Sample records for science history literature

  1. Scottish science fiction: writing Scottish literature back into history


    Miller, Gavin


    The increasing vigour of Scottish literature since the 1980s has led not only to a revival in literary fiction, but also to a growing diversification into other narrative genres. The detective story – in the form of so-called “tartan noir” – has been the most obvious popular genre to undergo revival, but science fiction has also blossomed in the work of authors such as Alasdair Gray, Iain (M.) Banks, and Ken MacLeod. In this article, I trace something of the problematic history of Scottish sc...

  2. Medizinhistorische Literatur [Medical history literature

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    Bauer, Bruno


    Full Text Available [english] The focus of the current issue 1-2/2012 of GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information is on medical history literature. In six articles special collections and recent projects of medical history libraries in Berlin, Hamburg, Heidelberg, Leipzig, Vienna and Zurich are presented. The authors in this issue are Melanie Scholz & Vera Seehausen (From Augusta to Klingsor, from Luise to Benjamin – past, present and future of the library of the Institute of the History of Medicine in Berlin, Alexandra Veith (Library of the Institute for History of Medicine and Ethics of Medicine, Heidelberg, Melanie Kintzel, Meike Knittel & Tanja Krutky (Historic collections of the Medical Library of the University of the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf and their deacidification, Dagmar Geithner (Library of the Karl Sudhoff Institute for the History of Medicine and Science, Leipzig – a Historical Review, Harald Albrecht, Bruno Bauer & Walter Mentzel (The Josephinian Library and the medical-historic stock of the University Library of the Medical University of Vienna and Monika Huber & Ursula Reis (Library of the Institute and Museum of the History of Medicine Zurich.[german] Schwerpunktthema der aktuellen Ausgabe 1-2/2012von GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information ist medizinhistorische Literatur. In sechs Beiträgen werden Bestände und aktuelle Projekte medizinhistorischer Bibliotheken in Berlin, Hamburg, Heidelberg, Leipzig, Wien und Zürich vorgestellt. Verfasst wurden die Beiträge der Schwerpunktausgabe von Melanie Scholz & Vera Seehausen (Von August zu Klingsor, von Luise zu Benjamin – Vergangenheit, Gegenwart und Zukunft der Bibliothek des Instituts für Geschichte der Medizin in Berlin, Melanie Kintzel, Meike Knittel & Tanja Krutky (Medizinhistorische Buchbestände am Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf und ihre Entsäuerung, Ara Veith (Bibliothek des Instituts für Geschichte und Ethik der Medizin in Heidelberg, Dagmar Geithner

  3. Bengal Literature and History. (United States)

    Dimock, Edward C., Jr., Ed.

    The unifying theme of the papers in this book is the use of creative literature as source material for the study of cultural history. Titles and authors of the papers are: "Encounter and Growth in Bengali Literature, A Survey of Medieval Bengali Literature" by T.W. Clark; "The Hindu Chiefdom in Middle Bengali Literature" by…

  4. Didactic implications of the history of science in Physics Education: a literature review through discursive textual analysis

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    Edmundo Rodrigues Junior


    Full Text Available This work presents a literature review of the educational implications of the history of science in the teaching of Physics in the period 2010 to 2014. The technique used to analyze the data was the discursive textual analysis with the categories defined a priori. These categories include different teaching strategies for the teaching of history of science in Physics classes such as the use of primary or original sources, historical case studies, science through drama activities, historical experiments, biographies and /or autobiographies of scientists and the content analysis of the history of science present in textbooks. The result showed that 36 articles of 1659 available in journals use these teaching strategies. The results of the interpretative step consisted in the production of six metatexts in which two learning objectives were identified: the first one is related to physical concepts and the second one in aspects related to understanding the Nature of Science. The evaluation tools used by the authors to assess the students’ knowledge were identified in our corpus too.

  5. History of Science (United States)

    Oversby, John


    In this article, the author discusses why the history of science should be included in the science curriculum in schools. He also presents some opportunities that can come out of using historical contexts, and findings from a study assessing the place of history of science in readily available textbooks.

  6. History of information science


    Buckland, MK; Liu, Z


    This informative volume concentrates on the following areas: Historiography of Information Science; Paul Otlet and His Successors; Techniques, Tools, and Systems; People and Organizations; Theoretical Topics; and Literature.

  7. Science A history

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John


    From award-winning science writer John Gribbin, "Science: A History" is the enthralling story of the men and women who changed the way we see the world, and the turbulent times they lived in. From Galileo, tried by the Inquisition for his ideas, to Newton, who wrote his rivals out of the history books; from Marie Curie, forced to work apart from male students for fear she might excite them, to Louis Agassiz, who marched his colleagues up a mountain to prove that the ice ages had occurred. Filled with pioneers, visionaries, eccentrics and madmen, this is the history of science as it has never been told before.

  8. Teaching science through literature (United States)

    Barth, Daniel


    The hypothesis of this study was that a multidisciplinary, activity rich science curriculum based around science fiction literature, rather than a conventional text book would increase student engagement with the curriculum and improve student performance on standards-based test instruments. Science fiction literature was chosen upon the basis of previous educational research which indicated that science fiction literature was able to stimulate and maintain interest in science. The study was conducted on a middle school campus during the regular summer school session. Students were self-selected from the school's 6 th, 7th, and 8th grade populations. The students used the science fiction novel Maurice on the Moon as their only text. Lessons and activities closely followed the adventures of the characters in the book. The student's initial level of knowledge in Earth and space science was assessed by a pre test. After the four week program was concluded, the students took a post test made up of an identical set of questions. The test included 40 standards-based questions that were based upon concepts covered in the text of the novel and in the classroom lessons and activities. The test also included 10 general knowledge questions that were based upon Earth and space science standards that were not covered in the novel or the classroom lessons or activities. Student performance on the standards-based question set increased an average of 35% for all students in the study group. Every subgroup disaggregated by gender and ethnicity improved from 28-47%. There was no statistically significant change in the performance on the general knowledge question set for any subgroup. Student engagement with the material was assessed by three independent methods, including student self-reports, percentage of classroom work completed, and academic evaluation of student work by the instructor. These assessments of student engagement were correlated with changes in student performance

  9. History of Science and History of Philologies. (United States)

    Daston, Lorraine; Most, Glenn W


    While both the sciences and the humanities, as currently defined, may be too heterogeneous to be encompassed within a unified historical framework, there is good reason to believe that the history of science and the history of philologies both have much to gain by joining forces. This collaboration has already yielded striking results in the case of the history of science and humanist learning in early modern Europe. This essay argues that first, philology and at least some of the sciences (e.g., astronomy) remained intertwined in consequential ways well into the modern period in Western cultures; and second, widening the scope of inquiry to include other philological traditions in non-Western cultures offers rich possibilities for a comparative history of learned practices. The focus on practices is key; by shifting the emphasis from what is studied to how it is studied, deep commonalities emerge among disciplines--and intellectual traditions--now classified as disparate.

  10. Accessing African History Through Literature | Ngongkum | Marang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drawing from the premise that African literature is largely functional, this paper aims at showing its validity in offering its readers fundamental aspects of African history. The paper argues that the very groundedness of cultural artefacts, literature inclusive, in history makes this possible. The paper will use sample texts from ...

  11. History of mathematics and history of science


    Mann, Tony


    This essay argues that the diversity of the history of mathematics community in the United Kingdom has influenced the development of the subject and is a significant factor behind the different concerns often evident in work on the history of mathematics when compared with that of historians of science. The heterogeneous nature of the community, which includes many who are not specialist historians, and the limited opportunities for academic\\ud careers open to practitioners have had a profoun...

  12. History of mathematics and history of science. (United States)

    Mann, Tony


    This essay argues that the diversity of the history of mathematics community in the United Kingdom has influenced the development of the subject and is a significant factor behind the different concerns often evident in work on the history of mathematics when compared with that of historians of science. The heterogeneous nature of the community, which includes many who are not specialist historians, and the limited opportunities for academic careers open to practitioners have had a profound effect on the discipline, leading to a focus on elite mathematics and great mathematicians. More recently, reflecting earlier developments in the history of science, an increased interest in the context and culture of the practice of mathematics has become evident.

  13. Literature, history and the humanization of bioethics. (United States)

    Emmerich, Nathan


    This paper considers the disciplines of literature and history and the contributions each makes to the discourse of bioethics. In each case I note the pedagogic ends that can be enacted though the appropriate use of the each of these disciplines in the sphere of medical education, particularly in the medical ethics classroom.(1) I then explore the contribution that both these disciplines and their respective methodologies can and do bring to the academic field of bioethics. I conclude with a brief consideration of the relations between literature and history with particular attention to the possibilities for a future bioethics informed by history and literature after the empirical turn. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. History and science of knots

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, J C


    This book brings together twenty essays on diverse topics in the history and science of knots. It is divided into five parts, which deal respectively with knots in prehistory and antiquity, non-European traditions, working knots, the developing science of knots, and decorative and other aspects of knots.Its authors include archaeologists who write on knots found in digs of ancient sites (one describes the knots used by the recently discovered Ice Man); practical knotters who have studied the history and uses of knots at sea, for fishing and for various life support activities; a historian of l

  15. Literature and Science Create an Engaging Combination. (United States)

    Brabham, Edna Greene


    Discusses programs and research that support the integration of literature and science. Reviews literature selections across a range of genres that complement topics included in middle school science, including science fiction and poetry. Considers resources educators can use to find additional science-related material. (JPB)

  16. The history of science fiction

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Adam


    This book is the definitive critical history of science fiction. The 2006 first edition of this work traced the development of the genre from Ancient Greece and the European Reformation through to the end of the 20th century. This new 2nd edition has been revised thoroughly and very significantly expanded. An all-new final chapter discusses 21st-century science fiction, and there is new material in every chapter: a wealth of new readings and original research. The author’s groundbreaking thesis that science fiction is born out of the 17th-century Reformation is here bolstered with a wide range of new supporting material and many hundreds of 17th- and 18th-century science fiction texts, some of which have never been discussed before. The account of 19th-century science fiction has been expanded, and the various chapters tracing the twentieth-century bring in more writing by women, and science fiction in other media including cinema, TV, comics, fan-culture and other modes.

  17. The role of history in science. (United States)

    Creath, Richard


    The case often made by scientists (and philosophers) against history and the history of science in particular is clear. Insofar as a field of study is historical as opposed to law-based, it is trivial. Insofar as a field attends to the past of science as opposed to current scientific issues, its efforts are derivative and, by diverting attention from acquiring new knowledge, deplorable. This case would be devastating if true, but it has almost everything almost exactly wrong. The study of history and the study of laws are not mutually exclusive, but unavoidably linked. Neither can be pursued without the other. Much the same can be said of the history of science. The history of science is neither a distraction from "real" science nor even merely a help to science. Rather, the history of science is an essential part of each science. Seeing that this is so requires a broader understanding of both history and science.

  18. History of Science and Science Museums (United States)

    Faria, Cláudia; Guilherme, Elsa; Gaspar, Raquel; Boaventura, Diana


    The activities presented in this paper, which are addressed to elementary school, are focused on the pioneering work of the Portuguese King Carlos I in oceanography and involve the exploration of the exhibits belonging to two different science museums, the Aquarium Vasco da Gama and the Maritime Museum. Students were asked to study fish adaptations to deep sea, through the exploration of a fictional story, based on historical data and based on the work of the King that served as a guiding script for all the subsequent tasks. In both museums, students had access to: historical collections of organisms, oceanographic biological sampling instruments, fish gears and ships. They could also observe the characteristics and adaptations of diverse fish species characteristic of deep sea. The present study aimed to analyse the impact of these activities on students' scientific knowledge, on their understanding of the nature of science and on the development of transversal skills. All students considered the project very popular. The results obtained suggest that the activity promoted not only the understanding of scientific concepts, but also stimulated the development of knowledge about science itself and the construction of scientific knowledge, stressing the relevance of creating activities informed by the history of science. As a final remark we suggest that the partnership between elementary schools and museums should be seen as an educational project, in which the teacher has to assume a key mediating role between the school and the museums.

  19. French Literature Abroad: Towards an Alternative History of French Literature

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    Simon Gaunt


    Full Text Available What would a history of medieval literature in French that is not focused on France and Paris look like? Taking as its starting point the key role played in the development of textual culture in French by geographical regions that are either at the periphery of French-speaking areas, or alternatively completely outside them, this article offers three case studies: first of a text composed in mid-twelfth century England; then of one from early thirteenth-century Flanders; and finally from late thirteenth-century Italy. What difference does it make if we do not read these texts, and the language in which they are written, in relation to French norms, but rather look at their cultural significance both at their point of production, and then in transmission? A picture emerges of a literary culture in French that is mobile and cosmopolitan, one that cannot be tied to the teleology of an emerging national identity, and one that is a bricolage of a range of influences that are moving towards France as well as being exported from it. French itself functions as a supralocal written language (even when it has specific local features and therefore may function more like Latin than a local vernacular.

  20. History of science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Byeong Ju


    This book shows origin of technology and development of civilization, origin of science and dissemination of ironware, accumulation of science and technology in the Middle Age society, the era of the Renaissance and science, factory-made manual industry and mechanistic nature view, the era of scientific enlightenment, industrial revolution, science and technology of Korea, formation of modern science and technology, modern technology and approach to science and technology, science and technology in the twenty century such as biochemistry and physics, and cooperation of science and technology.

  1. History of science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Byeong Ju


    This book shows origin of technology and development of civilization, origin of science and dissemination of ironware, accumulation of science and technology in the Middle Age society, the era of the Renaissance and science, factory-made manual industry and mechanistic nature view, the era of scientific enlightenment, industrial revolution, science and technology of Korea, formation of modern science and technology, modern technology and approach to science and technology, science and technology in the twenty century such as biochemistry and physics, and cooperation of science and technology.

  2. The National Science Foundation and the History of Science (United States)

    Rothenberg, Marc


    The National Science Foundation (NSF) is the major funder of the history of science in the United States. Between 1958 and 2010, the NSF program for the history of science has given 89 awards in the history of astronomy. This paper analyzes the award recipients and subject areas of the awards and notes significant shifts in the concentration of award recipients and the chronological focus of the research being funded.

  3. Focus: Global histories of science. Introduction. (United States)

    Sivasundaram, Sujit


    An interest in global histories of science is not new. Yet the project envisioned by this Focus section is different from that pursued by natural historians and natural philosophers in the early modern age. Instead of tracing universal patterns, there is value in attending to the connections and disconnections of science on the global stage. Instead of assuming the precision of science's boundaries, historians might consider the categories of "science" and "indigenous knowledge" to have emerged from globalization. New global histories of science will be characterized by critical reflection on the limits of generalization, as well as a creative adoption of new sources, methods, and chronologies, in an attempt to decenter the European history of science. Such a project holds the promise of opening up new conversations between historians, anthropologists, philosophers, and sociologists of science. It is of critical importance if the discipline is not to fragment into regional and national subfields or become dominated by structural frameworks such as imperialism.

  4. The Phenomenon of the Styrian Arsenic Eaters from the Perspective of Literature, Chemistry, Toxicology, and History of Science-"Strong Poison" or "Simple-Minded Reasoning"? (United States)

    Wallau, W Martin


    The arsenic eaters of Styria, who were supposedly immunized against the toxic effects of arsenic (As2 O3 ), appeared increasingly in scientific and popular literature in the second half of the 19th century. This Essay starts with a depiction of this phenomenon from a detective novel and questions whether the observations and scientific knowledge at that time can confirm this legend. Figure from J. H. Pepper, The Boy's Book of Metals, p. 433. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A Review of Forensic Science Management Literature. (United States)

    Houck, M M; McAndrew, W P; Porter, M; Davies, B


    The science in forensic science has received increased scrutiny in recent years, but interest in how forensic science is managed is a relatively new line of research. This paper summarizes the literature in forensic science management generally from 2009 to 2013, with some recent additions, to provide an overview of the growth of topics, results, and improvements in the management of forensic services in the public and private sectors. This review covers only the last three years or so and a version of this paper was originally produced for the 2013 Interpol Forensic Science Managers Symposium and is available at Copyright © 2015 Central Police University.

  6. Borchert's "Lesebuchgeschichten": History and Culture through Literature (United States)

    Stark, James L.


    Wolfgang Borchert's "Lesebuchgeschichten" present a summary view of German society before and after World War II and could easily serve as the focal point for a presentation of the Third Reich in a course on German culture and history. The works are described here. (CHK)

  7. A History of Adventure in Children's Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCausland, Elly


    with popular medievalism and the figure of the bold chivalric knight intersected with bourgeois forms of venture capitalism; the resulting children’s adventure narratives attempt to negotiate and even combine these two very different forms of risk-taking. Next, I will explore the rise of fantasy literature......This project will examine representations of risk in children’s literature from the mid-nineteenth century to the present day. It will explore how issues of risk and trust have been mediated through children’s narratives, and how the adventurous child has served, and continues to serve...... for children following the Second World War. There are numerous overviews of trends within children’s literature during this period, but little exists that links these trends with their immediate sociocultural context and with changing attitudes towards childhood during the aftermath of the war...

  8. Who cares about the history of science? (United States)

    Chang, Hasok


    The history of science has many functions. Historians should consider how their work contributes to various functions, going beyond a simple desire to understand the past correctly. There are both internal and external functions of the history of science in relation to science itself; I focus here on the internal, as they tend to be neglected these days. The internal functions can be divided into orthodox and complementary. The orthodox function is to assist with the understanding of the content and methods of science as it is now practised. The complementary function is to generate and improve scientific knowledge where current science itself fails to do so. Complementary functions of the history of science include the raising of critical awareness, and the recovery and extension of past scientific knowledge that has become forgotten or neglected. These complementary functions are illustrated with some concrete examples.

  9. Does science education need the history of science? (United States)

    Gooday, Graeme; Lynch, John M; Wilson, Kenneth G; Barsky, Constance K


    This essay argues that science education can gain from close engagement with the history of science both in the training of prospective vocational scientists and in educating the broader public about the nature of science. First it shows how historicizing science in the classroom can improve the pedagogical experience of science students and might even help them turn into more effective professional practitioners of science. Then it examines how historians of science can support the scientific education of the general public at a time when debates over "intelligent design" are raising major questions over the kind of science that ought to be available to children in their school curricula. It concludes by considering further work that might be undertaken to show how history of science could be of more general educational interest and utility, well beyond the closed academic domains in which historians of science typically operate.

  10. Expanding Comparative Literature into Comparative Sciences Clusters with Neutrosophy and Quad-stage Method

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    Fu Yuhua


    Full Text Available By using Neutrosophy and Quad-stage Method, the expansions of comparative literature include: comparative social sciences clusters, comparative natural sciences clusters, comparative interdisciplinary sciences clusters, and so on. Among them, comparative social sciences clusters include: comparative literature, comparative history, comparative philosophy, and so on; comparative natural sciences clusters include: comparative mathematics, comparative physics, comparative chemistry, comparative medicine, comparative biology, and so on.

  11. Science literacy and natural history museums

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Oct 15, 2010 ... Paradoxically, this is probably the period in the history of advanced countries in which increasing public and personal efforts have been directed toward the dissemination of scientific knowledge to increase public understanding of science. This article vindicates the role of natural history museums in ...

  12. Renato Poggioli. Between History and Literature

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    Roberto Ludovico


    Full Text Available A pioneer of Slavic studies in Italy during the pre-wwii years, Poggioli graduated in Russian philology under Ettore Lo Gatto in Florence before spending most of the 1930s between Prague, Vilnius and Warsaw as a lecturer for the Italian government. In 1938 he emigrated to the United States to teach Italian at Smith College and Brown University. After the War he went to Harvard as a professor of Slavic Studies and Comparative Literature. This essay shows Poggioli’s role during the first part of his career in making Slavic literatures, and modern Russian poetry in particular, accessible to Italian readers and scholars through his translations (La violetta notturna, 1933; Il fiore del verso russo, 1950. It also highlights his pan-European cultural vision, soon to be further extended to the transatlantic perspective after 1938. Looking beyond his specific work as a translator, a literary critic and theorist (Teoria dell’arte d’avanguardia, 1962, and his active engagement in antifascist initiatives in the u.s., Poggioli is depicted as a sophisticated intellectual against at the backdrop of the crucial decades centered around the years of wwii. Poggioli is not only a “cultural mediator” between the traditional eastern and western geo-cultural spheres, but also covers a key role in the transition between the late season of European Modernism, of which he was an offspring, and the age of the neo-avant-gardes, symbolically inaugurated in Italy in 1963, the same year of Poggioli’s premature death in a car accident in California, half a century ago.

  13. History of Science and Science Museums (United States)

    Faria, Cláudia; Guilherme, Elsa; Gaspar, Raquel; Boaventura, Diana


    The activities presented in this paper, which are addressed to elementary school, are focused on the pioneering work of the Portuguese King Carlos I in oceanography and involve the exploration of the exhibits belonging to two different science museums, the Aquarium Vasco da Gama and the Maritime Museum. Students were asked to study fish…

  14. History | About IASc | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    History. The Indian Academy of Sciences was founded and registered as a society in 1934 with the aim of promoting the progress and upholding the cause of science, in both pure and applied branches. It strives to meet its objectives through promotion of original research and dissemination of scientific knowledge to the ...

  15. A keyword history of Marketing Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.F. Mela (Carl); J.M.T. Roos (Jason); Y. Deng (Yanhui)


    textabstractThis paper considers the history of keywords used in Marketing Science to develop insights on the evolution of marketing science. Several findings emerge. First, "pricing" and "game theory" are the most ubiquitous words. More generally, the three C's and four P's predominate, suggesting

  16. Literature in focus: The history of radioactivity

    CERN Document Server


    René Bimbot, an expert in nuclear physics, will be coming to present his book - The History of Radioactivity. The work provides a summary of our accumulated knowledge of radioactivity and its applications, from its discovery to the present day. Presented in layman's terms, and backed by plenty of illustrations, the work creates the link between the rudimentary knowledge available in the times of Becquerel and the Curies and contemporary physics. It takes us on a great physics adventure, from the nucleus to the quark, from artificial radioactivity to radiotherapy, from the discovery of fission to nuclear reactors, not forgetting dating methods. Finally, the work provides a wealth of practical information on radiation and on matters relating to nuclear waste. A former Research Director at the CNRS, a heavy-ion physicist at the Orsay Nuclear Physics Institute, René Bimbot is no stranger to CERN. At the beginning of the 1980s, he worked on the CERN Synchrocyclotron, before joining the GANIL experiment in 1985...

  17. Social Anthropology and Social Science History (United States)


    In the 1970s, when the social science history movement emerged in the United States, leading to the founding of the Social Science History Association, a simultaneous movement arose in which historians looked to cultural anthropology for inspiration. Although both movements involved historians turning to social sciences for theory and method, they reflected very different views of the nature of the historical enterprise. Cultural anthropology, most notably as preached by Clifford Geertz, became a means by which historians could find a theoretical basis in the social sciences for rejecting a scientific paradigm. This article examines this development while also exploring the complex ways cultural anthropology has embraced—and shunned—history in recent years. PMID:26549914

  18. Contesting Conceptual Boundaries: Byzantine Literature and Its History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis A. Agapitos


    Full Text Available The paper presents the problems of writing a history of Byzantine literature in the context of postmodern anxieties about canonization, authority and narrative histories of literature. An essential difficulty for such a project is the fact that Byzantine literature has been viewed as a continuation of or appendix to Ancient Greek literature, while, on the other, it has been divided into 'learned' and 'vernacular', the latter category having been defined as Modern Greek since the middle of the nineteenth century. The paper offers two sets of criteria for establishing new concepts of periodization and taxonomy. A series of examples are indicatively adduced in order to explain the scientific and ideological impasse in which Byzantine Studies have found themselves at the end of the previous century, while delineating a proposal for a different approach to content and structure of a wider synthesis. Writing a ‘new’ history of Byzantine literature is an experiment in proposing a radical paradigm shift by means of which this particular literary production in Medieval Greek can be studied within the broader context of Medieval European literatures as an integrated entity rather than as a separate and peripheral phase in the histories of Ancient or Modern Greek literature.

  19. Tearing Down the Wall: Literature and Science. (United States)

    Westcott, Warren B.; Spell, J. Everett


    Suggests English teachers might draw from authors such as Carl Sagan, Arthur C. Clarke, Mary Shelly and others: (1) to knock down the walls that separate science and literature; (2) to show their interrelationship; and (3) to instill enthusiasm for the study of both. (NH)

  20. All about science philosophy, history, sociology & communication

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Liu


    There is a lot of confusion and misconception concerning science. The nature and contents of science is an unsettled problem. For example, Thales of 2,600 years ago is recognized as the father of science but the word science was introduced only in the 14th century; the definition of science is often avoided in books about philosophy of science. This book aims to clear up all these confusions and present new developments in the philosophy, history, sociology and communication of science. It also aims to showcase the achievement of China's top scholars in these areas. The 18 chapters, divided into five parts, are written by prominent scholars including the Nobel laureate Robin Warren, sociologist Harry Collins, and physicist-turned-historian Dietrich Stauffer.

  1. Thirty years history of Daeduk Science Town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This book records the history of Daeduk science town for 30 years, which includes plan of construction and selection of location like background of construction and general idea of construction, transition of basic plan to construct Daeduk science town such as change of promotion organization and plan, and establishment of construction general planning, building base for town like land, infrastructure, and measures to control speculative investment, construction and present situation of moving into the science town, management of Daeduk science town, public welfare for researchers, and fruit and image of the future of the town.

  2. Citizen Science for Mining the Biomedical Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginger Tsueng


    Full Text Available Biomedical literature represents one of the largest and fastest growing collections of unstructured biomedical knowledge. Finding critical information buried in the literature can be challenging. To extract information from free-flowing text, researchers need to: 1. identify the entities in the text (named entity recognition, 2. apply a standardized vocabulary to these entities (normalization, and 3. identify how entities in the text are related to one another (relationship extraction. Researchers have primarily approached these information extraction tasks through manual expert curation and computational methods. We have previously demonstrated that named entity recognition (NER tasks can be crowdsourced to a group of non-experts via the paid microtask platform, Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT, and can dramatically reduce the cost and increase the throughput of biocuration efforts. However, given the size of the biomedical literature, even information extraction via paid microtask platforms is not scalable. With our web-based application Mark2Cure (, we demonstrate that NER tasks also can be performed by volunteer citizen scientists with high accuracy. We apply metrics from the Zooniverse Matrices of Citizen Science Success and provide the results here to serve as a basis of comparison for other citizen science projects. Further, we discuss design considerations, issues, and the application of analytics for successfully moving a crowdsourcing workflow from a paid microtask platform to a citizen science platform. To our knowledge, this study is the first application of citizen science to a natural language processing task.

  3. Alchemy and the history of science. Introduction. (United States)

    Moran, Bruce T


    Alchemy is part of the cultural experience of early modern Europe and yet has had to overcome problems of demarcation to be considered relevant to the history of science. This essay considers historiographical and methodological issues that have affected the gradual demarginalization of alchemy among attempts to explain, and find things out about, nature. As an area of historical study, alchemy relates to the history of science as part of an ensemble of practices that explored the natural world through natural philosophy and speculative traditions and by functioning as a nexus of social and intellectual life.

  4. History of mathematics and history of science reunited? (United States)

    Gray, Jeremy


    For some years now, the history of modern mathematics and the history of modern science have developed independently. A step toward a reunification that would benefit both disciplines could come about through a revived appreciation of mathematical practice. Detailed studies of what mathematicians actually do, whether local or broadly based, have often led in recent work to examinations of the social, cultural, and national contexts, and more can be done. Another recent approach toward a historical understanding of the abstractness of modern mathematics has been to see it as a species of modernism, and this thesis will be tested by the raft of works on the history of modern applied mathematics currently under way.

  5. History, philosophy and science teaching new perspectives

    CERN Document Server


    This anthology opens new perspectives in the domain of history, philosophy, and science teaching research. Its four sections are: first, science, culture and education; second, the teaching and learning of science; third, curriculum development and justification; and fourth, indoctrination. The first group of essays deal with the neglected topic of science education and the Enlightenment tradition. These essays show that many core commitments of modern science education have their roots in this tradition, and consequently all can benefit from a more informed awareness of its strengths and weaknesses. Other essays address research on leaning and teaching from the perspectives of social epistemology and educational psychology. Included here is the first ever English translation of Ernst Mach’s most influential 1890 paper on ‘The Psychological and Logical Moment in Natural Science Teaching’. This paper launched the influential Machian tradition in education. Other essays address concrete cases of the ...

  6. A keyword history of Marketing Science


    Mela, Carl; Roos, Jason; Deng, Yanhui


    textabstractThis paper considers the history of keywords used in Marketing Science to develop insights on the evolution of marketing science. Several findings emerge. First, "pricing" and "game theory" are the most ubiquitous words. More generally, the three C's and four P's predominate, suggesting that keywords and common practical frameworks align. Various trends exist. Some words, like "pricing," remain popular over time. Others, like "game theory" and "hierarchical Bayes," have become mor...

  7. Atmospheric pollution: history, science, and regulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobson, Mark Z


    ..., stratospheric ozone reduction, and global climate change - is provided. Each chapter discusses the history and science behind these problems, their consequences, and the effort made through government intervention and regulation to mitigate them. The book contains numerous student examples and problems, more than 200 color illustrations,...

  8. Focus: science, history, and modern India. Introduction. (United States)

    Phalkey, Jahnavi


    Histories of science in India are revisitations of the colonial question. Science is ideology to be unraveled and exposed--as modernity and progress making or violence and oppression making--depending on where you stand on the interpretive spectrum. It has been seen as ideologically driven practice, as a mode of knowledge production whose history is inseparable from the social and political uses to which it is tethered. In the colonial as well as the postcolonial context, science and technology have been seen as the "ideology of empire," "tools of empire," "tentacles of progress," and "reasons of state." Yet science and technology are practices and bodies of knowledge that inhabitants of the subcontinent have engaged with enthusiasm, that they have used to invent themselves in their global, national, and individual lives. We know remarkably little about the histories of these complex engagements. A departure from current historiographical preoccupations is called for to map and explain the lives, institutions, practices, and stories of science on the subcontinent as they connect with, and where they break away from, the world at large.

  9. Atmospheric pollution: history, science and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, M.Z. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (USA). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering


    The book provides an introduction to the history and science of major air pollution issues. It begins with an introduction to the history of discovery of chemicals in the atmosphere, and moves on to a discussion of the evolution of the earth's atmosphere. It then discusses five major atmospheric pollution topics: urban outdoor air pollution, indoor air pollution, acid deposition, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global climate change. The book contains numerous student examples and problems and over 200 color illustrations and photographs.

  10. Animal Abuse: Science, Ethics and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat ESCARTÍN


    Full Text Available Our study links science, ethics and literature on the subject of animal abuse after the peak surgical period of the 16th and 17th centuries, with advocates of vivisection (Physicians like Gómez Pereira or Descartes and detractors who denounced these practices (Montaigne, Gassendi, Cureau de la Chambre, using the rationality of animals as an argument to respect them. In 18th-century Spain, the response of B. J. Feijoo to this controversy will be compassion, an approach that will mark the way for philosophers, scientists and writers who, after him, will support his proposal to unite scientific progress, ethical consideration and respect for animals.

  11. How In-Service Science Teachers Integrate History and Nature of Science in Elementary Science Courses (United States)

    Hacieminoglu, Esme


    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the in-service science teachers' (IST) perceptions and practices about curriculum and integration of the history of science (HOS) and the nature of science (NOS) affect their science courses. For this aim, how ISTs integrated the NOS and HOS in their elementary science courses for understanding of…

  12. Inseparability of science history and discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Herndon


    Full Text Available Science is very much a logical progression through time. Progressing along a logical path of discovery is rather like following a path through the wilderness. Occasionally the path splits, presenting a choice; the correct logical interpretation leads to further progress, the wrong choice leads to confusion. By considering deeply the relevant science history, one might begin to recognize past faltering in the logical progression of observations and ideas and, perhaps then, to discover new, more precise understanding. The following specific examples of science faltering are described from a historical perspective: (1 Composition of the Earth's inner core; (2 Giant planet internal energy production; (3 Physical impossibility of Earth-core convection and Earth-mantle convection, and; (4 Thermonuclear ignition of stars. For each example, a revised logical progression is described, leading, respectively, to: (1 Understanding the endo-Earth's composition; (2 The concept of nuclear georeactor origin of geo- and planetary magnetic fields; (3 The invalidation and replacement of plate tectonics; and, (4 Understanding the basis for the observed distribution of luminous stars in galaxies. These revised logical progressions clearly show the inseparability of science history and discovery. A different and more fundamental approach to making scientific discoveries than the frequently discussed variants of the scientific method is this: An individual ponders and through tedious efforts arranges seemingly unrelated observations into a logical sequence in the mind so that causal relationships become evident and new understanding emerges, showing the path for new observations, for new experiments, for new theoretical considerations, and for new discoveries. Science history is rich in "seemingly unrelated observations" just waiting to be logically and causally related to reveal new discoveries.

  13. International Collaboration in the History of Science of Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štrbáňová, Soňa


    Roč. 14, - (2015), s. 347-353 ISSN 1731-6715 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : science in Habsburg Monarchy * cooperation in history of science * scientific terminology formation Subject RIV: AB - History

  14. Survey of Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in Library and Information Science Literature. (United States)

    Hsieh, Cynthia C.; Hall, Wendy


    Examines the definition and history of artificial intelligence (AI) and investigates the body of literature on AI found in "Library Literature" and "Library and Information Science Abstracts." The results reported include the number of articles by year and per journal, and the percentage of articles dealing with library…

  15. Adding a Bit More History to Science Courses (United States)

    DeBuvitz, William


    The usual science course is not meant to be a history course and the usual science book is not meant to be a history book. However, most science books do include some historical information. Unfortunately, the history part is usually so brief that it is far from interesting and often so oversimplified that it is totally wrong. Introductory physics…

  16. New directions in the history of modern science in China: global science and comparative history. (United States)

    Elman, Benjamin A


    These essays collectively present new perspectives on the history of modem science in China since 1900. Fa-ti Fan describes how science under the Republic of China after 1911 exhibited a complex local and international character that straddled both imperialism and colonialism. Danian Hu focuses on the fate of relativity in the physics community in China after 1917. Zuoyue Wang hopes that a less nationalist political atmosphere in China will stimulate more transnational studies of modern science, which will in turn reveal the underlying commonalities in different national contexts. Sigrid Schmalzer compares the socialist and the capitalist contexts for science in China and reopens the sensitive question of the "mass line" during the Cultural Revolution. Grace Shen describes the tensions early Chinese scientists felt when choosing between foreign models for modem geology and their own professional identities in China. Taken together, these accounts present us with a comparative history of modern science in China that is both globally and locally informed.

  17. Wolfgang Pauli - a portrait. History of science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.P.


    Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958) is named by his colleagues in the same breath with Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein, who named Pauli his ''mental son''. The history of science had neglected Pauli for a long time. The reason for this may be found in Pauli's attempts to capture the role of the unconscious in physics and the meaning of dreams in the creation of scientific pictures of the world. For Pauli a scientific method consisted in activating the unconscious and hoping that it would start up that specific type of ''painting viewing'' from which the terms can arise by which we express our understanding

  18. Children's learning of science through literature (United States)

    O'Kelly, James B.

    interviewers as well as refinement of the interview protocol to allow for more production of divergent questions by children may reveal additional effects of literary genre on children's learning of science through literature.

  19. Literature, cinema and history in "Hiroshima Mon Amour"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nismária Alves David Barros


    Full Text Available This article analyzes Hiroshima Mon Amour, realization by Alain Resnais divulged in 1959 and ciné-roman by Marguerite Duras published in 1960. Considering the Jeanne-Marie Clerc's theory (2004, we understand that the literature and the cinema are resources of expression that do not establish competition or subordination relations, but they establish complementary relations, they make mutual exchanges for their renewals. They are not the documents on the atomic tragedy of Hiroshima because they congregate historical facts, literary narrative and cinematographic techniques. This ciné-roman and this film displays a revolutionary position of the artistic form to express a critical vision on the world after war. They create a love history and a history of loss, focusing the individual anguish in the plot. Through  the return to the past, using a poetical language, they discloses the pains of the protagonist and the pains of the humanity. Therefore the receiver reflects on himself.

  20. The Natural Science Underlying Big History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Chaisson


    Full Text Available Nature’s many varied complex systems—including galaxies, stars, planets, life, and society—are islands of order within the increasingly disordered Universe. All organized systems are subject to physical, biological, or cultural evolution, which together comprise the grander interdisciplinary subject of cosmic evolution. A wealth of observational data supports the hypothesis that increasingly complex systems evolve unceasingly, uncaringly, and unpredictably from big bang to humankind. These are global history greatly extended, big history with a scientific basis, and natural history broadly portrayed across ∼14 billion years of time. Human beings and our cultural inventions are not special, unique, or apart from Nature; rather, we are an integral part of a universal evolutionary process connecting all such complex systems throughout space and time. Such evolution writ large has significant potential to unify the natural sciences into a holistic understanding of who we are and whence we came. No new science (beyond frontier, nonequilibrium thermodynamics is needed to describe cosmic evolution’s major milestones at a deep and empirical level. Quantitative models and experimental tests imply that a remarkable simplicity underlies the emergence and growth of complexity for a wide spectrum of known and diverse systems. Energy is a principal facilitator of the rising complexity of ordered systems within the expanding Universe; energy flows are as central to life and society as they are to stars and galaxies. In particular, energy rate density—contrasting with information content or entropy production—is an objective metric suitable to gauge relative degrees of complexity among a hierarchy of widely assorted systems observed throughout the material Universe. Operationally, those systems capable of utilizing optimum amounts of energy tend to survive, and those that cannot are nonrandomly eliminated.

  1. How can history of science matter to scientists? (United States)

    Maienschein, Jane; Laubichler, Manfred; Loettgers, Andrea


    History of science has developed into a methodologically diverse discipline, adding greatly to our understanding of the interplay between science, society, and culture. Along the way, one original impetus for the then newly emerging discipline--what George Sarton called the perspective "from the point of view of the scientist"--dropped out of fashion. This essay shows, by means of several examples, that reclaiming this interaction between science and history of science yields interesting perspectives and new insights for both science and history of science. The authors consequently suggest that historians of science also adopt this perspective as part of their methodological repertoire.

  2. History and Philosophy of Science as a Guide to Understanding Nature of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Niaz


    Full Text Available Nature of science (NOS is considered to be a controversial topic by historians, philosophers of science and science educators. It is paradoxical that we all teach science and still have difficulties in understanding what science is and how it develops and progresses. A major obstacle in understanding NOS is that science is primarily ‘unnatural’, that is it cannot be learned by a simple observation of phenomena. In most parts of the world history and philosophy of science are ‘inside’ science content and as such can guide our understanding of NOS. However, some science educators consider the ‘historical turn’ as dated and hence neglect the historical approach and instead emphasize the model based naturalist view of science. The objective of this presentation is to show that the historical approach is very much a part of teaching science and actually complements naturalism. Understanding NOS generally requires two aspects of science: Domain general and domain specific. In the classroom this can be illustrated by discussing the atomic models developed in the early 20th century which constitute the domain specific aspect of NOS. This can then lead to an understanding of the tentative nature of science that is a domain general aspect of NOS. A review of the literature in science education reveals three views (among others of understanding NOS: a Consensus view: It attempts to include only those domain-general NOS aspects that are the least controversial (Lederman, Abd-El-Khalick; b Family resemblance view: Based on the ideas of Wittgenstein, this view promotes science as a cognitive system (Irzik, Nola; c Integrated view: this view postulates that both domain general and domain specific aspects of NOS are not dichotomous but rather need to be integrated and are essential if we want students to understand ‘science in the making’ (Niaz. The following framework helps to facilitate integration: i Elaboration of a theoretical framework

  3. Valeriu Bologa’s studies on the history of science (United States)



    History of science is a vast and complex domain, comprising many sub-domains, such as: the history of medicine, history of chemistry, history of physics etc. Different specialists in these sub-domains, trying to reach the general and integrative understanding of the history of science, succeeded only after they acquired a rich scientific experience in their fields of activity. One of the scientists who had interesting papers on the history of science was Valeriu Bologa (1892–1971). He was the first Romanian professor of history of medicine. Our paper presents some milestones regarding his preoccupations on the history of science. The aim of our study is to prove that, although he was primarily a historian of medicine, he surpassed this framework, proving to be a skillful historian of science. The topics of his works on the history of science included: the value of the unity of science, the ethical aspects of science during centuries, the interferences between the history of science and the history of medicine etc. PMID:27547069

  4. Valeriu Bologa's studies on the history of science. (United States)

    Bârsu, Cristian


    History of science is a vast and complex domain, comprising many sub-domains, such as: the history of medicine, history of chemistry, history of physics etc. Different specialists in these sub-domains, trying to reach the general and integrative understanding of the history of science, succeeded only after they acquired a rich scientific experience in their fields of activity. One of the scientists who had interesting papers on the history of science was Valeriu Bologa (1892-1971). He was the first Romanian professor of history of medicine. Our paper presents some milestones regarding his preoccupations on the history of science. The aim of our study is to prove that, although he was primarily a historian of medicine, he surpassed this framework, proving to be a skillful historian of science. The topics of his works on the history of science included: the value of the unity of science, the ethical aspects of science during centuries, the interferences between the history of science and the history of medicine etc.

  5. The Instructional Model for Using History of Science (United States)

    Seker, Hayati


    This paper discusses the levels of The Instructional Model for Using History of Science (UHOS) to explain the relationship between the history of science and science teaching. The UHOS model proposes four levels: Conceptual Level, Epistemological Level, Sociocultural Level, and Interest Level. Each Level has sublevels with regards to types of…

  6. History, philosophy, and science teaching: The present rapprochement (United States)

    Matthews, Michael R.


    This paper traces the use of, and arguments for, the history and philosophy of science in school science courses. Specific attention is paid to the British National Curriculum proposals and to the recommendations of the US Project 2061 curriculum guidelines. Some objections to the inclusion of historical material in science courses are outlined and answered. Mention is made of the Piagetian thesis that individual psychological development mirrors the development of concepts in the history of science. This introduces the topic of idealisation in science. Some significant instances are itemised where science education has, at its considerable cost, ignored work in philosophy of science. Arguments for the inclusion of the history and philosophy of science in science teacher education programmes are given. The paper finishes with a list of topical issues in present science education where collaboration between science teachers, historians, philosophers, and sociologists would be of considerable benefit.

  7. Science Education for Democratic Citizenship through the Use of the History of Science (United States)

    Kolsto, Stein Dankert


    Scholars have argued that the history of science might facilitate an understanding of processes of science. Focusing on science education for citizenship and active involvement in debates on socioscientific issues, one might argue that today's post-academic science differs from academic science in the past, making the history of academic science…

  8. Literature, Science, and Cooking in the Primary Grades. (United States)

    Donoghue, Mildred R.

    Since the balanced literacy program presently mandated in California makes literature an integral part of the curriculum and leaves even less time for study of the sciences, this annotated bibliography provides some recommended literature together with the science concepts that evolve from those books. The bibliography also offers cooking recipes…

  9. Cosmic Times: Engaging Students in Science through History and Journalism (United States)

    Lochner, J. C.; Mattson, B. J.


    Cosmic Times tells the story of how our understanding of the nature of the universe has changed over the past 100 years. Designed to fulfill the need for quality science literature in the classroom, Cosmic Times takes the form of six posters, each mimicking the front page of a newspaper at a key point in this history, with articles describing the discoveries. These milestones include the confirmation of Einstein’s theory of gravity, Hubble’s evidence for an expanding universe, the detection of the microwave background, and finally the discovery of dark energy. Telling this story also involves tracing astronomer’s efforts to determine the size of the universe, understand the nature of supernovae, and comprehend the expansion of the universe. Through the scope of this history, students experience the process of science and how new technology and data change our ideas. The posters are accompanied by 28 lessons, designed for grades 7-12 by scientists and teachers and field-tested by third-party teachers in rural communities. The lessons teach the science concepts behind the discoveries, the process of science, and skills for science literacy. To facilitate these lessons and meet student’s individual science literacy needs, the articles are also available in two newsletter versions: one with the same articles as on the posters, the second at a slightly lower reading level. In addition, lessons include cross-curricular activities which explore the times and social circumstances of the discoveries. In a capstone lesson, students write and design the 2019 edition of Cosmic Times, not only predicting what we will know in the future, but also applying expository writing skills. In addition, an on-line Teacher Guide provides background material for all the articles. All these materials are available on the Cosmic Times website, In this presentation, we shall describe how Cosmic Times uses a journalistic storytelling approach to

  10. Focus: global currents in national histories of science: the "global turn" and the history of science in Latin America. (United States)

    McCook, Stuart


    The "global turn" in the history of science offers new ways to think about how to do national and regional histories of science, in this case the history of science in Latin America. For example, it questions structuralist and diffusionist models of the spread of science and shows the often active role that people in Latin America (and the rest of the Global South) played in the construction of "universal" scientific knowledge. It suggests that even national or regional histories of science must be situated in a global context; all too often, such histories have treated global processes as a distant backdrop. At the same time, historians need to pay constant attention to the role of power in the construction of scientific knowledge. Finally, this essay highlights a methodological tool for writing globally inflected histories of science: the method of "following".

