observatory continues to develop new capabilities in support of our science driven strategic plan which emphasizes leadership in key areas of observational astronomy. This leadership is a key component of the scientific productivity of our observing community and depends on our ability to develop new instrumentation, upgrades to existing instrumentation, and upgrades to supporting infrastructure at the observatory. In this paper we describe the as measured performance of projects completed in 2014 and the expected performance of projects currently in the development or construction phases. Projects reaching completion in 2014 include a near-IR tip/tilt sensor for the Keck I adaptive optics system, a new center launch system for the Keck II laser guide star facility, and NIRES, a near-IR Echelle spectrograph for the Keck II telescope. Projects in development include a new seeing limited integral field spectrograph for the visible wavelength range called the Keck Cosmic Web Imager, a deployable tertiary mirror for the Keck I telescope, upgrades to the spectrograph detector and the imager of the OSIRIS instrument, and an upgrade to the telescope control systems on both Keck telescopes.

  9. Recent developments in nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, P.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full text : Nuclear Instrumentation is a field of vital importance for DAE. It has important applications in many areas of interest such as Reactor Monitoring and control, Accelerator based research, Laser and nuclear physics experiments, Health and environmental monitoring, Astrophysics experiments etc. It is a specialized field involving expertise in detection of radioactivity down to the level of few events per minute as well as processing and analysis of signals which can be as small as few hundred micro volts embedded in noise. Some applications involve digitizing and processing these signals with 0.001% accuracy and timing accuracies of a fraction of nano sec. Rapid developments in semiconductor related technologies have influenced the field of nuclear instrumentation. Development of FPGA's and ASIC's have made it possible to develop miniaturized smart and portable instruments for field applications. Advancements in field of computers, communications and various field buses have been successfully utilized for smart, portable and DSP based instrumentation. Smart sensor with detector and front-end electronics on a single silicon chip is now a reality. These instruments are also made intelligent by addition of fuzzy logic, artificial neural networks and expert systems. Electronics Division of BARC has made significant contribution to the field of nuclear instrumentation to achieve self-reliance in this area. This has also led to development of several new methods, which have been published in international journals and appreciated worldwide. As a step towards achieving complete self-reliance a programme for development of FPGA's, HMC's and ASIC's has been undertaken and is being followed with special emphasis. This also includes development of detector and front- end electronics on a single chip. This talk brings out details of these developments and describes the 'state of art' work done in India

  10. Assessing medical professionalism: A systematic review of instruments and their measurement properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Honghe; Liu, Yang; Wen, Deliang

    2017-01-01

    Background Over the last three decades, various instruments were developed and employed to assess medical professionalism, but their measurement properties have yet to be fully evaluated. This study aimed to systematically evaluate these instruments’ measurement properties and the methodological quality of their related studies within a universally acceptable standardized framework and then provide corresponding recommendations. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO was conducted to collect studies published from 1990–2015. After screening titles, abstracts, and full texts for eligibility, the articles included in this study were classified according to their respective instrument’s usage. A two-phase assessment was conducted: 1) methodological quality was assessed by following the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist; and 2) the quality of measurement properties was assessed according to Terwee’s criteria. Results were integrated using best-evidence synthesis to look for recommendable instruments. Results After screening 2,959 records, 74 instruments from 80 existing studies were included. The overall methodological quality of these studies was unsatisfactory, with reasons including but not limited to unknown missing data, inadequate sample sizes, and vague hypotheses. Content validity, cross-cultural validity, and criterion validity were either unreported or negative ratings in most studies. Based on best-evidence synthesis, three instruments were recommended: Hisar’s instrument for nursing students, Nurse Practitioners’ Roles and Competencies Scale, and Perceived Faculty Competency Inventory. Conclusion Although instruments measuring medical professionalism are diverse, only a limited number of studies were methodologically sound. Future studies should give priority to systematically improving the performance of existing

  11. MetBaro - Pressure Instrument for Mars MetNet Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkko, J.; Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Leinonen, J.; Mäkinen, T.

    2009-04-01

    THE METNET MISSION FOCUSED ON THE Martian atmospheric science is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called the MetNet Lander (MNL). The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. MetBaro is the pressure instrument of MetNet Lander designed to work on Martian surface. It is based on Barocap® technology developed by Vaisala, Inc. MetBaro is a capacitic type of sensing device where capasitor plates are moved by ambient pressure. MetBaro device consists of two pressure transducers including a total of 6 Barocap® sensor heads of high-stability and high-resolution types. The long-term stability of MetBaro is in order of 20…50 µBar and resolution a few µBar. MetBaro is small, lightweighed and has low power consumption. It weighs about 50g without wires and controlling FPGA, and consumes 15 mW of power. A similar device has successfully flown in Phoenix mission, where it performed months of measurements on Martian ground. Another device is also part of the Mars Science Laboratory REMS instrument (to be launched in 2011).

  12. NASA's Planetary Science Missions and Participations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Doris; Green, James L.

