WorldWideScience

Sample records for science instrument module

  1. Status of the JWST Integrated Science Instrument Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Dunn, Jamie; Kimble, Randy A.; Lambros, Scott; Lundquist, Ray; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Van Campen, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) is the science instrument payload of the JWST. It is one of three system elements that comprise the JWST space vehicle. It consists of four science sensors, a fine guidance sensor, and nine other subsystems that support them. At 1.4 metric tons, it comprises approximately 20% of the JWST mass. The ISIM is currently at 100% integration and has completed 2 of 3 planned element-level space simulation tests. The ISIM is on schedule to be delivered for integration with the Optical Telescope Element during 2015. In this poster, we present an overview of the ISIM and its status.

  2. Critical Science Instrument Alignment of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Scott O.; Kubalak, David A.; Gracey, Renee M.; Sabatke, Derek S.; Howard, Joseph M.; Telfer, Randal C.; Zielinski, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the critical instrument alignment terms associated with the six-degree of freedom alignment of each the Science Instrument (SI) in the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), including focus, pupil shear, pupil clocking, and boresight. We present the test methods used during cryogenic-vacuum tests to directly measure the performance of each parameter, the requirements levied on each, and the impact of any violations of these requirements at the instrument and Observatory level.

  3. Wavefront-Error Performance Characterization for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) Science Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronstein, David L.; Smith, J. Scott; Zielinski, Thomas P.; Telfer, Randal; Tournois, Severine C.; Moore, Dustin B.; Fienup, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The science instruments (SIs) comprising the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) were tested in three cryogenic-vacuum test campaigns in the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)'s Space Environment Simulator (SES). In this paper, we describe the results of optical wavefront-error performance characterization of the SIs. The wavefront error is determined using image-based wavefront sensing (also known as phase retrieval), and the primary data used by this process are focus sweeps, a series of images recorded by the instrument under test in its as-used configuration, in which the focal plane is systematically changed from one image to the next. High-precision determination of the wavefront error also requires several sources of secondary data, including 1) spectrum, apodization, and wavefront-error characterization of the optical ground-support equipment (OGSE) illumination module, called the OTE Simulator (OSIM), 2) plate scale measurements made using a Pseudo-Nonredundant Mask (PNRM), and 3) pupil geometry predictions as a function of SI and field point, which are complicated because of a tricontagon-shaped outer perimeter and small holes that appear in the exit pupil due to the way that different light sources are injected into the optical path by the OGSE. One set of wavefront-error tests, for the coronagraphic channel of the Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) Longwave instruments, was performed using data from transverse translation diversity sweeps instead of focus sweeps, in which a sub-aperture is translated andor rotated across the exit pupil of the system.Several optical-performance requirements that were verified during this ISIM-level testing are levied on the uncertainties of various wavefront-error-related quantities rather than on the wavefront errors themselves. This paper also describes the methodology, based on Monte Carlo simulations of the wavefront-sensing analysis of focus-sweep data, used to establish the

  4. System Definition of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Ray; Aymergen, Cagatay; VanCampen, Julie; Abell, James; Smith, Miles; Driggers, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    The Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) provides the critical functions and the environment for the four science instruments on JWST. This complex system development across many international organizations presents unique challenges and unique solutions. Here we describe how the requirement flow has been coordinated through the documentation system, how the tools and processes are used to minimize impact to the development of the affected interfaces, how the system design has matured, how the design review process operates, and how the system implementation is managed through reporting to ensure a truly world class scientific instrument compliment is created as the final product.

  5. Cryo-Vacuum Testing of the Integrated Science Instrument Module for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Davila, P. S.; Drury, M. P.; Glazer, S. D.; Krom, J. R.; Lundquist, R. A.; Mann, S. D.; McGuffey, D. B.; Perry, R. L.; Ramey, D. D.

    2011-01-01

    With delivery of the science instruments for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) expected in 2012, current plans call for the first cryo-vacuum test of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) to be carried out at GSFC in early 2013. Plans are well underway for conducting this ambitious test, which will perform critical verifications of a number of optical, thermal, and operational requirements of the IS 1M hardware, at its deep cryogenic operating temperature. We describe here the facilities, goals, methods, and timeline for this important Integration & Test milestone in the JWST program.

  6. Cryo Testing of tbe James Webb Space Telescope's Integrated Science Instrument Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCampen, Julie

    2004-01-01

    The Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) of the James Webb Space Telescope will be integrated and tested at the Environmental Test Facilities at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The cryogenic thermal vacuum testing of the ISIM will be the most difficult and problematic portion of the GSFC Integration and Test flow. The test is to validate the coupled interface of the science instruments and the ISIM structure and to sufficiently stress that interface while validating image quality of the science instruments. The instruments and the structure are not made from the same materials and have different CTE. Test objectives and verification rationale are currently being evaluated in Phase B of the project plan. The test program will encounter engineering challenges and limitations, which are derived by cost and technology many of which can be mitigated by facility upgrades, creative GSE, and thorough forethought. The cryogenic testing of the ISIM will involve a number of risks such as the implementation of unique metrology techniques, mechanical, electrical and optical simulators housed within the cryogenic vacuum environment. These potential risks are investigated and possible solutions are proposed.

  7. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instruments Module (ISIM) Cryo-Vacuum (CV) Test Campaign Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Calinda; Whitehouse, Paul; Lui, Yan; Banks, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    JWST Integrated Science Instruments Module (ISIM) has completed its system-level testing program at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). In March 2016, ISIM was successfully delivered for integration with the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) after the successful verification of the system through a series of three cryo-vacuum (CV) tests. The first test served as a risk reduction test; the second test provided the initial verification of the fully-integrated flight instruments; and the third test verified the system in its final flight configuration. The complexity of the mission has generated challenging requirements that demand highly reliable system performance and capabilities from the Space Environment Simulator (SES) vacuum chamber. As JWST progressed through its CV testing campaign, deficiencies in the test configuration and support equipment were uncovered from one test to the next. Subsequent upgrades and modifications were implemented to improve the facility support capabilities required to achieve test requirements. This paper: (1) provides an overview of the integrated mechanical and thermal facility systems required to achieve the objectives of JWST ISIM testing, (2) compares the overall facility performance and instrumentation results from the three ISIM CV tests, and (3) summarizes lessons learned from the ISIM testing campaign.

  8. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument

  9. The Science of String Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Rossing, Thomas D

    2010-01-01

    Many performing musicians, as well as instrument builders, are coming to realize the importance of understanding the science of musical instruments. This book explains how string instruments produce sound. It presents basic ideas in simple language, and it also translates some more sophisticated ideas in non-technical language. It should be of interest to performers, researchers, and instrument makers alike.

  10. The Juno Gravity Science Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Sami W.; Bolton, Scott J.; Buccino, Dustin R.; Cornish, Timothy P.; Folkner, William M.; Formaro, Roberto; Iess, Luciano; Jongeling, Andre P.; Lewis, Dorothy K.; Mittskus, Anthony P.; Mukai, Ryan; Simone, Lorenzo

    2017-11-01

    The Juno mission's primary science objectives include the investigation of Jupiter interior structure via the determination of its gravitational field. Juno will provide more accurate determination of Jupiter's gravity harmonics that will provide new constraints on interior structure models. Juno will also measure the gravitational response from tides raised on Jupiter by Galilean satellites. This is accomplished by utilizing Gravity Science instrumentation to support measurements of the Doppler shift of the Juno radio signal by NASA's Deep Space Network at two radio frequencies. The Doppler data measure the changes in the spacecraft velocity in the direction to Earth caused by the Jupiter gravity field. Doppler measurements at X-band (˜ 8 GHz) are supported by the spacecraft telecommunications subsystem for command and telemetry and are used for spacecraft navigation as well as Gravity Science. The spacecraft also includes a Ka-band (˜ 32 GHz) translator and amplifier specifically for the Gravity Science investigation contributed by the Italian Space Agency. The use of two radio frequencies allows for improved accuracy by removal of noise due to charged particles along the radio signal path.

  11. Bright THz Instrument and Nonlinear THz Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-30

    Report: Bright THz Instrument and Nonlinear THz Science The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and...Number: W911NF-16-1-0436 Organization: University of Rochester Title: Bright THz Instrument and Nonlinear THz Science Report Term: 0-Other Email: xi...exploring new cutting-edge research and broader applications, following the significant development of THz science and technology in the late 80’s, is the

  12. Meteorological Instrumentation and Measurements Open Resource Training Modules for Undergraduate and Graduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, A.; Clark, R. D.; Stevermer, A.

    2017-12-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research Earth Observing Laboratory, Millersville University and The COMET Program are collaborating to produce a series of nine online modules on the the topic of meteorological instrumentation and measurements. These interactive, multimedia educational modules can be integrated into undergraduate and graduate meteorology courses on instrumentation, measurement science, and observing systems to supplement traditional pedagogies and enhance blended instruction. These freely available and open-source training tools are designed to supplement traditional pedagogies and enhance blended instruction. Three of the modules are now available and address the theory and application of Instrument Performance Characteristics, Meteorological Temperature Instrumentation and Measurements, and Meteorological Pressure Instrumentation and Measurements. The content of these modules is of the highest caliber as it has been developed by scientists and engineers who are at the forefront of the field of observational science. Communicating the availability of these unique and influential educational resources with the community is of high priority. These modules will have a profound effect on the atmospheric observational sciences community by fulfilling a need for contemporary, interactive, multimedia guided education and training modules integrating the latest instructional design and assessment tools in observational science. Thousands of undergraduate and graduate students will benefit, while course instructors will value a set of high quality modules to use as supplements to their courses. The modules can serve as an alternative to observational research training and fill the void between field projects or assist those schools that lack the resources to stage a field- or laboratory-based instrumentation experience.

  13. Integrated Instrument Simulator Suites for Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanelli, Simone; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Matsui, Toshihisa; Hostetler, Chris; Hair, John; Butler, Carolyn; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Niamsuwan, Noppasin; Johnson, Michael P.; Jacob, Joseph C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Earth Observing System Simulators Suite (NEOS3) is a modular framework of forward simulations tools for remote sensing of Earth's Atmosphere from space. It was initiated as the Instrument Simulator Suite for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (ISSARS) under the NASA Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program of the Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) to enable science users to perform simulations based on advanced atmospheric and simple land surface models, and to rapidly integrate in a broad framework any experimental or innovative tools that they may have developed in this context. The name was changed to NEOS3 when the project was expanded to include more advanced modeling tools for the surface contributions, accounting for scattering and emission properties of layered surface (e.g., soil moisture, vegetation, snow and ice, subsurface layers). NEOS3 relies on a web-based graphic user interface, and a three-stage processing strategy to generate simulated measurements. The user has full control over a wide range of customizations both in terms of a priori assumptions and in terms of specific solvers or models used to calculate the measured signals.This presentation will demonstrate the general architecture, the configuration procedures and illustrate some sample products and the fundamental interface requirements for modules candidate for integration.

  14. Instrumented module of the ATLAS tile calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    The ATLAS tile calorimeter consists of steel absorber plates interspersed with plastic scintillator tiles. Interactions of high-energy hadrons in the plates transform the incident energy into a 'hadronic shower'. When shower particles traverse the scintillating tiles, the latter emit an amount of light proportional to the incident energy. This light is transmitted along readout fibres to a photomultiplier, where a detectable electrical signal is produced. These pictures show one of 64 modules or 'wedges' of the barrel part of the tile calorimeter, which are arranged to form a cylinder around the beam axis. The wedge has been instrumented with scintillators and readout fibres. Photos 03, 06: Checking the routing of the readout fibres into the girder that houses the photomultipliers. Photo 04: A view of the fibre bundles inside the girder.

  15. INSTRUMENTALISM IN SCIENCE: COMMENTS AND CRITICISMS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    that guide the scientist in making his decisions or a perceived system of procedural rules. ... to science, information and theories than an ... instrumentalists try to provide the foundation of ..... instrumentalism, which are practical rather than.

  16. Data Science and Some Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina SBUGHEA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is addressed to beginners, who want to form an overview on the field of Data Science, on the skills needed to access available IT tools, for obtaining meaningful and valuable analyzes in developing new strategies.

  17. Increased Science Instrumentation Funding Strengthens Mars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lee D.; Graff, T. G.

    2012-01-01

    As the strategic knowledge gaps mature for the exploration of Mars, Mars sample return (MSR), and Phobos/Deimos missions, one approach that becomes more probable involves smaller science instrumentation and integrated science suites. Recent technological advances provide the foundation for a significant evolution of instrumentation; however, the funding support is currently too small to fully utilize these advances. We propose that an increase in funding for instrumentation development occur in the near-term so that these foundational technologies can be applied. These instruments would directly address the significant knowledge gaps for humans to Mars orbit, humans to the Martian surface, and humans to Phobos/ Deimos. They would also address the topics covered by the Decadal Survey and the Mars scientific goals, objectives, investigations and priorities as stated by the MEPAG. We argue that an increase of science instrumentation funding would be of great benefit to the Mars program as well as the potential for human exploration of the Mars system. If the total non-Earth-related planetary science instrumentation budget were increased 100% it would not add an appreciable amount to the overall NASA budget and would provide the real potential for future breakthroughs. If such an approach were implemented in the near-term, NASA would benefit greatly in terms of science knowledge of the Mars, Phobos/Deimos system, exploration risk mitigation, technology development, and public interest.

  18. Astrbiology Science and Technology for Instrument Development (ASTID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Astrobiology Science and Technology for Instrument Development (ASTID) develops instrumentation capabilities to help meet Astrobiology science requirements on...

  19. Earth System Science Education Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C.; Kaufman, C.; Humphreys, R. R.; Colgan, M. W.

    2009-12-01

    The College of Charleston is developing several new geoscience-based education modules for integration into the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA). These three new modules provide opportunities for science and pre-service education students to participate in inquiry-based, data-driven experiences. The three new modules will be discussed in this session. Coastal Crisis is a module that analyzes rapidly changing coastlines and uses technology - remotely sensed data and geographic information systems (GIS) to delineate, understand and monitor changes in coastal environments. The beaches near Charleston, SC are undergoing erosion and therefore are used as examples of rapidly changing coastlines. Students will use real data from NASA, NOAA and other federal agencies in the classroom to study coastal change. Through this case study, learners will acquire remotely sensed images and GIS data sets from online sources, utilize those data sets within Google Earth or other visualization programs, and understand what the data is telling them. Analyzing the data will allow learners to contemplate and make predictions on the impact associated with changing environmental conditions, within the context of a coastal setting. To Drill or Not To Drill is a multidisciplinary problem based module to increase students’ knowledge of problems associated with nonrenewable resource extraction. The controversial topic of drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) examines whether the economic benefit of the oil extracted from ANWR is worth the social cost of the environmental damage that such extraction may inflict. By attempting to answer this question, learners must balance the interests of preservation with the economic need for oil. The learners are exposed to the difficulties associated with a real world problem that requires trade-off between environmental trust and economic well-being. The Citizen Science module challenges students to translate scientific

  20. Developing the TRYAD Science Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, K. T.; Jenke, P.; Briggs, M. S.; Fuchs, J.; Capps, L.

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are brief MeV gamma-ray flashes that are associated with thunderstorms, around 12km in altitude, and are viewed by orbiting satellites. These bright flashes of high energy photons were discovered in 1994. The two major models for TGFs that originate in thunderstorms are the Lightning Leader and Relativistic Feedback Discharge (RFD) model. Both depend on energetic electrons radiating via bremsstrahlung emission. The Lightning Leader model theorizes that lightning step leaders can accelerate electrons to relativistic speeds. The RFD model states that an energetic seed particle can be accelerated to relativistic speeds by strong electric fields inside of a thunderstorm. The main difference in the results of the two models is as follows; the Lightning Leader model results in a wider beam of gamma-rays than the RFD model because the electric field of a thunderstorm is more structured than that of lightning. The TRYAD mission will be the first to fly two detectors, inside CubeSats, in formation to detect TGFs from multiple points in the sky. The data from the CubeSats and the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) will likely provide enough insight to constrain or eliminate some of the existing models for TGFs.This summer was spent testing components and constructing the engineering model of the scientific instrument that will be used to detect TGFs. The detector is made up of four lead-doped plastic scintillators which are coupled to arrays of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). The signal from the SiPM array is then fed into a discriminator where a lower energy estimate can be determined and photon counts are recorded. I will present the progress made over the summer constructing the engineering model.

  1. The GLAST LAT Instrument Science Operations Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Robert A.; SLAC

    2007-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is scheduled for launch in late 2007. Operations support and science data processing for the Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument on GLAST will be provided by the LAT Instrument Science Operations Center (ISOC) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The ISOC supports GLAST mission operations in conjunction with other GLAST mission ground system elements and supports the research activities of the LAT scientific collaboration. The ISOC will be responsible for monitoring the health and safety of the LAT, preparing command loads for the LAT, maintaining embedded flight software which controls the LAT detector and data acquisition flight hardware, maintaining the operating configuration of the LAT and its calibration, and applying event reconstruction processing to down-linked LAT data to recover information about detected gamma-ray photons. The SLAC computer farm will be used to process LAT event data and generate science products, to be made available to the LAT collaboration through the ISOC and to the broader scientific community through the GLAST Science Support Center at NASA/GSFC. ISOC science operations will optimize the performance of the LAT and oversee automated science processing of LAT data to detect and monitor transient gamma-ray sources

  2. Instrumentation between science, state and industry

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Terry

    2001-01-01

    these. In this book, we appropriate their conception of research-technology, and ex­ tend it to many other phenomena which are less stable and less localized in time and space than the Zeeman/Cotton situation. In the following pages, we use the concept for instances where research activities are orientated primarily toward technologies which facilitate both the production of scientific knowledge and the production of other goods. In particular, we use the tenn for instances where instruments and meth­ ods· traverse numerous geographic and institutional boundaries; that is, fields dis­ tinctly different and distant from the instruments' and methods' initial focus. We suggest that instruments such as the ultra-centrifuge, and the trajectories of the men who devise such artefacts, diverge in an interesting way from other fonns of artefacts and careers in science, metrology and engineering with which students of science and technology are more familiar. The instrument systems developed by re­ search-technolo...

  3. Industry Pack Modules in Beam Instrumentation Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bravin, Enrico; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division

    1997-01-01

    In order to improve the performances of the VME based data acquisition systems new technologies coming up on the market have been investigated in the last few years. The IP-BUS developed by Green Spring computers has been adopted in several applications. By using intelligent carrier boards (the existing are based on the 680x0 CPU family) it is possible to build embedded systems and group them together in the same crate. This solution improves the potentialities of VME by lowering the load of data flow over the bus. Only preprocessed data is exchanged between the different embedded modules. The IP modules also offer a cheap solution for normal VME implementations using passive carrier boards. In this paper we describe our experience so far by describing the use we make of these new products and the problems we encountered on the way

  4. A Computer-Based Instrument That Identifies Common Science Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrabee, Timothy G.; Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the rationale for and development of a computer-based instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. The instrument, known as the Science Beliefs Test, is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. The use of an online data collection system…

  5. New sources and instrumentation for neutron science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Alina, E-mail: a.gil@ajd.czest.pl [Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, JD University, Al. Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland)

    2011-04-01

    Neutron-scattering research has a lot to do with our everyday lives. Things like medicine, food, electronics, cars and airplanes have all been improved by neutron-scattering research. Neutron research also helps scientists improve materials used in a multitude of different products, such as high-temperature superconductors, powerful lightweight magnets, stronger, lighter plastic products etc. Neutron scattering is one of the most effective ways to obtain information on both, the structure and the dynamics of condensed matter. Most of the world's neutron sources were built decades ago, and although the uses and demand for neutrons have increased throughout the years, few new sources have been built. The new construction, accelerator-based neutron source, the spallation source will provide the most intense pulsed neutron beams in the world for scientific research and industrial development. In this paper it will be described what neutrons are and what unique properties make them useful for science, how spallation source is designed to produce neutron beams and the experimental instruments that will use those beams. Finally, it will be described how past neutron research has affected our everyday lives and what we might expect from the most exciting future applications.

  6. New sources and instrumentation for neutron science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Alina

    2011-01-01

    Neutron-scattering research has a lot to do with our everyday lives. Things like medicine, food, electronics, cars and airplanes have all been improved by neutron-scattering research. Neutron research also helps scientists improve materials used in a multitude of different products, such as high-temperature superconductors, powerful lightweight magnets, stronger, lighter plastic products etc. Neutron scattering is one of the most effective ways to obtain information on both, the structure and the dynamics of condensed matter. Most of the world's neutron sources were built decades ago, and although the uses and demand for neutrons have increased throughout the years, few new sources have been built. The new construction, accelerator-based neutron source, the spallation source will provide the most intense pulsed neutron beams in the world for scientific research and industrial development. In this paper it will be described what neutrons are and what unique properties make them useful for science, how spallation source is designed to produce neutron beams and the experimental instruments that will use those beams. Finally, it will be described how past neutron research has affected our everyday lives and what we might expect from the most exciting future applications.

  7. Using and Developing Measurement Instruments in Science Education: A Rasch Modeling Approach. Science & Engineering Education Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng

    2010-01-01

    This book meets a demand in the science education community for a comprehensive and introductory measurement book in science education. It describes measurement instruments reported in refereed science education research journals, and introduces the Rasch modeling approach to developing measurement instruments in common science assessment domains,…

  8. Development and Evaluation of an Undergraduate Science Communication Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoman, Kay H.; James, Helen A.; Bowater, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of an undergraduate final year science communication module for the Science Faculty at the University of East Anglia. The module focuses specifically on science communication and aims to bring an understanding of how science is disseminated to the public. Students on the module are made aware of the…

  9. Next Generation Space Telescope Integrated Science Module Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurr, Richard G.; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Jurotich, Matthew M.; Whitley, Raymond; Kalinowski, Keith J.; Love, Bruce W.; Travis, Jeffrey W.; Long, Knox S.

    1999-01-01

    The Data system for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) Integrated Science Module (ISIM) is the primary data interface between the spacecraft, telescope, and science instrument systems. This poster includes block diagrams of the ISIM data system and its components derived during the pre-phase A Yardstick feasibility study. The poster details the hardware and software components used to acquire and process science data for the Yardstick instrument compliment, and depicts the baseline external interfaces to science instruments and other systems. This baseline data system is a fully redundant, high performance computing system. Each redundant computer contains three 150 MHz power PC processors. All processors execute a commercially available real time multi-tasking operating system supporting, preemptive multi-tasking, file management and network interfaces. These six processors in the system are networked together. The spacecraft interface baseline is an extension of the network, which links the six processors. The final selection for Processor busses, processor chips, network interfaces, and high-speed data interfaces will be made during mid 2002.

  10. Low-T, Low-Q Cryocoolers for Science Instruments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the planned research is to advance the current space science instruments through the development of light weight and low power cryocoolers. Currently,...

  11. Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) science instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, R.; Hing, S.M.; Leidich, C.A.; Fazio, G.; Houck, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Concepts of scientific instruments designed to perform infrared astronomical tasks such as imaging, photometry, and spectroscopy are discussed as part of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) project under definition study at NASA/Ames Research Center. The instruments are: the multiband imaging photometer, the infrared array camera, and the infrared spectograph. SIRTF, a cryogenically cooled infrared telescope in the 1-meter range and wavelengths as short as 2.5 microns carrying multiple instruments with high sensitivity and low background performance, provides the capability to carry out basic astronomical investigations such as deep search for very distant protogalaxies, quasi-stellar objects, and missing mass; infrared emission from galaxies; star formation and the interstellar medium; and the composition and structure of the atmospheres of the outer planets in the solar sytem. 8 refs

  12. Data, instruments, and theory a dialectical approach to understanding science

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, Robert John

    1985-01-01

    Robert John Ackermann deals decisively with the problem of relativism that has plagued post-empiricist philosophy of science. Recognizing that theory and data are mediated by data domains (bordered data sets produced by scientific instruments), he argues that the use of instruments breaks the dependency of observation on theory and thus creates a reasoned basis for scientific objectivity.

  13. Purging sensitive science instruments with nitrogen in the STS environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, J. M.; Noel, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    Potential contamination of extremely sensitive science instruments during prelaunch, launch, and earth orbit operations are a major concern to the Galileo and International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM) Programs. The Galileo Program is developing a system to purify Shuttle supplied nitrogen gas for in-flight purging of seven imaging and non-imaging science instruments. Monolayers of contamination deposited on critical surfaces can degrade some instrument sensitivities as much as fifty percent. The purging system provides a reliable supply of filtered and fried nitrogen gas during these critical phases of the mission when the contamination potential is highest. The Galileo and ISPM Programs are including the system as Airborne Support Equipment (ASE).

  14. Remote Instrumentation for eScience and Related Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Lawenda, Marcin; Meyer, Norbert; Pugliese, Roberto; Węglarz, Jan; Zappatore, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Making scientific instruments a manageable resource over distributed computing infrastructures such as the grid has been a key focal point of e-science research in recent years. It is now known by the generic term ‘remote instrumentation’, and is the subject of this useful volume that covers a range of perspectives on the topic reflected by the contributions to the 2010 workshop on remote instrumentation held in Poznań, Poland. E-science itself is a complex set of disciplines requiring computationally intensive distributed operations, high-speed networking, and collaborative working tools. As such, it is most often (and correctly) associated with grid- and cloud-computing infrastructures and middleware. The contributions to this publication consider broader aspects of the theme of remote instrumentation applied to e-science, as well as exploring related technologies that enable the implementation of truly distributed and coordinated laboratories. Among the topics discussed are remote instrumentation and ...

  15. Advanced Instrumentation for Ultrafast Science at the LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrah, Nora [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2015-10-13

    This grant supported a Single Investigator and Small Group Research (SISGR) application to enable multi-user research in Ultrafast Science using the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the world’s first hard x-ray free electron laser (FEL) which lased for the first time at 1.5 Å on April 20, 2009. The goal of our proposal was to enable a New Era of Science by requesting funds to purchase and build Advanced Instrumentation for Ultrafast Science (AIUS), to utilize the intense, short x-ray pulses produced by the LCLS. The proposed instrumentation will allow peer review selected users to probe the ultrasmall and capture the ultrafast. These tools will expand on the investment already made in the construction of the light source and its instrumentation in both the LCLS and LUSI projects. The AIUS will provide researchers in the AMO, Chemical, Biological and Condensed Matter communities with greater flexibility in defining their scientific agenda at the LCLS. The proposed instrumentation will complement and significantly augment the present AMO instrument (funded through the LCLS project) through detectors and capabilities not included in the initial suite of instrumentation at the facility. We have built all of the instrumentations and they have been utilized by scientists. Please see report attached.

  16. Science Driven Instrumentation for LCLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, John [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bergmann, Uwe [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Brunger, Axel [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bostedt, Christoph [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Boutet, Sebastien [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bozek, John [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cocco, Daniele [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Devereaux, Tom [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ding, Yuantao [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Durr, Hermann [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fritz, David [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gaffney, Kelly [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Galayda, John [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Goldstein, Julia [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Guhr, Markus [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hastings, Jerome [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Heimann, Philip [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hodgson, Keith [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Huang, Zirong [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kelez, Nicholas [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Montanez, Paul [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2014-03-24

    The world’s first x-ray free electron laser (XFEL), LCLS, has now been operating for more than three years and all six experimental stations are supporting user science and producing high impact scientific results. Other countries are rapidly catching up and a second XFEL, SACLA, is already operating in Japan with others coming on line in Germany, Korea and Switzerland within the next three to five years. In order to increase capability and capacity of LCLS, the Department of Energy has funded LCLS-II.

  17. The OCO-3 Mission: Science Objectives and Instrument Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldering, A.; Basilio, R. R.; Bennett, M. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory 3 (OCO-3) will continue global CO2 and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) using the flight spare instrument from OCO-2. The instrument is currently being tested, and will be packaged for installation on the International Space Station (ISS) (launch readiness in early 2018.) This talk will focus on the science objectives, updated simulations of the science data products, and the outcome of recent instrument performance tests. The low-inclination ISS orbit lets OCO-3 sample the tropics and sub-tropics across the full range of daylight hours with dense observations at northern and southern mid-latitudes (+/- 52º). The combination of these dense CO2 and SIF measurements provides continuity of data for global flux estimates as well as a unique opportunity to address key deficiencies in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. The instrument utilizes an agile, 2-axis pointing mechanism (PMA), providing the capability to look towards the bright reflection from the ocean and validation targets. The PMA also allows for a snapshot mapping mode to collect dense datasets over 100km by 100km areas. Measurements over urban centers could aid in making estimates of fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Similarly, the snapshot mapping mode can be used to sample regions of interest for the terrestrial carbon cycle. In addition, there is potential to utilize data from ISS instruments ECOSTRESS (ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station) and GEDI (Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation), which measure other key variables of the control of carbon uptake by plants, to complement OCO-3 data in science analysis. In 2017, the OCO-2 instrument was transformed into the ISS-ready OCO-3 payload. The transformed instrument was thoroughly tested and characterized. Key characteristics, such as instrument ILS, spectral resolution, and radiometric performance will be described. Analysis of direct sun measurements taken during testing

  18. Smartphone measurement engineering - Innovative challenges for science & education, instrumentation & training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, D.; Dittrich, P.-G.; Duentsch, E.

    2010-07-01

    Smartphones have an enormous conceptual and structural influence on measurement science & education, instrumentation & training. Smartphones are matured. They became convenient, reliable and affordable. In 2009 worldwide 174 million Smartphones has been delivered. Measurement with Smartphones is ready for the future. In only 10 years the German vision industry tripled its global sales volume to one Billion Euro/Year. Machine vision is used for mobile object identification, contactless industrial quality control, personalized health care, remote facility and transport management, safety critical surveillance and all tasks which are too complex for the human eye or too monotonous for the human brain. Aim of the paper is to describe selected success stories for the application of Smartphones for measurement engineering in science and education, instrumentation and training.

  19. Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation at the National Science Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczynski, Peter; Neff, James E.

    2018-01-01

    Over its more than thirty-year history, the Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation (ATI) program within the Division of Astronomical Sciences has provided grants to support the development and deployment of detectors and instrumentation for ground-based astronomy. This program has enabled scientific advances in diverse fields from solar physics to exoplanets to cosmology. ATI has provided instrumentation for both small and large observatories from radio through visible wavebands. It has played a role in the early development of major initiatives such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. Technology development for astronomy unfolds over a longer period than the lifetime of a single grant. This review will consider ATI from an historical perspective to assess its impact on astronomy.

  20. Fire!: An Event-Based Science Module. Teacher's Guide. Chemistry and Fire Ecology Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school earth science or physical science teachers to help their students learn scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event- based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork,…

  1. Remote Access to Instrumental Analysis for Distance Education in Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Kennepohl

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Remote access to experiments offers distance educators another tool to integrate a strong laboratory component within a science course. Since virtually all modern chemical instrumental analysis in industry now use devices operated by a computer interface, remote control of instrumentation is not only relatively facile, it enhances students’ opportunity to learn the subject matter and be exposed to “real world” contents. Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (NAIT and Athabasca University are developing teaching laboratories based on the control of analytical instruments in real-time via an Internet connection. Students perform real-time analysis using equipment, methods, and skills that are common to modern analytical laboratories (or sophisticated teaching laboratories. Students obtain real results using real substances to arrive at real conclusions, just as they would if they were in a physical laboratory with the equipment; this approach allows students to access to conduct instrumental science experiments, thus providing them with an advantageous route to upgrade their laboratory skills while learning at a distance.

  2. Mars Science Laboratory Using Laser Instrument, Artist's Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This artist's conception of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory portrays use of the rover's ChemCam instrument to identify the chemical composition of a rock sample on the surface of Mars. ChemCam is innovative for planetary exploration in using a technique referred to as laser breakdown spectroscopy to determine the chemical composition of samples from distances of up to about 8 meters (25 feet) away. ChemCam is led by a team at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements in Toulouse, France. Mars Science Laboratory, a mobile robot for investigating Mars' past or present ability to sustain microbial life, is in development at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory for a launch opportunity in 2009. The mission is managed by JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  3. Fault-tolerant NAND-flash memory module for next-generation scientific instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Tobias; Michel, Holger; Fiethe, Björn; Michalik, Harald; Walter, Dietmar

    2015-10-01

    Remote sensing instruments on today's space missions deliver a high amount of data which is typically evaluated on ground. Especially for deep space missions the telemetry downlink is very limited which creates the need for the scientific evaluation and thereby a reduction of data volume already on-board the spacecraft. A demanding example is the Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager (PHI) instrument on Solar Orbiter. To enable on-board offline processing for data reduction, the instrument has to be equipped with a high capacity memory module. The module is based on non-volatile NAND-Flash technology, which requires more advanced operation than volatile DRAM. Unlike classical mass memories, the module is integrated into the instrument and allows readback of data for processing. The architecture and safe operation of such kind of memory module is described in the following paper.

  4. Recycled material-based science instruments to support science education in rural area at Central Sulawesi District of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M.; Supriyatman; Saehana, S.

    2018-03-01

    It has been successfully designing low cost of science experiment from recycled materials. The science instruments were produced to explain expansion concept and hydrostatic pressure inside the liquid. Science instruments were calibrated and then validated. It was also implemented in science learning.

  5. Perceptually Salient Regions of the Modulation Power Spectrum for Musical Instrument Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoret, Etienne; Depalle, Philippe; McAdams, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The ability of a listener to recognize sound sources, and in particular musical instruments from the sounds they produce, raises the question of determining the acoustical information used to achieve such a task. It is now well known that the shapes of the temporal and spectral envelopes are crucial to the recognition of a musical instrument. More recently, Modulation Power Spectra (MPS) have been shown to be a representation that potentially explains the perception of musical instrument sounds. Nevertheless, the question of which specific regions of this representation characterize a musical instrument is still open. An identification task was applied to two subsets of musical instruments: tuba, trombone, cello, saxophone, and clarinet on the one hand, and marimba, vibraphone, guitar, harp, and viola pizzicato on the other. The sounds were processed with filtered spectrotemporal modulations with 2D Gaussian windows. The most relevant regions of this representation for instrument identification were determined for each instrument and reveal the regions essential for their identification. The method used here is based on a "molecular approach," the so-called bubbles method. Globally, the instruments were correctly identified and the lower values of spectrotemporal modulations are the most important regions of the MPS for recognizing instruments. Interestingly, instruments that were confused with each other led to non-overlapping regions and were confused when they were filtered in the most salient region of the other instrument. These results suggest that musical instrument timbres are characterized by specific spectrotemporal modulations, information which could contribute to music information retrieval tasks such as automatic source recognition.

  6. Volcano!: An Event-Based Science Module. Teacher's Guide. Geology Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school earth science teachers to help their students learn scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event-based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork, independent research,…

  7. Prototyping a Global Soft X-Ray Imaging Instrument for Heliophysics, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, M. R.; Porter, F. S.; Sibeck, D. G.; Carter, J. A.; Chiao, M. P.; Chornay, D. J.; Cravens, T.; Galeazzi, M.; Keller, J. W.; Koutroumpa, D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We describe current progress in the development of a prototype wide field-of-view soft X-ray imager that employs Lobstereye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The prototype will provide proof-of-concept for a future flight instrument capable of imaging the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere. Such an instrument was proposed for the ESA AXIOM mission.

  8. Prototyping a Global Soft X-ray Imaging Instrument for Heliophysics, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Porter, F. Scott; Sibeck, David G.; Carter, Jenny A.; Chiao, Meng P.; Chornay, Dennis J.; Cravens, Thomas; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Keller, John W.; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; hide

    2012-01-01

    We describe current progress in the development of a prototype wide field-of-view soft X-ray imager that employs Lobster-eye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The prototype will provide proof-of-concept for a future flight instrument capable of imaging the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere. Such an instrument was proposed for the FSA AXIOM mission

  9. Giga-bit optical data transmission module for Beam Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Roedne, L T; Cenkeramaddi, L R; Jiao, L

    Particle accelerators require electronic instrumentation for diagnostic, assessment and monitoring during operation of the transferring and circulating beams. A sensor located near the beam provides an electrical signal related to the observable quantity of interest. The front-end electronics provides analog-to-digital conversion of the quantity being observed and the generated data are to be transferred to the external digital back-end for data processing, and to display to the operators and logging. This research project investigates the feasibility of radiation-tolerant giga-bit data transmission over optic fibre for beam instrumentation applications, starting from the assessment of the state of the art technology, identification of challenges and proposal of a system level solution, which should be validated with a PCB design in an experimental setup. Radiation tolerance of 10 kGy (Si) Total Ionizing Dose (TID) over 10 years of operation, Bit Error Rate (BER) 10-6 or better. The findings and results of th...

  10. Measuring primary teachers' attitudes toward teaching science: development of the dimensions of attitude toward science (DAS) instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Julie Henriëtte

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a valid and reliable instrument which measures the attitude of in-service and pre-service primary teachers toward teaching science, called the Dimensions of Attitude Toward Science (DAS) Instrument. Attention to the attitudes of primary teachers toward teaching science is

  11. Measuring Primary Teachers' Attitudes toward Teaching Science: Development of the Dimensions of Attitude toward Science (DAS) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Juliette

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a valid and reliable instrument which measures the attitude of in-service and pre-service primary teachers toward teaching science, called the Dimensions of Attitude Toward Science (DAS) Instrument. Attention to the attitudes of primary teachers toward teaching science is of fundamental importance to the…

  12. Outreach Education Modules on Space Sciences in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I.-Te; Tiger Liu, Jann-Yeng; Chen, Chao-Yen

    2013-04-01

    The Ionospheric Radio Science Laboratory (IRSL) at Institute of Space Science, National Central University in Taiwan has been conducting a program for public outreach educations on space science by giving lectures, organizing camps, touring exhibits, and experiencing hand-on experiments to elementary school, high school, and college students as well as general public since 1991. The program began with a topic of traveling/living in space, and was followed by space environment, space mission, and space weather monitoring, etc. and a series of course module and experiment (i.e. experiencing activity) module was carried out. For past decadal, the course modules have been developed to cover the space environment of the Sun, interplanetary space, and geospace, as well as the space technology of the rocket, satellite, space shuttle (plane), space station, living in space, observing the Earth from space, and weather observation. Each course module highlights the current status and latest new finding as well as discusses 1-3 key/core issues/concepts and equip with 2-3 activity/experiment modules to make students more easily to understand the topics/issues. Meanwhile, scientific camps are given to lead students a better understanding and interesting on space science. Currently, a visualized image projecting system, Dagik Earth, is developed to demonstrate the scientific results on a sphere together with the course modules. This system will dramatically improve the educational skill and increase interests of participators.

  13. Volcano!: An Event-Based Science Module. Student Edition. Geology Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school students to learn scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event-based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork, independent research, hands-on investigations, and…

  14. Instrumentation for Scientific Computing in Neural Networks, Information Science, Artificial Intelligence, and Applied Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    include Security Classification) Instrumentation for scientific computing in neural networks, information science, artificial intelligence, and...instrumentation grant to purchase equipment for support of research in neural networks, information science, artificail intellignece , and applied mathematics...in Neural Networks, Information Science, Artificial Intelligence, and Applied Mathematics Contract AFOSR 86-0282 Principal Investigator: Stephen

  15. What Are They Thinking? The Development and Use of an Instrument that Identifies Common Science Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles R.; Larrabee, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the rationale for, and development of, an online instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. Science Beliefs is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. It utilizes a true or false, along with a written-explanation, format. The true or…

  16. Nuclear Instrumentation Module (NIM) standard logic processor as a portal signal analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minges, G.P.

    1978-01-01

    A general purpose electronic logic processor has been designed into a 2 wide NIM (Nuclear Instrumentation Module) bin module. The unit utilizes a microprocessor to achieve necessary versatility. The processor's first use is as a new generation signal analyzer for use in radiometric personnel and vehicle portal monitors. Significant improvements have been obtained in sensitivity and stability over existing analog discriminators. The new analyzer is presently being used to update personnel and vehicle portal monitoring systems

  17. Development of perceived instrumentality for mathematics, reading and science curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Steve L.

    Perceptions of instrumentality (PI) are the connections one sees between a current activity and a future goal. With high PI, one is motivated to persist with quality effort because the current activity, even when difficult, is perceived as aligned with, and progress toward, the goal. Conversely, with low PI, one is motivated to relinquish effort in pursuit of other, more meaningful goals. In view of the alarming dropout rates in this country, it appears that PI research has much to offer in understanding students' motivations to stay in school and hence to become employed in their field of choice. Because academic achievement motivation can be affected by gender and ethnicity, particularly for specific components of the curriculum, and because curricular content varies across grade levels and school settings, this line of research offers significant potential for understanding and improving student outcomes. This research examined the development of PI among suburban 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th graders from a school district in the southwestern United States. Twelve hundred students completed a one-time paper and pencil survey measuring the perceived instrumentality of mathematics, literacy and science courses in terms of the students' occupational choices. MANOVA was used to determine factors that may affect students' overall PI and individual subject PI. Grade, gender, ethnicity, occupational choice, expectancy and value were the independent variables. A school setting variable was examined for effects on 12th graders. For the 8th through 12th grade sample, significant main effects were observed for grade, gender, minority status, occupational choice and expectancy on PI. Results show that PI is highest in the 6 th grade. Males reported higher Math PI than females. Females reported higher Reading PI and Science PI than males. Minority students reported lower overall PI and Science PI than non-minority students. Students who aspire to professional careers report the

  18. Construction and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Taiwanese Elementary Students' Attitudes toward Their Science Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Ling; Berlin, Donna

    2010-12-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the attitudes toward science class of fourth- and fifth-grade students in an Asian school culture. Specifically, the development focused on three science attitude constructs-science enjoyment, science confidence, and importance of science as related to science class experiences. A total of 265 elementary school students in Taiwan responded to the instrument developed. Data analysis indicated that the instrument exhibited satisfactory validity and reliability with the Taiwan population used. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.93 for the entire instrument indicating a satisfactory level of internal consistency. However, both principal component analysis and parallel analysis showed that the three attitude scales were not unique and should be combined and used as a general "attitudes toward science class" scale. The analysis also showed that there were no gender or grade-level differences in students' overall attitudes toward science class.

  19. On DESTINY Science Instrument Electrical and Electronics Subsystem Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhner, Semion; Benford, Dominic J.; Lauer, Tod R.

    2009-01-01

    Future space missions are going to require large focal planes with many sensing arrays and hundreds of millions of pixels all read out at high data rates'' . This will place unique demands on the electrical and electronics (EE) subsystem design and it will be critically important to have high technology readiness level (TRL) EE concepts ready to support such missions. One such omission is the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) charged with making precise measurements of the expansion rate of the universe to reveal vital clues about the nature of dark energy - a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to increase the rate of the expansion. One of three JDEM concept studies - the Dark Energy Space Telescope (DESTINY) was conducted in 2008 at the NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland. This paper presents the EE subsystem framework, which evolved from the DESTINY science instrument study. It describes the main challenges and implementation concepts related to the design of an EE subsystem featuring multiple focal planes populated with dozens of large arrays and millions of pixels. The focal planes are passively cooled to cryogenic temperatures (below 140 K). The sensor mosaic is controlled by a large number of Readout Integrated Circuits and Application Specific Integrated Circuits - the ROICs/ASICs in near proximity to their sensor focal planes. The ASICs, in turn, are serviced by a set of "warm" EE subsystem boxes performing Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based digital signal processing (DSP) computations of complex algorithms, such as sampling-up-the-ramp algorithm (SUTR), over large volumes of fast data streams. The SUTR boxes are supported by the Instrument Control/Command and Data Handling box (ICDH Primary and Backup boxes) for lossless data compression, command and low volume telemetry handling, power conversion and for communications with the spacecraft. The paper outlines how the JDEM DESTINY concept

  20. Pittsburgh Science Technology Society Project: Instruction Modules. Interrelationships Science--Technology--Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, George, Ed.

    This collection of instruction modules studies the interactions of science, technology, and society (STS) using five activity sets. The introduction module includes activities which show students the STS relationships in their world, develop good organizational skills, develop an understanding of who and what a scientist is, develop graphing…

  1. Simulator of the NUMAC SRMN module as virtual instrument for the personnel training of the LVNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas S, A.S.; Rivero G, T.; Ruiz E, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    operation of a virtual instrument of the NUMAC SRNM module. This instrument is presented in the screen of a personal computer PC with its characteristics and all the operation functions that a real NUMAC module. With this instrumentation type one has the advantage of to manipulate and to operate the instrument without the necessity to count physically with a module of this type, besides avoiding the extraction of it original position avoiding to interfere or to alter the reactor operation. This instrument was developed with LabVIEW graphic programming to be used as simulator in the practices inside the training programs of the operative personnel or instrumentalist of the CNLV. (Author)

  2. ANALYZE THE KNOWLEDGE INQUIRY SCIENCE PHYSICS TEACHER CANDIDATES WITH ESSENCE INQUIRY SCIENCE TEST INSTRUMENT OPTIKA GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Bunawan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this research to explore the relationship between ability of the knowledge essential features inquiry science and their reasons underlying sense of scientific inquiry for physics teacher candidates on content geometrical optics. The essential features of inquiry science are components that should arise during the learning process subject matter of geometrical optics reflectance of light on a flat mirror, the reflection of light on curved mirrors and refraction of light at the lens. Five of essential features inquiry science adopted from assessment system developed by the National Research Council. Content geometrical optics developed from an analysis of a college syllabus material. Based on the study of the essential features of inquiry and content develop the multiple choice diagnostic test three tier. Data were taken from the students who are taking courses in optics and wave from one the LPTK in North Sumatra totaled 38 students. Instruments showed Cronbach alpha reliability of 0.67 to test the essential features of inquiry science and 0.61 to there as on geometrical optics science inquiry.

  3. NASA SMD Airborne Science Capabilities for Development and Testing of New Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fladeland, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The SMD NASA Airborne Science Program operates and maintains a fleet of highly modified aircraft to support instrument development, satellite instrument calibration, data product validation and earth science process studies. This poster will provide an overview of aircraft available to NASA researchers including performance specifications and modifications for instrument support, processes for requesting aircraft time and developing cost estimates for proposals, and policies and procedures required to ensure safety of flight.

  4. RECOVERY OF LARGE ANGULAR SCALE CMB POLARIZATION FOR INSTRUMENTS EMPLOYING VARIABLE-DELAY POLARIZATION MODULATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. J.; Marriage, T. A.; Appel, J. W.; Bennett, C. L.; Eimer, J.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Harrington, K.; Rostem, K.; Watts, D. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chuss, D. T. [Department of Physics, Villanova University, 800 E Lancaster, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Wollack, E. J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Moseley, S. H.; Switzer, E. R., E-mail: Nathan.J.Miller@nasa.gov [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    Variable-delay Polarization Modulators (VPMs) are currently being implemented in experiments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background on large angular scales because of their capability for providing rapid, front-end polarization modulation and control over systematic errors. Despite the advantages provided by the VPM, it is important to identify and mitigate any time-varying effects that leak into the synchronously modulated component of the signal. In this paper, the effect of emission from a 300 K VPM on the system performance is considered and addressed. Though instrument design can greatly reduce the influence of modulated VPM emission, some residual modulated signal is expected. VPM emission is treated in the presence of rotational misalignments and temperature variation. Simulations of time-ordered data are used to evaluate the effect of these residual errors on the power spectrum. The analysis and modeling in this paper guides experimentalists on the critical aspects of observations using VPMs as front-end modulators. By implementing the characterizations and controls as described, front-end VPM modulation can be very powerful for mitigating 1/f noise in large angular scale polarimetric surveys. None of the systematic errors studied fundamentally limit the detection and characterization of B-modes on large scales for a tensor-to-scalar ratio of r = 0.01. Indeed, r < 0.01 is achievable with commensurately improved characterizations and controls.

  5. Design of a instrumentation module for monitoring ingestive behavior in laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Juan M; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Sazonov, Edward S

    2011-01-01

    The development of accurate and objective tools for monitoring of ingestive behavior (MIB) is one of the most important needs facing studies of obesity and eating disorders. This paper presents the design of an instrumentation module for non-invasive monitoring of food ingestion in laboratory studies. The system can capture signals from a variety of sensors that characterize ingestion process (such as acoustical and other swallowing sensors, strain sensor for chewing detection and self-report buttons). In addition to the sensors, the data collection system integrates time-synchronous video footage that can be used for annotation of subject's activity. Both data and video are simultaneously and synchronously acquired and stored by a LabVIEW-based interface specifically developed for this application. This instrumentation module improves a previously developed system by eliminating the post-processing stage of data synchronization and by reducing the risks of operator's error.

  6. Micro-XRD and temperature-modulated DSC investigation of nickel-titanium rotary endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alapati, Satish B; Brantley, William A; Iijima, Masahiro; Schricker, Scott R; Nusstein, John M; Li, Uei-Ming; Svec, Timothy A

    2009-10-01

    Employ Micro-X-ray diffraction and temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry to investigate microstructural phases, phase transformations, and effects of heat treatment for rotary nickel-titanium instruments. Representative as-received and clinically used ProFile GT and ProTaper instruments were principally studied. Micro-XRD analyses (Cu Kalpha X-rays) were performed at 25 degrees C on areas of approximately 50 microm diameter near the tip and up to 9 mm from the tip. TMDSC analyses were performed from -80 to 100 degrees C and back to -80 degrees C on segments cut from instruments, using a linear heating and cooling rate of 2 degrees C/min, sinusoidal oscillation of 0.318 degrees C, and period of 60s. Instruments were also heat treated 15 min in a nitrogen atmosphere at 400, 500, 600 and 850 degrees C, and analyzed. At all Micro-XRD analysis regions the strongest peak occurred near 42 degrees , indicating that instruments were mostly austenite, with perhaps some R-phase and martensite. Tip and adjacent regions had smallest peak intensities, indicative of greater work hardening, and the intensity at other sites depended on the instrument. TMDSC heating and cooling curves had single peaks for transformations between martensite and austenite. Austenite-finish (A(f)) temperatures and enthalpy changes were similar for as-received and used instruments. Heat treatments at 400, 500 and 600 degrees C raised the A(f) temperature to 45-50 degrees C, and heat treatment at 850 degrees C caused drastic changes in transformation behavior. Micro-XRD provides novel information about NiTi phases at different positions on instruments. TMDSC indicates that heat treatment might yield instruments with substantial martensite and improved clinical performance.

  7. Development of an instrument to measure student attitudes toward science fairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Claudia A.