  11. The Treatment of Wife Abuse in Recent Social Science Literature. (United States)

    Wardell, Laurie; And Others

    This paper reviews the social science literature dealing with gender relations in marriage and the issues of wife abuse. It is argued that the old anti-woman biases of the literature have not really diminished under the impact of feminism. The sexist assumptions and victim-blaming focus of the new battery literature are examined through…

  12. Celestial sleuth using astronomy to solve mysteries in art, history and literature

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, Donald W


    For a general audience interested in solving mysteries in art, history, and literature using the methods of science, 'forensic astronomy'  is a thrilling new field of exploration. Astronomical calculations are the basis of the studies, which have the advantage of bringing to readers both evocative images and a better understanding of the skies. Weather facts, volcano studies, topography, tides, historical letters and diaries, famous paintings, military records, and the friendly assistance of experts in related fields add variety, depth, and interest to the work. The chosen topics are selected

  13. Epigastric Hernia in Pregnancy: A Management Plan Based on a Systematic Review of Literature and a Case History


    Debrah, Samuel A.; Okpala, Amalachukwu M.


    Symptomatic epigastric hernia is rare in pregnant women. A case history, management of which prompted a systematic review of the literature and proposed plan for treatment of such cases, is hereby presented. There is paucity of information on management of this condition in the standard literature as searches in Pubmed, Science Direct, Hinari, Medline, African Journal Online, Bioone as well as Cochrane library revealed. There are two schools of thought for the management of hernias in pregnan...

  14. Physics teacher use of the history of science (United States)

    Winrich, Charles

    The School of Education and the Department of Physics at Boston University offer a sequence of 10 two-credit professional development courses through the Improving the Teaching of Physics (ITOP) project. The ITOP courses combine physics content, readings from the physics education research (PER) literature, and the conceptual history of physics (CHOP). ITOP participants self-report changes to their teaching practices as a result of their participation in ITOP. The purpose of this study was to verify and characterize those changes in the specific area of the participants' use of history after their study of CHOP. Ten recent ITOP participants were observed, interviewed, and asked to provide lesson plans and samples of student work from their classes. Case studies of each participant's teaching were constructed from the data. The individual cases were synthesized to characterize the impact of CHOP on the ITOP participants. The results show that the participants integrate CHOP into their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) to inform their understanding of: (1) the relationship between physics and other disciplines, (2) the relationship between specific physics concepts, (3) student understanding of physics concepts, (4) student difficulties in learning physics concepts, and (5) methods for teaching physics concepts. The participants use history to teach a variety of topics, although the most common were mechanics and electromagnetism. All of the participants used history to teach aspects of the nature of science (NOS) and to increase student interest in physics, while eight participants taught physics concepts through history. The predominant mode of incorporating history was through adding anecdotes about the scientists who worked on the concepts, but seven participants had their students study the historical development of physical concepts. All the participants discussed a lack of time as a factor that inhibits a greater use of history in their courses. Eight

  15. History, Medicine, and Culture: History for Science Students. (United States)

    Balog, C. Edward


    Describes college level history course entitled "Healers and Persons" for undergraduate medicine students. Topics include Greek medicine and Hippocrates, Galen of Pergamum, Islamic and Roman culture, medieval medicine, the Renaissance, Harvey, Pasteur, Lister, and Mendel. (KC)

  16. Science Night at the Museum of the History of Science

    CERN Multimedia


    Would it surprise you to know that you can measure the speed of light using chocolate and a microwave oven? If you're interested in this and in finding out much more, come along to the Museum of the History of Science on 3 and 4 July 2004, when dozens of companies, institutions, colleges and organizations will be running exhibits, shows, and displays on the theme of counting and measuring. CERN will be there with a display stand that includes two particle detectors; one to sense muons arriving from cosmic rays that strike the Earth's atmosphere, and the other a prototype of an element of the OPAL detector which was used in the LEP to measure particle tracks from high energy electron-positron collisions. Full details are available from the Museum website at:

  17. Historical theses on nursing and caring sciences in Finland: a literature review. (United States)

    Lukana, Anne; Leena, Salminen; Marjo, Kaartinen; Helena, Leino-Kilpi


    The purpose of this literature review was to review the theses (masters, licentiate and doctoral theses) on the history of nursing and caring sciences in Finland. The research questions were as follows: 1.What is the number and characteristics of these historical theses (target groups, methods and sources) on nursing and caring sciences have been produced in Finland? 2.What periods of time have been under investigation in these theses? 3.What topics have been investigated in these theses? The theses on the history of nursing and caring sciences were retrieved from the theses index of the universities that offer education in nursing and caring sciences in Finland. The literature search covered the time period 1979-2010. Altogether, 58 theses were reviewed and analysed via content analysis. Of all of the theses (n = 3969) produced in nursing and caring sciences, 58 of them focused on historical topics (theses examined the history of the 1900s, whereas only a few of them examined time periods before that. The four main topics of the theses were nursing practice, nursing education, nursing management and philosophy of nursing. The most common topic was nursing practice, especially psychiatric nursing. Research on the history of nursing and caring sciences in Finland has received only marginal attention from researchers. This literature review offers a description of the historical research produced on nursing and caring sciences and the topics of interest. In future, it will be necessary to more closely examine several historical topics that have been neglected in the study of nursing and caring sciences. © 2012 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  18. History of Computer Science as an Instrument of Enlightenment


    Fet , Yakov


    Part 6: Putting the History of Computing into Different Contexts; International audience; This report focuses on the dangerous problems that are currently facing the society – the negative phenomena in development of education and science. The most important way to solve this problem seems to be education and enlightenment. It is assumed that in the history of Computer Science, the intellectual and moral heritage of this history contains a wealth of material that can be used for the dissemina...

  19. Representations of Science and Technology in Cordel Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Almeida


    Full Text Available In Brazilian cultural manifestations, science is not usually pictured prominently. Still, one can find references to it in some of the most popular forms of communication. Cordel literature is one of them. In this article, we try to understand how the scientific world is inserted and represented in this literary genre. We did a discourse analysis based on a corpus of 50 Cordel booklets on topics related to science. We note that the booklets present, as a whole, an ambivalent image of science, extolling the scientific achievements and their authors in some cases, whereas, in others, showing a critical view of technological development. Our study suggests that the mixing of science and Cordel literature has the potential to bring together scientific and popular cultures. This could also promote a critical thinking in the public about the relationship between science and society. Therefore, Cordel literature may be an interesting tool for education and popularization of science.

  20. Potential of augmented reality in sciences education. A literature review.


    Swensen, Håkon


    POTENTIAL OF AUGMENTED REALITY IN SCIENCES EDUCATION A LITERATURE REVIEW H. Swensen Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences (NORWAY) Fewer and fewer students in Europe choose STEM education, while in today's job market have a growing need for people with such education. There are many reasons for this situation, but one important factor is that many students perceive school science as difficult. In science, there are many complex and abstract concepts to be learned, which put...

  1. Boundaries and audiences of national histories of science: insights from the history of science and technology of the Netherlands. (United States)

    Homburg, Ernst


    The present paper traces the evolution of writing national-oriented histories of science and technology of the Netherlands. Several episodes are distinguished. A first wave of national histories of science and technology was written during the first decades of the 19th century. These histories had a wide scope, which included science, technology, the humanities and the arts. A second wave, which lasted from about 1865 to 1900, was strongly connected to the rise of the scientific professions. Its focus was on the sciences perse, and on the Dutch "Golden Age" of the 17th century. A third wave occurred during and shortly after the Second World War. Its focus was mainly on the "Second Golden Age" of Dutch science (1870-1910), and its major audience were young boys that were to be recruited to the sciences. The second part of the paper discusses the growing influence of "contextualization" in both the history of science and the history of technology from about 1975 onwards. As a result, local factors often received more attention in historical studies of science and technology than national influences. In 1985, Klaas van Berkel undertook a bold attempt to write a new synthesis of the history of Dutch science, but his approach was too strongly influenced by the three previous waves of national histories. From 1989 to 2003 two projects on the national history of technology resulted in 13 volumes on Dutch technology between 1800 and 1970. New research was initiated, and the issue of "national styles" in the development of technology received ample attention. In his conclusions the author points to lessons to be learned from economic history and the history of art, and he concludes with a plea for more historiographical discussion in the history of science and technology.

  2. A survey of computer science capstone course literature (United States)

    Dugan, Robert F., Jr.


    In this article, we surveyed literature related to undergraduate computer science capstone courses. The survey was organized around course and project issues. Course issues included: course models, learning theories, course goals, course topics, student evaluation, and course evaluation. Project issues included: software process models, software process phases, project type, documentation, tools, groups, and instructor administration. We reflected on these issues and thecomputer science capstone course we have taught for seven years. The survey summarized, organized, and synthesized the literature to provide a referenced resource for computer science instructors and researchers interested in computer science capstone courses.

  3. History of Science and Medicine in Turkish History Secondary School Textbooks (United States)

    Karabag, S. Gulin


    In this paper, it is aimed to analyze the acquirements and topics in Turkish secondary school history textbooks that are published by the Ministry of National Education (MEB) and by the private sector to determine to what extend the place given to history of science and history of medicine. In the study, the document and content analysis…

  4. Science through the looking glass of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saris, F.W.


    The scientific revolution brought about by Einstein, Lorentz, Bohr, Heisenberg and others has changed our society and our worldview, as is reflected also in literature, fiction as well as non-fiction. Of course we need textbooks to teach relativity, cosmology and quantum mechanics, but I think

  5. History, Science And The Dilemma Of Contemporary Sociology: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    History and natural sciences are two important fields of study that have informed and influenced sociology as a discipline. Traditionally common to these influences on sociology is the need to generalise. Today, however only the natural sciences can still lay claim to this principle. In generalising, the natural science ...

  6. The History of Archives and the History of Science: Comment. (United States)

    James, Kathryn


    Drawing on Terry Cook's famous challenge to the relationship of historians to the archive, this comment responds to the four preceding Focus essays, offering an examination of the roles, in particular, of acquisition and appraisal, canon formation, and place or location in the relationship that historians of science have with the archive.

  7. Planetary Sciences Literature - Access and Discovery (United States)

    Henneken, Edwin A.; ADS Team


    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been around for over 2 decades, helping professional astronomers and planetary scientists navigate, without charge, through the increasingly complex environment of scholarly publications. As boundaries between disciplines dissolve and expand, the ADS provides powerful tools to help researchers discover useful information efficiently. In its new form, code-named ADS Bumblebee (, it may very well answer questions you didn't know you had! While the classic ADS ( focuses mostly on searching basic metadata (author, title and abstract), today's ADS is best described as a an "aggregator" of scholarly resources relevant to the needs of researchers in astronomy and planetary sciences, and providing a discovery environment on top of this. In addition to indexing content from a variety of publishers, data and software archives, the ADS enriches its records by text-mining and indexing the full-text articles (about 4.7 million in total, with 130,000 from planetary science journals), enriching its metadata through the extraction of citations and acknowledgments. Recent technology developments include a new Application Programming Interface (API), a new user interface featuring a variety of visualizations and bibliometric analysis, and integration with ORCID services to support paper claiming. The new ADS provides powerful tools to help you find review papers on a given subject, prolific authors working on a subject and who they are collaborating with (within and outside their group) and papers most read by by people who read recent papers on the topic of your interest. These are just a couple of examples of the capabilities of the new ADS. We currently index most journals covering the planetary sciences and we are striving to include those journals most frequently cited by planetary science publications. The ADS is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA

  8. A reflection on feelings and the history of science. (United States)

    Dror, Otniel E


    This reflection attends to Paul White's call in his introduction to this Focus section for a history of science that is informed by the history of emotions. It offers a succinct historical exemplification of the possibilities of studying the history of science in terms of the history of emotions. It draws on Raymond Williams's concept of "structure of feeling" in arguing for the emergence of an adrenaline structure of feeling during the early twentieth century. It provides a mosaic of different views of the immanence of the adrenaline structure of feeling in diverse scientific realms by broaching some of the major themes that appear in the individual essays in this Focus section.

  9. Literature Based Science Activities in Kindergarten through Children's Picture Book. (United States)

    Cho, Boo-Kyung; Kim, Jeong Joon

    This paper suggests an alternative approach to early childhood science education that considers contemporary trends in both literature and science. The whole language approach to picture books is recommended and this strategy is described in the four sections of this report. The sections provide information on the relationship between science…

  10. History of Science as an Instructional Context: Student Learning in Genetics and Nature of Science (United States)

    Kim, Sun Young; Irving, Karen E.


    This study (1) explores the effectiveness of the contextualized history of science on student learning of nature of science (NOS) and genetics content knowledge (GCK), especially interrelationships among various genetics concepts, in high school biology classrooms; (2) provides an exemplar for teachers on how to utilize history of science in…

  11. Representations of Nature of Science in Selected Histories of Science in (United States)

    Wei, Bing; Li, Yue; Chen, Bo


    This study aimed to examine the representations of nature of science (NOS) in the eight histories of science selected from three series of integrated science textbooks used in junior high school in China. Ten aspects of NOS were adopted in the analytical framework. It was found that NOS had not been well treated in the selected histories of…

  12. Teaching the History and Philosophy of Science in Secondary Schools. (United States)

    Frazier, Kenneth L.


    Lists educational objectives, course syllabus, audiovisual materials, and bibliography for a secondary school course on the history and philosophy of science. The class consists of discussions, lectures, use of film and filmstrips, and student research papers. (KC)

  13. Eric Davidson, his philosophy, and the history of science. (United States)

    Deichmann, Ute


    Eric Davidson, a passionate molecular developmental biologist and intellectual, believed that conceptual advances in the sciences should be based on knowledge of conceptual history. Convinced of the superiority of a causal-analytical approach over other methods, he succeeded in successfully applying this approach to the complex feature of organismal development by introducing the far-reaching concept of developmental Gene Regulatory Networks. This essay reviews Davidson's philosophy, his support for the history of science, and some aspects of his scientific personality.

  14. Challenging hyperprofessionalisation vs. hyperpopularisation in the history of science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    , the history of science profession now suffers from a crisis of readership?. In contrast, ever since the publication of Dava Sobel?s surprising bestseller, Longitude, popular history of science has dramatically increased its readership. Some historians of science lament the Sobel Effect, whereas others take up......Recently, Steven Shapin have identified a pathological form of professionalism in the history of science. He calls the disease hyperprofessionalism. Its symptoms include self-referentiality, self-absorption, and a narrowing of intellectual focus. Partly as a result of hyperprofessionalism...... the challenge by writing books for a broader audience. In effect, historians of science seemed to be faced with the choice between hyperprofessionalisation and hyperpopularisation. This paper attempts a first deconstruction of the twin notions of hyperprofessionalisation vs. hyperpopularisation....

  15. Income Elasticity Literature Review | Science Inventory | US ... (United States)

    Following advice from the SAB Council, when estimating the economic value of reductions in air pollution-related mortality and morbidity risk, EPA accounts for the effect of personal income on the willingness to pay to reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes. These income growth adjustment factors are calculated using a combination of income elasticity estimates and income growth projections, both of which have remained essentially unchanged since 1999. These income elasticity estimates vary according to the severity of illness. EPA recently received advice from the SAB regarding the range of income elasticities to apply as well as the research standards to use when selecting income elasticity estimates. Following this advice, EPA consulted with a contractor to update its income elasticity and income growth projections, and generate new income growth adjustment factors. The SAB would evaluate the income elasticity estimates identified in the EPA-provided literature review, determining the extent to which these estimates are appropriate to use in human health benefits assessments.

  16. Important Literature in Endocrinology: Citation Analysis and Historial Methodology. (United States)

    Hurt, C. D.


    Results of a study comparing two approaches to the identification of important literature in endocrinology reveals that association between ranking of cited items using the two methods is not statistically significant and use of citation or historical analysis alone will not result in same set of literature. Forty-two sources are appended. (EJS)

  17. International collaboration in the history of science of Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the last ten years, approximately, we could witness an evolution in informal international collaboration focusing on shared and interconnected history of science in the Habsburg Monarchy and in Central Europe in general. This effort, which includes mainly historians of science from Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland, has already produced a number of important results and contributed to the thematization of some timeless topics of history of sciences such as, for instance, nationalization and internationalization of science. In the context of this cooperation, the seminar of Jan Surman, a historian of science of Polish descent, held at the Institute of Contemporary History of the Czech Academy of Sciences in Prague in May 2015, concentrated on the formation of national scientific terminologies. It also underlined the necessity and usefulness of international collaboration in achieving a deeper understanding of the “national” histories of science, which cannot be separated from the “international” history.

  18. Navigation and history of science: Scurvy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera


    Full Text Available The history of scurvy might be summarized in terms of mystery, death, tenacity and finally success. In this history three very important people deserve special mention, two of them were doctors, the other one was a famous navigator: Lind, Blane and Cook. The first one had the glory of having been the author of the first clinical trial, as we understand it nowadays, with all the criticisms that could be done at present. However, the joint effort of these three men led to the solution of something, which seemed to be an irresolvable mystery.

  19. Navigation and History of Science: Beriberi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera


    Full Text Available The history of beriberi is an example of national pride, different social classes, research efforts and also luck. All histories have their main protagonists. In this case, perhaps the most significant people were Christiaan Eijkman, William Fletcher and Kanehiro Takaki. Infection, toxicity and feeding, among other factors, were the starting points to support the initial etiopathogenic bases of the disease. The experimental and epidemiological work of these authors gave the key about the cause of beriberi and its effective treatment. As in the case of scurvy, the mystery was solved not without very hard work and many previous mistakes.

  20. Report on a Boston University Conference December 7-8, 2012 on How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary US Science Teaching? (United States)

    Garik, Peter; Benétreau-Dupin, Yann


    This is an editorial report on the outcomes of an international conference sponsored by a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) (REESE-1205273) to the School of Education at Boston University and the Center for Philosophy and History of Science at Boston University for a conference titled: How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary US Science Teaching? The presentations of the conference speakers and the reports of the working groups are reviewed. Multiple themes emerged for K-16 education from the perspective of the history and philosophy of science. Key ones were that: students need to understand that central to science is argumentation, criticism, and analysis; students should be educated to appreciate science as part of our culture; students should be educated to be science literate; what is meant by the nature of science as discussed in much of the science education literature must be broadened to accommodate a science literacy that includes preparation for socioscientific issues; teaching for science literacy requires the development of new assessment tools; and, it is difficult to change what science teachers do in their classrooms. The principal conclusions drawn by the editors are that: to prepare students to be citizens in a participatory democracy, science education must be embedded in a liberal arts education; science teachers alone cannot be expected to prepare students to be scientifically literate; and, to educate students for scientific literacy will require a new curriculum that is coordinated across the humanities, history/social studies, and science classrooms.

  1. Review of Periodical Literature on the History of Education Published in 2016 (United States)

    Freeman, Mark; Kirke, Alice


    This review considers the periodical literature on the history of education published in 2016. It discusses general long-term trends in the field, but focuses mainly on the key areas of research in 2016 itself. The review is divided into several sections: ancient, medieval and early modern history; schooling and education policy; the history of…

  2. Nonlinearity: The History and Philosophy of the Science (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth M.


    This article provides for a concise history of nonlinearity from the context of the changing assumptions in science throughout the turn of the twentieth century. Concerned with the development of an ethics of technology in higher education, it establishes a background for ongoing research on quantitative methods in the social sciences. The history…

  3. Brief history of patient safety culture and science. (United States)

    Ilan, Roy; Fowler, Robert


    The science of safety is well established in such disciplines as the automotive and aviation industry. In this brief history of safety science as it pertains to patient care, we review remote and recent publications that have guided the maturation of this field that has particular relevance to the complex structure of systems, personnel, and therapies involved in caring for the critically ill.

  4. Reflections on the History of Science and Technology in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.


    This text was written for a talk given by E. Broda in Vienna on the symposium “The future of Science a Technology” held within the framework of the Austrian National Day in Vienna in 1972 and it addresses amongst other Victor Weisskopf. The text is about reflections on the history of science and technology in Austria. (nowak)

  5. Documenting Collections: Cornerstones for More History of Science in Museums (United States)

    Lourenço, Marta C.; Gessner, Samuel


    Historians of science have recently become increasingly involved with collections and scientific instruments. This creates opportunities for a more significant role of history in museums of science, as well as more meaningful and contextualized exhibitions and educational programmes. However, complementing the mainstream focus on universal…

  6. Medicine, 1450-1620, and the history of science. (United States)

    Siraisi, Nancy G


    History of science and history of medicine are today largely organized as distinct disciplines, though ones widely recognized as interrelated. Attempts to evaluate the extent and nature of their relation have reached varying conclusions, depending in part on the historical period under consideration. This essay examines some characteristics of European medicine from the fifteenth to the early seventeenth century and considers their relevance for the history of science. Attention is given to the range of interests and activities of individuals trained in or practicing medicine, to the impact of changes in natural philosophy, to the role of observation, description, and accumulation of information, and to the exchange of knowledge among the medical community.

  7. Revising Teacher Candidates' Views of Science and Self: Can Accounts from the History of Science Help? (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Brian; Murray, John; Hechter, Richard


    Our inquiry uses accounts from the history of science to develop teacher-candidate (student teacher) understanding of the nature of science (NOS) in a science teacher education methods course. This understanding of the NOS is then used as a foundation for developing teacher candidate appreciation of the attributes of authentic science lessons.…

  8. Social science literature on the environment: review and prospects for energy studies. A preliminary literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, P.


    Much of the social science literature on environment is of recent origin and represents the response of the social science research community to a complex societal problem in which technology is a major factor. Energy represents another such problem to which the social science research community is now turning its attention. Because energy problems and environment problems have some similarities and because energy-conversion processes have large effects on the environment, a review of the social science literature on environment was undertaken. The purposes of this review are as follows: (1) to study the possible utility in energy research of some of the concepts developed in social science research on the environment; (2) to study the possible utility in energy research of some of the methodologies utilized in social science research on the environment; and (3) to study the extent to which the results of social science research on the environment have contributed to the development of policy. The first two items above receive major attention in this preliminary literature survey. 50 references.

  9. Use of traditional motives in Serbian science-fiction literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Ivan


    Full Text Available Subject of this paper is consideration of use of traditional motives in Serbian science-fiction literature in relation with socio-cultural milieu of Serbia from late 80s until now. The author tries to point out ways of usage and construction of some traditional and mythological patterns in certain literature works. This genre of literary production is perceived as a popular culture phenomenon - with this premise, the paper intents to analyze communication process between text and audiences.

  10. History of Science and Technology - I. (United States)

    Mauskopf, Seymour; Roland, Alex


    Describes a one-semester course designed to examine the relationship between science and technology in Western civilization during the period between the earliest organized social life and the inception of the Industrial Revolution. Includes a list of readings, schedule of topics and assignments, and student requirements. (TW)

  11. Radioactivity a history of a mysterious science

    CERN Document Server

    Malley, Marjorie C


    Beginning with an obscure discovery in 1896, radioactivity led researchers on a quest for understanding that ultimately confronted the intersection of knowledge and mystery. This book tells the story of a new science that profoundly changed physics and chemistry, as well as areas such as medicine, geology, meteorology, archaeology, industry, politics, and popular culture.

  12. Current status and a short history of grey literature. Focusing on the international conference on grey literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kiyoshi


    'Grey literature' is a loosely defined term whose application is rather complex, but it is also an important source of information for academic researchers. Today, the spread of the Internet has led to changes not only in the circulation but also in the role and definition of 'grey literature'. This article therefore presents a short history of the definition of 'grey literature', with central focus on topics discussed by the International Conference on Grey Literature. After this, the current status and future prospects of 'grey literature' in the digital society are described. Finally, the article introduces the JAEA Library's activities on 'grey literature', particularly the acquisition of proceedings and the editing and dissemination of the JAEA Reports (technical reports of JAEA). (author)

  13. History, Philosophy and Science Teaching: Some Answers to ``How?'' (United States)

    Pessoa de Carvalho, Anna Maria; Infantosi Vannucchi, Andréa

    The study of the history and philosophy of science in school science courses is highly recommended. This paper deals with the methodological aspects derived from research in science education and how they have to be taken into account in order to generate effective classroom activities, so that history and philosophy are not relegated to the status of additional rhetoric of conclusions in an extensive curricula. This is illustrated with the analysis of episodes ___ transcribed from videotape records ___ which took place when such activity was introduced into high school physics classes. This analysis has shown that students, when working in cooperative groups over problematic historical episodes, may come to discuss essential features of science. This not only provides a more realistic view of science, but also enhances cognitive and argumentation skills, besides emphasizing the importance of teachers' guidance.

  14. Incorporating Primary Literature in Undergraduate Crop Science Courses (United States)

    Scott, Lori K.; Simmons, Steve R.


    Primary literature is an underutilized learning resource for undergraduate courses in crop science. Reading assignments from scientific journals were utilized in an undergraduate University of Minnesota crop physiology course at Southwest Minnesota State University from 2002 to 2004. The subjects of the articles corresponded to the lecture topics.…

  15. A Survey of Computer Science Capstone Course Literature (United States)

    Dugan, Robert F., Jr.


    In this article, we surveyed literature related to undergraduate computer science capstone courses. The survey was organized around course and project issues. Course issues included: course models, learning theories, course goals, course topics, student evaluation, and course evaluation. Project issues included: software process models, software…

  16. [The new history of science: an interview with Dominique Pestre]. (United States)

    Pestre, Dominique; Romero, Mariza


    Originally a physicist, Dominique Pestre is now a leading historian of science, particularly in the realm of the transformations that have marked the history of science and technology in recent decades. In this interview, he offers some of his thoughts on the role of science and knowledge in our contemporary world. He underscores the deep bonds between scientific knowledge and political and economic power and makes clear society's participation in this production. Critical of the notion of progress, Pestre invites us to also take the prejudicial effects of science into account.

  17. The History of Popularization of Science in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina D. Romanova


    Full Text Available The article discusses the process of popularization of science in France in terms of bilateral cooperation between scientists and the media. Mediator in the relationship of the two parties is a science journalist. The long history of interaction between researchers and journalists in France can serve as a theoretical model applicable to the Russian media system. Science journalist, acting primarily as a popularizer of science, is intended to bring to the uninitiated reader scientific facts in an accessible form. In this connection, still the question remains about the specialized education of science journalists: whether he should specialize in a particular field or possess the basics of writing and be able to transpose the complex scientific language. French popular science magazines are not only popular among scientists themselves who are willing to cooperate with publishers and participate in the preparation of the editions, but also among readers. Relations between science journalists and scientists should be considered at the theoretical and practical levels. The paper analyzes in detail the first level, which includes the history of the emergence of scientific journalism in France since the first edition of the scientificjournal in Europe, as well as peculiarities of the educational system in this field. A special role in shaping ideas about the role of science journalists belongs to the Association of Science Journalists of informational press, organization, which is actively involved in the development of trust between scientists and journalists.

  18. A Course on Humanistic Creativity in Later Life: Literature Review, Case Histories, and Recommendations. (United States)

    Nuessel, Frank; Van Stewart, Arthur; Cedeno, Aristofanes


    Presents case histories of late-life creativity in literature (May Sarton), painting (Marcel Duchamp), music (Leos Janacek), dance (Martha Graham), and theatre (Jessica Tandy). Offers suggestions for a course on humanistic creativity in later life. (Contains 74 references.) (SK)

  19. The history of parkinsonism: descriptions in ancient Indian medical literature. (United States)

    Ovallath, Sujith; Deepa, P


    The clinical syndrome of parkinsonism was identified in ancient India even before the period of Christ and was treated methodically. The earliest reference to bradykinesia dates to 600 bc. Evidences prove that as early as 300 bc, Charaka proposed a coherent picture of parkinsonism by describing tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and gait disturbances as its components. The scenario was further developed by Madhava, Vagbhata, and Dalhana all through history. The 15th-century classic "Bhasava rajyam" introduced the term kampavata, which may be regarded as an ayurvedic analogue of parkinsonism. The pathogenesis of kampavata centered on the concept of imbalance in the vata factor, which controls psychomotor activities. The essential element in therapy was the administration of powdered seed of Mucuna pruriens, or atmagupta, which as per reports, contains 4%-6% of levodopa. In addition to proving the existence and identification of parkinsonism in ancient India, the study points to the significance of ancient Indian Sanskrit works in medical history. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  20. History of Science Content Analysis of Chinese Science Textbooks from the Perspective of Acculturation (United States)

    Ma, Yongjun; Wan, Yanlan


    Based on previous international studies, a content analysis scheme has been designed and used from the perspective of culture to study the history of science (HOS) in science textbooks. Nineteen sets of Chinese science textbooks have been analyzed. It has been found that there are noticeable changes in the quantity, content, layout, presentation,…

  1. Using History of Science to Teach Nature of Science to Elementary Students (United States)

    Fouad, Khadija E.; Masters, Heidi; Akerson, Valarie L.


    Science lessons using inquiry only or history of science with inquiry were used for explicit reflective nature of science (NOS) instruction for second-, third-, and fourth-grade students randomly assigned to receive one of the treatments. Students in both groups improved in their understanding of creative NOS, tentative NOS, empirical NOS, and…

  2. Contested Histories and Happiness: Leprosy literature in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Tanaka


    Full Text Available At the turn of the twentieth century, the Japanese government passed a series of laws targeting people diagnosed with Hansen’s Disease (leprosy. As a result, many patients were quarantined in public leprosaria, often for life. In order to cope with both the diagnosis of a heavily stigmatized illness and a lifetime in isolation, patients began to write. The works produced by sufferers became so popular that by the mid-1930s their writing was referred to as a distinct literary genre, “leprosy literature.” Studies of leprosy literature have focused on its depiction of human rights violations, struggles with the illness, and the difficulty of life in quarantine. However, patient writing in the 1930s also reveals the multiple ways in which patients found happiness within the institution. In this sense, leprosy literature is also a site of translation, revealing the negotiations of hospital life involving hospital and medical authorities, patients, leprosy relief groups, and government policies. Residents of the leprosaria represent happiness in multiple ways depending on their conception of their illness and life in the leprosaria. For some patients, the institution itself was a source of happiness in that their illness was stigmatized to the degree that life outside the hospital became unbearable. Other writers chafed at life in the hospital; the translation of happiness in their writing is a more complex process. This paper takes these diverse processes of translation as its starting point and examines the multiple ways in which patients conceived of health and happiness within the confines of hospital life. 

  3. NASA Imaging for Safety, Science, and History (United States)

    Grubbs, Rodney; Lindblom, Walt; Bowerman, Deborah S. (Technical Monitor)


    Since its creation in 1958 NASA has been making and documenting history, both on Earth and in space. To complete its missions NASA has long relied on still and motion imagery to document spacecraft performance, see what can't be seen by the naked eye, and enhance the safety of astronauts and expensive equipment. Today, NASA is working to take advantage of new digital imagery technologies and techniques to make its missions more safe and efficient. An HDTV camera was on-board the International Space Station from early August, to mid-December, 2001. HDTV cameras previously flown have had degradation in the CCD during the short duration of a Space Shuttle flight. Initial performance assessment of the CCD during the first-ever long duration space flight of a HDTV camera and earlier flights is discussed. Recent Space Shuttle launches have been documented with HDTV cameras and new long lenses giving clarity never before seen with video. Examples and comparisons will be illustrated between HD, highspeed film, and analog video of these launches and other NASA tests. Other uses of HDTV where image quality is of crucial importance will also be featured.

  4. Ordering the discipline: classification in the history of science. Introduction. (United States)

    Weldon, Stephen P


    Classification of the history of science has a long history, and the essays in this Focus section explore that history and its consequences from several different angles. Two of the papers deal with how classifying schemes in bibliography have evolved. A third looks at the way archival organization has changed over the years. Finally, the last essay explores the intersection of human and machine classifying systems. All four contributions look closely at the ramifications of the digital revolution for the way we organize the knowledge of the discipline.

  5. History of trauma and posttraumatic disorders in literature. (United States)

    Kucmin, Tomasz; Kucmin, Adriana; Nogalski, Adam; Sojczuk, Sebastian; Jojczuk, Mariusz


    In 1980 a third edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) brought diagnostic criteria for a new diagnosis - posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This disorder is a result of highly intensive stressor and in many cases leads to sever psychiatric distress. Despite relatively recent introduction of PTSD as a new diagnosis, this disorder was excessively described in scientific papers as well as in fiction novels. Analysis of those descriptions across ages allows for the conclusion that character and type of stressors has changed, however, people's reactions to highly intensive stressors are basically similar. First descriptions are found in notes of Egyptian physicians and then in papers of Homer, Herodotus and Plutarch. In consecutive parts of this paper, the authors present history of posttraumatic stress disorder describing contribution of Polish authors - Kepiński and Szymusik. Presented historical perspective of posttraumatic stress disorder allows for better understanding of reasons for introducing PTSD into classifications as well as controversies related to it.

  6. History of cupping (Hijama): a narrative review of literature. (United States)

    Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar; Ali, Gazzaffi Ibrahim; Abushanab, Tamer Shaban; El-Olemy, Ahmed Tawfik; Alqaed, Meshari Saleh; El-Subai, Ibrahim S; Al-Bedah, Abdullah M N


    Cupping (Hijama in Arabic) is an ancient, holistic method for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Though the exact origin of cupping therapy is a matter of controversy, its use has been documented in early Egyptian and Chinese medical practices. Diverse human civilizations have contributed to the historical development and continuation of cupping therapy. This narrative review describes the history of cupping, historical definitions, cupping instruments and uses of cupping therapy. Electronic searches of relevant databases (PubMed, Google Scholar and OvidSP) were conducted using keywords and Boolean operators. Manual searches and references of published articles and books were also conducted. A number of articles (N = 625) were retained for extensive review, and finally 83 articles were included in this paper. The historical descriptions of cupping therapy were found in ancient human civilizations of the Eastern and Western world. There were inconsistent data concerning the origin of cupping, definitions, instruments, procedures, definite advancements and research in Hijama over centuries. Cupping therapy fell out of favor in 17th and mid-18th centuries but recovered popularity in modern medicine. Currently, cupping therapy is used for health promotion, prophylaxis and treatment of a variety of diseases around the world. Cupping therapy with a good safety profile has a checkered history and is a well-recognized traditional method for managing medical conditions. Currently, the scope of cupping therapy is expanding, and a growing body of research is providing additional evidence-based data for the further advancement of cupping therapy in the treatment of a variety of diseases.

  7. Science, History, Progress: Myth as a Story about Time Caught between Eternity and Infinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Pintarič


    Full Text Available The function of myth, just like that of science, is to achieve a uniform picture of the world in the human mind. Myth, however, is based on supposed truth, not reality. Rather than a beginning, it is the end of any possible discussion. The article, based on French mediaeval and renaissance literature, introduces a view on how Western consciousness wrestled itself out of myth and into history.

  8. A history of animal welfare science. (United States)

    Broom, Donald M


    Human attitudes to animals have changed as non-humans have become more widely incorporated in the category of moral agents who deserve some respect. Parallels between the functioning of humans and non-humans have been made for thousands of years but the idea that the animals that we keep can suffer has spread recently. An improved understanding of motivation, cognition and the complexity of social behaviour in animals has led in the last 30 years to the rapid development of animal welfare science. Early attempts to define welfare referred to individuals being in harmony with nature but the first usable definition incorporated feelings and health as part of attempts to cope with the environment. Others considered that welfare is only about feelings but it is argued that as feelings are mechanisms that have evolved they are a part of welfare rather than all of it. Most reviews of welfare now start with listing the needs of the animal, including needs to show certain behaviours. This approach has used sophisticated studies of what is important to animals and has replaced the earlier general guidelines described as freedoms. Many measures of welfare are now used and indicate how good or how poor the welfare is. Naturalness is not a part of the definition of welfare but explains why some needs exist. In recent years, welfare has become established as one of various criteria used to decide on whether a system is sustainable because members of the public will not accept systems that cause poor welfare. The study of welfare has become part of the scientific basis upon which important political decisions are made.

  9. Brain Science and Teaching: A Forty-Year Personal History (United States)

    Kirby, Linda Faye


    This paper is the sharing of a record, the personal history of an educator pursuing an interest in knowledge of the brain. Over the years, this fascination sparked the idea to create a course for teachers based on brain science, with a twist. Certain course assignments would require teachers to interpret knowledge of the brain in the context of…

  10. Exploring the Intersections of Science and History Learning (United States)

    Hughes, Catherine; Cosbey, Allison


    How can history museums incorporate Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) activities while preserving their missions and identities? How do interdisciplinary experiences lead to learning? A cross-institutional exhibit development and evaluation team wrestled with these ideas as they developed "Create.Connect," an National…

  11. Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science (United States)

    Chamizo, Jose A.


    The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The…

  12. Introducing the History of Science at the French Middle School (United States)

    Fauque, Danielle M. E.


    In scientific teaching, especially in physics and chemistry, some historical aspects have been introduced at the secondary level in France, since 1993. Particularly, in 2007, the syllabuses of 11'-15' years old level ("college") propose precise activities in history of science and technology. Detailed guidance has been distributed in…

  13. An Overview of the History of Library Science Teaching Materials. (United States)

    Metzger, Philip A.


    This introduction to, and overview of, history of library science instructional materials covers the Williamson Report, teaching materials from early Columbia days onward, American Library Association book publishing activity, media in curricula and library school publication of syllabi, commercial publishing of textbooks, and periodicals in…

  14. Mendel in Genetics Teaching: Some Contributions from History of Science and Articles for Teachers (United States)

    El-Hani, Charbel N.


    School science descriptions about Mendel and his story are problematic because several statements that are controversial among historians of science are repeated over and over again as if they were established facts. Another problem is the neglect of other scientists working on inheritance in the second half of the nineteenth century, including Darwin, Spencer, Galton, Nägeli, Brooks, Weismann and de Vries, who paved the way for the reinterpretation of Mendel's work in 1900. These problems are often found in textbooks and are likely to be present in school science throughout the world. Here, we discuss the contributions that history of science and papers published in journals that target teachers may bring to improve how school science deals with Mendel and his contributions. Evidently the idea is not that school teachers could solve problems still under discussion in the historical literature. The point is, rather, that it is important to avoid treating Mendel's contributions as uncontroversial, mentioning, for instance, that there are ongoing debates on whether he proposed the laws named after him by appealing to invisible factors underlying phenotypic traits that are seen as the heritable potentials for those traits, and would in due time be known as genes. History of science can contribute to put the mythic Mendel into question in the science classroom, bringing school science closer to the controversies around the interpretation of his work.

  15. Sketching together the modern histories of science, technology, and medicine. (United States)

    Pickstone, John V


    This essay explores ways to "write together" the awkwardly jointed histories of "science" and "me dicine"--but it also includes other "arts" (in the old sense) and technologies. It draws especially on the historiography of medicine, but I try to use terms that are applicable across all of science, technology, and medicine (STM). I stress the variety of knowledges and practices in play at any time and the ways in which the ensembles change. I focus on the various relations of "science" and "medicine," as they were understood for a succession of periods--from mainly agricultural societies, through industrial societies, to our biomedical present--trying to sketch a history that encompasses daily practices and understandings as well as major conceptual and technical innovations. The model is meant to facilitate inquiry across topics and across times, including those to come.

  16. Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science (United States)

    Chamizo, José A.


    The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The left side originally related in Gowin's Vee with philosophies, theories, models, laws or regularities now agrees with Toulmin's concepts (language, models as representation techniques and application procedures). Mexican science teachers without experience in science education research used the heuristic diagram to learn about the history of chemistry considering also in the left side two different historical times: past and present. Through a semantic differential scale teachers' attitude to the heuristic diagram was evaluated and its usefulness was demonstrated.

  17. Viewpoint: The History Manifesto and the History of Science. Editor's Introduction. (United States)

    Cohen, H Floris


    This "Viewpoint" section takes up the question of what, if anything, historians of science can learn from The History Manifesto, initially published in the fall of 2014. One summary, two essay reviews, and nine short comments are followed by remarks by the authors of the manifesto, Jo Guldi and David Armitage.

  18. Big data science: A literature review of nursing research exemplars. (United States)

    Westra, Bonnie L; Sylvia, Martha; Weinfurter, Elizabeth F; Pruinelli, Lisiane; Park, Jung In; Dodd, Dianna; Keenan, Gail M; Senk, Patricia; Richesson, Rachel L; Baukner, Vicki; Cruz, Christopher; Gao, Grace; Whittenburg, Luann; Delaney, Connie W

    Big data and cutting-edge analytic methods in nursing research challenge nurse scientists to extend the data sources and analytic methods used for discovering and translating knowledge. The purpose of this study was to identify, analyze, and synthesize exemplars of big data nursing research applied to practice and disseminated in key nursing informatics, general biomedical informatics, and nursing research journals. A literature review of studies published between 2009 and 2015. There were 650 journal articles identified in 17 key nursing informatics, general biomedical informatics, and nursing research journals in the Web of Science database. After screening for inclusion and exclusion criteria, 17 studies published in 18 articles were identified as big data nursing research applied to practice. Nurses clearly are beginning to conduct big data research applied to practice. These studies represent multiple data sources and settings. Although numerous analytic methods were used, the fundamental issue remains to define the types of analyses consistent with big data analytic methods. There are needs to increase the visibility of big data and data science research conducted by nurse scientists, further examine the use of state of the science in data analytics, and continue to expand the availability and use of a variety of scientific, governmental, and industry data resources. A major implication of this literature review is whether nursing faculty and preparation of future scientists (PhD programs) are prepared for big data and data science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Counterfactuals and history: Contingency and convergence in histories of science and life. (United States)

    Hesketh, Ian


    This article examines a series of recent histories of science that have attempted to consider how science may have developed in slightly altered historical realities. These works have, moreover, been influenced by debates in evolutionary science about the opposing forces of contingency and convergence in regard to Stephen Jay Gould's notion of "replaying life's tape." The article argues that while the historians under analysis seem to embrace contingency in order to present their counterfactual narratives, for the sake of historical plausibility they are forced to accept a fairly weak role for contingency in shaping the development of science. It is therefore argued that Simon Conway Morris's theory of evolutionary convergence comes closer to describing the restrained counterfactual worlds imagined by these historians of science than does contingency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Discipline-Specific Approach to the History of U.S. Science Education (United States)

    Otero, Valerie K.; Meltzer, David E.


    Although much has been said and written about the value of using the history of science in teaching science, relatively little is available to guide educators in the various science disciplines through the educational history of their own discipline. Through a discipline-specific approach to a course on the history of science education in the…

  1. From established science to class room science, or how to take into account didactic activity in the history of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Belhoste


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the relationship between science and education in historiography, questioning the separation between the two activities, and highlighting the role of education to scientific activity. First, it distinguishes the largely accepted needs of historical contextualization from the epistemological problem, related to the place of history education in the history of science. It defends that the history of science education is not foreign to the history of science. It criticizes Chevallard’s notion of didactic transposition for reinforcing the gap between scientific knowledge and teaching knowledge. Finally, it argues that the sciences are in permanent reconstruction and that scientific knowledge is not tied to socio-cultural contexts from which it emerged.

  2. Cosmic Times: Astronomy History and Science for the Classroom (United States)

    Lochner, James C.; Mattson, B.


    Cosmic Times is a series of curriculum support materials and classroom activities for upper middle school and high school students which teach the nature of science by exploring the history of our understanding of the universe during the past 100 years. Starting with the confirmation of Einstein's theory of gravity in 1919 to the current conundrum posed by the discovery of dark energy, Cosmic Times examines the discoveries, the theories, and the people involved in this changing [understanding] of the universe. Cosmic Times takes the form of 6 posters, each resembling the front page of a newspaper from a particular time in this history with articles describing the discoveries. Each poster is accompanied by 4-5 classroom lessons which enable students to examine the science concepts behind the discoveries, develop techniques to improve science literacy, and investigate the nature of science using historical examples. Cosmic Times directly connects with the IYA theme of Astronomy in the Classroom, as well as the general theme of the impact of astronomy history. Cosmic Times has been developed with a freelance writer to write the articles for the posters, a group of teachers to develop the lessons, and evaluator to provide testing of the materials with a group of rural teachers in underserved communities. This poster presentation previews the Cosmic Times materials, which are posted on as they become available. Cosmic Times is funded in part via a NASA IDEAS grant.