    2017-04-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Division (PSD) and space agencies around the world are collaborating on an extensive array of missions exploring our solar system. Planetary science missions are conducted by some of the most sophisticated robots ever built. International collaboration is an essential part of what we do. NASA has always encouraged international participation on our missions both strategic (ie: Mars 2020) and competitive (ie: Discovery and New Frontiers) and other Space Agencies have reciprocated and invited NASA investigators to participate in their missions. NASA PSD has partnerships with virtually every major space agency. For example, NASA has had a long and very fruitful collaboration with ESA. ESA has been involved in the Cassini mission and, currently, NASA funded scientists are involved in the Rosetta mission (3 full instruments, part of another), BepiColombo mission (1 instrument in the Italian Space Agency's instrument suite), and the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer mission (1 instrument and parts of two others). In concert with ESA's Mars missions NASA has an instrument on the Mars Express mission, the orbit-ground communications package on the Trace Gas Orbiter (launched in March 2016) and part of the DLR/Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer instruments going onboard the ExoMars Rover (to be launched in 2018). NASA's Planetary Science Division has continuously provided its U.S. planetary science community with opportunities to include international participation on NASA missions too. For example, NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs provide U.S. scientists the opportunity to assemble international teams and design exciting, focused planetary science investigations that would deepen the knowledge of our Solar System. The PSD put out an international call for instruments on the Mars 2020 mission. This procurement led to the selection of Spain and Norway scientist leading two instruments and French scientists providing a significant portion of another

  13. Network science landers for Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harri, A.M.; Marsal, O.; Lognonne, P.

    1999-01-01

    by the Mars Express Orbiter that is expected to be functional during the NetLander Mission's operational phase. Communication between the landers and the Earth would take place via a data relay onboard the Mars Express Orbiter. (C) 1999 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.......The NetLander Mission will deploy four landers to the Martian surface. Each lander includes a network science payload with instrumentation for studying the interior of Mars, the atmosphere and the subsurface, as well as the ionospheric structure and geodesy. The NetLander Mission is the first......, ionospheric, geodetic measurements and ground penetrating radar mapping supported by panoramic images. The payloads also include entry phase measurements of the atmospheric vertical structure. The scientific data could be combined with simultaneous observations of the atmosphere and surface of Mars...

  14. BES Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biocca, Alan; Carlson, Rich; Chen, Jackie; Cotter, Steve; Tierney, Brian; Dattoria, Vince; Davenport, Jim; Gaenko, Alexander; Kent, Paul; Lamm, Monica; Miller, Stephen; Mundy, Chris; Ndousse, Thomas; Pederson, Mark; Perazzo, Amedeo; Popescu, Razvan; Rouson, Damian; Sekine, Yukiko; Sumpter, Bobby; Dart, Eli; Wang, Cai-Zhuang -Z; Whitelam, Steve; Zurawski, Jason

    2011-02-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivityfor the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office ofScience programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  15. BES Science Network Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian; Biocca, A.; Carlson, R.; Chen, J.; Cotter, S.; Dattoria, V.; Davenport, J.; Gaenko, A.; Kent, P.; Lamm, M.; Miller, S.; Mundy, C.; Ndousse, T.; Pederson, M.; Perazzo, A.; Popescu, R.; Rouson, D.; Sekine, Y.; Sumpter, B.; Wang, C.-Z.; Whitelam, S.; Zurawski, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  16. Science Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect our nation and promote world stability Science & ; Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Science Highlights Lab Organizations Science Programs Applied

  17. The sciences of science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischhoff, Baruch

    2013-08-20

    The May 2012 Sackler Colloquium on "The Science of Science Communication" brought together scientists with research to communicate and scientists whose research could facilitate that communication. The latter include decision scientists who can identify the scientific results that an audience needs to know, from among all of the scientific results that it would be nice to know; behavioral scientists who can design ways to convey those results and then evaluate the success of those attempts; and social scientists who can create the channels needed for trustworthy communications. This overview offers an introduction to these communication sciences and their roles in science-based communication programs.

  18. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ... consist of special issues on major events or important thematic issues. ... of sources, including plant and animal by- products.

  19. Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  20. The VUV instrument SPICE for Solar Orbiter: performance ground testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Martin E.; Morris, Nigel; Griffin, Douglas K.; Eccleston, Paul; Anderson, Mark; Pastor Santos, Carmen; Bruzzi, Davide; Tustain, Samuel; Howe, Chris; Davenne, Jenny; Grundy, Timothy; Speight, Roisin; Sidher, Sunil D.; Giunta, Alessandra; Fludra, Andrzej; Philippon, Anne; Auchere, Frederic; Hassler, Don; Davila, Joseph M.; Thompson, William T.; Schuehle, Udo H.; Meining, Stefan; Walls, Buddy; Phelan, P.; Dunn, Greg; Klein, Roman M.; Reichel, Thomas; Gyo, Manfred; Munro, Grant J.; Holmes, William; Doyle, Peter