    Science fairs are woven into the very fabric of science instruction in the United States and in other countries. Even though thousands of students participate in science fairs every year, no instrument to measure student attitudes toward partaking in this hands-on learning experience has been fully developed and available for school administrators and teachers to assess the perceived value that current students attribute to participation in science fairs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to continue the development and refinement of an instrument that measured student attitudes towards science fairs based on an unpublished instrument created by Michael (2005). The instrument developed and tested using 110 students at two different middle schools in southwest Virginia. The instrument consisted of 45 questions. After applying a principal component factor analysis, the instrument was reduced to two domains, enjoyment and value. The internal consistency of the instrument was calculated using Cronbach's alpha and showed good internal consistency of .89 between the two domains. Further analysis was conducted using a Pearson product-moment test and showed a significant positive correlation between enjoyment and value (r = .78). Demographic information was explored concerning the domains using a series of statistical tests, and results revealed no significant differences among race and science fair category. However, a significant difference was found among gender and students who won awards and those who did not. The conclusion was that further development and refinement of the instrument should be conducted.

  8. SOFIA science instruments: commissioning, upgrades and future opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erin C.; Miles, John W.; Helton, L. Andrew; Sankrit, Ravi; Andersson, B. G.; Becklin, Eric E.; De Buizer, James M.; Dowell, C. D.; Dunham, Edward W.; Güsten, Rolf; Harper, Doyal A.; Herter, Terry L.; Keller, Luke D.; Klein, Randolf; Krabbe, Alfred; Logsdon, Sarah; Marcum, Pamela M.; McLean, Ian S.; Reach, William T.; Richter, Matthew J.; Roellig, Thomas L.; Sandell, Göran; Savage, Maureen L.; Temi, Pasquale; Vacca, William D.; Vaillancourt, John E.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey E.; Young, Erick T.

    2014-07-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is the world's largest airborne observatory, featuring a 2.5 meter effective aperture telescope housed in the aft section of a Boeing 747SP aircraft. SOFIA's current instrument suite includes: FORCAST (Faint Object InfraRed CAmera for the SOFIA Telescope), a 5-40 μm dual band imager/grism spectrometer developed at Cornell University; HIPO (High-speed Imaging Photometer for Occultations), a 0.3-1.1μm imager built by Lowell Observatory; GREAT (German Receiver for Astronomy at Terahertz Frequencies), a multichannel heterodyne spectrometer from 60-240 μm, developed by a consortium led by the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy; FLITECAM (First Light Infrared Test Experiment CAMera), a 1-5 μm wide-field imager/grism spectrometer developed at UCLA; FIFI-LS (Far-Infrared Field-Imaging Line Spectrometer), a 42-200 μm IFU grating spectrograph completed by University Stuttgart; and EXES (Echelon-Cross-Echelle Spectrograph), a 5-28 μm highresolution spectrometer designed at the University of Texas and being completed by UC Davis and NASA Ames Research Center. HAWC+ (High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera) is a 50-240 μm imager that was originally developed at the University of Chicago as a first-generation instrument (HAWC), and is being upgraded at JPL to add polarimetry and new detectors developed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). SOFIA will continually update its instrument suite with new instrumentation, technology demonstration experiments and upgrades to the existing instrument suite. This paper details the current instrument capabilities and status, as well as the plans for future instrumentation.

  9. Instruments of Science and Citizenship: Science Education for Dutch Orphans During the Late Eighteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lissa L.

    2012-01-01

    One of the two most extensive instrument collections in the Netherlands during the second half of the eighteenth century—rivaling the much better known collection at the University of Leiden—belonged to an orphanage in The Hague that was specially established to mold hand-picked orphans into productive citizens. (The other was housed at the Mennonite Seminary in Amsterdam, for use in the education of its students.) The educational program at this orphanage, one of three established by the Fundatie van Renswoude, grew out of a marriage between the socially-oriented generosity of the wealthy Baroness van Renswoude and the pedagogical vision of the institute's director and head teacher—a vision that fit with the larger movement of oeconomic patriotism. Oeconomic patriotism, similar to `improvement' and oeconomic movements in other European countries and their colonies, sought to tie the investigation of nature to an improvement of society's material and moral well-being. Indeed, it was argued that these two facets of society should be viewed as inseparable from each other, distinguishing the movement from more modern conceptions of economics. While a number of the key figures in this Dutch movement also became prominent Patriots during the revolutionary period at the end of the century, fighting against the House of Orange, they did not have a monopoly on oeconomic ideas of societal improvement. This is demonstrated by the fact that an explicitly pro-Orangist society, Mathesis Scientiarum Genitrix, was organized in 1785 to teach science and mathematics to poor boys and orphans for very similar reasons: to turn them into productive and useful citizens. As was the case with the Fundatie van Renswoude, a collection of instruments was assembled to help make this possible. This story is of interest because it discusses a hitherto under-examined use to which science education was put during this period, by revealing the link between such programs and the highly

  10. History of Computer Science as an Instrument of Enlightenment

    OpenAIRE

    Fet , Yakov

    2013-01-01

    Part 6: Putting the History of Computing into Different Contexts; International audience; This report focuses on the dangerous problems that are currently facing the society – the negative phenomena in development of education and science. The most important way to solve this problem seems to be education and enlightenment. It is assumed that in the history of Computer Science, the intellectual and moral heritage of this history contains a wealth of material that can be used for the dissemina...

  11. BioSIGHT: Interactive Visualization Modules for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wee Ling

    1998-01-01

    Redefining science education to harness emerging integrated media technologies with innovative pedagogical goals represents a unique challenge. The Integrated Media Systems Center (IMSC) is the only engineering research center in the area of multimedia and creative technologies sponsored by the National Science Foundation. The research program at IMSC is focused on developing advanced technologies that address human-computer interfaces, database management, and high- speed network capabilities. The BioSIGHT project at IMSC is a demonstration technology project in the area of education that seeks to address how such emerging multimedia technologies can make an impact on science education. The scope of this project will help solidify NASA's commitment for the development of innovative educational resources that promotes science literacy for our students and the general population as well. These issues must be addressed as NASA marches towards the goal of enabling human space exploration that requires an understanding of life sciences in space. The IMSC BioSIGHT lab was established with the purpose of developing a novel methodology that will map a high school biology curriculum into a series of interactive visualization modules that can be easily incorporated into a space biology curriculum. Fundamental concepts in general biology must be mastered in order to allow a better understanding and application for space biology. Interactive visualization is a powerful component that can capture the students' imagination, facilitate their assimilation of complex ideas, and help them develop integrated views of biology. These modules will augment the role of the teacher and will establish the value of student-centered interactivity, both in an individual setting as well as in a collaborative learning environment. Students will be able to interact with the content material, explore new challenges, and perform virtual laboratory simulations. The BioSIGHT effort is truly cross

  12. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.

    1995-01-01

    This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs

  13. Design and validation of a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Patricia Reda

    National standards for K--12 science education address all aspects of science education, with their main emphasis on curriculum---both science subject matter and the process involved in doing science. Standards for science teacher education programs have been developing along a parallel plane, as is self-efficacy research involving classroom teachers. Generally, studies about efficacy have been dichotomous---basing the theoretical underpinnings on the work of either Rotter's Locus of Control theory or on Bandura's explanations of efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancy. This study brings all three threads together---K--12 science standards, teacher education standards, and efficacy beliefs---in an instrument designed to measure science teacher efficacy with items based on identified critical attributes of standards-based science teaching and learning. Based on Bandura's explanation of efficacy being task-specific and having outcome expectancy, a developmental, systematic progression from standards-based strategies and activities to tasks to critical attributes was used to craft items for a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument. Demographic questions related to school characteristics, teacher characteristics, preservice background, science teaching experience, and post-certification professional development were included in the instrument. The instrument was completed by 102 middle level science teachers, with complete data for 87 teachers. A principal components analysis of the science teachers' responses to the instrument resulted in two components: Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Teaching (BAT, reliability = .92) and Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Student Achievement (BASA, reliability = .82). Variables that were characteristic of professional development activities, science content preparation, and school environment were identified as members of the sets of variables predicting the BAT and BASA

  14. Instrument development for materials science research at WNR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, J.; Silver, R.N.; Soper, A.; Vergamini, P.J.; Goldstone, J.; Larson, A.; Seeger, P.A.; Yarnell, J.

    1980-01-01

    The neutron scattering program at the Los Alamos spallation neutron source is based on the operational WNR facility which provides up to 11 μA of 800 MeV protons to a target in pulse widths up to 8 μs at 120 Hz. The immediate goals of the program are: to gain experience with neutron instrumentation at spallation neutron sources; and to explore the scientific potential for condensed matter research at these sources. The proton storage ring (PSR) funded for construction will provide 100 μA in 0.27 μs pulses at 12 Hz, therefore greatly improving intensity, time-of-flight (TOF) resolution, and repetition rate. The initial emphasis, given limited manpower and resources, has been placed on developing a set of prototype instruments which are relatively easy to implement and which take advantage of the unique characteristics of the present WNR when compared with reactor neutron sources

  15. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised

  16. A Module-Based Environmental Science Course for Teaching Ecology to Non-Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoffrey R.

    2010-01-01

    Using module-based courses has been suggested to improve undergraduate science courses. A course based around a series of modules focused on major environmental issues might be an effective way to teach non-science majors about ecology and ecology's role in helping to solve environmental problems. I have used such a module-based environmental…

  17. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  18. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  19. Modulation of instrumental responding by a conditioned threat stimulus requires lateral and central amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent eCampese

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two studies explored the role of the amygdala in response modulation by an aversive conditioned stimulus (CS in rats. Experiment 1 investigated the role of amygdala circuitry in conditioned suppression using a paradigm in which licking for sucrose was inhibited by a tone CS that had been previously paired with footshock. Electrolytic lesions of the lateral amygdala impaired suppression relative to sham-operated animals, and produced the same pattern of results when applied to central amygdala. In addition, disconnection of the lateral and central amygdala, by unilateral lesion of each on opposite sides of the brain, also impaired suppression relative to control subjects that received lesions of both areas on the same side. In each case, lesions were placed following Pavlovian conditioning and instrumental training, but before testing. This procedure produced within-subjects measures of the effects of lesion on freezing and between-group comparisons for the effects on suppression. Experiment 2 extended this analysis to a task where an aversive CS suppressed shuttling responses that had been previously food reinforced and also found effects of bilateral lesions of the central amygdala in a pre-post design. Together, these studies demonstrate that connections between the lateral and central amygdala constitute a serial circuit involved in processing aversive Pavlovian stimuli, and add to a growing body of findings implicating central amygdala in the modulation of instrumental behavior.

  20. The Atomic, Molecular and Optical Science instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, Ken R. [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, 348 Via Pueblo, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Bucher, Maximilian; Bozek, John D.; Carron, Sebastian; Castagna, Jean-Charles [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Coffee, Ryan [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Pulse Institute, Stanford University and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Curiel, G. Ivan; Holmes, Michael; Krzywinski, Jacek; Messerschmidt, Marc; Minitti, Michael; Mitra, Ankush; Moeller, Stefan; Noonan, Peter; Osipov, Timur; Schorb, Sebastian; Swiggers, Michele; Wallace, Alexander; Yin, Jing [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Bostedt, Christoph, E-mail: bostedt@slac.stanford.edu [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Pulse Institute, Stanford University and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2015-04-17

    A description of the Atomic, Molecular and Optical Sciences (AMO) instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source is presented. Recent scientific highlights illustrate the imaging, time-resolved spectroscopy and high-power density capabilities of the AMO instrument. The Atomic, Molecular and Optical Science (AMO) instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) provides a tight soft X-ray focus into one of three experimental endstations. The flexible instrument design is optimized for studying a wide variety of phenomena requiring peak intensity. There is a suite of spectrometers and two photon area detectors available. An optional mirror-based split-and-delay unit can be used for X-ray pump–probe experiments. Recent scientific highlights illustrate the imaging, time-resolved spectroscopy and high-power density capabilities of the AMO instrument.

  1. The Preschool Rating Instrument for Science and Mathematics (PRISM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, Kimberly; Stevenson-Garcia, Judi; Jung, Kwanghee; Frede, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, few valid and reliable assessments were available to measure young children's mathematics and science learning in a "comprehensive" way. Now, a number of mathematics assessments have been developed and subjected to testing (Klein, Starkey, & Wakeley, 2000; Ginsburg, 2008; Clements & Sarama, 2008), and progress has…

  2. The EGSE science software of the IBIS instrument on-board INTEGRAL satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Rosa, Giovanni; Fazio, Giacomo; Segreto, Alberto; Gianotti, Fulvio; Stephen, John; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2000-01-01

    IBIS (Imager on Board INTEGRAL Satellite) is one of the key instrument on-board the INTEGRAL satellite, the follow up mission of the high energy missions CGRO and Granat. The EGSE of IBIS is composed by a Satellite Interface Simulator, a Control Station and a Science Station. Here are described the solutions adopted for the architectural design of the software running on the Science Station. Some preliminary results are used to show the science functionality, that allowed to understand the instrument behavior, all along the test and calibration campaigns of the Engineering Model of IBIS

  3. Review of decametric radio astronomy - instruments and science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, W.C.; Cane, H.V.

    1987-01-01

    The techniques and instruments used in Galactic and extragalactic radio astronomy at dkm wavelengths are surveyed, and typical results are summarized. Consideration is given to the large specialized phased arrays used for early surveys, the use of wideband elements to increase frequency agility, experimental VLBI observations, and limitations on ground-based observations below about 10 MHz (where the proposed LF Space Array, with resolution 0.5-5 arcmin, could make a major contribution). Observations discussed cover the Galactic center, the Galactic background radiation, SNRs, compact Galactic sources, the ISM, and large extragalactic sources. 38 references

  4. Dental diagnostic clinical instrument ('Canary') development using photothermal radiometry and modulated luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, R J; Sivagurunathan, K; Garcia, J; Matvienko, A; Mandelis, A [Center for Advanced Diffusion Wave Technologies (CADIFT), Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3G8 (Canada); Abrams, S, E-mail: mandelis@mie.utoronto.c [Quantum Dental Technologies, 748 Briar Hill Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M6B 1L3 (Canada)

    2010-03-01

    Since 1999, our group at the CADIFT, University of Toronto, has developed the application of Frequency Domain Photothermal Radiometry (PTR) and Luminescence (LUM) to dental caries detection. Various cases including artificial caries detection have been studied and some of the inherent advantages of the adaptation of this technique to dental diagnostics in conjunction with modulated luminescence as a dual-probe technique have been reported. Based on these studies, a portable, compact diagnostic instrument for dental clinic use has been designed, assembled and tested. A semiconductor laser, optical fibers, a thermoelectric cooled mid-IR detector, and a USB connected data acquisition card were used. Software lock-in amplifier techniques were developed to compute amplitude and phase of PTR and LUM signals. In order to achieve fast measurement and acceptable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for clinical application, swept sine waveforms were used. As a result sampling and stabilization time for each measurement point was reduced to a few seconds. A sophisticated software interface was designed to simultaneously record intra-oral camera images with PTR and LUM responses. Preliminary results using this instrument during clinical trials in a dental clinic showed this instrument could detect early caries both from PTR and LUM signals.

  5. Dental diagnostic clinical instrument (Canary) development using photothermal radiometry and modulated luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, R J; Sivagurunathan, K; Garcia, J; Matvienko, A; Mandelis, A; Abrams, S

    2010-01-01

    Since 1999, our group at the CADIFT, University of Toronto, has developed the application of Frequency Domain Photothermal Radiometry (PTR) and Luminescence (LUM) to dental caries detection. Various cases including artificial caries detection have been studied and some of the inherent advantages of the adaptation of this technique to dental diagnostics in conjunction with modulated luminescence as a dual-probe technique have been reported. Based on these studies, a portable, compact diagnostic instrument for dental clinic use has been designed, assembled and tested. A semiconductor laser, optical fibers, a thermoelectric cooled mid-IR detector, and a USB connected data acquisition card were used. Software lock-in amplifier techniques were developed to compute amplitude and phase of PTR and LUM signals. In order to achieve fast measurement and acceptable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for clinical application, swept sine waveforms were used. As a result sampling and stabilization time for each measurement point was reduced to a few seconds. A sophisticated software interface was designed to simultaneously record intra-oral camera images with PTR and LUM responses. Preliminary results using this instrument during clinical trials in a dental clinic showed this instrument could detect early caries both from PTR and LUM signals.

  6. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  7. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  8. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  9. Integrating Instrumental Data Provides the Full Science in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, M.; Boghosian, A.; Bell, R. E.; Frearson, N.

    2017-12-01

    Looking at data sparks questions, discussion and insights. By integrating multiple data sets we deepen our understanding of how cryosphere processes operate. Field collected data provide measurements from multiple instruments supporting rapid insights. Icepod provides a platform focused on the integration of multiple instruments. Over the last three seasons, the ROSETTA-Ice project has deployed Icepod to comprehensively map the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. This integrative data collection along with new methods of data visualization allows us to answer questions about ice shelf structure and evolution that arise during data processing and review. While data are vetted and archived in the field to confirm instruments are operating, upon return to the lab data are again reviewed for accuracy before full analysis. Recent review of shallow ice radar data from the Beardmore Glacier, an outlet glacier into the Ross Ice Shelf, presented an abrupt discontinuity in the ice surface. This sharp 8m surface elevation drop was originally interpreted as a processing error. Data were reexamined, integrating the simultaneously collected shallow and deep ice radar with lidar data. All the data sources showed the surface discontinuity, confirming the abrupt 8m drop in surface elevation. Examining high resolution WorldView satellite imagery revealed a persistent source for these elevation drops. The satellite imagery showed that this tear in the ice surface was only one piece of a larger pattern of "chatter marks" in ice that flows at a rate of 300 m/yr. The markings are buried over a distance of 30 km or after 100 years of travel down Beardmore Glacier towards the front of the Ross Ice Shelf. Using Icepod's lidar and cameras we map this chatter mark feature in 3D to reveal its full structure. We use digital elevation models from WorldView to map the other along flow chatter marks. In order to investigate the relationship between these surface features and basal crevasses, the deep ice

  10. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.

    2008-01-01

    A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.

  11. Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehrer, W.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs

  12. International Conference on Bio-Medical Instrumentation and related Engineering and Physical Sciences (BIOMEP 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The International Conference on Bio-Medical Instrumentation and related Engineering and Physical Sciences (BIOMEP 2015) took place in the Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Athens, Greece on June 18-20, 2015 and was organized by the Department of Biomedical Engineering. The scope of the conference was to provide a forum on the latest developments in Biomedical Instrumentation and related principles of Physical and Engineering sciences. Scientists and engineers from academic, industrial and health disciplines were invited to participate in the Conference and to contribute both in the promotion and dissemination of the scientific knowledge.

  13. Nuclear instrument engineering - the measuring and informative basis of nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, V.V.; Krasheninnikov, I.S.; Murin, I.D.; Stas', K.N.

    1977-01-01

    The cornerstones of developing nuclear instrument engineering in the USSR are shortly discussed. The industry is based on a well developed theory. A system approach is a characteristic feature of the present-day measuring and control systems engineering. Major functions of reactor instruments measuring different types of ionizing radiation are discussed at greater length. Nuclear measuring and control instruments and methods are widely used in different fields of science and technoloay and in different industries in the USSR. The efficient and safe operation of a nuclear facility is underlined to depend strongly upon a correlation between a technological process and the information and control system of the facility

  14. A training module for quality management in calibration, maintenance and repair of nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This learning module aims to provide practical guidelines for the organization of work and quality management practice in electronics laboratories in Member States. Nowadays, increased number of customers requires that the products are supplied with quality characteristics that satisfy their needs and expectations. The accelerated development of electronics and instrumentation during the last decades makes the electronics practice a field where competitiveness is ultimately defined by the confidence of the customers, based on their acceptance of the products and services provided. Quality management constitutes a practice encouraging the organizations to analyse customer requirements, to define the processes that contribute to the achievement of a product which is acceptable to the customer, and to keep these processes under control in order to improve the quality of the provided services and to increase customer satisfaction. The contents of this learning module are presented in three independent courses, designed for different level of interest: - Basic advice and recommendations: Practical advice for the organization of work, safety regulations and resource management. - Advanced quality management: Recommendations for the organization of a quality management system (QMS) compliant with ISO 9001 and ISO/IEC 17025 requirements and establishment of good practices. - Pursuing ISO 9001 and ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation: Recommendations for the organization of the QMS, templates of quality manual, operational procedures, records and forms. Customers' needs and expectations are changing, and due to competitive pressures and technological advances suppliers are forced to continually improve their products and services. Although the terms, definitions and concepts provided in this module are taken from the ISO 9000 standard series, the course does not constitute an ISO document as such. The recommendations and guidelines constitute an effort to help the understanding of

  15. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.; Colsher, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the parameters which are important to positron-imaging instruments. It summarizes the options which various groups have explored in designing tomographs and the methods which have been developed to overcome some of the limitations inherent in the technique as well as in present instruments. The chapter is not presented as a defense of positron imaging versus single-photon or other imaging modality, neither does it contain a description of various existing instruments, but rather stresses their common properties and problems. Design parameters which are considered are resolution, sampling requirements, sensitivity, methods of eliminating scattered radiation, random coincidences and attenuation. The implementation of these parameters is considered, with special reference to sampling, choice of detector material, detector ring diameter and shielding and variations in point spread function. Quantitation problems discussed are normalization, and attenuation and random corrections. Present developments mentioned are noise reduction through time-of-flight-assisted tomography and signal to noise improvements through high intrinsic resolution. Extensive bibliography. (U.K.)

  16. Effects of a science education module on attitudes towards modern biotechnology of secondary school students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, T.; Severiens, S.E.; Knippels, M-C.P.J.; Mill, M.H.W.; ten Dam, G.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article evaluated the impact of a four‐lesson science module on the attitudes of secondary school students. This science module (on cancer and modern biotechnology) utilises several design principles, related to a social constructivist perspective on learning. The expectation was that the

  17. Examining the Teaching of Science, and Technology and Engineering Content and Practices: An Instrument Modification Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Wells, John G.; Parkes, Kelly A.

    2017-01-01

    A modified Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) (Piburn & Sawada, 2000) instrument was used to separately examine eight technology and engineering (T&E) educators' teaching of science, and T&E content and practices, as called for by the "Standards for Technological Literacy: Content for the Study of Technology"…

  18. Development and Validation of Nature of Science Instrument for Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacieminoglu, Esme; Yilmaz-Tüzün, Özgül; Ertepinar, Hamide

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop and validate an instrument for assessing elementary students' nature of science (NOS) views and to explain the elementary school students' NOS views, in terms of varying grade levels and gender. The sample included 782 students enrolled in sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Exploratory factor analysis…

  19. Preliminary Analysis of Assessment Instrument Design to Reveal Science Generic Skill and Chemistry Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarni, Woro; Sudarmin; Supartono, Wiyanto

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to design assessment instrument to evaluate science generic skill (SGS) achievement and chemistry literacy in ethnoscience-integrated chemistry learning. The steps of tool designing refers to Plomp models including 1) Investigation Phase (Prelimenary Investigation); 2) Designing Phase (Design); 3)…

  20. The design and implementation of the Dynamic Ionosphere Cubesat Experiment (DICE) science instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Steven Reed

    Dynamic Ionosphere Cubesat Experiment (DICE) is a satellite project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to study the ionosphere, more particularly Storm Enhanced Densities (SED) with a payload consisting of plasma diagnostic instrumentation. Three instruments onboard DICE include an Electric Field Probe (EFP), Ion Langmuir Probe (ILP), and Three Axis Magnetometer (TAM). The EFP measures electric fields from +/-8V and consists of three channels a DC to 40Hz channel, a Floating Potential Probe (FPP), and an spectrographic channel with four bands from 16Hz to 512Hz. The ILP measures plasma densities from 1x104 cm--3 to 2x107 cm--3. The TAM measures magnetic field strength with a range +/-0.5 Gauss with a sensitivity of 2nT. To achieve desired mission requirements careful selection of instrument requirements and planning of the instrumentation design to achieve mission success. The analog design of each instrument is described in addition to the digital framework required to sample the science data at a 70Hz rate and prepare the data for the Command and Data Handing (C&DH) system. Calibration results are also presented and show fulfillment of the mission and instrumentation requirements.

  1. Gene Expression Measurement Module (GEMM) - a fully automated, miniaturized instrument for measuring gene expression in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Ricco, Antonio; Pohorille, Andrew; Peyvan, Kianoosh

    2012-07-01

    The capability to measure gene expression on board spacecrafts opens the doors to a large number of experiments on the influence of space environment on biological systems that will profoundly impact our ability to conduct safe and effective space travel, and might also shed light on terrestrial physiology or biological function and human disease and aging processes. Measurements of gene expression will help us to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment on a wide range of organisms from microbes to humans, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, determine metabolic basis of microbial pathogenicity and drug resistance, test our ability to sustain and grow in space organisms that can be used for life support and in situ resource utilization during long-duration space exploration, and monitor both the spacecraft environment and crew health. These and other applications hold significant potential for discoveries in space biology, biotechnology and medicine. Accordingly, supported by funding from the NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development Program, we are developing a fully automated, miniaturized, integrated fluidic system for small spacecraft capable of in-situ measuring microbial expression of thousands of genes from multiple samples. The instrument will be capable of (1) lysing bacterial cell walls, (2) extracting and purifying RNA released from cells, (3) hybridizing it on a microarray and (4) providing electrochemical readout, all in a microfluidics cartridge. The prototype under development is suitable for deployment on nanosatellite platforms developed by the NASA Small Spacecraft Office. The first target application is to cultivate and measure gene expression of the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus, i.e. a cyanobacterium known to exhibit remarkable metabolic diversity and resilience to adverse conditions

  2. Gene Expression Measurement Module (GEMM) - A Fully Automated, Miniaturized Instrument for Measuring Gene Expression in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Peyvan, Kia; Karouia, Fathi; Ricco, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The capability to measure gene expression on board spacecraft opens the door to a large number of high-value experiments on the influence of the space environment on biological systems. For example, measurements of gene expression will help us to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment on a wide range of organisms from microbes to humans, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, and determine the metabolic bases of microbial pathogenicity and drug resistance. These and other applications hold significant potential for discoveries in space biology, biotechnology, and medicine. Supported by funding from the NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development Program, we are developing a fully automated, miniaturized, integrated fluidic system for small spacecraft capable of in-situ measurement of expression of several hundreds of microbial genes from multiple samples. The instrument will be capable of (1) lysing cell walls of bacteria sampled from cultures grown in space, (2) extracting and purifying RNA released from cells, (3) hybridizing the RNA on a microarray and (4) providing readout of the microarray signal, all in a single microfluidics cartridge. The device is suitable for deployment on nanosatellite platforms developed by NASA Ames' Small Spacecraft Division. To meet space and other technical constraints imposed by these platforms, a number of technical innovations are being implemented. The integration and end-to-end technological and biological validation of the instrument are carried out using as a model the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus, known for its remarkable metabolic diversity and resilience to adverse conditions. Each step in the measurement process-lysis, nucleic acid extraction, purification, and hybridization to an array-is assessed through comparison of the results obtained using the instrument with

  3. The Astronomy and Space Science Concept Inventory: Assessment Instruments Aligned with the K-12 National Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of an item test bank and associated instruments based on those K-12 national standards which involve astronomy and space science. Utilizing hundreds of studies in the science education research literature on student misconceptions, we have constructed 211 unique items that measure the degree to which students abandon such ideas for accepted scientific views. Piloted nationally with 7599 students and their 88 teachers spanning grades 5-12, the items reveal a range of interesting results, particularly student difficulties in mastering the NRC Standards and AAAS Benchmarks. Teachers generally perform well on items covering the standards of the grade level at which they teach, exhibiting few misconceptions of their own. Teachers dramatically overestimate their students’ performance, perhaps because they are unaware of their students’ misconceptions. Examples are given showing how the developed instruments can be used to assess the effectiveness of instruction and to evaluate the impact of professional development activities for teachers.

  4. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 38-40: Optical Instruments; Diffraction; and Alternating Current Circuits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  5. ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter Instrument Modelling Approach to Streamline Science Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Fernandez, Michela; Frew, David; Ashman, Michael; Cardesin Moinelo, Alejandro; Garcia Beteta, Juan Jose; Geiger, Bernhard; Metcalfe, Leo; Nespoli, Federico; Muniz Solaz, Carlos

    2018-05-01

    ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) science operations activities are centralised at ESAC's Science Operations Centre (SOC). The SOC receives the inputs from the principal investigators (PIs) in order to implement and deliver the spacecraft pointing requests and instrument timelines to the Mission Operations Centre (MOC). The high number of orbits per planning cycle has made it necessary to abstract the planning interactions between the SOC and the PI teams at the observation level. This paper describes the modelling approach we have conducted for TGOís instruments to streamline science operations. We have created dynamic observation types that scale to adapt to the conditions specified by the PI teams including observation timing, and pointing block parameters calculated from observation geometry. This approach is considered and improvement with respect to previous missions where the generation of the observation pointing and commanding requests was performed manually by the instrument teams. Automation software assists us to effectively handle the high density of planned orbits with increasing volume of scientific data and to successfully meet opportunistic scientific goals and objectives. Our planning tool combines the instrument observation definition files provided by the PIs together with the flight dynamics products to generate the Pointing Requests and the instrument timeline (ITL). The ITL contains all the validated commands at the TC sequence level and computes the resource envelopes (data rate, power, data volume) within the constraints. At the SOC, our main goal is to maximise the science output while minimising the number of iterations among the teams, ensuring that the timeline does not violate the state transitions allowed in the Mission Operations Rules and Constraints Document.

  6. Developing instruments concerning scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science: a validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate two survey instruments to evaluate high school students' scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science. The initial relationships between the sampled students' scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science were also investigated. A final valid sample of 600 volunteer Taiwanese high school students participated in this survey by responding to the Scientific Epistemic Beliefs Instrument (SEBI) and the Goal Orientations in Learning Science Instrument (GOLSI). Through both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, the SEBI and GOLSI were proven to be valid and reliable for assessing the participants' scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science. The path analysis results indicated that, by and large, the students with more sophisticated epistemic beliefs in various dimensions such as Development of Knowledge, Justification for Knowing, and Purpose of Knowing tended to adopt both Mastery-approach and Mastery-avoidance goals. Some interesting results were also found. For example, the students tended to set a learning goal to outperform others or merely demonstrate competence (Performance-approach) if they had more informed epistemic beliefs in the dimensions of Multiplicity of Knowledge, Uncertainty of Knowledge, and Purpose of Knowing.

  7. The Use of Cronbach's Alpha When Developing and Reporting Research Instruments in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Keith S.

    2017-06-01

    Cronbach's alpha is a statistic commonly quoted by authors to demonstrate that tests and scales that have been constructed or adopted for research projects are fit for purpose. Cronbach's alpha is regularly adopted in studies in science education: it was referred to in 69 different papers published in 4 leading science education journals in a single year (2015)—usually as a measure of reliability. This article explores how this statistic is used in reporting science education research and what it represents. Authors often cite alpha values with little commentary to explain why they feel this statistic is relevant and seldom interpret the result for readers beyond citing an arbitrary threshold for an acceptable value. Those authors who do offer readers qualitative descriptors interpreting alpha values adopt a diverse and seemingly arbitrary terminology. More seriously, illustrative examples from the science education literature demonstrate that alpha may be acceptable even when there are recognised problems with the scales concerned. Alpha is also sometimes inappropriately used to claim an instrument is unidimensional. It is argued that a high value of alpha offers limited evidence of the reliability of a research instrument, and that indeed a very high value may actually be undesirable when developing a test of scientific knowledge or understanding. Guidance is offered to authors reporting, and readers evaluating, studies that present Cronbach's alpha statistic as evidence of instrument quality.

  8. Many Paths toward Discovery: A Module for Teaching How Science Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Rebecca M.; Perez, Kathryn E.

    2018-01-01

    Improving students' understanding of how science works requires explicit instruction. Here, we test the efficacy of a module based on two previously published activities (the "Cube Puzzle" and the case study "Asteroids and Dinosaurs") that teach how science works to college science majors. Students also use the How Science…

  9. Experimental innovations in surface science a guide to practical laboratory methods and instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, John T

    2015-01-01

    This book is a new edition of a classic text on experimental methods and instruments in surface science. It offers practical insight useful to chemists, physicists, and materials scientists working in experimental surface science. This enlarged second edition contains almost 300 descriptions of experimental methods. The more than 50 active areas with individual scientific and measurement concepts and activities relevant to each area are presented in this book. The key areas covered are: Vacuum System Technology, Mechanical Fabrication Techniques, Measurement Methods, Thermal Control, Delivery of Adsorbates to Surfaces, UHV Windows, Surface Preparation Methods, High Area Solids, Safety. The book is written for researchers and graduate students.

  10. Smartphone measurement engineering - Innovative challenges for science and education, instrumentation and training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, D; Dittrich, P-G; Duentsch, E [Senior Network Manager NEMO SpectroNet, Technologie- und Innovationspark Jena GmbH, Wildenbruchstrasse 15, D-07745 Jena (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Smartphones have an enormous conceptual and structural influence on measurement science and education, instrumentation and training. Smartphones are matured. They became convenient, reliable and affordable. In 2009 worldwide 174 million Smartphones has been delivered. Measurement with Smartphones is ready for the future. In only 10 years the German vision industry tripled its global sales volume to one Billion Euro/Year. Machine vision is used for mobile object identification, contactless industrial quality control, personalized health care, remote facility and transport management, safety critical surveillance and all tasks which are too complex for the human eye or too monotonous for the human brain. Aim of the paper is to describe selected success stories for the application of Smartphones for measurement engineering in science and education, instrumentation and training.

  11. Smartphone measurement engineering - Innovative challenges for science and education, instrumentation and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, D; Dittrich, P-G; Duentsch, E

    2010-01-01

    Smartphones have an enormous conceptual and structural influence on measurement science and education, instrumentation and training. Smartphones are matured. They became convenient, reliable and affordable. In 2009 worldwide 174 million Smartphones has been delivered. Measurement with Smartphones is ready for the future. In only 10 years the German vision industry tripled its global sales volume to one Billion Euro/Year. Machine vision is used for mobile object identification, contactless industrial quality control, personalized health care, remote facility and transport management, safety critical surveillance and all tasks which are too complex for the human eye or too monotonous for the human brain. Aim of the paper is to describe selected success stories for the application of Smartphones for measurement engineering in science and education, instrumentation and training.

  12. Optical instrumentation for science and formation flying with a starshade observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stefan; Scharf, Daniel; Cady, Eric; Liebe, Carl; Tang, Hong

    2015-09-01

    In conjunction with a space telescope of modest size, a starshade enables observation of small exoplanets close to the parent star by blocking the direct starlight while the planet light remains unobscured. The starshade is flown some tens of thousands of kilometers ahead of the telescope. Science instruments may include a wide field camera for imaging the target exoplanetary system as well as an integral field spectrometer for characterization of exoplanet atmospheres. We show the preliminary designs of the optical instruments for observatories such as Exo-S, discuss formation flying and control, retargeting maneuvers and other aspects of a starshade mission. The implementation of a starshade-ready WFIRST-AFTA is discussed and we show how a compact, standalone instrument package could be developed as an add-on to future space telescopes, requiring only minor additions to the telescope spacecraft.

  13. Evolution and validation of a personal form of an instrument for assessing science laboratory classroom environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Barry J.; Giddings, Geoffrey J.; McRobbie, Campbell J.

    The research reported in this article makes two distinctive contributions to the field of classroom environment research. First, because existing instruments are unsuitable for science laboratory classes, the Science Laboratory Environment Inventory (SLEI) was developed and validated. Second, a new Personal form of the SLEI (involving a student's perceptions of his or her own role within the class) was developed and validated in conjunction with the conventional Class form (involving a student's perceptions of the class as a whole), and its usefulness was investigated. The instrument was cross-nationally fieldtested with 5,447 students in 269 senior high school and university classes in six countries, and cross-validated with 1,594 senior high school students in 92 classes in Australia. Each SLEI scale exhibited satisfactory internal consistency reliability, discriminant validity, and factorial validity, and differentiated between the perceptions of students in different classes. A variety of applications with the new instrument furnished evidence about its usefulness and revealed that science laboratory classes are dominated by closed-ended activities; mean scores obtained on the Class form were consistently somewhat more favorable than on the corresponding Personal form; females generally held more favorable perceptions than males, but these differences were somewhat larger for the Personal form than the Class form; associations existed between attitudinal outcomes and laboratory environment dimensions; and the Class and Personal forms of the SLEI each accounted for unique variance in student outcomes which was independent of that accounted for by the other form.

  14. Astro 101 Students' Perceptions of Science: Results from the "Thinking about Science Survey Instrument"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Mendelsohn, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    What are the underlying worldviews and beliefs about the role of science in society held by students enrolled in a college-level, general education, introductory astronomy course (Astro 101)--and are those beliefs affected by active engagement instruction shown to significantly increase students' conceptual knowledge and reasoning abilities…

  15. The Instrument Implementation of Two-tier Multiple Choice to Analyze Students’ Science Process Skill Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarmin Sukarmin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to analyze the profile of students’ science process skill (SPS by using instrument two-tier multiple choice. This is a descriptive research that describes the profile of students’ SPS. Subjects of the research were 10th-grade students from high, medium and low categorized school. Instrument two-tier multiple choice consists of 30 question that contains an indicator of SPS. The indicator of SPS namely formulating a hypothesis, designing experiment, analyzing data, applying the concept, communicating, making a conclusion. Based on the result of the research and analysis, it shows that: 1 the average of indicator achievement of science process skill at high categorized school on formulating hypothesis is 74,55%, designing experiment is 74,89%, analyzing data is 67,89%, applying concept is 52,89%, communicating is 80,22%, making conclusion is 76%, 2. the average of indicator achievement of science process skill at medium categorized school on formulating hypothesis is 53,47%, designing experiment is 59,86%, analyzing data is 42,22%, applying concept is 33,19%, communicating is 76,25%, making conclusion is 61,53%, 3 the average of indicator achievement of science process skill at low categorized school on formulating hypothesis is 51%, designing experiment is 55,17%, analyzing data is 39,17%, applying concept is 35,83%, communicating is 58,83%, making conclusion is 58%.

  16. Synchrotron light sources and free-electron lasers accelerator physics, instrumentation and science applications

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Shaukat; Schneider, Jochen; Hastings, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    Hardly any other discovery of the nineteenth century did have such an impact on science and technology as Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen’s seminal find of the X-rays. X-ray tubes soon made their way as excellent instruments for numerous applications in medicine, biology, materials science and testing, chemistry and public security. Developing new radiation sources with higher brilliance and much extended spectral range resulted in stunning developments like the electron synchrotron and electron storage ring and the freeelectron laser. This handbook highlights these developments in fifty chapters. The reader is given not only an inside view of exciting science areas but also of design concepts for the most advanced light sources. The theory of synchrotron radiation and of the freeelectron laser, design examples and the technology basis are presented. The handbook presents advanced concepts like seeding and harmonic generation, the booming field of Terahertz radiation sources and upcoming brilliant light sources dri...

  17. The Nature of Science Instrument-Elementary (NOSI-E): the end of the road?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Shelagh M; O'Dwyer, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    This research continues prior work published in this journal (Peoples, O'Dwyer, Shields and Wang, 2013). The first paper described the scale development, psychometric analyses and part-validation of a theoretically-grounded Rasch-based instrument, the Nature of Science Instrument-Elementary (NOSI-E). The NOSI-E was designed to measure elementary students' understanding of the Nature of Science (NOS). In the first paper, evidence was provided for three of the six validity aspects (content, substantive and generalizability) needed to support the construct validity of the NOSI-E. The research described in this paper examines two additional validity aspects (structural and external). The purpose of this study was to determine which of three competing internal models provides reliable, interpretable, and responsive measures of students' understanding of NOS. One postulate is that the NOS construct is unidimensional;. alternatively, the NOS construct is composed of five independent unidimensional constructs (the consecutive approach). Lastly, the NOS construct is multidimensional and composed of five inter-related but separate dimensions. The vast body of evidence supported the claim that the NOS construct is multidimensional. Measures from the multidimensional model were positively related to student science achievement and students' perceptions of their classroom environment; this provided supporting evidence for the external validity aspect of the NOS construct. As US science education moves toward students learning science through engaging in authentic scientific practices and building learning progressions (NRC, 2012), it will be important to assess whether this new approach to teaching science is effective, and the NOSI-E may be used as a measure of the impact of this reform.

  18. Training Early Career Scientists in Flight Instrument Design Through Experiential Learning: NASA Goddard's Planetary Science Winter School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, L. V.; Lakew, B.; Bracken, J.; Brown, T.; Rivera, R.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Planetary Science Winter School (PSWS) is a Goddard Space Flight Center-sponsored training program, managed by Goddard's Solar System Exploration Division (SSED), for Goddard-based postdoctoral fellows and early career planetary scientists. Currently in its third year, the PSWS is an experiential training program for scientists interested in participating on future planetary science instrument teams. Inspired by the NASA Planetary Science Summer School, Goddard's PSWS is unique in that participants learn the flight instrument lifecycle by designing a planetary flight instrument under actual consideration by Goddard for proposal and development. They work alongside the instrument Principal Investigator (PI) and engineers in Goddard's Instrument Design Laboratory (IDL; idc.nasa.gov), to develop a science traceability matrix and design the instrument, culminating in a conceptual design and presentation to the PI, the IDL team and Goddard management. By shadowing and working alongside IDL discipline engineers, participants experience firsthand the science and cost constraints, trade-offs, and teamwork that are required for optimal instrument design. Each PSWS is collaboratively designed with representatives from SSED, IDL, and the instrument PI, to ensure value added for all stakeholders. The pilot PSWS was held in early 2015, with a second implementation in early 2016. Feedback from past participants was used to design the 2017 PSWS, which is underway as of the writing of this abstract.

  19. Development and validation of an instrument to evaluate science teachers' assessment beliefs and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Evrim

    The primary purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to examine science teachers' assessment beliefs and practices in science classrooms. The present study also investigated the relationship between teachers' beliefs and practices in terms of assessment issues in science, their perceptions of the factors that influenced their assessment practices and their feelings towards high-stakes testing. The participants of the study were 408 science teachers teaching at middle and high school levels in the State of Florida. Data were collected through two modes of administration of the instrument as a paper-and-pencil and a web-based form. The response rate for paper-and-pencil administration was estimated as 68% whereas the response for the web administration was found to be 27%. Results from the various dimensions of validity and reliability analyses revealed that the 24 item-four-factor belief and practice measures were psychometrically sound and conceptually anchored measures of science teachers' assessment beliefs and self-reported practices. Reliability estimates for the belief measure ranged from .83 to .91 whereas alpha values for the practice measure ranged from .56 to .90. Results from the multigroup analysis supported that the instrument has the same theoretical structure across both administration groups. Therefore, future researchers may use either a paper-and-pencil or web-based format of the instrument. This study underscored a discrepancy between what teachers believe and how they act in classroom settings. It was emphasized that certain factors were mediating the dynamics between the belief and the practice. The majority of teachers reported that instruction time, class size, professional development activities, availability of school funding, and state testing mandates impact their assessment routines. Teachers reported that both the preparation process and the results of the test created unbelievable tension both on students and

  20. Psychometric Evaluation of an Adolescent and Young Adult Module of the Impact of Cancer Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, O.; Zebrack, B.J.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate a new instrument that measures unique aspects of long-term survivorship for people diagnosed with cancer as Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA), not measured by existing tools. METHODS: A new candidate instrument-the Impact of Cancer for Adolescent and Young Adult

  1. New instruments and science around SINQ. Lecture notes of the 4. summer school on neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furrer, A.

    1996-01-01

    The spallation neutron source at PSI will be commissioned towards the end of this year together with a set of first generation instruments. This facility should then be available for the initial scientific work after spring next year. One of the main goals of this year's summer school for neutron scattering was therefore the preparation of the potential customers at this facility for its scientific exploitation. In order to give them the - so to speak - last finish, we have dedicated the school to the discussion of the instruments at SINQ and their scientific potential. These proceedings are divided into two parts: Part A gives a complete description of the first-generation instruments and sample environment at SINQ. For all the instruments the relevant parameters for planning experiments are listed. Part A is completed by G. Bauer's summary on experimental facilities and future developments at SINQ. Part B presents the lecture notes dealing with relevant applications of neutron based techniques in science and technology. The summary lecture by S.W. Lovesey is also included. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  2. New instruments and science around SINQ. Lecture notes of the 4. summer school on neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furrer, A [ed.

    1996-11-01

    The spallation neutron source at PSI will be commissioned towards the end of this year together with a set of first generation instruments. This facility should then be available for the initial scientific work after spring next year. One of the main goals of this year`s summer school for neutron scattering was therefore the preparation of the potential customers at this facility for its scientific exploitation. In order to give them the - so to speak - last finish, we have dedicated the school to the discussion of the instruments at SINQ and their scientific potential. These proceedings are divided into two parts: Part A gives a complete description of the first-generation instruments and sample environment at SINQ. For all the instruments the relevant parameters for planning experiments are listed. Part A is completed by G. Bauer`s summary on experimental facilities and future developments at SINQ. Part B presents the lecture notes dealing with relevant applications of neutron based techniques in science and technology. The summary lecture by S.W. Lovesey is also included. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  3. Polychromatic X-ray Micro- and Nano-Beam Science and Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, G. E.; Larson, B. C.; Liu, W.; Barabash, R. I.; Specht, E. D.; Pang, J. W. L.; Budai, J. D.; Tischler, J. Z.; Khounsary, A.; Liu, C.; Macrander, A. T.; Assoufid, L.

    2007-01-01

    Polychromatic x-ray micro- and nano-beam diffraction is an emerging nondestructive tool for the study of local crystalline structure and defect distributions. Both long-standing fundamental materials science issues, and technologically important questions about specific materials systems can be uniquely addressed. Spatial resolution is determined by the beam size at the sample and by a knife-edge technique called differential aperture microscopy that decodes the origin of scattering from along the penetrating x-ray beam. First-generation instrumentation on station 34-ID-E at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) allows for nondestructive automated recovery of the three-dimensional (3D) local crystal phase and orientation. Also recovered are the local elastic-strain and the dislocation tensor distributions. New instrumentation now under development will further extend the applications of polychromatic microdiffraction and will revolutionize materials characterization.

  4. Polychromatic X-ray Micro- and Nano-Beam Science and Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.; Larson, Ben C.; Liu, Wenjun; Barabash, Rozaliya; Specht, Eliot D; Pang, Judy; Budai, John D.; Tischler, Jonathan Zachary; Khounsary, Ali; Liu, Chian; Macrander, Albert T.; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2007-01-01

    Polychromatic x-ray micro- and nano-beam diffraction is an emerging nondestructive tool for the study of local crystalline structure and defect distributions. Both long-standing fundamental materials science issues, and technologically important questions about specific materials systems can be uniquely addressed. Spatial resolution is determined by the beam size at the sample and by a knife-edge technique called differential aperture microscopy that decodes the origin of scattering from along the penetrating x-ray beam. First-generation instrumentation on station 34-ID-E at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) allows for nondestructive automated recovery of the three-dimensional (3D) local crystal phase and orientation. Also recovered are the local elastic-strain and the dislocation tensor distributions. New instrumentation now under development will further extend the applications of polychromatic microdiffraction and will revolutionize materials characterization

  5. The Student Actions Coding Sheet (SACS): An Instrument for Illuminating the Shifts toward Student-Centered Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Ibrahim; Campbell, Todd; Abd-Hamid, Nor Hashidah

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the development of an instrument to investigate the extent to which student-centered actions are occurring in science classrooms. The instrument was developed through the following five stages: (1) student action identification, (2) use of both national and international content experts to establish content validity, (3)…

  6. INSTRUMENTS OF SUPPORT FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FUNDED BY LEADING DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina E. Ilina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: one of the key aspects of the knowledge economy development is the growing significance of the results of research and development. The education and basic research play a key role in this process. Funding for education and fundamental science is carried out mainly at the expense of the state resources, including a system of foundations for scientific, engineering and innovation activities in Russia. The purpose of this article is to present recommendations for improving the tools of domestic foundations in funding fundamental research and development, including education and training. The propositions are made with a comparative analysis of the domestic and foreign science foun dations’ activities. Materials and Methods: the authors used analysis, comparison, induction, deduction, graphical analysis, generalisation and other scientific methods during the study. Results: the lack of comparability between domestic and foreign scientific funds in the volume of funding allocated for basic research and development is revealed. This situation affects the scientific research. The foreign foundations have a wide range of instruments to support research projects at all stages of the life cycle of grants for education and training prior to release of an innovative product to market (the use of “innovation elevator” system. The Russian national scientific foundations have no such possibilities. The authors guess that the Russian organisations ignore some of the instruments for supporting research and development. Use of these tools could enhance the effectiveness of research projects. According to the study of domestic and foreign experience in supporting research and development, the authors proposed a matrix composed of instruments for support in the fields of basic scientific researches and education with such phases of the project life cycle as “research” and “development”. Discussion and Conclusions: the foreign science

  7. The Impact of Crosstalk in the X-IFU Instrument on Athena Science Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartog, R. Den; Peille, P.; Dauser, T.; Jackson, B.; Bandler, S.; Barret, D.; Brand, T.; Herder, J-W Den; Kiviranta, M.; Kuur, J. Van Der; hide

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a first assessment of the impact of various forms of instrumental crosstalk on the science performance of the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) on the Athena X-ray mission. This assessment is made using the SIXTE end-to-end simulator in the context of one of the more technically challenging science cases for the XIFU instrument. Crosstalk considerations may influence or drive various aspects of the design of the array of high-count-rate Transition Edge Sensor (TES) detectors and its Frequency Domain Multiplexed (FDM) readout architecture. The Athena X-ray mission was selected as the second L-class mission in ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015–25 plan, with alaunch foreseen in 2028, to address the theme ''Hot and Energetic Universe"1. One of the two instruments on boardAthena is the X-ray Integral Field Unit2 (X-IFU) which is based on an array of 3800 Transition Edge Sensors (TES's)operated at a temperature of 90 mK. The science cases pose an interesting challenge for this instrument, as they requirea combination of high energy resolution (2.5 eV FWHM or better), high spatial resolution (5 arcsec or better) and highcount rate capability (several tens of counts per second per detector for point sources as bright as 10 mCrab).The performance at the single sensor level has been demonstrated3, but the operation of such detectors in an array, usingmultiplexed readout, brings additional challenges, both for the design of the array in which the sensors are placed and forthe readout of the sensors. The readout of the detector array will be based on Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM)4.In this system of detectors and readout, crosstalk can arise through various mechanisms: on the TES array, neighboringsensors can couple through thermal crosstalk. Detectors adjacent in carrier frequency may suffer from electrical crosstalkdue to the finite width of the bandpass filters, and shared sources of impedance in their signal lines. The signals from theindividual

  8. Portable instrument for in-vivo infrared oxymetry using spread-spectrum modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevisan, S [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Universita di Pavia, Pavia, Via Ferrata, 1 - 27100 Pavia (Italy); Bavera, M [National Institute for the Physics of Matter, INFM, C.so Perrone, 24 - 16152 Genova (Italy); Giardini, M E [National Institute for the Physics of Matter, INFM, C.so Perrone, 24 - 16152 Genova (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) can be employed to monitor noninvasively and continuously local changes in hemodynamics and oxygenation of human tissues. A portable NIRS research-grade acquisition system, dedicated to measurements during muscular exercise, is presented. The instrument is able to control up to eight LED sources and two detectors. A digital correlation technique, implemented on a single-chip RISC microcontroller, performs source-to-detector multiplexing. Such algorithm is highly optimized for computational efficiency and ambient noise rejection. Software-configurable input stages allow for flexibility in instrument setup. As a result of the specific correlation technique employed, the instrument is compact, lightweight and efficient. Clinical tests on oxygen consumption show excellent performance.