  3. From the History of Science to the History of Knowledge – and Back (United States)

    Renn, Jürgen


    The history of science can be better understood against the background of a history of knowledge comprising not only theoretical but also intuitive and practical knowledge. This widening of scope necessitates a more concise definition of the concept of knowledge, relating its cognitive to its material and social dimensions. The history of knowledge comprises the history of institutions in which knowledge is produced and transmitted. This is an essential but hitherto neglected aspect of cultural evolution. Taking this aspect into account one is led to the concept of extended evolution, which integrates the perspectives of niche construction and complex regulative networks. The paper illustrates this concept using four examples: the emergence of language, the Neolithic revolution, the invention of writing and the origin of mechanics. PMID:25684777

  4. From the History of Science to the History of Knowledge - and Back. (United States)

    Renn, Jürgen


    The history of science can be better understood against the background of a history of knowledge comprising not only theoretical but also intuitive and practical knowledge. This widening of scope necessitates a more concise definition of the concept of knowledge, relating its cognitive to its material and social dimensions. The history of knowledge comprises the history of institutions in which knowledge is produced and transmitted. This is an essential but hitherto neglected aspect of cultural evolution. Taking this aspect into account one is led to the concept of extended evolution, which integrates the perspectives of niche construction and complex regulative networks. The paper illustrates this concept using four examples: the emergence of language, the Neolithic revolution, the invention of writing and the origin of mechanics.

  5. An Examination of Understandings of Prospective Teachers about Science and Science History (United States)

    Yildiz, Cemalettin


    The purpose of this study was to reveal beliefs of prospective teachers about "science" and "science history." The qualitative research approach was employed in the study. The study group consisted of 150 prospective teachers. A form developed by the researcher was used for data collection. The form consisted of open-ended…

  6. Innovating Science Teacher Education: A History and Philosophy of Science Perspective (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor


    How teachers view the nature of scientific knowledge is crucial to their understanding of science content and how it can be taught. This book presents an overview of the dynamics of scientific progress and its relationship to the history and philosophy of science, and then explores their methodological and educational implications and develops…

  7. Cooperative Learning about Nature of Science with a Case from the History of Science (United States)

    Wolfensberger, Balz; Canella, Claudia


    This paper reports a predominantly qualitative classroom study on cooperative learning about nature of science (NOS) using a case from the history of science. The purpose of the research was to gain insight into how students worked with the historical case study during cooperative group work, how students and teachers assessed the teaching unit,…

  8. Focus: Bounded Rationality and the History of Science. Introduction. (United States)

    Cowles, Henry M; Deringer, William; Dick, Stephanie; Webster, Colin


    Historians of science see knowledge and its claimants as constrained by myriad factors. These limitations range from the assumptions and commitments of scientific practitioners to the material and ideational contexts of their practice. The precise nature of such limits and the relations among them remains an open question in the history of science. The essays in this Focus section address this question by examining one influential portrayal of constraints--Herbert Simon's theory of "bounded rationality"--as well as the responses to which it has given rise over the last half century.

  9. The History of Science from a science-technology-society perspective (CTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiuska Pérez Bejerano


    Full Text Available One of the many goals of scientific training under CTS is to contribute to improving public understanding of the nature of science. It emphasizes the article in the possibilities of the history of science on this issue clarifying and illustrating through the history of chemistry as you can put scientific knowledge in context unraveled the complex relationship science - society links with the philosophical, ethical, political positions. This will help form a more responsible citizen, with a deeper awareness of their own activity, which takes sides with the problems affecting the world and their community.

  10. Understanding Materials Science History · Properties · Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hummel, Rolf E


    This introduction to materials science both for students of engineering and physics and for the interested general public examines not only the physical and engineering properties of virtually all kinds of materials, but also their history, uses, development, and some of the implications of resource depletion and recycling. It covers all topics on materials from an entirely novel perspective: the role materials have played throughout history in the development of humankind and technologies. Specifically, it shows the connection between the technical and the cultural, economic, ecological, and societal aspects of materials science. It aims to whet the appetite of its readers and inspire them to further explore the properties and applications of metals, alloys, ceramics, plastics, and electronic materials by presenting easily understandable explanations and entertaining historical facts. It is also intended to raise the reader’s awareness of their obligations to society as practicing engineers and scientists....

  11. Informal and Non-formal Education: An Outline of History of Science in Museums (United States)

    Filippoupoliti, Anastasia; Koliopoulos, Dimitris


    Although a growing number of research articles in recent years have treated the role of informal settings in science learning, the subject of the history of science in museums and its relationship to informal and non-formal education remains less well explored. The aim of this review is to assemble the studies of history of science in science museums and explore the opportunities for the further use of the history of science in science museum education practice.

  12. Energy and the social sciences. A preliminary literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, P.


    The social science literature pertaining to energy problems is reviewed, and preliminary suggestions for research projects and research strategy are presented. Much of the social science literature on energy is in the field of economics, where such themes as econometric models, pricing policy, taxation, and government-industry interactions are discussed. Among the suggested research efforts is a study of proper economic criteria for determining rates of development of alternative sources of energy. The political science literature on energy is not well developed, but a review of it indicates interesting possibilities for research. The kinds of social and political institutions that would be most effective in an energy-constrained economy should be studied, and a comparative study of institutions now in existence in the United States and other countries is suggested. The social effects of centralized, comprehensive decision-making, which might be necessary in the event of significant shortages of energy, should be studied. The roles of community groups, interest groups, the media, government, etc., in decision-making should receive continuing attention. In the fields of sociology and psychology there is a need for more understanding of the attitudes, beliefs, and behavior of individuals about energy matters. The ways in which people adapt to energy shortages and changes in energy prices should be a subject for continuing studies. It is suggested that plans be made for surveys of coping strategies under emergency conditions as well as under conditions of gradual change. A possible long-range reaction to energy shortages and high prices might be a decrease in living-space available to individuals and families, and the work of psychologists in this area should be analyzed. 41 references.

  13. Theoretical development of information science: A brief history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger


    the strongest “paradigms” in the field is a tradition derived from the Cranfield experiments in the 1960s and the bibliometric research following the publication of Science Citation Index from 1963 and forward. Among the competing theoretical frameworks, ‘the cognitive view’ became influential from the 1970s......This paper presents a brief history of information science (IS) as viewed by the author. The term ‘information science’ goes back to 1955 and evolved in the aftermath of Claude Shannon’s ‘information theory’ (1948), which also inspired research into problems in fields of library science...... and documentation. These subjects were a main focus of what became established as ‘information science’, which from 1964 onwards was often termed ‘library and information science’ (LIS). However, the usefulness of Shannon’s information theory as the theoretical foundation of the field was been challenged. Among...

  14. The body complex in contemporary science, literature, and culture (United States)

    Smith, Christopher Jason


    In the simplest terms, the purpose of this dissertation, entitled The Body Complex in Contemporary Science, Literature, and Culture is to examine the relationships between popular quantum mechanics, Chaos Theory (or complex dynamics), and contemporary Feminist/Gender theory. As the title is intended to suggest, this examination is narrowed to the 'event' of the body as it appears within the discourses of several different disciplines. The primary question is, 'what is the body and how do we define it?' And more, how do we conceive of 'a body' at all, from the cosmic to the molecular. How do these very different ideas of body reinforce and/or challenge our own concept of self and the experience of our bodies? And, how is this sense of embodiment represented in popular science, literature, and culture? Finally, the conclusion explores the possibility of liberating practices-complex actions-which may help to reveal the structures of power and alter in some useful ways our own sense of embodiment. This project relies most heavily upon the work of Michel Foucault and other gender critics such as Donna J. Harraway and Judith Butler. However, in support of these arguments a geneology of criticism is established which includes the Renaissance view of the body, a discussion of Karl Marx and materialism, Sigmund Freud and the body as the origin of mind, Lacan's linguistic approach to self-perception, and the theories of the French school of Feminism.

  15. The history and science of the Manhatten project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Bruce Cameron


    This is the only popular-level history of the Project prepared by a writer who is a physicist and who has broad knowledge of the relevant scientific details. Ideal for readers who have no specialized scientific background but who want to learn more about how atomic bombs came to be. Relevant scientific concepts are explained in the text as they are needed. For readers who do possess some scientific background (high-school physics), this book will provide a deeper understanding of some of the technical issues involved in developing atomic bombs. An ideal text for a college-level ''general education'' history or science class. Based on years of research by the author into the physics of nuclear weapons, augmented by familiarity with relevant official archival documentation. The development of atomic bombs under the auspices of the U. S. Army's Manhattan Project during World War II is considered to be the outstanding news story of the twentieth century. In this book, a physicist and expert on the history of the Project presents a comprehensive overview of this momentous achievement. The first three chapters cover the history of nuclear physics from the discovery of radioactivity to the discovery of fission, and would be ideal for instructors of a sophomore-level ''Modern Physics'' course. Student-level exercises at the ends of the chapters are accompanied by answers. Chapter 7 covers the physics of first-generation fission weapons at a similar level, again accompanied by exercises and answers. For the interested layman and for non-science students and instructors, the book includes extensive qualitative material on the history, organization, implementation, and results of the Manhattan Project and the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombing missions. The reader also learns about the legacy of the Project as reflected in the current world stockpiles of nuclear weapons.

  16. The history and science of the Manhatten project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Bruce Cameron [Alma College, Alma, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics


    This is the only popular-level history of the Project prepared by a writer who is a physicist and who has broad knowledge of the relevant scientific details. Ideal for readers who have no specialized scientific background but who want to learn more about how atomic bombs came to be. Relevant scientific concepts are explained in the text as they are needed. For readers who do possess some scientific background (high-school physics), this book will provide a deeper understanding of some of the technical issues involved in developing atomic bombs. An ideal text for a college-level ''general education'' history or science class. Based on years of research by the author into the physics of nuclear weapons, augmented by familiarity with relevant official archival documentation. The development of atomic bombs under the auspices of the U. S. Army's Manhattan Project during World War II is considered to be the outstanding news story of the twentieth century. In this book, a physicist and expert on the history of the Project presents a comprehensive overview of this momentous achievement. The first three chapters cover the history of nuclear physics from the discovery of radioactivity to the discovery of fission, and would be ideal for instructors of a sophomore-level ''Modern Physics'' course. Student-level exercises at the ends of the chapters are accompanied by answers. Chapter 7 covers the physics of first-generation fission weapons at a similar level, again accompanied by exercises and answers. For the interested layman and for non-science students and instructors, the book includes extensive qualitative material on the history, organization, implementation, and results of the Manhattan Project and the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombing missions. The reader also learns about the legacy of the Project as reflected in the current world stockpiles of nuclear weapons.

  17. Initiating and continuing participation in citizen science for natural history. (United States)

    Everett, Glyn; Geoghegan, Hilary


    Natural history has a long tradition in the UK, dating back to before Charles Darwin. Developing from a principally amateur pursuit, natural history continues to attract both amateur and professional involvement. Within the context of citizen science and public engagement, we examine the motivations behind citizen participation in the national survey activities of the Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) programme, looking at: people's experiences of the surveys as 'project-based leisure'; their motivations for taking part and barriers to continued participation; where they feature on our continuum of engagement; and whether participation in an OPAL survey facilitated their movement between categories along this continuum. The paper focuses on a less-expected but very significant outcome regarding the participation of already-engaged amateur naturalists in citizen science. Our main findings relate to: first, how committed amateur naturalists (already-engaged) have also enjoyed contributing to OPAL and the need to respect and work with their interest to encourage broader and deeper involvement; and second, how new (previously-unengaged) and relatively new participants (casually-engaged) have gained confidence, renewed their interests, refocussed their activities and/or gained validation from participation in OPAL. Overall, we argue that engagement with and enthusiasm for the scientific process is a motivation shared by citizens who, prior to participating in the OPAL surveys, were previously-unengaged, casually-engaged or already-engaged in natural history activities. Citizen science has largely been written about by professional scientists for professional scientists interested in developing a project of their own. This study offers a qualitative example of how citizen science can be meaningful to participants beyond what might appear to be a public engagement data collection exercise.

  18. [Proposals for the introduction of history, art and literature issues on the urology subject]. (United States)

    Tundidor Bermúdez, A M


    To contribute to the humanistic education of medical students. A bibliographic review was done on history, art and literature items in relation with Urology. The introduction of cultural items in the Urology subject, as a motivation and complement of the biomedical items, is proposed and illustrated by examples. The Urology subject can contribute to the humanistic education of medical students.

  19. The Power of Life Histories: Moving Readers to Greater Acts of Empathy through Literature and Memoir (United States)

    Lee, Valarie G.; Madden, Marjorie E.


    This paper argues that narratives, specifically literature and memoir, offer a way to build empathy and understanding by moving readers to deeper levels of text interpretation and critique. The paper examines a new literacy framework, Life Histories, that uses talk, collaboration, writing, and performance to understand the complex relationships…

  20. [Conception of the history of science in the interpretation of Bogdan Suchodolski]. (United States)

    Lietz, Natalia


    In the article is presented the conception of the history of science in the interpretation of Bogdan Suchodolski. Having described the conception of the history of science created by George Sarton (1884-1956), whose thought was influenced by positivistic philosophy of August Comte, the idea of the history of science of Johan Nordstr6m (1891-1967), who was inspired by the system of Wilhelm Dilthey, and the materialistic conception of the history of science, which was represented, among others, by John Desmond Bernal (1901-1971), the author is making an attempt at revealing to what extent Bogdan Suchodolski was inspired by the above-mentioned visions of the history of science. Having defined the history of science as the history of scientific activity of people and their consciousness formed by the activity, Bogdan Suchodolski applied in the field of his own conception of the history of science the ideas that were put forward by German thinkers and philosophers, and were connected with a way of understanding culture as the constant development of national awareness, which can be exemplified with different dimensions of culture. Undoubtedly, identifying the history of Polish science with constitutive element of the history of national culture and paying attention to the conceptions tending not only to explaining, but also understanding phenomena, B. Suchodolski was influenced by Alfred Vierkandt's and Wilhelm Dilthey's thought. The present article includes several reflections on the conception of the history of science, which was created by B. Suchodolski. Among others, we can find here detailed information on how B. Suchodolski understood: the history of science, its subject, aim and methodology; its status in modern social consciousness and as the history of truth; relations between history of science and theory of science and scientific policy, history of science and the problem of unity and diversity of scientific thinking, history of science and ideas, history of

  1. Science Mapping: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaomei Chen


    Full Text Available Purpose: We present a systematic review of the literature concerning major aspects of science mapping to serve two primary purposes: First, to demonstrate the use of a science mapping approach to perform the review so that researchers may apply the procedure to the review of a scientific domain of their own interest, and second, to identify major areas of research activities concerning science mapping, intellectual milestones in the development of key specialties, evolutionary stages of major specialties involved, and the dynamics of transitions from one specialty to another. Design/methodology/approach: We first introduce a theoretical framework of the evolution of a scientific specialty. Then we demonstrate a generic search strategy that can be used to construct a representative dataset of bibliographic records of a domain of research. Next, progressively synthesized co-citation networks are constructed and visualized to aid visual analytic studies of the domain’s structural and dynamic patterns and trends. Finally, trajectories of citations made by particular types of authors and articles are presented to illustrate the predictive potential of the analytic approach. Findings: The evolution of the science mapping research involves the development of a number of interrelated specialties. Four major specialties are discussed in detail in terms of four evolutionary stages: conceptualization, tool construction, application, and codification. Underlying connections between major specialties are also explored. The predictive analysis demonstrates citations trajectories of potentially transformative contributions. Research limitations: The systematic review is primarily guided by citation patterns in the dataset retrieved from the literature. The scope of the data is limited by the source of the retrieval, i.e. the Web of Science, and the composite query used. An iterative query refinement is possible if one would like to improve the data quality


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berislav Majhut


    Full Text Available This study shows that the essence of contemporary accounts of the history of Croatian children’s literature lies in its picture created by the theoretician of children’s literature Milan Crnković (1925 – 1988 in the 1970s. Crnković’s history of Croatian children’s literature has served as the basis of almost all most important historical and theoretical works in this field. The paper will analyze the content of his historical paradigm: its beginning, specific characteristics, the development of literary genres, the creation of the canon and historical and social circumstances. The paper aims to find out which historical and literary- historical developments had a decisive impact at the time when Crnković wrote the main works for his history. In addition, the reasons why this paradigm may no longer be able to satisfy the need for a solid theoretical basis of contemporary research of children’s literature are considered. The paper points out that Crnković was not able to produce a satisfactory picture of Croatian children’s literature because his research data were mostly based on children’s magazines of that time. In his research Crnković establishes that Croatian children’s literature begins with the literature written by teachers. Also, it is important to mention that due to circumstantial restrictions Crnković did not thoroughly explore the period from 1941 to 1955. Our reexamination of the basic elements of Crnković’s paradigm points out that it is necessary to reevaluate some of the main authors and works in order to shed new light on Croatian children’s literature.

  3. Galileo's Religion Versus the Church's Science? Rethinking the History of Science and Religion (United States)

    Wilson, D. B.

    Galileo's conflict with the Catholic Church is well recognized as a key episode in the history of physics and in the history of science and religion. This paper applies a new, historiographical approach to that specific episode. It advocates eliminating the science and religion. The Church concluded that the plainest facts of human experience agreed perfectly with an omniscient God's revealed word to proclaim the earth at rest. Supported by the Bible, Galileo, God-like, linked the elegance of mathematics to truths about nature. The Church, in effect, resisted Galileo's claim to be able to think like God, instead listening to God himself - and paying close attention to what man himself observed. We can thus see that the phrase ``Galileo's religion versus the Church's science'' is as meaningful (or meaningless) as the usual designation ``Galileo's science versus the Church's religion.''

  4. Using Primary Literature for Teaching Undergraduate Planetary Sciences (United States)

    Levine, J.


    Articles from the primary scientific literature can be a valuable teaching tool in undergraduate classrooms. At Colgate University, I emphasize selected research articles in an upper-level undergraduate course in planetary sciences. In addition to their value for conveying specific scientific content, I find that they also impart larger lessons which are especially apt in planetary sciences and allied fields. First, because of the interdisciplinary nature of planetary sciences, students discover that contributions to outstanding problems may arrive from unexpected directions, so they need to be aware of the multi-faceted nature of scientific problems. For instance, after millennia of astrometric attempts, the scale of the Solar System was determined with extraordinary precision with emerging radar technology in the 1960's. Second, students learn the importance of careful work, with due attention to detail. After all, the timescales of planetary formation are encoded in systematic isotopic variations of a few parts in 10,000; in students' own experiences with laboratory data they might well overlook such a small effect. Third, students identify the often-tortuous connections between measured and inferred quantities, which corrects a common student misconception that all quantities of interest (e.g., the age of a meteorite) can be measured directly. Fourth, research articles provide opportunities for students to practice the interpretation of graphical data, since figures often represent a large volume of data in succinct form. Fifth, and perhaps of greatest importance, by considering the uncertainties inherent in reported data, students come to recognize the limits of scientific understanding, the extent to which scientific conclusions are justified (or not), and the lengths to which working scientists go to mitigate their uncertainties. These larger lessons are best mediated by students' own encounters with the articles they read, but require instructors to make

  5. Science in the everyday world: Why perspectives from the history of science matter. (United States)

    Pandora, Katherine; Rader, Karen A


    The history of science is more than the history of scientists. This essay argues that various modem "publics" should be counted as belonging within an enlarged vision of who constitutes the "scientific community"--and describes how the history of science could be important for understanding their experiences. It gives three examples of how natural knowledge-making happens in vernacular contexts: Victorian Britain's publishing experiments in "popular science" as effective literary strategies for communicating to lay and specialist readers; twentieth-century American science museums as important and contested sites for conveying both scientific ideas and ideas about scientific practice; and contemporary mass-mediated images of the "ideal" scientist as providing counternarratives to received professional scientific norms. Finally, it suggests how humanistic knowledge might help both scientists and historians grapple more effectively with contemporary challenges presented by science in public spheres. By studying the making and elaboration of scientific knowledge within popular culture, historians of science can provide substantively grounded insights into the relations between the public and professionals.

  6. Jorge Luis Borges and the New Physics: the Literature of Modern Science and the Science of Modern Literature (United States)

    Mosher, Mark Robert


    By examining the works of the Argentine writer, Jorge Luis Borges, and the parallels it has with modern physics, literature and science converge in their quest for truth regarding the structure and meaning of the universe. The classical perception of physics as a "hard" science--that of quantitative, rational thought which was established during the Newtonian era--has been replaced by the "new physics," which integrates the so-called "soft" elements into its paradigm. It presents us with a universe based not exclusively on a series of particle-like interactions, or a "billiard-ball" hypothesis where discrete objects have a measurable position and velocity in absolute space and time, but rather on a combination of these mechanistic properties and those that make up the non-physical side of nature such as intuition, consciousness, and emotion. According to physicists like James Jeans science has been "humanized" to the extent that the universe as a "great machine" has been converted into a "great thought.". In nearly all his collections of essays and short stories, Borges complements the new physics by producing a literature that can be described as "scientized." The abstract, metaphysical implications and concerns of the new world-view, such as space, time, language, consciousness, free will, determinism, etc., appear repeatedly throughout Borges' texts, and are treated in terms that are remarkably similar to those expressed in the scientific texts whose authors include Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, and Erwin Schrodinger. As a final comparison, Borges and post-modern physicists address the question of the individual's ability to ever comprehend the universe. They share an attitude of incredulity toward all models and theories of reality simply because they are based on partial information, and therefore seen only as conjectures.

  7. The History of Science and Technology at Bell Labs (United States)

    Bishop, David


    Over the last 80 years, Bell Labs has been one of the most scientifically and technologically productive research labs in the world. Inventions such as the transistor, laser, cell phone, solar cell, negative feedback amplifier, communications satellite and many others were made there. Scientific breakthroughs such as discovery of the Big Bang, the wave nature of the electron, electron localization and the fractional quantum hall effect were also made there making Bell Labs almost unique in terms of large impacts in both science and technology. In my talk, I will discuss the history of the lab, talk about the present and give some suggestions for how I see it evolving into the future.

  8. Examples of the Zeroth Theorem of the History of Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, J.D.


    The zeroth theorem of the history of science, enunciated byE. P. Fischer, states that a discovery (rule,regularity, insight) namedafter someone (often) did not originate with that person. I present fiveexamples from physics: the Lorentz condition partial muAmu = 0 definingthe Lorentz gauge of the electromagnetic potentials; the Dirac deltafunction, delta(x); the Schumann resonances of the earth-ionospherecavity; the Weizsacker-Williams method of virtual quanta; the BMTequation of spin dynamics. I give illustrated thumbnail sketches of boththe true and reputed discoverers and quote from their "discovery"publications.

  9. Visual cultures in science and technology a comparative history

    CERN Document Server

    Hentschel, Klaus


    This book attempts a synthesis. It delves into the rich reservoir of case studies on visual representations in scientific and technological practice that have been accumulated over the past couple of decades by historians, sociologists, and philosophers of science. The main aim is thus located on the meta-level. It adopts an integrative view of recurrently noted general features of visual cultures in science and technology, something hitherto unachieved and believed by many to be a mission impossible. By systematic comparison of numerous case studies, the purview broadens away from myopic microanalysis in search of overriding patterns. The many different disciplines and research areas involved encompass mathematics, technology, natural history, medicine, the geosciences, astronomy, chemistry, and physics. The chosen examples span the period from the Renaissance to the late 20th century. Some pioneers of new visual cultures are portrayed, along with the modes of skill transfer and development. The broad range ...

  10. The Book and the Archive in the History of Science. (United States)

    Yale, Elizabeth


    In recent years, the history of archives has opened up rich possibilities for understanding early modern science and medicine in material terms. Yet two strands of inquiry, vital to understanding the development of science and medicine as "paper knowledge," have been left largely unpursued: the archiving of personal papers, as distinct from the formation of institutional archives; and the ways in which printed books and archival papers functioned in relation to each other. This essay brings these two strands to the forefront, considering in particular books published posthumously from the notes and correspondence left behind by Nicholas Culpeper, a popular mid-seventeenth-century English vernacular medical author, and John Ray, naturalist and Fellow of the Royal Society. Culpeper's and Ray's cases illustrate, in particular, the central role of women in preserving, circulating, and certifying the authenticity of medical and scientific papers and of any books published posthumously from them.

  11. The Pedagogical Roots of the History of Science: Revisiting the Vision of James Bryant Conant. (United States)

    Hamlin, Christopher


    This essay examines the rise and fall of Harvard president James Bryant Conant's postwar vision for history of science-based general science education. As well as developing the foundations of Conant's vision, it considers the tension between Conant's science pedagogy-centered view of the history of science and the claims of George Sarton and I. B. Cohen that the field was a distinct discipline. It relates these themes to Conant's unease with the like-minded theorists Thomas Kuhn and Michael Polanyi and concludes by examining Conant's anticipation of later science studies approaches and reflecting on his place in the history of the history of science.

  12. A general overview of the history of soil science (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Cerdà, Artemi


    Human knowledge of soil has come a long way since agriculture began about 9000 BCE, when finding the best soils to grow crops in was largely based on a trial and error approach. Many innovations to manage and conserve soil, such as the plow, irrigation techniques, terraces, contour tillage, and even the engineering of artificial soils, were developed between 9000 BCE and 1500 CE. Scientific methods began to be employed in the study of soils during the Renaissance and many famous scientists addressed soil issues, but soil science did not evolve into an independent scientific field of study until the 1880s. In the early days of the study of soil as a science, soil survey activities provided one of the major means of advancing the field. As the 20th century progressed, advances in soil biology, chemistry, genesis, management, and physics allowed the use of soil information to expand beyond agriculture to environmental issues, human health, land use planning, and many other areas. The development of soil history as a subfield of the discipline in the latter part of the 20th century has promise to help advance soil science through a better understanding of how we have arrived at the major theories that shape the modern study of soil science.

  13. Using Primary Literature to Teach Science Literacy to Introductory Biology Students


    Johanna Krontiris-Litowitz


    Undergraduate students struggle to read the scientific literature and educators have suggested that this may reflect deficiencies in their science literacy skills. In this two-year study we develop and test a strategy for using the scientific literature to teach science literacy skills to novice life science majors. The first year of the project served as a preliminary investigation in which we evaluated student science literacy skills, created a set of science literacy learning objectives al...

  14. Focus: knowing the ocean: a role for the history of science. (United States)

    Rozwadowski, Helen M


    While most historians have treated the sea as a surface or a void, the history of science is well positioned to draw the ocean itself into history. The contributors to this Focus section build on the modest existing tradition of history of oceanography and extend that tradition to demonstrate both the insights to be gained by studying oceans historically and the critical role that the history of science should play in future environmental history of the ocean.

  15. The history and science of the Manhattan project

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Bruce Cameron


    The development of atomic bombs under the auspices of the U. S. Army’s Manhattan Project during World War II is considered to be the outstanding news story of the twentieth century. In this book, a physicist and expert on the history of the Project presents a comprehensive overview of this momentous achievement. The first three chapters cover the history of nuclear physics from the discovery of radioactivity to the discovery of fission, and would be ideal for instructors of a sophomore-level “Modern Physics” course. Student-level exercises at the ends of the chapters are accompanied by answers. Chapter 7 covers the physics of first-generation fission weapons at a similar level, again accompanied by exercises and answers. For the interested layman and for non-science students and instructors, the book includes extensive qualitative material on the history, organization, implementation, and results of the Manhattan Project and the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombing missions. The reader also learns about the l...

  16. Concussion: A History of Science and Medicine, 1870-2005. (United States)

    Casper, Stephen T


    To review the intellectual history of concussion from the mid-19th century to the opening decade of the 21st century. Head injuries (HI) and their acute and long-term effects have been investigated for centuries, with major reviews of the topic appearing by 1870. Thus, while it has long been acknowledged that chronic traumatic encephalopathy was first described by Harrison Martland in 1928, an examination of the history of concussion research up to Martland's seminal report places his studies in a deeper historical context. This history makes clear that Martland's findings were one among many such studies showcasing the lasting dangers of blows to the head. In the years after Martland published his study, his paper was frequently cited in other papers that made clear that blows to the head, of all ranges of severity, were dangerous injuries with potentially life-changing consequences. The author has engaged in an historical analysis of the development and elaboration of concussion research in clinical medicine, neurology, neurosurgery, and those scientific disciplines related to clinical medicine. The author has found numerous primary sources from the history of medicine and science that describe the acute and chronic effects of single and repeated sub-concussive and concussive blows to the head. This study makes clear that evidence-based methodologies inevitably short-change the knowledge of past clinicians and scientists by holding these figures to normative standards of recent invention. What criticism of this kind fails to recognize is that past investigators, many of them pioneers in their fields, published their work in ways that matched the highest normative standards of their day for the presentation of evidence. It has been recognized for a long time that concussions are dangerous injuries with potentially life-changing consequences, ranging from permanent symptoms to degenerative neurological states. The intellectual history of medicine and science from

  17. Life histories of female elementary teachers and their science/teacher role construction (United States)

    Ramseur, Aletha Johnson

    The research conducted in this study focuses on life histories of female elementary teachers and their science/teacher role construction. Identity theorists argue that the self consists of a collection of identities founded on occupying a particular role. Who we are depends on the roles we occupy. These roles are often referred to as "role identities". In the case of these participants, many role identities (mother, wife, sibling, and teacher) exist. This study focuses primarily on their (science) teacher role identity. Literature on women's lives, as learners and teachers, suggest that women's experiences, currently and throughout history influenced their teacher role construction. There is however, little knowledge of women's lives as elementary teachers of science and the affect of their experiences, currently and throughout history, on their (science) teacher identity construction. Schools delineated by race, class, and gender relations, are similar to other sectors of society's, social and cultural spheres within which race, class, and gender identities are constructed. Using in-depth-interviews female elementary teachers were encouraged to actively reconstruct their life and work-life experiences focusing on family, school and science interactions. They addressed the intellectual and emotional connections between their life and work experiences by focusing on details of their past and present experiences and examining the meaning of those experiences. It was the scrutiny of these connections between their life and work experiences, the meaning derived from them and historical events, and the constraints imposed on their personal choices by broader power relations, such as those of class, race, and gender that informed why we teach, how we teach, and what we teach.

  18. Supraregional literature supply of science and research in West Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This brochure of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft deals with - the present literature supply system - methods and objectives for improvement - local and regional literature supply - personnel, financial, and technical means of literature supply institutions. (RW) [de

  19. [From literature to academic history:the position and pathway of acupuncture theory research]. (United States)

    Zhang, Shujian


    There are two clues in academic inheritance of acupuncture, including theoretical inheritance and empirical inheritance. Up to now, the mainstream of acupuncture theory has not been in conformity with empirical clinic, and could not explain new clinical techniques. The existing acupuncture theories are in need of strict re-examination, and new academic achievements shall be carefully absorbed. The literature review, concepts research and academic history study are considered as key pathways of acupuncture theory research.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.B Ovigli


    Full Text Available Considering that since the 1980’s it has a paradigm change, strengtheningthe perception of Science as a human construction and not as "natural truth", newapproaches of teaching emphasizes the importance of the History of Science inthe educational process, also recommended by the Brazilian PCNs. In thiscontext, it is presented the conclusion of the elaboration and evaluation of anillustrated historical panel that is in permanent exposition in the Interactive Spaceof Biotechnology of the CBME. It presents 25 pictures, inserted in a timeline thatselects important events related to cell biology, microbiology and immunology. Thetimeline is initiated in century XVI, with the microbial theory of the illnesses;spontaneous generation and the experiments of Needham and Spallanzani alsoare commented, as well as the production of the first vaccine. Koch, in centuryXIX, is remembered with its postulates and the discovery of some illnessescausative agents. Brazilians’ researchers - Adolfo Lutz, Oswaldo Cruz, Vital Braziland Carlos Chagas – and institutes are presented too. The panel revealed itself asan important source of information, awakening the interest of the visitors for thesubject. The idea was based on presenting Science as a human knowledgeadventure, emphasizing the scientific process in the construction of theknowledge, based on procedures, needs and different interests and values.

  1. Invention of science a new history of the scientific revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Wootton, David


    We live in a world made by science. How and when did this happen? This book tells the story of the extraordinary intellectual and cultural revolution that gave birth to modern science, and mounts a major challenge to the prevailing orthodoxy of its history. Before 1492 it was assumed that all significant knowledge was already available; there was no concept of progress; people looked for understanding to the past not the future. This book argues that everything changed with the discovery of America, which demonstrated that new knowledge was possible: indeed it introduced the very concept of "discovery", and opened the way to the invention of science. The first crucial discovery was Tycho Brahe's nova of 1572: proof that there could be change in the heavens. The telescope (1610) rendered the old astronomy obsolete. Torricelli's experiment with the vacuum (1643) led directly to the triumph of the experimental method in the Royal Society of Boyle and Newton. By 1750 Newtonianism was being celebrated throughout E...

  2. English Language, Linguistics and Literature. : Selected Readings of Classical Writings for Linguistic Theory, Literature History, and Applications of the English Language.


    Haase, Fee


    This collection contains selected readings of Ccassical writings for linguistic theory, literature history, and applications of the English language in documents from the early beginnings to the 20th century.

  3. The shape of the history of science profession, 2038: a prospective retrospective. (United States)

    Nyhart, Lynn K


    Presented as a retrospective speech by the president of the History of Science Society in 2038, this essay imagines a future for the profession of the history of science in the United States. Acknowledging that self-described historians of science do not fully control the subject, it considers the place of the history of science in a future university landscape in which interdisciplinary "studies" have supplanted disciplines as the fundamental organizing structure. It then situates this academic scene within a broader professional landscape in which nonuniversity institutions play an expanded role in bringing the history of science directly to the public. Here the essay focuses on an imagined Science Heritage Center that blends commitments to innovative scholarly research, public history techniques of experiential learning, and updated technologies of virtual reality. It further suggests an unexpected direction for developing a collaborative "citizen history of science".

  4. Well-ordered science and Indian epistemic cultures: toward a polycentered history of science. (United States)

    Ganeri, Jonardon


    This essay defends the view that "modern science," as with modernity in general, is a polycentered phenomenon, something that appears in different forms at different times and places. It begins with two ideas about the nature of rational scientific inquiry: Karin Knorr Cetina's idea of "epistemic cultures," and Philip Kitcher's idea of science as "a system of public knowledge," such knowledge as would be deemed worthwhile by an ideal conversation among the whole public under conditions of mutual engagement. This account of the nature of scientific practice provides us with a new perspective from which to understand key elements in the philosophical project of Jaina logicians in the seventh, eighth, and ninth centuries C.E. Jaina theory seems exceptionally well targeted onto two of the key constituents in the ideal conversation--the classification of all human points of view and the representation of end states of the deliberative process. The Buddhist theory of the Kathāvatthu contributes to Indian epistemic culture in a different way: by supplying a detailed theory of how human dialogical standpoints can be revised in the ideal conversation, an account of the phenomenon Kitcher labels "tutoring." Thus science in India has its own history, one that should be studied in comparison and contrast with the history of science in Europe. In answer to Joseph Needham, it was not 'modern science' which failed to develop in India or China but rather non-well-ordered science, science as unconstrained by social value and democratic consent. What I argue is that this is not a deficit in the civilisational histories of these countries, but a virtue.

  5. European Society for the History of Science - Letter from the future president

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štrbáňová, Soňa


    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2010), s. 361-362 ISSN 0008-8994 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80630520; CEZ:AV0Z80770509 Keywords : history of science and technology * European Society for the History of Science Subject RIV: AB - History

  6. Informal and Non-Formal Education: An Outline of History of Science in Museums (United States)

    Filippoupoliti, Anastasia; Koliopoulos, Dimitris


    Although a growing number of research articles in recent years have treated the role of informal settings in science learning, the subject of the history of science in museums and its relationship to informal and non-formal education remains less well explored. The aim of this review is to assemble the studies of history of science in science…

  7. A Brief History of the Soil Science Society of America (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.


    Career Professional Award. SSSA has also hosted the World Congress of Soil Science in 1960 and 2006. In 2010 SSSA membership was at 6,367, the third highest membership total in SSSA history. SSSAJ published 259 items totaling 2,201 pages. But unlike 1937, SSSAJ is no longer SSSA's only journal. In 2009 Journal of Environmental Quality published 272 items on 2,480 pages, Soil Survey Horizons (renamed Soil Horizons in 2012) published 26 items on 133 pages, Vadose Zone Journal published 116 items on 1,088 pages, and Journal of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Education published 48 items on 250 pages, giving Society journals a total of 721 items published on 6,132 pages. At the end of 2010 SSSA was worth 3,130,163. All of these numbers show significant achievement in the years since the Society's founding, but not all of those years have been rosy. For example, SSSA's membership dropped from an all-time high of 6,402 in 1985 to 5,319 in 2002 and the Society's net worth declined from 2,132,750 in 1999 to 984,866 in 2002. This period from the mid-1980s through the early 2000s has probably been the most challenging so far in SSSA's history. Many changes are also in store going into the future. Over the past few years SSSA has become increasingly independent from ASA. While the two societies (along with the Crop Science Society of America (CSSA)) still maintain close ties, the members of SSSA have expressed a desire to emphasize that soils are more than agronomic. One indication of this increasing independence can be seen in the annual meetings. SSSA met jointly with the Geological Society of America in 2008 and will meet with the Entomological Society of America in 2015. There are also plans for SSSA to meet independently of ASA and CSSA for the first time in 2018. Another indication is the recent rearrangement of the governing structures of ASA, CSSA, and SSSA.

  8. The Animal Sciences Academic Quadrathlon: history, current status, and recommendations. (United States)

    Kauffman, R G; Jobsis, C T; Onan, G; Day, B N


    The Animal Sciences Academic Quadrathlon (AQ) provides opportunities for teams of undergraduate animal and dairy science students to participate in regional American Society of Animal Science (ASAS)/American Dairy Science Association (ADSA) meetings and to collectively exhibit their knowledge and talents competitively in 4 categories: 1) solving practical, hands-on, laboratory-type problems; 2) providing written answers to essay-type questions about principles and concepts; 3) preparing and communicating orally and extemporaneously topics of current animal science interest; and 4) quickly responding to short-answer questions provided in the form of double-elimination quiz bowls. Each team is selected by winning the local AQ at their university. Overall and individual category winning teams are recognized, but team rankings are not emphasized. The ASAS/ADSA members provide leadership for organizing and conducting the AQ, and ASAS and each university provide travel expenses for students. The ultimate purpose is to stimulate academic excellence among undergraduate students and for the students to attend ASAS/ADSA regional scientific meetings to meet faculty and students and to attend scientific research presentations. The purpose of this document was to provide a history of the event and to make recommendations for its improvement. The AQ was conceived in 1967. During the next 10 yr, an ASAS committee developed procedures for a trial AQ held in 1980 at the ASAS Midwestern Section, Kansas State University-Manhattan, and in the next year the first official AQ was held at the ASAS Midwestern Section at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Starting in 1985, AQ programs were initiated at the other 3 ASAS sectional meetings, and an estimated 50,000 students representing 60 universities have participated in AQ programs since that time. If the AQ is to continue its improvement over time, it will greatly depend on sustained ASAS/ADSA faculty interest and support, as well as

  9. The discovery of radioactivity: a bend in sciences history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautray, R.


    One hundred years after the discovery of radioactivity, it is possible to see what are the consequences of this discovery for the science. Four consequences are studied in this article: the acquisition of a new knowledge about matter and universe. Secondly, the observation that the radioactivity has given a clock of world history and open to us the past and how this past forged the present world. Thirdly, the fact that radioactivity gave tracers, markers which allow to sound the internal structure of the human body as well as these one of earth and solar system and to unveil the mechanisms. The fourth consequence, is all the applications, electro-nuclear energy, national defence, nuclear medicine. (N.C.)

  10. The role of probability arguments in the history of science. (United States)

    Weinert, Friedel


    The paper examines Wesley Salmon's claim that the primary role of plausibility arguments in the history of science is to impose constraints on the prior probability of hypotheses (in the language of Bayesian confirmation theory). A detailed look at Copernicanism and Darwinism and, more briefly, Rutherford's discovery of the atomic nucleus reveals a further and arguably more important role of plausibility arguments. It resides in the consideration of likelihoods, which state how likely a given hypothesis makes a given piece of evidence. In each case the likelihoods raise the probability of one of the competing hypotheses and diminish the credibility of its rival, and this may happen either on the basis of 'old' or 'new' evidence.

  11. The Science of Optics; The History of Art (United States)

    Falco, Charles

    Recently, renowned artist David Hockney observed that certain drawings and paintings from as early as the Renaissance seemed almost ''photographic'' in detail. Following an extensive visual investigation of western art of the past 1000 years, he made the revolutionary claim that artists even of the prominence of van Eyck and Bellini must have used optical aids. However, many art historians insisted there was no supporting evidence for such a remarkable assertion. In this talk I will show a wealth of optical evidence for his claim that Hockney and I subsequently discovered during an unusual, and remarkably productive, collaboration between an artist and a scientist. I also discuss the imaging properties of the concave mirror and some of the implications this work has for the history of science as well as the history of art (and the modern fields of machine vision and computerized image analysis). These discoveries convincingly demonstrate optical instruments were in use - by artists, not scientists - nearly 200 years earlier than commonly thought possible, and account for the remarkable transformation in the reality of portraits that occurred early in the 15th century. Acknowledgment: This work was done in collaboration with David Hockney.

  12. [Concise history of toxicology - from empiric knowledge to science]. (United States)

    Tompa, Anna; Balázs, Péter


    Toxicology is a science of poisonings by xenobiotics and endogenous physiological changes. Its empiric roots may be traced back to the emerging of the human race because the most important pledge of our predecessors' survival was the differentiation between eatable and poisonous plants and animals. In the course of social evolution, there were three main fields of using poisons: 1) hunting and warfare, 2) to settle social tensions by avoiding military conflicts through hiding strategy of eliminating enemies by toxic substances, 3) medicines applied first as anti-poisons and later by introducing strong substances to defeat diseases, but paradoxically active euthanasia is also a part of the whole story. The industrial revolution of the 19th century changed the sporadic occupational diseases to mass conditions. Later the chemical industry and subsequently the mass production of synthetic materials turned out as a global environmental catastrophe. This latest change initiated the emerging of ecological toxicology which is a future history of the concerning ancient science. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(3): 83-90.

  13. Health and Illness in History, Science and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Rovesti


    Full Text Available Health is a fundamental human right. The World Health Organization defines it as a "state of complete physical, psychological and social well - being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". The health of individuals, however, is also linked to the environment in which they live and especially to their ability to adapt and integrate into their life context. The relationship with the environment is extremely important because it is that interaction that outlines the concept of normality compared to pathology. Such normality needs to be contextualised by gender, geographical origin and by the individuals’ living conditions: as a matter of fact, what is normal for a young person may differ from what is normal for a senior one. That is to say, the concept of health is indeed relative and it is the result of an interesting evolution of the concept of illness. From the first approaches - dealing with the mere treatment of the symptoms - to the promise of a free-from-pain society, science and economics have played a significant role in redefining the dualism health/ illness. The article reflects on these two concepts, health and illness, in history and nowadays, and discusses the future of the medical science.

  14. Meat science from 1976: A history of the journal. (United States)

    Ledward, D A; Hopkins, D L


    The journal Meat Science was first published in 1976/77 and it initially comprised 4 issues per year. The first issue contained 4 papers and the first volume (4 issues) contained 27 articles, a mixture of papers and research notes. Its growth/popularity increased, and it has continued to thrive and in 2016 of the 1010 papers processed 292 were accepted. Over 90% of the papers published in the first volume were concerned with muscle biochemistry/meat properties. During the last years of the 20th century, meat products and their properties became a far larger proportion of the submissions as did those concerned with nutrition and safety. More recently there has been a resurgence of papers concerned with meat quality. Over the last 40years, the journal has reported on the major developments in meat science research and this paper will discuss both the history of the journal, and aspects of meat research as reflected in its publications. Possible future research trends are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Computation of Probabilities in Causal Models of History of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Pessoa Jr.