    2017-08-01

    SPICE is an imaging spectrometer operating at vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelengths, 70.4 - 79.0 nm and 97.3 - 104.9 nm. It is a facility instrument on the Solar Orbiter mission, which carries 10 science instruments in all, to make observations of the Sun's atmosphere and heliosphere, at close proximity to the Sun, i.e to 0.28 A.U. at perihelion. SPICE's role is to make VUV measurements of plasma in the solar atmosphere. SPICE is designed to achieve spectral imaging at spectral resolution >1500, spatial resolution of several arcsec, and two-dimensional FOV of 11 x16arcmins. The many strong constraints on the instrument design imposed by the mission requirements prevent the imaging performance from exceeding those of previous instruments, but by being closer to the sun there is a gain in spatial resolution. The price which is paid is the harsher environment, particularly thermal. This leads to some novel features in the design, which needed to be proven by ground test programs. These include a dichroic solar-transmitting primary mirror to dump the solar heat, a high in-flight temperature (60deg.C) and gradients in the optics box, and a bespoke variable-line-spacing grating to minimise the number of reflective components used. The tests culminate in the systemlevel test of VUV imaging performance and pointing stability. We will describe how our dedicated facility with heritage from previous solar instruments, is used to make these tests, and show the results, firstly on the Engineering Model of the optics unit, and more recently on the Flight Model. For the keywords, select up to 8 key terms for a search on your manuscript's subject.

  1. Measurement Properties of Instruments for Measuring of Lymphedema: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidding, Janine T; Viehoff, Peter B; Beurskens, Carien H G; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; van der Wees, Philip J

    2016-12-01

    Lymphedema is a common complication of cancer treatment, resulting in swelling and subjective symptoms. Reliable and valid measurement of this side effect of medical treatment is important. The purpose of this study was to provide best evidence regarding which measurement instruments are most appropriate in measuring lymphedema in its different stages. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were used, and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Clinical studies on measurement instruments assessing lymphedema were reviewed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) scoring instrument for quality assessment. Data on reliability, concurrent validity, convergent validity, sensitivity, specificity, applicability, and costs were extracted. Pooled data showed good intrarater intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) (.89) for bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) in the lower extremities and high intrarater and interrater ICCs for water volumetry, tape measurement, and perometry (.98-.99) in the upper extremities. In the upper extremities, the standard error of measurement was 3.6% (σ=0.7%) for water volumetry, 5.6% (σ=2.1%) for perometry, and 6.6% (σ=2.6%) for tape measurement. Sensitivity of tape measurement in the upper extremities, using different cutoff points, varied from 0.73 to 0.90, and specificity values varied from 0.72 to 0.78. No uniform definition of lymphedema was available, and a gold standard as a reference test was lacking. Items concerning risk of bias were study design, patient selection, description of lymphedema, blinding of test outcomes, and number of included participants. Measurement instruments with evidence for good reliability and validity were BIS, water volumetry, tape measurement, and perometry, where BIS can detect alterations in extracellular fluid in stage 1 lymphedema and the other measurement instruments can detect alterations in volume

  2. Academic Self-Concept: Modeling and Measuring for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Graham

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the author developed a model to describe academic self-concept (ASC) in science and validated an instrument for its measurement. Unlike previous models of science ASC, which envisage science as a homogenous single global construct, this model took a multidimensional view by conceiving science self-concept as possessing distinctive facets including conceptual and procedural elements. In the first part of the study, data were collected from 1,483 students attending eight secondary schools in England, through the use of a newly devised Secondary Self-Concept Science Instrument, and structural equation modeling was employed to test and validate a model. In the second part of the study, the data were analysed within the new self-concept framework to examine learners' ASC profiles across the domains of science, with particular attention paid to age- and gender-related differences. The study found that the proposed science self-concept model exhibited robust measures of fit and construct validity, which were shown to be invariant across gender and age subgroups. The self-concept profiles were heterogeneous in nature with the component relating to self-concept in physics, being surprisingly positive in comparison to other aspects of science. This outcome is in stark contrast to data reported elsewhere and raises important issues about the nature of young learners' self-conceptions about science. The paper concludes with an analysis of the potential utility of the self-concept measurement instrument as a pedagogical device for science educators and learners of science.

  3. TFTR CAMAC instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Gatto, H.J.; Bradish, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The TFTR Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) system makes extensive use of CAMAC equipment. The system consists of eight CAMAC highways operating from eight Gould 75/32 computers. Links up to 3.5 miles in length with more than fifty CAMAC crates have been implemented and are currently in use. Data transfer along the highway is implemented in bit serial format. The link speed is run at 5MHz. The length and complexity of the link requires the reformatting of the NRZ input/output format of the L-2 crate controller. U-Port adapter modules are used to interface the modified serial highway to the L-2 controllers. The modified serial highway uses a transmission technique that requires the distribution of both Bi-Phase encoded data and a 5MHz clock. The Serial Driver interfaces to the GOULD computer through use of a High Speed Data (HSD) interface board which attaches to the computers internal bus. All transfers to and from the computer are accomplished by direct memory access (DMA). In addition to the standard CAMAC link the system also includes a Block Transfer (BT) system. This system provides an alternate path for transferring data between the computers and the CAMAC modules. The BT system is interfaced to the host computers through HSD boards and to the CAMAC crates through use of an auxiliary crate controllers