  9. Portable instrument for in-vivo infrared oxymetry using spread-spectrum modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevisan, S; Bavera, M; Giardini, M E

    2007-01-01

    Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) can be employed to monitor noninvasively and continuously local changes in hemodynamics and oxygenation of human tissues. A portable NIRS research-grade acquisition system, dedicated to measurements during muscular exercise, is presented. The instrument is able to control up to eight LED sources and two detectors. A digital correlation technique, implemented on a single-chip RISC microcontroller, performs source-to-detector multiplexing. Such algorithm is highly optimized for computational efficiency and ambient noise rejection. Software-configurable input stages allow for flexibility in instrument setup. As a result of the specific correlation technique employed, the instrument is compact, lightweight and efficient. Clinical tests on oxygen consumption show excellent performance

  10. Latest developments of neutron scattering instrumentation at the Juelich Centre for Neutron Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Jülich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS) is operating a number of world-class neutron scattering instruments situated at the most powerful and advanced neutron sources (FRM II, ILL and SNS) and is continuously undertaking significant efforts in the development and upgrades to keep this instrumentation in line with the continuously changing scientific request. These developments are mostly based upon the latest progress in neutron optics and polarized neutron techniques. For example, the low-Q limit of the suite of small angle-scattering instruments has been extended to 4·10 -5 Å -1 by the successful use of focusing optics. A new generation of correction elements for the neutron spin-echo spectrometer has allowed for the use of the full field integral available, thus pushing further the instrument resolution. A significant progress has been achieved in the developments of 3 He neutron spin filters for purposes of the wide-angle polarization analysis for off-specular reflectometry and (grazing incidence) small-angle neutron scattering, e.g. the on-beam polarization of 3 He in large cells is allowing to achieve a high neutron beam polarization without any degradation in time. The wide Q-range polarization analysis using 3 He neutron spin filters has been implemented for small-angle neutron scattering that lead to the reduction up to 100 times of the intrinsic incoherent background from non-deuterated biological molecules. Also the work on wide-angle XYZ magnetic cavities (Magic PASTIS) will be presented. (author)

  11. Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex II: Neutron Scattering Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Nakajima

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The neutron instruments suite, installed at the spallation neutron source of the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC, is reviewed. MLF has 23 neutron beam ports and 21 instruments are in operation for user programs or are under commissioning. A unique and challenging instrumental suite in MLF has been realized via combination of a high-performance neutron source, optimized for neutron scattering, and unique instruments using cutting-edge technologies. All instruments are/will serve in world-leading investigations in a broad range of fields, from fundamental physics to industrial applications. In this review, overviews, characteristic features, and typical applications of the individual instruments are mentioned.

  12. Data from the Mars Science Laboratory CheMin XRD/XRF Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, David; Blake, David; Bristow, Tom; DesMarais, David; Achilles, Cherie; Anderson, Robert; Crips, Joy; Morookian, John Michael; Spanovich, Nicole; Vasavada, Ashwin; hide

    2013-01-01

    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity uses a Co tube source and a CCD detector to acquire mineralogy from diffracted primary X-rays and chemical information from fluoresced X-rays. CheMin has been operating at the MSL Gale Crater field site since August 5, 2012 and has provided the first X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses in situ on a body beyond Earth. Data from the first sample collected, the Rocknest eolian soil, identify a basaltic mineral suite, predominantly plagioclase (approx.An50), forsteritic olivine (approx.Fo58), augite and pigeonite, consistent with expectation that detrital grains on Mars would reflect widespread basaltic sources. Minor phases (each XRD. This amorphous component is attested to by a broad rise in background centered at approx.27deg 2(theta) (Co K(alpha)) and may include volcanic glass, impact glass, and poorly crystalline phases including iron oxyhydroxides; a rise at lower 2(theta) may indicate allophane or hisingerite. Constraints from phase chemistry of the crystalline components, compared with a Rocknest bulk composition from the APXS instrument on Curiosity, indicate that in sum the amorphous or poorly crystalline components are relatively Si, Al, Mg-poor and enriched in Ti, Cr, Fe, K, P, S, and Cl. All of the identified crystalline phases are volatile-free; H2O, SO2 and CO2 volatile releases from a split of this sample analyzed by the SAM instrument on Curiosity are associated with the amorphous or poorly ordered materials. The Rocknest eolian soil may be a mixture of local detritus, mostly crystalline, with a regional or global set of dominantly amorphous or poorly ordered components. The Rocknest sample was targeted by MSL for "first time analysis" to demonstrate that a loose deposit could be scooped, sieved to <150 microns, and delivered to instruments in the body of the rover. A drilled sample of sediment in outcrop is anticipated. At the time of writing this abstract, promising outcrops are

  13. Psychometric Evaluation of an Adolescent and Young Adult Module of the Impact of Cancer Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, Olga; Zebrack, Bradley J

    2017-03-01

    To develop and evaluate a new instrument that measures unique aspects of long-term survivorship for people diagnosed with cancer as Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA), not measured by existing tools. A new candidate instrument-the Impact of Cancer for Adolescent and Young Adult (IOC-AYA) cancer survivors-was developed and administered to AYA cancer survivors aged 18-35 years who were 15-29 years old when diagnosed with cancer. Psychometric properties of newly derived scales were assessed. Factor analyses of items derived seven new and specific subscales: Social Life; Uncertainties, Worries and Wonders; Cognitive Function; Sense of Purpose/Life Goals; Identity; Health Behaviors; and Health Literacy. Two separate and conditional subscales were formed: Relationship Concerns (partnered/unpartnered) and Having Children (at least one child/no children). Internal consistency measurements for these subscales ranged from 0.70 to 0.90. Expected associations within and among IOC-AYA subscales and standardized measures of quality of life were observed. Psychometric analyses indicated that this initial version of the IOC-AYA measures distinct and relevant constructs for survivors diagnosed with cancer in adolescence and young adulthood. Future work is needed to confirm the responsiveness to change and further validate the instrument in multiple and representative samples. Use of the IOC-AYA instrument in research and clinical practice will inform the development of psychosocial and supportive care interventions that not only minimize or prevent long-term deleterious effects of cancer but also promote positive adaptation, resilience, and the achievement of age-specific developmental tasks.

  14. Development and Large-Scale Validation of an Instrument to Assess Arabic-Speaking Students' Attitudes Toward Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Summers, Ryan; Said, Ziad; Wang, Shuai; Culbertson, Michael

    2015-11-01

    This study is part of a large-scale project focused on 'Qatari students' Interest in, and Attitudes toward, Science' (QIAS). QIAS aimed to gauge Qatari student attitudes toward science in grades 3-12, examine factors that impact these attitudes, and assess the relationship between student attitudes and prevailing modes of science teaching in Qatari schools. This report details the development and validation of the 'Arabic-Speaking Students' Attitudes toward Science Survey' (ASSASS), which was specifically developed for the purposes of the QIAS project. The theories of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRAPB) [Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (2005). The influence of attitudes on behavior. In D. Albarracín, B. T. Johnson, & M. P. Zanna (Eds.), The handbook of attitudes (pp. 173-221). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum] guided the instrument development. Development and validation of the ASSASS proceeded in 3 phases. First, a 10-member expert panel examined an initial pool of 74 items, which were revised and consolidated into a 60-item version of the instrument. This version was piloted with 369 Qatari students from the target schools and grade levels. Analyses of pilot data resulted in a refined version of the ASSASS, which was administered to a national probability sample of 3027 participants representing all students enrolled in grades 3-12 in the various types of schools in Qatar. Of the latter, 1978 students completed the Arabic version of the instrument. Analyses supported a robust, 5-factor model for the instrument, which is consistent with the TRAPB framework. The factors were: Attitudes toward science and school science, unfavorable outlook on science, control beliefs about ability in science, behavioral beliefs about the consequences of engaging with science, and intentions to pursue science.

  15. Dimensions of temperament modulate cue-controlled behavior: a study on Pavlovian to instrumental transfer in horses (Equus caballus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Lansade

    Full Text Available Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT is a central factor in how cues influence animal behavior. PIT refers to the capacity of a Pavlovian cue that predicts a reward to elicit or increase a response intended to obtain the same reward. In the present study, using an equine model, we assessed whether PIT occurs in hoofed domestic animals and whether its efficacy can be modulated by temperamental dimensions. To study PIT, horses were submitted to Pavlovian conditioning whereby an auditory-visual stimulus was repeatedly followed by food delivery. Then, horses were submitted to instrumental conditioning during which they learned to touch with their noses an object signaled by the experimenter in order to obtain the same reward. During the PIT test, the Pavlovian conditioned stimulus was presented to the animal in the absence of reward. At the end of the experiment, a battery of behavioral tests was performed on all animals to assess five temperamental dimensions and investigate their relationships with instrumental performance. The results indicate that PIT can be observed in horses and that its efficacy is greatly modulated by individual temperament. Indeed, individuals with a specific pattern of temperamental dimensions (i.e., higher levels of gregariousness, fearfulness, and sensory sensitivity exhibited the strongest PIT. The demonstration of the existence of PIT in domesticated animals (i.e., horses is important for the optimization of its use by humans and the improvement of training methods. Moreover, because PIT may be implicated in psychological phenomena, including addictive behaviors, the observation of relationships between specific temperamental dimensions and PIT efficacy may aid in identifying predisposing temperamental attributes.

  16. Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Students' Motivation and Self-Regulation in Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayutham, Sunitadevi; Aldridge, Jill; Fraser, Barry

    2011-10-01

    Students' motivational beliefs and self-regulatory practices have been identified as instrumental in influencing the engagement of students in the learning process. An important aim of science education is to empower students by nurturing the belief that they can succeed in science learning and to cultivate the adaptive learning strategies required to help to bring about that success. This article reports the development and validation of an instrument to measure salient factors related to the motivation and self-regulation of students in lower secondary science classrooms. The development of the instrument involved identifying key determinants of students' motivation and self-regulation in science learning based on theoretical and research underpinnings. Once the instrument was developed, a pilot study involving 52 students from two Grade 8 science classes was undertaken. Quantitative data were collected from 1,360 students in 78 classes across Grades 8, 9, and 10, in addition to in-depth qualitative information gathered from 10 experienced science teachers and 12 Grade 8 students. Analyses of the data suggest that the survey has strong construct validity when used with lower secondary students. This survey could be practically valuable as a tool for gathering information that may guide classroom teachers in refocusing their teaching practices and help to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programmes.

  17. Development of a head and neck companion module for the quality of life-radiation therapy instrument (QOL-RTI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotti, Andy; Johnson, Darlene J.; Gwede, Clement; Casey, Linda; Sauder, Bonnie; Cantor, Alan; Pearlman, James

    1998-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: A review of available head and neck quality of life (QOL) instruments reveals them to inadequately address important radiation related side effects, or to be too cumbersome for routine use. The purpose of this study was to develop a head and neck disease specific module as a companion to the previously developed quality of life - radiation therapy instrument (QOL-RTI). The goal was to create a more complete, yet concise, head and neck site-specific module geared toward patients receiving radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Methods and Materials: This exploratory study included 34 consecutive patients undergoing definitive radiotherapy over a 6-7 week course (60-79.8 Gy). We developed and administered a 14-item questionnaire to all eligible patients treated with radiotherapy for head and neck cancer who were not already registered in another research study assessing quality of life (e.g., RTOG). During the treatment period, the QOL-RTI general tool and the head and neck (H and N) module were administered as follows: at baseline, at week four (for test-retest), and at the end of the treatment period. For validation purposes the QOL-RTI/H and N was compared to the functional assessment cancer tool head and neck (FACT-H and N) questionnaire. The FACT-H and N was administered one time at week 4, on the same day as the QOL-RTI/H and N. This report includes the treatment phase of the study (during the course of radiation). Results: Mean age was 62 years (range 40-75). Internal consistency of the module was satisfactory (Chronbach's α = 0.85). Test-retest yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.90 (p < 0.001). Concurrent validity, established by comparing the module to the FACT/H and N , yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.85. Significant changes in quality of life scores during a course of radiation was noted for both general quality of life tool and the site specific module. For the head and neck module, the difference in the mean baseline

  18. Acquisition system for the "EMSO Generic Instrument Module" (EGIM) and analysis of the data obtained during its first deployment at OBSEA site (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Oscar; Mihai Toma, Daniel; Dañobeitia, Juanjo; del Rio, Joaquin; Bartolome, Rafael; Martínez, Enoc; Nogueras, Marc; Bghiel, Ikram; Lanteri, Nadine; Rolin, Jean Francois; Beranzoli, Laura; Favali, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    The EMSODEV project (EMSO implementation and operation: DEVelopment of instrument module) is an Horizon-2020 UE project whose overall objective is the operation of eleven seafloor observatories and four test sites. These infrastructures are distributed throughout European seas, from the Arctic across the Atlantic and the Mediterranean to the Black Sea, and are managed by the European consortium EMSO-ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium) with the participation of 8 European countries and other associated partners. Recently, we have implemented a Generic Sensor Module (EGIM) within the EMSO-ERIC distributed marine research infrastructure. EGIM is able to operate on any EMSO observatory node, mooring line, seabed station, cabled or non-cabled and surface buoy. The main role of EGIM is to measure homogeneously a set of core variables using the same hardware, sensor references, qualification methods, calibration methods, data format and access, maintenance procedures in several European ocean locations. The EGIM module acquires a wide range of ocean parameters in a long-term consistent, accurate and comparable manner from disciplines such as biology, geology, chemistry, physics, engineering, and computer science, from polar to subtropical environments, through the water column down to the deep sea. Our work includes developing standard-compliant generic software for Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) on EGIM and to perform the first onshore and offshore test bench, to support the sensors data acquisition on a new interoperable EGIM system. EGIM in its turn is linked to an acquisition drives processes, a centralized Sensor Observation Service (SOS) server and a laboratory monitor system (LabMonitor) that records events and alarms during acquisition. The measurements recorded along EMSO NODES are essential to accurately respond to the social and scientific challenges such as climate change, changes in marine ecosystems, and marine hazards. This presentation shows

  19. In Situ Analysis of Martian Phyllosilicates Using the Chemin Minerological Instrument on Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David F.

    2008-01-01

    The CheMin minerological instrument on Mars Science Laboratory (MSL'09) [1] will return quantitive Xray diffraction data (XRD) and quantative X-ray fluorescence data (XRF;14

  20. Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI): Complete Flight Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Bose, Deepak; Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Kuhl, Christopher A.; Santos, Jose A.; Wright, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry vehicle (EV) successfully entered the Mars atmosphere and landed the Curiosity rover safely on the surface of the planet in Gale crater on August 6, 2012. MSL carried the MSL Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Instrumentation (MEDLI). MEDLI delivered the first in-depth understanding of the Mars entry environments and the response of the entry vehicle to those environments. MEDLI was comprised of three major subsystems: the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS), the MEDLI Integrated Sensor Plugs (MISP), and the Sensor Support Electronics (SSE). Ultimately, the entire MEDLI sensor suite consisting of both MEADS and MISP provided measurements that were used for trajectory reconstruction and engineering validation of aerodynamic, atmospheric, and thermal protection system (TPS) models in addition to Earth-based systems testing procedures. This report contains in-depth hardware descriptions, performance evaluation, and data information of the three MEDLI subsystems.

  1. Recalibration of the Mars Science Laboratory ChemCam instrument with an expanded geochemical database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Samuel M.; Wiens, Roger C.; Anderson, Ryan; Forni, Olivier; Frydenvang, Jens; Lasue, Jeremie; Cousin, Agnes; Payre, Valerie; Boucher, Tommy; Dyar, M. Darby; McLennan, Scott M.; Morris, Richard V.; Graff, Trevor G.; Mertzman, Stanley A; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Belgacem, Ines; Newsom, Horton E.; Clark, Ben C.; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; McInroy, Rhonda E.; Martinez, Ronald; Gasda, Patrick J.; Gasnault, Olivier; Maurice, Sylvestre

    2017-01-01

    The ChemCam Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity has obtained > 300,000 spectra of rock and soil analysis targets since landing at Gale Crater in 2012, and the spectra represent perhaps the largest publicly-available LIBS datasets. The compositions of the major elements, reported as oxides (SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, FeOT, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O), have been re-calibrated using a laboratory LIBS instrument, Mars-like atmospheric conditions, and a much larger set of standards (408) that span a wider compositional range than previously employed. The new calibration uses a combination of partial least squares (PLS1) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) algorithms, together with a calibration transfer matrix to minimize differences between the conditions under which the standards were analyzed in the laboratory and the conditions on Mars. While the previous model provided good results in the compositional range near the average Mars surface composition, the new model fits the extreme compositions far better. Examples are given for plagioclase feldspars, where silicon was significantly over-estimated by the previous model, and for calcium-sulfate veins, where silicon compositions near zero were inaccurate. The uncertainties of major element abundances are described as a function of the abundances, and are overall significantly lower than the previous model, enabling important new geochemical interpretations of the data.

  2. The ChemCam Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science Objectives and Mast Unit Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, S.; Wiens, R.C.; Saccoccio, M.; Barraclough, B.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Mangold, N.; Baratoux, D.; Bender, S.; Berger, G.; Bernardin, J.; Berthé, M.; Bridges, N.; Blaney, D.; Bouyé, M.; Caïs, P.; Clark, B.; Clegg, S.; Cousin, A.; Cremers, D.; Cros, A.; DeFlores, L.; Derycke, C.; Dingler, B.; Dromart, G.; Dubois, B.; Dupieux, M.; Durand, E.; d'Uston, L.; Fabre, C.; Faure, B.; Gaboriaud, A.; Gharsa, T.; Herkenhoff, K.; Kan, E.; Kirkland, L.; Kouach, D.; Lacour, J.-L.; Langevin, Y.; Lasue, J.; Le Mouélic, S.; Lescure, M.; Lewin, E.; Limonadi, D.; Manhès, G.; Mauchien, P.; McKay, C.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Michel, Y.; Miller, E.; Newsom, Horton E.; Orttner, G.; Paillet, A.; Parès, L.; Parot, Y.; Pérez, R.; Pinet, P.; Poitrasson, F.; Quertier, B.; Sallé, B.; Sotin, Christophe; Sautter, V.; Séran, H.; Simmonds, J.J.; Sirven, J.-B.; Stiglich, R.; Striebig, N.; Thocaven, J.-J.; Toplis, M.J.; Vaniman, D.

    2012-01-01

    ChemCam is a remote sensing instrument suite on board the "Curiosity" rover (NASA) that uses Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to provide the elemental composition of soils and rocks at the surface of Mars from a distance of 1.3 to 7 m, and a telescopic imager to return high resolution context and micro-images at distances greater than 1.16 m. We describe five analytical capabilities: rock classification, quantitative composition, depth profiling, context imaging, and passive spectroscopy. They serve as a toolbox to address most of the science questions at Gale crater. ChemCam consists of a Mast-Unit (laser, telescope, camera, and electronics) and a Body-Unit (spectrometers, digital processing unit, and optical demultiplexer), which are connected by an optical fiber and an electrical interface. We then report on the development, integration, and testing of the Mast-Unit, and summarize some key characteristics of ChemCam. This confirmed that nominal or better than nominal performances were achieved for critical parameters, in particular power density (>1 GW/cm2). The analysis spot diameter varies from 350 μm at 2 m to 550 μm at 7 m distance. For remote imaging, the camera field of view is 20 mrad for 1024×1024 pixels. Field tests demonstrated that the resolution (˜90 μrad) made it possible to identify laser shots on a wide variety of images. This is sufficient for visualizing laser shot pits and textures of rocks and soils. An auto-exposure capability optimizes the dynamical range of the images. Dedicated hardware and software focus the telescope, with precision that is appropriate for the LIBS and imaging depths-of-field. The light emitted by the plasma is collected and sent to the Body-Unit via a 6 m optical fiber. The companion to this paper (Wiens et al. this issue) reports on the development of the Body-Unit, on the analysis of the emitted light, and on the good match between instrument performance and science specifications.

  3. Interaction of Instrumental and Goal-Directed Learning Modulates Prediction Error Representations in the Ventral Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rong; Böhmer, Wendelin; Hebart, Martin; Chien, Samson; Sommer, Tobias; Obermayer, Klaus; Gläscher, Jan

    2016-12-14

    Goal-directed and instrumental learning are both important controllers of human behavior. Learning about which stimulus event occurs in the environment and the reward associated with them allows humans to seek out the most valuable stimulus and move through the environment in a goal-directed manner. Stimulus-response associations are characteristic of instrumental learning, whereas response-outcome associations are the hallmark of goal-directed learning. Here we provide behavioral, computational, and neuroimaging results from a novel task in which stimulus-response and response-outcome associations are learned simultaneously but dominate behavior at different stages of the experiment. We found that prediction error representations in the ventral striatum depend on which type of learning dominates. Furthermore, the amygdala tracks the time-dependent weighting of stimulus-response versus response-outcome learning. Our findings suggest that the goal-directed and instrumental controllers dynamically engage the ventral striatum in representing prediction errors whenever one of them is dominating choice behavior. Converging evidence in human neuroimaging studies has shown that the reward prediction errors are correlated with activity in the ventral striatum. Our results demonstrate that this region is simultaneously correlated with a stimulus prediction error. Furthermore, the learning system that is currently dominating behavioral choice dynamically engages the ventral striatum for computing its prediction errors. This demonstrates that the prediction error representations are highly dynamic and influenced by various experimental context. This finding points to a general role of the ventral striatum in detecting expectancy violations and encoding error signals regardless of the specific nature of the reinforcer itself. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3612650-11$15.00/0.

  4. Development of Instrumentation for Spin-Echo Induced Spatial Beam Modulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales, Morten

    Spin-Echo Modulated Small Angle Neutron Scattering in Time-of-Flight mode (ToF SEMSANS) is an emerging technique extending the measurable phase space covered by neutron scattering. Using inclined magnetic field surfaces, (very) small angle scattering from a sample can be mapped into the spin...... orientation of the neutron as it has been shown in Spin-Echo Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SESANS). Taking this technique further we have shown that it is possible to perform quantitative Dark-Field Imaging, where the small angle scattering signal of individual areas in a neutron image can be obtained...

  5. The Disk Mass project; science case for a new PMAS IFU module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, M. A. W.; Bershady, M. A.; Andersen, D. R.; Swaters, R. A.; Westfall, K.; Kelz, A.; Roth, M. M.

    2004-01-01

    We present our Disk Mass project as the main science case for building a new fiber IFU-module for the PMAS spectrograph, currently mounted at the Cassegrain focus of the 3.5m telescope on Calar Alto. Compared to traditional long-slit observations, the large light collecting power of 2-dimensional

  6. The Calibration Target for the Mars 2020 SHERLOC Instrument: Multiple Science Roles for Future Manned and Unmanned Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Bhartia, R.; Beegle, L.; Burton, A.; Ross, A.; Shahar, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman & Luminescence for Organics & Chemicals (SHERLOC) instrument is a deep ultraviolet (UV) Raman/fluorescence instrument selected as part of the Mars 2020 rover instrument suite. SHERLOC will be mounted on the rover arm and its primary role is to identify carbonaceous species in martian samples, which may be selected for inclusion into a returnable sample cache. The SHERLOC instrument will require the use of a calibration target, and by design, multiple science roles will be addressed in the design of the target. Samples of materials used in NASA Extravehicular Mobility unit (EMU, or "space suit") manufacture have been included in the target to serve as both solid polymer calibration targets for SHERLOC instrument function, as well as for testing the resiliency of those materials under martian ambient conditions. A martian meteorite will also be included in the target to serve as a well-characterized example of a martian rock that contains trace carbonaceous material. This rock will be the first rock that we know of that has completed a round trip between planets and will therefore serve an EPO role to attract public attention to science and planetary exploration. The SHERLOC calibration target will address a wide range of NASA goals to include basic science of interest to both the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD).

  7. Science and the Large Hadron Collider: a probe into instrumentation, periodization and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Arpita

    2012-01-01

    On September 19, 2008, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Switzerland, began the world’s highest energy experiments as a probe into the structure of matter and forces of nature. Just nine days after the gala start-up, an explosion occurred in the LHC tunnel that brought the epic collider to a complete standstill. In light of the catastrophic incident that disrupted the operation of the LHC, the paper investigates the relation of temporality to the cycle of work in science, and raises the question: What kind of methodological value should we ascribe to events such as crises or breakdowns? Drawing upon and integrating classical anthropological themes with two and a half years of fieldwork at the LHC particle accelerator complex, the paper explores how the incident in September, which affected the instrument, acquaints us with the distribution of work in the laboratory. The incident discloses that the organization of science is not a homogenous ensemble, but marked by an enormous diversity of tasks and p...

  8. View of Nature of Science (VNOS Form B: An Instrument for Assessing Preservice Teachers View of Nature of Science at Borneo University Tarakan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listiani Listiani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available NOS form B is an instrument that has been developed and revised to assess the view of nature of science of preservice science teachers through nature of science aspects.Indeed, students and teachers have to have the view of nature of science to avoid misconceptions of science concepts. Unfortunately, research on the view of Nature of Science is less conducted in Indonesia. This is a qualitative research that was conducted in Borneo University Tarakan. Respondents are preservice biology teachers in the sixth semester. The first step of this research is translating and adapting the VNOS form B into Bahasa Indonesia to make sure that the instrument is culturally fit to Indonesian and the transadapted instrument then given to the respondents. The result shows that the VNOS form B can be applied to assess the view of nature of science of preservice biology teachers. However, the result also shows that most of preservice biology teachers have few understanding on aspects of nature of scince.

  9. High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments: HOPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyon, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The project called High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS) has been funded by NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program during April, 2012 â€" April, 2015. HOPS is an enabler for science missions with extremely high data processing rates. In this three-year effort of HOPS, Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) and 3-D Winds were of interest in particular. As for ASCENDS, HOPS replaces time domain data processing with frequency domain processing while making the real-time on-board data processing possible. As for 3-D Winds, HOPS offers real-time high-resolution wind profiling with 4,096-point fast Fourier transform (FFT). HOPS is adaptable with quick turn-around time. Since HOPS offers reusable user-friendly computational elements, its FPGA IP Core can be modified for a shorter development period if the algorithm changes. The FPGA and memory bandwidth of HOPS is 20 GB/sec while the typical maximum processor-to-SDRAM bandwidth of the commercial radiation tolerant high-end processors is about 130-150 MB/sec. The inter-board communication bandwidth of HOPS is 4 GB/sec while the effective processor-to-cPCI bandwidth of commercial radiation tolerant high-end boards is about 50-75 MB/sec. Also, HOPS offers VHDL cores for the easy and efficient implementation of ASCENDS and 3-D Winds, and other similar algorithms. A general overview of the 3-year development of HOPS is the goal of this presentation.

  10. The Student Actions Coding Sheet (SACS): An instrument for illuminating the shifts toward student-centered science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Ibrahim; Campbell, Todd; Hashidah Abd-Hamid, Nor

    2011-07-01

    This study describes the development of an instrument to investigate the extent to which student-centered actions are occurring in science classrooms. The instrument was developed through the following five stages: (1) student action identification, (2) use of both national and international content experts to establish content validity, (3) refinement of the item pool based on reviewer comments, (4) pilot testing of the instrument, and (5) statistical reliability and item analysis leading to additional refinement and finalization of the instrument. In the field test, the instrument consisted of 26 items separated into four categories originally derived from student-centered instruction literature and used by the authors to sort student actions in previous research. The SACS was administered across 22 Grade 6-8 classrooms by 22 groups of observers, with a total of 67 SACS ratings completed. The finalized instrument was found to be internally consistent, with acceptable estimates from inter-rater intraclass correlation reliability coefficients at the p Observation Protocol. Based on the analyses completed, the SACS appears to be a useful instrument for inclusion in comprehensive assessment packages for illuminating the extent to which student-centered actions are occurring in science classrooms.

  11. Performance of First-Year Health Sciences Students in a Large, Diverse, Multidisciplinary, First-Semester, Physiology Service Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufts, Mark; Higgins-Opitz, Susan B.

    2014-01-01

    Health Science students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal perform better in their professional modules compared with their physiology modules. The pass rates of physiology service modules have steadily declined over the years. While a system is in place to identify "at-risk" students, it is only activated after the first semester. As a…

  12. Academic Research Equipment in the Physical and Computer Sciences and Engineering. An Analysis of Findings from Phase I of the National Science Foundation's National Survey of Academic Research Instruments and Instrumentation Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf, Kenneth; White, Kristine

    This report presents information from phase I of a survey designed to develop quantitative indicators of the current national stock, cost/investment, condition, obsolescence, utilization, and need for major research instruments in academic settings. Data for phase I (which focused on the physical and computer sciences and engineering) were…

  13. Development Module Oriented Science Technology Society Indue Science Literacy Assessment for 7th-Grade Junior High School Students in 2nd -Semester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbi, Y. R.; Sumarmin, R.; Putri, D. H.

    2018-04-01

    The problem in the science learning process is the application of the scientific approach takes a long time in order to provide conceptual understanding to the students, there is no teaching materials that can measure students reasoning and thinking ability, and the assessment has not measured students reasoning and literacy skills.The effort can be done is to develop science technology society module indue science literacy assessment. The purpose of the research was to produce a module oriented society indue science science technology literacy assessment. The research is development research using Plomp model, consist of preliminary, prototyping, and assessment phase. Data collect by questionnare and documantion. The result there is science technology society module indue science literacy assessment is very valid.

  14. Validity of Scientific Based Chemistry Android Module to Empower Science Process Skills (SPS) in Solubility Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antrakusuma, B.; Masykuri, M.; Ulfa, M.

    2018-04-01

    Evolution of Android technology can be applied to chemistry learning, one of the complex chemistry concept was solubility equilibrium. this concept required the science process skills (SPS). This study aims to: 1) Characteristic scientific based chemistry Android module to empowering SPS, and 2) Validity of the module based on content validity and feasibility test. This research uses a Research and Development approach (RnD). Research subjects were 135 s1tudents and three teachers at three high schools in Boyolali, Central of Java. Content validity of the module was tested by seven experts using Aiken’s V technique, and the module feasibility was tested to students and teachers in each school. Characteristics of chemistry module can be accessed using the Android device. The result of validation of the module contents got V = 0.89 (Valid), and the results of the feasibility test Obtained 81.63% (by the student) and 73.98% (by the teacher) indicates this module got good criteria.

  15. A NIM (Nuclear Instrumentation Module) system conjugated with optional input for pHEMT amplifier for beta and gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrad, Barbara; Lüdke, Everton

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a high speed NIM module (Nuclear Instrumentation Module) to detect radiation, gamma and muons, as part of a system for natural radiation monitoring and of extraterrestrial origin. The subsystem developed consists of a preamplifier and an integrated SCA (Single Channel Analyzer), including power supplies of ± 12 and ± 24V with derivations of +3.6 and ± 5V. The single channel analyzer board, consisting of discrete logic components, operating in window modes, normal and integral. The pulse shaping block is made up of two voltage comparators working at 120 MHz with a response time > 60 ns and a logic anticoincidence system. The preamplifier promotes a noise reduction and introduces the impedance matching between the output of anode / diode photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and subsequent equipment, providing an input impedance of 1MΩ and output impedance of 40 to 140Ω. The shaper amplifier is non-inverting and has variable input capacitance of 1000 pF. The upper and lower thresholds of the SCA are adjustable from 0 to ± 10V, and the equipment is compatible with various types of detectors, like PMTs coupled to sodium iodide crystals. For use with liquid scintillators and photodiodes with crystals (CsI: Tl) is proposed to include a preamplifier circuit pHEMT (pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor) integrated. Yet, the system presents the possibility of applications for various purposes of gamma spectroscopy and automatic detection of events producing of beta particles

  16. NASA/First Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) Module Inserts Development for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Myscha; Carswell, Bill; Farmer, Jeff; Rose, Fred; Tidwell, Paul

    1999-01-01

    The Material Science Research Rack 1 (MSRR-1) of the Material Science Research Facility (MSRF) contains an Experiment Module (EM) being developed collaboratively by NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). This NASA/ESA EM will accommodate several different removable and replaceable Module Inserts (MIs) which are installed on orbit. Two of the NASA MIs being developed for specific material science investigations are described herein.

  17. Natural science modules with SETS approach to improve students’ critical thinking ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, A. P. S.; Sunarno, W.; Sugiyarto

    2018-05-01

    SETS (Science, Environment, Technology and Society) approach for learning is important to be developed for middle school, since it can improve students’ critical thinking ability. This research aimed to determine feasibility and the effectiveness of Natural Science Module with SETS approach to increase their critical thinking ability. The module development was done by invitation, exploration, explanation, concept fortifying, and assessment. Questionnaire and test performed including pretest and posttest with control group design were used as data collection technique in this research. Two classes were selected randomly as samples and consisted of 32 students in each group. Descriptive data analysis was used to analyze the module feasibility and t-test was used to analyze their critical thinking ability. The results showed that the feasibility of the module development has a very good results based on assessment of the experts, practitioners and peers. Based on the t-test results, there was significant difference between control class and experiment class (0.004), with n-gain score of control and the experiment class respectively 0.270 (low) and 0.470 (medium). It showed that the module was more effective than the textbook. It was able to improve students’ critical thinking ability and appropriate to be used in learning process.

  18. Investigating the Quality of Project-Based Science and Technology Learning Environments in Elementary School: A Critical Review of Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Miranda; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim; Laevers, Ferre

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a systematic review of instruments that have the potential to measure the quality of project-based science and technology (S&T) learning environments in elementary school. To this end, a comprehensive literature search was undertaken for the large field of S&T learning environments. We conducted a horizontal bottom-up…

  19. Improving Student Perceptions of Science through the Use of State-of-the-Art Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurentz, David J.; Kerns, Stefanie L.; Shibley, Lisa R.

    2011-01-01

    Access to state-of-the-art instrumentation, namely nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, early in the college curriculum was provided to undergraduate students in an effort to improve student perceptions of science. Proton NMR spectroscopy was introduced as part of an aspirin synthesis in a guided-inquiry approach to spectral…

  20. High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Ng, Tak-Kwong; Lin, Bing; Hu, Yongxiang; Harrison, Wallace

    2014-01-01

    A new development of on-board data processing platform has been in progress at NASA Langley Research Center since April, 2012, and the overall review of such work is presented in this paper. The project is called High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS) and focuses on a high-speed scalable data processing platform for three particular National Research Council's Decadal Survey missions such as Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS), Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystems (ACE), and Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN) 3-D Winds. HOPS utilizes advanced general purpose computing with Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based algorithm implementation techniques. The significance of HOPS is to enable high speed on-board data processing for current and future science missions with its reconfigurable and scalable data processing platform. A single HOPS processing board is expected to provide approximately 66 times faster data processing speed for ASCENDS, more than 70% reduction in both power and weight, and about two orders of cost reduction compared to the state-of-the-art (SOA) on-board data processing system. Such benchmark predictions are based on the data when HOPS was originally proposed in August, 2011. The details of these improvement measures are also presented. The two facets of HOPS development are identifying the most computationally intensive algorithm segments of each mission and implementing them in a FPGA-based data processing board. A general introduction of such facets is also the purpose of this paper.

  1. STS-40 Spacelab Life Science 1 (SLS-1) module in OV-102's payload bay (PLB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-40 Spacelab Life Science 1 (SLS-1) module is documented in the payload bay (PLB) of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Included in the view are: the spacelab (SL) transfer tunnel joggle section and support struts; SLS-1 module forward end cone with the European Space Agency (ESA) SL insignia, SLS-1 payload insignia, and the upper feed through plate (center); the orbiter maneuvering system (OMS) pods; and the vertical stabilizer with the Detailed Test Objective (DTO) 901 Shuttle Infrared Leeside Temperature Sensing (SILTS) at the top 24 inches. The vertical stabilizer points to the Earth's limb and the cloud-covered surface of the Earth below.

  2. Validation of the alcohol use module from a multidimensional prenatal psychosocial risk screening instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Patricia A; Godecker, Amy; Sidebottom, Abbey C

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to validate the Prenatal Risk Overview (PRO) Alcohol use domain against a structured diagnostic interview. The PRO was developed to screen for 13 psychosocial risk factors associated with poor birth outcomes. After clinic staff administered the PRO to prenatal patients, they asked for consent to administration of selected modules of the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV (SCID) by a research assistant. To assess the criterion validity of the PRO, low and moderate/high risk classifications from the alcohol use domain were cross-tabulated with SCID Alcohol Use Disorder variables. The study sample included 744 women. Based on PRO responses, 48.7% reported alcohol use during the 12 months before they learned they were pregnant; 5.4% reported use post pregnancy awareness. The typical quantity consumed pre-pregnancy was four or more drinks per occasion. Based on the SCID, 7.4% met DSM-IV criteria for either Alcohol Abuse or Dependence. Sensitivity and specificity of the PRO for Alcohol Use Disorders were 83.6 and 80.3%, respectively. Negative predictive value was 98.4% and positive predictive value was 25.3%. The results indicate the PRO effectively identified pregnant women with Alcohol Use Disorders. However, prenatal screening must also detect consumption patterns that do not meet diagnostic thresholds but may endanger fetal development. The PRO also identified women who continued to drink after they knew they were pregnant, as well as those whose previous drinking habits put them at risk for resumption of hazardous use.

  3. Intellectual property as an instrument of interaction between government, business, science and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitenko, S. M.; Mesyats, M. A.; Rozhkova, O. V.

    2017-09-01

    This article is devoted to research the characteristics associated with pledge of intellectual property in foreign and domestic practice. Holding intellectual property objects’ pledge transactions accelerates the pace of creating innovative systems in the economy. In present paper the modern scheme for bank loan, financing secured with patented intellectual property is researched. The authors give the brief description of features of pledge security registration for loans in some Europe countries. The Europe Union experience shows that as collateral for monetary loans can be used trademarks, patents on the intellectual property, as well as their registration requests. Russian experience of the pledge operations of the intellectual property is too small. This way of bank lending is at an early stage of development. The main constraint is the difficulty of assessing the value of the pledged intellectual property as intangible assets. However, taking into account world and domestic practice this direction for Russian market is estimated by the authors as promising one. Pledge transactions take place within the framework of the Quadruple-Helix Model concept that involves four participants: “science”, “business”, “government” and “society”. Intellectual property are estimates by the authors as an instrument of interaction between government, business, science and society.

  4. A Series of MATLAB Learning Modules to Enhance Numerical Competency in Applied Marine Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, A. M.; Lucieer, V.; Burke, C.

    2016-12-01

    Enhanced numerical competency to navigate the massive data landscapes are critical skills students need to effectively explore, analyse and visualize complex patterns in high-dimensional data for addressing the complexity of many of the world's problems. This is especially the case for interdisciplinary, undergraduate applied marine science programs, where students are required to demonstrate competency in methods and ideas across multiple disciplines. In response to this challenge, we have developed a series of repository-based data exploration, analysis and visualization modules in MATLAB for integration across various attending and online classes within the University of Tasmania. The primary focus of these modules is to teach students to collect, aggregate and interpret data from large on-line marine scientific data repositories to, 1) gain technical skills in discovering, accessing, managing and visualising large, numerous data sources, 2) interpret, analyse and design approaches to visualise these data, and 3) to address, through numerical approaches, complex, real-world problems, that the traditional scientific methods cannot address. All modules, implemented through a MATLAB live script, include a short recorded lecture to introduce the topic, a handout that gives an overview of the activities, an instructor's manual with a detailed methodology and discussion points, a student assessment (quiz and level-specific challenge task), and a survey. The marine science themes addressed through these modules include biodiversity, habitat mapping, algal blooms and sea surface temperature change and utilize a series of marine science and oceanographic data portals. Through these modules students, with minimal experience in MATLAB or numerical methods are introduced to array indexing, concatenation, sorting, and reshaping, principal component analysis, spectral analysis and unsupervised classification within the context of oceanographic processes, marine geology and

  5. Summary of 2016 Light Microscopy Module (LMM) Physical Science Experiments on ISS. Update of LMM Science Experiments and Facility Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicker, Ronald J.; Meyer, William V.; Foster, William M.; Fletcher, William A.; Williams, Stuart J.; Lee, Chang-Soo

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will feature a series of short, entertaining, and informative videos that describe the current status and science support for the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) facility on the International Space Station. These interviews will focus on current experiments and provide an overview of future capabilities. The recently completed experiments include nano-particle haloing, 3-D self-assembly with Janus particles and a model system for nano-particle drug delivery. The videos will share perspectives from the scientists, engineers, and managers working with the NASA Light Microscopy program.

  6. The SPICE concept - An approach to providing geometric and other ancillary information needed for interpretation of data returned from space science instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Charles H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The Navigation Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF), acting under the direction of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications, and with substantial participation of the planetary science community, is designing and implementing an ancillary data system - called SPICE - to assist scientists in planning and interpreting scientific observations taken from spaceborne instruments. The principal objective of the implemented SPICE system is that it will hold the essential geometric and related ancillary information needed to recover the full value of science instrument data, and that it will facilitate correlations of individual instrument datasets with data obtained from other instruments on the same or other spacecraft.

  7. Sustainability Instruction in High Doses: Results From Incorporation of Multiple InTeGrate Modules Into an Environmental Science Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher, L. K.

    2017-12-01

    The Interdisciplinary Teaching about Earth for a Sustainable Future (InTeGrate) community has developed extensive courses and modules designed for broad adoption into geoscience classrooms in diverse environments. I participated in a three-semester research project designed to test the efficacy of incorporating "high doses" (minimum 3 modules or 18 class periods) of InTeGrate materials into a course, in my case, an introductory environmental science class. InTeGrate materials were developed by groups of instructors from a range of institutions across the US. These materials include an emphasis on systems thinking, interdisciplinary approaches, and sustainability, and those themes are woven throughout the modules. The three semesters included a control in which no InTeGrate materials were used, a pilot in which InTeGrate materials were tested, and a treatment semesters in which tested materials were modified as needed and fully implemented into the course. Data were collected each semester on student attitudes using the InTeGrate Attitudinal Instrument (pre and post), a subset of Geoscience Literacy Exam questions (pre and post), and a series of assessments and essay exam questions (post only). Although results suggest that learning gains were mixed, changes in attitudes pre- and post-instruction were substantial. Changes in attitudes regarding the importance of sustainable employers, the frequency of self-reported individual sustainable actions, and motivation level for creating a sustainable society were observed in the control and treatment semesters, with the treatment semester showing the greatest gains. Importantly, one of the biggest differences between the control and treatment semesters is the reported impact that the course had on influencing students' sustainable behaviors. The treatment semester course impacted students' sustainable behaviors far more than the control semester.

  8. Development of contextual teaching and learning based science module for junior high school for increasing creativity of students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniasari, H.; Sukarmin; Sarwanto

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this research are to analyze the the properness of contextual teaching and learning (CTL)-based science module for Junior High School for increasing students’ creativity and using CTL-based science module to increase students’ learning creativity. Development of CTL-based science module for Junior High School is Research and Development (R&D) using 4D Model consist of 4 steps: define, design, develop, and disseminate. Module is validated by 3 expert validators (Material, media, and language experts), 2 reviewer and 1 peer reviewer. . Based on the results of data analysis, it can be concluded that: the results of the validation, the average score of CTL-based science module is 88.28%, the value exceeded the value of the cut off score of 87.5%, so the media declared eligible for the study. Research shows that the gain creativity class that uses CTL-based science module has a gain of 0.72. Based on the results of the study showed that CTL-based science module effectively promotes creativity of students

  9. EU Science Diplomacy and Framework Programs as Instruments of STI Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. А. Ibragimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the tools that the EU in interactions with third countries in the field of STI uses. The EU is a pioneer in the use of science and technology in the international arena, the creation of strategic bilateral agreements on science and technology and the conduct of political dialogues at the highest political level (at the country and regional levels. The EU actively uses its foreign policy instruments of influence, including the provision of access to its framework programs to researchers from third countries, as well as scientific diplomacy. The success of these programs and scientific diplomacy shows the effectiveness of the EU as a global actor. In its foreign policy global innovation strategy, the EU proceeds from the premise that no state in the world today can cope independently with modern global challenges such as climate change, migration, terrorism, etc. Therefore, the solution of these issues requires both an expert evaluation from an independent world scientific community, and the perseverance of diplomats and officials of branch ministries of national states capable of conveying the views of their government in international negotiations and defending national interests of the country to find a solution that suits everyone. The EU has the resources to create a "cumulative effect" by developing and applying common norms on the territory of theUnion, analyzing the innovation policies of member states and the possibility of sharing best practices. At the same time, the EU shares its vision of problems, values and priorities with partners and uses the tools of "soft power" (including its smart and normative force and scientific diplomacy in the field of STI. The soft power of the EU in the field of STI lies in the attractiveness of the EU as a research area in which it is possible to conduct modern high-quality international research with the involvement of scientific teams from different countries in both physical

  10. Development of a head and neck companion module for the quality of life - radiation therapy instrument (QOL-RTI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotti, Andy; Johnson, Darlene J.; Gwede, Clement; Casey, Linda; Cantor, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this study is to develop a Likert version, disease specific module for the Quality of Life - Radiation Therapy Instrument (QOL-RTI) for head and neck patients. This module combined with the QOL-RTI may help us to determine what changes, if any, occur in the quality of life of patients receiving primary radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. A compelling reason to study head and neck patients is because of the extensive difficulties these patients experience while undergoing radiotherapy. Their psychological and emotional well-being may also have an adverse affect on their quality of life as they strive to cope with both a life-threatening disease and with the prospect of disfigurement or dysfunction that cannot be hidden from view. Many tools have been developed to measure quality of life, however, previously published literature has focused on quantifying functional status and toxicity assessment rather than the alteration of quality of life as perceived by the patient. This study, limited to patients receiving primary radiation, is expected to yield a tool that is applicable to the patient receiving multi-modality treatment for head and neck cancer and will be useful to the physician/nurse in determining interventions for these patients. Materials and Methods: This study is an uncontrolled, non-randomized exploratory study, including fifty (50) consecutive eligible patients undergoing definitive primary radiotherapy. The questionnaires were given to all eligible patients being treated with radiotherapy for head and neck cancer who are not already registered on another research study assessing Quality of Life (i.e. RTOG). During the 5-8 week treatment period, the QOL-RTI/H and N instrument is administered as follows: at baseline evaluation (immediately prior to the beginning of radiotherapy), at week four (4) two days in a row (for test-retest) and at the end of the treatment period. For validation purposes the QOL-RTI/H and

  11. Technical evaluation of the novel preanalytical module on instrumentation laboratory ACL TOP: advancing automation in hemostasis testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Ippolito, Luigi; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2013-10-01

    Automation in hemostasis testing is entering an exciting and unprecedented phase. This study was planned to assess the performance of the new preanalytical module on the hemostasis testing system Instrumentation Laboratory ACL TOP. The evaluation included interference studies to define reliable thresholds for rejecting samples with significant concentrations of interfering substances; within-run imprecision studies of plasma indices on four different interference degrees for each index; comparison studies with reference measures of hemolysis index, bilirubin, and triglycerides on clinical chemistry analyzers; and calculation of turnaround time with and without automatic performance of preanalytical check. The upper limits for sample rejection according to our interference studies were 3.6 g/L for hemoglobin, 13.6 mg/dL for bilirubin, and 1454 mg/dL for triglycerides. We found optimal precision for all indices (0.6% to 3.1% at clinically relevant thresholds) and highly significant correlations with reference measures on clinical chemistry analyzers (from 0.985 to 0.998). The limited increase of turnaround time (i.e., +3% and +5% with or without cap-piercing), coupled with no adjunctive costs over performance of normal coagulation assays, contribute to make the automatic check of plasma indices on ACL TOP a reliable and practical approach for improving testing quality and safeguarding patient safety.

  12. Optical Manufacturing and Testing Requirements Identified by the NASA Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Barney, Rich; Bauman, Jill; Feinberg, Lee; Mcleese, Dan; Singh, Upendra

    2011-01-01

    In August 2010, the NASA Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) commissioned an assessment of 15 different technology areas of importance to the future of NASA. Technology assessment #8 (TA8) was Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems (SIOSS). SIOSS assess the needs for optical technology ranging from detectors to lasers, x-ray mirrors to microwave antenna, in-situ spectrographs for on-surface planetary sample characterization to large space telescopes. The needs assessment looked across the entirety of NASA and not just the Science Mission Directorate. This paper reviews the optical manufacturing and testing technologies identified by SIOSS which require development in order to enable future NASA high priority missions.

  13. Reusing Joint Polar Satellite System (jpss) Ground System Components to Process AURA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (omi) Science Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, J. F.; Jain, P.; Johnson, J.; Doiron, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    New Earth observation instruments are planned to enable advancements in Earth science research over the next decade. Diversity of Earth observing instruments and their observing platforms will continue to increase as new instrument technologies emerge and are deployed as part of National programs such as Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite system (GOES), Landsat as well as the potential for many CubeSat and aircraft missions. The practical use and value of these observational data often extends well beyond their original purpose. The practicing community needs intuitive and standardized tools to enable quick unfettered development of tailored products for specific applications and decision support systems. However, the associated data processing system can take years to develop and requires inherent knowledge and the ability to integrate increasingly diverse data types from multiple sources. This paper describes the adaptation of a large-scale data processing system built for supporting JPSS algorithm calibration and validation (Cal/Val) node to a simplified science data system for rapid application. The new configurable data system reuses scalable JAVA technologies built for the JPSS Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Test, and Evaluation (GRAVITE) system to run within a laptop environment and support product generation and data processing of AURA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) science products. Of particular interest are the root requirements necessary for integrating experimental algorithms and Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) data access libraries into a science data production system. This study demonstrates the ability to reuse existing Ground System technologies to support future missions with minimal changes.