    Full Text Available : The aim of this paper is to investigate the ascription of probabilities in a causal model of an episode in the history of science. The aim of such a quantitative approach is to allow the implementation of the causal model in a computer, to run simulations. As an example, we look at the beginning of the science of magnetism, “explaining” — in a probabilistic way, in terms of a single causal model — why the field advanced in China but not in Europe (the difference is due to different prior probabilities of certain cultural manifestations. Given the number of years between the occurrences of two causally connected advances X and Y, one proposes a criterion for stipulating the value pY=X of the conditional probability of an advance Y occurring, given X. Next, one must assume a specific form for the cumulative probability function pY=X(t, which we take to be the time integral of an exponential distribution function, as is done in physics of radioactive decay. Rules for calculating the cumulative functions for more than two events are mentioned, involving composition, disjunction and conjunction of causes. We also consider the problems involved in supposing that the appearance of events in time follows an exponential distribution, which are a consequence of the fact that a composition of causes does not follow an exponential distribution, but a “hypoexponential” one. We suggest that a gamma distribution function might more adequately represent the appearance of advances.

  16. What's Wrong with Talking about the Scientific Revolution? Applying Lessons from History of Science to Applied Fields of Science Studies (United States)

    Orthia, Lindy A.


    Since the mid-twentieth century, the 'Scientific Revolution' has arguably occupied centre stage in most Westerners', and many non-Westerners', conceptions of science history. Yet among history of science specialists that position has been profoundly contested. Most radically, historians Andrew Cunningham and Perry Williams in 1993 proposed to…

  17. Relocating the history of science essays in honor of Kostas Gavroglu

    CERN Document Server

    Renn, Jurgen; Simoes, Ana


    This volume is put together in honor of a distinguished historian of science, Kostas Gavroglu, whose work has won international acclaim, and has been pivotal in establishing the discipline of history of science in Greece, its consolidation in other countries of the European Periphery, and the constructive dialogue of these emerging communities with an extended community of international scholars. The papers in the volume reflect Gavroglu’s broad range of intellectual interests and touch upon significant themes in recent history and philosophy of science. They include topics in the history of modern physical sciences, science and technology in the European periphery, integrated history and philosophy of science, historiographical considerations, and intersections with the history of mathematics, technology and contemporary issues. They are authored by eminent scholars whose academic and personal trajectories crossed with Gavroglu’s. The book will interest historians and philosophers of science and techno...

  18. History of science in basic physics education: what topics are part of this history?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Coelho da Silva


    Full Text Available Taking as theme the use of the history and philosophy of science as a strategy for the physics teaching in high school, we aim to investigate which topics of physics have already been the object of proposals and investigations in this sense. For this, we search for papers in the two most traditional Brazilian journals in the physics education area, the “Revista Brasileira de Ensino de Física” e the “Caderno Brasileiro de Ensino de Física”. We found papers that addressed the following topics: electric and magnetic fields, gravitation, relativity, astronomy, energy, electromagnetism, relations between force and motion, units of measurement, atmospheric pressure and vacuum. In this context, we point out the pertinence in expanding the list of topics that are the subject of studies of this type.

  19. History of Science and Instructional Design: The Case of Electromagnetism (United States)

    Seroglou, Fanny; Koumaras, Panagiotis; Tselfes, Vassilis

    This paper deals with two main research questions: a) Can we search for pupils'' potential alternative ideas in the history of science and especially in those areas where early scientific ideas were distinct from the current ones? b) Is it possible to overcome pupils'' alternative ideas by using experiments in the classroom, based on early experiments carried out by scientists in the past, in order to promote current scientific ideas? In this paper we present a case study in the field of electromagnetism. From the age of Thales up to the 16th century electrostatic and magnetic phenomena were unified in the context of a ''magic'' idea and were supposed to be of the same nature. Their differences were pointed out during the 16th century by Gardano and Gilbert and the two fields of science were established: electrostatics and magnetism. From the 17th century up to 1830, scientists dealt with the question whether electricities derived from different sources were of the same nature. During 1832-1833, Faraday successfully carried out a number of experiments in order to compare the ability of various electricities to produce the same effects. The above data from the history of science indicated electrostatic, electrodynamic and magnetic phenomena as a field of research on pupils'' and student-teachers'' ideas. The research was carried out in three phases: 10 individual in-depth interviews with 10-14-year-old pupils and 19-21-year-old student-teachers, questionnaire distribution to 109 13-year-old pupils and 148 student-teachers, 10 individual in-depth interviews for further clarification of pupils'' and student-teachers'' reasoning. Research results show that 53% of the student-teachers and 83% of the pupils that were involved in the investigation relate electrostatic with magnetic phenomena, in the same way scientists related these phenomena up to the 16th century. The results also indicate that the lack of common perceptions, commonly observed effects or procedures

  20. Book received: Towards a Science of Art History: J. J. Tikkanen and Art Historical Scholarship in Europe and The shaping of Art History in Finland


    Publications of the Society of Art History in Finland


    Publications of the Society of Art History in Finland: Towards a Science of Art History: J. J. Tikkanen and Art Historical Scholarship in Europe and The shaping of Art History in Finland, Helsinki 2007 with tables of contents.

  1. The history of science as oxymoron: from scientific exceptionalism to episcience. (United States)

    Alder, Ken


    This essay argues that historians of science who seek to embody our oxymoronic self-description must confront both contradictory terms that define our common enterprise--that is, both "history" and "science." On the history/methods side, it suggests that we embrace the heterogeneity of our institutional arrangements and repudiate the homogeneous disciplinary model sometimes advocated by Thomas Kuhn and followed by art history. This implies that rather than treating the history of science as an end in itself, we consider it a means to a variety of historical ends. think of ourselves as a tool-making community, and jettison moralistic assertions of scientific exceptionalism. To do so, this essay argues--on the science/subject side--that xe rebrand the subject of our historical inquiry as "episcience," a neologism that stands in relation to "science" as the new field of epigenetics does to the old genetics. Episcience encompasses both the material activities of the relevant sciences and their "surround" (environment, milieu, Umgebung) to reframe knowledge making to include the material processes that put science "in play" and make its findings matter beyond science. The essay concludes that "the history of science" is an oxymoron that makes sense to the extent that its practitioners acknowledge that the history of science is important not just because science is important, but because its history is.

  2. Introduction to the history of science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Byeong Ju


    This book contains origin of technology and development of civilization, national philosophy and ancient science and technology, Middle Age society and accumulation of science and technology, the era of the Renaissance and science and technology, development of science revolution and experimental science, technology and Mechanistic nature view of the manufacture time, science and evolution theory of the time of enlightenment idea, science and technology of the Industrial Revolution time, Korea's science and technology, modern technique and scientific approach, science and technology of the twenty-first century, and the role of science and technology in modern society.

  3. Introduction to the history of science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Byeong Ju


    This book contains origin of technology and development of civilization, national philosophy and ancient science and technology, Middle Age society and accumulation of science and technology, the era of the Renaissance and science and technology, development of science revolution and experimental science, technology and Mechanistic nature view of the manufacture time, science and evolution theory of the time of enlightenment idea, science and technology of the Industrial Revolution time, Korea's science and technology, modern technique and scientific approach, science and technology of the twenty-first century, and the role of science and technology in modern society.

  4. Uranium mining and metallurgy library science and technology literature retrieval of network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Lilei


    This paper introduces the network resources and characteristics retrieve service of Beijing research Institute of Chemical Engineering of Metallurgy library, Analyzes the problems often encountered in the literature retrieval in science and technology, And puts forward the solution, Puts forward the thinking and Suggestions of science and technology literature retrieval. (author)

  5. Why Implementing History and Philosophy in School Science Education Is a Challenge: An Analysis of Obstacles (United States)

    Hottecke, Dietmar; Silva, Cibelle Celestino


    Teaching and learning with history and philosophy of science (HPS) has been, and continues to be, supported by science educators. While science education standards documents in many countries also stress the importance of teaching and learning with HPS, the approach still suffers from ineffective implementation in school science teaching. In order…

  6. History, Philosophy and Sociology of Science in Science Education: Results from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (United States)

    Wang, Hsingchi A.; Sshmidt, William H.

    Throughout the history of enhancing the public scientific literacy, researchers have postulated that since every citizen is expected to have informal opinions on the relationships among government, education, and issues of scientific research and development, it is imperative that appreciation of the past complexities of science and society and the nature of scientific knowledge be a part of the education of both scientists and non-scientists. HPSS inclusion has been found to be an effective way to reach the goal of enhancing science literacy for all citizens. Although reports stated that HPSS inclusion is not a new educational practice in other part of the world, nevertheless, no large scale study has ever been attempted to report the HPSS educational conditions around the world. This study utilizes the rich data collected by TIMSS to unveil the current conditions of HPSS in the science education of about forty TIMSS countries. Based on the analysis results, recommendations to science educators of the world are provided.

  7. History of science content analysis of Chinese science textbooks from the perspective of acculturation (United States)

    Ma, Yongjun; Wan, Yanlan


    Based on previous international studies, a content analysis scheme has been designed and used from the perspective of culture to study the history of science (HOS) in science textbooks. Nineteen sets of Chinese science textbooks have been analyzed. It has been found that there are noticeable changes in the quantity, content, layout, presentation, and writing intention of the HOS sections in textbooks from different time periods. What's more, the textbooks aim at presenting the scientific culture and aim to help students understand it better. However, the cultural associations of the HOS in textbooks is insufficient and significant differences exist among textbooks of different subjects. In order to explore the reasons why the presentation of HOS in various subjects is different, we made a specific comparison of curriculum standards of two subjects with great differences and interviewed the editors-in-chief of two textbooks. Results show that one of the most important reasons for the different writings of the HOS in textbooks is that different subject curriculum standards attach greater importance to the HOS. In addition, the attention to the HOS by editors-in-chief, the tradition of studying the HOS within the history of the discipline, and the reference textbooks in compiling textbooks are all important influence factors. Some suggestions for future textbooks compilation are given at the end.

  8. Sun-Earth Day Connects History, Culture and Science (United States)

    Cline, T.; Thieman, J.


    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education forum annually promotes and event called Sun-Earth Day: a national celebration of the Sun, the space around the Earth (geospace), and how all of it affects life on our planet. For the past 3 years this event has provided a venue by which classrooms, museums, planetaria, and at NASA centers have had a sensational time sharing stories, images, and activities related to the Sun-Earth connections and the views o fthe Sun from Earth. Each year we select a different theme by which NASA Space Science can be further related to cross-curricular activities. Sun-Earth Day 2002, "Celebrate the Equinox", drew parallels between Native American Cultures and NASA's Sun-Earth Connection research via cultural stories, interviews, web links, activities and Native American participation. Sun-Earth Day 2003, "Live From the Aurora", shared the beauty of the Aurora through a variety of activities and stories related to perspectives of Northern Peoples. Sun-Earth Day 2004 will share the excitement of the transit of Venus through comparisons of Venus with Earth and Mars, calculations of the distances to nearby stars, and the use of transits to identify extra-solar planets. Finally, Sun-Earth Day 2005 will bring several of these themes together by turning our focus to the history and culture surrounding ancient observatories such as Chaco Canyon, Machu Picchu, and Chichen Itza.

  9. The Effect of Using the History of Sciences on Conceptual Understanding and Intrinsic Motivation (United States)

    Blizak, Djanette


    This study investigates the effect of using the history of science in teaching geometrical optics on the motivation and conceptual understanding of first year university students. For this purpose, 54 students were randomly selected, then divided into two groups: the experimental group was taught by using history of science before traditional…

  10. Science and Women in the History of Education: Expanding the Archive. (United States)

    Watts, Ruth


    Investigates the field of science to examine the neglect of its interrelationship with gender and how this weakness can be resolved. States it is vital to understand the methods and sources used in educational history when examining science and gender as an intellectual part of educational history. (KDR)

  11. Reconstructing Iconic Experiments in Electrochemistry: Experiences from a History of Science Course (United States)

    Eggen, Per-Odd; Kvittingen, Lise; Lykknes, Annette; Wittje, Roland


    The decomposition of water by electricity, and the voltaic pile as a means of generating electricity, have both held an iconic status in the history of science as well as in the history of science teaching. These experiments featured in chemistry and physics textbooks, as well as in classroom teaching, throughout the nineteenth and twentieth…

  12. History of Science in the Physics Curriculum: A Directed Content Analysis of Historical Sources (United States)

    Seker, Hayati; Guney, Burcu G.


    Although history of science is a potential resource for instructional materials, teachers do not have a tendency to use historical materials in their lessons. Studies showed that instructional materials should be adaptable and consistent with curriculum. This study purports to examine the alignment between history of science and the curriculum in…

  13. Promotion of Cultural Content Knowledge through the Use of the History and Philosophy of Science (United States)

    Galili, Igal


    Historical excurse was suggested as a beneficial form of using the history and philosophy of science in the modules of learning materials developed within the History and Philosophy in Science Teaching project. The paper briefly describes the theoretical framework of the produced modules, addressing ontological and epistemological aspects of…

  14. A Theoretical Understanding of the Literature on Student Voice in the Science Classroom (United States)

    Laux, Katie


    Background: Incorporating student voice into the science classroom has the potential to positively impact science teaching and learning. However, students are rarely consulted on school and classroom matters. This literature review examines the effects of including student voice in the science classroom. Purpose: The purpose of this literature…

  15. Oral History Archives | Fellowship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship; Oral History Archives. Oral history archive ... video documentaries of some of the leading scientists of the country from among Academy's fellowship. ... Math Art and Design: MAD about Math, Math Education and Outreach.

  16. [The function of philosophy of science in the teaching of medical history]. (United States)

    Li, Yaming


    The philosophy of science yields 3 important functions in the teaching of medical history. Firstly, by analyzing the development of medicine from the perspective of philosophy, we can integrate medical history into the history of human thought and clearly show the close connection between the development of humanity and the development of medical science. Secondly, philosophical analysis on the general rules of scientific discoveries involved in medical history can help medical students to understand the methodology in the research of sciences in history. Thirdly, philosophy of science offers new dimensions for understanding the relationship between medicine and the society. By making use of the relevant theory in scientific philosophy to explore the relationship between medicine and the society, the nature of medicine and the social nature and function of science can be further understood by medical students so as to exert an active role in the research and clinical work in the future.

  17. The Development of Dalton's Atomic Theory as a Case Study in the History of Science: Reflections for Educators in Chemistry (United States)

    Viana, Helio Elael Bonini; Porto, Paulo Alves


    The inclusion of the history of science in science curricula--and specially, in the curricula of science teachers--is a trend that has been followed in several countries. The reasons advanced for the study of the history of science are manifold. This paper presents a case study in the history of chemistry, on the early developments of John…

  18. A Teaching-Learning Sequence of Colour Informed by History and Philosophy of Science (United States)

    Maurício, Paulo; Valente, Bianor; Chagas, Isabel


    In this work, we present a teaching-learning sequence on colour intended to a pre-service elementary teacher programme informed by History and Philosophy of Science. Working in a socio-constructivist framework, we made an excursion on the history of colour. Our excursion through history of colour, as well as the reported misconception on colour…

  19. Misrepresentations of Indigenous History and Science: Public Broadcasting, the Internet, and Education (United States)

    Iseke-Barnes, Judy


    This paper examines the role of history in power relations which suppress Indigenous knowledges. History is located as being about power and about how the powerful maintain their power. The paper further examines the Bering Strait theory/myth and ways that discourses in history combine with discourses in science to devalue Indigenous knowledges.…

  20. Measuring the Measuring Rod: Bible and Parabiblical Texts within the History of Medieval Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Doležalová


    Full Text Available In spite of the acknowledged crucial role it had in forming medieval written culture, the Bible and a wide-range of parabiblical texts still remain largely ignored by histories of medieval literatures. The reason for this striking omission of an important group of medieval texts from the 'canonical' narratives is, as I argue, the strong bias in favour of national, secular, fictional, and original texts which shapes literary studies – an inheritance from the nineteenth-century nationalising approaches discussed in the first issue of the Interfaces journal. Of course, the discipline of literary studies and therefore selection, hierarchization, and interpretation are complex social, cultural and political processes where almost anything is possible. It is the environment, the interpretive community, in which the interpretation takes place that has a decisive role. And that, too, is constantly being transformed. Thus, there are no final categories and answers because as long as there are interpretive communities, meanings are generated and operate in new ways. That is why the present discussion does not aim to claim that many of the parabiblical texts are literature and should have been included in the canon of medieval literature. Rather, I examine what the nineteenth-century notion of canon did to these texts and how the current questioning and substantial reshaping of notions of canon can transform our understanding of parabiblical texts.

  1. Piecing together the biogeographic history of Chenopodium vulvaria L. using botanical literature and collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin J. Groom


    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the value of legacy literature and historic collections as a source of data on environmental history. Chenopodium vulvaria L. has declined in northern Europe and is of conservation concern in several countries, whereas in other countries outside Europe it has naturalised and is considered an alien weed. In its European range it is considered native in the south, but the northern boundary of its native range is unknown. It is hypothesised that much of its former distribution in northern Europe was the result of repeated introductions from southern Europe and that its decline in northern Europe is the result of habitat change and a reduction in the number of propagules imported to the north. A historical analysis of its ecology and distribution was conducted by mining legacy literature and historical botanical collections. Text analysis of habitat descriptions written on specimens and published in botanical literature covering a period of more than 200 years indicate that the habitat and introduction pathways of C. vulvaria have changed with time. Using the non-European naturalised range in a climate niche model, it is possible to project the range in Europe. By comparing this predicted model with a similar model created from all observations, it is clear that there is a large discrepancy between the realized and predicted distributions. This is discussed together with the social, technological and economic changes that have occurred in northern Europe, with respect to their influence on C. vulvaria.

  2. Computational perspectives in the history of science: to the memory of Peter Damerow. (United States)

    Laubichler, Manfred D; Maienschein, Jane; Renn, Jürgen


    Computational methods and perspectives can transform the history of science by enabling the pursuit of novel types of questions, dramatically expanding the scale of analysis (geographically and temporally), and offering novel forms of publication that greatly enhance access and transparency. This essay presents a brief summary of a computational research system for the history of science, discussing its implications for research, education, and publication practices and its connections to the open-access movement and similar transformations in the natural and social sciences that emphasize big data. It also argues that computational approaches help to reconnect the history of science to individual scientific disciplines.

  3. Literature list concerning differentiation and activation of macrophage and pathways found in the literature - DMPD | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us DMPD Literature list concerning differentiation and activation of macrophage and pathways fo...und in the literature Data detail Data name Literature list concerning differentiation and activation of mac...rophage and pathways found in the literature DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00558-001 Description of data contents Literature list License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Literature list concerning differentiati

  4. Science in the public sphere a history of lay knowledge and expertise

    CERN Document Server

    Nieto-Galan, Agusti


    Science in the Public Sphere presents a broad yet detailed picture of the history of science popularization from the Renaissance to the twenty-first century. Global in focus, it provides an original theoretical framework for analysing the political load of science as an instrument of cultural hegemony and giving a voice to expert and lay protagonists throughout history. Organised into a series of thematic chapters spanning diverse periods and places, this book covers subjects such as the representations of science in print, the media, classrooms and museums, orthodox and heterodox practices, the intersection of the history of science with the history of technology, and the ways in which public opinion and scientific expertise have influenced and shaped one another across the centuries. It concludes by introducing the "participatory turn" of the twenty-first century, a new paradigm of science popularization and a new way of understanding the construction of knowledge. Highly illustrated throughout and coveri...

  5. Science and society the history of modern physical science in the twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Gordin, Michael; Kaiser, David


    Modern science has changed every aspect of life in ways that cannot be compared to developments of previous eras. This four volume set presents key developments within modern physical science and the effects of these discoveries on modern global life. The first two volumes explore the history of the concept of relativity, the cultural roots of science, the concept of time and gravity before, during, and after Einstein's theory, and the cultural reception of relativity. Volume three explores the impact of modern science upon global politics and the creation of a new kind of war, and Volume four details the old and new efforts surrounding the elucidation of the quantum world, as well as the cultural impact of particle physics. The collection also presents the historical and cultural context that made these scientific innovations possible. The transformation of everyday concepts of time and space for the individual and for society, the conduct of warfare, and the modern sense of mastering nature are all issues d...

  6. History and Psychology—Oral History and Psychoanalysis. Development of a Problematic Relationship. Outline and Literature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander von Plato


    Full Text Available The article is about the relationship between two scientific fields—history and psychology—with a focus on their connections during the last 150 years and about the meaning of subjectivity in history. It addresses possibilities of cooperation, taking as an example the relationship of oral history and psychoanalysis. The article emphasizes the problems regarding unconscious elements in history as well as the perception and "digestion" of history by the individual and the collective memory. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0401181

  7. The skeleton in the closet: should historians of science care about the history of mathematics? (United States)

    Alexander, Amir


    Up until the 1950s, the history of mathematics was an integral part of the history of science. To George Sarton and his contemporaries, mathematics was the rational skeleton that organized science and held it together, and its history was a fundamental component of the broader history of science. But when historians began focusing on the cultural roots of science rather than its rational structure, the study of mathematics was marginalized and ultimately excluded from the history of science. The alienation between the two fields is detrimental to both, and in recent years there has been a sustained effort to reestablish meaningful communication between the two. This time, however, mathematics is seen not as the static skeleton of science but, instead, as a dynamic and historically evolving field in its own right-just like science itself. The new approach allows for a culturally sensitive study of mathematics, as well as a new and fruitful relationship between the history of science and the history of mathematics. The essays in this Focus section offer a sampling of the new approaches, opening the way to a rapprochement between fields that have gone their separate ways but should by rights be closely interconnected.

  8. The pursuit of understanding: A study of exemplary high school students' conceptions of knowledge validation in science and history (United States)

    Boix Mansilla, Veronica Maria

    The study presented examined 16 award-winning high school students' beliefs about the criteria by which scientific theories and historical narratives are deemed trustworthy. It sought to (a) describe such beliefs as students reasoned within each discipline; (b) examine the degree to which such beliefs were organized as coherent systems of thought; and (c) explore the relationship between students' beliefs and their prior disciplinary research experience. Students were multiple-year award-winners at the Massachusetts Science Fair and the National History Day---two pre-collegiate State-level competitions. Two consecutive semi-structured interviews invited students to assess and enhance the trustworthiness of competing accounts of genetic inheritance and the Holocaust in science and history respectively. A combined qualitative and quantitative data analysis yielded the following results: (a) Students valued three standards of acceptability that were common across disciplines: e.g. empirical strength, explanatory power and formal and presentational strength. However, when reasoning within each discipline they tended to define each standard in disciplinary-specific ways. Students also valued standards of acceptability that were not shared across disciplines: i.e., external validity in science and human understanding in history. (b) In science, three distinct epistemological orientations were identified---i.e., "faith in method," "trusting the scientific community" and "working against error." In history students held two distinct epistemologies---i.e., "reproducing the past" and "organizing the past". Students' epistemological orientations tended to operate as collections of mutually supporting ideas about what renders a theory or a narrative acceptable. (c) Contrary to the standard position to date in the literature on epistemological beliefs, results revealed that students' research training in a particular discipline (e.g., science or history) was strongly related to

  9. Fiction as Reconstruction of History: Narratives of the Civil War in American Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Isensee


    Full Text Available Even after more than 140 years the American Civil War continues to serve as a major source of inspiration for a plethora of literature in various genres. While only amounting to a brief period in American history in terms of years, this war has proved to be one of the central moments for defining the American nation since the second half of the nineteenth century. The facets of the Civil War, its protagonists, places, events, and political, social and cultural underpinnings seem to hold an ongoing fascination for both academic studies and fictional representations. Thus, it has been considered by many the most written-about war in the United States.

  10. [The original German scholarly literature of medieval falconry and the history of its scientific research]. (United States)

    Giese, Martina


    German scholarly literature (Fachliteratur) of the middle ages devoted to falconry falls into two main categories: Translations, mostly of latin works, and original treatises. After a short survey of falconry in the past, this article will discuss the original treatises and the history of their analysis since the 19th century. In this context it will deal with the research of the following scholars: Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall, Anton von Perger, Ernst von Dombrowski, Hermann Werth, Christoph von Biedermann and--most importantly--Kurt Lindner. The appendix contains the editio princeps of the German Münchener Rezeptar I from the codex unicus, München, Universitätsbibliothek, 80 Cod. ms. 354, fol. 31r-33r (dating from the 15th century).

  11. Introducing History (and Philosophy) of Science in the Classroom: A Field Research Experience in Italy (United States)

    Dibattista, Liborio; Morgese, Francesca


    For quite some time, many EU and Italian Ministry of Education official documents have warmly suggested the introduction of the history and the philosophy of science in the teaching of science disciplines at school. Accordingly, there is a shared agreement between pedagogists and science historians about the efficacy of this approach towards an…

  12. Physics Teachers' Challenges in Using History and Philosophy of Science in Teaching (United States)

    Henke, Andreas; Höttecke, Dietmar


    The inclusion of the history and philosophy of science (HPS) in science teaching is widely accepted, but the actual state of implementation in schools is still poor. This article investigates possible reasons for this discrepancy. The demands science teachers associate with HPS-based teaching play an important role, since these determine teachers'…

  13. History, Philosophy, and Science in a Social Perspective: A Pedagogical Project (United States)

    Guerra, Andreia; Braga, Marco; Reis, Jose Claudio


    Various studies have promoted instruction in the history and philosophy of science (HPS) in science classes, but the best way of putting this perspective into practice remains undetermined. To contribute to this issue, we developed a pedagogical project in some high schools in Brazil that aimed to present science content using an…

  14. History and Philosophy of Science through Models: The Case of Chemical Kinetics. (United States)

    Justi, Rosaria; Gilbert, John K.


    A greater role for the history and philosophy of science in science education can only be realized if it is based on both a credible analytical approach--such as that of Lakatos--and if the evolution of a sufficient number of major themes in science is known in suitable detail. Considers chemical kinetics as an example topic. Contains 62…

  15. The geological history of the Baltic Sea. A review of the literature and investigation tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckholmen, Monica; Tiren, Sven A.


    in the Neoproterozoic-Palaeozoic. A recent change in the stress regime and Pleistocene subsidence together with erosion has given us the present Baltic Basin. The history of the Baltic Sea region is described with reference to illustrations in the reviewed literature and investigation methods with examples are given in an Appendix

  16. The geological history of the Baltic Sea. A review of the literature and investigation tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckholmen, Monica; Tiren, Sven A. (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden))


    in the Neoproterozoic-Palaeozoic. A recent change in the stress regime and Pleistocene subsidence together with erosion has given us the present Baltic Basin. The history of the Baltic Sea region is described with reference to illustrations in the reviewed literature and investigation methods with examples are given in an Appendix

  17. NASA Center for Computational Sciences: History and Resources (United States)


    The Nasa Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS) has been a leading capacity computing facility, providing a production environment and support resources to address the challenges facing the Earth and space sciences research community.

  18. More than a Museum: Natural History is Relevant in 21st Century Environmental Science (United States)

    Hernandez, R. R.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Barrows, C. W.


    In the Anthropocene, the relevancy of natural history in environmental science is challenged and marginalized today more than ever. We tested the hypothesis that natural history is relevant to the fields of environmental science and ecology by assessing the values, needs, and decisions related to natural history of graduate students and environmental science professionals across 31 universities and various employers, respectively, in California. Graduate students surveyed (93.3%) agreed that natural history was relevant to science, approximately 70% believed it "essential" for conducting field-based research; however, 54.2% felt inadequately trained to teach a natural history course and would benefit from additional training in natural history (> 80%). Of the 185 professionals surveyed, all felt that natural history was relevant to science and "essential" or "desirable" in their vocation (93%). Our results indicate a disconnect between the value and relevancy of natural history in 21st century ecological science and opportunities for gaining those skills and knowledge through education and training.

  19. [Outlooks of Bogdan Suchodolski on the issue of popularizing the history of science]. (United States)

    Lietz, Natalia


    The author of the present article proves the veracity of the postulate, which was formulated by Bogdan Suchodolski and concerned the necessity of popularizing the history of science. The stipulation is still greatly important for many fields of human activity. Bogdan Suchodolski was not the first and the only thinker, who revealed the unquestionable significance of disseminating the history of science as scientific branch: For the first time the problem was noticed in 1900 during International Congress of Comparative History in Paris and in 1903 during International Congress of Historical Sciences in Rome, when the idea of universalizing the history of science was put forward, among others, by: Paul Tannery, Carre de Vaux, Gino Ioria and Karl Sudhoff. All the mentioned participants declared then the necessity of teaching the history of science both in the secondary schools and in the universities. In the article was also included a detailed description of conceptions formulated by Paul Tannery and Michel Lhéritier in the inter-war period that concerned popularizing the history of science, and differed much from each other. Unlike Paul Tannery, Michel Lhéritier advised against separating history of science from the whole of history. On the occasion of describing the inter-war period the author is paying a special attention to the role, which was played by International Conference of Teaching History in Hague in 1932. In that time a representative of International Committee on the History of Sciences and International Academy of the History of Sciences--Aldo Mieli--presented the idea of disseminating the history of science, which resulted in a resolution saying that the discussed branch should be taught in the primary and secondary schools, and in the universities as well. Further, the paper includes the description of the detailed conceptions that were put forward after World War II by the members of Committee on Teaching within International Academy of the

  20. Tannery and Duhem on the concept of a system in the history of philosophy and history of science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo


    historical disciplines, creating the impression that they were mutually independent. Modern commentators have tended to take these declarations at face value. This article argues that Tannery and Duhem, some of the first historians of science, transferred historiographical concepts from history of philosophy...

  1. Oral History Archives | Fellowship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oral history archive. Audio and video documentaries. In the Academy Council meeting held in December 2011, the proposal of creating an 'Oral history archive' was discussed and finalized for implementation. The archive is intended to be a repository of audio and video documentaries of some of the leading scientists of ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. В. Крива


    Full Text Available Fund of valuable and rare literature of the Scientific Library of National University of Water and Environmental Engineering enrols more than four thousand copies. The basis for its acquisition is the principle of general cultural, scientific and aesthetic significance. This fund is completed with all categories and types of national and foreign publications. It is also fulfilled with documents that have gained the status of unique sources and is related to the history of the university, and with directions of the corresponding profile of training of specialists in educational and research institution. According to the chronological principle, the fund of valuable and rare literature includes documents issued before 1945 and earlier. There are bookshops which reflect the history of the development of national and foreign science and technology and are reasonably valuable both for scientists and students. Here can be distinguished: unique book editions; separate courses in technical disciplines; multi-volume collections of scientific works; rare 19th-century textbooks; works of domestic and world classics of science and technology, as well as dictionaries and reference publications. The fund is arranged in a systematic alphabetical system. For the individual account of valuable and rare literature, “Card of rare and valuable documents” is conducted. The composition of the fund, as it receives, is displayed in the electronic catalog of the library. Recently, you can also read publications in the public repository of the educational institution.

  3. The Open Access Availability of Library and Information Science Literature (United States)

    Way, Doug


    To examine the open access availability of Library and Information Science (LIS) research, a study was conducted using Google Scholar to search for articles from 20 top LIS journals. The study examined whether Google Scholar was able to find any links to full text, if open access versions of the articles were available and where these articles…

  4. A historian among scientists: reflections on archiving the history of science in postcolonial India. (United States)

    Chowdhury, Indira


    How might we overcome the lack of archival resources while doing the history of science in India? Offering reflections on the nature of archival resources that could be collected for scientific institutions and the need for new interpretative tools with which to understand these resources, this essay argues for the use of oral history in order to understand the practices of science in the postcolonial context. The oral history of science can become a tool with which to understand the hidden interactions between the world of scientific institutions and the larger world of the postcolonial nation.

  5. History of the science of mutagenesis from a personal perspective. (United States)

    Malling, Heinrich V


    , in that I have selected only those experiences that I feel are important for the history of the field and the edification of today's students. I hope I have shown that science not only is a valuable pursuit but can also be fun, stimulating, and satisfying. A good sense of humor and the knowledge that many discoveries come by serendipity are essential.

  6. Teacher candidates' perceptions regarding the integration of fictional literature into elementary science instruction (United States)

    Everman, Daphne Jane

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the thoughts, feelings, and beliefs held by teacher candidates (TCs) regarding the integration of fictional literature into elementary science instruction. Data were collected in the forms of a Q sort completed by two sections of TCs as an in-class activity, demographics and background information filled out by each participant, and two focus groups. The data were analyzed through a blend of Q methodology and Yin's five phase analysis approach (2011), and a constructivist framework was used to analyze the potential impact TCs' background had on their perceptions of the use of fictional literature in elementary science. Key findings indicated that while many TCs have limited backgrounds in the use of fictional literature during science and would like more information about how to use it, overall, there was strong support for its use as a science teaching tool because it makes science more approachable, builds excitement, and encourages students to become more engaged.

  7. Educational services in health sciences libraries: an analysis of the periodical literature, 1975-1986. (United States)

    Zachert, M J


    The periodical literature on group instructional services in health sciences libraries was analyzed to determine the nature of these services, their target audiences, and their institutional settings. Three kinds of reports were identified: descriptions of services (70%), reviews of the literature (10.5%), and future-oriented articles that advocate various group instructional services (19.5%). Five target audiences were identified: library users, staff, librarian peers, library science students, and patients. Instructional services were offered primarily in medical school/center libraries, hospital libraries, and the National Library of Medicine and its Regional Medical Libraries (RMLs). To a lesser extent, health sciences educational services are offered through other professional school libraries, library associations and consortia, and schools of library science. There are gaps in the literature in the areas of library experience with marketing, evaluation, administration of the offered educational services, and continuing education for health sciences librarians.

  8. The Use of History of Science Texts in Teaching Science: Two Cases of an Innovative, Constructivist Approach (United States)

    Koliopoulos, Dimitris; Dossis, Sotiris; Stamoulis, Efthymios


    This study proposes an empirical classification of ways to introduce elements of the history of science into science teaching, as well as describing a special way to do so characterized by the introduction of short extracts from historical texts. The aim is to motivate students to participate in problem-solving activities and to transform their…

  9. Developing Greek Primary School Students' Critical Thinking through an Approach of Teaching Science which Incorporates Aspects of History of Science (United States)

    Malamitsa, Katerina; Kasoutas, Michael; Kokkotas, Panagiotis


    In this paper, the development of sixth grade students' critical thinking skills in science courses is discussed relatively to the contribution of the integration of aspects of History of Science into instruction. Towards this direction a project on electromagnetism was designed and implemented aiming to engage primary school students in a…

  10. The Relevance of Evidence from the History of Science in the Contemporary Realism/Anti-realism Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wray, K. Brad


    I aim to clarify the relevance of evidence from the history of science to the contemporary realism/anti-realism debate as the need for evidence from the history of science is often misunderstood or misrepresented.......I aim to clarify the relevance of evidence from the history of science to the contemporary realism/anti-realism debate as the need for evidence from the history of science is often misunderstood or misrepresented....

  11. From interventions to interactions: Science Museum Arts Projects’ history and the challenges of interpreting art in the Science Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Redler


    Full Text Available Hannah Redler’s paper examines the 13 year history of Science Museum, London’s contemporary art programme and explores how changing cultural conditions and the changing function of museums are making the questions raised by bringing art into the Science Museum context increasingly significant. It looks at how Science Museum Arts Projects started as a quirky, experimental sideline aimed at shaking up the Museum and its visitors’ assumptions, but has now become a fundamental means by which the Science Museum chooses to represent the impact of science, medicine, engineering and technology on peoples’ everyday lives.

  12. Productization and Commercialization of IT-Enabled Higher Education in Computer Science: A Systematic Literature Review (United States)

    Kankaanpää, Irja; Isomäki, Hannakaisa


    This paper reviews research literature on the production and commercialization of IT-enabled higher education in computer science. Systematic literature review (SLR) was carried out in order to find out to what extent this area has been studied, more specifically how much it has been studied and to what detail. The results of this paper make a…

  13. Methods for mapping the impact of social sciences and humanities - a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz; Grønvad, Jonas Følsgaard; Hvidtfeldt, Rolf


    This article explores the current literature on 'research impact' in the Social Sciences and Humanities (SSH). By providing a comprehensive review of available literature, drawing on national and international experiences, we seek to examine key methods and frameworks used to assess research impact...

  14. A History of Soil Science Education in the United States (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.


    The formal study of soil science is a fairly recent undertaking in academics. Fields like biology, chemistry, and physics date back hundreds of years, but the scientific study of soils only dates to the late 1800s. Academic programs to train students in soil science are even more recent, with the first such programs only developing in the USA in the early 1900s. Some of the first schools to offer soil science training at the university level included the University of North Carolina (UNC), Earlham College (EC), and Cornell University. The first modern soil science textbook published in the United States was "Soils, Their Properties and Management" by Littleton Lyon, Elmer Fippin and Harry Buckman in 1909. This has evolved over time into the popular modern textbook "The Nature and Properties of Soils", most recently authored by Raymond Weil and Nyle Brady. Over time soil science education moved away from liberal arts schools such as UNC and EC and became associated primarily with land grant universities in their colleges of agriculture. There are currently about 71 colleges and universities in the USA that offer bachelors level soil science degree programs, with 54 of these (76%) being land grant schools. In the 1990s through the early 2000s enrollment in USA soil science programs was on the decline, even as overall enrollment at USA colleges and universities increased. This caused considerable concern in the soil science community. More recently there is evidence that soil science student numbers may be increasing, although additional information on this potential trend is desirable. One challenge soil science faces in the modern USA is finding an academic home, as soils are taught by a wide range of fields and soils classes are taken by students in many fields of study, including soil science, a range of agricultural programs, environmental science, environmental health, engineering, geology, geography, and others.

  15. A Conceptual Approach to Library History: Towards a History of Open Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Miert, D.K.W.


    This article argues that Library History ought to be guided by well-contextualized questions of cultural history. It proposes one such question: that which asks after the ways in which repositories of knowledge were created, organized and used in the past. The examples that are discussed in this

  16. Second-career science teachers' classroom conceptions of science and engineering practices examined through the lens of their professional histories (United States)

    Antink-Meyer, Allison; Brown, Ryan A.


    Science standards in the U.S. have shifted to emphasise science and engineering process skills (i.e. specific practices within inquiry) to a greater extent than previous standards' emphases on broad representations of inquiry. This study examined the alignment between second-career science teachers' personal histories with the latter and examined the extent to which they viewed that history as a factor in their teaching. Four, second-career science teachers with professional backgrounds in engineering, environmental, industrial, and research and development careers participated. Through the examination of participants' methodological and contextual histories in science and engineering, little evidence of conflict with teaching was found. They generally exemplified the agency and motivation of a second-career teacher-scientist that has been found elsewhere [Gilbert, A. (2011). There and back again: Exploring teacher attrition and mobility with two transitioning science teachers. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 22(5), 393-415; Grier, J. M., & Johnston, C. C. (2009). An inquiry into the development of teacher identities in STEM career changers. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 20(1), 57-75]. The methodological and pedagogical perspectives of participants are explored and a discussion of the implications of findings for science teacher education are presented.

  17. [Bogdan Suchodolski--initiator and editor-in-chief of the publication History of Polish Science]. (United States)

    Kuźnicka, Barbara; Kuźnicki, Leszek


    Among numerous and distinguished author's and editorial works of Bogdan Suchodolski a particular value presents a publication in eight volumes entitled 'History of Polish Science' (including two biographical and bibliographic volumes), which was published in the years 1970-1992 on Professor's own initiative and edited by himself. This is the first synthesis of the history of science in Poland, from the beginning of the Middle Ages till the present time (to 1952). In the conception of the initiator and editor the work presents the development of scientific thought and achievements of the scholars in relation to national culture and in connexions with the trends in science in the world. 'History of Polish Science' is the work written by several dozen authors, representing different domains of the knowledge. Scientific, organizational and editorial patronate was possible by dint of History of Science and Technology Establishment of Polish Academy of Sciences (presently the Institute for the History of Science of Polish Academy of Sciences), which was managed by Bogdan Suchodolski.

  18. Hitting two birds with one stone: An afterword on archeology and the history of science. (United States)

    Brusius, Mirjam


    This afterword comments on the articles gathered together in this special section of History of Science ("Disassembling Archaeology, Reassembling the Modern World"). Criticizing the consistent lack of institutional infrastructure for histories of archaeology in the history of science, the piece argues that scholars should recognize the commonality of archaeology's practices with those of the nineteenth and twentieth century field sciences that have received more historical attention. The piece also suggests avenues to help take this approach further, such as combining expertise from historians of the biological sciences and of antiquarianism and archaeology to look at the history of the understanding of human variation and race. Finally, the afterword suggests that scholars should reconsider the idea of archaeology's reliance on institutionalised practices, thinking about the use and re-use of material culture in more diverse and pragmatic social contexts.

  19. The Spanish Society of Soil Science: history and future perspectives (United States)

    Bellinfante, Nicolás; Arbelo, Dolores; Rodríguez, Antonio


    The Spanish Society of Soil Science (SECS; has reached sixty years of existence, after being established in 1947 at the Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC) as an initiative of renowned scientists including José María Albareda, Salvador Rivas Goday, Fernando Burriel, Tomás Alvira and others. However, soil studies in Spain began in the first third of XX century, coordinated by Emilio Huguet del Villar, internationally outstanding researcher who was the President of the Subcommittee for the Mediterranean Region of the International Society Soil Science, with the activities of the Forest Research Institute and the Institute of Mediterranean Soils of the Regional Catalonian Government. With the creation of the CSIC and the Spanish Institute of Soil Science and Agrobiology, directed by José M. Albareda, Soil Science research was promoted in all scientific fields and through the Spanish geography. The SECS is considered equally heiress of previously existing organizations, in particular the Spanish Commission of Soil Science and Phytogeography, created in 1925, which was the Spanish voice in various international organizations and meetings related with Soil Science. After these years, Soil Science has developed considerably, showing a great diversification of fields of study and research and its applications, as well as a growing social awareness of the soil degradation processes and the need to implement measures to protect natural resources nonrenewable on a human scale, and an increasing role of universities and CSIC in Soil Science research. Currently, the SECS is a scientific organization dedicated to promoting the study, knowledge, research and protection of soil resources; spread the scientific importance of soil functions as nonrenewable natural resource in society and promote the interest in its protection; and preserve the knowledge about soils, their management and use, both from productive and environmental perspectives

  20. The History of the Soil Science Society of Nigeria (United States)

    Okechukwu Chude, Victor


    The Soil Science Society of Nigeria (SSSN) founded in 1968, is a registered member of the African Soil Science Association, International Union of Soil Science and the Global Soil Partnership. The Society aims at promoting and fostering better understanding of basic and applied Soil Science in Nigeria. The society also strives to enhance the dissemination of knowledge in all aspects of Soil science and shares ideas with National and International Societies through conferences, symposium, lectures, seminars and journal publications. The numerical strength of the society is 600 members (student, ordinary ,life and corporate). The soil science society of Nigeria has provided invaluable services in the formulation of agricultural land and fertilizer use strategies and policies of the country. The existing reconnaissance soil map of Nigeria typifies one of the major professional services rendered to the country by the society and its members. Despite the numerous contributions the society has made to the advancement of soil science in the country, the larger society is not aware of the its existence. This is largely because of our limited soil extension activities to land users due to lack of funds. If the society can attract donor funds, this will go a long way in enhancing the capacity and capability of the society.

  1. Map Resource Packet: Course Models for the History-Social Science Framework, Grade Seven. (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This packet of maps is an auxiliary resource to the "World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. Course Models for the History-Social Science Framework, Grade Seven." The set includes: outline, precipitation, and elevation maps; maps for locating key places; landform maps; and historical maps. The list of maps are…

  2. A Comparative Framework for Studying the Histories of the Humanities and Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bod, R.


    While the humanities and the sciences have a closely connected history, there are no general histories that bring the two fields together on an equal footing. This paper argues that there is a level at which some humanistic and scientific disciplines can be brought under a common denominator and

  3. [Eugène-Humbert Guitard and French Institute of History of Science (1932-1939)]. (United States)

    Lefebvre, Thierry


    Named "membre-conseil" of the French Institute of History of Science in April 1932, Guitard gives there, from January 1935 to February 1939, a dozen history of pharmacy conferences. Those conferences will give birth to her especially valuable Manuel d'histoire de la littérature pharmaceutique, published in 1942 by Caffin. The author re-examines this intellectual adventure.

  4. The Oral History Program: II. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. (United States)

    McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V


    The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

  5. Human Factors Science: Brief History and Applications to Healthcare. (United States)

    Parker, Sarah Henrickson


    This section will define the science of human factors, its origins, its impact on safety in other domains, and its impact and potential for impact on patient safety. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Moments in the Modern History of the Language Sciences. (United States)

    Swales, John M.


    Discusses the beginning of the ascendancy of the language sciences in the past 50 years to become the "queen" of social studies. Focuses on contributions by Mikhail Bakhtin, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Noam Chomsky, Erving Goffman, and Michael Halliday. (SC)

  7. Prof. R. Narasimha | History | About IASc | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... and Atmospheric Sciences, Contributed in a large way to improve understanding of ... importance for understanding structure and memory of fully turbulent flows. ... Has been closely associated with the development of aerospace technology ...