  4. NASA'S Earth Science Data Stewardship Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Dawn R.; Murphy, Kevin J.; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been collecting Earth observation data for over 50 years using instruments on board satellites, aircraft and ground-based systems. With the inception of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Program in 1990, NASA established the Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project and initiated development of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). A set of Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) was established at locations based on science discipline expertise. Today, EOSDIS consists of 12 DAACs and 12 Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS), processing data from the EOS missions, as well as the Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership mission, and other satellite and airborne missions. The DAACs archive and distribute the vast majority of data from NASA’s Earth science missions, with data holdings exceeding 12 petabytes The data held by EOSDIS are available to all users consistent with NASA’s free and open data policy, which has been in effect since 1990. The EOSDIS archives consist of raw instrument data counts (level 0 data), as well as higher level standard products (e.g., geophysical parameters, products mapped to standard spatio-temporal grids, results of Earth system models using multi-instrument observations, and long time series of Earth System Data Records resulting from multiple satellite observations of a given type of phenomenon). EOSDIS data stewardship responsibilities include ensuring that the data and information content are reliable, of high quality, easily accessible, and usable for as long as they are considered to be of value.

  5. Error and its meaning in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M; Ousley, Stephen D; Houck, Max M

    2014-01-01

    The discussion of "error" has gained momentum in forensic science in the wake of the Daubert guidelines and has intensified with the National Academy of Sciences' Report. Error has many different meanings, and too often, forensic practitioners themselves as well as the courts misunderstand scientific error and statistical error rates, often confusing them with practitioner error (or mistakes). Here, we present an overview of these concepts as they pertain to forensic science applications, discussing the difference between practitioner error (including mistakes), instrument error, statistical error, and method error. We urge forensic practitioners to ensure that potential sources of error and method limitations are understood and clearly communicated and advocate that the legal community be informed regarding the differences between interobserver errors, uncertainty, variation, and mistakes. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Instrumentation reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Boyes, Walt

    2002-01-01

    Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having a 'fuzzy' boundary with a number of other disciplines. Often categorized as either 'techniques' or 'applications' this book addresses the various applications that may be needed with reference to the practical techniques that are available for the instrumentation or measurement of a specific physical quantity or quality. This makes it of direct interest to anyone working in the process, control and instrumentation fields where these measurements are essential.* Comprehensive and authoritative collection of technical information* Writte

  7. The latest radiation instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Se Sik; Gwon, Dal Gwan; Kim, Gyeong Geum

    2008-08-01

    This book deals with the latest radiation instrument, which is comprised of eight chapters. It explains X rays instrument for medial treatment, X-ray tube instrument and permissible burden with its history, structure and characteristic high voltage apparatus with high voltage rectifier circuit, X-ray control apparatus for medical treatment, X-ray image equipment X-ray television apparatus and CCD 205, X-ray apparatus of install and types, Digital X-ray apparatus with CR 261 and DR 269, performance management on X-ray for medical treatment with its history, necessity and management in the radiation field.

  8. Medical instruments in museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderqvist, Thomas; Arnold, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This essay proposes that our understanding of medical instruments might benefit from adding a more forthright concern with their immediate presence to the current historical focus on simply decoding their meanings and context. This approach is applied to the intriguingly tricky question of what...... actually is meant by a "medical instrument." It is suggested that a pragmatic part of the answer might lie simply in reconsidering the holdings of medical museums, where the significance of the physical actuality of instruments comes readily to hand....

  9. Mass Spectrometry Instrumentation in Proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprenger, Richard Remko; Roepstorff, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has evolved into a crucial technology for the field of proteomics, enabling the comprehensive study of proteins in biological systems. Innovative developments have yielded flexible and versatile mass spectrometric tools, including quadrupole time-of-flight, linear ion trap......, Orbitrap and ion mobility instruments. Together they offer various and complementary capabilities in terms of ionization, sensitivity, speed, resolution, mass accuracy, dynamic range and methods of fragmentation. Mass spectrometers can acquire qualitative and quantitative information on a large scale...

  10. Regional cooperation on nuclear instrument maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    Proper nuclear instrument maintenance is the essential precondition for any experimental work in nuclear sciences and technology. With the rapidly increasing sophistication of nuclear instrumentation, and considering the rather specific conditions that prevail in many IAEA Member States, this topic is gaining in importance, and has a strong economic implication. There is a general opinion that a regional, and possibly interregional cooperation in the field might be advantageous, and economically beneficial to all participating parties. The experience in such cooperation is limited, but sufficient that some reliable observations can be made, some conclusion can be drawn, and some recommendation for the possible future development can be presented

  11. Development of preservice elementary teachers' science self- efficacy beliefs and its relation to science conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika

    Self-efficacy beliefs that relate to teachers' motivation and performance have been an important area of concern for preservice teacher education. This study used a mixed-methods approach to investigate the changes in preservice elementary teachers' science self-efficacy beliefs and the factors associated in a specialized elementary physics content course. In addition, the study is one of few to investigate the relationship between the changes in science self-efficacy beliefs and changes in physical science conceptual understanding. Participants included fifty-one preservice elementary teachers enrolled in two term of the physical science content course. Data collection and analysis procedures included both qualitative and quantitative measures. Data collection included implementation of Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument-B (STEBI-B) (Bleicher, 2004) and Physical Science Concept Test as pre- and post-test, two semi-structured interviews with 18 participants (nine each semester), classroom observations and artifacts. A pre-post, repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) design was used to test the significance of differences between the pre- and post-surveys across time. Results indicated statistically significant gains in participants' science self-efficacy beliefs on both scales of STEBI-B - personal science teaching beliefs and outcome expectancy beliefs. Additionally, a positive moderate relationship between science conceptual understandings and personal science teaching efficacy beliefs was found. Post-hoc analysis of the STEBI-B data was used to select 18 participants for interviews. The participants belonged to each group representing the low, medium and high initial levels of self-efficacy beliefs. Participants' responses indicated positive shifts in their science teacher self-image and confidence to teach science in future. Four categories that represented the course-related factors contributing towards science self

  12. Instrumentation for the uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Brief descriptions are presented concerning instruments used in uranium mining, including R meter, radon daughter working level counter, radon gas detectors, alpha contamination monitors, air samplers, ore grade evaluators and gamma energy analyzers

  13. Progress report Health Sciences Division - 1984 July 01 to December 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    This progress report contains a topical summary of major research in the Health Sciences Division. Separate reports are included for each of the following branches: Health Physics, Environmental Research, Radiation Biology, Biomedical Research and Medical. Some of the main areas of interest discussed are health and safety aspects of tritium. This includes instrumentation, environmental studies, metabolism, dosimetry and health effects

  14. Genetic influences on musical specialization: a twin study on choice of instrument and music genre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosing, Miriam A; Ullén, Fredrik

    2018-05-09

    Though several studies show that genetic factors influence individual differences in musical engagement, aptitude, and achievement, no study to date has investigated whether specialization among musically active individuals in terms of choice of instrument and genre is heritable. Using a large twin cohort, we explored whether individual differences in instrument choice, instrument category, and the type of music individuals engage in can entirely be explained by the environment or are partly due to genetic influences. About 10,000 Swedish twins answered an extensive questionnaire about music-related traits, including information on the instrument and genre they played. Of those, 1259 same-sex twin pairs reported to either play an instrument or sing. We calculated the odds ratios (ORs) for concordance in music choices (if both twins played) comparing identical and nonidentical twin pairs, with significant ORs indicating that identical twins are more likely to engage in the same type of music-related behavior than are nonidentical twins. The results showed that for almost all music-related variables, the odds were significantly higher for identical twins to play the same musical instrument or music genre, suggesting significant genetic influences on such music specialization. Possible interpretations and implications of the findings are discussed. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Environment for the instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambro, P.

    1992-01-01

    A properly conditioned AC power supply is necessary for reliable functioning of instruments. Electric mains power is produced primarily for industry, workshops, lighting and household uses. Its quality is adjusted to these uses. In areas sand countries with a fast growing demand for electric power, these requirements are far from being met. Electronic instruments and computers, especially in these countries, need protection against disturbances of the mains supply. A clean and dry environment is needed for reliable functioning and long life of instruments. High humidity, specially at higher temperatures, changes the characteristics of electronic components. Moreover, under these conditions fungal growth causes leakage of currents and corrosion causes poor contacts. The presence of dust enhances these effects. They give rise to malfunction of instruments, particularly of high voltage equipment

  16. CCAT Heterodyne Instrument Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work will extend and proof-out the design concept for a high pixel count (128 pixels in 2 bands) submillimeter-wave heterodyne receiver array instrument for the...

  17. Environment for the instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambro, P

    1993-12-31

    A properly conditioned AC power supply is necessary for reliable functioning of instruments. Electric mains power is produced primarily for industry, workshops, lighting and household uses. Its quality is adjusted to these uses. In areas sand countries with a fast growing demand for electric power, these requirements are far from being met. Electronic instruments and computers, especially in these countries, need protection against disturbances of the mains supply. A clean and dry environment is needed for reliable functioning and long life of instruments. High humidity, specially at higher temperatures, changes the characteristics of electronic components. Moreover, under these conditions fungal growth causes leakage of currents and corrosion causes poor contacts. The presence of dust enhances these effects. They give rise to malfunction of instruments, particularly of high voltage equipment

  18. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  19. Nuclear instrument technician training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollesen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Nuclear Instrument Technician (NIT) training that has developed at an accelerated rate over the past three decades. During the 1960's commercial nuclear power plants were in their infancy. For that reason, there is little wonder that NIT training had little structure and little creditability. NIT training, in many early plants, was little more than On-The Job Training (OJT). The seventies brought changes in Instrumentation and Controls as well as emphasis on the requirements for more in depth training and documentation. As in the seventies, the eighties saw not only changes in technologies but tighter requirements, standardized training and the development of accredited Nuclear Instrument Training; thus the conclusion: Nuclear Instrument Training Isn't What It Used To Be

  20. Carbon Footprint Reduction Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page outlines the major differences between Renewable Energy Certificates (REC) and Project Offsets and what types of claims each instrument allows the organization to make in regards to environmental emissions claims.