  14. Self-Tuning Fully-Connected PID Neural Network System for Distributed Temperature Sensing and Control of Instrument with Multi-Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Cheng; Zhu, Rong

    2016-10-14

    High integration of multi-functional instruments raises a critical issue in temperature control that is challenging due to its spatial-temporal complexity. This paper presents a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) self-tuning temperature sensing and control system for efficiently modulating the temperature environment within a multi-module instrument. The smart system ensures that the internal temperature of the instrument converges to a target without the need of a system model, thus making the control robust. The system consists of a fully-connected proportional-integral-derivative (PID) neural network (FCPIDNN) and an on-line self-tuning module. The experimental results show that the presented system can effectively control the internal temperature under various mission scenarios, in particular, it is able to self-reconfigure upon actuator failure. The system provides a new scheme for a complex and time-variant MIMO control system which can be widely applied for the distributed measurement and control of the environment in instruments, integration electronics, and house constructions.

  15. Self-Tuning Fully-Connected PID Neural Network System for Distributed Temperature Sensing and Control of Instrument with Multi-Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High integration of multi-functional instruments raises a critical issue in temperature control that is challenging due to its spatial–temporal complexity. This paper presents a multi-input multi-output (MIMO self-tuning temperature sensing and control system for efficiently modulating the temperature environment within a multi-module instrument. The smart system ensures that the internal temperature of the instrument converges to a target without the need of a system model, thus making the control robust. The system consists of a fully-connected proportional–integral–derivative (PID neural network (FCPIDNN and an on-line self-tuning module. The experimental results show that the presented system can effectively control the internal temperature under various mission scenarios, in particular, it is able to self-reconfigure upon actuator failure. The system provides a new scheme for a complex and time-variant MIMO control system which can be widely applied for the distributed measurement and control of the environment in instruments, integration electronics, and house constructions.

  16. Performance in grade 12 mathematics and science predicts student nurses' performance in first year science modules at a university in the Western Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mthimunye, Katlego D T; Daniels, Felicity M

    2017-10-26

    The demand for highly qualified and skilled nurses is increasing in South Africa as well as around the world. Having a background in science can create a significant advantage for students wishing to enrol for an undergraduate nursing qualification because nursing as profession is grounded in scientific evidence. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive validity of grade 12 mathematics and science on the academic performance of first year student nurses in science modules. A quantitative research method using a cross-sectional predictive design was employed in this study. The participants included first year Bachelor of Nursing students enrolled at a university in the Western Cape, South Africa. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed to analyse the data by using the IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences versions 24. Descriptive analysis of all variables was performed as well as the Spearman's rank correlation test to describe the relationship among the study variables. Standard multiple linear regressions analysis was performed to determine the predictive validity of grade 12 mathematics and science on the academic performance of first year student nurses in science modules. The results of this study showed that grade 12 physical science is not a significant predictor (p > 0.062) of performance in first year science modules. The multiple linear regression revealed that grade 12 mathematics and life science grades explained 37.1% to 38.1% (R2 = 0.381 and adj R2 = 0.371) of the variation in the first year science grade distributions. Based on the results of the study it is evident that performance in grade 12 mathematics (β = 2.997) and life science (β = 3.175) subjects is a significant predictor (p < 0.001) of the performance in first year science modules for student nurses at the university identified for this study.

  17. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE LEARNING MODULE FOR CHILDRENT WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Marzuqi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There are the absence of teaching materials in accordance with the characteristics and conditions of a hearing impairment children in terms of learning, especially science subjects. The characteristics of hearing impairment children is poor in their vocabularies, so that, the teaching materials emphasizing the visual aspect is necessary. This study used a Research and Development (R & D adapted by the Sugiyono model in order to produce teaching materials in the form of pictorial modules and to test their effectiveness. The result of the research showed that it was a very valid criteria with a score of 97% of the materials experts, 85% of media experts, and 93% of skilled practitioners. The score of the effectiveness of the modules was 75% with the effective criteria.

  18. TOPICAL REVIEW: Metallo-supramolecular modules as a paradigm for materials science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk G Kurth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal ion coordination in discrete or extended metallo-supramolecular assemblies offers ample opportunity to fabricate and study devices and materials that are equally important for fundamental research and new technologies. Metal ions embedded in a specific ligand field offer diverse thermodynamic, kinetic, chemical, physical and structural properties that make these systems promising candidates for active components in functional materials. A key challenge is to improve and develop methodologies for placing these active modules in suitable device architectures, such as thin films or mesophases. This review highlights recent developments in extended, polymeric metallo-supramolecular systems and discrete polyoxometalates with an emphasis on materials science.

  19. The Development of an ASSA Module as an Auxiliary Tool for Assessment of Existing Plant Instrumentation and enhancement of the instruments performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Kil Mo; Kang, Kyung Ho; Ha, Kwang Soon; Cho, Young Ro; Cho, Young; Park, Rae Jun; Kim, Sang Baik; Kim, Hee Dong

    2007-04-01

    A review of a plant's accident management capabilities is one of the key elements in achieving regulatory closure of severe accident issues. During accidents, information and data from plant's instruments, as well as others sources, are essential for assessing the plant's status and response. Unlike for design basis accidents, there are inherently some uncertainties to instrumentation capabilities for severe accident conditions. There are many ways to obtain information during a severe accident. Moreover, precise measurements are not necessary. The redundancy and ruggedness of a plant's instrumentation provides considerable depth in the capability of existing designs. The circuit simulation analysis and diagnosis methods are used to assess instruments in detail when they give apparently abnormal readings. A new simulator, ASSA(abnormal signal simulator analysis), through an analysis of the important circuits modeling under severe accident conditions has been designed. It has three main functions which are a signal processing tool, an accident management tool, and an additional guide from the initial screen. In this paper, it can be simulated to the temperature characteristic analysis procedure of the ASSA through EQ data comparative method and using specific signal processing under severe accident condition

  20. SPESS: A New Instrument for Measuring Student Perceptions in Earth and Ocean Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Allison; Lane, Erin; Kennedy, Ben; Frappé-Sénéclauze, Tom-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and results of a new tool used for measuring shifts in students' perceptions of earth and ocean sciences called the Student Perceptions about Earth Sciences Survey (SPESS). The survey measures where students lie on the novice--expert continuum, and how their perceptions change after taking one or more earth and…

  1. The M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory-Head and Neck Module, a Patient-Reported Outcome Instrument, Accurately Predicts the Severity of Radiation-Induced Mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, David I.; Mendoza, Tito R.; Chambers, Mark; Burkett, V. Shannon; Garden, Adam S.; Hessell, Amy C.; Lewin, Jan S.; Ang, K. Kian; Kies, Merrill S.; Gning, Ibrahima; Wang, Xin S.; Cleeland, Charles S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory-Head and Neck (MDASI-HN) module, a symptom burden instrument, with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck (FACT-HN) module, a quality-of-life instrument, for the assessment of mucositis in patients with head-and-neck cancer treated with radiotherapy and to identify the most distressing symptoms from the patient's perspective. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with head-and-neck cancer (n = 134) completed the MDASI-HN and FACT-HN before radiotherapy (time 1) and after 6 weeks of radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (time 2). The mean global and subscale scores for each instrument were compared with the objective mucositis scores determined from the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. Results: The global and subscale scores for each instrument showed highly significant changes from time 1 to time 2 and a significant correlation with the objective mucositis scores at time 2. Only the MDASI scores, however, were significant predictors of objective Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events mucositis scores on multivariate regression analysis (standardized regression coefficient, 0.355 for the global score and 0.310 for the head-and-neck cancer-specific score). Most of the moderate and severe symptoms associated with mucositis as identified on the MDASI-HN are not present on the FACT-HN. Conclusion: Both the MDASI-HN and FACT-HN modules can predict the mucositis scores. However, the MDASI-HN, a symptom burden instrument, was more closely associated with the severity of radiation-induced mucositis than the FACT-HN on multivariate regression analysis. This greater association was most likely related to the inclusion of a greater number of face-valid mucositis-related items in the MDASI-HN compared with the FACT-HN

  2. Teaching Earth Sciences as an interdisciplinary subject: Novel module design involving research literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Vincent C. H.

    2010-05-01

    The study of Earth Sciences requires an interdisciplinary approach as it involves understanding scientific knowledge originating from a wide spectrum of research areas. Not only does it include subjects ranging from, for instance, hydrogeology to deep crustal seismology and from climate science to oceanography, but it also has many direct applications in closely related disciplines such as environmental engineering and natural resources management. While research crossing traditional disciplinary boundaries in geosciences is becoming increasingly common, there is only limited integration of interdisciplinary research in the teaching of the subject. Given that the transition from undergraduate education based on subject modules to postgraduate interdisciplinary research is never easy, such integration is a highly desirable pedagogical approach at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. My presentation is based on a recent teaching project involving novel design of an undergraduate course. The course is implemented in order to address the synergy between research and teaching (Tong, 2009). This project has been shown to be effective and successful in teaching geosciences undergraduates at the University of London. The module consists of studying core geophysical principles and linking them directly to a selection of recently published research papers in a wide range of interdisciplinary applications. Research reviewing and reporting techniques are systematically developed, practised and fully integrated into teaching of the core scientific theories. A fully-aligned assignment with a feedback website invites the students to reflect on the scientific knowledge and the study skills related to research literature they have acquired in the course. This teaching project has been recognized by a teaching award (http://www.clpd.bbk.ac.uk/staff/BETA). In this presentation, I will discuss how undergraduate teaching with a focus on research literature in Earth Sciences can

  3. Quantitative x-ray microanalysis in an AEM: instrumental considerations and applications to materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaluzec, N.J.

    1979-01-01

    There are a wide variety of instrumental problems which are present to some degree in all AEM instruments. The nature and magnitude of these artifacts can in some instances preclude the simple quantitative interpretation of the recorded x-ray emission spectrum using a thin-film electron excitation model; however, by judicious modifications to the instrument these complications can be effectively eliminated. The specific operating conditions of the microscope necessarily vary from one analysis to another depending on the type of specimen and experiment being performed. In general, however, the overall performance of the AEM system during x-ray analysis is optimized using the highest attainable incident electron energy; selecting the maximum probe diameter and probe current consistent with experimental limitations; and positioning the x-ray detector in a geometry such that it records information from the electron entrance surface of the specimen

  4. A Blended Learning Module in Statistics for Computer Science and Engineering Students Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Andersson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching a statistics course for undergraduate computer science students can be very challenging: As statistics teachers we are usually faced with problems ranging from a complete disinterest in the subject to lack of basic knowledge in mathematics and anxiety for failing the exam, since statistics has the reputation of having high failure rates. In our case, we additionally struggle with difficulties in the timing of the lectures as well as often occurring absence of the students due to spare-time jobs or a long traveling time to the university. This paper reveals how these issues can be addressed by the introduction of a blended learning module in statistics. In the following, we describe an e-learning development process used to implement time- and location-independent learning in statistics. The study focuses on a six-step-approach for developing the blended learning module. In addition, the teaching framework for the blended module is presented, including suggestions for increasing the interest in learning the course. Furthermore, the first experimental in-class usage, including evaluation of the students’ expectations, has been completed and the outcome is discussed.

  5. The development and validation of a two-tiered multiple-choice instrument to identify alternative conceptions in earth science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, Katherine Anna

    This study was to determine reliability and validity for a two-tiered, multiple- choice instrument designed to identify alternative conceptions in earth science. Additionally, this study sought to identify alternative conceptions in earth science held by preservice teachers, to investigate relationships between self-reported confidence scores and understanding of earth science concepts, and to describe relationships between content knowledge and alternative conceptions and planning instruction in the science classroom. Eighty-seven preservice teachers enrolled in the MAT program participated in this study. Sixty-eight participants were female, twelve were male, and seven chose not to answer. Forty-seven participants were in the elementary certification program, five were in the middle school certification program, and twenty-nine were pursuing secondary certification. Results indicate that the two-tiered, multiple-choice format can be a reliable and valid method for identifying alternative conceptions. Preservice teachers in all certification areas who participated in this study may possess common alternative conceptions previously identified in the literature. Alternative conceptions included: all rivers flow north to south, the shadow of the Earth covers the Moon causing lunar phases, the Sun is always directly overhead at noon, weather can be predicted by animal coverings, and seasons are caused by the Earth's proximity to the Sun. Statistical analyses indicated differences, however not all of them significant, among all subgroups according to gender and certification area. Generally males outperformed females and preservice teachers pursuing middle school certification had higher scores on the questionnaire followed by those obtaining secondary certification. Elementary preservice teachers scored the lowest. Additionally, self-reported scores of confidence in one's answers and understanding of the earth science concept in question were analyzed. There was a

  6. Detection Limit of Smectite by Chemin IV Laboratory Instrument: Preliminary Implications for Chemin on the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archilles, Cherie; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Blake, D. F.

    2011-01-01

    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is an miniature X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument capable of detecting the mineralogical and elemental compositions of rocks, outcrops and soils on the surface of Mars. CheMin uses a microfocus-source Co X-ray tube, a transmission sample cell, and an energy-discriminating X-ray sensitive CCD to produce simultaneous 2-D XRD patterns and energy-dispersive X-ray histograms from powdered samples. CRISM and OMEGA have identified the presence of phyllosilicates at several locations on Mars including the four candidate MSL landing sites. The objective of this study was to conduct preliminary studies to determine the CheMin detection limit of smectite in a smectite/olivine mixed mineral system.

  7. "Designing Instrument for Science Classroom Learning Environment in Francophone Minority Settings: Accounting for Voiced Concerns among Teachers and Immigrant/Refugee Students"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolivar, Bathélemy

    2015-01-01

    The three-phase process "-Instrument for Minority Immigrant Science Learning Environment," an 8-scale, 32-item see Appendix I- (I_MISLE) instrument when completed by teachers provides an accurate description of existing conditions in classrooms in which immigrant and refugee students are situated. Through the completion of the instrument…

  8. Inspiring Climate Education Excellence(ICEE): Developing Elearning professional development modules - secondary science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellagher, E.; Buhr, S. M.; Lynds, S. E.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Cires Education Outreach

    2011-12-01

    Inspiring Climate Education Excellence (ICEE) is a NASA-funded project to develop content knowledge and knowledge of effective teaching strategies in climate education among secondary science teachers. ICEE resources are aligned with the Essential Principles of Climate Science. Building upon a needs assessment and face to face workshop, ICEE resources include iTunesU videos, an ICEE 101 resource site with videos and peer-reviewed learning activities, and a moderated online forum. Self-directed modules and an online course are being developed around concepts and topics in which teachers express the most interest and need for instruction. ICEE resources include attention to effective teaching strategies, such as awareness of student misconceptions, strategies for forestalling controversy and advice from master teachers on implementation and curriculum development. The resources are being developed in partnership with GLOBE, and the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) and are informed by the work of the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) project. ICEE will help to meet the professional development needs of teachers, including those participating in the GLOBE Student Climate Research Campaign.

  9. Factor analysis for instruments of science learning motivation and its implementation for the chemistry and biology teacher candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, A. T.; Ridlo, S.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the learning motivation of science instruments and compare the learning motivation of science from chemistry and biology teacher candidates. Kuesioner Motivasi Sains (KMS) in Indonesian adoption of the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ II) consisting of 25 items with a 5-point Likert scale. The number of respondents for the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) test was 312. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO), determinant, Bartlett’s Sphericity, Measures of Sampling Adequacy (MSA) tests against KMS using SPSS 20.0, and Lisrel 8.51 software indicate eligible indications. However testing of Communalities obtained results that there are 4 items not qualified, so the item is discarded. The second test, all parameters of eligibility and has a magnitude of Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA), P-Value for the Test of Close Fit (RMSEA <0.05), Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) was good. The new KMS with 21 valid items and composite reliability of 0.9329 can be used to test the level of learning motivation of science which includes Intrinsic Motivation, Sefl-Efficacy, Self-Determination, Grade Motivation and Career Motivation for students who master the Indonesian language. KMS trials of chemistry and biology teacher candidates obtained no significant difference in the learning motivation between the two groups.

  10. The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) on RBSP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Acuna, M.; MacDowall, R. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Averkamp, T.; Bodet, D.; Bounds, S. R.; Chutter, M.; Connerney, J.; Crawford, D.; Dolan, J. S.; Dvorsky, R.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Howard, J.; Jordanova, V.; Johnson, R. A.; Kirchner, D. L.; Mokrzycki, B.; Needell, G.; Odom, J.; Mark, D.; Pfaff Jr, R.; Phillips, J. R.; Piker, C. V.; Remington, S. L.; Rowland, D.; Santolík, Ondřej; Schnurr, R.; Sheppard, D.; Smith, C. W.; Thorne, R. M.; Tyler, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 179, 1-4 (2013), s. 127-181 ISSN 0038-6308 Grant - others: NASA (US) 921647 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : radiation belt physics * wave measurements * magnetometer measurements * space flight instruments * RBSP * radiation belt storm probes * Van Allen probes * whistler waves * geomagnetic storms * space weather Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 5.874, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11214-013-9993-6#page-1

  11. Test and Delivery of the Chemin Mineralogical Instrument for Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D.; Anderson, R.; Bish, D.; Chipera, S.; Chemtob, S.; Crisp, J.; DesMarais, D. J.; Downs, R.; Feldman, S.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The CheMin mineralogical instrument on MSL will return quantitative powder X-ray diffraction data (XRD) and qualitative X-ray fluorescence data (XRF; 14

  12. The Development of a PiSA Module for a Diagnosis of Instrumental Signals Associated with an ASSA Module for Accident Controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Kil Mo; Ahn, Kwang Il

    2010-05-01

    A review of a plant's accident management capabilities is one of the key elements in achieving regulatory closure of severe accident issues. During accidents, information and data from plant's instruments, as well as others sources, are essential for assessing the plant's status and response. Unlike for design basis accidents, there are inherently some uncertainties to instrumentation capabilities for severe accident conditions. There are many ways to obtain information during a severe accident. Moreover, precise measurements are not necessary. The redundancy and ruggedness of a plant's instrumentation provides considerable depth in the capability of existing designs. The circuit simulation analysis and diagnosis methods are used to assess instruments in detail when they give apparently abnormal readings. A new simulator, PiSA(Provability Instrument Signal Analysis) associated with ASSA(Abnormal Signal Simulation Analysis), through an analysis of the important circuits modeling under severe accident conditions has been designed. It has three main functions which are a signal processing tool, an accident management tool, and an additional guide from the initial screen. In this report, it can be simulated to the temperature characteristic analysis procedure of the PiSA including ASSA's data comparative methods and using specific signal processing under severe accident condition

  13. Measuring social science concepts in pharmacy education research: From definition to item analysis of self-report instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cor, M Ken

    Interpreting results from quantitative research can be difficult when measures of concepts are constructed poorly, something that can limit measurement validity. Social science steps for defining concepts, guidelines for limiting construct-irrelevant variance when writing self-report questions, and techniques for conducting basic item analysis are reviewed to inform the design of instruments to measure social science concepts in pharmacy education research. Based on a review of the literature, four main recommendations emerge: These include: (1) employ a systematic process of conceptualization to derive nominal definitions; (2) write exact and detailed operational definitions for each concept, (3) when creating self-report questionnaires, write statements and select scales to avoid introducing construct-irrelevant variance (CIV); and (4) use basic item analysis results to inform instrument revision. Employing recommendations that emerge from this review will strengthen arguments to support measurement validity which in turn will support the defensibility of study finding interpretations. An example from pharmacy education research is used to contextualize the concepts introduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Onboard calibration igneous targets for the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Chemistry Camera laser induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabre, C., E-mail: cecile.fabre@g2r.uhp-nancy.fr [G2R, Nancy Universite (France); Maurice, S.; Cousin, A. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Wiens, R.C. [LANL, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Forni, O. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Sautter, V. [MNHN, Paris (France); Guillaume, D. [GET, Toulouse (France)

    2011-03-15

    Accurate characterization of the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on-board composition targets is of prime importance for the ChemCam instrument. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) science and operations teams expect ChemCam to provide the first compositional results at remote distances (1.5-7 m) during the in situ analyses of the Martian surface starting in 2012. Thus, establishing LIBS reference spectra from appropriate calibration standards must be undertaken diligently. Considering the global mineralogy of the Martian surface, and the possible landing sites, three specific compositions of igneous targets have been determined. Picritic, noritic, and shergottic glasses have been produced, along with a Macusanite natural glass. A sample of each target will fly on the MSL Curiosity rover deck, 1.56 m from the ChemCam instrument, and duplicates are available on the ground. Duplicates are considered to be identical, as the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the composition dispersion is around 8%. Electronic microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) analyses give evidence that the chemical composition of the four silicate targets is very homogeneous at microscopic scales larger than the instrument spot size, with RSD < 5% for concentration variations > 0.1 wt.% using electronic microprobe, and < 10% for concentration variations > 0.01 wt.% using LA ICP-MS. The LIBS campaign on the igneous targets performed under flight-like Mars conditions establishes reference spectra for the entire mission. The LIBS spectra between 240 and 900 nm are extremely rich, hundreds of lines with high signal-to-noise, and a dynamical range sufficient to identify unambiguously major, minor and trace elements. For instance, a first LIBS calibration curve has been established for strontium from [Sr] = 284 ppm to [Sr] = 1480 ppm, showing the potential for the future calibrations for other major or minor

  15. Las Ciencias instrumentales en la Investigación Biomédica Instrumental Sciences in Biomedical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Roma Millán

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Hay una serie de ciencias que se hacen imprescindibles para poder investigar e interpretar los resultados científicos, son la ciencias que llamamos instrumentales o auxiliares. Entre ellas se encuentran la Demografía, la Epidemiología y la Bioestadística. Además, hay que tomar en consideración las técnicas de investigación cualitativa, el conjunto de estrategias e instrumentos de búsqueda de información bibliográfica y, también las metodologías de presentación de resultados. Finalmente, no puede olvidarse la ética, en sus dos componentes de bioética y de ética del trabajo científico, si queremos desarrollar un trabajo siguiendo el método científico. Este capítulo explica cuál es la función de estas disciplinas en el seno de la investigación científica y del desarrollo de proyectos.Some scientific disciplines are essential for research and scientific results interpretation. Instrumental or auxiliary sciences include Demography, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics. Also, it is necessary to take into account the techniques for qualitative research, the strategies and instruments for bibliographic information and the methodology for scientific results presentation. Finally, to develop a project according to the scientific method, it is necessary to consider ethics, in its two components: bioethics and the ethics of scientific method. This report explains which is the function of these instrumental and auxiliary sciences in the context of the scientific research and the development of scientific projects.

  16. Onboard calibration igneous targets for the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Chemistry Camera laser induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, C.; Maurice, S.; Cousin, A.; Wiens, R.C.; Forni, O.; Sautter, V.; Guillaume, D.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate characterization of the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on-board composition targets is of prime importance for the ChemCam instrument. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) science and operations teams expect ChemCam to provide the first compositional results at remote distances (1.5-7 m) during the in situ analyses of the Martian surface starting in 2012. Thus, establishing LIBS reference spectra from appropriate calibration standards must be undertaken diligently. Considering the global mineralogy of the Martian surface, and the possible landing sites, three specific compositions of igneous targets have been determined. Picritic, noritic, and shergottic glasses have been produced, along with a Macusanite natural glass. A sample of each target will fly on the MSL Curiosity rover deck, 1.56 m from the ChemCam instrument, and duplicates are available on the ground. Duplicates are considered to be identical, as the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the composition dispersion is around 8%. Electronic microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) analyses give evidence that the chemical composition of the four silicate targets is very homogeneous at microscopic scales larger than the instrument spot size, with RSD 0.1 wt.% using electronic microprobe, and 0.01 wt.% using LA ICP-MS. The LIBS campaign on the igneous targets performed under flight-like Mars conditions establishes reference spectra for the entire mission. The LIBS spectra between 240 and 900 nm are extremely rich, hundreds of lines with high signal-to-noise, and a dynamical range sufficient to identify unambiguously major, minor and trace elements. For instance, a first LIBS calibration curve has been established for strontium from [Sr] = 284 ppm to [Sr] = 1480 ppm, showing the potential for the future calibrations for other major or minor elements.

  17. Employing the Five-Factor Mentoring Instrument: Analysing Mentoring Practices for Teaching Primary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Peter; Usak, Muhammet; Savran-Gencer, Ayse

    2009-01-01

    Primary science education is a concern around the world and quality mentoring within schools can develop pre-service teachers' practices. A five-factor model for mentoring has been identified, namely, personal attributes, system requirements, pedagogical knowledge, modelling, and feedback. Final-year pre-service teachers (mentees, n = 211) from…

  18. Technology modules from micro- and nano-electronics for the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, M; Mai, A; Wenger, C; Meliani, C; Scholz, R

    2016-05-01

    The capabilities of modern semiconductor manufacturing offer remarkable possibilities to be applied in life science research as well as for its commercialization. In this review, the technology modules available in micro- and nano-electronics are exemplarily presented for the case of 250 and 130 nm technology nodes. Preparation procedures and the different transistor types as available in complementary metal-oxide-silicon devices (CMOS) and BipolarCMOS (BiCMOS) technologies are introduced as key elements of comprehensive chip architectures. Techniques for circuit design and the elements of completely integrated bioelectronics systems are outlined. The possibility for life scientists to make use of these technology modules for their research and development projects via so-called multi-project wafer services is emphasized. Various examples from diverse fields such as (1) immobilization of biomolecules and cells on semiconductor surfaces, (2) biosensors operating by different principles such as affinity viscosimetry, impedance spectroscopy, and dielectrophoresis, (3) complete systems for human body implants and monitors for bioreactors, and (4) the combination of microelectronics with microfluidics either by chip-in-polymer integration as well as Si-based microfluidics are demonstrated from joint developments with partners from biotechnology and medicine. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:355-377. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1367 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Instruments for radiation measurement in life sciences (5). Development of imaging technology in life science. 4. Real-time bioradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toru; Iwamoto, Akinori; Tsuboi, Hisashi; Katoh, Toru; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Kazawa, Erito; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Real-time bioradiography, new bioradiography method, can collect and produce image of metabolism and function of cell in real-time. The principles of instrumentation, development process and the application examples of neuroscience and biomedical gerontology are stated. The bioradiography method, the gas-tissue live-cell autoradiography method and the real-time bioradiography method are explained. As the application examples, the molecular mechanism of oxidative stress at brain ischemia and the analysis of SOD gene knockout animals are reported. Comparison between FDG-PET of epileptic brain and FDG- bioradiography image of live-cell of brain tissue, the real-time bioradiography system, improvement of image by surface treatment, the detection limit of β + ray from F 18 , image of living-slices of brain tissue by FDG-real-time bioradiography and radioluminography, continuous FDG image of living-slices of rat brain tissue, and analysis of carbohydrate metabolism of living-slices of brain tissue of mouse lacking SOD gene during aerophobia and reoxygenation process are reported. (S.Y.)

  20. The ChemCam Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Body Unit and Combined System Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiens, Roger C.; Barraclough, Bruce; Barkley, Walter C.; Bender, Steve; Bernardin, John; Bultman, Nathan; Clanton, Robert C.; Clegg, Samuel; Delapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Enemark, Don; Flores, Mike; Hale, Thomas; Lanza, Nina; Lasue, Jeremie; Latino, Joseph; Little, Cynthia; Morrison, Leland; Nelson, Tony; Romero, Frank; Salazar, Steven; Stiglich, Ralph; Storms, Steven; Trujillo, Tanner; Ulibarri, Mike; Vaniman, David; Whitaker, Robert; Witt, James; Maurice, Sylvestre; Bouye, Marc; Cousin, Agnes; Cros, Alain; D'Uston, Claude; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Kouach, Driss; Lasue, Jeremie; Pares, Laurent; Poitrasson, Franck; Striebig, Nicolas; Thocaven, Jean-Jacques; Saccoccio, Muriel; Perez, Rene; Bell, James F. III; Hays, Charles; Blaney, Diana; DeFlores, Lauren; Elliott, Tom; Kan, Ed; Limonadi, Daniel; Lindensmith, Chris; Miller, Ed; Reiter, Joseph W.; Roberts, Tom; Simmonds, John J.; Warner, Noah; Blank, Jennifer; Bridges, Nathan; Cais, Phillippe; Clark, Benton; Cremers, David; Dyar, M. Darby; Fabre, Cecile; Herkenhoff, Ken; Kirkland, Laurel; Landis, David; Langevin, Yves; Lanza, Nina; Newsom, Horton; Ollila, Ann; LaRocca, Frank; Ott, Melanie; Mangold, Nicolas; Manhes, Gerard; Mauchien, Patrick; Blank, Jennifer; McKay, Christopher; Mooney, Joe; Provost, Cheryl; Morris, Richard V.; Sautter, Violaine; Sautter, Violaine; Waterbury, Rob; Wong-Swanson, Belinda; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Vaniman, David

    2012-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity provides remote compositional information using the first laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) on a planetary mission, and provides sample texture and morphology data using a remote micro-imager (RMI). Overall, ChemCam supports MSL with five capabilities: remote classification of rock and soil characteristics; quantitative elemental compositions including light elements like hydrogen and some elements to which LIBS is uniquely sensitive (e.g., Li, Be, Rb, Sr, Ba); remote removal of surface dust and depth profiling through surface coatings; context imaging; and passive spectroscopy over the 240-905 nm range. ChemCam is built in two sections: The mast unit, consisting of a laser, telescope, RMI, and associated electronics, resides on the rover's mast, and is described in a companion paper. ChemCam's body unit, which is mounted in the body of the rover, comprises an optical de-multiplexer, three spectrometers, detectors, their coolers, and associated electronics and data handling logic. Additional instrument components include a 6 m optical fiber which transfers the LIBS light from the telescope to the body unit, and a set of onboard calibration targets. ChemCam was integrated and tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory where it also underwent LIBS calibration with 69 geological standards prior to integration with the rover. Post-integration testing used coordinated mast and instrument commands, including LIBS line scans on rock targets during system-level thermal-vacuum tests. In this paper we describe the body unit, optical fiber, and calibration targets, and the assembly, testing, and verification of the instrument prior to launch. (authors)

  1. Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes: Year 2 - instrument validation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R.; Minnick, K.

    1997-01-01

    Our overall purpose for this multi-year project was to develop an alternative assessment format measuring rural middle school students understanding of science concepts and processes and the interrelationships among them. This kind of understanding is called structural knowledge. We had 3 major interrelated goals: (1) Synthesize the existing literature and critically evaluate the actual and potential use of measures of structural knowledge in science education. (2) Develop a structural knowledge alternative assessment format. (3) Examine the validity of our structural knowledge format. We accomplished the first two goals during year 1. The structural knowledge assessment we identified and developed further was a select-and-fill-in concept map format. The goal for our year 2 work was to begin to validate this assessment approach. This final report summarizes our year 2 work.

  2. Laboratory Scale X-ray Fluorescence Tomography: Instrument Characterization and Application in Earth and Environmental Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforce, Brecht; Vermeulen, Bram; Garrevoet, Jan; Vekemans, Bart; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Janssen, Colin; Vincze, Laszlo

    2016-03-15

    A new laboratory scale X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging instrument, based on an X-ray microfocus tube equipped with a monocapillary optic, has been developed to perform XRF computed tomography experiments with both higher spatial resolution (20 μm) and a better energy resolution (130 eV @Mn-K(α)) than has been achieved up-to-now. This instrument opens a new range of possible applications for XRF-CT. Next to the analytical characterization of the setup by using well-defined model/reference samples, demonstrating its capabilities for tomographic imaging, the XRF-CT microprobe has been used to image the interior of an ecotoxicological model organism, Americamysis bahia. This had been exposed to elevated metal (Cu and Ni) concentrations. The technique allowed the visualization of the accumulation sites of copper, clearly indicating the affected organs, i.e. either the gastric system or the hepatopancreas. As another illustrative application, the scanner has been employed to investigate goethite spherules from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, revealing the internal elemental distribution of these valuable distal ejecta layer particles.

  3. Student's Need Analysis for the Development of Chemistry Modules Based Guided Inquiry to Improve Science Process Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Arantika

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Science process skills (SPS are an important aspect of learning science. SPS help students to develop creativity in learning. Process skills such as observing, formulating questions, interpreting, experimenting, hypothesizing, applying concepts, and communicating. This study aims to analyze the need for development resources needs of science filled with science process skills. Requirement analysis of the development of teaching materials with the skill of the process of science needs to be done because the textbook is the reference a teacher in the class. The subjects matter of chemistry the study was three senior high schools in Sambas, West Borneo. Needs analysis conducted using a qualitative approach, in terms of needs in classroom learning and content of process skills on teaching materials. Data were collected by interviews and questionnaires were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that as many as 27 percents of students perceive the book used in learning has not yet trained the science process skills. As many as 73 percents of students perceive that they need instructional materials in the form of inquiry-based chemistry modules to improve science process skills. Modules are developed based guided inquiry for having guided inquiry learning stages that can practice students' science process skills.

  4. A brief history of science as seen through the development of scientific instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Crump, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    From earliest pre-history, with the dawning understanding of fire and its many uses, up to the astonishing advances of the twenty-first century, Thomas Crump traces the ever more sophisticated means employed in our attempts to understand the universe. The result is a vigorous and readable account of how our curious nature has continually pushed forward the frontiers of science and, as a consequence, human civilization.

  5. Feasibility and applications of the spin-echo modulation option for a small angle neutron scattering instrument at the European Spallation Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmin, A.; Bouwman, W. G.; van Well, A. A.; Pappas, C.

    2017-06-01

    We describe theoretical and practical aspects of spin-echo modulated small-angle neutron scattering (SEMSANS) as well as the potential combination with SANS. Based on the preliminary technical designs of SKADI (a SANS instrument proposed for the European Spallation Source) and a SEMSANS add-on, we assess the practicability, feasibility and scientific merit of a combined SANS and SEMSANS setup by calculating tentative SANS and SEMSANS results for soft matter, geology and advanced material samples that have been previously studied by scattering methods. We conclude that lengths from 1 nm up to 0.01 mm can be observed simultaneously in a single measurement. Thus, the combination of SANS and SEMSANS instrument is suited for the simultaneous observation of a wide range of length scales, e.g. for time-resolved studies of kinetic processes in complex multiscale systems.

  6. LiNbO/sub 3/:Ti directional-coupler modulators for high-bandwidth, single-shot instrumentation systems operating at 800 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, M.; Jander, D.; Lancaster, G.; Kwiat, P.; McWright, G.; Peterson, R.T.; Tindall, W.; Roeske, F.

    1987-01-01

    The authors update their work on optical directional-coupler modulators (ODCMs) for single-shot, analog instrumentation systems operating at -- 800 nm. They can now fabricate directional-coupler devices that have one input and two output pigtails with insertion losses of 8.9 dB on average. Data for the ODCMs indicate an impulse response of less than 40 ps. They have implemented these devices in an ultrafast, x-ray measurement system. They discuss our data from this implementation and their implications for continued ODCM development

  7. The Mechanical Design of a Kinematic Mount for the Mid Infrared Instrument Focal Plane Module on the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Michael P.; Moore, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    The detector assembly for the Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is mechanically supported in the Focal Plane Module (FPM) Assembly with an efficient hexapod design. The kinematic mount design allows for precision adjustment of the detector boresight to assembly alignment fiducials and maintains optical alignment requirements during flight conditions of launch and cryogenic operations below 7 Kelvin. This kinematic mounting technique is able to be implemented in a variety of optical-mechanical designs and is capable of micron level adjustment control and stability over wide dynamic and temperature ranges.

  8. Enhnacing the science of the WFIRST coronagraph instrument with post-processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, Laurent; WFIRST CGI data analysis and post-processing WG

    2018-01-01

    We summarize the results of a three years effort investigating how to apply to the WFIRST coronagraph instrument (CGI) modern image analysis methods, now routinely used with ground-based coronagraphs. In this post we quantify the gain associated post-processing for WFIRST-CGI observing scenarios simulated between 2013 and 2017. We also show based one simulations that spectrum of planet can be confidently retrieved using these processing tools with and Integral Field Spectrograph. We then discuss our work using CGI experimental data and quantify coronagraph post-processing testbed gains. We finally introduce stability metrics that are simple to define and measure, and place useful lower bound and upper bounds on the achievable RDI post-processing contrast gain. We show that our bounds hold in the case of the testbed data.

  9. The Goldstone solar system radar: A science instrument for planetary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorsky, J. D.; Renzetti, N. A.; Fulton, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) station at NASA's Deep Space Communications Complex in California's Mojave Desert is described. A short chronological account of the GSSR's technical development and scientific discoveries is given. This is followed by a basic discussion of how information is derived from the radar echo and how the raw information can be used to increase understanding of the solar system. A moderately detailed description of the radar system is given, and the engineering performance of the radar is discussed. The operating characteristics of the Arcibo Observatory in Puerto Rico are briefly described and compared with those of the GSSR. Planned and in-process improvements to the existing radar, as well as the performance of a hypothetical 128-m diameter antenna radar station, are described. A comprehensive bibliography of referred scientific and engineering articles presenting results that depended on data gathered by the instrument is provided.

  10. The Partially Flipped Classroom: The Effects of Flipping a Module on "Junk Science" in a Large Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, Stephanie; Eaton, Judy

    2018-01-01

    Flipped classrooms are gaining popularity, especially in psychology statistics courses. However, not all courses lend themselves to a fully flipped design, and some instructors might not want to commit to flipping every class. We tested the effectiveness of flipping just one component (a module on junk science) of a large methods course. We…

  11. Crossing the Gap between Indigenous Worldview and Western Science: Millet Festival as a Bridge in the Teaching Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chia-Ling; Lee, Huei

    2015-01-01

    The worldview within indigenous people's traditional knowledge and western science can be a world of difference. In order to help indigenous students cross the gap and develop a sense of cultural identification. Taking Bunun, one of the Taiwanese indigenous tribes, as our subject, this study aims to develop a teaching module through Bunun's Millet…

  12. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mast cameras and Descent imager: Investigation and instrument descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Michal C.; Ravine, Michael A.; Caplinger, Michael A.; Tony Ghaemi, F.; Schaffner, Jacob A.; Maki, Justin N.; Bell, James F.; Cameron, James F.; Dietrich, William E.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Edwards, Laurence J.; Garvin, James B.; Hallet, Bernard; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Heydari, Ezat; Kah, Linda C.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Olson, Timothy S.; Parker, Timothy J.; Rowland, Scott K.; Schieber, Juergen; Sletten, Ron; Sullivan, Robert J.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Aileen Yingst, R.; Duston, Brian M.; McNair, Sean; Jensen, Elsa H.

    2017-08-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Mast camera and Descent Imager investigations were designed, built, and operated by Malin Space Science Systems of San Diego, CA. They share common electronics and focal plane designs but have different optics. There are two Mastcams of dissimilar focal length. The Mastcam-34 has an f/8, 34 mm focal length lens, and the M-100 an f/10, 100 mm focal length lens. The M-34 field of view is about 20° × 15° with an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 218 μrad; the M-100 field of view (FOV) is 6.8° × 5.1° with an IFOV of 74 μrad. The M-34 can focus from 0.5 m to infinity, and the M-100 from 1.6 m to infinity. All three cameras can acquire color images through a Bayer color filter array, and the Mastcams can also acquire images through seven science filters. Images are ≤1600 pixels wide by 1200 pixels tall. The Mastcams, mounted on the 2 m tall Remote Sensing Mast, have a 360° azimuth and 180° elevation field of regard. Mars Descent Imager is fixed-mounted to the bottom left front side of the rover at 66 cm above the surface. Its fixed focus lens is in focus from 2 m to infinity, but out of focus at 66 cm. The f/3 lens has a FOV of 70° by 52° across and along the direction of motion, with an IFOV of 0.76 mrad. All cameras can acquire video at 4 frames/second for full frames or 720p HD at 6 fps. Images can be processed using lossy Joint Photographic Experts Group and predictive lossless compression.

  13. OCEANUS: A high science return Uranus orbiter with a low-cost instrument suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, C. M.; Bramson, A. M.; Blum, L. W.; Chilton, H. T.; Chopra, A.; Chu, C.; Das, A.; Davis, A. B.; Delgado, A.; Fulton, J.; Jozwiak, L. M.; Khayat, A.; Landis, M. E.; Molaro, J. L.; Slipski, M.; Valencia, S.; Watkins, J.; Young, C. L.; Budney, C. J.; Mitchell, K. L.

    2018-07-01

    Ice-giant-sized planets are the most common type of observed exoplanet, yet the two ice giants in our own solar system (Uranus and Neptune) are the least explored class of planet, having only been observed through ground-based observations and a single flyby each by Voyager 2 approximately 30 years ago. These single flybys were unable to characterize the spatial and temporal variability in ice giant magnetospheres, some of the most odd and intriguing magnetospheres in the solar system. They also offered only limited constraints on the internal structure of ice giants; understanding the internal structure of a planet is important for understanding its formation and evolution. The most recent planetary science Decadal Survey by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, "Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022," identified the ice giant Uranus as the third highest priority for a Flagship mission in the decade 2013-2022. However, in the event that NASA or another space agency is unable to fly a Flagship-class mission to an ice giant in the next decade, this paper presents a mission concept for a focused, lower cost Uranus orbiter called OCEANUS (Origins and Composition of the Exoplanet Analog Uranus System). OCEANUS would increase our understanding of the interior structure of Uranus, its magnetosphere, and how its magnetic field is generated. These goals could be achieved with just a magnetometer and the spacecraft's radio system. This study shows that several of the objectives outlined by the Decadal Survey, including one of the two identified as highest priority, are within reach for a New-Frontiers-class mission.

  14. The instrumental blank of the Mars Science Laboratory alpha particle X-ray spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.L., E-mail: icampbel@uoguelph.ca [Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    The alpha particle X-ray spectrometers on the Mars exploration rovers Spirit and Opportunity accomplished extensive elemental analysis of the Martian surface through a combination of XRF and PIXE. An advanced APXS is now part of the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover. APXS spectra contain contributions which enhance elemental peak areas but which do not arise from these elements within the sample under study, thereby introducing error into derived concentrations. A detailed examination of these effects in the MSL APXS enables us to test two schemes for making the necessary corrections.

  15. Search for Chemical Biomarkers on Mars Using the Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Conrad, P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Eigenbrode, J.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2011-01-01

    One key goal for the future exploration of Mars is the search for chemical biomarkers including complex organic compounds important in life on Earth. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will provide the most sensitive measurements of the organic composition of rocks and regolith samples ever carried out in situ on Mars. SAM consists of a gas chromatograph (GC), quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), and tunable laser spectrometer to measure volatiles in the atmosphere and released from rock powders heated up to 1000 C. The measurement of organics in solid samples will be accomplished by three experiments: (1) pyrolysis QMS to identify alkane fragments and simple aromatic compounds; pyrolysis GCMS to separate and identify complex mixtures of larger hydrocarbons; and (3) chemical derivatization and GCMS extract less volatile compounds including amino and carboxylic acids that are not detectable by the other two experiments.

  16. Development of the science instrument CLUPI: the close-up imager on board the ExoMars rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, J.-L.; Beauvivre, S.; Cessa, V.; Martin, P.

    2017-11-01

    First mission of the Aurora Exploration Programme of ESA, ExoMars will demonstrate key flight and in situ enabling technologies, and will pursue fundamental scientific investigations. Planned for launch in 2013, ExoMars will send a robotic rover to the surface of Mars. The Close-UP Imager (CLUPI) instrument is part of the Pasteur Payload of the rover fixed on the robotic arm. It is a robotic replacement of one of the most useful instruments of the field geologist: the hand lens. Imaging of surfaces of rocks, soils and wind drift deposits at high resolution is crucial for the understanding of the geological context of any site where the Pasteur rover may be active on Mars. At the resolution provided by CLUPI (approx. 15 micrometer/pixel), rocks show a plethora of surface and internal structures, to name just a few: crystals in igneous rocks, sedimentary structures such as bedding, fracture mineralization, secondary minerals, details of the surface morphology, sedimentary bedding, sediment components, surface marks in sediments, soil particles. It is conceivable that even textures resulting from ancient biological activity can be visualized, such as fine lamination due to microbial mats (stromatolites) and textures resulting from colonies of filamentous microbes, potentially present in sediments and in palaeocavitites in any rock type. CLUPI is a complete imaging system, consisting of an APS (Active Pixel Sensor) camera with 27° FOV optics. The sensor is sensitive to light between 400 and 900 nm with 12 bits digitization. The fixed focus optics provides well focused images of 4 cm x 2.4 cm rock area at a distance of about 10 cm. This challenging camera system, less than 200g, is an independent scientific instrument linked to the rover on board computer via a SpaceWire interface. After the science goals and specifications presentation, the development of this complex high performance miniaturized imaging system will be described.

  17. New instrument for measuring student beliefs about physics and learning physics: The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W. K.; Perkins, K. K.; Podolefsky, N. S.; Dubson, M.; Finkelstein, N. D.; Wieman, C. E.

    2006-06-01

    The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) is a new instrument designed to measure student beliefs about physics and about learning physics. This instrument extends previous work by probing additional aspects of student beliefs and by using wording suitable for students in a wide variety of physics courses. The CLASS has been validated using interviews, reliability studies, and extensive statistical analyses of responses from over 5000 students. In addition, a new methodology for determining useful and statistically robust categories of student beliefs has been developed. This paper serves as the foundation for an extensive study of how student beliefs impact and are impacted by their educational experiences. For example, this survey measures the following: that most teaching practices cause substantial drops in student scores; that a student’s likelihood of becoming a physics major correlates with their “Personal Interest” score; and that, for a majority of student populations, women’s scores in some categories, including “Personal Interest” and “Real World Connections,” are significantly different from men’s scores.

  18. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) imaging spectrometerfor lunar science: Instrument description, calibration, on‐orbit measurements, science data calibration and on‐orbit validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Pieters,; P. Mouroulis,; M. Eastwood,; J. Boardman,; Green, R.O.; Glavich, T.; Isaacson, P.; Annadurai, M.; Besse, S.; Cate, D.; Chatterjee, A.; Clark, R.; Barr, D.; Cheek, L.; Combe, J.; Dhingra, D.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Goswami, J.N.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Head, J.; Hovland, L.; Hyman, S.; Klima, R.; Koch, T.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, A.S.K.; Lee, K.; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; McLaughlin, S.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Rodriguez, J.; Runyon, C.; Sellar, G.; Smith, C.; Sobel, H.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Thaisen, K.; Tompkins, S.; Tseng, H.; Vane, G.; Varanasi, P.; White, M.; Wilson, D.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Discovery Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was selected to pursue a wide range of science objectives requiring measurement of composition at fine spatial scales over the full lunar surface. To pursue these objectives, a broad spectral range imaging spectrometer with high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio capable of measuring compositionally diagnostic spectral absorption features from a wide variety of known and possible lunar materials was required. For this purpose the Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was designed and developed that measures the spectral range from 430 to 3000 nm with 10 nm spectral sampling through a 24 degree field of view with 0.7 milliradian spatial sampling. The instrument has a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 400 for the specified equatorial reference radiance and greater than 100 for the polar reference radiance. The spectral cross-track uniformity is >90% and spectral instantaneous field-of-view uniformity is >90%. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper was launched on Chandrayaan-1 on the 22nd of October. On the 18th of November 2008 the Moon Mineralogy Mapper was turned on and collected a first light data set within 24 h. During this early checkout period and throughout the mission the spacecraft thermal environment and orbital parameters varied more than expected and placed operational and data quality constraints on the measurements. On the 29th of August 2009, spacecraft communication was lost. Over the course of the flight mission 1542 downlinked data sets were acquired that provide coverage of more than 95% of the lunar surface. An end-to-end science data calibration system was developed and all measurements have been passed through this system and delivered to the Planetary Data System (PDS.NASA.GOV). An extensive effort has been undertaken by the science team to validate the Moon Mineralogy Mapper science measurements in the context of the mission objectives. A focused spectral, radiometric

  19. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) imaging spectrometer for lunar science: Instrument description, calibration, on-orbit measurements, science data calibration and on-orbit validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R.O.; Pieters, C.; Mouroulis, P.; Eastwood, M.; Boardman, J.; Glavich, T.; Isaacson, P.; Annadurai, M.; Besse, S.; Barr, D.; Buratti, B.; Cate, D.; Chatterjee, A.; Clark, R.; Cheek, L.; Combe, J.; Dhingra, D.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Goswami, J.N.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Head, J.; Hovland, L.; Hyman, S.; Klima, R.; Koch, T.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, A.S.K.; Lee, Kenneth; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; McLaughlin, S.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Rodriquez, J.; Runyon, C.; Sellar, G.; Smith, C.; Sobel, H.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Thaisen, K.; Tompkins, S.; Tseng, H.; Vane, G.; Varanasi, P.; White, M.; Wilson, D.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Discovery Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was selected to pursue a wide range of science objectives requiring measurement of composition at fine spatial scales over the full lunar surface. To pursue these objectives, a broad spectral range imaging spectrometer with high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio capable of measuring compositionally diagnostic spectral absorption features from a wide variety of known and possible lunar materials was required. For this purpose the Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was designed and developed that measures the spectral range from 430 to 3000 nm with 10 nm spectral sampling through a 24 degree field of view with 0.7 milliradian spatial sampling. The instrument has a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 400 for the specified equatorial reference radiance and greater than 100 for the polar reference radiance. The spectral cross-track uniformity is >90% and spectral instantaneous field-of-view uniformity is >90%. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper was launched on Chandrayaan-1 on the 22nd of October. On the 18th of November 2008 the Moon Mineralogy Mapper was turned on and collected a first light data set within 24 h. During this early checkout period and throughout the mission the spacecraft thermal environment and orbital parameters varied more than expected and placed operational and data quality constraints on the measurements. On the 29th of August 2009, spacecraft communication was lost. Over the course of the flight mission 1542 downlinked data sets were acquired that provide coverage of more than 95% of the lunar surface. An end-to-end science data calibration system was developed and all measurements have been passed through this system and delivered to the Planetary Data System (PDS.NASA.GOV). An extensive effort has been undertaken by the science team to validate the Moon Mineralogy Mapper science measurements in the context of the mission objectives. A focused spectral, radiometric

  20. Making Earth Science Relevant in the K-8 Classroom. The Development of an Instructional Soils Module for Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Using the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, K. A.; Hauge, R.; Dechaine, J. M.; Varrella, G.; Egger, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    The development and adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) raises a challenge in teacher preparation: few current teacher preparation programs prepare students to teach science the way it is presented in the NGSS, which emphasize systems thinking, interdisciplinary science, and deep engagement in the scientific process. In addition, the NGSS include more geoscience concepts and methods than previous standards, yet this is a topic area in which most college students are traditionally underprepared. Although nationwide, programmatic reform is needed, there are a few targets where relatively small, course-level changes can have a large effect. One of these targets is the 'science methods' course for pre-service elementary teachers, a requirement in virtually all teacher preparation programs. Since many elementary schools, both locally and across the country, have adopted a kit based science curriculum, examining kits is often a part of a science methods course. Unfortunately, solely relying on a kit based curriculum may leave gaps in science content curriculum as one prepares teachers to meet the NGSS. Moreover, kits developed at the national level often fall short in connecting geoscientific content to the locally relevant societal issues that engage students. This highlights the need to train pre-service elementary teachers to supplement kit curriculum with inquiry based geoscience investigations that consider relevant societal issues, promote systems thinking and incorporate connections between earth, life, and physical systems. We are developing a module that teaches geoscience concepts in the context of locally relevant societal issues while modeling effective pedagogy for pre-service elementary teachers. Specifically, we focus on soils, an interdisciplinary topic relevant to multiple geoscience-related societal grand challenges (e.g., water, food) that is difficult to engage students in. Module development is funded through InTeGrate, NSF

  1. Real-Time On-Board Airborne Demonstration of High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Ng, Tak-Kwong; Davis, Mitchell J.; Adams, James K.; Bowen, Stephen C.; Fay, James J.; Hutchinson, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The project called High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS) has been funded by NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program since April, 2012. The HOPS team recently completed two flight campaigns during the summer of 2014 on two different aircrafts with two different science instruments. The first flight campaign was in July, 2014 based at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) in Hampton, VA on the NASA's HU-25 aircraft. The science instrument that flew with HOPS was Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) funded by NASA's Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). The second campaign was in August, 2014 based at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) in Palmdale, CA on the NASA's DC-8 aircraft. HOPS flew with the Multifunctional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL) instrument developed by Excelis Inc. The goal of the campaigns was to perform an end-to-end demonstration of the capabilities of the HOPS prototype system (HOPS COTS) while running the most computationally intensive part of the ASCENDS algorithm real-time on-board. The comparison of the two flight campaigns and the results of the functionality tests of the HOPS COTS are presented in this paper.