  8. Beautiful Science: The Public and Private History of Astronomy at the Huntington Library (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel


    The history of astronomy has a long tradition within research libraries. The rare collections at the Huntington Library (encompassing American and British history from around 1000 CE to the present, in many different subject areas) are among the most heavily-used in the United States, The history of astronomy holdings are a cornerstone within the library's history of science holdings. This talk will present the two faces of the history of astronomy holdings at the Huntington Library. The first of these is the research end of operations: what the collections consist of, how the scholarly public uses the collections, and what the implications are for modern astronomical practice. The second element concerns the public exhibit face of the history of astronomy holdings at The Huntington. Of the 600,000 people who visit the Huntington each year, the majority visit public displays and rare book and manuscript exhibits. "Beautiful Science: Ideas That Changed the World” is a new permanent history of science exhibit. One quarter of the exhibit relates to the history of astronomy. Public exhibits require a particular kind of planning and bring a specific set of values to the history of astronomy. Public exhibits also have their own concerns, and this talk will cover a number of those issues as well as the research issues.

  9. A short history of the soil science discipline (United States)

    Brevik, E. C.; Hartemink, A. E.


    Since people have cultivated the land they have generated and created knowledge about its soil. By the 4th century most civilizations around had various levels of soil knowledge and that includes irrigation, the use of terraces to control soil erosion, methods to maintain and improve soil fertility. The early soil knowledge was largely empirical and based on observations. Many famous scientists, for example, Francis Bacon, Robert Boyle, Charles Darwin, and Leonardo da Vinci worked on soil issues. Soil science became a true science in the 19th century with the development of genetic soil science, lead by the Russian Vasilii V. Dokuchaev. In the beginning soil science had strong ties to both geology and agriculture but in the 20th century, soil science is now being applied in residential development, the planning of highways, building foundations, septic systems, wildlife management, environmental management, and many other applications. The discipline is maturing and soil science plays a crucial role in many of the current issues that confront the world like climate change, water scarcity, biodiversity and environmental degradation.

  10. A history of southern forest science, management, and sustainability issues (United States)

    H. Michael Rauscher


    The 13 Southern States from Virginia to Texas have a combined area of approximately 500 million acres. Our understanding of the complex cultural and ecological history of this large region is still evolving. It may be fair to say that until recently, our view of the native peoples of the South and the landscape in which they lived derived chiefly from reports provided...

  11. The Early History of the European Conferences on Science and Religion and of ESSSAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drees, W.B.

    The early history of the European Conferences on Science and Religion and ESSSAT, the European Society for the Study of Science And Theology, is documented and discussed. In Europe, there were, and still are, genuine differences in attitude towards methodology, ideas about the reach of knowledge,

  12. William Whewell, Galileo, and reconceptualizing the history of science and religion. (United States)

    Wilson, David B


    This paper advocates a reconceptualization of the history of science and religion. It is an approach to the subject that would aid research by historians of science as well as their message to others, both academic and non-academic. The approach is perfectly illustrated by the life and ideas of William Whewell and Galileo.

  13. Beyond postcolonialism ... and postpositivism: circulation and the global history of science. (United States)

    Raj, Kapil


    This essay traces the parallel, but unrelated, evolution of two sets of reactions to traditional idealist history of science in a world-historical context. While the scholars who fostered the postcolonial approach, in dealing with modern science in the non-West, espoused an idealist vision, they nevertheless stressed its political and ideological underpinnings and engaged with the question of its putative Western roots. The postidealist history of science developed its own vision with respect to the question of the global spread of modern science, paying little heed to postcolonial debates. It then proposes a historiographical approach developed in large part by historians of South Asian politics, economics, and science that, without compromising the preoccupations of each of the two groups, could help construct a mutually comprehensible and connected framework for the understanding of the global workings of the sciences.

  14. Longitudinal analysis of meta-analysis literatures in the database of ISI Web of Science. (United States)

    Zhu, Changtai; Jiang, Ting; Cao, Hao; Sun, Wenguang; Chen, Zhong; Liu, Jinming


    The meta-analysis is regarded as an important evidence for making scientific decision. The database of ISI Web of Science collected a great number of high quality literatures including meta-analysis literatures. However, it is significant to understand the general characteristics of meta-analysis literatures to outline the perspective of meta-analysis. In this present study, we summarized and clarified some features on these literatures in the database of ISI Web of Science. We retrieved the meta-analysis literatures in the database of ISI Web of Science including SCI-E, SSCI, A&HCI, CPCI-S, CPCI-SSH, CCR-E, and IC. The annual growth rate, literature category, language, funding, index citation, agencies and countries/territories of the meta-analysis literatures were analyzed, respectively. A total of 95,719 records, which account for 0.38% (99% CI: 0.38%-0.39%) of all literatures, were found in the database. From 1997 to 2012, the annual growth rate of meta-analysis literatures was 18.18%. The literatures involved in many categories, languages, fundings, citations, publication agencies, and countries/territories. Interestingly, the index citation frequencies of the meta-analysis were significantly higher than that of other type literatures such as multi-centre study, randomize controlled trial, cohort study, case control study, and cases report (Panalysis has been becoming more and more prominent in recent years. In future, in order to promote the validity of meta-analysis, the CONSORT and PRISMA standard should be continuously popularized in the field of evidence-based medicine.

  15. Community-acquired pneumonia: 2012 history, mythology, and science. (United States)

    Donowitz, Gerald R


    Pneumonia remains one of the major disease entities practicing physicians must manage. It is a leading cause of infection-related morbidity and mortality in all age groups, and a leading cause of death in those older than 65 years of age. Despite its frequency and importance, clinical questions have remained in the therapy of community-acquired pneumonia including when to start antibiotics, when to stop them, who to treat, and what agents to use. Answers to these questions have involved historical practice, mythology, and science-sometimes good science, and sometimes better science. How clinical decisions are made for patients with community-acquired pneumonia serves as an illustrative model for other problem areas of medicine and allows for insight as to how clinical decisions have been made and clinical practice established.

  16. Studies from the history of soil science and geology (United States)

    Landa, Edward R.; Cohen, Benjamin R.


    The United Nations proclaimed the year 2008 as the official International Year of Planet Earth (IYPE), with science and outreach activities spanning 2007–2009. IYPE-sponsored outreach helped focus the attention of the general public on topics such as human health and the environment; ocean and natural resources sustainability; mitigating natural hazards and community resilience; and the effects of climate change. Within the earth science community, the IYPE was a stimulus for retrospection, and for efforts aimed at bridging divides within the community. One such effort was the first joint meeting of the Geological Society of America (GSA) and the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA), held in Houston, Texas, 5–9 October 2008.

  17. Contributions from Women to the Radiation Sciences: A Brief History. (United States)

    Martinez, Nicole E


    Contributions from men to radiation science are well known, particularly the early contributions from such luminaries as William Roentgen, James Chadwick, Niels Bohr, Robert Oppenheimer, and the like. Although not ignored per se, beyond Marie Curie and Lise Meitner, the contributions of female nuclear scientists are not as widely recognized. This paper provides a concise historical summary of contributions to radiation science from the discovery of radiation through the current status of international leadership within the radiation protection community. Beyond lead scientists and academics, this paper also considers support personnel as well as the role women have played in the advancement of radiation epidemiology.

  18. Design decisions from the history of the EUVE science payload (United States)

    Marchant, W.


    Some of the design issues that arose during the development of the EUVE science payload and solutions to the problems involved are examined. In particular, attention is given to the use of parallel and serial busses, the selection of the the ROM approach for software storage and execution, implementation of memory error detection and correction, and the selection of command structures. The early design decisions paid off in the timely delivery of the scientific payload and in the successful completion of the survey phase of the EUVE science mission.

  19. Seven decades of history of science: I. Bernard Cohen (1914-2003), second editor of Isis. (United States)

    Dauben, Joseph W; Gleason, Mary Louise; Smith, George E


    I. Bernard Cohen (1914-2003), the first American to receive a Ph.D. in history of science, was a Harvard undergraduate ('37) and then a Ph.D. student and protégé of George Sarton, founder of Isis and the History of Science Society. He went on to succeed Sarton as editor of Isis (1952-1958) and, later, president of the Society (1961-1962); he was also a president of the International Union of the History and Philosophy of Science. Cohen was an internationally recognized Newton scholar; his interests were encyclopedic, ranging from science and public policy to the history of computers, with several decades as a special consultant for history of computing with IBM. Among his hundreds of publications were such major books as Franklin and Newton (1956), The Birth of a New Physics (1959; rpt., 1985), The Newtonian Revolution (1980), Revolution in Science (1985), Science and the Founding Fathers (1995), Howard Aiken: Portrait of a Computer Pioneer (1999), and his last book, The Triumph of Numbers (2005), not to mention two jointly authored contributions, the variorum edition and new English translation of Newton's Principia, which will surely still be read a century from now.

  20. NARRATIVE: A short history of my life in science A short history of my life in science (United States)

    Manson, Joseph R.


    I was certainly surprised, and felt extremely honored, when Salvador Miret-Artés suggested that he would like to organize this festschrift. Before that day I never anticipated that such an honor would come to me. I would like to thank Salvador for the large amount of time and work he has expended in organizing this special issue, the Editors of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter for making it possible, and also the contributing authors for their efforts. My family home was outside of Petersburg, Virginia in Dinwiddie County in an area that was, during my youth, largely occupied by small farms. This is a region rich in American history and our earliest ancestors on both sides of the family settled in this area, beginning in the decade after the first Virginia settlement in Jamestown. My father was an engineer and my mother was a former school teacher, and their parents were small business owners. From earliest memories I recall being interested in finding out how things worked and especially learning about the wonders of nature. These interests were fostered by my parents who encouraged such investigations during long walks, visits to friends and relatives, and trips to museums. However, my earliest memory of wanting to become a scientist is associated with a Christmas gift of a chemistry set when I was about ten years old. I was absolutely fascinated by the amazing results that could be achieved with simple chemical reactions and realized then that I wanted to do something in life that would be associated with science. The gift of that small chemistry set developed over the next few years into a serious interest in chemistry, and throughout my junior high-school years I spent nearly all the money I earned doing odd jobs for neighbors on small laboratory equipment and chemical supplies, eventually taking over our old abandoned chicken house and turning it into a small chemistry lab. I remember being somewhat frustrated at the limits, mainly financial, that kept

  1. Engaging Students: Discovering Family and Consumer Sciences History (United States)

    Nickols, Sharon Y.; Sewell, Darby; Wilmarth, Melissa


    The centennial of the American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences (AAFCS) provides an opportunity to explore local as well as national aspects of the field. Studying events that shaped FCS and the women and men who provided early leadership reinforces the role of FCS in improving daily living conditions for the past century. Engaging…

  2. Concurrent phenomena of science and history in the 17th century and their essential interdependence. (United States)

    Bloch, H.


    The explanation for the explosion of science in the 17th century lies in history and medical historiography. Without this approach, it becomes fantasy, accidents, or success stories. Sigerist grasped the essential interdependence of science and history, and had no need for devised reasons or speculation. He realized that once the dark night of the Middle Ages was over, the sciences arose with undreamt of force and accelerated development. The advances in astronomy, mathematics, mechanics, and experimental science benefitted a society developing in seafaring, manufacture, and trade in the 17th century. Sigerist's views make the scientific explosion understandable in human and social terms. He did not overlook the capabilities of some extraordinary individuals, such as Paracelsus (1493-1541), to shape the course of medicine, nor the importance of the mechanistic philosophy in the 17th century. Man makes history and science; hence, we find concurrent phenomena of history and science essentially interdependent. The spirit of experimental science of 17th century England was inspired by the new needs of commercial enterprise for more means of transportation and communication. Likewise, the interest in the mechanics of the pump for waterworks and for the drainage of swamps led Harvey to think of the heart as a pump, and to explain the circulation of the blood in terms of its functioning. PMID:1608066

  3. A short history of the Australian Society of Soil Science (United States)

    Bennison, Linda


    In 1955 a resolution, "that the Australian Society of Soil Science be inaugurated as from this meeting" was recorded in Melbourne Australia. The following year in Queensland, the first official meeting of the Society took place with a Federal Executive and Presidents from the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australian and Victorian branches forming the Federal Council. In later years the executive expanded with the addition of the Western Australia branch in 1957, the Riverina Branch in 1962 and most recently the Tasmania Branch in 2008. The objects of the Society were 1) the advancement of soil science and studies therein with particular reference to Australia and 2) to provide a link between soil scientists and kindred bodies within Australia and between them and other similar organisations in other countries. Membership was restricted to persons engaged in the scientific study of the soil and has grown steadily from to 147 members in 1957 to 875 members in 2012. The first issue of the Society newsletter, Soils News, was published in January 1957 and continued to be published twice yearly until 1996. A name change to Profile and an increase to quarterly publication occurred in 1997; circulation remained restricted to members. The Publications Committee in 1968 determined the Publication Series would be the medium for occasional technical papers, reviews and reports but not research papers and in 1962 the Australian Journal of Soil Research was established by CSIRO in response to continued representations from the Society. By 1960 a draft constitution was circulated to, and adopted by members. The first honorary life membership of the Society was awarded to Dr. J A Prescott. Honorary memberships are still awarded for service to the Society and to soil science and are capped at 25. In 1964 the ISSS awarded honorary membership to Dr. Prescott. Now known as IUSS Honorary members other Australians recognised have been EG Hallsworth

  4. Analysis of scientific production archival science in brazil: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mauro Gouveia de Medeiros


    Full Text Available Introduction: review of the literature resulting from bibliographic survey about the scientific literature of archives in Brazil. Objective: to identify aspects of scientific literature of archival science, through bibliographical research, that aims to introduce the features of the archival science in Brazil. Methodology: Brazilian sites, databases and reference services were used as sources to identify 523 references. 15 texts were selected and analyzed with respect to authorship, affiliation, publication year, publication type, type and size of sources used, methodology, geographical range, results, among other aspects. Results: the scientific articles were the main object of study; the book was the most cited channel; the journal Arquivo & Administração and Encontro Nacional de Pesquisa em Ciência da Informação have importance on the national scene; Rio de Janeiro is the geographic region with greater production; There has been growth in the number of works since the 2007 and increased collaboration. Conclusions: the interest in Archival Science literature is increasing significantly; there was diversification of the publishing channels, mainly works of events and articles since 2013; the Archival Science is consolidating in Brazil with an increasing production, collaboration and interest in its scientific literature.

  5. Mathematical representations in science: a cognitive-historical case history. (United States)

    Tweney, Ryan D


    The important role of mathematical representations in scientific thinking has received little attention from cognitive scientists. This study argues that neglect of this issue is unwarranted, given existing cognitive theories and laws, together with promising results from the cognitive historical analysis of several important scientists. In particular, while the mathematical wizardry of James Clerk Maxwell differed dramatically from the experimental approaches favored by Michael Faraday, Maxwell himself recognized Faraday as "in reality a mathematician of a very high order," and his own work as in some respects a re-representation of Faraday's field theory in analytic terms. The implications of the similarities and differences between the two figures open new perspectives on the cognitive role of mathematics as a learned mode of representation in science. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. [Digitizing Human and Social Sciences Journals. Recent History and Perspectives]. (United States)

    Parisot, Thomas


    Recent years have seen the emergence and the gradual rise of French journals digital offers in the fields of human and social sciences. In this article, we will both reconsider the conditions of occurrence of these services and discuss the evolution of their environment. Through the example of several emerging initiatives in the field of scientific publishing, in a context marked by continuity but also rupture, we will try to glimpse the role journals could play in the new digital world being created.

  7. History of Science Web Resources at American Institute of Physics (United States)

    Good, G. A.


    The Center for History of Physics and the associated Niels Bohr Library & Archives at the American Institute of Physics were pioneers in web resource development for education and for research in the 1990s. While these units of AIP continue to add significantly to the traditional ways of putting content before the public, they are also experimenting with blogs and Facebook, and are looking at other forms of interactive web presence. This talk explores how an active research center is trying to do both.

  8. When History Talks Back: Teaching Nonfiction Literature of the Vietnam War. (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.


    Presents student responses to nonfiction literature of the Vietnam War. Describes reasons for teaching the nonfiction literature of the Vietnam War. Concludes that this literature is accessible and engaging to students, and it deals with issues that speak to students in powerful ways. (SG)

  9. The management of grey literature as a component of a library and information science curriculum


    Aina, L. Olatokunbo (University of Botswana); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service


    A citation analysis of a sample of publications appearing in journals published in Africa in 1995 was carried out. The citation covered major disciplines in sciences, humanities, education, social sciences and librarianship. The study reveals that grey literature (GL) is used by researchers across the disciplines. Given the importance of GL to researchers in Africa, as well as the pervasive role internet can play in providing access to GL, a case is made for teaching the "management of GL " i...

  10. Scientific Literacy Matters: Using Literature to Meet Next Generation Science Standards and 21st Century Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Tomovic


    Full Text Available Scientific literacy matters. It matters because it is vitally important to the education and development of America’s children, tomorrow's workforce, and the keepers of our future. If the future of American individual decision making, engagement in civic and cultural affairs, and valuable contributions to economic development is to be protected, it is critical that American students become more scientifically literate than they are today. Today, most Americans, including students, are considered scientifically illiterate. Recognizing the need to develop and enhance scientific literacy (also known as science literacy, science educators have worked diligently at developing new science standards, new approaches to science teaching, and new techniques aimed at engaging students in the practice of science. In this article, the use of literature is discussed as one method to augment or supplement the teaching of science. In the context of making a literature selection, a new conceptual approach is proposed that includes attention to meeting the Next Generation Science Standards while being responsive to the importance of 21st Century Skills. Additionally, a Literary Assessment Tool is shared that demonstrates how science educators can evaluate a literary selection in terms of how well it will help them to enhance scientific literacy.

  11. Global histories, vernacular science, and African genealogies; or, Is the history of science ready for the world? (United States)

    Tilley, Helen


    Scholars in imperial and science studies have recently begun to examine more systematically the different ways knowledge systems around the world have intersected. This essay concentrates on one aspect of this process, the codification of research into "primitive" or "indigenous" knowledge, especially knowledge that was transmitted orally, and argues that such investigations were a by-product of four interrelated phenomena: the globalization of the sciences themselves, particularly those fields that took the earth and its inhabitants as their object of analysis; the professionalization of anthropology and its growing emphasis on studying other cultures' medical, technical, and natural knowledge; the European push, in the late nineteenth century, toward "global colonialism" and the ethnographic research that accompanied colonial state building; and, finally, colonized and marginalized peoples' challenges to scientific epistemologies and their paradoxical call that scientists study their knowledge systems more carefully. These phenomena came together on a global scale in the decades surrounding the turn of the twentieth century to produce a subgenre of research within the sciences, here labeled "vernacular science," focused explicitly on "native" knowledge.

  12. History and Nature of Science in High School: Building up Parameters to Guide Educational Materials and Strategies (United States)

    Forato, Thais Cyrino de Mello; Martins, Roberto de Andrade; Pietrocola, Mauricio


    This article presents the main results of a research examining the didactic transposition of history and philosophy of science in high school level. The adaptation of history of science to this particular level, addressing some aspects of the nature of science aiming at the students' critical engagement, was analyzed by examining both the…

  13. Using the History of Research on Sickle Cell Anemia to Affect Preservice Teachers' Conceptions of the Nature of Science. (United States)

    Howe, Eric M.

    This paper examines how using a series of lessons developed from the history of research on sickle cell anemia affects preservice teacher conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The importance of a pedagogy that has students do science through an integral use of the history of science is effective at enriching students' NOS views is presented.…

  14. Ukrainean crisis: History, demography, economics, science, personal impressions (United States)

    Gaina, Alex

    An overview of the Economic and Demographic situation in Ukraine has been given. Some historical-scientific aspects of the actual crisis has been revealed. Between them: The soveitization of the Science, when scientists of Ukrainean origin work outside its borders, while the most influent and proliferous scientists inside the Country are of Russian origin. The percentage of astronomers of Russian origin is as great as ~40% while the percentage of the Russian population in Ukraine is about 20%. Another problem consist in low knowledge of the Ukrainean language by scientists working inside the Country.

  15. Biohumanities: rethinking the relationship between biosciences, philosophy and history of science, and society. (United States)

    Stotz, Karola; Griffiths, Paul E


    We argue that philosophical and historical research can constitute a "Biohumanities" that deepens our understanding of biology itself engages in constructive "science criticism," helps formulate new "visions of biology," and facilitates "critical science communication." We illustrate these ideas with two recent "experimental philosophy" studies of the concept of the gene and of the concept of innateness conducted by ourselves and collaborators. We conclude that the complex and often troubled relations between science and society are critical to both parties, and argue that the philosophy and history of science can help to make this relationship work.

  16. Abandoning evolution. The forgotten history of antievolution activism and the transformation of American social science. (United States)

    Lienesch, Michael


    From its inception, antievolution activism has been aimed not only at the natural sciences but also, and almost as often, at the social sciences. Although almost entirely overlooked by scholars, this activism played a significant part in the development of American social science in the early twentieth century. Analyzing public writings and private papers of antievolution activists, academic social scientists, and university officials from the 1920s, this essay recalls this forgotten history, showing how antievolution activism contributed to the abandonment of evolutionary theory and the adoption of a set of secular, scientific, and professional characteristics that have come to define much of modern social science.

  17. The history, evolution and basic science of osteotomy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Dabis


    Full Text Available Abstract Osteotomy techniques date back to Hippocrates circa 415 BC (Jones Hippocrates collected works I, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 2006; Brorson in Clin Orthop Relat Res 467(7:1907–1914, 2009. There is debate about the best way to divide the bone surgically and which technique yields the best bone regenerate in lengthening; ensuring predictable new bone formation and healing of the osteotomy are the primary goals. We review the history and techniques of the osteotomy and consider the evidence for optimum bone formation. Methods discussed include variants of the ‘drill and osteotome’ technique, use of the Gigli saw and use of a power saw. Differences in bone formation through the different techniques are covered.

  18. Space science for applications - The history of Landsat (United States)

    Mach, P. E.


    The history of the Landsat project is discussed in terms of three historical phases, each characterized by a dominant problem. From 1964 to 1967, the challenge was to develop interagency cooperation and to achieve consensus on basic plans for the satellite. Between 1968 and 1971, the cooperating agencies had to persuade the Bureau of the Budget to provide funding for the project. Since 1972, the challenge to NASA has been to encourage applications of the Landsat data and plan the shift from an experimental program to an operational one. The tension between experimental and operational goals has run through all these phases, and the conflicts between agencies is detailed, as well as the interaction between technological and political systems.

  19. Explaining History. Hippolyte Taine's Philosophy of Historical Science (United States)

    Müller, Philipp

    Historians of European historiography have often characterized Hippolyte Taine (1828-1893) as an adherent of the positivist school of thought, typical for the development of a scientific culture in Western Europe that differed from its German counterpart.1 In accordance with that view, Wilhelm Dilthey grouped him together with other scholars like John Stuart Mill and Herbert Spencer against who Dilthey tried to develop his conception of the human sciences based on the notion of "verstehen" (see Dilthey [1924] 1957, 139ff.). Dilthey understood Taine as proposing to analyze the human mind by identifying its individual components and then explaining their meaning by laws of their relation. He argued that such an approach might be adequate for the natural sciences, but neglected the fact that an analysis of the mind had to start from a given psychological connection that was prior to any definition of particular phenomena. From Dilthey's point of view, applying Taine's theory to historical studies only made them look more objective while actually Taine was unaware of just following the prevailing convictions of his time (idem, 191f.).

  20. Reconstructing the history of science education through its materiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Davida Pizzigoni


    Full Text Available “Things of Science” is a project promoted in 2014 by the Polytechnic of Turin in partnership with several other scientific territorial institutions that intended to survey and study the educational scientific historical heritage of schools in Turin. It aims to derive from material traces some testimonies of teaching science in different historical periods. Through the project, over 47.000 historical teaching aids have been made available representing a significant basis for numerous studies and insights as well as a safeguard action towards this important source for scientific research in terms of the materiality of the school and in particular of science in school. Ricostruire la storia della didattica scientifica attraverso la sua materialità“Cose di Scienza” è un progetto promosso nel 2014 dal Politecnico di Torino in partenariato con diverse altre realtà scientifiche territoriali che ha inteso censire e studiare il patrimonio didattico scientifico storico presente nelle scuole torinesi, al fine di ricavare dalle tracce materiali alcune testimonianze di didattica della scienza nei diversi periodi storici. Attraverso il progetto sono stati reperiti oltre 47.000 supporti didattici storici che costituiscono da un lato una significativa base per numerosi studi e approfondimenti, e dall’altro una azione di salvaguardia verso questa importante fonte per la ricerca scientifica costituita dalla materialità della scuola e in particolare della scienza a scuola.

  1. Historical Experiments and Physics Teaching: adding considerations from a Bibliographic Review and the Cultural History of Science (United States)

    Jardim, W. T.; Guerra, A.


    In this paper, a discussion about the purposes of historical experiments in science teaching found in the literature will be presented. As a starting point, we carried out a bibliographic review, on the websites of six relevant periodicals for the area of Science Teaching and, especially for Physics Teaching. The search was based, at first, on works published between the years 2001 and 2016, from terms like "historical experiments", "museums" and "experience". Thereon, due to the large number of publications found, a screening process was developed based on the analysis of titles, abstracts, keywords and, whether necessary, the whole text, aiming to identify which searches emphasize working with historical experiments in Physics teaching, from a theoretical perspective or based on manipulation of a replica of historical apparatus. The selected proposals were arranged in categories adapted from the work of Heering and Höttecke (2014) which allowed us to draw a parallel between the national and international publication that presented resembling scopes. Furthermore, the analysis of the results leads us to infer that, in general, extralab factors, inherent to science, when not neglected, are placed in a peripheral perspective. Thus, we draw theoretical considerations based on Historians of Science, which develop their researches based on the bias of the Cultural History of Science, seeking to add reflections to what has been developed about historical experiments in teaching up to now.

  2. Breaking through History. Genius and Literature among Slavs without a State in the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Rothe


    Full Text Available Hans RotheBreaking through History. Genius and Literature among Slavs without a State in the 19th CenturyWithin a broad comparative framework, the Author analyzes some of the main patterns of the development of national self-consciousness and identity among the peoples of Eastern Europe between the 1830s and 1850s. He discusses the general assumption that the French Revolution played a major role in the awakening of national consciousness in the Slavic (and the Hungarian cultures, and that an important part of the longing for self-determination was connected with the idea that Slavs where understood as a united family of peoples or even as one nation. The Author then addresses three main topics. It is generally accepted that in some countries it was primarily poetic geniuses who brought about a dramatic breakthrough in national consciousness thanks to the fact that their works were written in their own language (examples include Mickiewicz, Puškin, Ševčenko, Prešeren and others. Nonetheless, the importance of learning, academic training, gathering historical knowledge and folk tradition as primary sources of national consciousness should not be underestimated. These elements, the Author maintains, are connected rather with traditional ideas and mentality (and with Herder’s way of thinking, than with ‘revolutionary’ innovation. Unlike the French model of development that followed the 1789 revolution and largely identified nation with revolution, Slav peoples were confronted with their belonging to multiethnic and plurilingual political structures: they were either dominant powers (such as Russia, which dominated many other peoples or were dominated by ‘others’. From several points of view, Herder’s idea of Slav unity was often more of a hindrance than a way out for the definition of national unity. This was true for the dominated peoples, but for Russians too, although, politically speaking, they were effectively the only real

  3. Philosophy, history and sociology of science: interdisciplinary relations and complex social identities. (United States)

    Riesch, Hauke


    Sociology and philosophy of science have an uneasy relationship, while the marriage of history and philosophy of science has--on the surface at least--been more successful I will take a sociological look at the history of the relationships between philosophy and history as well as philosophy and sociology of science. Interdisciplinary relations between these disciplines will be analysed through social identity complexity theory in oider to draw out some conclusions on how the disciplines interact and how they might develop. I will use the relationships between the disciplines as a pointer for a more general social theory of interdisciplinarity which will then be used to sound a caution on how interdisciplinary relations between the three disciplines might be managed.

  4. Darnton’s Cats, Bacon’s Rifle, and History of Science 101. (United States)

    Küçük, Harun


    Many of us who teach History of Science 101 courses face a situation where we must tell our story without relying on students’ prior knowledge of, say, the significance of ancient Greece and China, premodern and modern colonialism, or Marx. This leaves us needing a clear and punchy basic message, supported by a solid, well-structured, and inclusive story line that also doubles as world history. This response takes a look at the prospects and problems of longue durée histories of science from the perspective of cultural history. It voices sympathy toward Frans van Lunteren’s project and presents a small sample of potential difficulties involved in matching machines with historical periods.

  5. Radiology Physician Extenders: A Literature Review of the History and Current Roles of Physician Extenders in Medical Imaging. (United States)

    Sanders, Vicki L; Flanagan, Jennifer


    The purpose of the literature review was to assess the origins of radiology physician extenders and examine the current roles found in the literature of advanced practice physician extenders within medical imaging. Twenty-six articles relating to physician assistants (PAs), nurse practitioners (NPs), radiologist assistants (RAs), and nuclear medicine advanced associates (NMAAs) were reviewed to discern similarities and differences in history, scope of practice, and roles in the medical imaging field. The literature showed PAs and NPs are working mostly in interventional radiology. PAs, NPs, and RAs perform similar tasks in radiology, including history and physicals, evaluation and management, preprocedure work-up, obtaining informed consent, initial observations/reports, and post-procedure follow-up. NPs and PAs perform a variety of procedures but most commonly vascular access, paracentesis, and thoracentesis. RAs perform gastrointestinal, genitourinary, nonvascular invasive fluoroscopy procedures, and vascular access procedures. The review revealed NMAAs are working in an advanced role, but no specific performances of procedures was found in the literature, only suggested tasks and clinical competencies. PAs, NPs, and RAs are currently the three main midlevel providers used in medical imaging. These midlevel providers are being used in a variety of ways to increase the efficiency of the radiologist and provide diagnostic and therapeutic radiologic procedures to patients. NMAAs are being used in medical imaging but little literature is available on current roles in clinical practice. More research is needed to assess the exact procedures and duties being performed by these medical imaging physician extenders.

  6. Why national narratives are perpetuated: A literature review on new insights from history textbook research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.R. Grever (Maria); T. Van der Vlies (Tina)


    textabstractNational narratives have often served to mobilize the masses for war by providing myths and distorted interpretations of the past, while conversely wars were major sources for producing national narratives. Because national history is very likely to remain a central topic in history

  7. Three Heroes, Two Stories, One Insight: Literature Marches into History Class (United States)

    Vansover, Yaron


    Teachers of history (like all teachers) have a tool kit that holds all their methods and techniques and that allows them to construct a proper history lesson. This article proposes putting a tool into this kit that is generally missing from its contents. This tool supposedly belongs to the tool kit of a different subject teacher: the teacher of…

  8. Vietnam war literature: reflections of the sustained tension between politics, history, morality and the effect of war on human nature.



    Vietnam War literature is a reflection of a sustained tension between politics and history on the one hand and morality and the effect of the war on human nature on the other hand. Although the authors under discussion urge the reader to forget the political, moral and historical milieu of the Vietnam War, it is impossible to separate the war from those three factors and by extension, the literature that stems from it. I have chosen Philip Caputo’s A Rumor of War (1977) and Robert Mason’s Chi...

  9. Different People in Different Places - Secondary School Students' Knowledge About History of Science (United States)

    Gandolfi, Haira Emanuela


    This article presents the results of an exploratory study of students' knowledge about scientists and countries' contributions to science, aiming at answering two research questions: "In which ways are students aware of the history of scientific development carried out by different people in different places of the world? What can be influencing and shaping their awareness?" Thus, this study aimed at depicting students' knowledge about History of Science (HOS), focusing on what they know about science being done by people and communities from different parts of the world and on how this knowledge is constructed through their engagement with school science. An exploratory research was carried out at two multicultural state secondary schools in London, UK, involving 200 students aged 12-15 (58.5% girls, 41.5% boys) and five science teachers. The method involved an initial exploration of students' knowledge about HOS through an open-ended survey, followed by classroom-based observations and semi-structured interviews with the participants. Results showed a disconnection between remembering scientists and knowing about their work and background, hinting at an emphasis on illustrative and decontextualised approaches towards HOS. Additionally, there was a lack of diversity in these students' answers in terms of gender and ethnicity when talking about scientists and countries in science. These findings were further analysed in relation to their implications for school science and for the fields of HOS, science education and public perception of science.

  10. Women of Color in Mathematics, Science & Engineering: A Review of the Literature. (United States)

    Clewell, Beatriz Chu; Anderson, Bernice

    This review of the literature on women of color in mathematics, science, and engineering helps define the need for a national agenda for equity in these fields sponsored by the Educational Equity Policy Studies Program of the Center for Women Policy Studies, and for a comprehensive research program that examines barriers to the participation of…

  11. Conference of the Society for Literature and Science. Proceedings (Atlanta, Georgia, October 10-13, 1996). (United States)

    Perkowitz, Sidney, Ed.

    The papers contained in these proceedings from the 1996 Society for Literature and Science Conference are organized into sections based on theme. Some of these themes are: (1) Secularizing Enlightenment; (2) Eugenics and the Politics of Knowledge; (3) Reading the Discourses of Psychology; (4) Women and Medicine; (5) The Rhetoric of Public Health;…

  12. Raising Critical Issues in the Analysis of Gender and Science in Children's Literature (United States)

    Martin, Sonya N.; Siry, Christina A.


    Trevor Owens' paper provides a critique of the role of gender and authority in selected children's books that presented biographies of Albert Einstein and Marie Curie. In the context of discussing Trevor's (2009) article about children's literature, this forum explores issues related to the (a) representation and construction of gender, science,…

  13. Problem-Based Learning in K-8 Mathematics and Science Education: A Literature Review (United States)

    Merritt, Joi; Lee, Mi Yeon; Rillero, Peter; Kinach, Barbara M.


    This systematic literature review was conducted to explore the effectiveness of problem-based and project-based learning (PBL) implemented with students in early elementary to grade 8 (ages 3-14) in mathematics and science classrooms. Nine studies met the following inclusion criteria: (a) focus on PBL, (b) experimental study, (c) kindergarten to…

  14. The Use of Theater and the Performing Arts in Science Education and the Teaching of History (United States)

    Schwartz, Brian


    Over the past 15 years there has been a surge in the general field of the interaction of STEM and the arts including theatre, music dance and the visual arts leading to STEAM. There seems to be no limits to the amount of creativity and diversity of subject matter especially in areas of biography, major science events, scientific and technical innovation, the benefits and dangers of modern science, and science as metaphor. For the past 15 years, I and my colleagues have been running a science outreach series under the title Science & the Performing Arts at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. The objective is to bring science to students and the public in ways that are engaging, instructive, and artistic and always, content-driven: the medium is the arts; the message is the joy of science. This has resulted in over 120 science and performing arts programs which have been documented on the website . The author co-taught a course titled Staging Science, with Marvin Carlson, Professor of Theatre at CUNY. An excellent book, Science on Stage: From Doctor Faustus to Copenhagen by Kirsten Shepherd-Barr, can be used to develop a customized courses on Science, Theatre and History for both science and non-science majors. The book's appendix includes an annotated listing of plays on such subjects as quantum mechanics, chaos theory, evolution, genetics and morality and responsibility. The talk will include many examples how courses on science and theatre can actively engage students and enhance active participation and learning. Supported in part by the National Science Foundation.

  15. A recent history of science cases for optical interferometry (United States)

    Defrère, Denis; Aerts, Conny; Kishimoto, Makoto; Léna, Pierre


    Optical long-baseline interferometry is a unique and powerful technique for astronomical research. Since the 1980's (with I2T, GI2T, Mark I to III, SUSI, ...), optical interferometers have produced an increasing number of scientific papers covering various fields of astrophysics. As current interferometric facilities are reaching their maturity, we take the opportunity in this paper to summarize the conclusions of a few key meetings, workshops, and conferences dedicated to interferometry. We present the most persistent recommendations related to science cases and discuss some key technological developments required to address them. In the era of extremely large telescopes, optical long-baseline interferometers will remain crucial to probe the smallest spatial scales and make breakthrough discoveries.

  16. Molecular surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. History and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somorjai, G.A.


    A personal account is given of how the author became involved with modern surface science and how it was employed for studies of the chemistry of surfaces and heterogeneous catalysis. New techniques were developed for studying the properties of the surface monolayers: Auger electron spectroscopy, LEED, XPS, molecular beam surface scattering, etc. An apparatus was developed and used to study hydrocarbon conversion reactions on Pt, CO hydrogenation on Rh and Fe, and NH 3 synthesis on Fe. A model has been developed for the working Pt reforming catalyst. The three molecular ingredients that control catalytic properties are atomic surface structure, an active carbonaceous deposit, and the proper oxidation state of surface atoms. 40 references, 21 figures

  17. Molecular surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. History and perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, G.A.


    A personal account is given of how the author became involved with modern surface science and how it was employed for studies of the chemistry of surfaces and heterogeneous catalysis. New techniques were developed for studying the properties of the surface monolayers: Auger electron spectroscopy, LEED, XPS, molecular beam surface scattering, etc. An apparatus was developed and used to study hydrocarbon conversion reactions on Pt, CO hydrogenation on Rh and Fe, and NH/sub 3/ synthesis on Fe. A model has been developed for the working Pt reforming catalyst. The three molecular ingredients that control catalytic properties are atomic surface structure, an active carbonaceous deposit, and the proper oxidation state of surface atoms. 40 references, 21 figures. (DLC)

  18. HEART OF MYTH - HEART OF SCIENCE Part I: Harriet Martineau's cardiac symptoms: a Victorian case history. (United States)

    Bound Alberti, Fay

    This article explores the history and meanings of the heart and its diseases as aspects of the histories of science and emotion. Analyzing the twofold meanings of the heart as both bodily object and cultural symbol, it explores the reasons for the apparent conflict in meanings of the heart of science and the heart of emotion in Western medical culture since the 19th century. In Part I, a case study of the writer, economist, and philosopher Harriet Martineau is used to demonstrate and trace that conflict, while Part II highlights the manifold meanings of the heart both in the past and in the present.

  19. And yet it is heard musical, multilingual and multicultural history of the mathematical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Tonietti, Tito M


    We bring into full light some excerpts on musical subjects which were until now scattered throughout the most famous scientific texts. The main scientific and musical cultures outside of Europe are also taken into consideration. The first and most important property to underline in the scientific texts examined here is the language they are written in. This means that our multicultural history of the sciences necessarily also becomes a review of the various dominant languages used in the different historical contexts. In this volume, the history of the development of the sciences is told as it happened in real contexts, not in an alienated ideal world.

  20. History of Science as Interdisciplinary Education in American Colleges: Its Origins, Advantages, and Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Viterbo


    Full Text Available Before 1950, history of science did not exist as an independent academic branch, but was instead pursued by practitioners across various humanities and scientific disciplines. After professionalization, traces of its prehistory as a cross-disciplinary area of interest bound to an interdisciplinary, educational philosophy have remained. This essay outlines the development of history of science as an interdisciplinary academic field, and argues that it constitutes an obvious choice for inclusion in an interdisciplinary academic program, provided faculty and administrators learn how best to manage its advantages and pitfalls.

  1. Geoscience on television: a review of science communication literature in the context of geosciences (United States)

    Hut, Rolf; Land-Zandstra, Anne M.; Smeets, Ionica; Stoof, Cathelijne R.


    Geoscience communication is becoming increasingly important as climate change increases the occurrence of natural hazards around the world. Few geoscientists are trained in effective science communication, and awareness of the formal science communication literature is also low. This can be challenging when interacting with journalists on a powerful medium like TV. To provide geoscience communicators with background knowledge on effective science communication on television, we reviewed relevant theory in the context of geosciences and discuss six major themes: scientist motivation, target audience, narratives and storytelling, jargon and information transfer, relationship between scientists and journalists, and stereotypes of scientists on TV. We illustrate each theme with a case study of geosciences on TV and discuss relevant science communication literature. We then highlight how this literature applies to the geosciences and identify knowledge gaps related to science communication in the geosciences. As TV offers a unique opportunity to reach many viewers, we hope this review can not only positively contribute to effective geoscience communication but also to the wider geoscience debate in society.

  2. Science and Society: The Secret History of Secret Codes

    CERN Multimedia


    With the arrival of the Web, encryption has become a major problem for computer security engineers, as well as an international sport for many cyber hackers. But humans have been communicating in code for as long as they have been writing, as Simon Singh points out in his book, 'The Code Book', published in 1999. At the end of the book, there is a series of ten encoded messages, each from a different phase in the history of cryptography. There was a prize of £10,000 for the first person to crack all ten messages. It took a team of five Swedish researchers a year and a month to solve the challenge. Simon Singh can now reveal the story behind the Cipher Challenge and this is what he will do in his lecture at CERN, explaining how mathematics can be used to crack codes, the role of encryption during World War II and how they both help to guarantee security in today's Information Age. Simon Singh, who has a PhD in physics, completed his thesis on the UA2 experiment at CERN. In 1991, he joined the BBC Sc...

  3. Intersections of life histories and science identities: the stories of three preservice elementary teachers (United States)

    Avraamidou, Lucy


    Grounded within Connelly and Clandinin's conceptualization of teachers' professional identity in terms of 'stories to live by' and through a life-history lens, this multiple case study aimed to respond to the following questions: (a) How do three preservice elementary teachers view themselves as future science teachers? (b) How have the participants' life histories shaped their science identity trajectories? In order to characterize the participants' formation of science identities over time, various data regarding their life histories in relation to science were collected: science biographies, self-portraits, interviews, reflective journals, lesson plans, and classroom observations. The analysis of the data illustrated how the three participants' identities have been in formation from the early years of their lives and how various events, experiences, and interactions had shaped their identities through time and across contexts. These findings are discussed alongside implications for theory, specifically, identity and life-history intersections, for teacher preparation, and for research related to explorations of beginning elementary teachers' identity trajectories.

  4. Making History Come Alive with the Nonfiction Literature of the Vietnam War. (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.


    Considers student response to nonfiction Vietnam War literature and discusses why students should study Vietnam War nonfiction. Presents strategies for teaching nonfiction Vietnam War literature. Presents follow-up research and writing activities that are designed to enable students to connect reading, writing, and thinking. Concludes that the…

  5. Making History Come Alive with the Nonfiction Literature of the Vietnam War (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.


    The nonfiction literature of the Vietnam War is accessible and engaging to students, and it deals with issues that speaks to students in powerful ways. In addition, the literature can help students better understand their parents and grandparents and the effect on them of the Vietnam War. A number of teachers who have taught the nonfiction…

  6. Thinking Science Australia: A Short History of How Thirty Science Lessons Transform Learning and Teaching (United States)

    Smith, Tim


    Originally called Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education, Thinking Science is a program of 30 lessons, usually delivered in Years 7 and 8, that has been shown to improve learner outcomes in science, maths and English. Over recent years, it has grown in popularity in Australia and was the subject of an ARC-funded research project at the…

  7. Chemistry, the Central Science? The History of the High School Science Sequence (United States)

    Sheppard, Keith; Robbins, Dennis M.


    Chemistry became the ''central science'' not by design but by accident in the US high schools. The three important factors, which had their influence on the high school science, are sequenced and their impact on the development of US science education, are mentioned.

  8. The report on the activities of the PAU Commission on the History of Science in 2016/2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kokowski


    Full Text Available The report discusses the activities of the Commission on the History of Science of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2016/2017. It presents the lists of: scientific meeting, conferences, and new publications.

  9. Oral Histories in Meteoritics and Planetary Science - XX: Dale Cruikshank (United States)

    Sears, Derek W. G.


    In this interview, Dale Cruikshank (Fig. 1) explains how as an undergraduate at Iowa State University he was a summer student at Yerkes Observatory where he assisted Gerard Kuiper in work on his Photographic Lunar Atlas. Upon completing his degree, Dale went to graduate school at the University of Arizona with Kuiper where he worked on the IR spectroscopy of the lunar surface. After an eventful 1968 trip to Moscow via Prague, during which the Soviets invaded Czechoslovakia, Dale assumed a postdoc position with Vasili Moroz at the Sternberg Astronomical Institute and more observational IR astronomy. Upon returning to the United States and after a year at Arizona, Dale assumed a position at the University of Hawai'i that he held for 17 years. During this period Dale worked with others on thermal infrared determinations of the albedos of small bodies beyond the asteroid Main Belt, leading to the recognition that low-albedo material is prevalent in the outer solar system that made the first report of complex organic solids on a planetary body (Saturn's satellite Iapetus). After moving to Ames Research Center, where he works currently, he continued this work and became involved in many outer solar system missions. Dale has served the community through his involvement in developing national policies for science-driven planetary exploration, being chair of the DPS 1990-1991 and secretary/treasurer for 1982-1985. He served as president of Commission 16 (Physics of Planets) of the IAU (2001-2003). He received the Kuiper prize in 2006.