  1. On the structural logic of curriculum system for the optical instrument major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yufeng; Yan, Juncen; Li, Yang; Shi, Lixia

    2017-08-01

    The theories of optical instrument are the Interdisciplinary of Optical Engineering and Instrument Science and Technology. The undergraduates should study the knowledge about the optics, precision machine and electronics. The courses such as Theory of Machine, Engineering Optics, even include some courses about Accuracy Analysis of Instrument are offered in the college. There are a lot of correlatives among these courses. This paper focuses on the structural logic of these courses. The order of these courses is researched, The aims of all the courses are clear completely to avoid the same topics to be taught twice in different courses. Therefore, the undergraduates would get the main line of the knowledge, and the professors would teach efficiently.

  2. Magnetometer instrument team studies for the definition phase of the outer planets grand tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, P. J., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The objectives of magnetic field investigations on missions to the outer planets were defined as well as an instrumentation system, a program of studies and instrument development tasks was proposed for the mission definition phase of the Outer Planets Grand Tour project. A report on the status of this program is given. Requirements were also established for the spacecraft and the mission which would insure their compatibility with the magnetic field investigation proposed for the outer planets missions and developed figures of merit for encounter trajectories. The spacecraft-instrumentation interface and the on-board data handling system were defined in various reports by the Project Team and in the reports by the Science Steering Group. The defining program for exploring the outer planets within the more restrictive constraints of the Mariner Jupiter-Saturn project included defining a limited magnetic field investigation.

  3. Astrophysics science operations - Near-term plans and vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegler, Guenter R.

    1991-01-01

    Astrophysics science operations planned by the Science Operations branch of NASA Astrophysics Division for the 1990s for the purpose of gathering spaceborne astronomical data are described. The paper describes the near-future plans of the Science Operations in the areas of the preparation of the proposal; the planning and execution of spaceborne observations; the collection, processing, and analysis data; and the dissemination of results. Also presented are concepts planned for introduction at the beginning of the 20th century, including the concepts of open communications, transparent instrument and observatory operations, a spiral requirements development method, and an automated research assistant.

  4. Data Provenance and Data Management in eScience

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Quan; Giugni, Stephen; Williamson, Darrell; Taylor, John

    2013-01-01

    eScience allows scientific research to be carried out in highly distributed environments. The complex nature of the interactions in an eScience infrastructure, which often involves a range of instruments, data, models, applications, people and computational facilities, suggests there is a need for data provenance and data management (DPDM). The W3C Provenance Working Group defines the provenance of a resource as a “record that describes entities and processes involved in producing and delivering or otherwise influencing that resource”. It has been widely recognised that provenance is a critical issue to enable sharing, trust, authentication and reproducibility of eScience process.   Data Provenance and Data Management in eScience identifies the gaps between DPDM foundations and their practice within eScience domains including clinical trials, bioinformatics and radio astronomy. The book covers important aspects of fundamental research in DPDM including provenance representation and querying. It also expl...

  5. Instrument uncertainty predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutts, D.A.

    1991-07-01

    The accuracy of measurements and correlations should normally be provided for most experimental activities. The uncertainty is a measure of the accuracy of a stated value or equation. The uncertainty term reflects a combination of instrument errors, modeling limitations, and phenomena understanding deficiencies. This report provides several methodologies to estimate an instrument's uncertainty when used in experimental work. Methods are shown to predict both the pretest and post-test uncertainty

  6. Experimenting with woodwind instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presto, Michael C.

    2007-05-01

    Simple experiments involving musical instruments of the woodwind family can be used to demonstrate the basic physics of vibrating air columns in resonance tubes using nothing more than straightforward measurements and data collection hardware and software. More involved experimentation with the same equipment can provide insight into the effects of holes in the tubing and other factors that make simple tubes useful as musical instruments.

  7. Maintenance of scientific instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, E.

    1986-01-01

    During the last years Colombia has increased the use of nuclear techniques, instruments and equipment in ambitious health programs, as well as in research centers, industry and education; this has resulted in numerous maintenance problems. As an alternative solution IAN has established a Central Maintenance Laboratory for nuclear instruments within an International Atomic Energy Agency program for eight Latin American and nine Asian Countries. Established strategies and some results are detailed in this writing

  8. First-year Pre-service Teachers in Taiwan—Do they enter the teacher program with satisfactory scientific literacy and attitudes toward science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Chi-Chin