  2. Stand-alone polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy instrument optimized for the study of catalytic processes at elevated pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestell, John D.; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu; Ye, Xinyi; Nam, Chang-Yong; Stacchiola, Dario; Sadowski, Jerzy; Boscoboinik, J. Anibal

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the design and construction of a compact, "user-friendly" polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) instrument at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) of Brookhaven National Laboratory, which allows studying surfaces at pressures ranging from ultra-high vacuum to 100 Torr. Surface infrared spectroscopy is ideally suited for studying these processes as the vibrational frequencies of the IR chromophores are sensitive to the nature of the bonding environment on the surface. Relying on the surface selection rules, by modulating the polarization of incident light, it is possible to separate the contributions from the isotropic gas or solution phase, from the surface bound species. A spectral frequency range between 1000 cm-1 and 4000 cm-1 can be acquired. While typical spectra with a good signal to noise ratio can be obtained at elevated pressures of gases in ˜2 min at 4 cm-1 resolution, we have also acquired higher resolution spectra at 0.25 cm-1 with longer acquisition times. By way of verification, CO uptake on a heavily oxidized Ru(0001) sample was studied. As part of this test study, the presence of CO adsorbed on Ru bridge sites was confirmed, in agreement with previous ambient pressure X ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies. In terms of instrument performance, it was also determined that the gas phase contribution from CO could be completely removed even up to pressures close to 100 Torr. A second test study demonstrated the use of the technique for studying morphological properties of a spin coated polymer on a conductive surface. Note that this is a novel application of this technique. In this experiment, the polarization of incident light was modulated manually (vs. through a photoelastic modulator). It was demonstrated, in good agreement with the literature, that the polymer chains preferentially lie parallel with the surface. This PM-IRRAS system is small, modular, and easily

  3. Life Sciences Research in the Centrifuge Accommodation Module of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Plaut, Karen; Meeker, Gabrielle B.; Sun, Sid (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM) will be the home of the fundamental biology research facilities on the International Space Station (ISS). These facilities are being built by the Biological Research Project (BRP), whose goal is to oversee development of a wide variety of habitats and host systems to support life sciences research on the ISS. The habitats and host systems are designed to provide life support for a variety of specimens including cells, bacteria, yeast, plants, fish, rodents, eggs (e.g., quail), and insects. Each habitat contains specimen chambers that allow for easy manipulation of specimens and alteration of sample numbers. All habitats are capable of sustaining life support for 90 days and have automated as well as full telescience capabilities for sending habitat parameters data to investigator homesite laboratories. The habitats provide all basic life support capabilities including temperature control, humidity monitoring and control, waste management, food, media and water delivery as well as adjustable lighting. All habitats will have either an internal centrifuge or are fitted to the 2.5-meter diameter centrifuge allowing for variable centrifugation up to 2 g. Specimen chambers are removable so that the specimens can be handled in the life sciences glovebox. Laboratory support equipment is provided for handling the specimens. This includes a compound and dissecting microscope with advanced video imaging, mass measuring devices, refrigerated centrifuge for processing biological samples, pH meter, fixation and complete cryogenic storage capabilities. The research capabilities provided by the fundamental biology facilities will allow for flexibility and efficiency for long term research on the International Space Station.

  4. Performance of first-year health sciences students in a large, diverse, multidisciplinary, first-semester, physiology service module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins-Opitz, Susan B; Tufts, Mark

    2014-06-01

    Health Science students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal perform better in their professional modules compared with their physiology modules. The pass rates of physiology service modules have steadily declined over the years. While a system is in place to identify "at-risk" students, it is only activated after the first semester. As a result, it is only from the second semester of their first year studies onward that at-risk students can be formally assisted. The challenge is thus to devise an appropriate strategy to identify struggling students earlier in the semester. Using questionnaires, students were asked about attendance, financing of their studies, and relevance of physiology. After the first class test, failing students were invited to complete a second questionnaire. In addition, demographic data were also collected and analyzed. Correlation analyses were undertaken of performance indicators based on the demographical data collected. The 2011 class comprised mainly sport science students (57%). The pass rate of sport science students was lower than the pass rates of other students (42% vs. 70%, P physiology and recognized its relevance. Key issues identified were problems understanding concepts and terminology, poor study environment and skills, and lack of matriculation biology. The results of the first class test and final module marks correlated well. It is clear from this study that student performance in the first class test is a valuable tool to identify struggling students and that appropriate testing should be held as early as possible. Copyright © 2014 The American Physiological Society.

  5. Strategy For Implementing The UN "Zero-Gravity Instrument Project" To Promote Space Science Among School Children In Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, O.; Agbaje, G.; Akinyede, J.

    2015-12-01

    The United Nations "Zero Gravity Instrument Project" (ZGIP) is one of the activities coordinated under the Space Education Outreach Program (SEOP) of the African Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in English (ARCSSTE-E) to popularize space science among pre-collegiate youths in Nigeria. The vision of ZGIP is to promote space education and research in microgravity. This paper will deliberate on the strategy used to implement the ZGIP to introduce school children to authentic scientific data and inquiry. The paper highlights how the students learned to collect scientific data in a laboratory environment, analyzed the data with specialized software, obtained results, interpreted and presented the results of their study in a standard format to the scientific community. About 100 school children, aged between 7 and 21 years, from ten public and private schools located in Osun State, Nigeria participated in the pilot phase of the ZGIP which commenced with a 1-day workshop in March 2014. During the inauguration workshop, the participants were introduced to the environment of outer space, with special emphasis on the concept of microgravity. They were also taught the basic principle of operation of the Clinostat, a Zero-Gravity Instrument donated to ARCSSTE-E by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UN-OOSA), Vienna, under the Human Space Technology Initiative (UN-HSTI). At the end of the workshop, each school designed a project, and had a period of 1 week, on a planned time-table, to work in the laboratory of ARCSSTE-E where they utilized the clinostat to examine the germination of indigenous plant seeds in simulated microgravity conditions. The paper also documents the post-laboratory investigation activities, which included presentation of the results in a poster competition and an evaluation of the project. The enthusiasm displayed by the students, coupled with the favorable responses recorded during an oral interview conducted to

  6. The Development of the Chemin Mineralogy Instrument and Its Deployment on Mars (and Latest Results from the Mars Science Laboratory Rover Curiosity)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David F.

    2014-01-01

    The CheMin instrument (short for "Chemistry and Mineralogy") on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity is one of two "laboratory quality" instruments on board the Curiosity rover that is exploring Gale crater, Mars. CheMin is an X-ray diffractometer that has for the first time returned definitive and fully quantitative mineral identifications of Mars soil and drilled rock. I will describe CheMin's 23-year development from an idea to a spacecraft qualified instrument, and report on some of the discoveries that Curiosity has made since its entry, descent and landing on Aug. 6, 2012, including the discovery and characterization of the first habitable environment on Mars.

  7. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis Of Optical Payload For Lasercomm Science (OPALS) sealed enclosure module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kevin R.; Zayas, Daniel; Turner, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) using the commercial CFD package CFDesign has been performed at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in support of the Phaeton Early Career Hire Program's Optical Payload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) mission. The OPALS project is one which involves an International Space Station payload that will be using forced convection cooling in a hermetically sealed enclosure at 1 atm of air to cool "off-the-shelf" vendor electronics. The CFD analysis was used to characterize the thermal and fluid flow environment within a complicated labyrinth of electronics boards, fans, instrumentation, harnessing, ductwork and heat exchanger fins. The paradigm of iteratively using CAD/CAE tools and CFD was followed in order to determine the optimum flow geometry and heat sink configuration to yield operational convective film coefficients and temperature survivability limits for the electronics payload. Results from this current CFD analysis and correlation of the CFD model against thermal test data will be presented. Lessons learned and coupled thermal / flow modeling strategies will be shared in this paper.

  8. With hiccups and bumps: the development of a Rasch-based instrument to measure elementary students' understanding of the nature of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Shelagh M; O'Dwyer, Laura M; Shields, Katherine A; Wang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    This research describes the development process, psychometric analyses and part validation study of a theoretically-grounded Rasch-based instrument, the Nature of Science Instrument-Elementary (NOSI-E). The NOSI-E was designed to measure elementary students' understanding of the Nature of Science (NOS). Evidence is provided for three of the six validity aspects (content, substantive and generalizability) needed to support the construct validity of the NOSI-E. A future article will examine the structural and external validity aspects. Rasch modeling proved especially productive in scale improvement efforts. The instrument, designed for large-scale assessment use, is conceptualized using five construct domains. Data from 741 elementary students were used to pilot the Rasch scale, with continuous improvements made over three successive administrations. The psychometric properties of the NOSI-E instrument are consistent with the basic assumptions of Rasch measurement, namely that the items are well-fitting and invariant. Items from each of the five domains (Empirical, Theory-Laden, Certainty, Inventive, and Socially and Culturally Embedded) are spread along the scale's continuum and appear to overlap well. Most importantly, the scale seems appropriately calibrated and responsive for elementary school-aged children, the target age group. As a result, the NOSI-E should prove beneficial for science education research. As the United States' science education reform efforts move toward students' learning science through engaging in authentic scientific practices (NRC, 2011), it will be important to assess whether this new approach to teaching science is effective. The NOSI-E can be used as one measure of whether this reform effort has an impact.

  9. Study on a conceptual design of a data acquisition and instrument control system for experimental suites at materials and life science facility (MLF) of J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kenji; Nakatani, Takeshi; Torii, Shuki; Higemoto, Wataru; Otomo, Toshiya

    2006-02-01

    The JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency)-KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization) joint project, Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), is now under construction. Materials and Life Science Facility (MLF) is one of planned facilities in this research complex. The neutron and muon sources will be installed at MLF and world's highest class intensive beam, which is utilized for variety of scientific research subject, will be delivered. To discuss the necessary computing environments for neutron and muon instruments at J-PARC, the MLF computing environment group (MLF-CEG) has been organized. We, members of the DAQ subgroup (DAQ-SG) are responsible for considering data acquisition and instrument control systems for the experimental suites at MLF. In the framework of the MLF-CEG, we are surveying the computer resources which is required for data acquisition and instrument control at future instruments, current situation of existing facilities and possible solutions those we can achieve. We are discussing the most suitable system that can bring out full performance of our instruments. This is the first interim report of the DAQ-SG, in which our activity of 2003-2004 is summarized. In this report, a conceptual design of the software, the related a data acquisition and instrument control system for experimental instruments at MLF are proposed. (author)

  10. A Robust 96.6-dB-SNDR 50-kHz-Bandwidth Switched-Capacitor Delta-Sigma Modulator for IR Imagers in Space Instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei, Michele; Sutula, Stepan; Cisneros, Jose; Pun, Ernesto; Jansen, Richard Jan Engel; Terés, Lluís; Serra-Graells, Francisco

    2017-06-02

    Infrared imaging technology, used both to study deep-space bodies' radiation and environmental changes on Earth, experienced constant improvements in the last few years, pushing data converter designers to face new challenges in terms of speed, power consumption and robustness against extremely harsh operating conditions. This paper presents a 96.6-dB-SNDR (Signal-to-Noise-plus-Distortion Ratio) 50-kHz-bandwidth fourth-order single-bit switched-capacitor delta-sigma modulator for ADC operating at 1.8 V and consuming 7.9 mW fit for space instrumentation. The circuit features novel Class-AB single-stage switched variable-mirror amplifiers (SVMAs) enabling low-power operation, as well as low sensitivity to both process and temperature deviations for the whole modulator. The physical implementation resulted in a 1.8-mm 2 chip integrated in a standard 0.18-µm 1-poly-6-metal (1P6M) CMOS technology, and it reaches a 164.6-dB Schreier figure of merit from experimental SNDR measurements without making use of any clock bootstrapping,analogcalibration,nordigitalcompensationtechnique. Whencoupledtoa2048×2048 IR imager, the current design allows more than 50 frames per minute with a resolution of 16 effective number of bits (ENOB) while consuming less than 300 mW.

  11. The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Monitor the Implementation of Social Constructivist Learning Environments in Grade 9 Science Classrooms in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckay, Melanie B.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.

    2015-02-01

    This article describes the development and validation of an instrument that can be used to assess students' perceptions of their learning environment as a means of monitoring and guiding changes toward social constructivist learning environments. The study used a mixed-method approach with priority given to the quantitative data collection. During the quantitative data collection phase, a new instrument—the Social Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (SCLES)—was developed and used to collect data from 1,955 grade 9 science students from 52 classes in 50 schools in the Western Cape province, South Africa. The data were analysed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the new instrument, which assessed six dimensions of the classroom learning environment, namely, Working with Ideas, Personal Relevance, Collaboration, Critical Voice, Uncertainty in Science and Respect for Difference. Two dimensions were developed specifically for the present study in order to contextualise the questionnaire to the requirements of the new South African curriculum (namely, Metacognition and Respect for Difference). In the qualitative data collection phase, two case studies were used to investigate whether profiles of class mean scores on the new instrument could provide an accurate and "trustworthy" description of the learning environment of individual science classes. The study makes significant contributions to the field of learning environments in that it is one of the first major studies of its kind in South Africa with a focus on social constructivism and because the instrument developed captures important aspects of the learning environment associated with social constructivism.

  12. Measurement Instrument for Scientific Teaching (MIST): A Tool to Measure the Frequencies of Research-Based Teaching Practices in Undergraduate Science Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Mary F; Knight, Jennifer K; Couch, Brian A

    2017-01-01

    The Scientific Teaching (ST) pedagogical framework provides various approaches for science instructors to teach in a way that more closely emulates how science is practiced by actively and inclusively engaging students in their own learning and by making instructional decisions based on student performance data. Fully understanding the impact of ST requires having mechanisms to quantify its implementation. While many useful instruments exist to document teaching practices, these instruments only partially align with the range of practices specified by ST, as described in a recently published taxonomy. Here, we describe the development, validation, and implementation of the Measurement Instrument for Scientific Teaching (MIST), a survey derived from the ST taxonomy and designed to gauge the frequencies of ST practices in undergraduate science courses. MIST showed acceptable validity and reliability based on results from 7767 students in 87 courses at nine institutions. We used factor analyses to identify eight subcategories of ST practices and used these categories to develop a short version of the instrument amenable to joint administration with other research instruments. We further discuss how MIST can be used by instructors, departments, researchers, and professional development programs to quantify and track changes in ST practices. © 2017 M. F. Durham et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  13. Design and Evaluation of a Digital Module with Guided Peer Feedback for Student Learning Biotechnology and Molecular Life Sciences, Attitudinal Change, and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozi, Omid; Mulder, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the impacts of a digital learning module with guided peer feedback on students' domain-specific knowledge gain and their attitudinal change in the field of biotechnology and molecular life sciences. The extent to which the use of this module is appreciated by students is studied as well. A pre-test, post-test design…

  14. Design and evaluation of a digital module with guided peer feedback for student learning biotechnology and molecular life sciences, attitudinal change, and satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noroozi, Omid; Mulder, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the impacts of a digital learning module with guided peer feedback on students' domain-specific knowledge gain and their attitudinal change in the field of biotechnology and molecular life sciences. The extent to which the use of this module is appreciated by

  15. The development and validation of the Self-Efficacy Beliefs about Equitable Science Teaching and learning instrument for prospective elementary teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Jennifer M.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop, validate and establish the reliability of an instrument to assess the self-efficacy beliefs of prospective elementary teachers with regards to science teaching and learning for diverse learners. The study used Bandura's theoretical framework, in that the instrument would use the self-efficacy construct to explore the beliefs of prospective elementary science teachers with regards to science teaching and learning to diverse learners: specifically the two dimensions of self-efficacy beliefs defined by Bandura (1977): personal self-efficacy and outcome expectancy. A seven step plan was designed and followed in the process of developing the instrument, which was titled the Self-Efficacy Beliefs about Equitable Science Teaching or SEBEST. Diverse learners as recognized by Science for All Americans (1989) are "those who in the past who have largely been bypassed in science and mathematics education: ethnic and language minorities and girls" (p. xviii). That definition was extended by this researcher to include children from low socioeconomic backgrounds based on the research by Gomez and Tabachnick (1992). The SEBEST was administered to 226 prospective elementary teachers at The Pennsylvania State University. Using the results from factor analyses, Coefficient Alpha, and Chi-Square a 34 item instrument was found to achieve the greatest balance across the construct validity, reliability and item balance with the content matrix. The 34 item SEBEST was found to load purely on four factors across the content matrix thus providing evidence construct validity. The Coefficient Alpha reliability for the 34 item SEBEST was .90 and .82 for the PSE sub-scale and .78 for the OE sub-scale. A Chi-Square test (X2 = 2.7 1, df = 7, p > .05) was used to confirm that the 34 items were balanced across the Personal Self-Efficacy/Outcome Expectancy and Ethnicity/LanguageMinority/Gender Socioeconomic Status/dimensions of the content matrix. Based on

  16. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  17. Development of Instructional Materials for Electrochemical Module Class XII Science High School Students with Guided Inquiry Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Fatmawati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan Bahan Ajar Modul Elektrokimia untuk Siswa SMA Kelas XII IPA dengan Pendekatan Pembelajaran Inkuiri Terbimbing Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of the electrochemical module for high school students of class XII results of development. Electrochemical module of the development consists of two learning activities, ie to the material Volta cells and electrolysis cells for the material. Results of the assessment by two chemistry lecturer, State University of Malang and two chemistry teachers XII as an expert content / learning material for eligibility contents was 92.9%, for eligibility and completeness of presentation is 91.1%, and for the eligibility of language is 92.3% , which is classified as very feasible criteria. Overall the average value was 92.1 feasibility. Effectiveness module is indicated by the results of the development of perception and student learning outcomes. Students' perceptions obtained from student assessment results to module development. In the limited field trials obtained average value is 81.8 for all aspects of the maximum value of 100. Obtaining the average value of student learning outcomes for the cognitive aspect is 83.3, for the affective aspect is 82.3, and for the psychomotor aspect is 83.8 out of 100. The maximum value of the overall results of the study showed that the electrochemical module for high school students Class XII Science development results are very decent and very effectively used in the learning process. Key Words: guided inquiry, electrochemical module, model 4-D Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui kelayakan, dan keefektifan modul elektrokimia untuk siswa SMA kelas XII hasil pengembangan. Modul Elektrokimia hasil pengembangan terdiri dari dua kegiatan belajar, yaitu untuk materi sel Volta dan untuk materi sel elektrolisis. Hasil penilaian oleh dua dosen kimia Universitas Negeri Malang dan dua guru kimia kelas XII sebagai

  18. Proceeding of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research of Nuclear Science and Technology: Book I. Physics, Reactor Physics and Nuclear Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The proceeding contains papers presented on Scientific Meeting and Presentation on on Basic Research of Nuclear Science and Technology, held in Yogyakarta, 25-27 April 1995. This proceeding is part one from two books published for the meeting contains papers on Physics, Reactor Physics and Nuclear Instrumentation as results of research activities in National Atomic Energy Agency. There are 39 papers indexed individually. (ID)

  19. Proceeding of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology. Part I : Physics, Reactor Physics and Nuclear Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudjatmoko; Karmanto, Eko Edy; Supartini, Endang

    1996-04-01

    Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology is a routine activity was held by PPNY BATAN for monitoring the research Activity which achieved in BATAN. The Proceeding contains a proposal about basic which has physics; reactor physics and nuclear instrumentation. This proceedings is the first part from two part which published in series. There are 33 articles which have separated index

  20. Tianeptine: 5-HT uptake sites and 5-HT(1-7) receptors modulate memory formation in an autoshaping Pavlovian/instrumental task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2002-05-01

    Recent studies using invertebrate and mammal species have revealed that, endogenous serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) modulates cognitive processes, particularly learning and memory, though, at present, it is unclear the manner, where, and how long 5-HT systems are involved. Hence in this work, an attempt was made to study the effects of 5-HT endogenous on memory formation, using a 5-HT uptake facilitator (tianeptine) and, selective 5-HT(1-7) receptor antagonists to determine whether 5-HT uptake sites and which 5-HT receptors are involved, respectively. Results showed that post-training tianeptine injection enhanced memory consolidation in an autoshaping Pavlovian/instrumental learning task, which has been useful to detect changes on memory formation elicited by drugs or aging. On interaction experiments, ketanserin (5-HT(1D/2A/2C) antagonist) slightly enhanced tianeptine effects, while WAY 100635 (5-HT(1A) antagonist), SB-224289 (5-HT(1B) inverse agonist), SB-200646 (5-HT(2B/2C) antagonist), ondansetron (5-HT(3) antagonist), GR 127487 (5-HT(4) antagonist), Ro 04-6790 (5-HT(6) antagonist), DR 4004 (5-HT(7) antagonist), or fluoxetine (an inhibitor of 5-HT reuptake) blocked the facilitatory tianeptine effect. Notably, together tianeptine and Ro 04-6790 impaired learning consolidation. Moreover, 5-HT depletion completely reversed the tianeptine effect. Tianeptine also normalized an impaired memory elicited by scopolamine (an antimuscarinic) or dizocilpine (non-competitive glutamatergic antagonist), while partially reversed that induced by TFMPP (5-HT(1B/1D/2A-2C/7) agonist/antagonist). Finally, tianeptine-fluoxetine coadministration had no effect on learning consolidation; nevertheless, administration of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, phenserine, potentiated subeffective tianeptine or fluoxetine doses. Collectively, these data confirmed that endogenously 5-HT modulates, via uptake sites and 5-HT(1-7) receptors, memory consolidation, and are consistent with the

  1. ESD practice through global approach -7-year practices of developing science lessen modules and fostering integrated decision making ability-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiyama, Kosei

    2016-04-01

    Hiroshima University High School (HUHS) has devised and carried out overseas exchange programs on ESD issues for 7 years. These programs have been carried out as a part of a government-aided project called SSH (Super Science High School) *1. To start with, we had cooperative study program with a school in Germany in 2009, and next year with a school in Korea, and then gradually have expanded the cooperative schools. Since 2013, we have worked with schools in four countries; Korea, Thailand, Czech and Germany. Science lesson modules here refers to an assembly of a set of lessons, newly developed and improved for the project. These modules characteristically require the students to make decisions by themselves on given problems. In the course of the decision making, students learn what kind of data or facts should be presented as evidence and how they can make their decisions known to others. Among several modules we have designed, the one introduced here deals with the use of solar energy, which we carried out with a school in Korea in 2014-2015. It also includes lessons of the fuel cells using energy from hydrogen gas generated by solar cells. It aims to develop global human resources through carefully planned activities. First, the students of both schools make mixed groups and conduct experiments in physics, chemistry or biology on a given problem related to solar energy. Then they discuss in groups using data obtained from the experiments and through the Internet as evidence. After the thorough discussion, each group gives a presentation on their decision. The analysis of the presentations and the questionnaire to the students revealed the following points: 1) Students have come to have multidimensional perspectives on the utilization of solar energy. 2) Students have come to combine the results of different experiments when making decisions. 3) Students have developed flexible attitudes toward other cultures. 4) Students have developed communication skills in

  2. Development of e-module combining science process skills and dynamics motion material to increasing critical thinking skills and improve student learning motivation senior high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengky Adie Perdana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Learning media is one of the most components in the teaching and learning process. This research was conducted to design and develop the electronic modules combining science process skills and dynamics motion content for increasing critical thinking skills and improve student learning motivation for senior high school. The Methods used in this research is Research and Development (R&D. Model research and development using a research 4D Thiagarajan model. Physics module was developed using science process skills approach: observing, formulating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, identify variables, conduct experiments, analyse the data, summarise and communicate. The results showed that: 1 the electronics module has been developed by integrating the science process skills for enhancing critical thinking skills and student motivation. 2 Electronic Module Physics-based science process skills meet the criteria very well, judging from the results of validation content, validation media, validation of peer education and practitioners, with an average value of 3.80 is greater than the minimum eligibility 3.78. 3 effectiveness the modules of science process skills got N-gain value obtained from a large trial in grade samples of 0.67 and 0.59 in the control group were categorised as moderate. 4 Implementation of electronic modules Physics-based science process skills is considered an effective to enhance the students' motivation. Statistical analysis showed a significance value of 0.027 is lower than the significance level α = 0.05, this means that there are significant differences between learning motivation grade sample and the control class. As a result of analysis data obtained from the research, it was seen that the students' motivation that uses Physics module based science process skills better than conventional learning.

  3. Vocational education training in environmental health sciences: using ionizing radiation detectors, module 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, F.C.

    1981-07-01

    In this instructional module, students learn to operate a geiger counter and read a pocket ion chamber dosimeter in demonstrating how radiation levels are affected by distance, shielding, and time. Training Prerequisites: Before beginning this module, students should be, or have been, enrolled in a course on radiation safety or its equivalent at the 2-year technical-school or college level. Upon completion of this module, students will be able to perform the following functions: (1) Name and tell the function of the major components of a geiger counter and check its operation using a sealed check source of low radioactivity. (2) Read a pocket ion chamber dosimeter and recharge the dosimeter using a dosimeter charger. (3) Demonstrate what effects distance, shielding, and time have on radiation levels

  4. Measuring Airflow in Local Exhaust Ventilation Systems. Module 23. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on measuring airflow in local exhaust ventilation systems. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming each…

  5. Operating a Microwave Radiation Detection Monitor. Module 10. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on operating a microwave radiation detection monitor. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) testing the…

  6. Using Ionizing Radiation Detectors. Module 11. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on using ionizing radiation detectors. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming and telling the function…

  7. Space telescope phase B definition study. Volume 2A: Science instruments, f48/96 planetary camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, R. P.; Mccarthy, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    The analysis and preliminary design of the f48/96 planetary camera for the space telescope are discussed. The camera design is for application to the axial module position of the optical telescope assembly.

  8. The Math–Biology Values Instrument: Development of a Tool to Measure Life Science Majors’ Task Values of Using Math in the Context of Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sarah E.; Runyon, Christopher; Aikens, Melissa L.

    2017-01-01

    In response to calls to improve the quantitative training of undergraduate biology students, there have been increased efforts to better integrate math into biology curricula. One challenge of such efforts is negative student attitudes toward math, which are thought to be particularly prevalent among biology students. According to theory, students’ personal values toward using math in a biological context will influence their achievement and behavioral outcomes, but a validated instrument is needed to determine this empirically. We developed the Math–Biology Values Instrument (MBVI), an 11-item college-level self-­report instrument grounded in expectancy-value theory, to measure life science students’ interest in using math to understand biology, the perceived usefulness of math to their life science career, and the cost of using math in biology courses. We used a process that integrates multiple forms of validity evidence to show that scores from the MBVI can be used as a valid measure of a student’s value of math in the context of biology. The MBVI can be used by instructors and researchers to help identify instructional strategies that influence math–biology values and understand how math–biology values are related to students’ achievement and decisions to pursue more advanced quantitative-based courses. PMID:28747355

  9. Simulator of the NUMAC SRMN module as virtual instrument for the personnel training of the LVNP; Simulador del modulo NUMAC SRMN como instrumento virtual para el adiestramiento del personal de CNLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas S, A.S.; Rivero G, T.; Ruiz E, J.A. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: asrs@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    describes the operation of a virtual instrument of the NUMAC SRNM module. This instrument is presented in the screen of a personal computer PC with its characteristics and all the operation functions that a real NUMAC module. With this instrumentation type one has the advantage of to manipulate and to operate the instrument without the necessity to count physically with a module of this type, besides avoiding the extraction of it original position avoiding to interfere or to alter the reactor operation. This instrument was developed with LabVIEW graphic programming to be used as simulator in the practices inside the training programs of the operative personnel or instrumentalist of the CNLV. (Author)

  10. Experimental studies and modelling of cation interactions with solid materials: application to the MIMICC project. (Multidimensional Instrumented Module for Investigations on chemistry-transport Coupled Codes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardin, Emmanuelle

    1999-01-01

    The study of cation interactions with solid materials is useful in order to define the chemistry interaction component of the MIMICC project (Multidimensional Instrumented Module for Investigations on chemistry-transport Coupled Codes). This project will validate the chemistry-transport coupled codes. Database have to be supplied on the cesium or ytterbium interactions with solid materials in suspension. The solid materials are: a strong cation exchange resin, a natural sand which presents small impurities, and a zirconium phosphate. The cation exchange resin is useful to check that the surface complexation theory can be applied on a pure cation exchanger. The sand is a natural material, and its isotherms will be interpreted using pure oxide-cation system data, such as pure silica-cation data. Then the study on the zirconium phosphate salt is interesting because of the increasing complexity in the processes (dissolution, sorption and co-precipitation). These data will enable to approach natural systems, constituted by several complex solids which can interfere on each other. These data can also be used for chemistry-transport coupled codes. Potentiometric titration, sorption isotherms, sorption kinetics, cation surface saturation curves are made, in order to obtain the different parameters relevant to the cation sorption at the solid surface, for each solid-electrolyte-cation system. The influence of different parameters such as ionic strength, pH, and electrolyte is estimated. All the experimental curves are fitted with FITEQL code based on the surface complexation theory using the constant capacitance model, in order to give a mechanistic interpretation of the ion retention phenomenon at the solid surface. The speciation curves of all systems are plotted, using the FITEQL code too. Systems with an increasing complexity are studied: dissolution, sorption and coprecipitation coexist in the cation-salt systems. Then the data obtained on each single solid, considered

  11. Three education modules using EnviroAtlas-Exploration and Discovery Through Maps: Teaching Science with Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Session #1: Exploration and Discovery through Maps: Teaching Science with Technology (elementary school) - EnviroAtlas is a tool developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and its partners that empowers anyone with the internet to be a highly informed local decision-ma...

  12. Communicating Science Concepts to Individuals with Visual Impairments Using Short Learning Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, Anthony S.; Newell, Ryan; Villarreal, Eduardo; Swearer, Dayne F.; Bianco, Elisabeth; Ringe, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Of the 6.7 million individuals in the United States who are visually impaired, 63% are unemployed, and 59% have not attained an education beyond a high school diploma. Providing a basic science education to children and adults with visual disabilities can be challenging because most scientific learning relies on visual demonstrations. Creating…

  13. College-Mentored Polymer/Materials Science Modules for Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Robert G.; Lewis, Maurica S.; Montclare, Jin Kim

    2011-01-01

    Polymers are materials with vast environmental and economic ramifications, yet are generally not discussed in secondary education science curricula. We describe a program in which college mentors develop and implement hands-on, polymer-related experiments to supplement a standard, state regents-prescribed high school chemistry course, as well as a…

  14. Pre-flight calibration and initial data processing for the ChemCam laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, R.C.; Maurice, S.; Lasue, J.; Forni, O.; Anderson, R.B.; Clegg, S.; Bender, S.; Blaney, D.; Barraclough, B.L.; Cousin, A.; DeFlores, L.; Delapp, D.; Dyar, M.D.; Fabre, C.; Gasnault, O.; Lanza, N.; Mazoyer, J.; Melikechi, N.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Newsom, H.; Ollila, A.; Perez, R.; Tokar, R.; Vaniman, D.

    2013-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument package on the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, is the first planetary science instrument to employ laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine the compositions of geological samples on another planet. Pre-processing of the spectra involves subtracting the ambient light background, removing noise, removing the electron continuum, calibrating for the wavelength, correcting for the variable distance to the target, and applying a wavelength-dependent correction for the instrument response. Further processing of the data uses multivariate and univariate comparisons with a LIBS spectral library developed prior to launch as well as comparisons with several on-board standards post-landing. The level-2 data products include semi-quantitative abundances derived from partial least squares regression. A LIBS spectral library was developed using 69 rock standards in the form of pressed powder disks, glasses, and ceramics to minimize heterogeneity on the scale of the observation (350–550 μm dia.). The standards covered typical compositional ranges of igneous materials and also included sulfates, carbonates, and phyllosilicates. The provenance and elemental and mineralogical compositions of these standards are described. Spectral characteristics of this data set are presented, including the size distribution and integrated irradiances of the plasmas, and a proxy for plasma temperature as a function of distance from the instrument. Two laboratory-based clones of ChemCam reside in Los Alamos and Toulouse for the purpose of adding new spectra to the database as the need arises. Sensitivity to differences in wavelength correlation to spectral channels and spectral resolution has been investigated, indicating that spectral registration needs to be within half a pixel and resolution needs to match within 1.5 to 2.6 pixels. Absolute errors are tabulated for derived compositions of each major element in each standard using PLS regression

  15. The Math-Biology Values Instrument: Development of a Tool to Measure Life Science Majors' Task Values of Using Math in the Context of Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sarah E; Runyon, Christopher; Aikens, Melissa L

    2017-01-01

    In response to calls to improve the quantitative training of undergraduate biology students, there have been increased efforts to better integrate math into biology curricula. One challenge of such efforts is negative student attitudes toward math, which are thought to be particularly prevalent among biology students. According to theory, students' personal values toward using math in a biological context will influence their achievement and behavioral outcomes, but a validated instrument is needed to determine this empirically. We developed the Math-Biology Values Instrument (MBVI), an 11-item college-level self--report instrument grounded in expectancy-value theory, to measure life science students' interest in using math to understand biology, the perceived usefulness of math to their life science career, and the cost of using math in biology courses. We used a process that integrates multiple forms of validity evidence to show that scores from the MBVI can be used as a valid measure of a student's value of math in the context of biology. The MBVI can be used by instructors and researchers to help identify instructional strategies that influence math-biology values and understand how math-biology values are related to students' achievement and decisions to pursue more advanced quantitative-based courses. © 2017 S. E. Andrews et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  16. The PESPERF Scale: An Instrument for Measuring Service Quality in the School of Physical Education and Sports Sciences (PESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Suleyman M.; Kara, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: HEdPERF (Higher Education PERFormance) is one of the most recently developed scales in the literature to measure service quality in higher education. However, HEdPERF is designed to measure service quality at a macro level (university level) and may be considered as a more generic measurement instrument. In higher education, new scales…

  17. What Do You Know about Alternative Energy? Development and Use of a Diagnostic Instrument for Upper Secondary School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Irene Poh-Ai; Johari, Marliza; Said, Hardimah; Treagust, David F.

    2015-01-01

    The need for renewable and non-fossil fuels is now recognised by nations throughout the world. Consequently, an understanding of alternative energy is needed both in schools and in everyday life-long learning situations. This study developed a two-tier instrument to diagnose students' understanding and alternative conceptions about alternative…

  18. Construction and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Problem-Solving Skills of Suburban High School Physical Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herak, Patrick James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a problem-solving instrument that could easily be used by a classroom teacher. The research questions were (1) can the Problem-Solving Skills Assessments (PSSAs) differentiate between students with varying levels of selected problem-solving skills? (2) Can the PSSAs measure student growth due to…

  19. Detection of Reduced Nitrogen Compounds at Rocknest Using the Sample Analysis At Mars (SAM) Instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J. C.; Steele, A.; Brunner, A.; Coll, P.; Eigenbrode, J.; Franz, H. B.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D.; Jones, J. H.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity Rover detected nitrogen-bearing compounds during the pyrolysis of Rocknest material at Gale Crater. Hydrogen cyanide and acetonitrile were identified by the quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) both in direct evolved gas analysis (EGA). SAM carried out four separate analyses from Rocknest Scoop 5. A significant low temperature release was present in Rocknest runs 1-4, while a smaller high temperature release was also seen in Rocknest runs 1-3. Here we evaluate whether these compounds are indigenous to Mars or a pyrolysis product resulting from known terrestrial materials that are part of the SAM derivatization.

  20. Validity of Learning Module Natural Sciences Oriented Constructivism with the Contain of Character Education for Students of Class VIII at Yunior Hight School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktarina, K.; Lufri, L.; Chatri, M.

    2018-04-01

    Referring to primary data collected through observation and interview to natural science teachers and some students, it is found that there is no natural science teaching materials in the form of learning modules that can make learners learn independently, build their own knowledge, and construct good character in themselves. In order to address this problem, then it is developed natural science learning module oriented to constructivism with the contain of character education. The purpose of this study is to reconstruct valid module of natural science learning materials. This type of research is a development research using the Plomp model. The development phase of the Plomp model consists of 3 stages, namely 1) preliminary research phase, 2) development or prototyping phase, and 3) assessment phase. The result of the study shows that natural science learning module oriented to constructivism with the contain of character education for students class VIII of Yunior High School 11 Sungai Penuh is valid. In future work, practicality and effectiveness will be investigated.

  1. Compte rendu de : Charles T. Wolfe and Ofer Gal (eds., The body as object and instrument of knowledge. Embodied empiricism in early modern science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Joly

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage collectif, qui résulte en partie des travaux d’un atelier sur l’empirisme incarné dans la science moderne qui s’est tenu à l’université de Sydney en février 2009, rassemble quinze communications regroupées en trois parties : « The Body as Object », « The Body as Instrument », « Embodies Minds ». L’objectif des auteurs est de corriger la conception dominante que se font les historiens des sciences et de la philosophie de l’émergence de la philosophie expérimentale, et de l’empirism...

  2. Early modern mathematical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jim

    2011-12-01

    In considering the appropriate use of the terms "science" and "scientific instrument," tracing the history of "mathematical instruments" in the early modern period is offered as an illuminating alternative to the historian's natural instinct to follow the guiding lights of originality and innovation, even if the trail transgresses contemporary boundaries. The mathematical instrument was a well-defined category, shared across the academic, artisanal, and commercial aspects of instrumentation, and its narrative from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century was largely independent from other classes of device, in a period when a "scientific" instrument was unheard of.

  3. Interactive Online Modules and Videos for Learning Geological Concepts at the University of Toronto Department of Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veglio, E.; Graves, L. W.; Bank, C. G.

    2014-12-01

    We designed various computer-based applications and videos as educational resources for undergraduate courses at the University of Toronto in the Earth Science Department. These resources were developed in effort to enhance students' self-learning of key concepts as identified by educators at the department. The interactive learning modules and videos were created using the programs MATLAB and Adobe Creative Suite 5 (Photoshop and Premiere) and range from optical mineralogy (extinction and Becke line), petrology (equilibrium melting in 2-phase systems), crystallography (crystal systems), geophysics (gravity anomaly), and geologic history (evolution of Canada). These resources will be made available for students on internal course websites as well as through the University of Toronto Earth Science's website (www.es.utoronto.ca) where appropriate; the video platform YouTube.com may be used to reach a wide audience and promote the material. Usage of the material will be monitored and feedback will be collected over the next academic year in order to gage the use of these interactive learning tools and to assess if these computer-based applications and videos foster student engagement and active learning, and thus offer an enriched learning experience.

  4. Assessment of the structural integrity of a prototypical instrumented IFMIF high flux test module rig by fully 3D X-ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiseanu, Ion [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Laboratory NILPRP, P.O. Box MG-36, R-77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)], E-mail: tiseanu@infim.ro; Simon, Martin [Hans Waelischmiller GmbH (HWM), Schiessstattweg 16, D-88677 Markdorf (Germany); Craciunescu, Teddy; Mandache, Bogdan N. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Laboratory NILPRP, P.O. Box MG-36, R-77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Heinzel, Volker; Stratmanns, Erwin; Simakov, Stanislaw P.; Leichtle, Dieter [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Institut fuer Reaktorsicherheit IRS, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    An inspection procedure to assess the mechanical integrity of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) capsules and rigs during the irradiation campaign is necessary. Due to its penetration ability and contrast mechanism, the X-ray microtomography is the only known tool that could meet these requirements. In the high flux test module (HFTM) of IFMIF miniaturized specimens are densely packed in capsules. The capsules, which wear electric heaters and thermocouples, are housed in rigs. To assure a well-defined thermal contact the heater wires have to be attached to the capsules by brazing them into grooves. The examination of the quality of the braze material layer is of crucial interest in order to assure the best heat coupling of the heater wires to the capsule. A high density of the heaters is necessary to maintain the required temperature and, in addition NaK filling of narrow channels is employed for improving the 3D-heat transfer between the irradiation specimens and the capsule wall. Fully 3D tomographic inspections of a prototypical HFTM instrumented capsule, developed and manufactured at FZK, were conducted. In order to identify the optimum irradiation parameters and scanning configuration we carried out a comparative NDT analysis on two microtomography facilities: a compact, high magnification installation at NILPRP and a high-end industrial tomography facility with higher X-ray energy and intensity at HWM. At optimum inspection parameters of a directional microfocus X-ray source (U = 220 kV and I = 300 {mu}A) the geometry resolution was about 30 microns for characteristic dimension of the sample of 50 mm. Voids of 30 microns diameter and cracks of about 20 microns width can be detected. The absolute error of geometrical measurements is sufficient for the assessment of the structural integrity of the irradiation capsule and for the geometry description within the thermal-hydraulic modeling. The space resolution and the overall

  5. Assessment of the structural integrity of a prototypical instrumented IFMIF high flux test module rig by fully 3D X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiseanu, Ion; Simon, Martin; Craciunescu, Teddy; Mandache, Bogdan N.; Heinzel, Volker; Stratmanns, Erwin; Simakov, Stanislaw P.; Leichtle, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    An inspection procedure to assess the mechanical integrity of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) capsules and rigs during the irradiation campaign is necessary. Due to its penetration ability and contrast mechanism, the X-ray microtomography is the only known tool that could meet these requirements. In the high flux test module (HFTM) of IFMIF miniaturized specimens are densely packed in capsules. The capsules, which wear electric heaters and thermocouples, are housed in rigs. To assure a well-defined thermal contact the heater wires have to be attached to the capsules by brazing them into grooves. The examination of the quality of the braze material layer is of crucial interest in order to assure the best heat coupling of the heater wires to the capsule. A high density of the heaters is necessary to maintain the required temperature and, in addition NaK filling of narrow channels is employed for improving the 3D-heat transfer between the irradiation specimens and the capsule wall. Fully 3D tomographic inspections of a prototypical HFTM instrumented capsule, developed and manufactured at FZK, were conducted. In order to identify the optimum irradiation parameters and scanning configuration we carried out a comparative NDT analysis on two microtomography facilities: a compact, high magnification installation at NILPRP and a high-end industrial tomography facility with higher X-ray energy and intensity at HWM. At optimum inspection parameters of a directional microfocus X-ray source (U = 220 kV and I = 300 μA) the geometry resolution was about 30 microns for characteristic dimension of the sample of 50 mm. Voids of 30 microns diameter and cracks of about 20 microns width can be detected. The absolute error of geometrical measurements is sufficient for the assessment of the structural integrity of the irradiation capsule and for the geometry description within the thermal-hydraulic modeling. The space resolution and the overall

  6. Assessment of the Structural Integrity of a Prototypical Instrumented IFMIF High Flux Test Module Rig by Fully 3D X-Ray Microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiseanu, I.; Craciunescu, T.; Mandache, B.N.; Simon, M.; Heinzel, V.; Stratmanns, E.; Simakov, S.P.; Leichtle, D.

    2006-01-01

    An inspection procedure to asses the mechanical integrity of IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) capsules and rigs during the irradiation campaign is necessary. Due to its penetration ability and contrast mechanism, the X-ray micro-tomography is the only known tool that could meet these requirements. In the High Flux Test Module (HFTM) of IFMIF miniaturized specimens are densely packed in capsules. The capsules which wear electric heaters and thermocouples are housed in rigs. To assure a well defined thermal contact the heater wires have to be attached to the capsules by brazing them into grooves. The examination of the quality of the braze material layer is of crucial interest in order to assure the best heat coupling of the heater wires to the capsule. A high density of the heaters is necessary to maintain the required temperature and, in addition NaK filling of narrow channels is employed for improving the 3D-heat transfer between the irradiation specimens and the capsule wall. Fully 3D tomographic inspections of a prototypical HFTM instrumented capsule, developed and manufactures at FZK, were conducted. In order to identify the optimum irradiation parameters and scanning configuration we carried out a comparative NDT analysis on two micro-tomography facilities, our compact, high magnification installation at NILPRP and two high-end industrial tomography facilities with higher X-ray energy and intensity at HWM. At optimum inspection parameters of a microfocus X-ray source (U=220 kV and I=300 μA) the geometry resolution was about 30-50 microns for characteristic dimension of the sample of 50 mm. Voids of 30 microns diameter and cracks of about 20 microns width can be detected. The absolute error of geometrical measurements should be sufficient for the assessment of the structural integrity of the irradiation capsule and for the geometry description within the thermal-hydraulic modeling. Space resolution could be further improved if one

  7. The Development and Validation of Test Instruments to Measure Observation and Comparison in Junior High School Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, Harold Ralph

    This study attempted to design tests for the purpose of measuring the acquisition of the science skills of observation and comparison, to determine if these skills, as measured by these tests, could be differentially improved using differing amounts of training, and to determine the effects of race and cultural status on performance with the…

  8. How Environmental Attitudes Interact with Cognitive Learning in a Science Lesson Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliane F. Schumm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As cognitive knowledge plays a major role in supporting proenvironmental behavior, identification of individual aspects related to knowledge acquisition is essential. Our study monitored knowledge levels before and after a science-based lesson set in relation to self-reported behavior and attitudinal preferences (attitudes towards environmental Preservation and Utilization of 190 students (Mage  ± SD: 15.96 ± 0.55; 51.1% female. A knowledge questionnaire was completed once before and twice after participation. Additionally, (i the 2-MEV (two Major Environmental Values and (ii the GEB (General Ecological Behavior were applied. Girls showed higher Preservation but lower Utilization attitudes than boys did. Learning success was positively related to Preservation preferences (for girls as well as to behavior-based scores (for girls and boys. For boys, high preferences in Utilization were negatively correlated with learning achievement.

  9. Banque d’instruments de mesure en recherche : Une innovation au service des membres chercheurs en sciences infirmières

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Le May

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Résumé : Introduction : Face aux difficultés que rencontrent ses enseignants et étudiants à retrouver des instruments de mesure valides dans les bases de données, le Réseau de Recherche en Interventions en Sciences Infirmières du Québec (RRISIQ a récemment choisi de développer une banque d’instruments de mesure accessible et bien documentée utilisant le logiciel bibliographique Zotero. Cet article a pour but de décrire la Banque d’instruments du RRISIQ, d’en exposer les défis et ses perspectives de développement. Description : La Banque comprend plus de 1400 liens ou références à des instruments de mesure reliés aux interventions cliniques, à l’organisation des services infirmiers et à la formation infirmière. L’utilisateur a accès à des références bibliographiques d’articles scientifiques sur les instruments, en anglais et en français. En naviguant dans la Banque, il clique sur l'article de son choix, obtenant ainsi une description bibliographique complète, dont une adresse web lui permettant d’accéder en ligne au plein texte. Résultats : La Banque d’instruments Zotero nécessite un faible coût d’entretien technique pour effectuer des sauvegardes, résoudre les difficultés et gérer les demandes d'accès. Elle est appréciée par ses utilisateurs. Discussion : La Banque prendra de l’ampleur dans les années à venir et des démarches sont actuellement réalisées par l’équipe pour la publiciser davantage auprès de ses membres et de leurs étudiants. L’équipe envisage de la rendre disponible à d’autres équipes de recherche du Québec.

  10. International Conferences and Young Scientists Schools on Computational Information Technologies for Environmental Sciences (CITES) as a professional growth instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, E. P.; Lykosov, V. N.; Genina, E. Yu; Gordova, Yu E.

    2017-11-01

    The paper describes a regular events CITES consisting of young scientists school and international conference as a tool for training and professional growth. The events address the most pressing issues of application of information-computational technologies in environmental sciences and young scientists’ training, diminishing a gap between university graduates’ skill and concurrent challenges. The viability of the approach to the CITES organization is proved by the fact that single event organized in 2001 turned into a series, quite a few young participants successfully defended their PhD thesis and a number of researchers became Doctors of Science during these years. Young researchers from Russia and foreign countries show undiminishing interest to these events.