  10. Influence of Nature and History of Science Courses on Value Perceptions of Elementary Science Teacher Candidates in Conceptual Dimension in Turkey (United States)

    Aktamis, Hilal; Higde, Emrah


    This study aimed to determine the changes in understanding about the nature of science (NOS) and conceptual values of 28 elementary science teacher candidates who engaged in the instruction of the nature and history of science (NHOS). A values scale was used to determine the values of science teacher candidates in six areas of the conceptual…

  11. Munazza's story: Understanding science teaching and conceptions of the nature of science in Pakistan through a life history study (United States)

    Halai, Nelofer

    In this study I have described and tried to comprehend how a female science teacher understands her practice. Additionally, I have developed some understanding of her understanding of the nature of science. While teaching science, a teacher projects messages about the nature of science that can be captured by observations and interviews. Furthermore, the manner is which a teacher conceptualizes science for teaching, at least in part, depends on personal life experiences. Hence, I have used the life history method to understand Munazza's practice. Munazza is a young female science teacher working in a private, co-educational school for children from middle income families in Karachi, Pakistan. Her stories are central to the study, and I have represented them using a number of narrative devices. I have woven in my own stories too, to illustrate my perspective as a researcher. The data includes 13 life history interviews and many informal conversations with Munazza, observations of science teaching in classes seven and eight, and interviews with other science teachers and administrative staff of the school. Munazza's personal biography and experiences of school and undergraduate courses has influenced the way she teaches. It has also influenced the way she does not teach. She was not inspired by her science teachers, so she has tried not to teach the way she was taught science. Contextual factors, her conception of preparation for teaching as preparation for subject content and the tension that she faces in balancing care and control in her classroom are some factors that influence her teaching. Munazza believes that science is a stable, superior and value-free way of knowing. In trying to understand the natural world, observations come first, which give reliable information about the world leading inductively to a "theory". Hence, she relies a great deal on demonstrations in the class where students "see" for themselves and abstract the scientific concept from the

  12. Biological Evolution and the History of the Earth Are Foundations of Science (United States)


    AGU affirms the central importance of including scientific theories of Earth history and biological evolution in science education. Within the scientific community, the theory of biological evolution is not controversial, nor have ``alternative explanations'' been found. This is why no competing theories are required by the U.S. National Science Education Standards. Explanations of natural phenomena that appeal to the supernatural or are based on religious doctrine-and therefore cannot be tested through scientific inquiry-are not scientific, and have no place in the science classroom.

  13. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW. (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  14. A Comparative Framework for Studying the Histories of the Humanities and Science. (United States)

    Bod, Rens


    While the humanities and the sciences have a closely connected history, there are no general histories that bring the two fields together on an equal footing. This paper argues that there is a level at which some humanistic and scientific disciplines can be brought under a common denominator and compared. This is at the level of underlying methods, especially at the level of formalisms and rule systems used by different disciplines. The essay formally compares linguistics and computer science by noting that the same grammar formalism was used in the 1950s for describing both human and. programming languages. Additionally, it examines the influence of philology on molecular biology, and vice versa, by recognizing that the tree-formalism and rule system used for text reconstruction was also employed in DNA genetics. It also shows that rule systems for source criticism in history are used in forensic science, evidence-based medicine, and jurisprudence. This paper thus opens up a new comparative approach within which the histories of the humanities and the sciences can be examined on a common level.

  15. The History and Philosophy of Science in Physics Teaching: A Research Synthesis of Didactic Interventions (United States)

    Teixeira, Elder Sales; Greca, Ileana Maria; Freire, Olival, Jr.


    This work is a systematic review of studies that investigate teaching experiences applying History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) in physics classrooms, with the aim of obtaining critical and reliable information on this subject. After a careful process of selection and exclusion of studies compiled from a variety of databases, an in-depth review…

  16. The Nobel Prize in the Physics Class: Science, History, and Glamour (United States)

    Eshach, Haim


    This paper introduces a novel strategy for teaching physics: using the Nobel Physics Prize as an organizational theme for high school or even first year university physics, bringing together history, social contexts of science, and central themes in modern physics. The idea underlying the strategy is that the glamour and glitter of the Nobel Prize…

  17. College Students Constructing Collective Knowledge of Natural Science History in a Collaborative Knowledge Building Community (United States)

    Hong, Huang-Yao; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    This study investigates whether engaging college students (n = 42) in a knowledge building environment would help them work as a community to construct their collective knowledge of history of science and, accordingly, develop a more informed scientific view. The study adopted mixed-method analyses and data mainly came from surveys and student…

  18. Intersections of Life Histories and Science Identities: The Stories of Three Preservice Elementary Teachers (United States)

    Avraamidou, Lucy


    Grounded within Connelly and Clandinin's conceptualization of teachers' professional identity in terms of "stories to live by" and through a life-history lens, this multiple case study aimed to respond to the following questions: (a) How do three preservice elementary teachers view themselves as future science teachers? (b) How have the…

  19. Citation Behavior of Undergraduate Students: A Study of History, Political Science, and Sociology Papers (United States)

    Hendley, Michelle


    The goal of this analysis was to obtain local citation behavior data on undergraduates researching history, political science, and sociology papers. The study found that students cited books and journals even with the availability of web sources; however, usage varied by subject. References to specific websites' domains also varied across subject…

  20. What's in a Domain: Understanding How Students Approach Questioning in History and Science (United States)

    Portnoy, Lindsay Blau; Rabinowitz, Mitchell


    How students ask questions as they learn has implications for understanding, retention, and problem solving. The current research investigates the influence of domain, age, and previous experience with content on the ways students approach questioning across history and science texts. In 3 experiments, 3rd-, 8th-, and 10th-grade students in large…

  1. History of Science as Interdisciplinary Education in American Colleges: Its Origins, Advantages, and Pitfalls (United States)

    Viterbo, Paula


    Before 1950, history of science did not exist as an independent academic branch, but was instead pursued by practitioners across various humanities and scientific disciplines. After professionalization, traces of its prehistory as a cross-disciplinary area of interest bound to an interdisciplinary, educational philosophy have remained. This essay…

  2. A Brief History of the Most Remarkable Numbers "e," "i" and "?" in Mathematical Sciences with Applications (United States)

    Debnath, Lokenath


    This paper deals with a brief history of the most remarkable Euler numbers "e,"?"i"?and?"?" in mathematical sciences. Included are many properties of the constants "e,"?"i"?and?"?" and their applications in algebra, geometry, physics, chemistry, ecology, business and industry. Special…

  3. DinoViz: Exploring the History and Nature of Science through the Progression of Dinosaur Visualization (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James


    Dinosaurs in the middle school classroom can be exciting. These extinct reptiles are both an exotic subject and familiar to our students. Because students are inherently interested, dinosaurs can serve as an effective portal for the integration of biology, geology, ecology, and the history and nature of science. The field of dinosaur study is…

  4. Why Implementing History and Philosophy in School Science Education is a Challenge: An Analysis of Obstacles (United States)

    Höttecke, Dietmar; Silva, Cibelle Celestino


    Teaching and learning with history and philosophy of science (HPS) has been, and continues to be, supported by science educators. While science education standards documents in many countries also stress the importance of teaching and learning with HPS, the approach still suffers from ineffective implementation in school science teaching. In order to better understand this problem, an analysis of the obstacles of implementing HPS into classrooms was undertaken. The obstacles taken into account were structured in four groups: 1. culture of teaching physics, 2. teachers' skills, epistemological and didactical attitudes and beliefs, 3. institutional framework of science teaching, and 4. textbooks as fundamental didactical support. Implications for more effective implementation of HPS are presented, taking the social nature of educational systems into account.

  5. Art, Science and History in a Globalized World: the Case of Italy-China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Lorusso


    Full Text Available Art and science, over the centuries, though starting from different positions, have very often led to the same conclusions. History, on the other hand, establishes identities that derive from our past and allows for exchanges and unity between people of different nationalities, in both a commercial and scientific context, in a world without borders, in spite of obvious contradictions related to this globalized world. The case of Italy-China bears witness to this in a significant way.A case in point is represented by the scientific collaboration between the Alma Mater University of Bologna and Zhejiang University, as well as that between the Salesian Pontifical University of Rome and Fudan University in Shanghai, Zhejiang University and the Foreign Studies University of Beijing.In the first case, the ongoing research project “Historical anamnesis, preservation and valorization of the statues of the Longxing Buddhist Temple of Qingzhou (China” is being carried out between the Department of Cultural Heritage Diagnostic Laboratory for Cultural Heritage of the University of Bologna and the Cultural Heritage Institute of Zhejiang University. In the second case, collaboration between the Salesian Pontifical University and the Chinese Universities, covers activities relating to the study of philosophy, pedagogy and Latin language and literature.The paper highlights the importance of drawing value of a cultural, conservative, social, identitary nature within the context of the holistic value of cultural heritage and respecting ethical aspects at a personal and interpersonal level, in particular, by offering young people the opportunity to enter the employment market and of which they are currently experiencing all the problematic fluctuations.

  6. Acid rain science and politics in Japan: a history of knowledge and action toward sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Wilkening


    This is a pioneering work in environmental and Asian history as well as an in-depth analysis of the influence of science on domestic and international environmental politics. The book is composed of the following chapters. Chapter 2 introduces the general set of concepts used to analyze the science-politics nexus. These concepts are employed in the remainder of the book to track and explain the relationship between science and policy related to the acid deposition problem in Japan. Chapter 3 discusses nature, culture, and the acid deposition problem in Japan. It begins with a brief introduction to the acid deposition problem in general. It continues with an overview of elements of Japan's natural environment and culture that are relevant to its acid deposition problems. This is followed by a quick sketch of the history of science in Japan, which in turn serves as a preamble for describing in the final section the environmental and acid deposition chronologies used to organize analysis of Japan's acid deposition history. The swath of history between 1868 and the present (circa 2000) is divided into five environmental eras and six acid deposition periods. Chapters 4-9 discuss in detail each of the six acid deposition periods. Chapter 10 synthesizes and summarizes what was learned in the process of analyzing Japan's acid deposition history, and draws lessons that might be applied to the challenge of creating sustainable societies in Japan, Asia, and the rest of the world. An appendix describes the present state of acid deposition science in Japan.

  7. Report on a Boston University Conference December 7-8, 2012 on "How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary US Science Teaching?" (United States)

    Garik, Peter; Benétreau-Dupin, Yann


    This is an editorial report on the outcomes of an international conference sponsored by a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) (REESE-1205273) to the School of Education at Boston University and the Center for Philosophy and History of Science at Boston University for a conference titled: "How Can the History and Philosophy of…

  8. Social Justice and Social Action in Everyday Worlds: Literature Bridging History, Hope, and Action. (United States)

    Enciso, Patricia; Rogers, Theresa; Marshall, Elizabeth; Jenkins, Christine; Brown, Jackie; Core, Elizabeth; Cordova, Carmen; Youngsteadt-Parish, Denise; Robinson, Dwan; Tyson, Cynthia


    Offers brief descriptions of 20 recently published children's books discussing them in tandem with 40 landmark children's books, in the following categories: (1) poetry: gathering strength through song, verse, and prayer; (2) picture books: images of history, hope, and action; (3) chapter books: engaging and extending the social awareness of older…

  9. La historia de la Literatura: sus problemas y methodos (The History of Literature: Problems and Methods) (United States)

    Dopico, Blanca


    In order to achieve its goals, the study of literary history should follow a "programmed process." Such a process would help solve problems in the following areas: bibliography, text criticism, interpretation and explanation, dates and chronology, authenticity, source and origin etc. (Text is in Spanish.) (DS)

  10. Interrogating History: Promoting Student Activism Using Children's Literature and the Full Circling Process (United States)

    Long, Trisha Wies


    Adolescents are often disengaged in the learning process, being more focused on social media and self-interest than classroom content. Full circling is a process that can be used to help students collaboratively engage in learning and actively reflect on historical events--especially those that are under reported in history books. In the present…

  11. Doing science: Lessons learned from the oral histories of women scientists (United States)

    Koehl, Laura Ann

    The major purpose of this study was to examine, through the use of oral history technique, the lived experiences of seven women scientists and the factors that affected their pursuit of science. Numerous reports indicate that while women are gaining ground in the sciences, they are behind their male counterparts in many areas and continue to face barriers (National Science Foundation Report, 2002; Wilson, 2004). There is still work to be done to understand how gender differences in science participation affect the lives of women scientists (Clewell and Campbell, 2002). The qualitative data from seven women's histories was coded to identify emerging themes in the areas of family life, education and experiences with science. The seven women interviewed represented work in science, technology, engineering and math, had terminal degrees and 10 to 55 years of professional experience. Six themes were identified as major factors in the science careers of these women; experiences with science, support from others, an ethic of care, passions of the mind, self efficacy in science and belonging vs. marginality. Each of these had some impact on each woman's sense of identity as a scientist and their strong sense of agency for accomplishing their career goals. The factors and influences that lead them to their careers speak to the ways in which they were able to overcome any barriers and become successful scientists. The stories of these women present a picture that is both consistent with and offers some challenge to the feminist critique of science. While their stories attest to the predominance of males in science they also refute that image in the way these women were able to create a science career for themselves that is not solely defined by the conditions of a male science. As the feminist critique suggests, gender is an important variable in the factors influencing the pursuit of science. While these women acknowledged the role of gender in their scientific experience

  12. Turkish Language and Literature Education in Turkey (Brief History-Problems-Recommendations) (United States)

    Beyreli, Latif


    Language and literature education in Turkey has searched its way through a variety of trials and errors since 1923, when the education heritage inherited from the Ottoman Empire was rebuilt upon a contemporary and laic foundation, and established upon modern foundations in 2005 with the assistance of a variety of curricula used after a long…

  13. Rosalind Franklin and the DNA molecular structure: A case of history of science to learn about the nature of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Acevedo-Díaz


    Full Text Available The Rosalind Franklin’s case regarding the elucidation of the molecular structure of DNA is presented as an interesting story of the history of science to address a set of questions related to the nature of science (NOS from an explicit and reflective approach. The teaching proposal is aimed to the pre-service teachers training in NOS issues and its didactics. Attention is given to both epistemic and non-epistemic aspects in the narration and the NOS questions asked for reflecting about them. Also, some methodological recommendations for implementing the didactic proposal in science classroom are offered. This involves the follows: (i in small groups, the students read the controversy and respond to some questions on NOS; (ii they present their responses to the whole-class; and (iii they revise their initial responses in light of the whole-class discussion.

  14. Antoni Quintana-Marí (1907-1998): A Pioneer of the Use of History of Science in Science Education (United States)

    Roca-Rosell, Antoni; Grapí-Vilumara, Pere


    In the early 1930s, the young Antoni Quintana-Marí undertook some research on Antoni de Martí i Franquès, one of the most prominent Catalan scientists of the Enlightenment. This scientist worked in Tarragona, where Quintana-Marí lived. Quintana-Marí learnt about Martí i Franquès from Josep Estalella, his teacher of physics and chemistry at the secondary school. It was while researching on Martí i Franquès that Quintana-Marí became a true historian of science. He subsequently collaborated with other Spanish and foreign historians of science in the early years of this discipline. Quintana-Marí never forgot that his passion for history of science had been aroused by his school teacher.

  15. TogoDoc server/client system: smart recommendation and efficient management of life science literature. (United States)

    Iwasaki, Wataru; Yamamoto, Yasunori; Takagi, Toshihisa


    In this paper, we describe a server/client literature management system specialized for the life science domain, the TogoDoc system (Togo, pronounced Toe-Go, is a romanization of a Japanese word for integration). The server and the client program cooperate closely over the Internet to provide life scientists with an effective literature recommendation service and efficient literature management. The content-based and personalized literature recommendation helps researchers to isolate interesting papers from the "tsunami" of literature, in which, on average, more than one biomedical paper is added to MEDLINE every minute. Because researchers these days need to cover updates of much wider topics to generate hypotheses using massive datasets obtained from public databases or omics experiments, the importance of having an effective literature recommendation service is rising. The automatic recommendation is based on the content of personal literature libraries of electronic PDF papers. The client program automatically analyzes these files, which are sometimes deeply buried in storage disks of researchers' personal computers. Just saving PDF papers to the designated folders makes the client program automatically analyze and retrieve metadata, rename file names, synchronize the data to the server, and receive the recommendation lists of newly published papers, thus accomplishing effortless literature management. In addition, the tag suggestion and associative search functions are provided for easy classification of and access to past papers (researchers who read many papers sometimes only vaguely remember or completely forget what they read in the past). The TogoDoc system is available for both Windows and Mac OS X and is free. The TogoDoc Client software is available at, and the TogoDoc server is available at

  16. TogoDoc server/client system: smart recommendation and efficient management of life science literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Iwasaki

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a server/client literature management system specialized for the life science domain, the TogoDoc system (Togo, pronounced Toe-Go, is a romanization of a Japanese word for integration. The server and the client program cooperate closely over the Internet to provide life scientists with an effective literature recommendation service and efficient literature management. The content-based and personalized literature recommendation helps researchers to isolate interesting papers from the "tsunami" of literature, in which, on average, more than one biomedical paper is added to MEDLINE every minute. Because researchers these days need to cover updates of much wider topics to generate hypotheses using massive datasets obtained from public databases or omics experiments, the importance of having an effective literature recommendation service is rising. The automatic recommendation is based on the content of personal literature libraries of electronic PDF papers. The client program automatically analyzes these files, which are sometimes deeply buried in storage disks of researchers' personal computers. Just saving PDF papers to the designated folders makes the client program automatically analyze and retrieve metadata, rename file names, synchronize the data to the server, and receive the recommendation lists of newly published papers, thus accomplishing effortless literature management. In addition, the tag suggestion and associative search functions are provided for easy classification of and access to past papers (researchers who read many papers sometimes only vaguely remember or completely forget what they read in the past. The TogoDoc system is available for both Windows and Mac OS X and is free. The TogoDoc Client software is available at, and the TogoDoc server is available at

  17. Forms of presentism in the history of science. Rethinking the project of historical epistemology. (United States)

    Loison, Laurent


    Since the late 1980s, presentism has seen a resurgence among some historians of science. Most of them draw a line between a good form of presentism and typical anachronism, but where the line should be drawn remains an open question. The present article aims at resolving this problem. In the first part I define the four main distinct forms of presentism at work in the history of science and the different purposes they serve. Based on this typology, the second part reconsiders what counts as anachronism, Whiggism and positivist history. This clarification is used as a basis to rethink the research program of historical epistemology in the third section. Throughout this article, I examine the conceptual core of historical epistemology more than its actual history, from Bachelard to Foucault or others. Its project should be defined - as Canguilhem suggested - as an attempt to account for both the contingency and the rationality of science. As such, historical epistemology is based on a complex fifth form of presentism, which I call critical presentism. The critical relation at stake not only works from the present to the past, because of the acknowledged rationality of science, but also from the past to the present because of the contingency and historicity of scientific knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Knowledge of childhood: materiality, text, and the history of science - an interdisciplinary round table discussion. (United States)

    Rietmann, Felix; Schildmann, Mareike; Arni, Caroline; Cook, Daniel Thomas; Giuriato, Davide; Göhlsdorf, Novina; Muigai, Wangui


    This round table discussion takes the diversity of discourse and practice shaping modern knowledge about childhood as an opportunity to engage with recent historiographical approaches in the history of science. It draws attention to symmetries and references among scientific, material, literary and artistic cultures and their respective forms of knowledge. The five participating scholars come from various fields in the humanities and social sciences and allude to historiographical and methodological questions through a range of examples. Topics include the emergence of children's rooms in US consumer magazines, research on the unborn in nineteenth-century sciences of development, the framing of autism in nascent child psychiatry, German literary discourses about the child's initiation into writing, and the sociopolitics of racial identity in the photographic depiction of African American infant corpses in the early twentieth century. Throughout the course of the paper, childhood emerges as a topic particularly amenable to interdisciplinary perspectives that take the history of science as part of a broader history of knowledge.

  19. Citizen science networks in natural history and the collective validation of biodiversity data. (United States)

    Turnhout, Esther; Lawrence, Anna; Turnhout, Sander


    Biodiversity data are in increasing demand to inform policy and management. A substantial portion of these data is generated in citizen science networks. To ensure the quality of biodiversity data, standards and criteria for validation have been put in place. We used interviews and document analysis from the United Kingdom and The Netherlands to examine how data validation serves as a point of connection between the diverse people and practices in natural history citizen science networks. We found that rather than a unidirectional imposition of standards, validation was performed collectively. Specifically, it was enacted in ongoing circulations of biodiversity records between recorders and validators as they jointly negotiated the biodiversity that was observed and the validity of the records. These collective validation practices contributed to the citizen science character or natural history networks and tied these networks together. However, when biodiversity records were included in biodiversity-information initiatives on different policy levels and scales, the circulation of records diminished. These initiatives took on a more extractive mode of data use. Validation ceased to be collective with important consequences for the natural history networks involved and citizen science more generally. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Reference Data Layers for Earth and Environmental Science: History, Frameworks, Science Needs, Approaches, and New Technologies (United States)

    Lenhardt, W. C.


    Global Mapping Project, Web-enabled Landsat Data (WELD), International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP), hydrology, solid earth dynamics, sedimentary geology, climate modeling, integrated assessments and so on all have needs for or have worked to develop consistently integrated data layers for Earth and environmental science. This paper will present an overview of an abstract notion of data layers of this types, what we are referring to as reference data layers for Earth and environmental science, highlight some historical examples, and delve into new approaches. The concept of reference data layers in this context combines data availability, cyberinfrastructure and data science, as well as domain science drivers. We argue that current advances in cyberinfrastructure such as iPython notebooks and integrated science processing environments such as iPlant's Discovery Environment coupled with vast arrays of new data sources warrant another look at the how to create, maintain, and provide reference data layers. The goal is to provide a context for understanding science needs for reference data layers to conduct their research. In addition, to the topics described above this presentation will also outline some of the challenges to and present some ideas for new approaches to addressing these needs. Promoting the idea of reference data layers is relevant to a number of existing related activities such as EarthCube, RDA, ESIP, the nascent NSF Regional Big Data Innovation Hubs and others.

  1. Lotka’s Law and the Literature of Library and Information Science in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yılmaz


    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to test the applicability of Lotka’s Law for the literature of library and information science in Turkey. The database of the study is 1399 papers published in The Bibliography of Articles in Turkish Periodicals between 1952 and 2000, by 604 researchers in the field of library and information scien­ce. The results of the study present the distribution of productivity of Lotka’s in­verse square law does not fit the distribution of the data constituted by the rese­archers in the field of library and information science in Turkey. In other words it was determined that Lotka’s inverse square law does not apply the literature of library and information science in Turkey. Furthermore it was determined that Lotka’s inverse power law fits the value of n (2,1128 calculated for the literatu­re of library and information science in Turkey.

  2. Two moments in the recent history of biblical reading: the Bible as literature from Erich Auerbach and Robert Alter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson de Oliveira Lima


    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the understanding of what is read the Bible as literature. We present two moments in the recent history of Bible reading that seem crucial to the definition of this form of reading. The two moments were the publications of two important works that approached the biblical texts from a literary perspective, differing from traditional approaches, religious and exegetical, and influencing the next generations. The first of these two works was Mimesis: The Representation of Reality in Western Literature by Erich Auerbach, originally published in 1946, the other was The Art of Biblical Narrative by Robert Alter, original 1981. We examine some of the main contributions of these two authors for the Bible studies and try to demonstrate that there is a thematic dependence between their works, then list the main assumptions of this way of reading the Bible today, and defend the hypothesis that religious mediation still dividing the Bible studies.

  3. Sarah Kay, Terence Cave & Malcolm Bowie, eds. A Short History of French Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie SMITH-DI BIASIO


    Full Text Available At once kaleidoscopic and telescopic, the book presents three periods of French literature, the Middle Ages, the Early Modern and the Modern, in both overview and close-up. A triptych by three authors, each an eminent academic, and indeed emblematic specialist in their field, it condenses a remarkable amount of scholarship, close reading and critical practice. If three distinct voices emerge, they also converse, since there are echoes and overlaps between sections.This is a carefully crafted,...

  4. Exhibitions as learning environments: a review of empirical research on students’ science learning at Natural History Museums, Science Museums and Science Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Petter Hauan


    Full Text Available One aim for many natural history museums, science museums and science centres is to contribute to school-related learning in science. In this article we review published empirical studies of this challenging area. The review indicates that the effectiveness of educational activities at different types of science-communication venues (SCV in supporting students’ science learning varies. There is also evidence of interesting differences between activities, depending on how these activities are designed. Firstly, these activities can stimulate interest and conceptual focus through a well-designed combination of structure and openness. Secondly, they can stimulate talks and explorations related to the presented topics. We have identified two possible areas which might prove fruitful in guiding further research: an exploration of the effects of different designs for guided exploratory learning, and an evaluation of the effectiveness of educational activities by studying the presence and quality of the learning processes visitors are engaged in. 

  5. The Scourges of the South? Essays on "The Sickly South" in History, Literature, and Popular Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    “sickly” culture as not so much southern “problems”, but, rather, southern opportunities, or else, springboards to yet another of the South’s cultural revitalizations, “health”. As Thomas Ærvold Bjerre and Beata Zawadka note in their introduction, the so-called “Healthy South” has never been an easy topic...... for scholars dealing with the region. One reason for this is that researchers have been taught to approach so formulated a topic no further than to the point when it turns out it is a contradiction in terms, and, indeed, there is much in southern history and the present situation that justifies...

  6. An online nursing leadership literature centre at the University of Manitoba Health Sciences Libraries. (United States)

    Barrett, Patricia


    Decades of hospital restructuring in Canada resulted in significant reductions of nursing leadership positions and altered a nursing infrastructure important for guiding patient care. The importance of acquiring nursing leadership skills to address the negative effects of restructuring is advocated by Canadian nursing bodies. To describe a service innovation for a nursing community. The librarians of the University of Manitoba Health Sciences Libraries (UMHSL) created an online nursing leadership literature centre to support a leadership programme launched by the Nursing Leadership Council (NLC) of the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority. The article will contribute to the body of literature about health library services for nurses. The creation of the service is described. A literature search was undertaken to determine what services have been implemented by librarians for nursing leadership programmes, as well as to review the literature with regard to contributions made by librarians for nursing communities. The literature service, comprised of 19 webliographies based on the NLC's leadership topics, is available on the UMHSL website. A webliography, by definition, is a list of electronic works relating to a particular topic. The NLC created its own website that provides nurses with a means to identify, enhance and evaluate leadership competencies, and which is linked to the UMHSL website. The contributions of the UMHSL librarians to this project support the goals of instilling leadership skills in nurses, encouraging evidence-based nursing practice, and transforming a practice environment to meet the ultimate goal of effective patient care.

  7. Second-Career Science Teachers' Classroom Conceptions of Science and Engineering Practices Examined through the Lens of Their Professional Histories (United States)

    Antink-Meyer, Allison; Brown, Ryan A.


    Science standards in the U.S. have shifted to emphasise science and engineering process skills (i.e. specific practices within inquiry) to a greater extent than previous standards' emphases on broad representations of inquiry. This study examined the alignment between second-career science teachers' personal histories with the latter and examined…

  8. Harnessing implementation science to improve care quality and patient safety: a systematic review of targeted literature. (United States)

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Marks, Danielle; Taylor, Natalie


    Getting greater levels of evidence into practice is a key problem for health systems, compounded by the volume of research produced. Implementation science aims to improve the adoption and spread of research evidence. A linked problem is how to enhance quality of care and patient safety based on evidence when care settings are complex adaptive systems. Our research question was: according to the implementation science literature, which common implementation factors are associated with improving the quality and safety of care for patients? We conducted a targeted search of key journals to examine implementation science in the quality and safety domain applying PRISMA procedures. Fifty-seven out of 466 references retrieved were considered relevant following the application of exclusion criteria. Included articles were subjected to content analysis. Three reviewers extracted and documented key characteristics of the papers. Grounded theory was used to distil key features of the literature to derive emergent success factors. Eight success factors of implementation emerged: preparing for change, capacity for implementation-people, capacity for implementation-setting, types of implementation, resources, leverage, desirable implementation enabling features, and sustainability. Obstacles in implementation are the mirror image of these: for example, when people fail to prepare, have insufficient capacity for implementation or when the setting is resistant to change, then care quality is at risk, and patient safety can be compromised. This review of key studies in the quality and safety literature discusses the current state-of-play of implementation science applied to these domains. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  9. Teaching the history of science in physics classrooms—the story of the neutrino (United States)

    Demirci, Neset


    Because there is little connection between physics concepts and real life, most students find physics very difficult. In this frontline I have provided a timely link of the historical development using the basic story of neutrino physics and integrated this into introductory modern physics courses in high schools or in higher education. In this way an instructor may be able to build on students’ curiosity in order to enhance the curriculum with some remarkable new physics. Using the history of science in the classroom shapes and improves students’ views and knowledge of the nature of science and increase students’ interest in physics.

  10. History of science, physics, and art: a complex approach in Brazilian syllabuses (United States)

    Braga, Marco; Guerra, Andreia; Reis, José Claudio


    This paper is about new contents that can be introduced into science education. It is a description of an experience aimed at introducing a complex approach into the final grade of a Brazilian elementary school. The aim is to show the transformation of the conception of space and time from the Middle Ages with the physics of Aristotle to the 20th century, when a new conception arose with the physics of Einstein. These changes were accompanied by new visions of space and time in both physics and arts. Comparison between these two expressions of human culture is used to introduce science as a human construct inserted into history.

  11. Describing the concept of infinite among art, literature, philosophy and science: a pedagogical-didactic overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Di Sia


    Full Text Available In this work an interesting overview concerning the human attempts in the description of the concept of infinite is presented. This peculiar concept represents a cardinal point in the history of human culture, because man, with different modalities, has always compared with it. Historically the main followed streams were two: the rational and the irrational approaches. In the first approach we find disciplines such as philosophy, mathematics and physics; the second is the domain of literature, arts and religion. Some activities for developing ideas about the intuitive concept of the infinity at the level of compulsory education will be also given.

  12. The Societal Impact of Extraterrestrial Life: The Relevance of History and the Social Sciences (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.

    This chapter reviews past studies on the societal impact of extraterrestrial life and offers four related ways in which history is relevant to the subject: the history of impact thus far, analogical reasoning, impact studies in other areas of science and technology, and studies on the nature of discovery and exploration. We focus particularly on the promise and peril of analogical arguments, since they are by necessity widespread in the field. This chapter also summarizes the relevance of the social sciences, particularly anthropology and sociology, and concludes by taking a closer look at the possible impact of the discovery of extraterrestrial life on theology and philosophy. In undertaking this study we emphasize three bedrock principles: (1) we cannot predict the future; (2) society is not monolithic, implying many impacts depending on religion, culture and worldview; (3) the impact of any discovery of extraterrestrial life is scenario-dependent.

  13. [Heritages of science history in the gerontological discussion on multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary perspectives]. (United States)

    von Kondratowitz, Hans-Joachim


    Since the beginning of the nineteenth century, the history of science in modern Germany has been characterized by a development going in opposite directions. The old scientific disciplines with their traditional Gestus of knowledge acquisition are in contrast to new sciences resulting from external pressures, combining and mobilizing different areas of knowledge, which challenge former dominances and help to establish new open disciplines. However, gerontology in Germany is in this respect a clear latecomer and can only cast off the impact of medicine in the twentieth century to some extent. This article describes this process by the superposition of different lines of tradition, which have long-term effects reaching into the history of the early Federal Republic of Germany.

  14. Organization of knowledge and the complex identity of history of science. (United States)

    Alfonso-Goldfarb, Ana M; Waisse, Silvia; Ferraz, Márcia H M


    History of science as a formal and autonomous field of research crosses over disciplinary boundaries. For this reason, both its production and its working materials are difficult to classify and catalog according to discipline-based systems of organization of knowledge. Three main problems might be pointed out in this regard: the disciplines themselves are subject to a historical process of transformation; some objects of scientific inquiry resist constraint within rigid disciplinary grids but, rather, extend across several disciplinary boundaries; and the so-called digital revolution has replaced spatial with temporal display sequences and shifted the traditional emphasis on knowledge to user-oriented approaches. The first part of this essay is devoted to a conceptual analysis of the various approaches to the organization of knowledge formulated over time, whereas the second considers the new possibilities afforded by a faceted model of knowledge organization compatible with user-oriented relational databases to the research materials and production of history of science.

  15. [Information production by scientists and the history of science: typological study of personal archives]. (United States)

    Silva, Maria Celina Soares de Mello E; Trancoso, Márcia Cristina Duarte


    This article addresses the study of document typology in the personal archives of scientists and its importance in the history of science studies and for the archivist's work. A brief history is presented of diplomatic to typological information, emphasizing that identifying document production activity as essential for its classification. The article illustrates personal archive characteristics as regards the diversity of documental types and, in particular, those belonging to physicists. Furthermore, it presents five examples of documental types found in the archives of physicists as examples of research in progress. It also highlights the elaboration of a glossary of different documental kinds and types found in the private archives of Museum of Astronomy and Related Sciences in Rio de Janeiro.

  16. A Bibliometric Analysis on China Sport Science(2001-2010)Based on CSSCI Literature (United States)

    Xianliang, Lei; Hongying, Yu

    The past 30-year history of China Sport Science (CSS for short) is also the rise and development history of the subject of physical education in China. Based on the bibliography source from CSSCI (2001 - 2010), this paper does some research about the journal in terms of their authors and topics, as a review and forecast for this journal.SPSS17.0 and ROST CM are used. The result shows that: there is a decline trend about the quantity of published articles on the journal after 2005.The rate of CSS papers sponsored by fund is far more than that of similar journals; It has a stable high-level authors. What's more, an article published on the journal often has more than one author, they may come from the same agencies or different agencies, and the number is more or less. "sports training", "animal experiments", "sports medicine", "sports economy" and "physical education" are the most hot topics of the journal.

  17. Inquiry learning for gender equity using History of Science in Life and Earth Sciences’ learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sousa


    Full Text Available The main objective of the present work is the selection and integration of objectives and methods of education for gender equity within the Life and Earth Sciences’ learning environments in the current portuguese frameworks of middle and high school. My proposal combines inquiry learning-teaching methods with the aim of promoting gender equity, mainly focusing in relevant 20th century women-scientists with a huge contribute to the History of Science. The hands-on and minds-on activities proposed for high scholl students of Life and Earth Sciences onstitute a learnig environment enriched in features of science by focusing on the work of two scientists: Lynn Margulis (1938-2011  and her endosymbiosis theory of the origin of life on Earth and Inge Leehman (1888-1993 responsible for a breakthrough regarding the internal structure of Earth, by caracterizing a discontinuity within the nucleus, contributing to the current geophysical model. For middle scholl students the learning environment includes Inge Leehman and Mary Tharp (1920-2006 and her first world map of the ocean floor. My strategy includes features of science, such as: theory-laden nature of scientific knowledge, models, values and socio-scientific issues, technology contributes to science and feminism.  In conclusion, I consider that this study may constitute an example to facilitate the implementation, by other teachers, of active inquiry strategies focused on features of science within a framework of social responsibility of science, as well as the basis for future research.

  18. Computer Simulations to Support Science Instruction and Learning: A critical review of the literature (United States)

    Smetana, Lara Kathleen; Bell, Randy L.


    Researchers have explored the effectiveness of computer simulations for supporting science teaching and learning during the past four decades. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive, critical review of the literature on the impact of computer simulations on science teaching and learning, with the goal of summarizing what is currently known and providing guidance for future research. We report on the outcomes of 61 empirical studies dealing with the efficacy of, and implications for, computer simulations in science instruction. The overall findings suggest that simulations can be as effective, and in many ways more effective, than traditional (i.e. lecture-based, textbook-based and/or physical hands-on) instructional practices in promoting science content knowledge, developing process skills, and facilitating conceptual change. As with any other educational tool, the effectiveness of computer simulations is dependent upon the ways in which they are used. Thus, we outline specific research-based guidelines for best practice. Computer simulations are most effective when they (a) are used as supplements; (b) incorporate high-quality support structures; (c) encourage student reflection; and (d) promote cognitive dissonance. Used appropriately, computer simulations involve students in inquiry-based, authentic science explorations. Additionally, as educational technologies continue to evolve, advantages such as flexibility, safety, and efficiency deserve attention.

  19. Information literacy in science writing: how students find, identify, and use scientific literature (United States)

    Klucevsek, Kristin M.; Brungard, Allison B.


    For undergraduate students to achieve science literacy, they must first develop information literacy skils. These skills align with Information Literacy Standards and include determining appropriate databases, distinguishing among resource types, and citing resources ethically. To effectively improve information literacy and science literacy, we must identify how students interact with authentic scientific texts. In this case study, we addressed this aim by embedding a science librarian into a science writing course, where students wrote a literature review on a research topic of their choice. Library instruction was further integrated through the use of an online guide and outside assistance. To evaluate the evolution of information literacy in our students and provide evidence of student practices, we used task-scaffolded writing assessments, a reflection, and surveys. We found that students improved their ability and confidence in finding research articles using discipline-specific databases as well as their ability to distinguish primary from secondary research articles. We also identified ways students improperly used and cited resources in their writing assignments. While our results reveal a better understanding of how students find and approach scientific research articles, additional research is needed to develop effective strategies to improve long-term information literacy in the sciences.

  20. A brief history of science as seen through the development of scientific instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Crump, Thomas


    From earliest pre-history, with the dawning understanding of fire and its many uses, up to the astonishing advances of the twenty-first century, Thomas Crump traces the ever more sophisticated means employed in our attempts to understand the universe. The result is a vigorous and readable account of how our curious nature has continually pushed forward the frontiers of science and, as a consequence, human civilization.

  1. The contribution of Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha (1928-2011 to History of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Sanjad


    Full Text Available The article describes and analyzes the historiographical works of Brazilian Herpetologist Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha (1928-2011, researcher of Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi. It presents his published works, mainly in the field of History of Science, in which he studied the institution he belonged to and the scientists who lived in Amazonia. Cunha's complete works dedicated to the theme, composed along of almost 50 years, are reported in the paper.

  2. Science Fairs and Observational Science: A Case History from Earth Orbit (United States)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)


    Having judged dozens of science fairs over the years, I am repeatedly disturbed by the ground rules under which students must prepare their entries. They are almost invariably required to follow the "scientific method," involving formulating a hypothesis, a test of the hypothesis, and then a project in which this test is carried out. As a research scientist for over 40 years, I consider this approach to science fairs fundamentally unsound. It is not only too restrictive, but actually avoids the most important (and difficult) part of scientific research: recognizing a scientific problem in the first place. A well-known example is one of the problems that, by his own account, stimulated Einstein's theory of special relativity: the obvious fact that when an electric current is induced in a conductor by a magnetic field , it makes no difference whether the field or the conductor is actually (so to speak) moving. There is in other words no such thing as absolute motion. Physics was transformed by Einstein's recognition of a problem. Most competent scientists can solve problems after they have been recognized and a hypothesis properly formulated, but the ability to find problems in the first Place is much rarer. Getting down to specifics, the "scientific method" under which almost all students must operate is actually the experimental method, involving controlled variables, one of which, ideally, is changed at a time. However, there is another type of science that can be called observational science. As it happens, almost all the space research I have carried out since 1959 has been this type, not experimental science.

  3. Searching for religion and mental health studies required health, social science, and grey literature databases. (United States)

    Wright, Judy M; Cottrell, David J; Mir, Ghazala


    To determine the optimal databases to search for studies of faith-sensitive interventions for treating depression. We examined 23 health, social science, religious, and grey literature databases searched for an evidence synthesis. Databases were prioritized by yield of (1) search results, (2) potentially relevant references identified during screening, (3) included references contained in the synthesis, and (4) included references that were available in the database. We assessed the impact of databases beyond MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO by their ability to supply studies identifying new themes and issues. We identified pragmatic workload factors that influence database selection. PsycINFO was the best performing database within all priority lists. ArabPsyNet, CINAHL, Dissertations and Theses, EMBASE, Global Health, Health Management Information Consortium, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Sociological Abstracts were essential for our searches to retrieve the included references. Citation tracking activities and the personal library of one of the research teams made significant contributions of unique, relevant references. Religion studies databases (Am Theo Lib Assoc, FRANCIS) did not provide unique, relevant references. Literature searches for reviews and evidence syntheses of religion and health studies should include social science, grey literature, non-Western databases, personal libraries, and citation tracking activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Value Added: History of Physics in a ``Science, Technology, and Society'' General Education Undergraduate Course (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Dwight


    In thirty years of teaching a capstone ``Science, Technology, and Society'' course to undergraduate students of all majors, I have found that, upon entering STS, to most of them the Manhattan Project seems about as remote as the Civil War; few can describe the difference between nuclear and large non-nuclear weapons. With similar lack of awareness, many students seem to think the Big Bang was dreamed up by science sorcerers. One might suppose that a basic mental picture of weapons that held entire populations hostage should be part of informed citizenship. One might also suppose that questions about origins, as they are put to nature through evidence-based reasoning, should be integral to a culture's identity. Over the years I have found the history of physics to be an effective tool for bringing such subjects to life for STS students. Upon hearing some of the history behind (for example) nuclear weapons and big bang cosmology, these students can better imagine themselves called upon to help in a Manhattan Project, or see themselves sleuthing about in a forensic science like cosmology. In this talk I share sample student responses to our class discussions on nuclear weapons, and on cosmology. The history of physics is too engaging to be appreciated only by physicists.

  5. The life of concepts: Georges Canguilhem and the history of science. (United States)

    Schmidgen, Henning


    Twelve years after his famous Essay on Some Problems Concerning the Normal and the Pathological (1943), the philosopher Georges Canguilhem (1904-1995) published a book-length study on the history of a single biological concept. Within France, his Formation of the Reflex Concept in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (1955) contributed significantly to defining the "French style" of writing on the history of science. Outside of France, the book passed largely unnoticed. This paper re-reads Canguilhem's study of the reflex concept with respect to its historiographical and epistemological implications. Canguilhem defines concepts as complex and dynamic entities combining terms, definitions, and phenomena. As a consequence, the historiography of science becomes a rather complex task. It has to take into account textual and contextual aspects that develop independently of individual authors. In addition, Canguilhem stresses the connection between conceptual activities and other functions of organic individuals in their respective environments. As a result, biological concepts become tied to a biology of conceptual thinking, analogical reasoning, and technological practice. The paper argues that this seemingly circular structure is a major feature in Canguilhem's philosophical approach to the history of the biological sciences.

  6. Scientific literacy: Role of natural history studies in constructing understanding of the nature of science (United States)

    Lutz, Martha Victoria Rosett


    Scientific literacy is a central goal of science education. One purpose of this investigation was to reevaluate the definition of 'scientific literacy.' Another purpose was to develop and implement new curriculum involving natural history experiments with insects, with the goal of allowing students opportunities to construct an understanding of the nature of science, a crucial aspect of scientific literacy. This investigation was a qualitative case study. Methods of data collection included direct observations, analysis of sketches and written products created by students and class-room teachers, and analysis of audio tapes. Major findings include: (1) Scientific literacy is generally defined by lists of factual information which students are expected to master. When asked to evaluate their knowledge of selected items on a list published in a science education reform curriculum guide, 15 practicing scientists reported lack of familiarity or comprehension with many items, with the exception of items within their areas of specialization. (2) Genuine natural history experiments using insects can be incorporated into the existing school schedule and need not require any increase in the budget for science materials. (3) Students as young as first through third grade can learn the manual techniques and conceptual skills necessary for designing and conducting original natural history experiments, including manipulating the insects, making accurate sketches, developing test able hypotheses, recording data, and drawing conclusions from their data. Students were generally enthusiastic both about working with live insects and also conducting genuine science experiments. (4) Girls appear both positive and engaged with natural history activities and may be more likely than boys to follow through on designing, conducting, and reporting on independent experiments. The results imply that a valid definition of scientific literacy should be based on the ability to acquire scientific

  7. The natural history of autoimmune Addison's disease with a non-classical presentation: a case report and review of literature. (United States)

    Manso, Jacopo; Pezzani, Raffaele; Scarpa, Riccardo; Gallo, Nicoletta; Betterle, Corrado


    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is the most frequent cause of adrenocortical insufficiency. The natural history of AAD usually comprises five consecutive stages with the first stage characterized by the increase of plasma renin consistent with the impairment of pars glomerulosa, which is usually the first affected layer of the adrenal cortex. We describe a 19-year-old female with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) who underwent an autoantibody screening due to having the personal and family history of other autoimmune diseases in the absence of relevant clinical manifestations. She was positive for adrenal cortex autoantibodies (ACA) and steroid 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies (21-OH Ab) at high titers. She had increased basal levels of ACTH with normal basal cortisol not responding to ACTH stimulation, reduced levels of dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate but normal levels of orthostatic renin and aldosterone. This scenario was consistent with a subclinical AAD presenting with first impairments in pars fasciculata and reticularis and conserved pars glomerulosa function. Only subsequently, progressive deficiency in pars glomerulosa function has become evident. Review of the literature showed that there was only one case, reported to date, with a similar atypical natural history of AAD. The strategies for screening for ACA/21-OH Ab in patients with HT are discussed.