    2005-10-01

    Scientific literacy and attitudes toward science play an important role in human daily lives. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether first-year pre-service teachers in colleges in Taiwan have a satisfactory level of scientific literacy. The domains of scientific literacy selected in this study include: (1) science content; (2) the interaction between science, technology and society (STS); (3) the nature of science; and (4) attitudes toward science. In this study, the instruments used were Chinese translations of the Test of Basic Scientific Literacy (TBSL) and the Test of Science-related Attitudes. Elementary education majors (n = 141) and science education majors (n = 138) from four teachers’ colleges responded to these instruments. The statistical results from the tests revealed that, in general, the basic scientific literacy of first-year pre-service teachers was at a satisfactory level. Of the six scales covered in this study, the pre-service teachers displayed the highest literacy in health science, STS, and life science. Literacy in the areas of the nature of science and earth science was rated lowest. The results also showed that science education majors scored significantly higher in physical science, life science, nature of science, science content, and the TBSL than elementary science majors. Males performed better than females in earth science, life science, science content, and the TBSL. Next, elementary education majors responded with more “don’t know” responses than science education majors. In general, the pre-service teachers were moderately positive in terms of attitudes toward science while science education majors had more positive attitudes toward science. There was no significant difference in attitudes between genders. Previous experience in science indicated more positive attitudes toward science. The results from stepwise regression revealed that STS, the nature of science, and attitudes toward science could explain 50

  9. The Bering Target Tracking Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, John Leif; Betto, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    The key science instrument on the Bering satellite mission is a relative small telescope with an entrance aperture of 300 mm and a focal length between 500 and 1000 mm. The detection of potential targets is performed by one of the target scanning advanced stellar compasses (ASCs). This procedure...... results in a simple prioritized list of right ascension, declination, proper motion and intensity of each prospective target. The telescope itself has a dedicated ASC Camera Head Unit (CHU) mounted on the secondary mirror, largely co-aligned with the telescope. This CHU accurately determines the telescope......'s pointing direction. To achieve fast tracking over a large solid angle, the telescope pointing is achieved by means of a folding mirror in the optical pathway. When a prospective target approaches the telescope FOV, the ASC on the secondary will guide the folding mirror into position such that the target...

  10. Problems with radiological surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Fleming, D.M.

    1984-09-01

    Many radiological surveillance instruments are in use at DOE facilities throughout the country. These instruments are an essential part of all health physics programs, and poor instrument performance can increase program costs or compromise program effectiveness. Generic data from simple tests on newly purchased instruments shows that many instruments will not meet requirements due to manufacturing defects. In other cases, lack of consideration of instrument use has resulted in poor acceptance of instruments and poor reliability. The performance of instruments is highly variable for electronic and mechanical performance, radiation response, susceptibility to interferences and response to environmental factors. Poor instrument performance in these areas can lead to errors or poor accuracy in measurements

  11. Problems with radiological surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Fleming, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Many radiological surveillance instruments are in use at DOE facilities throughout the country. These instruments are an essential part of all health physics programs, and poor instrument performance can increase program costs or compromise program effectiveness. Generic data from simple tests on newly purchased instruments shows that many instruments will not meet requirements due to manufacturing defects. In other cases, lack of consideration of instrument use has resulted in poor acceptance of instruments and poor reliability. The performance of instruments is highly variable for electronic and mechanical performance, radiation response, susceptibility to interferences and response to environmental factors. Poor instrument performance in these areas can lead to errors or poor accuracy in measurements

  12. Build of virtual instrument laboratory related to nuclear species specialized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Jian; Zhao Guizhi; Zhao Xiuliang; Tang Lingzhi

    2009-01-01

    As rapid development of specialized related to nuclear science,the requirement of laboratory construct is analyzed in this article at first, One total conceive, One scheme deploy soft and hardware,three concrete characteristics targets and five different phases of put in practice of virtual instrument laboratory of specialized related to nuclear science are suggest in the paper,the concrete hardware structure and the headway of build of virtual instrument laboratory are described,and the first step effect is introduced.Lastly,the forward target and the further deliberateness that the virtual instrument laboratory construct are set forth in the thesis. (authors)

  13. Science and Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravetz, David

    2005-01-01

    This article is for teachers looking for new ways to motivate students, increase science comprehension, and understanding without using the old standard expository science textbook. This author suggests reading a science fiction novel in the science classroom as a way to engage students in learning. Using science fiction literature and language…

  14. An Investigation of Secure Remote Instrument Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schissel, D.; Abla, G.; Penaflor, B. [General Atomics, San Diego (United States); Ciarlette, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This paper examines the computer science issues associated with secure remote instrumentation control for magnetic fusion experiments. Computer science research into enhancing the ability to scientifically participate in a fusion experiment remotely has been growing in size in an attempt to better address the needs of fusion scientists worldwide. The natural progression of this research is to examine how to move from remote scientific participation to remote hardware control. The vision is to define a gatekeeper software system that will be the only channel of interaction for incoming requests to the experimental site. The role of the gatekeeper is to validate the identification and access privilege of the requester and to insure the validity of the proposed request. The vision for the gatekeeper is that it be a modular system that is simple in design and defined in a way that makes its implementation and operation transparent and obvious. The architecture of the module interface is flexible enough that it can easily allow the future addition of new modules. At the same time, it should be transparent to end-users and allow a high volume of activity so as to not provide a work bottleneck. Appropriate security requires the ability to verify identity (authentication), verify access control (authorization), and validate the appropriateness of requests. The validation process can include provenance and semantic methodologies. The results of the gatekeeper design and initial prototype testing will be presented as well as a discussion on the implication of this research on the operation of fusion experimental machines such as ITER. (authors)