  11. Pre-flight calibration and initial data processing for the ChemCam laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiens, R.C., E-mail: rwiens@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Maurice, S.; Lasue, J.; Forni, O. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse (France); Anderson, R.B. [United States Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Clegg, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Bender, S. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Blaney, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Barraclough, B.L. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Cousin, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse (France); Deflores, L. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Delapp, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Dyar, M.D. [Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, MA (United States); Fabre, C. [Georessources, Nancy (France); Gasnault, O. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse (France); Lanza, N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Mazoyer, J. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Meudon (France); Melikechi, N. [Delaware State University, Dover, DE (United States); Meslin, P.-Y. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse (France); Newsom, H. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); and others

    2013-04-01

    The ChemCam instrument package on the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, is the first planetary science instrument to employ laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine the compositions of geological samples on another planet. Pre-processing of the spectra involves subtracting the ambient light background, removing noise, removing the electron continuum, calibrating for the wavelength, correcting for the variable distance to the target, and applying a wavelength-dependent correction for the instrument response. Further processing of the data uses multivariate and univariate comparisons with a LIBS spectral library developed prior to launch as well as comparisons with several on-board standards post-landing. The level-2 data products include semi-quantitative abundances derived from partial least squares regression. A LIBS spectral library was developed using 69 rock standards in the form of pressed powder disks, glasses, and ceramics to minimize heterogeneity on the scale of the observation (350–550 μm dia.). The standards covered typical compositional ranges of igneous materials and also included sulfates, carbonates, and phyllosilicates. The provenance and elemental and mineralogical compositions of these standards are described. Spectral characteristics of this data set are presented, including the size distribution and integrated irradiances of the plasmas, and a proxy for plasma temperature as a function of distance from the instrument. Two laboratory-based clones of ChemCam reside in Los Alamos and Toulouse for the purpose of adding new spectra to the database as the need arises. Sensitivity to differences in wavelength correlation to spectral channels and spectral resolution has been investigated, indicating that spectral registration needs to be within half a pixel and resolution needs to match within 1.5 to 2.6 pixels. Absolute errors are tabulated for derived compositions of each major element in each standard using PLS regression

  12. Instrumentation for Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and coordinate nuclear instrumentation standards with resulting economies for the nuclear and radiation fields. There was particular emphasis on coordination and management of the Nuclear Instrument Module (NIM) System, U.S. activity involving the CAMAC international standard dataway system, the FASTBUS modular high-speed data acquisition and control system and processing and management of national nuclear instrumentation and detector standards, as well as a modest amount of assistance and consultation services to the Pollutant Characterization and Safety Research Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The principal accomplishments were the development and maintenance of the NIM instrumentation system that is the predominant instrumentation system in the nuclear and radiation fields worldwide, the CAMAC digital interface system in coordination with the ESONE Committee of European Laboratories, the FASTBUS high-speed system and numerous national and international nuclear instrumentation standards

  13. ``I Just Want The Credit!'' - Perceived Instrumentality as the Main Characteristic of Boys' Motivation in a Grade 11 Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieswandt, Martina; Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2008-01-01

    This case study examines the motivational structure of a group of male students ( n = 10) in a grade 11 General Science class at an independent single-sex school. We approach the concept of motivation through the integration of three different theoretical approaches: sociocultural theory, future time perspective and achievement goal theory. This framework allows us to stress the dialectical interdependence of motivation, as expressed through individual goals, and the socially and culturally influenced origins of these goals. Our results suggest that the boys internalised the administrative description of the course as meeting a diploma requirement, which they expressed in their perception of the course as being for “non-science” people who “just need a credit.” However, we also found situational changes in students’ motivational structure towards more intrinsic orientations when they were engaged in topics with personal everyday and future relevance. These situational changes in students’ goal structures illustrate that our participants did not internalise classroom and school goal messages wholly and, instead, selectively and constructively transformed these goal messages depending on their own motivational structure and beliefs. These results stress the importance of teachers scaffolding not only for conceptual learning but also for student motivation in science classes, especially those that purposefully teach towards scientific literacy.

  14. Nuclear instrumentation for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, Carlos G.; Pita, Antonio; Verrastro, Claudio A.; Maino, Eduardo J.

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear instrumentation for research reactors in Argentina was developed in 70'. A gradual modernization of all the nuclear instrumentation is planned. It includes start-up and power range instrumentation, as well as field monitors, clamp, scram and rod movement control logic. The new instrumentation is linked to a computer network, based on real time operating system for data acquisition, display and logging. This paper describes the modules and whole system aspects. (author). 2 refs

  15. Status of the Neutron Imaging and Diffraction Instrument IMAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockelmann, Winfried; Burca, Genoveva; Kelleher, Joe F.; Kabra, Saurabh; Zhang, Shu-Yan; Rhodes, Nigel J.; Schooneveld, Erik M.; Sykora, Jeff; Pooley, Daniel E.; Nightingale, Jim B.; Aliotta, Francesco; Ponterio, Rosa C.; Salvato, Gabriele; Tresoldi, Dario; Vasi, Cirino; McPhate, Jason B.; Tremsin, Anton S.

    A cold neutron imaging and diffraction instrument, IMAT, is currently being constructed at the ISIS second target station. IMAT will capitalize on time-of-flight transmission and diffraction techniques available at a pulsed neutron source. Analytical techniques will include neutron radiography, neutron tomography, energy-selective neutron imaging, and spatially resolved diffraction scans for residual strain and texture determination. Commissioning of the instrument will start in 2015, with time-resolving imaging detectors and two diffraction detector prototype modules. IMAT will be operated as a user facility for material science applications and will be open for developments of time-of-flight imaging methods.

  16. Sustainable development as a challenge for undergraduate students: the module "Science bears responsibility" in the Leuphana bachelor's programme : commentary on "a case study of teaching social responsibility to doctoral students in the climate sciences".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsen, Gerd

    2013-12-01

    The Leuphana Semester at Leuphana University Lüneburg, together with the module "Science bears responsibility" demonstrate how innovative methods of teaching and learning can be combined with the topic of sustainable development and how new forms of university teaching can be introduced. With regard to module content, it has become apparent that, due to the complexity of the field of sustainability, a single discipline alone is unable to provide analyses and solutions. If teaching in higher education is to adequately deal with this complexity, then it is necessary to develop inter- and transdisciplinary approaches that go beyond a purely specialist orientation.

  17. Instruments for radiation measurement in life sciences (5), ''Development of imaging technology in life sciences'' III. Development of small animal PET scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaya, Taiga; Murayama, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the requisites for small animal PET scanners, present state of their market and of their development in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Relative to the apparatus clinically used, the requisites involve the high spatial resolution of 0.8-1.5 mm and high sensitivity of the equipment itself due to low dose of the tracer to be given to animals. At present, more than 20 institutions like universities, research facilities and companies are developing the PET equipment for small animals and about 10 machines are in the market. However, their resolution and sensitivity are not fully satisfactory and for their improvement, investigators are paying attention to the gamma ray measurement by depth-of-interaction (DOI) method. NIRS has been also developing the machine jPET-D4 and has proposed to manufacture jPET-RD having 4-layer DOI detectors with the absolute central sensitivity as high as 14.7%. jPET-RD is to have the spatial resolution as high as <1mm (central view) and -1.4 mm (periphery). (T.I.)

  18. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  19. The Delphi Technique in Identifying Learning Objectives for the Development of Science, Technology and Society Modules for Palestinian Ninth Grade Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abualrob, Marwan M. A.; Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines how learning objectives based upon science, technology and society (STS) elements for Palestinian ninth grade science textbooks were identified, which was part of a bigger study to establish an STS foundation in the ninth grade science curriculum in Palestine. First, an initial list of STS elements was determined. Second,…

  20. Design and evaluation of a digital module with guided peer feedback for student learning biotechnology and molecular life sciences, attitudinal change, and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozi, Omid; Mulder, Martin

    2017-01-02

    This study aims to investigate the impacts of a digital learning module with guided peer feedback on students' domain-specific knowledge gain and their attitudinal change in the field of biotechnology and molecular life sciences. The extent to which the use of this module is appreciated by students is studied as well. A pre-test, post-test design was used with 203 students who were randomly assigned to groups of three. They were asked to work on the digital module with the aim of exploring various perspectives, and the "pros and cons" on the topic of "Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)." The results suggest that the module can be used to foster students' domain-specific knowledge gain and their attitudinal change. Furthermore, the module was evaluated positively in terms of students' motivation and satisfaction with the learning experiences. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(1):31-39, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  1. "A bare outpost of learned European culture on the edge of the jungles of Java": Johan Maurits Mohr (1716-1775) and the emergence of instrumental and institutional science in Dutch colonial Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidervaart, Huib J; Van Gent, Rob H

    2004-03-01

    The transits of Venus in 1761 and 1769 appear to mark the starting point of instrumental science in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). This essay examines the conditions that triggered and constituted instrumental and institutional science on Indonesian soil in the late eighteenth century. In 1765 the Reverend J. M. Mohr, whose wife had received a large inheritance, undertook to build a fully equipped private observatory in Batavia (now Jakarta). There he made several major astronomical and meteorological observations. Mohr's initiative inspired other Europeans living on Java around 1770 to start a scientific movement. Because of the lack of governmental and other support, it was not until 1778 that this offspring of the Dutch-Indonesian Enlightenment became a reality. The Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen tried from the beginning to put into effect the program Mohr had outlined. The members even bought his instruments from his widow, intending to continue his measurements. For a number of reasons, however, this instrumental program was more than the society could support. Around 1790 instrumental science in the former Dutch East Indies came to a standstill, not to be resumed for several decades.

  2. Instrumental interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani , Annie

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The expression instrumental interaction as been introduced by Claude Cadoz to identify a human-object interaction during which a human manipulates a physical object - an instrument - in order to perform a manual task. Classical examples of instrumental interaction are all the professional manual tasks: playing violin, cutting fabrics by hand, moulding a paste, etc.... Instrumental interaction differs from other types of interaction (called symbolic or iconic interactio...

  3. Instrumentation and control and human machine interface science and technology road-map in support of advanced reactors and fuel programs in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D. W.; Arndt, S. A.; Bond, L. J.; Dudenhoeffer, D.; Hallbert, B.; Holcomb, D. E.; Wood, R. T.; Naser, J. A.; O'Hara, J.; Quinn, E. L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current status of the Instrumentation, Control and Human Machine Interface (ICHMI) Science and Technology road-map being developed to address the major challenges in this technical area for the Gen IV and other U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) initiatives that support future deployments of nuclear energy systems. Reliable, capable ICHMI systems will be necessary for the advanced nuclear plants to be economically competitive. ICHMI enables measurement, control, protection, monitoring, and maintenance for processes and components. Through improvements in the technologies and demonstration of their use to facilitate licensing, ICHMI can contribute to the reduction of plant operations and maintenance costs while helping to ensure high plant availability. The impact of ICHMI can be achieved through effective use of the technologies to improve operational efficiency and optimize use of human resources. However, current licensing experience with digital I and C systems has provided lessons learned concerning the difficulties that can be encountered when introducing advanced technologies with expanded capabilities. Thus, in the development of advanced nuclear power designs, it will be important to address both the technical foundations of ICHMI systems as well as their licensing considerations. The ICHMI road-map will identify the necessary research, development and demonstration activities that are essential to facilitate necessary technology advancement and resolve outstanding issues. (authors)

  4. Instrumentation and control and human machine interface science and technology Road-map in support of advanced reactors and fuel programs in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D. W.; Arndt, S. A.; Dudenhoeffer, D.; Hallbert, B.; Bond, L. J.; Holcomb, D. E.; Wood, R. T.; Naser, J. A.; O'Hara, J.; Quinn, E. L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current status of the Instrumentation, Control and Human Machine Interface (ICHMI) Science and Technology Road-map (Reference xi) that was developed to address the major challenges in this technical area for the Gen IV and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiatives that support future deployments of nuclear energy systems. Reliable, capable ICHMI systems will be necessary for the advanced nuclear plants to be economically competitive. ICHMI enables measurement, control, protection, monitoring, and maintenance for processes and components. Through improvements in the technologies and demonstration of their use to facilitate licensing, ICHMI can contribute to the reduction of plant operations and maintenance costs while helping to ensure high plant availability. The impact of ICHMI can be achieved through effective use of the technologies to improve operational efficiency and optimize use of human resources. However, current licensing experience with digital I and C systems has provided lessons learned concerning the difficulties that can be encountered when introducing advanced technologies with expanded capabilities. Thus, in the development of advanced nuclear power designs, it will be important to address both the technical foundations of ICHMI systems and their licensing considerations. The ICHMI Road-map will identify the necessary research, development and demonstration activities that are essential to facilitate necessary technology advancement and resolve outstanding issues. (authors)

  5. A Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (MVP-SEM) for the Surface of Mars: An Instrument for the Planetary Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunson, J.; Gaskin, J. A.; Danilatos, G.; Doloboff, I. J.; Effinger, M. R.; Harvey, R. P.; Jerman, G. A.; Klein-Schoder, R.; Mackie, W.; Magera, B.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope(MVP-SEM) project, funded by the NASA Planetary Instrument Concepts for the Advancement of Solar System Observations (PICASSO) Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Science (ROSES), will build upon previous miniaturized SEM designs for lunar and International Space Station (ISS) applications and recent advancements in variable pressure SEM's to design and build a SEM to complete analyses of samples on the surface of Mars using the atmosphere as an imaging medium. By the end of the PICASSO work, a prototype of the primary proof-of-concept components (i.e., the electron gun, focusing optics and scanning system)will be assembled and preliminary testing in a Mars analog chamber at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will be completed to partially fulfill Technology Readiness Level to 5 requirements for those components. The team plans to have Secondary Electron Imaging(SEI), Backscattered Electron (BSE) detection, and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) capabilities through the MVP-SEM.

  6. Instrumentation and Control and Human Machine Interface Science and Technology Roadmap in Support of Advanced Reactors and Fuel Programs in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Don W.; Arndt, Steven A.; Dudenhoeffer, Donald D.; Hallbert, Bruce P.; Bond, Leonard J.; Holcomb, David E.; Wood, Richard T.; Naser, Joseph A.; O'Hara, John M.; Quinn, Edward L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current status of the Instrumentation, Control and Human Machine Interface (ICHMI) Science and Technology Roadmap (Reference xi) that was developed to address the major challenges in this technical area for the Gen IV and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiatives that support future deployments of nuclear energy systems. Reliable, capable ICHMI systems will be necessary for the advanced nuclear plants to be economically competitive. ICHMI enables measurement, control, protection, monitoring, and maintenance for processes and components. Through improvements in the technologies and demonstration of their use to facilitate licensing, ICHMI can contribute to the reduction of plant operations and maintenance costs while helping to ensure high plant availability. The impact of ICHMI can be achieved through effective use of the technologies to improve operational efficiency and optimize use of human resources. However, current licensing experience with digital I and C systems has provided lessons learned concerning the difficulties that can be encountered when introducing advanced technologies with expanded capabilities. Thus, in the development of advanced nuclear power designs, it will be important to address both the technical foundations of ICHMI systems and their licensing considerations. The ICHMI roadmap will identify the necessary research, development and demonstration activities that are essential to facilitate necessary technology advancement and resolve outstanding issues

  7. The scientific use of technological instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Mieke; Hansson, Sven Ove

    2015-01-01

    One of the most obvious ways in which the natural sciences depend on technology is through the use of instruments. This chapter presents a philosophical analysis of the role of technological instruments in science. Two roles of technological instruments in scientific practices are distinguished:

  8. Modulation of cosmic microwave background polarization with a warm rapidly rotating half-wave plate on the Atacama B-Mode Search instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, A; Essinger-Hileman, T; Appel, J W; Gallardo, P; Irwin, K D; Jarosik, N; Nolta, M R; Page, L A; Parker, L P; Raghunathan, S; Sievers, J L; Simon, S M; Staggs, S T; Visnjic, K

    2014-02-01

    We evaluate the modulation of cosmic microwave background polarization using a rapidly rotating, half-wave plate (HWP) on the Atacama B-Mode Search. After demodulating the time-ordered-data (TOD), we find a significant reduction of atmospheric fluctuations. The demodulated TOD is stable on time scales of 500-1000 s, corresponding to frequencies of 1-2 mHz. This facilitates recovery of cosmological information at large angular scales, which are typically available only from balloon-borne or satellite experiments. This technique also achieves a sensitive measurement of celestial polarization without differencing the TOD of paired detectors sensitive to two orthogonal linear polarizations. This is the first demonstration of the ability to remove atmospheric contamination at these levels from a ground-based platform using a rapidly rotating HWP.

  9. The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSats: instrument capabilities and early science analysis on the quiet Sun, active regions, and flares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christopher S.; Woods, Tom; Caspi, Amir; Dennis, Brian R.; MinXSS Instrument Team, NIST-SURF Measurement Team

    2018-01-01

    Detection of soft X-rays (sxr) from the Sun provide direct information on coronal plasma at temperatures in excess of ~1 MK, but there have been relatively few solar spectrally resolved measurements from 0.5 – 10. keV. The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat is the first solar science oriented CubeSat mission flown for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, and has provided measurements from 0.8 -12 keV, with resolving power ~40 at 5.9 keV, at a nominal ~10 second time cadence. MinXSS design and development has involved over 40 graduate students supervised by professors and professionals at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Instrument radiometric calibration was performed at the National Institute for Standard and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF) and spectral resolution determined from radioactive X-ray sources. The MinXSS spectra allow for determining coronal abundance variations for Fe, Mg, Ni, Ca, Si, S, and Ar in active regions and during flares. Measurements from the first of the twin CubeSats, MinXSS-1, have proven to be consistent with the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 0.1 – 0.8 nm energy flux. Simultaneous MinXSS-1 and Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observations have provided the most complete sxr spectral coverage of flares in recent years. These combined measurements are vital in estimating the heating flare loops by non-thermal accelerated electrons. MinXSS-1 measurements have been combined with the Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT) and Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO-AIA) to further constrain the coronal temperature distribution during quiescent times. The structure of the temperature distribution (especially for T > 5 MK) is important for deducing heating processes in the solar atmosphere. MinXSS-1 observations yield some of the tightest constraints on the high temperature component of the coronal plasma, in the

  10. Protein Structure and Function: An Interdisciplinary Multimedia-Based Guided-Inquiry Education Module for the High School Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethel, Casey M.; Lieberman, Raquel L.

    2014-01-01

    Here we present a multidisciplinary educational unit intended for general, advanced placement, or international baccalaureate-level high school science, focused on the three-dimensional structure of proteins and their connection to function and disease. The lessons are designed within the framework of the Next Generation Science Standards to make…

  11. Instrumentation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides instrumentation support for flight tests of prototype weapons systems using a vast array of airborne sensors, transducers, signal conditioning and encoding...

  12. A NIM (Nuclear Instrumentation Module) system conjugated with optional input for pHEMT amplifier for beta and gamma spectroscopy; Um sistema de modulos NIM conjugados com entrada opcional por amplificador pHEMT para espectroscopia beta e gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, Barbara; Lüdke, Everton, E-mail: barbarakonradmev@gmail.com, E-mail: eludke@smail.ufsm.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (LAE/UFSM), RS (Brazil). Lab. de Astrofisica e Eletronica

    2014-07-01

    This work presents a high speed NIM module (Nuclear Instrumentation Module) to detect radiation, gamma and muons, as part of a system for natural radiation monitoring and of extraterrestrial origin. The subsystem developed consists of a preamplifier and an integrated SCA (Single Channel Analyzer), including power supplies of ± 12 and ± 24V with derivations of +3.6 and ± 5V. The single channel analyzer board, consisting of discrete logic components, operating in window modes, normal and integral. The pulse shaping block is made up of two voltage comparators working at 120 MHz with a response time > 60 ns and a logic anticoincidence system. The preamplifier promotes a noise reduction and introduces the impedance matching between the output of anode / diode photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and subsequent equipment, providing an input impedance of 1MΩ and output impedance of 40 to 140Ω. The shaper amplifier is non-inverting and has variable input capacitance of 1000 pF. The upper and lower thresholds of the SCA are adjustable from 0 to ± 10V, and the equipment is compatible with various types of detectors, like PMTs coupled to sodium iodide crystals. For use with liquid scintillators and photodiodes with crystals (CsI: Tl) is proposed to include a preamplifier circuit pHEMT (pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor) integrated. Yet, the system presents the possibility of applications for various purposes of gamma spectroscopy and automatic detection of events producing of beta particles.

  13. Ambient Optomechanical Alignment and Pupil Metrology for the Flight Instruments Aboard the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Phillip; Beaton, Alexander; Gum, Jeffrey S.; Hadjimichael, Theodore J.; Hayden, Joseph E.; Hummel, Susann; Hylan, Jason E.; Lee, David; Madison, Timothy J.; Maszkiewicz, Michael; hide

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope science instruments are in the final stages of being integrated into the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element. Each instrument is tied into a common coordinate system through mechanical references that are used for optical alignment and metrology within ISIM after element-level assembly. In addition, a set of ground support equipment (GSE) consisting of large, precisely calibrated, ambient, and cryogenic structures are used as alignment references and gauges during various phases of integration and test (I&T). This GSE, the flight instruments, and ISIM structure feature different types of complimentary metrology targeting. These GSE targets are used to establish and track six degrees of freedom instrument alignment during I&T in the vehicle coordinate system (VCS). This paper describes the optomechanical metrology conducted during science instrument integration and alignment in the Spacecraft Systems Development and Integration Facility (SSDIF) cleanroom at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The measurement of each instrument's ambient entrance pupil location in the telescope coordinate system is discussed. The construction of the database of target locations and the development of metrology uncertainties is also discussed.

  14. Measurement, instrumentation, and sensors handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Eren, Halit

    2014-01-01

    The Second Edition of the bestselling Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook brings together all aspects of the design and implementation of measurement, instrumentation, and sensors. Reflecting the current state of the art, it describes the use of instruments and techniques for performing practical measurements in engineering, physics, chemistry, and the life sciences and discusses processing systems, automatic data acquisition, reduction and analysis, operation characteristics, accuracy, errors, calibrations, and the incorporation of standards for control purposes. Organized acco

  15. Experimenting with string musical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2012-03-01

    What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a Science of Sound & Light course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when used in physics, represent reality that can actually be observed, in this case, the operation of string musical instruments.

  16. Experimenting with String Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a "Science of Sound & Light" course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when…

  17. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubbes, W.F.; Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Instrumentation is developed for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to meet several different (and sometimes conflicting) objectives. This paper addresses instrumentation development for data needs that are related either directly or indirectly to a repository site, but does not touch on instrumentation for work with waste forms or other materials. Consequently, this implies a relatively large scale for the measurements, and an in situ setting for instrument performance. In this context, instruments are needed for site characterization to define phenomena, develop models, and obtain parameter values, and for later design and performance confirmation testing in the constructed repository. The former set of applications is more immediate, and is driven by the needs of program design and performance assessment activities. A host of general technical and nontechnical issues have arisen to challenge instrumentation development. Instruments can be classed into geomechanical, geohydrologic, or other specialty categories, but these issues cut across artificial classifications. These issues are outlined. Despite this imposing list of issues, several case histories are cited to evaluate progress in the area

  18. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of

  19. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    Give us the tools: science and technology for development. Ottawa, ...... altered technical rela- tionships among the factors used in the process of production, and the en- .... to ourselves only the rights of audit and periodic substantive review." If a ...... and destroying scarce water reserves, recreational areas and a generally.

  20. Pre-service Science Teachers’ Self-efficacy Beliefs to Teach Socio-scientific Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Muğaloğlu, Ebru Z.; Küçük, Zerrin Doğança; Güven, Devrim

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine self-efficacy of pre-service science teachers to teach socio-scientific issues (SSI). Twenty-three senior pre-service science teachers participated in the study. Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI) was modified with an emphasis on SSI rather than scientific issues. The modified STEBI was applied to the participants before and after the intervention. As for the six-week intervention, three modules, which focused on understanding nature of SSI, teachin...

  1. Instrumental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-15

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  2. Instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-01

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  3. LOFT instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixby, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A description of instrumentation used in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) large break Loss-of-Coolant Experiments is presented. Emphasis is placed on hydraulic and thermal measurements in the primary system piping and components, reactor vessel, and pressure suppression system. In addition, instrumentation which is being considered for measurement of phenomena during future small break testing is discussed. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 BRE [de

  4. Preservation of Thermal Control Specular Gold Baffle Surface on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) Electronics Compartment (IEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MonteedeGarcia, Kristina; Patel, Jignasha; Perry, Radford, III

    2010-01-01

    Extremely tight thermal control property degradation allowances on the vapor-deposited, gold-coated IEC baffle surface, made necessary by the cryogenic JWST Observatory operations, dictate tight contamination requirements on adjacent surfaces. Theoretical degradation in emittance with contaminant thickness was calculated. Maximum allowable source outgassing rates were calculated using worst case view factors from source to baffle surface. Tight requirements pushed the team to change the design of the adjacent surfaces to minimize the outgassing sources

  5. Advanced optical instruments technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Mike; Chrisp, Michael; Cheng, Li-Jen; Eng, Sverre; Glavich, Thomas; Goad, Larry; Jones, Bill; Kaarat, Philip; Nein, Max; Robinson, William

    1992-08-01

    The science objectives for proposed NASA missions for the next decades push the state of the art in sensitivity and spatial resolution over a wide range of wavelengths, including the x-ray to the submillimeter. While some of the proposed missions are larger and more sensitive versions of familiar concepts, such as the next generation space telescope, others use concepts, common on the Earth, but new to space, such as optical interferometry, in order to provide spatial resolutions impossible with other concepts. However, despite their architecture, the performance of all of the proposed missions depends critically on the back-end instruments that process the collected energy to produce scientifically interesting outputs. The Advanced Optical Instruments Technology panel was chartered with defining technology development plans that would best improve optical instrument performance for future astrophysics missions. At this workshop the optical instrument was defined as the set of optical components that reimage the light from the telescope onto the detectors to provide information about the spatial, spectral, and polarization properties of the light. This definition was used to distinguish the optical instrument technology issues from those associated with the telescope, which were covered by a separate panel. The panel identified several areas for optical component technology development: diffraction gratings; tunable filters; interferometric beam combiners; optical materials; and fiber optics. The panel also determined that stray light suppression instruments, such as coronagraphs and nulling interferometers, were in need of general development to support future astrophysics needs.

  6. An investigation of secure remote instrument control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schissel, D.P.; Abla, G.; Fredian, T.; Greenwald, M.; Penaflor, B.G.; Stillerman, J.; Walker, M.L.; Ciarlette, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the computer science issues associated with secure remote instrumentation control for magnetic fusion experiments. Computer science research into enhancing the ability to scientifically participate in a fusion experiment remotely has been growing in size in an attempt to better address the needs of fusion scientists worldwide. The natural progression of this research is to examine how to move from remote scientific participation to remote hardware control. The vision is to define a gatekeeper software system that will be the only channel of interaction for incoming requests to the secured area of the experimental site. The role of the gatekeeper is to validate the identification and access privilege of the requestor and to insure the general validity of the proposed request. The vision for the gatekeeper is that it be a modular system that is simple in design and defined in a way that makes its implementation and operation transparent and obvious. The architecture of the module interface is flexible enough that it can easily allow the future addition of new modules. At the same time, it should be transparent to end-users and allow a high volume of activity so as to not provide a work bottleneck. The results of the gatekeeper design and initial implementation are presented as well as a discussion on the implication of this research on the operation of fusion experimental machines such as ITER.

  7. An investigation of secure remote instrument control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schissel, D.P., E-mail: schissel@fusion.gat.co [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Abla, G. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Fredian, T.; Greenwald, M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Penaflor, B.G. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Stillerman, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Walker, M.L. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Ciarlette, D.J. [US ITER Project Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2010-07-15

    This paper examines the computer science issues associated with secure remote instrumentation control for magnetic fusion experiments. Computer science research into enhancing the ability to scientifically participate in a fusion experiment remotely has been growing in size in an attempt to better address the needs of fusion scientists worldwide. The natural progression of this research is to examine how to move from remote scientific participation to remote hardware control. The vision is to define a gatekeeper software system that will be the only channel of interaction for incoming requests to the secured area of the experimental site. The role of the gatekeeper is to validate the identification and access privilege of the requestor and to insure the general validity of the proposed request. The vision for the gatekeeper is that it be a modular system that is simple in design and defined in a way that makes its implementation and operation transparent and obvious. The architecture of the module interface is flexible enough that it can easily allow the future addition of new modules. At the same time, it should be transparent to end-users and allow a high volume of activity so as to not provide a work bottleneck. The results of the gatekeeper design and initial implementation are presented as well as a discussion on the implication of this research on the operation of fusion experimental machines such as ITER.

  8. Using ESSEA Modules, Local Event Studies and Personal Learning Experiences in an Earth Systems Science Course for Preservice Middle School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, W.; Brown, D.

    2008-12-01

    Most science courses, including courses that provide preparation for pre-service K-12 teachers are only taught from a deductive big picture perspective. This method is fine for most abstract learners, but pre- service classroom educators that are being prepared to teach in middle school classrooms will be faced with the challenge of building science content knowledge in students that are concrete learners. For these K-12 students a better pedagogical practice is to use local real-world familiar places, issues and personal experience to connect student learning with more abstract concepts. To make it more likely that teachers have the requisite skills and pedagogical content knowledge to build K- 12 student science concept knowledge and science process skills we have integrated ESSEA modules that connect worldwide issues such as global climate change with local event studies chosen by learners. Some recent examples include how such local events such as landfill fires and suburban sprawl impact the local area's air, land, water and life. Course participants are able to choose a more personal route to understanding how their habits impact the global environment by participating in a three week learning experience called the Lifestyle Project. This experience asks students to incrementally reduce their use of heating or air-conditioning, the amount of waste going to landfills, to conserve electricity, drive less and eat less energy intensively. Pre-post content assessments indicate that students in this course scored significantly higher on post course content assessments and reported that by engaging in personal experience to global scale learning experiences they have a new appreciation for how personal choices impact the global environment and how to use local artifacts and issues to enhance K-12 student learning.

  9. Instrumental Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valerio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the history of human kind, since our first ancestors, tools have represented a mean to reach objectives which might otherwise seemed impossibles. In the called New Economy, where tangibles assets appear to be losing the role as the core element to produce value versus knowledge, tools have kept aside man in his dairy work. In this article, the author's objective is to describe, in a simple manner, the importance of managing the organization's group of tools or instruments (Instrumental Capital. The characteristic conditions of this New Economy, the way Knowledge Management deals with these new conditions and the sub-processes that provide support to the management of Instrumental Capital are described.

  10. Innovative instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    At this year's particle physics conference at Brighton, a parallel session was given over to instrumentation and detector development. While this work is vital to the health of research and its continued progress, its share of prime international conference time is limited. Instrumentation can be innovative three times — first when a new idea is outlined, secondly when it is shown to be feasible, and finally when it becomes productive in a real experiment, amassing useful data rather than operational experience. Hyams' examples showed that it can take a long time for a new idea to filter through these successive stages, if it ever makes it at all

  11. Innovative instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1983-11-15

    At this year's particle physics conference at Brighton, a parallel session was given over to instrumentation and detector development. While this work is vital to the health of research and its continued progress, its share of prime international conference time is limited. Instrumentation can be innovative three times — first when a new idea is outlined, secondly when it is shown to be feasible, and finally when it becomes productive in a real experiment, amassing useful data rather than operational experience. Hyams' examples showed that it can take a long time for a new idea to filter through these successive stages, if it ever makes it at all.

  12. Instrumental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Navid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Every neutron scattering experiment requires the choice of a suited neutron diffractometer (or spectrometer in the case of inelastic scattering with its optimal configuration in order to accomplish the experimental tasks in the most successful way. Most generally, the compromise between the incident neutron flux and the instrumental resolution has to be considered, which is depending on a number of optical devices which are positioned in the neutron beam path. In this chapter the basic instrumental principles of neutron diffraction will be explained. Examples of different types of experiments and their respective expectable results will be shown. Furthermore, the production and use of polarized neutrons will be stressed.

  13. Surgical Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankelman, J.; Horeman, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a surgical instrument for minimall-invasive surgery, comprising a handle, a shaft and an actuating part, characterised by a gastight cover surrounding the shaft, wherein the cover is provided with a coupler that has a feed- through opening with a loskable seal,

  14. Weather Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  15. Optical instrumentation engineering in science, technology and society; Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Technical Meeting, San Mateo, Calif., October 16-18, 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Y. H.

    1973-01-01

    Visual tracking performance in instrumentation is discussed together with photographic pyrometry in an aeroballistic range, optical characteristics of spherical vapor bubbles in liquids, and the automatic detection and control of surface roughness by coherent diffraction patterns. Other subjects explored are related to instruments, sensors, systems, holography, and pattern recognition. Questions of data handling are also investigated, taking into account minicomputer image storage for holographic interferometry analysis, the design of a video amplifier for a 90 MHz bandwidth, and autostereoscopic screens. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  16. Calculations of flexibility module in measurements instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, A.; Płaczek, M.; Baier, A.

    2017-08-01

    Piezoelectricity has found a lot of applications since it were discovered in 1880 by Pierre and Jacques Curie. There are many applications of the direct piezoelectric effect - the production of an electric potential when stress is applied to the piezoelectric material, as well as the reverse piezoelectric effect - the production of strain when an electric field is applied. This work presents a mathematical model of a new model of vibration sensor. The principle of operation of currently used sensors is based on the idea: changes in thickness of the piezoelectric plates cause the vibration of the mechanical element, so-called “fork”. If the “forks” are not buried by the material deformation of the full tiles broadcasting is transmitted to receiver piezoelectric plate. As a result of vibration of receiver plates the cladding is formed on the potential difference proportional to the force. The value of this voltage is processed by an electronic circuit. In the case of backfilling “forks” the electric signal is lower. At the same time is not generated the potential for cladding tiles. Such construction have a lot of drawbacks, for example: need to use several piezoelectric plates, with the increase in number of components is increased failure of sensors, sensors have now produced two forks resonance, using these sensors in moist materials is often the case that the material remains between the forks and at the same time causes a measurement error. Mentioned disadvantages do not appear in the new proposed sensor design. The Galerkin method of the analysis of considered systems will be presented started from development of the mathematical model, to determine the graphs of flexibility and confirm two methods: exact and approximate. Analyzed beam is a part of the vibration level sensor and the results will be used to identify the electrical parameters of the generator. Designing of technical systems containing piezoelectric transducers is a complex process, due to the phenomena occurring in them. A correct description of the given device in the form of a mathematical model, already in its design phase, is a fundamental condition for its proper functioning. The presented analyzes may be used in the study of any mechanism by piezoelectric sensor, including for the steering column examination.

  17. The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Monitor the Implementation of Social Constructivist Learning Environments in Grade 9 Science Classrooms in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckay, Melanie B.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of an instrument that can be used to assess students' perceptions of their learning environment as a means of monitoring and guiding changes toward social constructivist learning environments. The study used a mixed-method approach with priority given to the quantitative data collection. During…

  18. Building student capacity to lead sustainability transitions in the food system through farm-based authentic research modules in sustainability sciences (FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Ahmed

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Undergraduate courses provide valuable opportunities to train and empower students with the knowledge, skills, and motivation to advance society in more sustainable directions. This article emphasizes the value of bridging primary scientific research with undergraduate education through the presentation of an integrated experiential learning and primary research model called Farm-based Authentic Research Modules in Sustainability Sciences (FARMS. FARMS are collaboratively designed with agricultural stakeholders through a community needs assessment on pressing food system issues and opportunities with the objective for faculty and students to jointly identify evidence-based management solutions. We illustrate the implementation of FARMS in an undergraduate course in Ecological Agriculture at Dartmouth College, NH where students assessed various agroecological solutions for managing plant vitality, weeds, soil quality, pests, pollinators, and biodiversity at the Dartmouth Organic Farm. Student reflections indicate that the FARMS course component was beneficial for understanding agroecological theories and concepts while also motivating involvement in sustainability sciences despite the challenges of primary research. Educator reflections noted that the FARMS pedagogical approach facilitated achieving course objectives to develop students’ ability for systems thinking, critical thinking, and interdisciplinarity while fostering students’ collaboration skills and overall motivation for creating change. Adopting the FARMS model should enable faculty in the sustainability sciences to serve as bridges between the learning, practicing, and scientific communities while supporting educational programming at student and community farms. Ultimately, it is expected that the implementation of FARMS will increase student capacity and prepare the next generation of leaders to address complex challenges of the food system using an evidence-based approach.

  19. Brazilian WHOQOL-OLD Module version: a Rasch analysis of a new instrument Versão em português do Módulo WHOQOL-OLD: análise de Rasch de um novo instrumento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Chachamovich

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the Brazilian version of WHOQOL-OLD Module and to test potential changes to the instrument to increase its psychometric adequacy. METHODS: A total of 424 older adults living in a city in Southern Brazil completed the WHOQOL-OLD instrument, in 2005. Rasch analysis was used to explore the psychometric performance of the scale, as implemented by the RUMM2020 software. Item-trait interaction, threshold disorders, presence of differential item functioning and item fit, were analyzed. RESULTS: Two ("death and dying" and "sensory abilities" out of six domains showed inadequate item-trait interactions. Rescoring the response scale and deleting the most misperforming items led to scale improvement. The evaluation of domains and items individually showed that the "intimacy" domain does perform well in contrast to the findings using the classical approach. In addition, the "sensory abilities" domain does not derive an interval measure in its current format. CONCLUSIONS: Unidimensionality and local independence were seen in all domains. Changes in the response scale and deletion of problematic items improved the scale's performance.OBJETIVO: Analisar a versão brasileira do Módulo WHOQOL-OLD, indicando alterações potenciais do instrumento para aumentar a adequação psicométrica. MÉTODOS: O total de 424 idosos residentes em Porto Alegre, RS, responderam o instrumento WHOQOL-OLD em 2005. O modelo de Rasch foi utilizado para a análise do desempenho psicométrico da escala, a partir do software RUMM2020. Foram analisadas a interação item-traço, a presença de funcionamento diferencial dos itens e a adequação dos itens ao modelo de Rasch. RESULTADOS: Dois domínios ("morte e morrer" e "funcionamento do sensório" apresentaram interação item-total insuficiente. Remodelar a escala de resposta e excluir itens com pior performance resultou em melhora da escala. A análise dos domínios e itens individualmente foi capaz de indicar

  20. Management of science policy, sociology of science policy and economics of science policy

    CERN Document Server

    Ruivo, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    'Management of science policy, sociology of science policy and economics of science policy' is a theoretical essay on the scientific foundation of science policy (formulation, implementation, instruments and procedures). It can be also used as a textbook.

  1. Improving Learning in a Traditional, Large-Scale Science Module with a Simple and Efficient Learning Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    the impact on teaching and learning in terms of how the teacher and the students used the materials and the impact on the students’ performance and satisfaction. The article concludes that replacing face-to-face lectures with webcasts and online activities has the potential to improve learning in terms...... of a better student performance, higher student satisfaction, and a higher degree of flexibility for the students. In addition, the article discusses implications of using learning design for educational development, how learning design may help breaking with the perception that facilitating blended learning...... is a daunting process, and, ultimately, its potential for addressing some of the grand challenges in science education and the political agenda of today....

  2. Nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, Jacky; Fabre, Rene.

    1981-01-01

    This article sums up the Research and Development effort at present being carried out in the five following fields of applications: Health physics and Radioprospection, Control of nuclear reactors, Plant control (preparation and reprocessing of the fuel, testing of nuclear substances, etc.), Research laboratory instrumentation, Detectors. It also sets the place of French industrial activities by means of an estimate of the French market, production and flow of trading with other countries [fr

  3. Divided Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, A.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Although the division of the zodiac into 360° probably derives from Egypt or Assyria around 2000 BC, there is no surviving evidence of Mesopotamian cultures embodying this division into a mathematical instrument. Almost certainly, however, it was from Babylonia that the Greek geometers learned of the 360° circle, and by c. 80 BC they had incorporated it into that remarkably elaborate device gener...

  4. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Areas being investigated for instrumentation improvement during low-level pollution monitoring include laser opto-acoustic spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, optical fluorescence spectroscopy, liquid crystal gas detectors, advanced forms of atomic absorption spectroscopy, electro-analytical chemistry, and mass spectroscopy. Emphasis is also directed toward development of physical methods, as opposed to conventional chemical analysis techniques for monitoring these trace amounts of pollution related to energy development and utilization

  5. Instrumentation maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, D.A.

    1976-09-01

    It is essential to any research activity that accurate and efficient measurements be made for the experimental parameters under consideration for each individual experiment or test. Satisfactory measurements in turn depend upon having the necessary instruments and the capability of ensuring that they are performing within their intended specifications. This latter requirement can only be achieved by providing an adequate maintenance facility, staffed with personnel competent to understand the problems associated with instrument adjustment and repair. The Instrument Repair Shop at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is designed to achieve this end. The organization, staffing and operation of this system is discussed. Maintenance policy should be based on studies of (1) preventive vs. catastrophic maintenance, (2) records indicating when equipment should be replaced rather than repaired and (3) priorities established to indicate the order in which equipment should be repaired. Upon establishing a workable maintenance policy, the staff should be instructed so that they may provide appropriate scheduled preventive maintenance, calibration and corrective procedures, and emergency repairs. The education, training and experience of the maintenance staff is discussed along with the organization for an efficient operation. The layout of the various repair shops is described in the light of laboratory space and financial constraints

  6. Science of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Santo; Bergstrom, Carl T; Börner, Katy; Evans, James A; Helbing, Dirk; Milojević, Staša; Petersen, Alexander M; Radicchi, Filippo; Sinatra, Roberta; Uzzi, Brian; Vespignani, Alessandro; Waltman, Ludo; Wang, Dashun; Barabási, Albert-László

    2018-03-02

    Identifying fundamental drivers of science and developing predictive models to capture its evolution are instrumental for the design of policies that can improve the scientific enterprise-for example, through enhanced career paths for scientists, better performance evaluation for organizations hosting research, discovery of novel effective funding vehicles, and even identification of promising regions along the scientific frontier. The science of science uses large-scale data on the production of science to search for universal and domain-specific patterns. Here, we review recent developments in this transdisciplinary field. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  7. Evaluation of instrumental parameters for obtaining acceptable analytical results of the Dosimetry Laboratory of Chemistry of the Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences, CNEN-NE, Recife, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, V.L.B.; Figueiredo, M.D.C.; Cunha, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Instrumental parameters need to be evaluated for obtaining acceptable analytical results for a specific instrument. The performance of the UV-VIS spectrophotometer can be verified for wavelengths and absorbances with appropriate materials (solutions of different concentrations of K 2 CrO 4 , for example). The aim of this work was to demonstrate the results of the procedures to control the quality of the measurements carried out in the laboratory in the last four years. The samples were analyzed in the spectrophotometer and control graphics were obtained for K 2 CrO 4 and Fe 3+ absorbance values. The variation in the results obtained for the stability of the spectrophotometer and for the control of its calibration did not exceed 2%. (author)

  8. Agriculture/Hydroaquaoponic Bioscience Sensor - Mobile App with Simulations and Software for Industry and Science Education Curriculum Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Yukech

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a lot of technological buzz over the past few years regarding taking care of lettuce and hydroponic greenhouse plants and fish. We first review and discuss the recent technologies in the field of hydroponics, especially the hydroponic sensor curriculum project. The College of Engineering at The University of Akron developed a sensor that can detect hydrology, ph, electrical conductivity, nutrient levels, and temperature of hydroponic plants and aquaponic systems. The sensor can optimize the healthy monitoring of plants and fish in greenhouses, homes, schools, and universities anywhere in the world. The goal is to provide sustainable monitoring for growing healthy greenhouse foods 24/7. In this paper, we propose a sustainable solution for optimizing plant growth by using computer simulations and smart phone applications for plant growers and fisheries to access data in real-time and provide guidance on how to manage healthy environments for plants, such as "electric conductivity is lower than the standard for the tomato, so please add 5ml of nutrients". The app will be extended to social media connection, which is enabled by the web access features, where the user can network with hydroponic and aquarium user groups to share information (how to grow a lettuce, ask questions (where can I buy seeds, and gaming for virtual fish and plant growing. The app can be used on a computer, a smart phone or a tablet and provides numerous features that currently need many separate apps, especially in emerging areas such as hydroponics and aquaponics. The data visualization component in the app can enhance the analysis of the variables and data collection. Using the app, plant growers can track results and grow better crops. The app also provides hands-on interactive simulations that connect to the national science standards, providing optimal use of nutrients by taking care of greenhouse plants and fish for hydroponics and aquaponics.

  9. Increasing Laser Stability with Improved Electronic Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Daylin; Bennett, Aaron; Erickson, Christopher J.; Jones, Tyler; Durfee, Dallin S.

    2010-03-01

    We present several electronic instruments developed to implement an ultra-stable laser lock. These instruments include a high speed, low noise homodyne photo-detector; an ultrahigh stability, low noise current driver with high modulation bandwidth and digital control; a high-speed, low noise PID controller; a low-noise piezo driver; and a laser diode temperature controller. We will present the theory of operation for these instruments, design and construction techniques, and essential characteristics for each device.

  10. The Optical Instrumentation of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Alexa, C; Alves, R; Amaral, P; Ananiev, A; Anderson, K; Andresen, X; Antonaki, A; Batusov, V; Bednar, P; Bergeaas, E; Biscarat, C; Blanch, O; Blanchot, G; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Bosi, F; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C; Budagov, Yu A; Calvet, D; Cardeira, C; Carli, T; Carvalho, J; Cascella, M; Castillo, M V; Costelo, J; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Cerqueira, A S; Clément, C; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Constantinescu, S; Costanzo, D; Da Silva, P; David, M; Davidek, T; Dawson, J; De, K; Del Prete, T; Diakov, E; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Dotti, A; Downing, R; Drake, G; Efthymiopoulos, I; Errede, D; Errede, S; Farbin, A; Fassouliotis, D; Feng, E; Fenyuk, A; Ferdi, C; Ferreira, B C; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, V; Flix, J; Francavilla, P; Fullana, E; Garde, V; Gellerstedt, K; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giangiobbe, V; Gildemeister, O; Gilewsky, V; Giokaris, N; Gollub, N; Gomes, A; González, V; Gouveia, J; Grenier, P; Gris, P; Guarino, V; Guicheney, C; Sen-Gupta, A; Hakobyan, H; Haney, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Higón, E; Hill, N; Holmgren, S; Hruska, I; Hurwitz, M; Huston, J; Jen-La Plante, I; Jon-And, K; Junk, T; Karyukhin, A; Khubua, J; Klereborn, J; Konsnantinov, V; Kopikov, S; Korolkov, I; Krivkova, P; Kulchitsky, Y; Kurochkin, Yu; Kuzhir, P; Lapin, V; Le Compte, T; Lefèvre, R; Leitner, R; Li, J; Liablin, M; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Y; Lourtie, P; Lovas, L; Lupi, A; Maidantchik, C; Maio, A; Maliukov, S; Manousakis, A; Marques, C; Marroquim, F; Martin, F; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Myagkov, A; Miller, R; Minashvili, I; Miralles, L; Montarou, G; Némécek, S; Nessi, M; Nikitine, I; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Onofre, A; Oreglia, M; Palan, B; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Pereira, A; Pilcher, J E; Pina, J; Pinhão, J; Pod, E; Podlyski, F; Portell, X; Poveda, J; Pribyl, L; Price, L E; Proudfoot, J; Ramalho, M; Ramstedt, M; Raposeiro, L; Reis, J; Richards, R; Roda, C; Romanov, V; Rosnet, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Rumiantsau, V; Russakovich, N; Sada Costa, J; Salto, O; Salvachúa, B; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santos, J; Saraiva, J G; Sarri, F; Says, L P; Schlager, G; Schlereth, J L; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Shalanda, N; Shevtsov, P; Shochet, M; Silva, J; Simaitis, V; Simonyan, M; Sisakian, A; Sjölin, J; Solans, C; Solodkov, A; Solovyanov, O; Sosebee, M; Spanó, F; Speckmeyer, P; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E; Starovoitov, P; Suk, M; Sykora, I; Tang, F; Tas, P; Teuscher, R; Tischenko, M; Tokar, S; Topilin, N; Torres, J; Underwood, D; Usai, G; Valero, A; Valkár, S; Valls, J A; Vartapetian, A; Vazielle, F; Vellidis, C; Ventura, F; Vichou, I; Vivarelli, I; Volpi, M; White, A; Zaitsev, A; Zaytsev, Yu; Zenin, A; Zenis, T; Zenonos, Z; Zenz, S; Zilka, B

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this Note is to describe the optical assembly procedure called here Optical Instrumentation and the quality tests conducted on the assembled units. Altogether, 65 Barrel (or LB) modules were constructed - including one spare - together with 129 Extended Barrel (EB) modules (including one spare). The LB modules were mechanically assembled at JINR (Dubna, Russia) and transported to CERN, where the optical instrumentation was performed with personnel contributed by several Institutes. The modules composing one of the two Extended Barrels (known as EBA) were mechanically assembled in the USA, and instrumented in two US locations (ANL, U. of Michigan), while the modules of the other Extended barrel (EBC) were assembled in Spain and instrumented at IFAE (Barcelona). Each of the EB modules includes a subassembly known as ITC that contributes to the hermeticity of the calorimeter; all ITCs were assembled at UTA (Texas), and mounted onto the module mechanical structures at the EB mechanical assembly loc...

  11. A Modular Instrumentation System for NASA's Habitat Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Kennedy, Kriss; Yim, Hester; Wagner, Raymond S.; Hong, Todd; Studor, George; Delaune, Paul

    2010-01-01

    NASA's human spaceflight program is focused on developing technologies to expand the reaches of human exploration and science activities beyond low earth orbit. A critical aspect of living in space or on planetary surfaces is habitation, which provides a safe and comfortable space in which humans can live and work. NASA is seeking out the best option for habitation by exploring several different concepts through the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) project. The purpose of this HDU is to develop a fully autonomous habitation system that enables human exploration of space. One critical feature of the HDU project that helps to accomplish its mission of autonomy is the instrumentation system that monitors key subsystems operating within a Habitat configuration. The following paper will discuss previous instrumentation systems used in analog habitat concepts and how the current instrumentation system being implemented on the HDU1-PEM, or pressurized excursion module, is building upon the lessons learned of those previous systems. Additionally, this paper will discuss the benefits and the limitations of implementing a wireless sensor network (WSN) as the basis for data transport in the instrumentation system. Finally, this paper will address the experiences and lessons learned with integration, testing prior to deployment, and field testing at the JSC rock yard. NASA is developing the HDU1-PEM as a step towards a fully autonomous habitation system that enables human exploration of space. To accomplish this purpose, the HDU project is focusing on development, integration, testing, and evaluation of habitation systems. The HDU will be used as a technology pull, testbed, and integration environment in which to advance NASA's understanding of alternative mission architectures, requirements, and operations concepts definition and validation. This project is a multi-year effort. In 2010, the HDU1-PEM will be in a pressurized excursion module configuration, and in 2011 the

  12. Instruments to assess integrated care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anne Marie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Høst, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although several measurement instruments have been developed to measure the level of integrated health care delivery, no standardised, validated instrument exists covering all aspects of integrated care. The purpose of this review is to identify the instruments concerning how to mea...... was prevalent. It is uncertain whether development of a single 'all-inclusive' model for assessing integrated care is desirable. We emphasise the continuing need for validated instruments embedded in theoretical contexts.......INTRODUCTION: Although several measurement instruments have been developed to measure the level of integrated health care delivery, no standardised, validated instrument exists covering all aspects of integrated care. The purpose of this review is to identify the instruments concerning how...... to measure the level of integration across health-care sectors and to assess and evaluate the organisational elements within the instruments identified. METHODS: An extensive, systematic literature review in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science for the years 1980-2011. Selected...