  8. The Standard Model in the history of the Natural Sciences, Econometrics, and the social sciences (United States)

    Fisher, W. P., Jr.


    In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, scientists appropriated Newton's laws of motion as a model for the conduct of any other field of investigation that would purport to be a science. This early form of a Standard Model eventually informed the basis of analogies for the mathematical expression of phenomena previously studied qualitatively, such as cohesion, affinity, heat, light, electricity, and magnetism. James Clerk Maxwell is known for his repeated use of a formalized version of this method of analogy in lectures, teaching, and the design of experiments. Economists transferring skills learned in physics made use of the Standard Model, especially after Maxwell demonstrated the value of conceiving it in abstract mathematics instead of as a concrete and literal mechanical analogy. Haavelmo's probability approach in econometrics and R. Fisher's Statistical Methods for Research Workers brought a statistical approach to bear on the Standard Model, quietly reversing the perspective of economics and the social sciences relative to that of physics. Where physicists, and Maxwell in particular, intuited scientific method as imposing stringent demands on the quality and interrelations of data, instruments, and theory in the name of inferential and comparative stability, statistical models and methods disconnected theory from data by removing the instrument as an essential component. New possibilities for reconnecting economics and the social sciences to Maxwell's sense of the method of analogy are found in Rasch's probabilistic models for measurement.

  9. The Standard Model in the history of the Natural Sciences, Econometrics, and the social sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, W P Jr


    In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, scientists appropriated Newton's laws of motion as a model for the conduct of any other field of investigation that would purport to be a science. This early form of a Standard Model eventually informed the basis of analogies for the mathematical expression of phenomena previously studied qualitatively, such as cohesion, affinity, heat, light, electricity, and magnetism. James Clerk Maxwell is known for his repeated use of a formalized version of this method of analogy in lectures, teaching, and the design of experiments. Economists transferring skills learned in physics made use of the Standard Model, especially after Maxwell demonstrated the value of conceiving it in abstract mathematics instead of as a concrete and literal mechanical analogy. Haavelmo's probability approach in econometrics and R. Fisher's Statistical Methods for Research Workers brought a statistical approach to bear on the Standard Model, quietly reversing the perspective of economics and the social sciences relative to that of physics. Where physicists, and Maxwell in particular, intuited scientific method as imposing stringent demands on the quality and interrelations of data, instruments, and theory in the name of inferential and comparative stability, statistical models and methods disconnected theory from data by removing the instrument as an essential component. New possibilities for reconnecting economics and the social sciences to Maxwell's sense of the method of analogy are found in Rasch's probabilistic models for measurement.

  10. Validating concepts of mental disorder: precedents from the history of science. (United States)

    Miller, Robert


    A fundamental issue in any branch of the natural sciences is validating the basic concepts for use in that branch. In psychiatry, this issue has not yet been resolved, and indeed, the proper nature of the problem has scarcely been recognised. As a result, psychiatry (or at least those parts of the discipline which aspire to scientific status) still cannot claim to be a part of scientific medicine, or to be incorporated within the common language of the natural sciences. While this creates difficulties within the discipline, and its standing in relation to other branches of medicine, it makes it an exciting place for "frontiersmen" (and women). This is one of the key growing points in the natural science tradition. In this essay, which moves from the early history of that tradition to today's debates in scientific psychiatry, I give my views about how these fundamental issues can move towards resolution.

  11. Materials Science Experiments Under Microgravity - A Review of History, Facilities, and Future Opportunities (United States)

    Stenzel, Ch.


    Materials science experiments have been a key issue already since the early days of research under microgravity conditions. A microgravity environment facilitates processing of metallic and semiconductor melts without buoyancy driven convection and sedimentation. Hence, crystal growth of semiconductors, solidification of metallic alloys, and the measurement of thermo-physical parameters are the major applications in the field of materials science making use of these dedicated conditions in space. In the last three decades a large number of successful experiments have been performed, mainly in international collaborations. In parallel, the development of high-performance research facilities and the technological upgrade of diagnostic and stimuli elements have also contributed to providing optimum conditions to perform such experiments. A review of the history of materials science experiments in space focussing on the development of research facilities is given. Furthermore, current opportunities to perform such experiments onboard ISS are described and potential future options are outlined.

  12. Importance of philosophy of science to the history of medical thinking. (United States)

    Zalewski, Z


    Popular approach to the history of medicine rests on naive assumptions that: 1) only the present state of medical knowledge can be counted as scientific and only those elements of the former knowledge and practice which fitted the body of contemporary science should be regarded by the historians of medicine (presentism); 2) medical sciences, like the other natural sciences, portray natural phenomena as they really are (naturalism); 3) progress in sciences consists of cumulative growth of information and explanation. The twentieth century philosophical critique of science revealed that none of these assumptions were true. Empirical facts, which are taken as a basis for any true knowledge, are dependent on the presumed theories; theories are intertwined into a broader socio-cultural context; theory-changing processes are caused by social factors rather than by the theoretical content. Therefore, it is a common task of historians of medicine and philosophers of science to reveal all theoretical and cultural premises on which our comprehension of the contemporary medicine is founded.

  13. Europe PMC: a full-text literature database for the life sciences and platform for innovation (United States)


    This article describes recent developments of Europe PMC (, the leading database for life science literature. Formerly known as UKPMC, the service was rebranded in November 2012 as Europe PMC to reflect the scope of the funding agencies that support it. Several new developments have enriched Europe PMC considerably since then. Europe PMC now offers RESTful web services to access both articles and grants, powerful search tools such as citation-count sort order and data citation features, a service to add publications to your ORCID, a variety of export formats, and an External Links service that enables any related resource to be linked from Europe PMC content. PMID:25378340

  14. Renaissance Science and Literature: Benedetti, Ovid and the Transformations of Phaeton's Myth after Copernicus (United States)

    Omodeo, Pietro Daniel


    This paper aims at showing the close ties between Renaissance literature and science as emerge from the use and the transformation, in a post-Copernican context, of the myth of Phaeton—according to Greek mythology: the boy who tried to conduct the chariot of the Sun and died in this attempt. G.B. Benedetti's analysis and criticism of Ovid's Metamorphoses, book two, provides an insight into this literary and scientific issue. Astronomical poems and variations of Phaeton's myth by other illustrious Renaissance men—including T. Brahe and King James of Scotland and England—are taken into account, as well.

  15. The role of science fiction within the fluidity of slipstream literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Steble


    Full Text Available The paper explores the complex and contradictory role of science fiction in slipstream, the type of postmodern non-realistic literature situated between the fantastic genres and the mainstream literary fiction. Because of its unstable status of occupying an interstitial position between multiple literary conventions, the article first deals with an expansive terminology affiliated with slipstream and elucidates upon using a unified term for it. Avantpop, transrealism, and interstitial fiction all help us in understanding the vast postmodern horizon of slipstream. Furthermore, the slipstream's philosophy of cognitive dissonance in comparison to science fiction's is analysed to see the similarities and differences between them. The section is mainly concerned on expanding Darko Suvin's concept of cognition and viewing it as partially compatible with slipstream's estrangement techniques. The final part is focused on the exemplary slipstream novel Vurt by Jeff Noon, a perfect example of science fiction providing material, including latest post-Newtonian paradigms of science, for slipstream to mould it in its own fashion.

  16. Early Activation of Cardiosurgical Patients: History and Terminology (a review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kozlov


    Full Text Available In foreign countries, the anesthesiological and resuscitative tactics that ensure the maximally rapid discontinuation of mechanical ventilation are regarded as a fundamental therapeutic component of the so-called fast-track cardiac surgery that provides a shorter length of hospital stay, an intensified therapeutic process, and lower-cost treatment. In the Russian literature, this methodic approach is customarily designated early activation, by bearing in mind that discontinuation of mechanical ventilation is a key point of postoperative recovery of the patients’ physical activity. The main Russian and foreign publications on the specific features of therapeutic tactics in early periods after cardiac surgery are historically analyzed. The paper covers the polemic between the supporters and opponents of the earliest activation of patients operated on under extracorporeal circulation, the change of views on a need for obligatory postoperative mechanical ventilation, and the impact of the rate of activation and physical activity on the quality of rehabilitation. Terminology and clinicians’ points of views on the optimum activation periods are analyzed. Key words: early activation, operations under extracorporeal circulation, tracheal extubation in an operating room, early tracheal extubation, postoperative rehabilitation of cardiosurgical patients.

  17. The Life and Times of Aboutness: A Review of the Library and Information Science Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Rondeau


    Full Text Available Objective – This paper explores the concept of “aboutness”, its related terms, and the process of aboutness determination as found in the Library and Information Science Literature. Methods – A review of the literature pertaining to aboutness determination and related terms specific to Library and Information Science was undertaken, borrowing extensively from the literature review of Daniel Joudrey’s (2005 dissertation, Building puzzles and growing pearls: A qualitative exploration of determining aboutness, as well as examining a small selection of research and articles not discussed by Joudrey. In addition, a concept map was developed to outline many of the concepts and theories found. Results – The LIS literature demonstrates conflicting positions surrounding the term aboutness and its correlates. Despite the lack of firm agreement on terminologies, the notion of subject is explored because it featured prominently in the literature. As well, intensional and extensional aboutness are explored in contrast to a more subjectivist perspective which asserts that a document's aboutness cannot be separated from its reader. Aboutness determination is also examined through the lens of theme and rheme, that is what is presupposed in a document versus what is new. Aboutness from the user perspective featured considerably in the literature, with many authors asserting both the importance and the challenge of mediating knowledge on behalf of the user. The stage of aboutness determination in the complete process of subject indexing is also presented here, and the findings demonstrate that the stages are anything but linear and sequential. Conclusion – While the findings are more expositional than conclusive, they demonstrate the complexities and challenges surrounding the concept of “aboutness” and the process of its determination. The value of this review is in its ability to present the ways in which scholars and practitioners have

  18. Friends and Family: A Literature Review on How High School Social Groups Influence Advanced Math and Science Coursetaking (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael; Owens, Ann; Williams, Darryl; Kim, Hui Yon; Musto, Michela


    In this study, we synthesized the literature on how informal contexts, namely friends and family social groups, shape high school students' likelihood of pursuing advanced math and science coursework. Extending scholarly understandings of STEM education, we turned to the body of literature with three guiding questions: (1) What influence do…

  19. Van Gogh's Starry Nights, Lincoln's Moon, Shakespeare's Stars, and More: Tales of Astronomy in Art, History, and Literature (United States)

    Olson, Donald


    How do astronomical methods make it possible to calculate dates and times for Vincent van Gogh's night-sky paintings? Why is there a blood-red sky in Edvard Munch's The Scream? On what dates did Ansel Adams create his moonrise photographs in Yosemite? How can the 18.6-year cycle of the lunar nodes and the Moon's declination on the night of August 29-30, 1857, explain a long-standing mystery about Abraham Lincoln's honesty in the murder case known as the almanac trial? Why is a bright star described in Act 1, Scene 1, of Hamlet? To answer questions like these, our Texas State group has published a series of articles over the last two decades, applying astronomy to art, history, and literature.

  20. Views about scientists and scientific work in the novel Deception Point by Dan Brown: possibilities to insert History and Philosophy of Science elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmo Ernesto Francisco Junior


    Full Text Available Considering the influence of literature on people lives, this study investigates elements concerning views about scientists and scientific work presented in Deception Point, a novel by Dan Brown. Multiple aspects to represent the scientist figure, life and work, emerge from the novel and problematize characteristics that can be considered as a common sense view, or others perspectives based on more contemporaneous philosophical thoughts on science. Reading and analyzing this novel could be an interesting opportunity to insert elements of history and philosophy of science under different focus. This study discusses some elements, from excerpts of the novel, which may become possibilities for debates in Science classes at schools, and in teacher education.

  1. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Annual Statistics: a thematic history. (United States)

    Shedlock, James; Byrd, Gary D


    The Annual Statistics of Medical School Libraries in the United States and Canada (Annual Statistics) is the most recognizable achievement of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries in its history to date. This article gives a thematic history of the Annual Statistics, emphasizing the leadership role of editors and Editorial Boards, the need for cooperation and membership support to produce comparable data useful for everyday management of academic medical center libraries and the use of technology as a tool for data gathering and publication. The Annual Statistics' origin is recalled, and survey features and content are related to the overall themes. The success of the Annual Statistics is evident in the leadership skills of the first editor, Richard Lyders, executive director of the Houston Academy of Medicine-Texas Medical Center Library. The history shows the development of a survey instrument that strives to produce reliable and valid data for a diverse group of libraries while reflecting the many complex changes in the library environment. The future of the Annual Statistics is assured by the anticipated changes facing academic health sciences libraries, namely the need to reflect the transition from a physical environment to an electronic operation.

  2. [History of pedagogy and educational sciences in the Baltic countries from 1940 to 1990. An overview] / Mare Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Mare, 1960-


    Arvustus: History of pedagogy and educational sciences in the Baltic countries from 1940 to 1990. An overview. Hrsg. im Auftrag der Baltic Association of Historians of Pedagogy von Vadim Rõuk und Vidimantas Raudys. Verlag RaKa. Riga 2013

  3. Projective methodical system of students training to the course «History of computer science»


    С А Виденин


    Components of teachers readiness to professional activity are described in the item. The projective methods of training to a course « History of computer science « in favour to improve professional grounding of students' are considered.

  4. The Great War as a Crucial Point in the History of Russian Science and Technology. (United States)

    Saprykin, Dmitry L


    The paper is devoted to one of the most important and, at the same time, relatively unexplored phases in the history of Russian science and technology. The Great War coincided with the beginning of a heyday in science, engineering education, and technology in Russia. It was precisely the time in which Russia's era of "Big Science" was emer- ging. Many Russian and Soviet technical projects and scientific schools were rooted in the time of the Great War. The "engineerization" of science and a "physical-technical" way of thinking had already begun before the war. But it was precisely the war which encouraged a large proportion of the Russian academic community to take part in industrial projects. Academics also played a significant role in developing concepts and implementing strategic plans during the Great War. This article also discusses how the organization of science and the academic community was transformed during, and after, the Great War. And it looks at the impact that war had on Russia's participation in the international scientific community.

  5. Islands of knowledge: science and agriculture in the history of Latin America and the Caribbean. (United States)

    Fernández Prieto, Leida


    This essay explores the participation of Latin America and the Caribbean in the construction and circulation of tropical agricultural science during the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century. It uses the term "islands of knowledge" to underscore the idea that each producing region across the global tropics, including Latin America and the Caribbean, was instrumental in the creation, adoption, and application of scientific procedures. At the same time, it emphasizes the value of interchange and interconnection between these regions, as well as the many and heterogeneous local areas, for analyzing what it calls "global archipelago agricultural scientific knowledge." This focus challenges the traditional center/periphery hierarchy and opens it to a wider vision of science and practice in agriculture. This essay shows how writing in related areas of research--specifically, commodity histories, biological exchange studies, and knowledge exchange studies--introduces approaches and case studies that are useful for the history of tropical agricultural science. In particular, this work provides analytical frameworks for developing studies of exchanges across the Global South.

  6. The trials, tribulations, and triumphs of black faculty in the math and science pipeline: A life history approach (United States)

    Williams, Lisa D.


    This study explores the career progression and life history of black mathematicians and scientists who teach on university faculties in the United States. It investigates the following questions: Why are there so few black mathematicians and scientists in colleges and universities in the United States? What is the experience of black students who express an interest in science and math? What barriers do black scientists and mathematicians face as they move through school towards their career in higher education? What factors facilitate their success? The current literature shows that there are few women and minorities teaching or working in math and science compared to white men, although reasons for this underrepresentation are still not well understood. I explored this phenomenon by conducting two sets of in-depth interviews with twelve black faculty, six women, six men, from both historically black and predominantly white higher educational institutions in the United States. My interviews were based upon a life history approach that identified the participants' perceptions of the barriers and obstacles, as well as the supports and facilitators encountered in their schooling and career progression. The findings from the study show the importance of a strong family, community, and teacher support for the participants throughout their schooling. Support systems continued to be important in their faculty positions. These support systems include extended family members, teachers, community members, supervisors, and classmates, who serve as role models and mentors. The life study interviews provide striking evidence of the discrimination, isolation, and harassment due to race and gender experienced by black male and female mathematicians and scientists. The racial discrimination and the compounding effect of racism and sexism play out differently for the male and female participants in this study. This study suggests directions for future research on the experiences

  7. Teaching about Israel in the Seventh Grade: How It Relates to the History/Social Science Framework. (United States)

    Benson, Cecile


    Describes an eight-week unit on Israel for seventh graders and shows how the unit relates to the 1981 "California History/Social Science Framework." The unit introduces students to framework content goals in history and the humanities. Activities include journal writing, artifact building, archaeological simulations, and a geographical…

  8. Should We Add History of Science to Provide Nature of Science into Vietnamese Biology Textbook: A Case of Evolution and Genetics Teaching? (United States)

    Diem, Huynh Thi Thuy; Yuenyong, Chokchai


    History of science (HOS) plays a substantial role in the enhancement of rooted understanding in science teaching and learning. HOS of evolution and genetics has not been included in Vietnamese biology textbooks. This study aims to investigate the necessity of introducing evolution and genetics HOS into Vietnamese textbooks. A case study approach…

  9. Using a Professional Development Program for Enhancing Chilean Biology Teachers' Understanding of Nature of Science (NOS) and Their Perceptions about Using History of Science to Teach NOS (United States)

    Pavez, José M.; Vergara, Claudia A.; Santibañez, David; Cofré, Hernán


    A number of authors have recognized the importance of understanding the nature of science (NOS) for scientific literacy. Different instructional strategies such as decontextualized, hands-on inquiry, and history of science (HOS) activities have been proposed for teaching NOS. This article seeks to understand the contribution of HOS in enhancing…

  10. Disciplined by the discipline: a social-epistemic fingerprint of the history of science. (United States)

    Vanderstraeten, Raf; Vandermoere, Frederic


    The scientific system is primarily differentiated into disciplines. While disciplines may be wide in scope and diverse in their research practices, they serve scientific communities that evaluate research and also grant recognition to what is published. The analysis of communication and publication practices within such a community hence allows us to shed light on the dynamics of this discipline. On the basis of an empirical analysis of Isis, we show how the process of discipline-building in history of science has led its practitioners to be socialized and sensitized in relatively strong intra-disciplinary terms--with minimal interdisciplinary openness.

  11. Inquiry learning for gender equity using History of Science in Life and Earth Sciences’ learning environments


    C. Sousa


    [EN] The main objective of the present work is the selection and integration of objectives and methods of education for gender equity within the Life and Earth Sciences’ learning environments in the current portuguese frameworks of middle and high school. My proposal combines inquiry learning-teaching methods with the aim of promoting gender equity, mainly focusing in relevant 20th century women-scientists with a huge contribute to the History of Science.The hands-on and minds-on activities p...

  12. The use of history of science in physics teaching: an application for electromagnetism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Andrea Perea


    Full Text Available The present is a revision of different proposals that utilize History of Science in teaching. They have been grouped according to the purpose they pursue: to evoke discoveries, to highlight the human aspect of Science through the contributions of renamed scientists, to teach the processes of scientific construction, to detect students' preconceptions and teach concepts, and to highlight the socio-cultural basis of scientific ideas and research. We discuss why we consider that this last aspect includes the other ones, and elaborate general guidelines for the use of HC in a particular case dealing with electromagnetic field. Our proposal is focused on the controversy between "action-at-a-distance" and "field", and is elaborated on the basis of key experiments carried out by Heinrich Hertz.

  13. The scientists A history of science told through the lives of its greatest inventors

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John


    By focusing on the scientists themselves, Gribbin has written an anecdotal narrative enlivened with stories of personal drama, success and failure. A bestselling science writer with an international reputation, Gribbin is among the few authors who could even attempt a work of this magnitude. Praised as “a sequence of witty, information-packed tales” and “a terrifi c read” by The Times upon its recent British publication, The Scientists breathes new life into such venerable icons as Galileo, Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein and Linus Pauling, as well as lesser lights whose stories have been undeservedly neglected. Filled with pioneers, visionaries, eccentrics and madmen, this is the history of science as it has never been told before.

  14. Teaching Earth Sciences as an interdisciplinary subject: Novel module design involving research literature (United States)

    Tong, Vincent C. H.


    The study of Earth Sciences requires an interdisciplinary approach as it involves understanding scientific knowledge originating from a wide spectrum of research areas. Not only does it include subjects ranging from, for instance, hydrogeology to deep crustal seismology and from climate science to oceanography, but it also has many direct applications in closely related disciplines such as environmental engineering and natural resources management. While research crossing traditional disciplinary boundaries in geosciences is becoming increasingly common, there is only limited integration of interdisciplinary research in the teaching of the subject. Given that the transition from undergraduate education based on subject modules to postgraduate interdisciplinary research is never easy, such integration is a highly desirable pedagogical approach at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. My presentation is based on a recent teaching project involving novel design of an undergraduate course. The course is implemented in order to address the synergy between research and teaching (Tong, 2009). This project has been shown to be effective and successful in teaching geosciences undergraduates at the University of London. The module consists of studying core geophysical principles and linking them directly to a selection of recently published research papers in a wide range of interdisciplinary applications. Research reviewing and reporting techniques are systematically developed, practised and fully integrated into teaching of the core scientific theories. A fully-aligned assignment with a feedback website invites the students to reflect on the scientific knowledge and the study skills related to research literature they have acquired in the course. This teaching project has been recognized by a teaching award ( In this presentation, I will discuss how undergraduate teaching with a focus on research literature in Earth Sciences can

  15. Big Data in Science and Healthcare: A Review of Recent Literature and Perspectives (United States)

    Miron-Shatz, T.; Lau, A. Y. S.; Paton, C.


    Summary Objectives As technology continues to evolve and rise in various industries, such as healthcare, science, education, and gaming, a sophisticated concept known as Big Data is surfacing. The concept of analytics aims to understand data. We set out to portray and discuss perspectives of the evolving use of Big Data in science and healthcare and, to examine some of the opportunities and challenges. Methods A literature review was conducted to highlight the implications associated with the use of Big Data in scientific research and healthcare innovations, both on a large and small scale. Results Scientists and health-care providers may learn from one another when it comes to understanding the value of Big Data and analytics. Small data, derived by patients and consumers, also requires analytics to become actionable. Connectivism provides a framework for the use of Big Data and analytics in the areas of science and healthcare. This theory assists individuals to recognize and synthesize how human connections are driving the increase in data. Despite the volume and velocity of Big Data, it is truly about technology connecting humans and assisting them to construct knowledge in new ways. Concluding Thoughts The concept of Big Data and associated analytics are to be taken seriously when approaching the use of vast volumes of both structured and unstructured data in science and health-care. Future exploration of issues surrounding data privacy, confidentiality, and education are needed. A greater focus on data from social media, the quantified self-movement, and the application of analytics to “small data” would also be useful. PMID:25123717

  16. Science and sports: a brief history of muscle, motion and ad hoc organizations. (United States)

    Clarys, Jan Pieter; Alewaeters, Katrien


    Both the history of biolocomotion (later to become motion analysis/biomechanics) and of electrology (later kinesiological electromyography) are to be traced back to approximatively the same period in the second half of the seventeenth century. The major contributors to these emergent sciences were Swammerdam in 1658 and Borelli in 1680. Some 150 years later, electrophysiological methods were derived and motion-cinephotography was developed from their pioneering work. Subsequently, use was made of motion analysis by means of cinephotography, forming a basis for biomechanics. The work of Marey in 1873 in particular stimulated the multidisciplinary study of human activity, providing models for contemporary sports scientists working in applied settings. The link between theory and practice in motion sciences and the multidisciplinary model of Marey were the motive and the example for establishing the Working Group of Biomechanics in the 1960s. This body has gone through a series of progressive developments, culminating in the approval of the World Commission of Science and Sports as a service group of the International Council for Sport Science and Physical Education (recognized by UNESCO).

  17. A Diversity of Divisions: Tracing the History of the Demarcation between the Sciences and the Humanities. (United States)

    Bouterse, Jeroen; Karstens, Bart


    Throughout history, divides between the sciences and the humanities have been drawn in many different ways. This essay shows that the notion of a divide became more urgent and pronounced in the second half of the nineteenth century. While this shift has several causes, the essay focuses on the rise of the social sciences, which is interpreted as posing a profound challenge to the established disciplines of the study of humankind. This is demonstrated by zooming in on linguistics, one of the key traditional disciplines of the humanities. Through the assumption of a correspondence between mental and linguistic categories, psychology became of central importance in the various conceptions of linguistics that emerged in the nineteenth century. Both linguistics and psychology were very much engaged in a process of discipline formation, and opinions about the proper directions of the fields varied considerably. Debates on these issues catalyzed the construction of more radical divisions between the sciences and the humanities. Both Wilhelm Dilthey's dichotomy between understanding and explanation and Wilhelm Windelband's dichotomy between nomothetic and idiographic sciences respond to these debates. While their constructions are often lumped together, the essay shows that they actually meant very different things and have to be treated accordingly.

  18. On the Ethology of Female Homo Sapiens Sapiens at the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science. (United States)

    Whittle, Christopher

    This study is a followup to the author's earlier study of the learning differences exhibited by museum exhibit visitors and seeks to discern the effects of the pathological cultural problems identified by other researchers in a science education setting. The setting for this followup study was the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science.…

  19. The Effect of Project-Based History and Nature of Science Practices on the Change of Nature of Scientific Knowledge (United States)

    Çibik, Ayse Sert


    The aim of this study is to compare the change of pre-service science teachers' views about the nature of scientific knowledge through Project-Based History and Nature of Science training and Conventional Method. The sample of the study consists of two groups of 3rd grade undergraduate students attending teacher preparation program of science…

  20. An Analysis of the Model and Enacted Curricula for a History of Science Course in a Nationwide Teacher Education Program (United States)

    Nouri, Noushin


    The UTeach program, a national model for undergraduate teacher preparation, includes "Perspectives on Science and Mathematics," a class designed to share content about the History of Science (HOS) with preservice teachers. UTeach provides a model curriculum as a sample for instructors teaching "Perspectives." The purpose of…

  1. Report on the activities of the PAU Commission on the History of Science in 2015/2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kokowski


    Full Text Available The report discusses the activities of the Commission on the History of Science of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2015/2016. It presents the lists of: scientific meeting, administrative-election meetings, new members, and new publications.

  2. Are you afraid of the dark? Notes on the psychology of belief in histories of science and the occult


    Sommer, Andreas


    This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Taylor & Francis via 10.1080/13642537.2016.1170062 The popular view of the inherent conflict between science and the occult has been rendered obsolete by recent advances in the history of science. Yet, these historiographical revisions have gone unnoticed in the public understanding of science and public education at large. Particularly reconstructions of the formation of modern psychology and its links to...

  3. History and Nature of Science enriched Problem-Based Learning on the origins of biodiversity and of continents and oceans


    Sousa, Cristina


    [EN] The episode of the History of Science (HOS) on the theory of continental drift proposed by Alfred Wegener has been considered an excellent example for teaching students aspects of Nature of Science (NOS) and the relation of Science with social and tecnological contexts. We implemented a NOS and HOS-enriched Problem-Based Learning environment at the middle (year 7 of the Portuguese National Curriculum) and secondary level (year 10) for teaching the origins of biodiversity and of continent...

  4. Science and Society: Public History in the Context of Historical Culture of the Globalization Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorina P. Repina


    Full Text Available In the XIX century known as the „historical age”, a high degree of trust to history and social prestige of historical science relied on the entrenched in public consciousness the idea of continuity of historical development of a human civilization and, respectively, of the unique opportunities of the use of the past experience as a means to solve the problems of the present and to build „the bright future”. But the understanding of the dramatic experi-ence of the XX century undermined the belief in the “use of history”, and this situation has been greatly aggravated with intensification of the processes of globalization on the bor-der of XX and XXI centuries. The problems of interaction between “academic (professional history” and the wide public in the concrete societies and the changes in their relations in the context of deep social transformations proved to take place at the center of many re-searchers’ attention. Public history is purposefully overcoming the typical for historical science of the XX century alienation from „the uninitiated”; it strives to restore the interest of the consumer to the historians’ production, to propagate professional standards, histor-ical knowledge and proper understanding of the specific character of “historian’s craft” among the wide circles of the non-professionals.

  5. What was historical about natural history? Contingency and explanation in the science of living things. (United States)

    Harrison, Peter


    There is a long-standing distinction in Western thought between scientific and historical modes of explanation. According to Aristotle's influential account of scientific knowledge there cannot be an explanatory science of what is contingent and accidental, such things being the purview of a descriptive history. This distinction between scientia and historia continued to inform assumptions about scientific explanation into the nineteenth century and is particularly significant when considering the emergence of biology and its displacement of the more traditional discipline of natural history. One of the consequences of this nineteenth-century transition was that while modern evolutionary theory retained significant, if often implicit, historical components, these were often overlooked as evolutionary biology sought to accommodate itself to a model of scientific explanation that involved appeals to laws of nature. These scientific aspirations of evolutionary biology sometimes sit uncomfortably with its historical dimension. This tension lies beneath recent philosophical critiques of evolutionary theory and its modes of explanation. Such critiques, however, overlook the fact that there are legitimate modes of historical explanation that do not require recourse to laws of nature. But responding to these criticisms calls for a more explicit recognition of the affinities between evolutionary biology and history. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interface between psychoanalysis and speech language and hearing sciences: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinalva Neves Nascimento

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to verify the Brazilian and international scientific productions by correlating Speech Language and Hearing Sciences and Psychoanalysis. A literature review was performed using the databases BVS, Scielo, Scopus and PubMed. The used descriptors were “Fonoaudiologia”, “Psicanálise”, “Comunicação”, “Speech Therapy”, “Psychoanalysis” and “Communication”, identifying 65 full articles between the years 1980 and 2015. The analysis was performed using a “Protocol for article classification”. It was verified that Original Articles are the most published type, SCOPUS and BVS being the most common databases. There is a predominance of articles in the Portuguese language, followed by English, French and German. Several specialties of Speech Language and Hearing Sciences presented interface with Psychoanalysis, especially Language and Neuropsychology. The studies were published mainly in Psychology journals, also found in the area of audiology and interdisciplinary area. This review showed the psychoanalytic interference in speech language and hearing clinic, highlighting the need for further studies correlating both areas that may contribute to the work of these professionals and, consequently, enable an improvement in the quality of life of psychic subjects.

  7. Twitter Users with Access to Academic Library Services Request Health Sciences Literature through Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Margaret Stovold


    Full Text Available A Review of: Swab, M., & Romme, K. (2016. Scholarly sharing via Twitter: #icanhazpdf requests for health sciences literature. Journal of the Canadian Health Libraries Association, 37(1, 6-11. Abstract Objective – To analyze article sharing requests for health sciences literature on Twitter, received through the #icanhazpdf protocol. Design – Social media content analysis. Setting – Twitter. Subjects – 302 tweets requesting health sciences articles with the #icanhazpdf tag. Methods – The authors used a subscription service called RowFeeder to collect public tweets posted with the hashtag #icanhazpdf between February and April 2015. Rowfeeder recorded the Twitter user name, location, date and time, URL, and content of the tweet. The authors excluded all retweets and then each reviewed one of two sets. They recorded the geographic region and affiliation of the requestor, whether the tweet was a request or comment, type of material requested, how the item was identified, and if the subject of the request was health or non-health. Health requests were further classified using the Scopus subject category of the journal. A journal could be classified with more than one category. Any uncertainties during the coding process were resolved by both authors reviewing the tweet and reaching a consensus. Main results – After excluding all the retweets and comments, 1079 tweets were coded as heath or non-health related. A final set of 302 health related requests were further analyzed. Almost all the requests were for journal articles (99%, n=300. The highest-ranking subject was medicine (64.9%, n=196, and the lowest was dentistry (0.3%, n=1. The most common article identifier was a link to the publisher’s website (50%, n=152, followed by a link to the PubMed record (22%, n=67. Articles were also identified by citation information (11%, n=32, DOI (5%, n=14, a direct request to an individual (3%, n=9, another method

  8. Reflections on the history of indoor air science, focusing on the last 50 years. (United States)

    Sundell, J


    The scientific articles and Indoor Air conference publications of the indoor air sciences (IAS) during the last 50 years are summarized. In total 7524 presentations, from 79 countries, have been made at Indoor Air conferences held between 1978 (49 presentations) and 2014 (1049 presentations). In the Web of Science, 26 992 articles on indoor air research (with the word "indoor" as a search term) have been found (as of 1 Jan 2016) of which 70% were published during the last 10 years. The modern scientific history started in the 1970s with a question: "did indoor air pose a threat to health as did outdoor air?" Soon it was recognized that indoor air is more important, from a health point of view, than outdoor air. Topics of concern were first radon, environmental tobacco smoke, and lung cancer, followed by volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and sick building syndrome, house dust-mites, asthma and allergies, Legionnaires disease, and other airborne infections. Later emerged dampness/mold-associated allergies and today's concern with "modern exposures-modern diseases." Ventilation, thermal comfort, indoor air chemistry, semi-volatile organic compounds, building simulation by computational fluid dynamics, and fine particulate matter are common topics today. From their beginning in Denmark and Sweden, then in the USA, the indoor air sciences now show increasing activity in East and Southeast Asia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Alchemy & algorithms: perspectives on the philosophy and history of open science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Lahti


    Full Text Available This paper gives the reader a chance to experience, or revisit, PHOS16: a conference on the History and Philosophy of Open Science. In the winter of 2016, we invited a varied international group to engage with these topics at the University of Helsinki, Finland. Our aim was a critical assessment of the defining features, underlying narratives, and overall objectives of the contemporary open science movement. The event brought together contemporary open science scholars, publishers, and advocates to discuss the philosophical foundations and historical roots of openness in academic research. The eight sessions combined historical views with more contemporary perspectives on topics such as transparency, reproducibility, collaboration, publishing, peer review, research ethics, as well as societal impact and engagement. We gathered together expert panelists and 15 invited speakers who have published extensively on these topics, which allowed us to engage in a thorough and multifaceted discussion. Together with our involved audience we charted the role and foundations of openness of research in our time, considered the accumulation and dissemination of scientific knowledge, and debated the various technical, legal, and ethical challenges of the past and present. In this article, we provide an overview of the topics covered at the conference as well as individual video interviews with each speaker. In addition to this, all the talks were recorded and they are offered here as an openly licensed community resource in both video and audio form.

  10. Further adventures of the celestial sleuth using astronomy to solve more mysteries in art, history, and literature

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, Donald W


    From the author of "Celestial Sleuth" (2014), yet more mysteries in art, history, and literature are solved by calculating phases of the Moon, determining the positions of the planets and stars, and identifying celestial objects in paintings. In addition to helping to crack difficult cases, these studies spark our imagination and provide a better understanding of the skies. Weather archives, vintage maps, tides, historical letters and diaries, military records and the assistance of experts in related fields help with this work. For each historical event influenced by astronomy, there is a different kind of mystery to be solved. How did the changing tides affect an army's battle plans? How did the phases of the moon affect how an artist painted a landscape? Follow these exciting investigations with a master “celestial sleuth” as he tracks down the truth and helps unravel mysteries as far back as the Middle Ages and as recent as the iconic 1945 photograph of a kiss in Times Square on VJ Day. Topics or "case...

  11. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P


    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  12. An Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Space Physics Course: Understanding the Process of Science Through One Field's Colorful History (United States)

    Lopez, Ramon E.


    Science education in this country is in its greatest period of ferment since the post-Sputnik frenzy a generation ago. In that earlier time, however, educators' emphasis was on producing more scientists and engineers. Today we recognize that all Americans need a good science background. The ability to observe, measure, think quantitatively, and reach logical conclusions based on available evidence is a set of skills that everyone entering the workforce needs to acquire if our country is to be competitive in a global economy. Moreover, as public policy increasingly crystallizes around scientific issues, it is critical that citizens be educated in science so that they may provide informed debate and on these issues. In order to develop this idea more fully, I proposed to teach a historically based course about space physics as an honors course at the University of Maryland-College Park (UMCP). The honors program at UMCP was established to foster broad-based undergraduate courses that utilize innovative teaching techniques to provide exemplary education to a select group of students. I designed an introductory course that would have four basic goals: to acquaint students with geomagnetic and auroral phenomena and their relationship to the space environment; to examine issues related to the history of science using the evolution of the field as an example; to develop familiarity with basic skills such as describing and interpreting observations, analyzing scientific papers, and communicating the results of their own research; and to provide some understanding of basic physics, especially those aspect that play a role in the near-earth space environment.

  13. The Rudolf Mössbauer story his scientific work and its impact on science and history

    CERN Document Server

    Kienle, Paul


    The “Rudolf Mössbauer Story” recounts the history of the discovery of the “Mössbauer Effect” in 1958 by Rudolf Mössbauer as a graduate student of Heinz Maier-Leibnitz for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1961 when he was 32 years old. The development of numerous applications of the Mössbauer Effect in many fields of sciences , such as physics, chemistry, biology and medicine is reviewed by experts who contributed to this wide spread research. In 1978 Mössbauer focused his research interest on a new field “Neutrino Oscillations” and later on the study of the properties of the neutrinos emitted by the sun.

  14. Soap, science, and flat-screen TVs a history of liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Dunmur, David


    The terms 'liquid crystal' or 'liquid crystal display' (LCD) are well-known in the context of flat-screen televisions, but the properties and history of liquid crystals are little understood. This book tells the story of liquid crystals, from their controversial discovery at the end of the nineteenth century, to their eventual acceptance as another state of matter to rank alongside gases, liquids and solids. As their story unfolds, the scientists involved and their works are put into illuminating broader socio-political contexts. In recent years, liquid crystals have had a major impact on the display industry, culminating in the now widely available flat-screen televisions; this development is described in detail over three chapters, and the basic science behind it is explained in simple terms accessible to a general reader. New applications of liquid crystals in materials, bio-systems, medicine and technology are also explained.

  15. History of the Fort Collins Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas J. (compiler)


    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Fort Collins Science Center ("the Center") has been a nucleus of research, technology development, and associated scientific activities within the Department of the Interior for more than 30 years. The Center’s historical activities are deeply rooted in federal biological resources research and its supporting disciplines, particularly as they relate to the needs of the U.S. Department of the Interior and its resource management agencies. The organizational framework and activities of the Center have changed and adapted over the years in response to shifts in the scientific issues and challenges facing the U.S. Department of the Interior and with the development of new strategies to meet these challenges. Thus, the history of the Center has been dynamic.

  16. Wolfgang Pauli - a portrait. History of science; Wolfgang Pauli - ein Portrait. Wissenschaftsgeschichte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, E.P.


    Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958) is named by his colleagues in the same breath with Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein, who named Pauli his ''mental son''. The history of science had neglected Pauli for a long time. The reason for this may be found in Pauli's attempts to capture the role of the unconscious in physics and the meaning of dreams in the creation of scientific pictures of the world. For Pauli a scientific method consisted in activating the unconscious and hoping that it would start up that specific type of ''painting viewing'' from which the terms can arise by which we express our understanding.

  17. Listmania. How lists can open up fresh possibilities for research in the history of science. (United States)

    Delbourgo, James; Müller-Wille, Staffan


    Anthropologists, linguists, cultural historians, and literary scholars have long emphasized the value of examining writing as a material practice and have often invoked the list as a paradigmatic example thereof. This Focus section explores how lists can open up fresh possibilities for research in the history of science. Drawing on examples from the early modern period, the contributors argue that attention to practices of list making reveals important relations between mercantile, administrative, and scientific attempts to organize the contents of the world. Early modern lists projected both spatial and temporal visions of nature: they inventoried objects in the process of exchange and collection; they projected possible trajectories for future endeavor; they publicized the social identities of scientific practitioners; and they became research tools that transformed understandings of the natural order.

  18. [Carlos Chagas Filho: an articulator of the history of sciences in Brazil]. (United States)

    Domingues, Heloisa Maria Bertol


    A letter sent in 1982 by a group of scientists to the president of Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico appealed for a policy of preservation of Brazilian scientific culture. The name of Carlos Chagas Filho topped the list of signatures thereby proving his commitment to that proposal, the ideological structure of which was part of his experience in scientific policy in Brazil and abroad. This document harks back to the practice of the history of the sciences in Brazil and the creation of places for the safeguard and organization of scientific memory, such as the Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins, Casa de Oswaldo Cruz and the Sociedade Brasileira de História da Ciência, of which Carlos Chagas Filho was an inaugural member of the board of directors.

  19. Psychical research in the history and philosophy of science. An introduction and review. (United States)

    Sommer, Andreas


    As a prelude to articles published in this special issue, I sketch changing historiographical conventions regarding the 'occult' in recent history of science and medicine scholarship. Next, a review of standard claims regarding psychical research and parapsychology in philosophical discussions of the demarcation problem reveals that these have tended to disregard basic primary sources and instead rely heavily on problematic popular accounts, simplistic notions of scientific practice, and outdated teleological historiographies of progress. I conclude by suggesting that rigorous and sensitively contextualized case studies of past elite heterodox scientists may be potentially useful to enrich historical and philosophical scholarship by highlighting epistemologies that have fallen through the crude meshes of triumphalist and postmodernist historiographical generalizations alike. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Montreal Protocol treaty and its illuminating history of science-policy decision-making (United States)

    Grady, C.


    The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, hailed as one of the most effective environmental treaties of all time, has a thirty year history of science-policy decision-making. The partnership between Parties to the Montreal Protocol and its technical assessment panels serve as a basis for understanding successes and evaluating stumbles of global environmental decision-making. Real-world environmental treaty negotiations can be highly time-sensitive, politically motivated, and resource constrained thus scientists and policymakers alike are often unable to confront the uncertainties associated with the multitude of choices. The science-policy relationship built within the framework of the Montreal Protocol has helped constrain uncertainty and inform policy decisions but has also highlighted the limitations of the use of scientific understanding in political decision-making. This talk will describe the evolution of the scientist-policymaker relationship over the history of the Montreal Protocol. Examples will illustrate how the Montreal Protocol's technical panels inform decisions of the country governments and will characterize different approaches pursued by different countries with a particular focus on the recently adopted Kigali Amendment. In addition, this talk will take a deeper dive with an analysis of the historic technical panel assessments on estimating financial resources necessary to enable compliance to the Montreal Protocol compared to the political financial decisions made through the Protocol's Multilateral Fund replenishment negotiation process. Finally, this talk will describe the useful lessons and challenges from these interactions and how they may be applicable in other environmental management frameworks across multiple scales under changing climatic conditions.

  1. A mixed state core for melancholia: an exploration in history, art and clinical science. (United States)

    Akiskal, H S; Akiskal, K K


    We argue for a mixed state core for melancholia comparing concepts of melancholia across centuries using examples from art, history and scientific literature. Literature reviews focusing on studies from Kraepelin onward, DSM-IV classification and view-points from clinical experience highlighting phenomenologic and biologic features as predictors of bipolar outcome in prospective studies of depression. Despite the implied chemical pathology in the term endogenous/melancholic depression, frequently reported glucocortical and sleep neurophysiologic abnormalities, there is little evidence that melancholia is inherited independently from more broadly defined depressions. Prospective follow-up of 'neurotic' depressions have shown melancholic outcomes in as many as a third; hypomania has also been observed in such follow-up. These findings and considerations overall do suggest that melancholia as defined today is more closely aligned with the depressive and/or mixed phase of bipolar disorder. Given the high suicidality from many of these patients the practice of treating them with antidepressant monotherapy needs re-evaluation.