  15. Some emergency instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, P H

    1986-10-01

    The widespread release of activity and the resultant spread of contamination after the Chernobyl accident resulted in requests to NRPB to provide instruments for, and expertise in, the measurement of radiation. The most common request was for advice on the usefulness of existing instruments, but Board staff were also involved in their adaptation or in the development of new instruments specially to meet the circumstances of the accident. The accident occurred on 26 April. On 1 May, NRPB was involved at Heathrow Airport in the monitoring of the British students who had returned from Kiev and Minsk. The main purpose was to reassure the students by checking that their persons and belongings did not have significant surface contamination. Additional measurements were also made of iodine activity in thyroid using hand-held detectors or a mobile body monitor. This operation was arranged with the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, which had also received numerous requests for instruments from embassies and consulates in countries close to the scene of the accident. There was concern for the well-being of staff and other United Kingdom nationals who resided in or intended to visit the most affected countries. The board supplied suitable instruments, and the FCO distributed them to embassies. The frequency of environmental monitoring was increased from 29 April in anticipation of contamination and appropriate Board instrumentation was deployed. After the Chernobyl cloud arrived in the UK on 2 May, there were numerous requests from local government, public authorities, private companies and members of the public for information and advice on monitoring equipment and procedures. Some of these requirements could be met with existing equipment but members of the public were usually advised not to proceed. At a later stage, the contamination of foodstuffs and livestock required the development of an instrument capable of detecting low levels of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs in food

  16. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    This is the thirteenth issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 39 papers recently published in Russian-language periodicals and bound collections, two papers delivered at an international life sciences symposium, and three new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. Also included is a review of a recent Soviet-French symposium on Space Cytology. Current Soviet Life Sciences titles available in English are cited. The materials included in this issue have been identified as relevant to 31 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology. These areas are: adaptation, biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cosmonaut training, cytology, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, gastrointestinal systems, genetics, habitability and environment effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, space biology, and space medicine.

  17. Instrumentation & Data Acquisition System (D AS) Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Markus Deon

    2015-01-01

    The primary job of an Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (DAS) Engineer is to properly measure physical phenomenon of hardware using appropriate instrumentation and DAS equipment designed to record data during a specified test of the hardware. A DAS system includes a CPU or processor, a data storage device such as a hard drive, a data communication bus such as Universal Serial Bus, software to control the DAS system processes like calibrations, recording of data and processing of data. It also includes signal conditioning amplifiers, and certain sensors for specified measurements. My internship responsibilities have included testing and adjusting Pacific Instruments Model 9355 signal conditioning amplifiers, writing and performing checkout procedures, writing and performing calibration procedures while learning the basics of instrumentation.

  18. Digital readout alpha survey instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.E.

    1976-01-01

    A prototype solid-state digital readout alpha particle survey instrument has been designed and constructed. The meter incorporates a Ludlum alpha scintillator as a detector, digital logic circuits for control and timing, and a Digilin counting module with reflective liquid crystal display. The device is used to monitor alpha radiation from a surface. Sample counts are totalized over 10-second intervals and displayed digitally in counts per minute up to 19,999. Tests over source samples with counts to 15,600 cpm have shown the device to be rapid, versatile and accurate. The instrument can be fabricated in one man-week and requires about $835 in material costs. A complete set of drawings is included

  19. IASI instrument: technical description and measured performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Ph.; Blumstein, D.; Buil, C.; Carlier, T.; Chalon, G.; Astruc, P.; Clauss, A.; Siméoni, D.; Tournier, B.

    2017-11-01

    IASI is an infrared atmospheric sounder. It will provide meteorologist and scientific community with atmospheric spectra. The IASI system includes 3 instruments that will be mounted on the Metop satellite series, a data processing software integrated in the EPS (EUMETSAT Polar System) ground segment and a technical expertise centre implemented in CNES Toulouse. The instrument is composed of a Fourier transform spectrometer and an associated infrared imager. The optical configuration is based on a Michelson interferometer and the interferograms are processed by an on-board digital processing subsystem, which performs the inverse Fourier transforms and the radiometric calibration. The infrared imager co-registers the IASI soundings with AVHRR imager (AVHRR is another instrument on the Metop satellite). The presentation will focus on the architectures of the instrument, the description of the implemented technologies and the measured performance of the first flight model. CNES is leading the IASI program in association with EUMETSAT. The instrument Prime is ALCATEL SPACE.

  20. Divergence and convergence in nutrition science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penders, Bart; Spruit, Shannon L.; Sikkema, Jan; Maat, Jan; Schuurbiers, Daan

    2015-01-01

    Nutrigenomics diverged from mainstream nutrition science, ideologically, instrumentally and culturally, due to the establishment of a protective niche. That protection is fading. This article chronicles a case in which convergence between nutrigenomics and nutrition science is pursued. Here we