  13. An Investigation of Secure Remote Instrument Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schissel, D.; Abla, G.; Penaflor, B. [General Atomics, San Diego (United States); Ciarlette, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This paper examines the computer science issues associated with secure remote instrumentation control for magnetic fusion experiments. Computer science research into enhancing the ability to scientifically participate in a fusion experiment remotely has been growing in size in an attempt to better address the needs of fusion scientists worldwide. The natural progression of this research is to examine how to move from remote scientific participation to remote hardware control. The vision is to define a gatekeeper software system that will be the only channel of interaction for incoming requests to the experimental site. The role of the gatekeeper is to validate the identification and access privilege of the requester and to insure the validity of the proposed request. The vision for the gatekeeper is that it be a modular system that is simple in design and defined in a way that makes its implementation and operation transparent and obvious. The architecture of the module interface is flexible enough that it can easily allow the future addition of new modules. At the same time, it should be transparent to end-users and allow a high volume of activity so as to not provide a work bottleneck. Appropriate security requires the ability to verify identity (authentication), verify access control (authorization), and validate the appropriateness of requests. The validation process can include provenance and semantic methodologies. The results of the gatekeeper design and initial prototype testing will be presented as well as a discussion on the implication of this research on the operation of fusion experimental machines such as ITER. (authors)

  14. Scientific Instruments and Epistemology Engines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2012), s. 529-540 ISSN 1210-0250 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/11/2338 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : material culture of science * scientific instruments * epistemology engines * experimental systems Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  15. Increasing Robotic Science Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The principal objectives are to demonstrate robotic-based scientific investigations and resource prospecting, and develop and demonstrate modular science instrument...

  16. Seismic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The aim of this RFS is to define the type, location and operating conditions for seismic instrumentation needed to determine promptly the seismic response of nuclear power plants features important to safety to permit comparison of such response with that used as the design basis

  17. Meteorological instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    RFS or ''Regles Fondamentales de Surete'' (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety , while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the ''Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires'' or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The purpose of this RFS is to specify the meteorological instrumentation required at the site of each nuclear power plant equipped with at least one pressurized water reactor

  18. Spacelab Science Results Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, R. J.; Lundquist, C. A.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Horwitz, J. L.; Germany, G. A.; Cruise, J. F.; Lewis, M. L.; Murphy, K. L.

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with OSTA-1 in November 1981 and ending with Neurolab in March 1998, a total of 36 Shuttle missions carried various Spacelab components such as the Spacelab module, pallet, instrument pointing system, or mission peculiar experiment support structure. The experiments carried out during these flights included astrophysics, solar physics, plasma physics, atmospheric science, Earth observations, and a wide range of microgravity experiments in life sciences, biotechnology, materials science, and fluid physics which includes combustion and critical point phenomena. In all, some 764 experiments were conducted by investigators from the U.S., Europe, and Japan. The purpose of this Spacelab Science Results Study is to document the contributions made in each of the major research areas by giving a brief synopsis of the more significant experiments and an extensive list of the publications that were produced. We have also endeavored to show how these results impacted the existing body of knowledge, where they have spawned new fields, and if appropriate, where the knowledge they produced has been applied.

  19. Combined Raman/Infrared Reflectance Instrument for In Situ Mineral Analysis, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Science Instruments, Observatories, and Sensor Systems Roadmap calls for instruments capable of in situ mineralogical analysis in support of planetary...

  20. Radiological instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Seibentritt, C.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An instrument is described for measuring radiation, particularly nuclear radiation, comprising: a radiation sensitive structure pivoted toward one end and including a pair of elongated solid members contiguously joined together along their length dimensions and having a common planar interface therebetween. One of the pairs of members is comprised of radiochromic material whose index of refraction changes due to anomolous dispersion as a result of being exposed to nuclear radiation. The pair of members further has mutually different indices of refraction with the member having the larger index of refraction further being transparent for the passage of light and of energy therethrough; means located toward the other end of the structure for varying the angle of longitudinal elevation of the pair of members; means for generating and projecting a beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction. The beam of light is projected toward the planar interface where it is reflected out of the other end of the same member as a first output beam; means projecting a portion of the beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction where it traverses therethrough without reflection and out of the other end of the same member as a second output beam; and means adjacent the structure for receiving the first and second output beams, whereby a calibrated change in the angle of elevation of the structure between positions of equal intensity of the first and second output beams prior to and following exposure provides a measure of the radiation sensed due to a change of refraction of the radiochromic material

  1. Earth, soil and environmental science research facility at sector 13 of the Advanced Photon Source. II. Scientific program and experimental instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, S.; Eng., P.J.; Jaski, Y.R.; Lazaraz, N.; Pluth, J.; Murray, P.; Rarback, H.; Rivers, M. [CARS, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The GSECARS (APS sector 13) scientific program will provide fundamental new information on the deep structure and composition of the Earth and other planets, the formation of economic mineral deposits, the cycles and fate of toxic metals in the environment, and the mechanisms of nutrient uptake and disease in plants. In the four experimental stations (2 per beamline), scientists will have access to three main x-ray techniques: diffraction (microcrystal, powder, diamond anvil cell, and large volume press), fluorescence microprobe, and spectroscopy (conventional, microbeam, liquid and solid surfaces). The high pressure facilities will be capable of x-ray crystallography at P{approx_gt}360 GPa and T{approximately}6000 K with the diamond anvil cell and P{approximately}25 GPa and T{approximately}2500{degree}C with the large volume press. Diffractometers will allow study of 1 micrometer crystals and micro-powders. The microprobe (1 micrometer focused beam) will be capable of chemical analyses in the sub-ppm range using wavelength and energy dispersive detectors. Spectroscopy instrumentation will be available for XANES and EXAFS with microbeams as well as high sensitivity conventional XAS and studies of liquid and solid interfaces. Visiting scientists will be able to setup, calibrate, and test experiments in off-line laboratories with equipment such as micromanipulators, optical microscopes, clean bench, glove boxes, high powered optical and Raman spectrometers. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Utilizing Multifaceted Rasch Measurement through Facets to Evaluate Science Education Data Sets Composed of Judges, Respondents, and Rating Scale Items: An Exemplar Utilizing the Elementary Science Teaching Analysis Matrix Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, William J.; Townsend, J. Scott; Staver, John R.

    2016-01-01

    When collecting data, science education researchers frequently have multiple respondents evaluate multiple artifacts using multiple criteria. Herein, the authors introduce Multifaceted Rasch Measurement (MFRM) analysis and explain why MFRM must be used when "judges'" data are collected. The authors use data from elementary science…

  3. A Thermal Imaging Instrument with Uncooled Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposed work, we will perform an instrument concept study for sustainable thermal imaging over land with uncooled detectors. We will define the science and...

  4. LOFT instrumented fuel design and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    A summary description of the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) system instrumented core construction details and operating experience through reactor startup and loss-of-coolant experiment (LOCE) operations performed to date are discussed. The discussion includes details of the test instrumentation attachment to the fuel assembly, the structural response of the fuel modules to the forces generated by a double-ended break of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) coolant pipe at the inlet to the reactor vessel, the durability of the LOFT fuel and test instrumentation, and the plans for incorporation of improved fuel assembly test instrumentation features in the LOFT core

  5. The QUIET Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, C.; et al.

    2012-07-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ({approx}1{sup o}). Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2}) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0:1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2} at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0:01. The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range {ell} {approx} 25 -- 975. These are the largest HEMT-based arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument.

  6. Project TIMS (Teaching Integrated Math/Science)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Leo, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this project is to increase the scientific knowledge and appreciation bases and skills of pre-service and in-service middle school teachers, so as to impact positively on teaching, learning, and student retention. This report lists the objectives and summarizes the progress thus far. Included is the working draft of the TIMS (Teaching Integrated Math/Science) curriculum outline. Seven of the eight instructional subject-oriented modules are also included. The modules include informative materials and corresponding questions and educational activities in a textbook format. The subjects included here are the universe and stars; the sun and its place in the universe; our solar system; astronomical instruments and scientific measurements; the moon and eclipses; the earth's atmosphere: its nature and composition; and the earth: directions, time, and seasons. The module not included regards winds and circulation.

  7. TFTR CAMAC instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Gatto, H.J.; Bradish, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The TFTR Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) system makes extensive use of CAMAC equipment. The system consists of eight CAMAC highways operating from eight Gould 75/32 computers. Links up to 3.5 miles in length with more than fifty CAMAC crates have been implemented and are currently in use. Data transfer along the highway is implemented in bit serial format. The link speed is run at 5MHz. The length and complexity of the link requires the reformatting of the NRZ input/output format of the L-2 crate controller. U-Port adapter modules are used to interface the modified serial highway to the L-2 controllers. The modified serial highway uses a transmission technique that requires the distribution of both Bi-Phase encoded data and a 5MHz clock. The Serial Driver interfaces to the GOULD computer through use of a High Speed Data (HSD) interface board which attaches to the computers internal bus. All transfers to and from the computer are accomplished by direct memory access (DMA). In addition to the standard CAMAC link the system also includes a Block Transfer (BT) system. This system provides an alternate path for transferring data between the computers and the CAMAC modules. The BT system is interfaced to the host computers through HSD boards and to the CAMAC crates through use of an auxiliary crate controllers

  8. Instruments and accessories for neutron scattering research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshinobu; Morii, Yukio

    2000-04-01

    This report describes neutron scattering instruments and accessories installed by four neutron scattering research groups at the ASRC (Advanced Science Research Center) of the JAERI and the recent topics of neutron scattering research using these instruments. The specifications of nine instruments (HRPD, BIX-I, TAS-1 and PNO in the reactor hall, RESA, BIX-II, TAS-2, LTAS and SANS-J in the guide hall of the JRR-3M) are summarized in this booklet. (author)

  9. IAEA programme on maintenance of nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuister, P.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Medical Applications Section in the Division of Life Sciences of the International Atomic Energy Agency has been engaged since 1975 in activities aimed at the more effective use of nuclear instruments. Activities and achievements are described concerning the conditioning of laboratories, preventive maintenance and repair of instruments, the management thereof, space parts and the promotion of local training in these subjects. (author)

  10. Neutron beam instruments at Harwell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baston, A.H.; Harris, D.H.C.

    1978-11-01

    A list and brief descriptions are given of the neutron beam facilities for U.K. scientists at Harwell and in academic institutions, available under an agreement between the Science Research Council and AERE (Harwell). The list falls under the following headings: reactor instruments (single crystal diffractometers, powder diffractometers, triple axis spectrometers, time-of-flight cold neutron twin rotor spectrometer, beryllium filter spectrometer, MARX spectrometer, Harwell small-angle scattering spectrometer); LINAC instruments (total scattering spectrometer, back scattering spectrometer, active sample spectrometer, inelastic rotor spectrometer, constant Q spectrometer); ancillary equipment (cryostats, superconducting magnets, electromagnets, furnaces). (U.K.)

  11. Teaching calculus using module based on cooperative learning strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbin, Norazman; Ghani, Sazelli Abdul; Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the research is to evaluate the effectiveness of a module which utilizes the cooperative learning for teaching Calculus for limit, derivative and integral. The sample consists of 50 semester 1 students from the Science Programme (AT 16) Sultan Idris Education University. A set of questions of related topics (pre and post) has been used as an instrument to collect data. The data is analyzed using inferential statistics involving the paired sample t-test and the independent t-test. The result shows that students have positive inclination towards the modulein terms of understanding.

  12. Recent advances in radiation protection instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, D.A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation protection instrumentation plays very important role in radiation protection and surveillance programme. Radiation detector, which appears at the frontal end of the instrument, is an essential component of these instruments. The instrumental requirement of protection level radiation monitoring is different from conventional radiation measuring instruments. Present paper discusses the new type of nuclear radiation detectors, new protection level instruments and associated electronic modules for various applications. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, such as nuclear power plants; mining and milling; medical institutions; educational and research establishments; and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection to workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radioactive materials for different applications. The radiation exposures to the individual radiation workers and records of their cumulative radiation doses need to be routinely monitored and recorded

  13. The Instrumentation Program for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Simard, Luc; Crampton, David; Ellerbroek, Brent; Boyer, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the current status of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) instrumentation program is presented. Science cases and operational concepts as well as their links to the instruments are continually revisited and updated through a series of workshops and conferences. Work on the three first-light instruments (WFOS IRIS, and IRMS) has made significant progress, and many groups in TMT partner communities are developing future instrument concepts. Other instrument-related subsystems are al...

  14. The Kepler Science Data Processing Pipeline Source Code Road Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohler, Bill; Jenkins, Jon M.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Clarke, Bruce Donald; Middour, Christopher K.; Quintana, Elisa Victoria; Sanderfer, Jesse Thomas; Uddin, Akm Kamal; Sabale, Anima; hide

    2016-01-01

    We give an overview of the operational concepts and architecture of the Kepler Science Processing Pipeline. Designed, developed, operated, and maintained by the Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) at NASA Ames Research Center, the Science Processing Pipeline is a central element of the Kepler Ground Data System. The SOC consists of an office at Ames Research Center, software development and operations departments, and a data center which hosts the computers required to perform data analysis. The SOC's charter is to analyze stellar photometric data from the Kepler spacecraft and report results to the Kepler Science Office for further analysis. We describe how this is accomplished via the Kepler Science Processing Pipeline, including, the software algorithms. We present the high-performance, parallel computing software modules of the pipeline that perform transit photometry, pixel-level calibration, systematic error correction, attitude determination, stellar target management, and instrument characterization.

  15. 2D/3D-project, calibration of the UPTF tieplate flow module with 'advanced instrumentation' and investigation of the function from the CORE simulator feedback control system with break-thru-detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, U.; Paul, J.; Schorsch, R.; Werner, K.D.; Liebert, J.; Emmerling, R.; Hertlein, R.

    1986-01-01

    Instruments of the Advanced Instrumentation for the use in UPTF-Mannheim were calibrated with single-phase and two-phase flow. An algorithm based on the physics was developed which identifies the flow regimes in UPTF and permits to calculate the local water- and steam mass flow rates through the tie plate with good accuracy. The feedback-control-system was examined with original components of UPTF. The control-system reacts to the break-through-detector-signal sufficiently fast and without oscillations. With 5 refs., 5 tabs., 91 figs [de

  16. Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, William W [Pittsburg, CA; Labov, Simon E [Berkeley, CA

    2011-06-14

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  17. Digital instrumentation system for nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghina, Mauricio A.C.; Carvalho, Paulo Vitor R.

    2002-01-01

    This work describes a proposal for a system of nuclear instrumentation and safety totally digital for the Argonauta Reactor. The system divides in the subsystems: channel of pulses, channel of current, conventional instrumentation and safety system. The connection of the subsystems is made through redundant double local net, using the protocol modbus/rtu. So much the channel of pulses, the current channel and safety's system use modules operating in triple redundancy. (author)

  18. Introduction to instrumentation and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Northrop, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Weighing in on the growth of innovative technologies, the adoption of new standards, and the lack of educational development as it relates to current and emerging applications, the third edition of Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements uses the authors' 40 years of teaching experience to expound on the theory, science, and art of modern instrumentation and measurements (I&M). What's New in This Edition: This edition includes material on modern integrated circuit (IC) and photonic sensors, micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) and nano-electro-mechanical (NEM) sensors, chemical and radiation sensors, signal conditioning, noise, data interfaces, and basic digital signal processing (DSP), and upgrades every chapter with the latest advancements. It contains new material on the designs of micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) sensors, adds two new chapters on wireless instrumentation and microsensors, and incorporates extensive biomedical examples and problems. Containing 13 chapters, this third edition: Describ...

  19. Soil analysis. Modern instrumental technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book covers traditional methods of analysis and specialist monographs on individual instrumental techniques, which are usually not written with soil or plant analysis specifically in mind. The principles of the techniques are combined with discussions of sample preparation and matrix problems, and critical reviews of applications in soil science and related disciplines. Individual chapters are processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  20. Evaluating musical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-01-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians

  1. Instrumental traditions and theories of light the uses of instruments in the optical revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiang

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of the optical revolution in the context of early 19th century Britain. Far from merely involving the replacement of one optical theory by another, the revolution also involved substantial changes in instruments and the practices that surrounded them. People's judgements about classification, explanation and evaluation were affected by the way they used such optical instruments as spectroscopes, telescopes, polarisers, photometers, gratings, prisms and apertures. There were two instrumental traditions in this historical period, each of which nurtured a body of practice that exemplified how optical instruments should be operated, and especially how the eye should be used. These traditions functioned just like paradigms, shaping perspectives and even world views. Readership: Scholars and graduate students in the history of science, history of instrument, philosophy of science and science studies. Can also be used as a textbook in graduate courses on 19th century physics.

  2. CARMENES instrument control system and operational scheduler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro; Guàrdia, Josep; Colomé, Josep; Ribas, Ignasi; Gesa, Lluis; Morales, Juan Carlos; Pérez-Calpena, Ana; Seifert, Walter; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Amado, Pedro J.; Caballero, José A.; Reiners, Ansgar

    2014-07-01

    The main goal of the CARMENES instrument is to perform high-accuracy measurements of stellar radial velocities (1m/s) with long-term stability. CARMENES will be installed in 2015 at the 3.5 m telescope in the Calar Alto Observatory (Spain) and it will be equipped with two spectrographs covering from the visible to the near-infrared. It will make use of its near-IR capabilities to observe late-type stars, whose peak of the spectral energy distribution falls in the relevant wavelength interval. The technology needed to develop this instrument represents a challenge at all levels. We present two software packages that play a key role in the control layer for an efficient operation of the instrument: the Instrument Control System (ICS) and the Operational Scheduler. The coordination and management of CARMENES is handled by the ICS, which is responsible for carrying out the operations of the different subsystems providing a tool to operate the instrument in an integrated manner from low to high user interaction level. The ICS interacts with the following subsystems: the near-IR and visible channels, composed by the detectors and exposure meters; the calibration units; the environment sensors; the front-end electronics; the acquisition and guiding module; the interfaces with telescope and dome; and, finally, the software subsystems for operational scheduling of tasks, data processing, and data archiving. We describe the ICS software design, which implements the CARMENES operational design and is planned to be integrated in the instrument by the end of 2014. The CARMENES operational scheduler is the second key element in the control layer described in this contribution. It is the main actor in the translation of the survey strategy into a detailed schedule for the achievement of the optimization goals. The scheduler is based on Artificial Intelligence techniques and computes the survey planning by combining the static constraints that are known a priori (i.e., target

  3. Research and realization of signal simulation on virtual instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; He, Wenting; Guan, Xiumei

    2010-02-01

    In the engineering project, arbitrary waveform generator controlled by software interface is needed by simulation and test. This article discussed the program using the SCPI (Standard Commands For Programmable Instruments) protocol and the VISA (Virtual Instrument System Architecture) library to control the Agilent signal generator (Agilent N5182A) by instrument communication over the LAN interface. The program can conduct several signal generations such as CW (continuous wave), AM (amplitude modulation), FM (frequency modulation), ΦM (phase modulation), Sweep. As the result, the program system has good operability and portability.

  4. Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photinos, Panos

    2017-12-01

    'Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment' offers a basic understanding of sound, musical instruments and music equipment, geared towards a general audience and non-science majors. The book begins with an introduction of the fundamental properties of sound waves, and the perception of the characteristics of sound. The relation between intensity and loudness, and the relation between frequency and pitch are discussed. The basics of propagation of sound waves, and the interaction of sound waves with objects and structures of various sizes are introduced. Standing waves, harmonics and resonance are explained in simple terms, using graphics that provide a visual understanding. The development is focused on musical instruments and acoustics. The construction of musical scales and the frequency relations are reviewed and applied in the description of musical instruments. The frequency spectrum of selected instruments is explored using freely available sound analysis software. Sound amplification and sound recording, including analog and digital approaches, are discussed in two separate chapters. The book concludes with a chapter on acoustics, the physical factors that affect the quality of the music experience, and practical ways to improve the acoustics at home or small recording studios. A brief technical section is provided at the end of each chapter, where the interested reader can find the relevant physics and sample calculations. These quantitative sections can be skipped without affecting the comprehension of the basic material. Questions are provided to test the reader's understanding of the material. Answers are given in the appendix.

  5. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  6. Health physics instrument manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupton, E.D.

    1978-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide apprentice health physics surveyors and other operating groups not directly concerned with radiation detection instruments a working knowledge of the radiation detection and measuring instruments in use at the Laboratory. The characteristics and applications of the instruments are given. Portable instruments, stationary instruments, personnel monitoring instruments, sample counters, and miscellaneous instruments are described. Also, information sheets on calibration sources, procedures, and devices are included. Gamma sources, beta sources, alpha sources, neutron sources, special sources, a gamma calibration device for badge dosimeters, and a calibration device for ionization chambers are described

  7. Astronomical Instruments in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  8. Instrumental Landing Using Audio Indication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlak, E. A.; Nabatchikov, A. M.; Korsun, O. N.

    2018-02-01

    The paper proposes an audio indication method for presenting to a pilot the information regarding the relative positions of an aircraft in the tasks of precision piloting. The implementation of the method is presented, the use of such parameters of audio signal as loudness, frequency and modulation are discussed. To confirm the operability of the audio indication channel the experiments using modern aircraft simulation facility were carried out. The simulated performed the instrument landing using the proposed audio method to indicate the aircraft deviations in relation to the slide path. The results proved compatible with the simulated instrumental landings using the traditional glidescope pointers. It inspires to develop the method in order to solve other precision piloting tasks.

  9. Digital readout alpha survey instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.E.

    1976-01-01

    A prototype solid-state digital readout alpha particle survey instrument has been designed and constructed. The meter incorporates a Ludlum alpha scintillator as a detector, digital logic circuits for control and timing, and a Digilin counting module with reflective liquid crystal display. The device is used to monitor alpha radiation from a surface. Sample counts are totalized over 10-second intervals and displayed digitally in counts per minute up to 19,999. Tests over source samples with counts to 15,600 cpm have shown the device to be rapid, versatile and accurate. The instrument can be fabricated in one man-week and requires about $835 in material costs. A complete set of drawings is included

  10. Troubleshooting in nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This report on troubleshooting of nuclear instruments is the product of several scientists and engineers, who are closely associated with nuclear instrumentation and with the IAEA activities in the field. The text covers the following topics: Preamplifiers, amplifiers, scalers, timers, ratemeters, multichannel analyzers, dedicated instruments, tools, instruments, accessories, components, skills, interfaces, power supplies, preventive maintenance, troubleshooting in systems, radiation detectors. The troubleshooting and repair of instruments is illustrated by some real examples

  11. Static feed water electrolysis module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Jensen, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced static feed water electrolysis module (SFWEM) and associated instrumentation for generating breathable O2 was developed. The system also generates a H2 byproduct for use in an air revitalization system for O2 recovery from metabolic CO2. Special attention was given to: (1) eliminating water feed compartment degassing, (2) eliminating need for zero gravity condenser/separators, (3) increasing current density capability, and (4) providing a self contained module so that operation is independent of laboratory instrumentation and complicated startup/shutdown procedures.

  12. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    can empower performers by producing super instrument works that allow the concert instrument to become an ensemble controlled by a single player. The existing instrumental skills of the performer can be multiplied and the qualities of regular acoustic instruments extended or modified. Such a situation......The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...... have become interested in different ways of “supersizing” acoustic instruments in order to open up previously-unheard instrumental sounds. Super instruments vary a great deal but each has a transformative effect on the identity and performance practice of the performing musician. Furthermore, composers...

  13. Education and training in the field of nuclear instrumentation and measurement: CEA/INSTN (National Institute for Nuclear Sciences and Technologies) strategy to improve and develop new pedagogical tools and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitart, Xavier; Foulon, Francois; Bodineau, Jean Christophe; Lescop, Bernard; Massiot, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Part of the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the National Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology (INSTN) is a higher education institution whose mission is to provide students and professionals a high level of scientific and technological qualification in all disciplines related to nuclear energy applications. In this frame, INSTN carries out education and training (E and T) programs in nuclear instrumentation and radioprotection. Its strategy has always been to complete theoretical courses by training courses and laboratory works carried out on an extensive range of training tools that includes a large panel of nuclear instrumentation as well as software applications. Since its creation in 1956, the INSTN has conducted both education and vocational programs on ionizing radiation detection. An extensive range of techniques have commonly been used during practical works with students and employees of companies who need to get the knowledge and specialization in this field. Today, the INSTN is mainly equipped with usual detectors and electronics in large numbers in order to be able to accommodate up to 48 trainees at the same time in two classrooms, with only two trainees for one workstation in order to optimize their learning. In the field of the neutron detection systems, the INSTN has strongly developed its offer taking advantage of the use of research reactors, such as ISIS reactor (700 kW) at Saclay. The implementation of neutron detection systems specific to the courses offers a unique way of observing and analysing the signal coming from neutron detectors, as well as learning how to set the parameters of the detection system in real conditions. Providing the trainees with an extensive overview of each part of the neutron monitoring instrumentation apply to a nuclear reactor, hands-on measurements on the ISIS reactor play a major role in ensuring a practical and comprehensive understanding of the neutron detection system and

  14. Education and training in the field of nuclear instrumentation and measurement: CEA/INSTN (National Institute for Nuclear Sciences and Technologies) strategy to improve and develop new pedagogical tools and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitart, Xavier; Foulon, Francois; Bodineau, Jean Christophe; Lescop, Bernard; Massiot, Philippe [CEA/INSTN Centre des Saclay 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2015-07-01

    Part of the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the National Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology (INSTN) is a higher education institution whose mission is to provide students and professionals a high level of scientific and technological qualification in all disciplines related to nuclear energy applications. In this frame, INSTN carries out education and training (E and T) programs in nuclear instrumentation and radioprotection. Its strategy has always been to complete theoretical courses by training courses and laboratory works carried out on an extensive range of training tools that includes a large panel of nuclear instrumentation as well as software applications. Since its creation in 1956, the INSTN has conducted both education and vocational programs on ionizing radiation detection. An extensive range of techniques have commonly been used during practical works with students and employees of companies who need to get the knowledge and specialization in this field. Today, the INSTN is mainly equipped with usual detectors and electronics in large numbers in order to be able to accommodate up to 48 trainees at the same time in two classrooms, with only two trainees for one workstation in order to optimize their learning. In the field of the neutron detection systems, the INSTN has strongly developed its offer taking advantage of the use of research reactors, such as ISIS reactor (700 kW) at Saclay. The implementation of neutron detection systems specific to the courses offers a unique way of observing and analysing the signal coming from neutron detectors, as well as learning how to set the parameters of the detection system in real conditions. Providing the trainees with an extensive overview of each part of the neutron monitoring instrumentation apply to a nuclear reactor, hands-on measurements on the ISIS reactor play a major role in ensuring a practical and comprehensive understanding of the neutron detection system and

  15. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  16. Nuclear reactor instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncombe, E.; McGonigal, G.

    1975-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor is described which has an equal number of fuel sub-assemblies and sensing instruments. Each instrument senses temperature and rate of coolant flow of a coolant derived from a group of three sub-assemblies so that an abnormal value for one sub-assembly will be indicated on three instruments thereby providing for redundancy of up to two of the three instruments. The abnormal value may be a precurser to unstable boiling of coolant

  17. Design requirements for the SWIFT instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahnama, P; McDade, I; Shepherd, G; Gault, W

    2013-01-01

    The Stratospheric Wind Interferometer for Transport studies (SWIFT) instrument is a proposed limb-viewing satellite instrument that employs the method of Doppler Michelson interferometry to measure stratospheric wind velocities and ozone densities in the altitude range of 15–45 km. The values of the main instrument parameters including filter system parameters and Michelson interferometer parameters are derived using simulations and analyses. The system design requirements for the instrument and spacecraft are presented and discussed. Some of the retrieval-imposed design requirements are also discussed. Critical design issues are identified. The design optimization process is described. The sensitivity of wind measurements to instrument characteristics is investigated including the impact on critical design issues. Using sensitivity analyses, the instrument parameters were iteratively optimized in order to meet the science objectives. It is shown that wind measurements are sensitive to the thermal sensitivity of the instrument components, especially the narrow filter and the Michelson interferometer. The optimized values of the main system parameters including Michelson interferometer optical path difference, instrument visibility, instrument responsivity and knowledge of spacecraft velocity are reported. This work also shows that the filter thermal drift and the Michelson thermal drift are two main technical risks. (paper)

  18. Monte Carlo simulations of neutron scattering instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aestrand, Per-Olof; Copenhagen Univ.; Lefmann, K.; Nielsen, K.

    2001-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation is an important computational tool used in many areas of science and engineering. The use of Monte Carlo techniques for simulating neutron scattering instruments is discussed. The basic ideas, techniques and approximations are presented. Since the construction of a neutron scattering instrument is very expensive, Monte Carlo software used for design of instruments have to be validated and tested extensively. The McStas software was designed with these aspects in mind and some of the basic principles of the McStas software will be discussed. Finally, some future prospects are discussed for using Monte Carlo simulations in optimizing neutron scattering experiments. (R.P.)

  19. Aeroacoustics of Musical Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabre, B.; Gilbert, J.; Hirschberg, Abraham; Pelorson, X.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in the quality of sound produced by musical instruments and their playability. In wind instruments, a hydrodynamic source of sound is coupled to an acoustic resonator. Linear acoustics can predict the pitch of an instrument. This can significantly reduce the trial-and-error process

  20. Space Experiment Module (SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodell, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

  1. Status of safeguards instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higinbotham, W.A.

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is performing safeguards at some nuclear power reactors, 50 bulk processing facilities, and 170 research facilities. Its verification activities require the use of instruments to measure nuclear materials and of surveillance instruments to maintain continuity of knowledge of the locations of nuclear materials. Instruments that are in use and under development to measure weight, volume, concentration, and isotopic composition of nuclear materials, and the major surveillance instruments, are described in connection with their uses at representative nuclear facilities. The current status of safeguards instrumentation and the needs for future development are discussed

  2. Continuous measurements on a modulating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gariod, R.; Tournier, E.

    1963-01-01

    We have developed a number of measuring and testing instruments for which interesting characteristics have been obtained through modulation. In this paper, we would like to emphasize the interest of using the synchronous demodulation when a previous modulation has been used in the device. We give the fundamentals of some embodiments applied to nuclear and physical parameters measurements. (authors) [fr

  3. The ENVISAT Atmospheric Chemistry mission (GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY) -Instrument status and mission evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehn, Angelika

    The ENVISAT ESA's satellite was launched on a polar orbit on March 2002. It carries on-board three atmospheric chemistry instruments: GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY [1]. At the present time, although the mission expected lifetime of 5 years has been already exceeded, all the payload modules are in good to excellent status. The only limiting factor is the available fuel that is used for orbit control manoeuvre. A new strategy was proposed [2] that will allow to save fuel and to extend the mission up to 2013. Following this strategy, the altitude of the orbit will be lowered by 17 km starting from end of 2010 and the inclination will be allowed to drift. The new orbit scenario will result in a new repeating cycle with a variation of the Mean Local Solar Time (MLST). This will have an impact on both the in-flight operations, on the science data and on the mission. The simulations carried out for the atmospheric chemistry instruments show that the new orbit strategy will neither have a significant impact in the instrument operations nor on the quality of the science data. Therefore we expect that the atmospheric mission will continue nominally until the end of the platform life time, providing to the scientist a unique dataset of the most important geophysical parameters (e.g., trace gases, clouds, and aerosol) spanning a time interval of about 11 years. The aim of this paper is to review the overall ENVISAT atmospheric mission status for the past, present and future. The evolution of the instrument performances since launch will be analyzed with focus on the life-limited items monitoring. The tuning of the instrument in-flight operations decided to cope with instrument degradation or scientific needs will be described. The lessons learned on how to operate and monitor the instruments will be highlighted. Finally the expected evolution of the instrument performances until the ENVISAT end-of-life will be discussed. [1] H. Nett, J. Frerick, T. Paulsen, and G. Levrini, "The

  4. African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences is an open access, free online, internationally ... Ebola virus disease: assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of nursing ... and immune system modulation by aerobic versus resisted exercise training for elderly ...

  5. Proceedings of national symposium on advanced instrumentation for nuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The National Symposium on Advanced Instrumentation for Nuclear Research was held in Bombay during January 27-29, 1993 at BARC. Progress of modern nuclear research is closely related to the availability of state of the art instruments and systems. With the advancements in experimental techniques and sophisticated detector developments, the performance specifications have become more stringent. State of the art techniques and diverse applications of sophisticated nuclear instrumentation systems are discussed along with indigenous efforts to meet the specific instrumentation needs of research programs in nuclear sciences. Papers of relevance to nuclear science and technology are indexed separately. (original)

  6. Report of the 1983 NSAC Instrumentation Subcommittee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This report deals with the present state and future opportunities in instrumentation available to nuclear scientists in the United States to further probe the nature of nuclear matter. The report was written by a group convened by DOE/NSF as a subcommittee of the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC). Findings and recommendations of the subcommittee are detailed

  7. CAMAC instrumentation system: introduction and general description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costrell, L.

    1976-01-01

    The CAMAC instrumentation system is described in a general way in this introductory paper which is followed by papers that discuss the system in greater detail. This paper is an updated version of the introductory paper that appeared in the April 1973 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science

  8. Advanced Instrumentation for Positron Emission Tomography [PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, S. E.; Budinger, T. F.

    1985-04-01

    This paper summarizes the physical processes and medical science goals that underlay modern instrumentation design for Positron Emission Tomography. The paper discusses design factors such as detector material, crystalphototube coupling, shielding geometry, sampling motion, electronics design, time-of-flight, and the interrelationships with quantitative accuracy, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, maximum data rates, and cost.

  9. Affordances of Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and accurate…

  10. Instrumentation a reader

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, P

    1990-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers and articles in instrumentation previously pub­ lished in technical periodicals and journals of learned societies. Our selection has been made to illustrate aspects of current practice and applications of instrumentation. The book does not attempt to be encyclopaedic in its coverage of the subject, but to provide some examples of general transduction techniques, of the sensing of particular measurands, of components of instrumentation systems and of instrumentation practice in two very different environments, the food industry and the nuclear power industry. We have made the selection particularly to provide papers appropriate to the study of the Open University course T292 Instrumentation. The papers have been chosen so that the book covers a wide spectrum of instrumentation techniques. Because of this, the book should be of value not only to students of instrumen­ tation, but also to practising engineers and scientists wishing to glean ideas from areas of instrumen...

  11. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  12. Radiation protection instrument 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Radiation Protection Instrument, 1993 (Legislative Instrument 1559) prescribes the powers and functions of the Radiation Protection Board established under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission by the Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993 (P.N.D.C. Law 308). Also included in the Legislative Instrument are schedules on control and use of ionising radiation and radiation sources as well as procedures for notification, licensing and inspection of ionising radiation facilities. (EAA)

  13. Networked Instrumentation Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have developed a networked instrumentation system that connects modern experimental payloads to existing analog and digital communications...

  14. Instrument validation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, B.A.; Daymo, E.A.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Zhang, J.

    1996-06-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company Project W-211 is responsible for providing the system capabilities to remove radioactive waste from ten double-shell tanks used to store radioactive wastes on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The project is also responsible for measuring tank waste slurry properties prior to injection into pipeline systems, including the Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System. This report summarizes studies of the appropriateness of the instrumentation specified for use in Project W-211. The instruments were evaluated in a test loop with simulated slurries that covered the range of properties specified in the functional design criteria. The results of the study indicate that the compact nature of the baseline Project W-211 loop does not result in reduced instrumental accuracy resulting from poor flow profile development. Of the baseline instrumentation, the Micromotion densimeter, the Moore Industries thermocouple, the Fischer and Porter magnetic flow meter, and the Red Valve Pressure transducer meet the desired instrumental accuracy. An alternate magnetic flow meter (Yokagawa) gave nearly identical results as the baseline fischer and Porter. The Micromotion flow meter did not meet the desired instrument accuracy but could potentially be calibrated so that it would meet the criteria. The Nametre on-line viscometer did not meet the desired instrumental accuracy and is not recommended as a quantitative instrument although it does provide qualitative information. The recommended minimum set of instrumentation necessary to ensure the slurry meets the Project W-058 acceptance criteria is the Micromotion mass flow meter and delta pressure cells

  15. Instrument performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.

    1993-03-01

    Deficiencies exist in both the performance and the quality of health physics instruments. Recognizing the implications of such deficiencies for the protection of workers and the public, in the early 1980s the DOE and the NRC encouraged the development of a performance standard and established a program to test a series of instruments against criteria in the standard. The purpose of the testing was to establish the practicality of the criteria in the standard, to determine the performance of a cross section of available instruments, and to establish a testing capability. Over 100 instruments were tested, resulting in a practical standard and an understanding of the deficiencies in available instruments. In parallel with the instrument testing, a value-impact study clearly established the benefits of implementing a formal testing program. An ad hoc committee also met several times to establish recommendations for the voluntary implementation of a testing program based on the studies and the performance standard. For several reasons, a formal program did not materialize. Ongoing tests and studies have supported the development of specific instruments and have helped specific clients understand the performance of their instruments. The purpose of this presentation is to trace the history of instrument testing to date and suggest the benefits of a centralized formal program

  16. [Controlling instruments in radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M

    2013-10-01

    Due to the rising costs and competitive pressures radiological clinics and practices are now facing, controlling instruments are gaining importance in the optimization of structures and processes of the various diagnostic examinations and interventional procedures. It will be shown how the use of selected controlling instruments can secure and improve the performance of radiological facilities. A definition of the concept of controlling will be provided. It will be shown which controlling instruments can be applied in radiological departments and practices. As an example, two of the controlling instruments, material cost analysis and benchmarking, will be illustrated.

  17. Ocean Optics Instrumentation Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation suites for a wide variety of measurements to characterize the ocean’s optical environment. These packages have been developed to...

  18. Development of Interactive Monitoring System for Neutron Scattering Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Ji Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Neutron scattering instruments in HANARO research reactor have been contributed to various fields of basic science and material engineering. These instruments are open to publics and researchers can apply beam-time and do experiments with instrument scientists. In most cases, these instruments run for several weeks without stopping, and therefore instrument scientist wants to see the instrument status and receive information if the instruments have some problem. This is important for the safety. However, it is very hard to get instrument information outside of instruments. Access from external site is strongly forbidden in the institute due to the network safety, I developed another way to send instrument status information using commercial short messaging service(SMS). In this presentation, detailed features of this system will be shown. As a prototype, this system is being developed for the single instrument: Disk-chopper time-of-flight instruments (DC-TOF). I have successfully developed instruments and operate for several years. This information messaging system can be used for other neutron scattering instruments.

  19. Musical instruments in the 21st century identities, configurations, practices

    CERN Document Server

    Campo, Alberto; Egermann, Hauke; Hardjowirogo, Sarah-Indriyati; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    By exploring the many different types and forms of contemporary musical instruments, this book contributes to a better understanding of the conditions of instrumentality in the 21st century. Providing insights from science, humanities and the arts, authors from a wide range of disciplines discuss the following questions: · What are the conditions under which an object is recognized as a musical instrument? · What are the actions and procedures typically associated with musical instruments? · What kind of (mental and physical) knowledge do we access in order to recognize or use something as a musical instrument? · How is this knowledge being shaped by cultural conventions and temporal conditions? · How do algorithmic processes 'change the game' of musical performance, and as a result, how do they affect notions of instrumentality? · How do we address the question of instrumental identity within an instrument's design process? · What properties can be used to differentiate successful and unsuccessful ins...

  20. Management Approach for Earth Venture Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Diane L.; Dutta, Sanghamitra

    2013-01-01

    The Earth Venture Instrument (EVI) element of the Earth Venture Program calls for developing instruments for participation on a NASA-arranged spaceflight mission of opportunity to conduct innovative, integrated, hypothesis or scientific question-driven approaches to pressing Earth system science issues. This paper discusses the EVI element and the management approach being used to manage both an instrument development activity as well as the host accommodations activity. In particular the focus will be on the approach being used for the first EVI (EVI-1) selected instrument, Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO), which will be hosted on a commercial GEO satellite and some of the challenges encountered to date and corresponding mitigations that are associated with the management structure for the TEMPO Mission and the architecture of EVI.

  1. Scientific instruments, scientific progress and the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, David; Faust, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Philosophers speak of science in terms of theory and experiment, yet when they speak of the progress of scientific knowledge they speak in terms of theory alone. In this article it is claimed that scientific knowledge consists of, among other things, scientific instruments and instrumental techniques and not simply of some kind of justified beliefs. It is argued that one aspect of scientific progress can be characterized relatively straightforwardly - the accumulation of new scientific instruments. The development of the cyclotron is taken to illustrate this point. Eight different activities which promoted the successful completion of the cyclotron are recognised. The importance is in the machine rather than the experiments which could be run on it and the focus is on how the cyclotron came into being, not how it was subsequently used. The completed instrument is seen as a useful unit of scientific progress in its own right. (UK)

  2. SMAP Instrument Mechanical System Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimko, Eric; French, Richard; Riggs, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, scheduled for launch by the end of 2014, is being developed to measure the soil moisture and soil freeze/thaw state on a global scale over a three-year period. The accuracy, resolution, and global coverage of SMAP measurements are invaluable across many science and applications disciplines including hydrology, climate, carbon cycle, and the meteorological, environment, and ecology applications communities. The SMAP observatory is composed of a despun bus and a spinning instrument platform that includes both a deployable 6 meter aperture low structural frequency Astromesh reflector and a spin control system. The instrument section has engendered challenging mechanical system issues associated with the antenna deployment, flexible antenna pointing in the context of a multitude of disturbances, spun section mass properties, spin control system development, and overall integration with the flight system on both mechanical and control system levels. Moreover, the multitude of organizations involved, including two major vendors providing the spin subsystem and reflector boom assembly plus the flight system mechanical and guidance, navigation, and control teams, has led to several unique system engineering challenges. Capturing the key physics associated with the function of the flight system has been challenging due to the many different domains that are applicable. Key interfaces and operational concepts have led to complex negotiations because of the large number of organizations that integrate with the instrument mechanical system. Additionally, the verification and validation concerns associated with the mechanical system have had required far-reaching involvement from both the flight system and other subsystems. The SMAP instrument mechanical systems engineering issues and their solutions are described in this paper.

  3. Irreducible Specht modules are signed Young modules

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmer, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently Donkin defined signed Young modules as a simultaneous generalization of Young and twisted Young modules for the symmetric group. We show that in odd characteristic, if a Specht module $S^\\lambda$ is irreducible, then $S^\\lambda$ is a signed Young module. Thus the set of irreducible Specht modules coincides with the set of irreducible signed Young modules. This provides evidence for our conjecture that the signed Young modules are precisely the class of indecomposable self-dual module...

  4. Instrument for Airborne Measurement of Carbonyl Sulfide, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposes to develop small, low power instrumentation for the real-time direct measurement of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) in the atmosphere, especially...

  5. Instrument for Airborne Measurement of Carbonyl Sulfide, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II SBIR program, Southwest Sciences will continue the development of small, low power instrumentation for real-time direct measurement of carbonyl...

  6. Overview of LOFT instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixby, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A description of instrumentation used in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) large break Loss-of-Coolant Experiments is presented. Emphasis is placed on hydraulic and thermal measurements in the primary system piping and components, reactor vessel, and pressure suppression system. In addition, instrumentation which is being considered for measurement of phenomena during future small break testing is discussed

  7. AOI 1— COMPUTATIONAL ENERGY SCIENCES:MULTIPHASE FLOW RESEARCH High-fidelity multi-phase radiation module for modern coal combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modest, Michael

    2013-11-15

    The effects of radiation in particle-laden flows were the object of the present research. The presence of particles increases optical thickness substantially, making the use of the “optically thin” approximation in most cases a very poor assumption. However, since radiation fluxes peak at intermediate optical thicknesses, overall radiative effects may not necessarily be stronger than in gas combustion. Also, the spectral behavior of particle radiation properties is much more benign, making spectral models simpler (and making the assumption of a gray radiator halfway acceptable, at least for fluidized beds when gas radiation is not large). On the other hand, particles scatter radiation, making the radiative transfer equation (RTE) much more di fficult to solve. The research carried out in this project encompassed three general areas: (i) assessment of relevant radiation properties of particle clouds encountered in fluidized bed and pulverized coal combustors, (ii) development of proper spectral models for gas–particulate mixtures for various types of two-phase combustion flows, and (iii) development of a Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) solution module for such applications. The resulting models were validated against artificial cases since open literature experimental data were not available. The final models are in modular form tailored toward maximum portability, and were incorporated into two research codes: (i) the open-source CFD code OpenFOAM, which we have extensively used in our previous work, and (ii) the open-source multi-phase flow code MFIX, which is maintained by NETL.

  8. Interaktive E-Learning-Module in der Humangenetik: Einsatz und Evaluation im Rahmen der Medizinstudierenden- und Humanbiologen-Ausbildung [Interactive e-learning courses in human genetics: Usage and evaluation by science and medical students at the faculty of medicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oeffner, Frank

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Introduction: This study presents our online-teaching material within the k-MED project (Knowledge in Medical Education at the university of Marburg. It is currently organized in five e-learning modules: cytogenetics, chromosomal aberrations, formal genetics, fundamentals of molecular diagnostics, and congenital abnormalities and syndromes. These are basic courses intended to do the educational groundwork, which will enable academic teachers to concentrate on more sophisticated topics during their lectures. Methods: The e-learning modules have been offered to a large group of about 3300 students during four years at the Faculty of Medicine in Marburg. The group consists of science students (human biology and medical students in the preclinical or the clinical period, respectively. Participants were surveyed on acceptance by evaluating user-tracking data and questionnaires. Results and Conclusion: Analysis of the evaluation data proofs the broad acceptance of the e-learning modules during eight semesters. The courses are in stable or even increasing use from winter term 2005/06 until spring term 2009.Conclusion: Our e-learning-model is broadly accepted among students with different levels of knowledge at the Faculty of Medicine in Marburg. If the e-learning courses are maintained thoroughly, minor adaptations can increase acceptance and usage even furthermore. Their use should be extended to the medical education of technical assistances and nurses, who work in the field of human genetics.[german] Einleitung: Die vorliegende Studie beschreibt unser Online-Lehrmaterial Humangenetik im Zusammenhang mit dem k-MED-Projekt (Knowledge in Medical Education an der Philipps-Universität Marburg. Es besteht aus fünf E-Learning-Modulen: Zytogenetik, Chromosomenstörungen, Formalgenetik, Grundlagen der molekularen Diagnostik sowie Kongenitale Abnormitäten und Fehlbildungssyndrome. Diese E-Module sollen ein einheitliches Wissensniveau der

  9. PACMAN: PRIMA astrometric instrument software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuter, Roberto; Sahlmann, Johannes; Pozna, Eszter

    2010-07-01

    The dual feed astrometric instrument software of PRIMA (PACMAN) that is currently being integrated at the VLTI will use two spatially modulated fringe sensor units and a laser metrology system to carry out differential astrometry. Its software and hardware compromises a distributed system involving many real time computers and workstations operating in a synchronized manner. Its architecture has been designed to allow the construction of efficient and flexible calibration and observation procedures. In parallel, a novel scheme of integrating M-code (MATLAB/OCTAVE) with standard VLT (Very Large Telescope) control software applications had to be devised in order to support numerically intensive operations and to have the capacity of adapting to fast varying strategies and algorithms. This paper presents the instrument software, including the current operational sequences for the laboratory calibration and sky calibration. Finally, a detailed description of the algorithms with their implementation, both under M and C code, are shown together with a comparative analysis of their performance and maintainability.

  10. BES Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biocca, Alan; Carlson, Rich; Chen, Jackie; Cotter, Steve; Tierney, Brian; Dattoria, Vince; Davenport, Jim; Gaenko, Alexander; Kent, Paul; Lamm, Monica; Miller, Stephen; Mundy, Chris; Ndousse, Thomas; Pederson, Mark; Perazzo, Amedeo; Popescu, Razvan; Rouson, Damian; Sekine, Yukiko; Sumpter, Bobby; Dart, Eli; Wang, Cai-Zhuang -Z; Whitelam, Steve; Zurawski, Jason

    2011-02-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivityfor the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office ofScience programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  11. BES Science Network Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian; Biocca, A.; Carlson, R.; Chen, J.; Cotter, S.; Dattoria, V.; Davenport, J.; Gaenko, A.; Kent, P.; Lamm, M.; Miller, S.; Mundy, C.; Ndousse, T.; Pederson, M.; Perazzo, A.; Popescu, R.; Rouson, D.; Sekine, Y.; Sumpter, B.; Wang, C.-Z.; Whitelam, S.; Zurawski, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  12. Computational and instrumental methods in EPR

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    Computational and Instrumental Methods in EPR Prof. Bender, Fordham University Prof. Lawrence J. Berliner, University of Denver Electron magnetic resonance has been greatly facilitated by the introduction of advances in instrumentation and better computational tools, such as the increasingly widespread use of the density matrix formalism. This volume is devoted to both instrumentation and computation aspects of EPR, while addressing applications such as spin relaxation time measurements, the measurement of hyperfine interaction parameters, and the recovery of Mn(II) spin Hamiltonian parameters via spectral simulation. Key features: Microwave Amplitude Modulation Technique to Measure Spin-Lattice (T1) and Spin-Spin (T2) Relaxation Times Improvement in the Measurement of Spin-Lattice Relaxation Time in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Quantitative Measurement of Magnetic Hyperfine Parameters and the Physical Organic Chemistry of Supramolecular Systems New Methods of Simulation of Mn(II) EPR Spectra: Single Cryst...

  13. Malware Instrumentation Application to Regin Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Kaczmarek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the Regin malware underlines the importance of reverse engineering in modern incident response. The present study shows that such complexity can be overcome: substantial information about adversary tactics, techniques and procedures is obtained from reverse engineering. An introduction to the Regin development framework is provided along with instrumentation guidelines. Such instrumentation enables experimentation with malware modules. So analysis can derectly leverage malware’s own code without the need to program an analysis toolkit. As an application of the presented instrumentation, the underlying botnet architecture is analysed. Finally conclusions from different perspectives are provided: defense, attack and counter intelligence.

  14. Science Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect our nation and promote world stability Science & ; Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Science Highlights Lab Organizations Science Programs Applied

  15. Instrumentation reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Boyes, Walt

    2002-01-01

    Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having a 'fuzzy' boundary with a number of other disciplines. Often categorized as either 'techniques' or 'applications' this book addresses the various applications that may be needed with reference to the practical techniques that are available for the instrumentation or measurement of a specific physical quantity or quality. This makes it of direct interest to anyone working in the process, control and instrumentation fields where these measurements are essential.* Comprehensive and authoritative collection of technical information* Writte

  16. The latest radiation instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Se Sik; Gwon, Dal Gwan; Kim, Gyeong Geum

    2008-08-01

    This book deals with the latest radiation instrument, which is comprised of eight chapters. It explains X rays instrument for medial treatment, X-ray tube instrument and permissible burden with its history, structure and characteristic high voltage apparatus with high voltage rectifier circuit, X-ray control apparatus for medical treatment, X-ray image equipment X-ray television apparatus and CCD 205, X-ray apparatus of install and types, Digital X-ray apparatus with CR 261 and DR 269, performance management on X-ray for medical treatment with its history, necessity and management in the radiation field.

  17. Soil monitoring instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities as well as wastes from old waste burial ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. Because of the topic of this workshop, only the assay instrumentation applied specifically to soil monitoring will be discussed here. Four types of soil monitors are described

  18. Soil monitoring instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities, as well as from old waste-burial-ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. The assay instrumentation that is applied specifically to soil monitoring is discussed

  19. Jones' instrument technology

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Ernest Beachcroft; Kingham, Edward G; Radnai, Rudolf

    1985-01-01

    Jones' Instrument Technology, Volume 5: Automatic Instruments and Measuring Systems deals with general trends in automatic instruments and measuring systems. Specific examples are provided to illustrate the principles of such devices. A brief review of a considerable number of standards is undertaken, with emphasis on the IEC625 Interface System. Other relevant standards are reviewed, including the interface and backplane bus standards. This volume is comprised of seven chapters and begins with a short introduction to the principles of automatic measurements, classification of measuring system

  20. Medical instruments in museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderqvist, Thomas; Arnold, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This essay proposes that our understanding of medical instruments might benefit from adding a more forthright concern with their immediate presence to the current historical focus on simply decoding their meanings and context. This approach is applied to the intriguingly tricky question of what...... actually is meant by a "medical instrument." It is suggested that a pragmatic part of the answer might lie simply in reconsidering the holdings of medical museums, where the significance of the physical actuality of instruments comes readily to hand....

  1. Design and validation of portable optical instrument for crop diagnose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gang; Zheng, Wengang; Huang, Wengjiang; Wan, Huawei; Liu, Liangyun

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, a portable diagnostic instrument was designed and tested, which can measure the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and structure insensitive pigment index (SIPI) of crop canopy in field. The instrument have a valid survey area of 1 m*1 m when the height between instrument and the ground was fixed to 1.3 meter The crop growth condition can be assessed based on their NDVI and SIPI values, so it will be very important for crop management to get these values. The instrument uses sunlight as its light source. There are six special different photoelectrical detectors within red, blue and near infrared bands, which are used for detecting incidence sunlight and reflex light from the canopy of crop. This optical instrument includes photoelectric detector module, signal process and A/D convert module, the data storing and transmission module and human-machine interface module. The detector is the core of the instrument which measures the spectrums at special bands. The microprocessor calculates the NDVI and SIPI value based on the A/D value. And the value can be displayed on the instrument's LCD, stored in the flash memory of instrument and can also be uploaded to PC through the PC's RS232 serial interface. The prototype was tested in the crop field at different view directions. This paper also provided the method of calibration, the results showed that the average measurement error to SIPI value of instrument was 5.25% and the average measurement error to NDVI value in vegetation-covered region is 6.40%. It reveals the on-site and non-sampling mode of crop growth monitoring by fixed on the agricultural machine traveling in the field.

  2. Regional cooperation on nuclear instrument maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    Proper nuclear instrument maintenance is the essential precondition for any experimental work in nuclear sciences and technology. With the rapidly increasing sophistication of nuclear instrumentation, and considering the rather specific conditions that prevail in many IAEA Member States, this topic is gaining in importance, and has a strong economic implication. There is a general opinion that a regional, and possibly interregional cooperation in the field might be advantageous, and economically beneficial to all participating parties. The experience in such cooperation is limited, but sufficient that some reliable observations can be made, some conclusion can be drawn, and some recommendation for the possible future development can be presented

  3. Module 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Douglas Clyde

    2013-01-01

    Reconciliation Action Plans are political instruments that are implemented in political contexts. Getting a good grasp of who the relevant stakeholders are is critical to their effectiveness. A discourse analysis is a method for identifying stakeholders, understanding where they are in conflict, ...

  4. Signed Young Modules and Simple Specht Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Danz, Susanne; Lim, Kay Jin

    2015-01-01

    By a result of Hemmer, every simple Specht module of a finite symmetric group over a field of odd characteristic is a signed Young module. While Specht modules are parametrized by partitions, indecomposable signed Young modules are parametrized by certain pairs of partitions. The main result of this article establishes the signed Young module labels of simple Specht modules. Along the way we prove a number of results concerning indecomposable signed Young modules that are of independent inter...

  5. Environment for the instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambro, P.

    1992-01-01

    A properly conditioned AC power supply is necessary for reliable functioning of instruments. Electric mains power is produced primarily for industry, workshops, lighting and household uses. Its quality is adjusted to these uses. In areas sand countries with a fast growing demand for electric power, these requirements are far from being met. Electronic instruments and computers, especially in these countries, need protection against disturbances of the mains supply. A clean and dry environment is needed for reliable functioning and long life of instruments. High humidity, specially at higher temperatures, changes the characteristics of electronic components. Moreover, under these conditions fungal growth causes leakage of currents and corrosion causes poor contacts. The presence of dust enhances these effects. They give rise to malfunction of instruments, particularly of high voltage equipment

  6. CCAT Heterodyne Instrument Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work will extend and proof-out the design concept for a high pixel count (128 pixels in 2 bands) submillimeter-wave heterodyne receiver array instrument for the...

  7. Environment for the instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambro, P

    1993-12-31

    A properly conditioned AC power supply is necessary for reliable functioning of instruments. Electric mains power is produced primarily for industry, workshops, lighting and household uses. Its quality is adjusted to these uses. In areas sand countries with a fast growing demand for electric power, these requirements are far from being met. Electronic instruments and computers, especially in these countries, need protection against disturbances of the mains supply. A clean and dry environment is needed for reliable functioning and long life of instruments. High humidity, specially at higher temperatures, changes the characteristics of electronic components. Moreover, under these conditions fungal growth causes leakage of currents and corrosion causes poor contacts. The presence of dust enhances these effects. They give rise to malfunction of instruments, particularly of high voltage equipment

  8. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  9. Nuclear instrument technician training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollesen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Nuclear Instrument Technician (NIT) training that has developed at an accelerated rate over the past three decades. During the 1960's commercial nuclear power plants were in their infancy. For that reason, there is little wonder that NIT training had little structure and little creditability. NIT training, in many early plants, was little more than On-The Job Training (OJT). The seventies brought changes in Instrumentation and Controls as well as emphasis on the requirements for more in depth training and documentation. As in the seventies, the eighties saw not only changes in technologies but tighter requirements, standardized training and the development of accredited Nuclear Instrument Training; thus the conclusion: Nuclear Instrument Training Isn't What It Used To Be

  10. Carbon Footprint Reduction Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page outlines the major differences between Renewable Energy Certificates (REC) and Project Offsets and what types of claims each instrument allows the organization to make in regards to environmental emissions claims.

  11. Memory Modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive

  12. Module descriptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincenti, Gordon; Klausen, Bodil; Kjær Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The Module Descriptor including a Teacher’s Guide explains and describes how to work innovatively and co-creatively with wicked problems and young people. The descriptor shows how interested educators and lecturers in Europe can copy the lessons of the Erasmus+ project HIP when teaching their own...

  13. Instrument care: everyone's responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée du Toit

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Everyone working in an ophthalmic operating theatre must be competent in the care, handling, storage, and maintenance of instruments. This will help to improve surgical outcomes, maintain an economic and affordable service for patients, and provide a safe environment for the wellbeing of patients and staff.Including instrument care in theatre courses and in-service training is one way of ensuring staff competence.

  14. Instrument uncertainty predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutts, D.A.

    1991-07-01

    The accuracy of measurements and correlations should normally be provided for most experimental activities. The uncertainty is a measure of the accuracy of a stated value or equation. The uncertainty term reflects a combination of instrument errors, modeling limitations, and phenomena understanding deficiencies. This report provides several methodologies to estimate an instrument's uncertainty when used in experimental work. Methods are shown to predict both the pretest and post-test uncertainty

  15. Experimenting with woodwind instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presto, Michael C.

    2007-05-01

    Simple experiments involving musical instruments of the woodwind family can be used to demonstrate the basic physics of vibrating air columns in resonance tubes using nothing more than straightforward measurements and data collection hardware and software. More involved experimentation with the same equipment can provide insight into the effects of holes in the tubing and other factors that make simple tubes useful as musical instruments.

  16. Maintenance of scientific instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, E.

    1986-01-01

    During the last years Colombia has increased the use of nuclear techniques, instruments and equipment in ambitious health programs, as well as in research centers, industry and education; this has resulted in numerous maintenance problems. As an alternative solution IAN has established a Central Maintenance Laboratory for nuclear instruments within an International Atomic Energy Agency program for eight Latin American and nine Asian Countries. Established strategies and some results are detailed in this writing

  17. The Bering Target Tracking Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, John Leif; Betto, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    The key science instrument on the Bering satellite mission is a relative small telescope with an entrance aperture of 300 mm and a focal length between 500 and 1000 mm. The detection of potential targets is performed by one of the target scanning advanced stellar compasses (ASCs). This procedure...... results in a simple prioritized list of right ascension, declination, proper motion and intensity of each prospective target. The telescope itself has a dedicated ASC Camera Head Unit (CHU) mounted on the secondary mirror, largely co-aligned with the telescope. This CHU accurately determines the telescope......'s pointing direction. To achieve fast tracking over a large solid angle, the telescope pointing is achieved by means of a folding mirror in the optical pathway. When a prospective target approaches the telescope FOV, the ASC on the secondary will guide the folding mirror into position such that the target...

  18. Problems with radiological surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Fleming, D.M.

    1984-09-01

    Many radiological surveillance instruments are in use at DOE facilities throughout the country. These instruments are an essential part of all health physics programs, and poor instrument performance can increase program costs or compromise program effectiveness. Generic data from simple tests on newly purchased instruments shows that many instruments will not meet requirements due to manufacturing defects. In other cases, lack of consideration of instrument use has resulted in poor acceptance of instruments and poor reliability. The performance of instruments is highly variable for electronic and mechanical performance, radiation response, susceptibility to interferences and response to environmental factors. Poor instrument performance in these areas can lead to errors or poor accuracy in measurements

  19. Problems with radiological surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Fleming, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Many radiological surveillance instruments are in use at DOE facilities throughout the country. These instruments are an essential part of all health physics programs, and poor instrument performance can increase program costs or compromise program effectiveness. Generic data from simple tests on newly purchased instruments shows that many instruments will not meet requirements due to manufacturing defects. In other cases, lack of consideration of instrument use has resulted in poor acceptance of instruments and poor reliability. The performance of instruments is highly variable for electronic and mechanical performance, radiation response, susceptibility to interferences and response to environmental factors. Poor instrument performance in these areas can lead to errors or poor accuracy in measurements

  20. Build of virtual instrument laboratory related to nuclear species specialized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Jian; Zhao Guizhi; Zhao Xiuliang; Tang Lingzhi

    2009-01-01

    As rapid development of specialized related to nuclear science,the requirement of laboratory construct is analyzed in this article at first, One total conceive, One scheme deploy soft and hardware,three concrete characteristics targets and five different phases of put in practice of virtual instrument laboratory of specialized related to nuclear science are suggest in the paper,the concrete hardware structure and the headway of build of virtual instrument laboratory are described,and the first step effect is introduced.Lastly,the forward target and the further deliberateness that the virtual instrument laboratory construct are set forth in the thesis. (authors)

  1. Science and Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravetz, David

    2005-01-01

    This article is for teachers looking for new ways to motivate students, increase science comprehension, and understanding without using the old standard expository science textbook. This author suggests reading a science fiction novel in the science classroom as a way to engage students in learning. Using science fiction literature and language…

  2. Instrumentation for mass spectrometry: 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLuckey, S.A.

    1997-08-01

    All mass spectrometry experiments involve the manipulation of material, an interface with the mass spectrometer, ionization, ion manipulation/analysis, detection and data collection/reduction. Each of these elements involve instrumentation. The wide range of species now amenable to mass spectrometry and the diverse areas of physical science in which it plays a role have led to a seemingly unlimited array of instrumental combinations. However, only a limited number of mass analyzers, and their combinations, dominate. The dominant analyzers include time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, the Paul trap, the mass filter, and the sector mass spectrometer. Why there are so few (or so many, depending upon one`s point of view) can be understood upon consideration of a set of mass analyzer figures of merit. These include mass resolution, mass accuracy, mass range, dynamic range, abundance sensitivity, precision, efficiency, speed, MS{sup n} capability, compatibility with the ionizer, cost, and size. The most appropriate form of mass spectrometry is determined by the priorities of the particular measurement placed on the various mass analyzer characteristics and the relative strengths of the analyzers in meeting the requirements. Each of the analyzer types has a unique set of figures of merit that makes it optimally suited for particular applications. This paper discusses these figures of merit, provides data illustrating recent developments for each analyzer type, and gives the figures of merit of each type of analyzer as they stand in 1997. 101 refs., 24 figs.

  3. Towards automatic musical instrument timbre recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae Hong

    This dissertation is comprised of two parts---focus on issues concerning research and development of an artificial system for automatic musical instrument timbre recognition and musical compositions. The technical part of the essay includes a detailed record of developed and implemented algorithms for feature extraction and pattern recognition. A review of existing literature introducing historical aspects surrounding timbre research, problems associated with a number of timbre definitions, and highlights of selected research activities that have had significant impact in this field are also included. The developed timbre recognition system follows a bottom-up, data-driven model that includes a pre-processing module, feature extraction module, and a RBF/EBF (Radial/Elliptical Basis Function) neural network-based pattern recognition module. 829 monophonic samples from 12 instruments have been chosen from the Peter Siedlaczek library (Best Service) and other samples from the Internet and personal collections. Significant emphasis has been put on feature extraction development and testing to achieve robust and consistent feature vectors that are eventually passed to the neural network module. In order to avoid a garbage-in-garbage-out (GIGO) trap and improve generality, extra care was taken in designing and testing the developed algorithms using various dynamics, different playing techniques, and a variety of pitches for each instrument with inclusion of attack and steady-state portions of a signal. Most of the research and development was conducted in Matlab. The compositional part of the essay includes brief introductions to "A d'Ess Are ," "Aboji," "48 13 N, 16 20 O," and "pH-SQ." A general outline pertaining to the ideas and concepts behind the architectural designs of the pieces including formal structures, time structures, orchestration methods, and pitch structures are also presented.

  4. Computer sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul H.

    1988-01-01

    The Computer Science Program provides advanced concepts, techniques, system architectures, algorithms, and software for both space and aeronautics information sciences and computer systems. The overall goal is to provide the technical foundation within NASA for the advancement of computing technology in aerospace applications. The research program is improving the state of knowledge of fundamental aerospace computing principles and advancing computing technology in space applications such as software engineering and information extraction from data collected by scientific instruments in space. The program includes the development of special algorithms and techniques to exploit the computing power provided by high performance parallel processors and special purpose architectures. Research is being conducted in the fundamentals of data base logic and improvement techniques for producing reliable computing systems.

  5. Study of time resolution by digital methods with a DRS4 module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Cheng-Ming, Du; Jin-Da, Chen; Xiu-Ling, Zhang; Yang, Hai-Bo; Cheng, Ke; Kong, Jie; Hu, Zheng-Guo; Sun, Zhi-Yu; Su, Hong; Xu, Hu-Shan

    2016-04-01

    A new Digital Pulse Processing (DPP) module has been developed, based on a domino ring sampler version 4 chip (DRS4), with good time resolution for LaBr3 detectors, and different digital timing analysis methods for processing the raw detector signals are reported. The module, composed of an eight channel DRS4 chip, was used as the readout electronics and acquisition system to process the output signals from XP20D0 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Two PMTs were coupled with LaBr3 scintillators and placed on opposite sides of a radioactive positron 22Na source for 511 keV γ-ray tests. By analyzing the raw data acquired by the module, the best coincidence timing resolution is about 194.7 ps (FWHM), obtained by the digital constant fraction discrimination (dCFD) method, which is better than other digital methods and analysis methods based on conventional analog systems which have been tested. The results indicate that it is a promising approach to better localize the positron annihilation in positron emission tomography (PET) with time of flight (TOF), as well as for scintillation timing measurement, such as in TOF-ΔE and TOF-E systems for particle identification, with picosecond accuracy timing measurement. Furthermore, this module is more simple and convenient than other systems. Supported by the Science Foundation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (210340XBO), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11305233,11205222), General Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (11475234), Specific Fund of National Key Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Project (2011YQ12009604) and Joint Fund for Research Based on Large-Scale Scientific Facilities (U1532131).

  6. Some emergency instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, P H

    1986-10-01

    The widespread release of activity and the resultant spread of contamination after the Chernobyl accident resulted in requests to NRPB to provide instruments for, and expertise in, the measurement of radiation. The most common request was for advice on the usefulness of existing instruments, but Board staff were also involved in their adaptation or in the development of new instruments specially to meet the circumstances of the accident. The accident occurred on 26 April. On 1 May, NRPB was involved at Heathrow Airport in the monitoring of the British students who had returned from Kiev and Minsk. The main purpose was to reassure the students by checking that their persons and belongings did not have significant surface contamination. Additional measurements were also made of iodine activity in thyroid using hand-held detectors or a mobile body monitor. This operation was arranged with the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, which had also received numerous requests for instruments from embassies and consulates in countries close to the scene of the accident. There was concern for the well-being of staff and other United Kingdom nationals who resided in or intended to visit the most affected countries. The board supplied suitable instruments, and the FCO distributed them to embassies. The frequency of environmental monitoring was increased from 29 April in anticipation of contamination and appropriate Board instrumentation was deployed. After the Chernobyl cloud arrived in the UK on 2 May, there were numerous requests from local government, public authorities, private companies and members of the public for information and advice on monitoring equipment and procedures. Some of these requirements could be met with existing equipment but members of the public were usually advised not to proceed. At a later stage, the contamination of foodstuffs and livestock required the development of an instrument capable of detecting low levels of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs in food

  7. Divergence and convergence in nutrition science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penders, Bart; Spruit, Shannon L.; Sikkema, Jan; Maat, Jan; Schuurbiers, Daan

    2015-01-01

    Nutrigenomics diverged from mainstream nutrition science, ideologically, instrumentally and culturally, due to the establishment of a protective niche. That protection is fading. This article chronicles a case in which convergence between nutrigenomics and nutrition science is pursued. Here we

  8. How to improve a critical performance for an ExoMars 2020 Scientific Instrument (RLS). Raman Laser Spectrometer Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canora, C. P.; Moral, A. G.; Rull, F.; Maurice, S.; Hutchinson, I.; Ramos, G.; López-Reyes, G.; Belenguer, T.; Canchal, R.; Prieto, J. A. R.; Rodriguez, P.; Santamaria, P.; Berrocal, A.; Colombo, M.; Gallago, P.; Seoane, L.; Quintana, C.; Ibarmia, S.; Zafra, J.; Saiz, J.; Santiago, A.; Marin, A.; Gordillo, C.; Escribano, D.; Sanz-Palominoa, M.

    2017-09-01

    The Raman Laser Spectrometer (RLS) is one of the Pasteur Payload instruments, within the ESA's Aurora Exploration Programme, ExoMars mission. Raman spectroscopy is based on the analysis of spectral fingerprints due to the inelastic scattering of light when interacting with matter. RLS is composed by Units: SPU (Spectrometer Unit), iOH (Internal Optical Head), and ICEU (Instrument Control and Excitation Unit) and the harnesses (EH and OH). The iOH focuses the excitation laser on the samples and collects the Raman emission from the sample via SPU (CCD) and the video data (analog) is received, digitalizing it and transmiting it to the processor module (ICEU). The main sources of noise arise from the sample, the background, and the instrument (Laser, CCD, focuss, acquisition parameters, operation control). In this last case the sources are mainly perturbations from the optics, dark signal and readout noise. Also flicker noise arising from laser emission fluctuations can be considered as instrument noise. In order to evaluate the SNR of a Raman instrument in a practical manner it is useful to perform end-to-end measurements on given standards samples. These measurements have to be compared with radiometric simulations using Raman efficiency values from literature and taking into account the different instrumental contributions to the SNR. The RLS EQM instrument performances results and its functionalities have been demonstrated in accordance with the science expectations. The Instrument obtained SNR performances in the RLS EQM will be compared experimentally and via analysis, with the Instrument Radiometric Model tool. The characterization process for SNR optimization is still on going. The operational parameters and RLS algorithms (fluorescence removal and acquisition parameters estimation) will be improved in future models (EQM-2) until FM Model delivery.

  9. Instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes goals and accomplishments of the research program entitled Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation, during the period January 15, 1989 through July 15, 1991. This program is very closely integrated with the radiopharmaceutical program entitled Quantitative Studies in Radiopharmaceutical Science. Together, they constitute the PROGRAM OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND QUANTITATIVE IMAGING RESEARCH within The Franklin McLean Memorial Research Institute (FMI). The program addresses problems involving the basic science and technology that underlie the physical and conceptual tools of radiotracer methodology as they relate to the measurement of structural and functional parameters of physiologic importance in health and disease. The principal tool is quantitative radionuclide imaging. The objective of this program is to further the development and transfer of radiotracer methodology from basic theory to routine clinical practice. The focus of the research is on the development of new instruments and radiopharmaceuticals, and the evaluation of these through the phase of clinical feasibility. 234 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  10. An infrastructure for the integration of geoscience instruments and sensors on the Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, R.; Prica, M.; Kourousias, G.; Del Linz, A.; Curri, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Grid, as a computing paradigm, has long been in the attention of both academia and industry[1]. The distributed and expandable nature of its general architecture result to scalability and more efficient utilisation of the computing infrastructures. The scientific community, including that of geosciences, often handles problems with very high requirements in data processing, transferring, and storing[2,3]. This has raised the interest on Grid technologies but these are often viewed solely as an access gateway to HPC. Suitable Grid infrastructures could provide the geoscience community with additional benefits like those of sharing, remote access and control of scientific systems. These systems can be scientific instruments, sensors, robots, cameras and any other device used in geosciences. The solution for practical, general, and feasible Grid-enabling of such devices requires non-intrusive extensions on core parts of the current Grid architecture. We propose an extended version of an architecture[4] that can serve as the solution to the problem. The solution we propose is called Grid Instrument Element (IE) [5]. It is an addition to the existing core Grid parts; the Computing Element (CE) and the Storage Element (SE) that serve the purposes that their name suggests. The IE that we will be referring to, and the related technologies have been developed in the EU project on the Deployment of Remote Instrumentation Infrastructure (DORII1). In DORII, partners of various scientific communities including those of Earthquake, Environmental science, and Experimental science, have adopted the technology of the Instrument Element in order to integrate to the Grid their devices. The Oceanographic and coastal observation and modelling Mediterranean Ocean Observing Network (OGS2), a DORII partner, is in the process of deploying the above mentioned Grid technologies on two types of observational modules: Argo profiling floats and a novel Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV

  11. Reactor instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wach, D.; Beraha, D.

    1980-01-01

    The methods for measuring radiation are shortly reviewed. The instrumentation for neutron flux measurement is classified into out-of-core and in-core instrumentation. The out-of-core instrumentation monitors the operational range from the subcritical reactor to full power. This large range is covered by several measurement channels which derive their signals from counter tubes and ionization chambers. The in-core instrumentation provides more detailed information on the power distribution in the core. The self-powered neutron detectors and the aeroball system in PWR reactors are discussed. Temperature and pressure measurement devices are briefly discussed. The different methods for leak detection are described. In concluding the plant instrumentation part some new monitoring systems and analysis methods are presented: early failure detection methods by noise analysis, acoustic monitoring and vibration monitoring. The presentation of the control starts from an qualitative assessment of the reactor dynamics. The chosen control strategy leads to the definition of the part-load diagram, which provides the set-points for the different control systems. The tasks and the functions of these control systems are described. In additiion to the control, a number of limiting systems is employed to keep the reactor in a safe operating region. Finally, an outlook is given on future developments in control, concerning mainly the increased application of process computers. (orig./RW)

  12. Instrumental analysis, second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, G.D.; O'Reilly, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The second edition of Instrumental Analysis is a survey of the major instrument-based methods of chemical analysis. It appears to be aimed at undergraduates but would be equally useful in a graduate course. The volume explores all of the classical quantitative methods and contains sections on techniques that usually are not included in a semester course in instrumentation (such as electron spectroscopy and the kinetic methods). Adequate coverage of all of the methods contained in this book would require several semesters of focused study. The 25 chapters were written by different authors, yet the style throughout the book is more uniform than in the earlier edition. With the exception of a two-chapter course in analog and digital circuits, the book purports to de-emphasize instrumentation, focusing more on the theory behind the methods and the application of the methods to analytical problems. However, a detailed analysis of the instruments used in each method is by no means absent. The book has the favor of a user's guide to analysis

  13. Nuclear instrumentation for research reactors; Instrumentacion nuclear para reactores nucleares de investigacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, Carlos G.; Pita, Antonio; Verrastro, Claudio A.; Maino, Eduardo J. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Unidad de Actividades de Reactores y Centrales Nucleares. Sector Instrumentacion y Control

    1997-10-01

    The nuclear instrumentation for research reactors in Argentina was developed in 70`. A gradual modernization of all the nuclear instrumentation is planned. It includes start-up and power range instrumentation, as well as field monitors, clamp, scram and rod movement control logic. The new instrumentation is linked to a computer network, based on real time operating system for data acquisition, display and logging. This paper describes the modules and whole system aspects. (author). 2 refs.

  14. Instrumentation to Enhance Advanced Test Reactor Irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; K. G. Condie; J. E. Daw; S. C. Taylor

    2009-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007 to support U.S. leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new research users - universities, laboratories, and industry - the ATR will support basic and applied nuclear research and development, further advancing the nation's energy security needs. A key component of the ATR NSUF effort is to prove new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing real-time measurements of key parameters during irradiation. To address this need, an assessment of instrumentation available and under-development at other test reactors has been completed. Based on this review, recommendations are made with respect to what instrumentation is needed at the ATR and a strategy has been developed for obtaining these sensors. Progress toward implementing this strategy is reported in this document. It is anticipated that this report will be updated on an annual basis.

  15. Instrumentation to Enhance Advanced Test Reactor Irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, J.L.; Knudson, D.L.; Condie, K.G.; Daw, J.E.; Taylor, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007 to support U.S. leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new research users - universities, laboratories, and industry - the ATR will support basic and applied nuclear research and development, further advancing the nation's energy security needs. A key component of the ATR NSUF effort is to prove new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing real-time measurements of key parameters during irradiation. To address this need, an assessment of instrumentation available and under-development at other test reactors has been completed. Based on this review, recommendations are made with respect to what instrumentation is needed at the ATR and a strategy has been developed for obtaining these sensors. Progress toward implementing this strategy is reported in this document. It is anticipated that this report will be updated on an annual basis.

  16. Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Technology Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The UCLA-DOE Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Facility provides the UCLA biochemistry community with easy access to sophisticated instrumentation for a wide variety...

  17. Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory (HFIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory is used to develop advanced, flexible, thin film gauge instrumentation for the Air Force Research Laboratory....

  18. Characteristics of protective instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichart, G.

    1982-01-01

    Protective Instrumentation (PI) for Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) is a general term for an highly reliable instrumentation, which provides information for keeping the system within safe limits, for initation of countermeasures in the case of an incident or for mitigation of consequences of an accident. In German NPPs one can find a hierarchical structure of protective instrumentation, wherein the Reactor Protection System (RPS) has the highest priority. To meet the reliability requirements different design principles are used, like - redundancy - diversity - fail safe - decoupling. The presentation gives an overview about the different design principles and characterizes their reliability aspects. As an example for the technical realization the RPS of a German NPP is discussed in some detail. Furthermore some information about other type of PI is given and reliability aspects of the interaction of operating personell with these systems are mentioned. (orig.)

  19. Aethalometer™ Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, Arthur J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Aethalometer is an instrument that provides a real-time readout of the concentration of “Black” or “Elemental” carbon aerosol particles (BC or E) in an air stream (see Figure 1 and Figure 2). It is a self-contained instrument that measures the rate of change of optical transmission through a spot on a filter where aerosol is being continuously collected and uses the information to calculate the concentration of optically absorbing material in the sampled air stream. The instrument measures the transmitted light intensities through the “sensing” portion of the filter, on which the aerosol spot is being collected, and a “reference” portion of the filter as a check on the stability of the optical source. A mass flowmeter monitors the sample air flow rate. The data from these three measurements is used to determine the mean BC content of the air stream.

  20. The IKARUS instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerster, H.J.; Stein, G.

    1994-01-01

    When the Federal Government decided on a 25% reduction of CO 2 emissions till 2005 in 1990 the necessity resulted that an instrument has to be developed for the analysis and assessment of the ecological, economic and energetic impact of different reduction strategies. The development task was awarded by the BMFT to the Research Centre Juelich in cooperation with well-known institutions of energy system research. The total instrument is scheduled to be finished by the end of 1994. For the decentral use of the instrument by a wide specialist public the developed models and data banks which are equipped with a user-friendly surface are suited for larger PCs (486, 16 MB RAM/500-1000 MB ROM). (orig.) [de

  1. ISSUERS OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian GHEORGHE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The rules laid down by Romanian Capital Market Law and the regulations put in force for its implementation apply to issuers of financial instruments admitted to trading on the regulated market established in Romania. But the issuers remain companies incorporated under Company Law of 1990. Such dual regulations need increased attention in order to observe the legal status of the issuers/companies and financial instruments/shares. Romanian legislator has chosen to implement in Capital Market Law special rules regarding the administration of the issuers of financial instruments, not only rules regarding admitting and maintaining to a regulated market. Thus issuers are, in Romanian Law perspective, special company that should comply special rule regarding board of administration and general shareholders meeting.

  2. Instrumentation database specific to Trillo I NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira Pagan, M.B.; Saenz de Tejada, P.; Fernandez Alvarez, A.; Haya, J.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of data on electronic instrumentation components in the Trillo I PSA has involved and extra effort, basically due to the particular characteristics of these equipment items. This analysis has different aspects depending on the type of information used: Components whose data have been obtained from generic information sources (with or without Bayesian processing). Components whose data have been obtained from specific German studies (TUV) Components whose data have been based directly on the historical experience of Trillo I NPP Components whose data have been based on miscellaneous generic and specific sources This information can also be classified into: Micro components formed by a single module ar card Micro components: formed by set of instrumentation elements It can be further subdivided according to the operating conditions of the components: Equipment whose operation depends on the functions they perform in a particular system (eg. reactor protection system instrumentation channels) Equipment whose operation is not associated with particular conditions (eg. modules for motor-operated equipment). (Author)

  3. Status of ART-XC/SRG Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlinsky, M.; Akimov, V.; Levin, V.; Lapshov, I.; Tkachenko, A.; Semena, N.; Buntov, M.; Glushenko, A.; Arefiev, V.; Yaskovich, A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) is an X-ray astrophysical observatory, developed by Russia in collaboration with Germany. The mission will be launched in March 2016 from Baikonur, by a Zenit rocket with a Fregat booster and placed in a 6-month-period halo orbit around L2. The scientific payload consists of two independent telescopes - a soft-x-ray survey instrument, eROSITA, being provided by Germany and a medium-x-ray-energy survey instrument ART-XC being developed by Russia. ART-XC will consist of seven independent, but co-aligned, telescope modules. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is fabricating the flight mirror modules for the ART-XC/SRG. Each mirror module will be aligned with a focal plane CdTe double-sided strip detectors which will operate over the energy range of 6-30 keV, with an angular resolution of less than 1', a field of view of approximately 34' and an expected energy resolution of about 10 percent at 14 keV.

  4. ICFA: Instrumentation school

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-10-15

    74 students, including 45 from developing countries, ten lecturers and nine laboratory instructors participated in the novel instrumentation school held in June at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy, sponsored by ICTP and arranged through the Instrumentation Panel of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICF). During the two weeks of the course, students had the chance to construct and test a proportional chamber, measure the lifetime of cosmic ray muons, operate and analyse the performance of an 8-wire imaging drift chamber, or study noise and signal processing using a silicon photodiode.

  5. Interfacing to accelerator instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    As the sensory system for an accelerator, the beam instrumentation provides a tremendous amount of diagnostic information. Access to this information can vary from periodic spot checks by operators to high bandwidth data acquisition during studies. In this paper, example applications will illustrate the requirements on interfaces between the control system and the instrumentation hardware. A survey of the major accelerator facilities will identify the most popular interface standards. The impact of developments such as isochronous protocols and embedded digital signal processing will also be discussed

  6. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  7. Neutron multiplication measurement instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results

  8. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID-20893 (Rev. 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice

  9. Virtual Reality Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low-cost technologies have created a wide interest in virtual reality. In the field of computer music, the term “virtual musical instruments” has been used for a long time to describe software simulations, extensions of existing musical instruments......, and ways to control them with new interfaces for musical expression. Virtual reality musical instruments (VRMIs) that include a simulated visual component delivered via a head-mounted display or other forms of immersive visualization have not yet received much attention. In this article, we present a field...

  10. ICFA: Instrumentation school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    74 students, including 45 from developing countries, ten lecturers and nine laboratory instructors participated in the novel instrumentation school held in June at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy, sponsored by ICTP and arranged through the Instrumentation Panel of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICF). During the two weeks of the course, students had the chance to construct and test a proportional chamber, measure the lifetime of cosmic ray muons, operate and analyse the performance of an 8-wire imaging drift chamber, or study noise and signal processing using a silicon photodiode

  11. Instrumentation Cables Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Chris Bensdotter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    A fire at a nuclear power plant (NPP) has the potential to damage structures, systems, and components important to safety, if not promptly detected and suppressed. At Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant on March 22, 1975, a fire in the reactor building damaged electrical power and control systems. Damage to instrumentation cables impeded the function of both normal and standby reactor coolant systems, and degraded the operators’ plant monitoring capability. This event resulted in additional NRC involvement with utilities to ensure that NPPs are properly protected from fire as intended by the NRC principle design criteria (i.e., general design criteria 3, Fire Protection). Current guidance and methods for both deterministic and performance based approaches typically make conservative (bounding) assumptions regarding the fire-induced failure modes of instrumentation cables and those failure modes effects on component and system response. Numerous fire testing programs have been conducted in the past to evaluate the failure modes and effects of electrical cables exposed to severe thermal conditions. However, that testing has primarily focused on control circuits with only a limited number of tests performed on instrumentation circuits. In 2001, the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) conducted a series of cable fire tests designed to address specific aspects of the cable failure and circuit fault issues of concern1. The NRC was invited to observe and participate in that program. The NRC sponsored Sandia National Laboratories to support this participation, whom among other things, added a 4-20 mA instrumentation circuit and instrumentation cabling to six of the tests. Although limited, one insight drawn from those instrumentation circuits tests was that the failure characteristics appeared to depend on the cable insulation material. The results showed that for thermoset insulated cables, the instrument reading tended to drift

  12. Celadon Figurines Play Instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    This group of figurines, each 0.15m tall, were unearthed from a Tang Dynasty tomb in Changsha in 1977. Music was very developed in the Tang Dynasty. Colorful musical instruments and dances were popular both among the people and in the palace. These vivid-looking figurines wear pleated skirts with small sleeves and open chest, a style influenced by the non-Han nationalities living in the north and west of China. Some of the musical instruments were brought from the Western Regions. The figurines are playing the xiao (a vertical bamboo flute), the konghou (an

  13. Inspector-instrument interface in portable NDA instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1981-01-01

    Recent electronics technology advances make it possible to design sophisticated instruments in small packages for convenient field implementation. An inspector-instrument interface design that allows communication of procedures, responses, and results between the instrument and user is presented. This capability has been incorporated into new spent-fuel instrumentation and a battery-powered multichannel analyzer

  14. Inspector-instrument interface in portable NDA instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1981-01-01

    Recent electronics technology advances make it possible to design sophisticated instruments in small packages for convenient field implementation. This report describes an inspector-instrument interface design which allows communication of procedures, responses, and results between the instrument and user. The interface has been incorporated into new spent-fuel instrumentation and a battery-powered multichannel analyzer

  15. First Materials Science Research Rack Capabilities and Design Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, D.; King, R.; Cobb, S.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The first Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) will accommodate dual Experiment Modules (EM's) and provide simultaneous on-orbit processing operations capability. The first international Materials Science Experiment Module for the MSRR-1 is an international cooperative research activity between NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the European Space Agency's (ESA) European Space Research and Technology Center. (ESTEC). This International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) will contain the Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) developed by ESA as an Experiment Module. The MSL Experiment Module will accommodate several on-orbit exchangeable experiment-specific Module Inserts. Module Inserts currently planned are a Quench Module Insert, Low Gradient Furnace, Solidification with Quench Furnace, and Diffusion Module Insert. The second Experiment Module for the MSRR-1 configuration is a commercial device supplied by MSFC's Space Products Department (SPD). It includes capabilities for vapor transport processes and liquid metal sintering. This Experiment Module will be replaced on-orbit with other NASA Materials Science EMs.

  16. On the Nature of Science

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, B. K.

    2006-01-01

    A 21st century view of the nature of science is presented. It attempts to show how a consistent description of science and scientific progress can be given. Science advances through a sequence of models with progressively greater predictive power. The philosophical and metaphysical implications of the models change in unpredictable ways as the predictive power increases. The view of science arrived at is one based on instrumentalism. Philosophical realism can only be recovered by a subtle use...

  17. Pre-service secondary school science teachers science teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF.MIREKU

    pre-service secondary science teachers' self-efficacy beliefs with regard to gender and educational .... outcome. As a consequence, instruments for the determination of self-efficacy ...... Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 42, 119–31. Bursal, M.

  18. Power station instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    Power stations are characterized by a wide variety of mechanical and electrical plant operating with structures, liquids and gases working at high pressures and temperatures and with large mass flows. The voltages and currents are also the highest that occur in most industries. In order to achieve maximum economy, the plant is operated with relatively small margins from conditions that can cause rapid plant damage, safety implications, and very high financial penalties. In common with other process industries, power stations depend heavily on control and instrumentation. These systems have become particularly significant, in the cost-conscious privatized environment, for providing the means to implement the automation implicit in maintaining safety standards, improving generation efficiency and reducing operating manpower costs. This book is for professional instrumentation engineers who need to known about their use in power stations and power station engineers requiring information about the principles and choice of instrumentation available. There are 8 chapters; chapter 4 on instrumentation for nuclear steam supply systems is indexed separately. (Author)

  19. University Reactor Instrumentation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernetson, W.G.

    1992-11-01

    Recognizing that the University Reactor Instrumentation Program was developed in response to widespread needs in the academic community for modernization and improvement of research and training reactors at institutions such as the University of Florida, the items proposed to be supported by this grant over its two year period have been selected as those most likely to reduce foreed outages, to meet regulatory concerns that had been expressed in recent years by Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspectors or to correct other facility problems and limitations. Department of Energy Grant Number DE-FG07-90ER129969 was provided to the University of Florida Training Reactor(UFTR) facility through the US Department of Energy's University Reactor Instrumentation Program. The original proposal submitted in February, 1990 requested support for UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment upgrades for seven items in the amount of $107,530 with $13,800 of this amount to be the subject of cost sharing by the University of Florida and $93,730 requested as support from the Department of Energy. A breakdown of the items requested and total cost for the proposed UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment improvements is presented

  20. Neutron instrumentation for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, S.A. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    1994-12-31

    In the October 1994 round of proposals at the ILL, the external biology review sub- committee was asked to allocate neutron beam time to a wide range of experiments, on almost half the total number of scheduled neutron instruments: on 3 diffractometers, on 3 small angle scattering instruments, and on some 6 inelastic scattering spectrometers. In the 3.5 years since the temporary reactor shutdown, the ILL`s management structure has been optimized, budgets and staff have been trimmed, the ILL reactor has been re-built, and many of the instruments up-graded, many powerful (mainly Unix) workstations have been introduced, and the neighboring European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has established itself as the leading synchrotron radiation source and has started its official user program. The ILL reactor remains the world`s most intense dedicated neutron source. In this challenging context, it is of interest to review briefly the park of ILL instruments used to study the structure and energetics of small and large biological systems. A brief summary will be made of each class of experiments actually proposed in the latest ILL proposal round.

  1. The ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.R.; Mälkki, A.; Visser, H.; Vries, J. de; Stammes, P.; Lundell, J.O.V.; Saari, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Adminsitration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial

  2. Economic Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    Økonomiske instrumenter begrundes med behovet for politiske indgreb, der muliggør internaliseringen af omkostningerne ved de miljøpåvirkninger, produktion and levevis afstedkommer, således at hensyntagen til miljøet bliver en del af virksomheders og husholdningers omkostninger og dermed en tilsky...

  3. Radiometric well logging instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    The technical properties of well instruments for radioactive logging used in the radiometric logging complexes PKS-1000-1 (''Sond-1'') and PRKS-2 (''Vitok-2'') are described. The main features of the electric circuit of the measuring channels are given

  4. Advanced instrumentation and teleoperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    1998-01-01

    SCK-CEN's advanced instrumentation and teleoperation project aims at evaluating the potential of a telerobotic approach in a nuclear environment and, in particular, the use of remote-perception systems. Main achievements in 1997 in the areas of R and D on radiation tolerance for remote sensing, optical fibres and optical-fibre sensors, and computer-aided teleoperation are reported

  5. Health physics instrumentation needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.; Swinth, K.L.; Kenoyer, J.L.

    1984-10-01

    Deficiencies and desirable improvements can be identified in every technical area in which health physics instruments are employed. The needed improvements cover the full spectrum including long-term reliability, human factors, accuracy, ruggedness, ease of calibration, improved radiation response, and improved mixed field response. Some specific areas of deficiency noted along with needed improvements. 17 references

  6. Virtual reality musical instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low cost technologies has created a wide interest in virtual reality (VR), but how to design and evaluate multisensory interactions in VR remains as a challenge. In this paper, we focus on virtual reality musical instruments, present an overview of our...

  7. Creating a Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpää, Maria; Gasselseder, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Thanks to the development of new technology, musical instruments are no more tied to their existing acoustic or technical limitations as almost all parameters can be augmented or modified in real time. An increasing number of composers, performers, and computer programmers have thus become intere...

  8. CMO Site: Ocean Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Precipitation , Lightning, Visibility 0150 A InterOcea Hawser Strain 1.. systems, inc. and more... n 1946 3540 aero court san diego ca 92123-1799 usa phone: (619...AGU’s Microgal culture Association, P.O. Box 1004, April 8-10, 1997-Underwater Gravimetry : Instruments, Observa- Niland, CA 92257; (619) 359-3474

  9. Instrumentation in thermoluminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julius, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    In the performance of a thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) system the equipment plays an important role. Crucial parameters of instrumentation in TLD are discussed in some detail. A review is given of equipment available on the market today - with some emphasis on automation - which is partly based on information from industry and others involved in research and development. (author)

  10. Ion chamber instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    An electrical ionization chamber is described having a self-supporting wall of cellular material which is of uniform areal density and formed of material, such as foamed polystyrene, having an average effective atomic number between about 4 and about 9, and easily replaceable when on the instrument. (auth)

  11. Integrating Nephelometer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uin, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Integrating Nephelometer (Figure 1) is an instrument that measures aerosol light scattering. It measures aerosol optical scattering properties by detecting (with a wide angular integration – from 7 to 170°) the light scattered by the aerosol and subtracting the light scattered by the carrier gas, the instrument walls and the background noise in the detector (zeroing). Zeroing is typically performed for 5 minutes every day at midnight UTC. The scattered light is split into red (700 nm), green (550 nm), and blue (450 nm) wavelengths and captured by three photomultiplier tubes. The instrument can measure total scatter as well as backscatter only (from 90 to 170°) (Heintzenberg and Charlson 1996; Anderson et al. 1996; Anderson and Ogren 1998; TSI 3563 2015) At ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement), two identical Nephelometers are usually run in series with a sample relative humidity (RH) conditioner between them. This is possible because Nephelometer sampling is non-destructive and the sample can be passed on to another instrument. The sample RH conditioner scans through multiple RH values in cycles, treating the sample. This kind of setup allows to study how aerosol particles’ light scattering properties are affected by humidification (Anderson et al. 1996). For historical reasons, the two Nephelometers in this setup are labeled “wet” and “dry”, with the “dry” Nephelometer usually being the one before the conditioner and sampling ambient air (the names are switched for the MAOS measurement site due to the high RH of the ambient air).

  12. Measurement and Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, Harold

    2018-01-02

    This is a chapter for a book called the Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineering. Though it is not obvious from the title, the book deals mainly with power engineering. The first chapter (not mine) is about the fundamental quantities used in measurement. This chapter is about the process and the instrumentation.

  13. Analytical chemistry instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laing, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    In nine sections, 48 chapters cover 1) analytical chemistry and the environment 2) environmental radiochemistry 3) automated instrumentation 4) advances in analytical mass spectrometry 5) fourier transform spectroscopy 6) analytical chemistry of plutonium 7) nuclear analytical chemistry 8) chemometrics and 9) nuclear fuel technology

  14. CRISP instrument manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucknall, D.G.; Langridge, Sean

    1997-05-01

    This document is a user manual for CRISP, one of the two neutron reflectomers at ISIS. CRISP is highly automated allowing precision reproducible measurements. The manual provides detailed instructions for the setting-up and running of the instrument and advice on data analysis. (UK)

  15. Mercury Science Objectives and Traceability Within the BepiColombo Project: Optimising the Science Output of the Next Mission to Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, S.; Benkhoff, J.; Bentley, M.; Cornet, T.; Moissl, R.; Munoz, C.; Zender, J.

    2018-05-01

    The BepiColombo Science Ground Segment is developing, in collaboration with the instrument teams, targeted science traceability matrix of each instrument. They are defined in such a way that they can be tracked during the observation lifecycle.

  16. Development of intelligent system for a thermal analysis instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiaoli; Wu Guoxin; Shi Yongchao

    2005-01-01

    The key techniques for the intelligent analysis instrument developed are proposed. Based on the technique of virtual instrumentation, the intelligent PID control algorithm to control the temperature of thermal analysis instrument is described. The dynamic character and the robust performance of traditional PID controls are improved through the dynamic gain factor, temperature rate change factor, the forecast factor, and the temperature correction factor is introduced. Using the graphic development environment of LabVIEW, the design of system modularization and the graphic display are implemented. By means of multiple mathematical modules, intelligent data processing is realized

  17. Design of a TFT-LCD Based Digital Automobile Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsong Xu

    2014-01-01

    instrument and gives an introduction to the sampling circuits and interfaces related to these signals. Following this is the functional categorizing of the circuit modules, such as video buffer circuit, CAN bus interface circuit, and TFT-LCD drive circuit. Additionally, the external EEPROM stores information of the vehicle for history data query, and the external FLASH enables the display of high quality figures. On the whole, the accomplished automobile instrument meets the requirements of automobile instrument markets with its characters of low cost, favorable compatibility, friendly interfaces, and easy upgrading.

  18. TXESS Revolution: Utilizing TERC's EarthLabs Cryosphere Module to Support Professional Development of Texas Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, M.; Ellins, K. K.; Polito, E. J.; Castillo Comer, C. A.; Stocks, E.; Manganella, K.; Ledley, T. S.

    2010-12-01

    TERC’s EarthLabs project provides rigorous and engaging Earth and environmental science labs. Four existing modules illustrate sequences for learning science concepts through data analysis activities and hands-on experiments. A fifth module, developed with NSF, comprises a series of linked inquiry based activities focused on the cryosphere to help students understand concepts around change over time on multiple and embedded time scales. Teachers recruited from the NSF-OEDG-sponsored Texas Earth and Space Science (TXESS) Revolution teacher professional development program conducted a pedagogical review of the Cryosphere EarthLabs module and provided feedback on how well the materials matched high school needs in Texas and were aligned with state and national standards. Five TXESS Revolution teachers field tested the materials in their classrooms and then trained other TXESS Revolution teachers on their implementation during spring and summer 2010. Here we report on the results of PD delivery during the summer 2010 TXESS Revolution summer institute as determined by (1) a set of evaluation instruments that included a pre-post concept map activity to assess changes in workshop teachers’ understanding of the concepts presented, a pre-post test content knowledge test, and a pre-post survey of teachers’ comfort in teaching the Texas Earth and Space Science standards addressed by the module; (2) teacher reflections; and (3) focus group responses. The findings reveal that the teachers liked the module activities and felt they could use them to teach Environmental and Earth Science. They appreciated that the sequence of activities contributed to a deeper understanding and observed that the variety of methods used to present the information accommodates different learning styles. Information about the cryosphere was new to all the teachers. The content knowledge tests reveal that although teachers made appreciable gains, their understanding of cryosphere, how it changes

  19. Development of nuclear imaging instrument and software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jang Hee; Chung Jae Myung; Nam, Sang Won; Chang, Hyung Uk

    1999-03-01

    In the medical diagnosis, the nuclear medical instrument using the radioactive isotope are commonly utilized. In the foreign countries, the medical application and development of the most advanced nuclear medical instrument such as Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography (SPECT) and position emission tomograph (PET), have been extensively carried out. However, in Korea, such highly expensive instruments have been all, imported, paying foreign currency. Since 1997, much efforts, the development of the radio nuclide medical instrument, the drive of the domestic production, etc. have been made to establish our own technologies and to balance the international payments under the support of the Ministry of Science and Technology. At present time, 180 nuclear imaging instruments are now in operation and 60 of them are analog camera. In analog camera, the vector X-Y monitor is need for are image display. Since the analog camera, signal can not be process in the digital form, we have difficulties to transfer and store the image data. The image displayed at the monitor must be stored in the form of polaroid or X ray film. In order to discard these disadvantages, if we developed the computer interface system, the performance analog camera will be comparable with that of the digital camera. The final objective of the research is that using the interface system developed in this research, we reconstruct the image data transmitted to the personal computer in the form of the generalized data file

  20. Large Instrument Development for Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J. Richard; Warnick, Karl F.; Jeffs, Brian D.; Norrod, Roger D.; Lockman, Felix J.; Cordes, James M.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2009-03-01

    This white paper offers cautionary observations about the planning and development of new, large radio astronomy instruments. Complexity is a strong cost driver so every effort should be made to assign differing science requirements to different instruments and probably different sites. The appeal of shared resources is generally not realized in practice and can often be counterproductive. Instrument optimization is much more difficult with longer lists of requirements, and the development process is longer and less efficient. More complex instruments are necessarily further behind the technology state of the art because of longer development times. Including technology R&D in the construction phase of projects is a growing trend that leads to higher risks, cost overruns, schedule delays, and project de-scoping. There are no technology breakthroughs just over the horizon that will suddenly bring down the cost of collecting area. Advances come largely through careful attention to detail in the adoption of new technology provided by industry and the commercial market. Radio astronomy instrumentation has a very bright future, but a vigorous long-term R&D program not tied directly to specific projects needs to be restored, fostered, and preserved.