  2. Marine Sciences: from natural history to ecology and back, on Darwin's shoulders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Boero


    Full Text Available The naturalist Charles Darwin founded modern ecology, considering in a single conceptual framework the manifold aspects regarding the organization of life at various levels of complexity and its relationship with the physical world. The development of powerful analytical tools led to abandon Darwin's natural history and to transform naturalists, as Darwin labelled himself, into the practitioners of more focused disciplines, aimed at tackling specific problems that considered the various aspects of the organization of life in great detail but, also, in isolation from each other. Among the various disciplines that stemmed from the Darwinian method, ecology was further split into many branches, and marine ecology was no exception. The compartmentalization of the marine realm into several sub-domains (e.g., plankton, benthos, nekton led to neglect of the connections linking the various parts that were separated for the ease of analyses that, in this way, prevented synthetic visions. The way marine sciences were studied also led to separate visions depending on the employed tools, so that ship-based biological oceanography developed almost separately from marine station-based marine biology. The necessity of putting together such concepts as biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is rapidly leading to synthetic approaches that re-discover the historical nature of ecology, leading to the dawn of a new natural history.

  3. Therapies for children with cerebral palsy A Web of Science-based literature analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaping Mu; Na Li; Lijun Guan; Chunnan Wang; Shuyun Shang; Yan Wang


    OBJECTIVE:To identify global research trends in three therapies for children with cerebral palsy.DATA RETRIEVAL:We performed a bibliometric analysis of studies on therapies for children with cerebral palsy from 2002 to 2011 retrieved from Web of Science.SELECTION CRITERIA:Inclusion criteria:(a)peer-reviewed published articles on botulinum toxin,constraint-induced movement therapy,or acupuncture for children with cerebral palsy indexed in Web of Science;(b)original research articles,reviews,meeting abstracts,proceedings papers,book chapters,editorial material,and news items;and(c)publication between 2002 and 2011.Exclusion criteria:(a)articles that required manual searching or telephone access;(b)documents that were not published in the public domain;and(c)a number of corrected papers from the total number of articles.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:(1)Number of publications on the three therapies;(2)annual publication output,distribution by journals,distribution by institution,and top-cited articles on botulinum toxin;(3)annual publication output,distribution by journal,distribution by institution,and top-cited articles on constraint-induced movement therapy;(4)annual publication,distribution by journal,distribution by institution,and top-cited articles on acupuncture.RESULTS:This analysis,based on Web of Science articles,identified several research trends in studies published over the past 10 years of three therapies for children with cerebral palsy.More articles on botulinum toxin for treating children with cerebral palsy were published than the articles regarding constraint-induced movement therapy or acupuncture.The numbers of publications increased over the 10-year study period.Most papers appeared in journals with a focus on neurology,such as Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology and Journal of Child Neurology.Research institutes publishing on botulinum toxin treatments for this population are mostly in the Netherlands,the United States of America,and Australia

  4. The Anthropocene : A Challenge for the History of Science, Technology, and the Environment. (United States)

    Trischler, Helmuth


    In 2000, when atmospheric chemist Paul J. Crutzen and limnologist Eugene F. Stoermer proposed to introduce a new geological era, the Anthropocene, they could not have foreseen the remarkable career of the new term. Within a few years, the geological community began to investigate the scientific evidence for the concept and established the Anthropocene Working Group. While the Working Group has started to examine possible markers and periodizations of the new epoch, scholars from numerous other disciplines have taken up the Anthropocene as a cultural concept. In addition, the media have developed a deep interest in the Anthropocene's broader societal ramifications. The article sheds light on the controversial debate about the Anthropocene and discusses its inextricably linked dual careers, first as a geological term and second as a cultural term. Third, it argues that the debate about the "Age of Humans" is a timely opportunity both to rethink the nature-culture relation and to re-assess the narratives that historians of science, technology, and the environment have written until now. Specifically, it examines both the heuristic and analytical power of the concept. It discusses new histories, new ideas to understand historical change, and new temporalities shaped by scholars who have taken up the challenge of the Anthropocene as a cultural concept that has the ability to question established stories and narratives. Fourth, it ends by stressing the potential of the Anthropocene concept to blur established epistemological boundaries and to stimulate cross-disciplinary collaborations between the sciences and the humanities.

  5. Linking Science and Language Arts: A Review of the Literature Which Compares Integrated versus Non-Integrated Approaches (United States)

    Bradbury, Leslie U.


    The purpose of this paper is to review the literature published during the last 20 years that investigates the impact of approaches that describe themselves as integrating science and language arts on student learning and/or attitude at the elementary level. The majority of papers report that integrated approaches led to greater student…

  6. Renaissance Science and Literature: Benedetti, Ovid and the Transformations of Phaeton's Myth after Copernicus (United States)

    Omodeo, Pietro Daniel


    This paper aims at showing the close ties between Renaissance literature and science as emerge from the use and the transformation, in a post-Copernican context, of the myth of Phaeton--according to Greek mythology: the boy who tried to conduct the chariot of the Sun and died in this attempt. G.B. Benedetti's analysis and criticism of…

  7. Identifying potential types of guidance for supporting student inquiry when using virtual and remote labs in science: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Manoli, Constantinos; Xenofontos, Nikoletta; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; Pedaste, Margus; van Riesen, Siswa; Kamp, E.T.; Kamp, Ellen T.; Mäeots, Mario; Siiman, Leo; Tsourlidaki, Eleftheria


    The aim of this review is to identify specific types of guidance for supporting student use of online labs, that is, virtual and remote labs, in an inquiry context. To do so, we reviewed the literature on providing guidance within computer supported inquiry learning (CoSIL) environments in science

  8. [Technostress in Communication and Technology Society: Scoping Literature Review from the Web of Science]. (United States)

    Cuervo Carabel, Tatiana; Orviz Martínez, Natalia; Arce García, Sergio; Fernández Suárez, Iván

    To perform a scoping review on the state of the art of technostress, an emerging risks associated with the growing use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in society. a scoping review on technostress at work was performed using the Web of Science (WoS), using the key term "technostress work". The search was completed with a literature review of the selected articles. A total of 58 articles were identified, of which 30 were selected for full-text in-depth review. The manual search of the bibliography allowed us to analyze an additional 14 articles. Most of articles focus on the analysis on the precipitating and alleviating factors of technostress in workers, as well as the main consequences of the materialization of this risk on worker performance. There is a lack of empirical studies that allow organizations to establish strategies to adequately manage technostress. there is a need to delve further into technostress through empirical studies that are not only focused on proposing theoretical models for its conceptualization or identifying its consequences in organizations, but on proposing management strategies that reduce the impact of this new labor reality. Future lines of research are proposed to understand and adequately manage technostress in workers. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  9. Th unnatural order of things: A history of the high school science sequence (United States)

    Robbins, Dennis M.

    Historical studies of US high school science education are rare. This study examines the historical origins of a unique characteristic of the secondary science curriculum, the Biology-Chemistry-Physics (B-C-P) order of courses. Statements from scientists, educators and the media claim that B-C-P has been the traditional curriculum sequence for over a century and can be traced back to the influential educational commission known as the Committee of Ten (CoT) of 1893. This study examines the history of the ordering of high school science subjects over the last 150 years. The reports and primary documents of important national educational commissions, such as the CoT, were searched for their recommendations on secondary science, particularly on course ordering. These recommendations were then compared to national, state and local statistical data on subject offerings and student enrollments to measure the effect of these national commissions on school policy. This study concludes that the Committee of Ten did not create B-P-C. The CoT made six recommendations, five placed Chemistry before Physics (P-C). One recommendation for C-P met with strong disagreement because it was thought an illogical order. Biology as a "uniform" course did not exist at this time and so the CoT made no recommendations for its grade placement. Statistical data shows that B-C-P evolved over many decades. From 1860 up to 1920 most schools used a P-C curriculum believing Physics was a foundational prerequisite of Chemistry. Biology was introduced in the early 1900s and it assumed a position before the physical sciences. Through the 1920s Chemistry and Physics were placed equally likely in 11th or 12 th grades and Biology was in the 10th grade. After World War II, B-C-P became the dominant pattern, exhibited in over 90% of schools. But up to this point in time no educational body or national commission had recommended B-C-P. The Biology-Chemistry-Physics order of courses is a product of many

  10. The History of Radio Astronomy and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory: Evolution Toward Big Science (United States)

    Malphrus, Benjamin Kevin


    The purpose of this study is to examine the sequence of events that led to the establishment of the NRAO, the construction and development of instrumentation and the contributions and discovery events and to relate the significance of these events to the evolution of the sciences of radio astronomy and cosmology. After an overview of the resources, a brief discussion of the early days of the science is given to set the stage for an examination of events that led to the establishment of the NRAO. The developmental and construction phases of the major instruments including the 85-foot Tatel telescope, the 300-foot telescope, the 140-foot telescope, and the Green Bank lnterferometer are examined. The technical evolution of these instruments is traced and their relevance to scientific programs and discovery events is discussed. The history is told in narrative format that is interspersed with technical and scientific explanations. Through the use of original data technical and scientific information of historical concern is provided to elucidate major developments and events. An interpretive discussion of selected programs, events and technological developments that epitomize the contributions of the NRAO to the science of radio astronomy is provided. Scientific programs conducted with the NRAO instruments that were significant to galactic and extragalactic astronomy are presented. NRAO research programs presented include continuum and source surveys, mapping, a high precision verification of general relativity, and SETI programs. Cosmic phenomena investigated in these programs include galactic and extragalactic HI and HII, emission nebula, supernova remnants, cosmic masers, giant molecular clouds, radio stars, normal and radio galaxies, and quasars. Modern NRAO instruments including the VLA and VLBA and their scientific programs are presented in the final chapter as well as plans for future NRAO instruments such as the GBT.

  11. Transformative practices in secondary school science classrooms: Life histories of Black South African teachers (United States)

    Jita, Loyiso Currell


    This study investigated the construction of teaching practices that are aimed at including all students in learning the key ideas of science and helping them to develop a voice for participating in the discourses in and outside of the science classroom. Such practices define what in this study is referred to as transformative practice. The study tells the stories of three Black secondary school teachers in South Africa who have worked to construct a transformative practice in their biology and physical science classrooms. Using a life history perspective, the study explored the relationships between teachers' identities and the changes in their classroom practices. Data were collected mainly through periodic interviews with the teachers and observations of their teaching practices over a period of 18 months. An important finding of the study was that the classroom practices of all three teachers were defined by three similar themes of: (1) "covering the content" and preparing their students to succeed in the national examinations, (2) developing deep conceptual understandings of the subject matter, and (3) including all students in their teaching by constructing what other researchers have called a "culturally-relevant" pedagogy. This finding was consistent despite the observed variations of context and personal histories. A major finding of this study on the question of the relationship between identity and teaching practice was that despite the importance of context, subject matter, material and social resources, another category of resources---the "resources of biography"---proved to be crucial for each of the teachers in crafting a transformative pedagogy. These "resources of biography" included such things as the teachers' own experiences of marginalization, the experiences of growing up or living in a particular culture, and the experiences of participating in certain kinds of social, political, religious or professional activities. The study suggests that it

  12. History, achievements, and future challenges of Japanse Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition (United States)

    Kosaki, Takashi


    established East and Southeast Asian Federation of Soil Science Societies (ESAFS) in 1991. Since the early 1990s the research topics have become more related to the global as well as regional environmental issues. Major achievements in the history of the society may include 1) development of research particularly on paddy soils and volcanic ash soils, 2) consistent commitment to the education for constructing sustainable society, and 3) international cooperation in improving rice production in the developing countries particularly in Tropical Asia. Today 2,699 members are registered in the society, which includes 9 divisions and holds an annual meeting every year. Two journals are bimonthly published, i.e. "Japanese Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition" in Japanese and "SSPN" in English and the latter was recognized as a cooperating journal of IUSS in 2010. Future challenges of the society are 1) more commitment to international organizations, e.g. EGU in addition to IUSS, ESAFS and other soil-based communities, 2) enhancement of international cooperation for developing countries not only in Asia but also Africa, and 3) acceleration of soils research and education in association with related disciplines for constructing a holistically harmonized society on the planet earth.

  13. Complementary Value of Databases for Discovery of Scholarly Literature: A User Survey of Online Searching for Publications in Art History (United States)

    Nemeth, Erik


    Discovery of academic literature through Web search engines challenges the traditional role of specialized research databases. Creation of literature outside academic presses and peer-reviewed publications expands the content for scholarly research within a particular field. The resulting body of literature raises the question of whether scholars…

  14. Inquiry-Based Science Education Competencies of Primary School Teachers: A literature study and critical review of the American National Science Education Standards (United States)

    Alake-Tuenter, Ester; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Tobi, Hilde; Wals, Arjen E. J.; Oosterheert, Ida; Mulder, Martin


    Inquiry-based science education is an important innovation. Researchers and teachers consider it to be stimulating for pupils' application of research skills, construction of meaning and acquiring scientific knowledge. However, there is ambiguity as to what competencies are required to teach inquiry-based science. Our purpose is to develop a profile of professional competence, required for effective inquiry-based science teaching in primary schools in the Netherlands. This article reviews literature and compares the outcomes to the American National Science Education Standards (NSES). In so doing, it seeks to answer the following research questions: What elements of competencies required by primary school teachers who teach inquiry-based science are mentioned, discussed and researched in recent literature? To what extent are the American NSES (introduced 15 years ago) consistent with elements of competencies found in recent literature? A comprehensive literature review was conducted using Educational Resources Information Centre and Google Scholar databases. Fifty-seven peer-reviewed scientific journal articles from 2004 to 2011 were found using keyword combinations. Analysis of these articles resulted in the identification and classification of 22 elements of competencies. This outcome was compared to the American NSES, revealing gaps in the standards with respect to a lack of focus on how teachers view science teaching and themselves as teachers. We also found that elements of competencies are connected and poor mastery of one may affect a teacher's mastery of another. Therefore, we propose that standards for the Netherlands should be presented in a non-linear, holistic, competence-based model.

  15. Integrating History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences in Practice to Enhance Science Education: Swammerdam's "Historia Insectorum Generalis" and the Case of the Water Flea (United States)

    Kendig, Catherine


    Hasok Chang ("Sci Educ" 20:317-341, 2011) shows how the recovery of past experimental knowledge, the physical replication of historical experiments, and the extension of recovered knowledge can increase scientific understanding. These activities can also play an important role in both science and history and philosophy of science…

  16. An integrative review of the literature on the teaching of the history of nursing in pre-registration adult nursing education in the UK. (United States)

    Kelly, Jacinta; Watson, Roger


    To present an integrative review of literature on the teaching of nursing history in pre-registration adult nursing education. Despite successive reconfigurations in healthcare systems and education policy, the teaching of the history of nursing remains contested in pre-registration curricula. Recent curriculum reviews acknowledge the need for systematic study of nursing education. To date in the UK, there has been no systematic review of the literature on the teaching of nursing history in pre-registration training programmes. An integrative review of the literature. A search of the electronic databases of CINAHL (1982-2013), HMIC (1979-2013), BNI (1994-2013) and MEDLINE (Pub Med) (1966-2013) was concluded in January 2014, using the keywords 'adult nursing', 'history' 'pre-registration', 'education' and 'teaching'. An integrative literature review was conducted. Identified titles and abstracts were screened separately by researchers for relevance and eligibility and papers were independently assessed for inclusion. Data were abstracted from included papers and quality evaluation of included papers was conducted. The papers were analysed and reported in a narrative synthesis. Twelve papers were selected for review. The majority of articles were discursive papers and there was a paucity of empirical reports. Content indicated concerns for teaching nursing history in regard to curriculum policy and methods of teaching and assessment. Substantial support exists for mandatory inclusion of the teaching of historical literacy in nursing centred on the themes of health and disease, hegemony, nursing work and image and ideology. Due to space and teaching expertise issues this could ideally be achieved through the use of nursing museum visits, the usefulness of which could be critically explored in future research. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Inquiry-based laboratory and History of Science: a report about an activity using Oersted’s experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Ferreira Pinto


    Full Text Available This work presents an example of how to explore an historical experiment as a problem to be investigated in an inquiry-based laboratory model. The elaborated and executed purpose is one of the possibilities to insert History of Science in Science classroom. The inquiry-based experimental activity, the texts with historical approach based on modern historiography of science and teacher’s pedagogical knowledge allowed the development of argumentative skills and the comprehension of electromagnetism concepts. This study was developed with 3rd grade high school students from a public school of State of Paraiba.

  18. [Beyond Weimar Culture--the significance of the Forman thesis for a cultural approach to the history of science]. (United States)

    Trischler, Helmuth; Carson, Cathryn; Kojevnikov, Alexei


    '"Forman thesis', published in 1971, argued for a historical linkage among the intellectual atmosphere of Weimar Germany, popular revolts against determinism and materialism, and the creation of the revolutionary new theory of quantum mechanics. Paul Forman's long essay on "Weimar Culture" has shaped research agendas in numerous fields, from the history and philosophy of physics to German history to the sociology of scientific knowledge. Despite its status as a classic and its transformative effect, Weimar Culture has always inspired as much critique as assent. In particular in the history of science, cohorts of students and two generations of scholars have debated the Forman thesis as a conceptual tool for linking scientific change with cultural processes. The Forman thesis raises critical questions for both the ongoing debates over cultural approaches to the history of science and the burgeoning newer scholarship on physics in and beyond Weimar Germany. Exploring these implications has been the aim of a transnational project of the three authors of this article which sheds some light on these debates and briefly introduces the following papers of this special issue devoted to Paul Forman and his seminal works in the history of science.

  19. Schools of California Online Resources for Education: History-Social Science One Stop Shopping for California's Social Studies Teachers. (United States)

    Hill, Margaret; Benoit, Robert


    Reviews the resources available for social studies teachers from the Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): History Social Science World Wide Web site. Includes curriculum-aligned resources and lessons; standards and assessment information; interactive projects and field trips; teacher chat area; professional development…

  20. The re-emergence of hyphenated history-and-philosophy-of-science and the testing of theories of scientific change. (United States)

    Laudan, Larry; Laudan, Rachel


    A basic premise of hyphenated history-and-philosophy-of-science is that theories of scientific change have to be based on empirical evidence derived from carefully constructed historical case studies. This paper analyses one such systematic attempt to test philosophical claims, describing its historical context, rationale, execution, and limited impact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects for English Language Learners (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana C., Ed.


    This volume in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English Language Learners series was designed to deepen teacher's knowledge and provides instructional approaches and practices for supporting grades 6-12 ELLs as they meet the ambitious expectations of the CCSS for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. This…

  2. Argumentation Tasks in Secondary English Language Arts, History, and Science: Variations in Instructional Focus and Inquiry Space (United States)

    Litman, Cindy; Greenleaf, Cynthia


    This study drew on observations of 40 secondary English language arts, history, and science lessons to describe variation in opportunities for students to engage in argumentation and possible implications for student engagement and learning. The authors focused their analysis on two broad dimensions of argumentation tasks: (1) "Instructional…

  3. Recognizing history in range ecology: 100 years of science and management on the Santa Rita Experimental Range (United States)

    Nathan F. Sayre


    At the centennial of the Santa Rita Experimental Range, historical analysis is called for on two levels. First, as a major site in the history of range ecology, the Santa Rita illuminates past successes and failures in science and management and the ways in which larger social, economic, and political factors have shaped scientific research. Second, with the turn away...

  4. Beyond the center: Sciences in Central and Eastern Europe and their histories. An interview with professor Michael Jordan conducted by Jan Surman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gordin


    Full Text Available What is special about sciences in Central and Eastern Europe? What are the obstacles for writing histories of science done beyond metropoles? Is this science different than the science in the centers and what makes it so? How imperial are sciences made by representatives of dominant nations compared to non-dominant nations? These are some of the questions touched upon in the interview with Michael Gordin, a leading historian of science from Princeton University.

  5. Science From Beyond: NASA's Pioneer Plaque and the History of Interstellar Communication, 1957- 1972 (United States)

    Macauley, William


    In the late twentieth century, science and technology facilitated exploration beyond the Solar System and extended human knowledge through messages comprised of pictures and mathematical symbols, transmitted from radio telescopes and inscribed on material artifacts attached to spacecraft. ‘Interstellar communication' refers to collective efforts by scientists and co-workers to detect and transmit intelligible messages between humans and supposed extraterrestrial intelligence in remote star systems. Interstellar messages are designed to communicate universal knowledge without recourse to text, human linguistic systems or anthropomorphic content because it is assumed that recipients have no prior knowledge of humankind or the planet we inhabit. Scientists must therefore imagine how extraterrestrials will relate to human knowledge and culture. The production and transmission of interstellar messages became interdisciplinary design problems that involved collaboration and exchange of ideas between scientists, visual artists, and others. My proposed paper will review sociocultural aspects of interstellar communication since the late 1950s and focus on key issues regarding conception, design and production of a specific interstellar message launched into space during the early 1970s - NASA's Pioneer plaque. The paper will explore how research on the history of interstellar communication relates to previous historical and sociological studies on rhetorical aspects of visual representation and mathematics in scientific practice. In particular, I will explain how the notion of ‘inscription' is an appropriate conceptual tool for analyzing how scientists have used pictures to articulate and validate knowledge claims and scientific facts. I argue that scientific knowledge carried on interstellar messages such as the Pioneer plaque is constituted in material practices and inscription technologies that translate natural objects, agency and culture into legible forms

  6. Twitter as a teaching tool in the Social Sciences faculties. A case study from the Economic History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Arturo López Zapico


    Full Text Available 0 0 1 127 701 USAL 5 1 827 14.0 Normal 0 21 false false false ES JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:ES; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The increasing use of social networking among university students ease the way for teachers to use these kinds of tools towards achieving the objectives set in the European Higher Education Area. In this sense, Twitter appears as a highly versatile learning tool that perfectly fits with the skill-based education approach, as evidenced by the literature. This paper describes the methodology, as well as, discusses the results of three experiments that took place during the 2011-2012 Academic Year at the School of Economics and Business of the University of Oviedo. Twitter was used during those experiments to debate the today’s economic crisis. The indicators obtained are used to conclude that microblogging services are a proper tool not only for teaching Economic History but also for doing so for any Social Sciences.

  7. Are you afraid of the dark? Notes on the psychology of belief in histories of science and the occult. (United States)

    Sommer, Andreas


    The popular view of the inherent conflict between science and the occult has been rendered obsolete by recent advances in the history of science. Yet, these historiographical revisions have gone unnoticed in the public understanding of science and public education at large. Particularly, reconstructions of the formation of modern psychology and its links to psychical research can show that the standard view of the latter as motivated by metaphysical bias fails to stand up to scrutiny. After highlighting certain basic methodological maxims shared by psychotherapists and historians, I will try to counterbalance simplistic claims of a 'need to believe' as a precondition of scientific open-mindedness regarding the occurrence of parapsychological phenomena by discussing instances revealing a presumably widespread 'will to disbelieve' in the occult. I shall argue that generalized psychological explanations are only helpful in our understanding of history if we apply them in a symmetrical manner.

  8. Are you afraid of the dark? Notes on the psychology of belief in histories of science and the occult (United States)

    Sommer, Andreas


    Abstract The popular view of the inherent conflict between science and the occult has been rendered obsolete by recent advances in the history of science. Yet, these historiographical revisions have gone unnoticed in the public understanding of science and public education at large. Particularly, reconstructions of the formation of modern psychology and its links to psychical research can show that the standard view of the latter as motivated by metaphysical bias fails to stand up to scrutiny. After highlighting certain basic methodological maxims shared by psychotherapists and historians, I will try to counterbalance simplistic claims of a ‘need to believe’ as a precondition of scientific open-mindedness regarding the occurrence of parapsychological phenomena by discussing instances revealing a presumably widespread ‘will to disbelieve’ in the occult. I shall argue that generalized psychological explanations are only helpful in our understanding of history if we apply them in a symmetrical manner. PMID:27226762

  9. Single-Case Research Methods: History and Suitability for a Psychological Science in Need of Alternatives. (United States)

    Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo; López-López, Wilson


    This paper presents a historical and conceptual analysis of a group of research strategies known as the Single-Case Methods (SCMs). First, we present an overview of the SCMs, their history, and their major proponents. We will argue that the philosophical roots of SCMs can be found in the ideas of authors who recognized the importance of understanding both the generality and individuality of psychological functioning. Second, we will discuss the influence that the natural sciences' attitude toward measurement and experimentation has had on SCMs. Although this influence can be traced back to the early days of experimental psychology, during which incipient forms of SCMs appeared, SCMs reached full development during the subsequent advent of Behavior Analysis (BA). Third, we will show that despite the success of SCMs in BA and other (mainly applied) disciplines, these designs are currently not prominent in psychology. More importantly, they have been neglected as a possible alternative to one of the mainstream approaches in psychology, the Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST), despite serious controversies about the limitations of this prevailing method. Our thesis throughout this section will be that SCMs should be considered as an alternative to NHST because many of the recommendations for improving the use of significance testing (Wilkinson & the TFSI, 1999) are main characteristics of SCMs. The paper finishes with a discussion of a number of the possible reasons why SCMs have been neglected.

  10. History of Science and Conceptual Change: The Formation of Shadows by Extended Light Sources (United States)

    Dedes, Christos; Ravanis, Konstantinos


    This study investigates the effectiveness of a teaching conflict procedure whose purpose was the transformation of the representations of 12-16-year-old pupils in Greece concerning light emission and shadow formation by extended light sources. The changes observed during the children’s effort to destabilize and reorganise their representations towards a model that was compatible with the respective scientific model were studied using three groups of pupils belonging to different age groups. The methodological plan implemented was based on input from the History of Science, while the parameters of the geometrical optics model were derived from Kepler’s relevant historic experiment. The effectiveness of the teaching procedure was evaluated 2 weeks after the intervention. The results showed that the majority of the subjects accepted the model of geometrical optics, i.e. the pupils were able to correctly predict and adequately justify the experimental results based on the principle of punctiform light emission. Educational and research implications are discussed.

  11. Neuroscience, neurohistory, and the history of science: a tale of two brain images. (United States)

    Fuller, Steve


    This essay introduces a Focus section on "Neurohistory and History of Science" by distinguishing images of the brain as governor and as transducer: the former treat the brain as the executive control center of the body, the latter as an interface between the organism and reality at large. Most of the consternation expressed in the symposium about the advent of neurohistory derives from the brain-as-governor conception, which is rooted in a "biologistic" understanding of humanity that in recent years has become bound up in various nefarious "neoliberal" political and economic agendas. However, given the sophisticated attitude that neurohistory's leading champion, Daniel Smail, displays toward evolutionary theory's potential impact on historical practice, he is perhaps better understood as part of the brain-as-transducer tradition. This tradition, largely suppressed in current representations of neuroscience, has a strong theological provenance, ultimately concerned with our becoming attuned to the divine frequency, not least by extending the powers of the human nervous system through technology. This essay sympathetically explores the implications of this perspective for historical practice.

  12. "To Feel at Home in the Wonderful World of Modern Science": New Chinese Historiography and Qing Intellectual History. (United States)

    Sela, Ori


    Argument In recent decades a large body of scholarship on the first half of twentieth-century China has successfully shown the ways in which history and historiography had been constructed at the time, as well as the links between history, national identity, education, and politics that was forged during this period. In this paper, I examine Qing intellectual history, in particular that of the mid or "High Qing." I discuss the development of the historiography of this field in the early twentieth century by drawing on the larger developments in historiography; by demonstrating how these developments had shaped Qing intellectual history for later times; by focusing on the historical actors' sense of the importance of "science," being "scientific," and "modernization"; and, by unraveling the intimate connections to older historiographical narratives going back all the way to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

  13. Working knowledges before and after circa 1800: practices and disciplines in the history of science, technology, and medicine. (United States)

    Pickstone, John V


    Historians of science, inasmuch as they are concerned with knowledges and practices rather than institutions, have tended of late to focus on case studies of common processes such as experiment and publication. In so doing, they tend to treat science as a single category, with various local instantiations. Or, alternatively, they relate cases to their specific local contexts. In neither approach do the cases or their contexts build easily into broader histories, reconstructing changing knowledge practices across time and space. This essay argues that by systematically deconstructing the practices of science and technology and medicine (STM) into common, recurrent elements, we can gain usefully "configurational" views, not just of particular cases and contexts but of synchronic variety and diachronic changes, both short term and long. To this end, we can begin with the customary actors' disciplines of early modern knowledge (natural philosophy, natural history, mixed mathematics, and experimental philosophy), which can be understood as elemental "ways of knowing and working," variously combined and disputed. I argue that these same working knowledges, together with a later mode-synthetic experimentation and systematic invention-may also serve for the analysis of STM from the late eighteenth century to the present. The old divisions continued explicitly and importantly after circa 1800, but they were also "built into" an array of new sciences. This historiographic analysis can help clarify a number of common problems: about the multiplicity of the sciences, the importance of various styles in science, and the relations between science and technology and medicine. It suggests new readings of major changes in STM, including the first and second scientific revolutions and the transformations of biomedicine from the later twentieth century. It offers ways of recasting both microhistories and macrohistories, so reducing the apparent distance between them. And it may thus

  14. Using children's literature to enhance views of nature of science and scientific attitude in fourth graders (United States)

    Hampton, Kathryn Walker

    This project was an effort to study the effect of integrating children's trade books into the fourth grade science curriculum on the students' views of the nature of science and their scientific attitude. The effect on the students' reading and language achievement, and science content knowledge was also analyzed. This was done by comparing the nature of science views and scientific attitudes, reading and language achievement scores, and the science grades of the treatment group, prior to and immediately following the intervention period, with the control group which did not participate in the integration of children's books. The science teacher's views on the nature of science and her attitude towards teaching science were also evaluated prior to and after the intervention. The selected trade books were evaluated for their coverage of nature of science aspects. Three intact classes of fourth grade students from a local elementary school were involved in the study along with their science and reading teacher. Two of the classes made up the experimental group and the remaining class served as the control group. All students were assessed prior to the intervention phase on their views of the nature of science and scientific attitudes. The experimental group was engaged in reading selected science trade books during their science class and study hall over a semester period. The results of the study showed a significant difference in the groups' initial reading and language achievement, which may have affected the lack of an effect from the intervention. The instrument selected to assess the student's views on the nature of science and scientific attitude (SAI II) was not reliable with this group. There was no significant difference on the students' science content knowledge as measured by their semester grade averages. The results from the teacher's response on the STAS II did indicate slight changes on her views on the nature of science. Sixty-nine of the eighty

  15. Update History of This Database - SSBD | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...List Contact us SSBD Update History of This Database Date Update contents 2016/07/25 SSBD English archive si...tion Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Update History of This Database - SSBD | LSDB Archive ... ...te is opened. 2013/09/03 SSBD ( ) is opened. About This Database Database Descrip

  16. Update History of This Database - SAHG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...List Contact us SAHG Update History of This Database Date Update contents 2016/05/09 SAHG English archive si...te is opened. 2009/10 SAHG ( ) is opened. About This Database Database Description ...Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Update History of This Database - SAHG | LSDB Archive ...

  17. Update History of This Database - DMPD | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

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  18. Update History of This Database - RMOS | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. The history of science as the progress of the human spirit: The historiography of astronomy in the eighteenth century. (United States)

    Špelda, Daniel


    In the eighteenth century, the historiography of astronomy was part of a wider discussion concerning the history of the human spirit. The concept of the human spirit was very popular among Enlightenment authors because it gave the history of human knowledge continuity, unity and meaning. Using this concept, scientists and historians of science such as Montucla, Lalande, Bailly and Laplace could present the history of astronomy in terms of a progress towards contemporary science that was slow and could be interrupted at times, but was still constant, regular, and necessary. In my paper I intend to explain how the originally philosophical concept of the human spirit was transferred to the history of astronomy. I also introduce the basic principles to which the development of the spirit is subject in astronomy, according to historians of astronomy. The third part of the paper describes how historians of astronomy took into account the effect of social and natural factors on the history of astronomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Update History of This Database - D-HaploDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us D-HaploDB Update History of This Database Date Update contents 2016/12/13 Description of the.../ is released. About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database... Site Policy | Contact Us Update History of This Database - D-HaploDB | LSDB Archive ...

  1. Update History of This Database - AT Atlas | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us AT Atlas Update History of This Database Date Update contents 2013/12/16 The email address i... ( ) is opened. About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Data...base Site Policy | Contact Us Update History of This Database - AT Atlas | LSDB Archive ...

  2. Referencing Science: Teaching Undergraduates to Identify, Validate, and Utilize Peer-Reviewed Online Literature (United States)

    Berzonsky, William A.; Richardson, Katherine D.


    Accessibility of online scientific literature continues to expand due to the advent of scholarly databases and search engines. Studies have shown that undergraduates favor using online scientific literature to address research questions, but they often do not have the skills to assess the validity of research articles. Undergraduates generally are…

  3. Motivating and Justifiable: Teaching Western Literature to EFL Students at a University of Science and Technology (United States)

    Su, Shao-Wen


    While literature-based instruction has been highly praised for its pedagogical benefits, it confronts entrenched learning hindrances, both linguistic and cultural in EFL settings. Whether the literature instruction in practice is motivating or demotivating is an issue worthy of concern. In response to the issue, this paper examines a literature…

  4. Pupils Produce their Own Narratives Inspired by the History of Science: Animation Movies Concerning the Geocentric-Heliocentric Debate (United States)

    Piliouras, Panagiotis; Siakas, Spyros; Seroglou, Fanny


    In this paper, we present the design and application of a teaching scenario appropriate for 12-years-old pupils in the primary school aiming to a better understanding of scientific concepts and scientific methods, linking the development of individual thinking with the development of scientific ideas and facilitating a better understanding of the nature of science. The design of the instructional material supporting this scenario has been based on the study of the history of astronomy and especially on: (a) The various theories concerning the movement of Earth, our solar system and the universe. (b) Key-stories highlighting the evolutionary character of scientific knowledge as well as the cultural interrelations of science and society. The design of the teaching scenario has focused on the participation of pupils in gradually evolving discourses and practices encouraging an appreciation of aspects of the nature of science (e.g. the role of observation and hypothesis, the use of evidence, the creation and modification of models). In this case, pupils are asked to produce their own narratives: animation movies concerning the geocentric-heliocentric debate inspired by the history of science, as the animation technique presents strong expressional potential and currently has many applications in the field of educational multimedia. The research design of this current case study has been based on the SHINE research model, while data coming from pupils' animation movies, questionnaires, interviews, worksheets, story-boards and drawings have been studied and analyzed using the GNOSIS research model. Elaborated data coming from our analysis approach reveal the appearance, transformation and evolution of aspects of nature of science appreciated by pupils and presented in their movies. Data analysis shows that during the application pupils gradually consider more and more the existence of multiple answers in scientific questions, appreciate the effect of culture on the way

  5. Youth Engagement through Science (YES!) - Engaging Underrepresented Minorities in Science through High School Internships at the National Museum of Natural History (United States)

    Robertson, G.; Cruz, E.; Selvans, M. M.


    The Smithsonian's Youth Engagement through Science (YES!) program at the National Museum of Natural History gives young people from the Washington, D.C. area the opportunity to engage in science out of school through 16-week internships. We will present the program's successful strategies and lessons learned around recruiting and engaging young people from underserved communities, and maintaining relationships that help to support their pursuit of STEM and other career paths. The YES! program connects Smithsonian collections, experts, and training with local DC youth from communities traditionally underrepresented in science careers. YES! is now in its fifth year and has directly served 122 students; demographics of alumni are 67% female, and 51% Latino, 31% African-American, 7% Asian, 5% Caucasian and 6% other. The program immerses students in science research by giving them the opportunity to work side-by-side with scientists and staff from the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Gardens, and National Zoo. In addition to working on a research project, students have college preparatory courses, are trained in science communication, and apply their skills by interacting with the public on the exhibit floor.

  6. Indigenous Knowledge, Science, and Resilience: What Have We Learned from a Decade of International Literature on "Integration"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Bohensky


    Full Text Available Despite the increasing trend worldwide of integrating indigenous and scientific knowledge in natural resource management, there has been little stock-taking of literature on lessons learned from bringing indigenous knowledge and science together and the implications for maintaining and building social-ecological system resilience. In this paper we investigate: (1 themes, questions, or problems encountered for integration of indigenous knowledge and science; (2 the relationship between knowledge integration and social-ecological system resilience; and (3 critical features of knowledge integration practice needed to foster productive and mutually beneficial relationships between indigenous knowledge and science. We examine these questions through content analyses of three special journal issues and an edited book published in the past decade on indigenous, local, and traditional knowledge and its interface with science. We identified broad themes in the literature related to: (1 similarities and differences between knowledge systems; (2 methods and processes of integration; (3 social contexts of integration; and (4 evaluation of knowledge. A minority of papers discuss a relationship between knowledge integration and social-ecological system resilience, but there remains a lack of clarity and empirical evidence for such a relationship that can help distinguish how indigenous knowledge and knowledge integration contribute most to resilience. Four critical features of knowledge integration are likely to enable a more productive and mutually beneficial relationship between indigenous and scientific knowledge: new frames for integration, greater cognizance of the social contexts of integration, expanded modes of knowledge evaluation, and involvement of inter-cultural "knowledge bridgers."

  7. The State of Design : A Comprehensive Literature Review to Chart the Design Science Research Discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thakurta, Rahul; Mueller, Benjamin; Ahlemann, Frederik; Hoffman, David

    Design science is an increasingly popular research paradigm in the information systems discipline. De- spite a recognition of the design science research par- adigm, questions are being raised about the nature of its existence and its contributions. Central to this ar- gument is the understanding of

  8. Information Literacy in Science Writing: How Students Find, Identify, and Use Scientific Literature (United States)

    Klucevsek, Kristin M.; Brungard, Allison B.


    For undergraduate students to achieve science literacy, they must first develop information literacy skils. These skills align with Information Literacy Standards and include determining appropriate databases, distinguishing among resource types, and citing resources ethically. To effectively improve information literacy and science literacy, we…

  9. Synthetic Literature : Writing Science Fiction in a Co-Creative Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manjavacas, Enrique; Karsdorp, F.B.; Burtenshaw, Ben; Kestemont, Mike

    This paper describes a co-creative text generation system applied within a science fiction setting to be used by an established novelist. The project was initiated as part of The Dutch Book Week, and the generated text will be published within a volume of science fiction stories. We explore the

  10. Far Out: Some Approaches to Teaching the Speculative Literature of Science Fiction and the Supernatural. (United States)

    Los Angeles City Schools, CA. Div. of Instructional Planning and Services.

    This curriculum guide contains course descriptions (for minicourses and semester-long courses), outlines, and class projects for teaching science fiction and the supernatural in junior and senior high schools. The eight course descriptions include objectives, methods, activities, and resources and materials. Lists of science fiction books and…

  11. A Mixed Methods Content Analysis of the Research Literature in Science Education (United States)

    Schram, Asta B.


    In recent years, more and more researchers in science education have been turning to the practice of combining qualitative and quantitative methods in the same study. This approach of using mixed methods creates possibilities to study the various issues that science educators encounter in more depth. In this content analysis, I evaluated 18…

  12. [Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and Bram Stoker's Dracula: gender and science in literature]. (United States)

    de La Rocque, L


    Throughout the ages, literary works have expressed fears and expectations generated by scientific discoveries and have portrayed images and myths about science itself. Several parameters can contribute to these representations of science, including the culture and social class to which the authors of these works belong. We also cannot deny the influence of gender, as due to the fact that the male sphere of action dominates science, male or female authoring can determine a peculiar characterization of the scientific world. In the present work, through a comparative analysis of two important literary works from the 19th century, Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley, and Dracula, by Bram Stoker, the issues concerning the view of science and their relation to gender are highlighted. While Shelley, as a woman, apart from the scientific world, reveals in Frankenstein all her distrust about it, Stoker, the model of a Victorian man, expresses in Dracula his total trust in science.

  13. Science and Its Images--Promise and Threat: From Classic Literature to Contemporary Students' Images of Science and "The Scientist" (United States)

    Koren, Pazit; Bar, Varda


    The physical and social image of the scientist among school children, student teachers, and teachers over the last 50 years was investigated. Interest has also been shown in the perception of the personality behind the physical stereotype. Nevertheless, the value judgments of science and scientists and the positive and negative mind-sets attaching…

  14. The art of translating nutritional science into dietary guidance: history and evolution of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. (United States)

    Watts, Mary Lee; Hager, Mary H; Toner, Cheryl D; Weber, Jennifer A


    The United States government has published official Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) since 1980 and has recently released the 2010 version. Serving as a foundational cornerstone for federal nutrition policy, the DGA embrace current nutritional science and translate it into practical guidance to enhance the overall health of Americans. This article reviews the history and process for developing the DGA, including the incorporation of sophisticated and systematic techniques for reviewing emerging evidence. It also explores issues related to implementation of the guidelines through federal policy, the food supply, and consumer knowledge and behavior. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  15. Just truth? Carefully applying history, philosophy and sociology of science to the forensic use of CCTV images. (United States)

    Edmond, Gary


    Using as a case study the forensic comparison of images for purposes of identification, this essay considers how the history, philosophy and sociology of science might help courts to improve their responses to scientific and technical forms of expert opinion evidence in ways that are more consistent with legal system goals and values. It places an emphasis on the need for more sophisticated models of science and expertise that are capable of helping judges to identify sufficiently reliable types of expert evidence and to reflexively incorporate the weakness of trial safeguards and personnel into their admissibility decision making. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Science cultivating practice : a history of agricultural science in the Netherlands and its colonies 1863-1986

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, H.


    The central argument of this thesis is that science and practice, as articulated in agricultural science in the Netherlands and its colonies, gradually broke apart. This process is visible in the organisation of agricultural research and education, as well as in the development of three

  17. A Mixed Methods Content Analysis of the Research Literature in Science Education (United States)

    Schram, Asta B.


    In recent years, more and more researchers in science education have been turning to the practice of combining qualitative and quantitative methods in the same study. This approach of using mixed methods creates possibilities to study the various issues that science educators encounter in more depth. In this content analysis, I evaluated 18 studies from science education journals as they relate to the definition, design, and overall practice of using mixed methods. I scrutinized a purposeful sample, derived from 3 journals (the International Journal of Science Education, the Journal of Research in Science Teaching, and the Research in Science Education) in terms of the type of data collected, timing, priority, design, the mixing of the 2 data strands in the studies, and the justifications authors provide for using mixed methods. Furthermore, the articles were evaluated in terms of how well they met contemporary definitions for mixed methods research. The studies varied considerably in the use and understanding of mixed methods. A systematic evaluation of the employment of mixed methods methodology was used to identify the studies that best reflected contemporary definitions. A comparison to earlier content analyses of mixed methods research indicates that researchers' knowledge of mixed methods methodology may be increasing. The use of this strategy in science education research calls, however, for an improved methodology, especially concerning the practice of mixing. Suggestions are given on how to best use this approach.

  18. How the “Queen Science” Lost Her Crown: A Brief Social History of Science Fairs and the Marginalization of Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Marx


    Full Text Available Science fairs at one time started out with an interest of increasing participation in the sciences. But as time has passed, the definition of science has been narrowed to the point where any possible social science project has been eliminated in favor of the bench sciences only. Even here, natural curiosity of students has been deemphasized. It is not surprising that science majors in the USA are becoming fewer and fewer given the narrowing of the disciplines. Young people are discouraged from majoring in science by the science establishment.

  19. Literature review : Use of family history for primary paediatric care as the next step towards use of genomics in healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syurina, Elena V.; Hens, Kristien; Feron, Frans J M


    Introduction: Many childhood-onset diseases and developmental disorders have a strong genetic basis. However, up till now, the knowledge of this genetic component within multifactorial diseases is not frequently used in paediatric practice. A good family history collection can facilitate the link

  20. Inside School Lives: Historiographical Perspectives and Case Studies. Teachers’ Memories Preserved at the Centre for Documentation and Research on the History of Schoolbooks and Children’s Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ascenzi


    Full Text Available This work focuses on teachers’ memories and intend to dwell on the heuristic potential of this source category, comparing it with the traditional sources of theoretical-regulatory and educational type. After a presentation on the state of art of historical and historical-educational studies on teachers’ memories, it will offer an overview of the different kinds of memories preserved in the centres of documentation and research of historical and educational interest, examining the books and documentary heritage of the Centre for documentation and research on the history of schoolbooks and children’s literature of Macerata University. Finally, through the analysis of a case study, the Memorie (Memoirs of the teacher and pedagogist Lorenzo Bettini (1855-1917, we will offer an exemplification of a possible integrated use of sources, for a plural reconstruction of teachers’ history. How to reference this article Ascenzi, A., & Patrizi, E. (2016. Inside School Lives: Historiographical Perspectives and Case Studies. Teachers’ Memories Preserved at the Centre for Documentation and Research on the History of Schoolbooks and Children’s Literature. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 3(1, 343-362. doi: