WorldWideScience

Sample records for science health effects

  1. Effect of Federal programs on health sciences libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, R A

    1987-01-01

    The radical changes and improvements in health sciences libraries during the last quarter century have been primarily achieved through the leadership of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) in the application of technology and in the creation of a biomedical communications network. This article describes principal programs and activities of the National Library of Medicine and their effects on health sciences libraries: the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS), implementation of the Medical Library Assistance Act (MLAA), and defense of "fair use" of copyrighted material. The article briefly summarizes more recent Federal activities which directly affect access to and dissemination of health information and concludes with a summary of problems for which solutions must be found if health sciences libraries are to be prepared to meet the future. It is clear from comparing the programs described with current government attitudes that, although the Federal government has promoted advancement in the dissemination of biomedical information in the past, this trend is reversing, and Federal funding to libraries is decreasing while the cost of accessing information is increasing.

  2. Health Effects of Climate Change | Science Inventory | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathy Sykes provided a general overview of the health effects and the Clean Power Plan expected health benefits while Wayne Cascio discussed the health effects of wildland fires. The Surgeon General requested that the National Prevention representatives from EPA, Kathy Sykes and Wayne Cascio, provide a presentation on the health effects of climate change.

  3. Effect of posture on swallowing | Alghadir | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 17, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web ...

  4. Blood-borne biomarkers and bioindicators for linking exposure to health effects in environmental health science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, M Ariel Geer; Kormos, Tzipporah M; Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health science aims to link environmental pollution sources to adverse health outcomes to develop effective exposure intervention strategies that reduce long-term disease risks. Over the past few decades, the public health community recognized that health risk is driven by interaction between the human genome and external environment. Now that the human genetic code has been sequenced, establishing this "G × E" (gene-environment) interaction requires a similar effort to decode the human exposome, which is the accumulation of an individual's environmental exposures and metabolic responses throughout the person's lifetime. The exposome is composed of endogenous and exogenous chemicals, many of which are measurable as biomarkers in blood, breath, and urine. Exposure to pollutants is assessed by analyzing biofluids for the pollutant itself or its metabolic products. New methods are being developed to use a subset of biomarkers, termed bioindicators, to demonstrate biological changes indicative of future adverse health effects. Typically, environmental biomarkers are assessed using noninvasive (excreted) media, such as breath and urine. Blood is often avoided for biomonitoring due to practical reasons such as medical personnel, infectious waste, or clinical setting, despite the fact that blood represents the central compartment that interacts with every living cell and is the most relevant biofluid for certain applications and analyses. The aims of this study were to (1) review the current use of blood samples in environmental health research, (2) briefly contrast blood with other biological media, and (3) propose additional applications for blood analysis in human exposure research.

  5. African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences is an open access, free online, internationally refereed journal publishing original articles on research, clinical practice, public health, policy, planning, implementation and evaluation, in the health and related sciences relevant to Africa and the tropics. African Health Sciences acknowledges support ...

  6. Effectiveness of Various Innovative Learning Methods in Health Science Classrooms: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaian, Sema A.; Kasim, Rafa M.

    2017-01-01

    This study reports the results of a meta-analysis of the available literature on the effectiveness of various forms of innovative small-group learning methods on student achievement in undergraduate college health science classrooms. The results of the analysis revealed that most of the primary studies supported the effectiveness of the…

  7. Effect of posture on swallowing | Alghadir | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Swallowing is a systematic process. Any structural, physiological or neurological disturbance in this process may cause dysphagia. Although there are studies that report head/neck movements during mastication, there are fewer studies that show the effect of different head/neck postures on difficulty while ...

  8. Archives: African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 67 ... Archives: African Health Sciences. Journal Home > Archives: African Health Sciences. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 50 of 67 Items, 1 2 > >> ...

  9. Effectiveness of various innovative learning methods in health science classrooms: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaian, Sema A; Kasim, Rafa M

    2017-12-01

    This study reports the results of a meta-analysis of the available literature on the effectiveness of various forms of innovative small-group learning methods on student achievement in undergraduate college health science classrooms. The results of the analysis revealed that most of the primary studies supported the effectiveness of the small-group learning methods in improving students' academic achievement with an overall weighted average effect-size of 0.59 in standard deviation units favoring small-group learning methods. The subgroup analysis showed that the various forms of innovative and reform-based small-group learning interventions appeared to be significantly more effective for students in higher levels of college classes (sophomore, junior, and senior levels), students in other countries (non-U.S.) worldwide, students in groups of four or less, and students who choose their own group. The random-effects meta-regression results revealed that the effect sizes were influenced significantly by the instructional duration of the primary studies. This means that studies with longer hours of instruction yielded higher effect sizes and on average every 1 h increase in instruction, the predicted increase in effect size was 0.009 standard deviation units, which is considered as a small effect. These results may help health science and nursing educators by providing guidance in identifying the conditions under which various forms of innovative small-group learning pedagogies are collectively more effective than the traditional lecture-based teaching instruction.

  10. Facebook use and its effects on the life of health science students in a private medical college of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Rajesh Kumar; Shah, Dev Kumar; Basnet, Sangharshila; Paudel, Keshab Raj; Sah, Phoolgen; Sah, Ajit Kumar; Adhikari, Kishor

    2016-01-01

    Background Facebook, a popular social networking site, has been used by people of different ages and professions for various purposes. Its use in the field of medical education is increasing dramatically. At the same time, the pros and cons of facebook use among the health science students has attracted the attention of educators. The data regarding its use and the effect on the life of Nepalese health science students has not yet been documented. Therefore, this study is carried out to evalu...

  11. Rwanda Journal of Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Rwanda Journal of Health Sciences, a publication of Kigali Health Institute, publishes original research, short communications, and review articles on current topics of special interest and relevance in various health related fields including public health, allied health sciences, nursing, environmental health, nutrition, ...

  12. The effect of e-health contents on health science students' attitude toward the efficiency of health ICT in care provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Mary K; Amon, Krestina L; Nguyen, Melanie; Campbell, Andrew J; Neville, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of e-health education content on the attitude of undergraduate health science students towards the efficiency of health ICT in healthcare provision. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Participants were Health Sciences students attending The University of Sydney. Students were divided into three groups: junior students enrolled in a subject with non e-health content; senior students enrolled in a subject with non e-health content; and students enrolled in a subject with e-health content. Students' attitude towards the efficiency of ICT in healthcare provision was measured by a modified version of the Information Technology Attitude Scales for Health (ITASH). Students enrolled in the subject with e-health content had a significantly higher average baseline attitude score than the other two groups (T198=-3.47, p=0.001; T93=-2.43, p=0.017). The repeat measures analysis yielded a result with significant interaction between survey time and student group (F2, 267=4.99, p=0.007) suggesting that changes of score was dependent on student group status. Subjects rich in e-health content significantly enhanced student attitudes, even with a group of students with a rather positive initial attitude. To facilitate the uptake and utilisation of health ICT by the future health workforce, it is important for tertiary educational institutes to provide students with sufficient exposure to specific health-related ICT training, via specifically designed subjects delivering both generic and specific e-health content.

  13. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences is a general health science journal addressing clinical medicine, public health and biomedical sciences. In rare instances, it covers veterinary medicine. Other websites related to this journal: http://www.ejhs.ju.edu.et/index.php ...

  14. The effectiveness of virtual and augmented reality in health sciences and medical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Christian; Štromberga, Zane; Raikos, Athanasios; Stirling, Allan

    2017-11-01

    Although cadavers constitute the gold standard for teaching anatomy to medical and health science students, there are substantial financial, ethical, and supervisory constraints on their use. In addition, although anatomy remains one of the fundamental areas of medical education, universities have decreased the hours allocated to teaching gross anatomy in favor of applied clinical work. The release of virtual (VR) and augmented reality (AR) devices allows learning to occur through hands-on immersive experiences. The aim of this research was to assess whether learning structural anatomy utilizing VR or AR is as effective as tablet-based (TB) applications, and whether these modes allowed enhanced student learning, engagement and performance. Participants (n = 59) were randomly allocated to one of the three learning modes: VR, AR, or TB and completed a lesson on skull anatomy, after which they completed an anatomical knowledge assessment. Student perceptions of each learning mode and any adverse effects experienced were recorded. No significant differences were found between mean assessment scores in VR, AR, or TB. During the lessons however, VR participants were more likely to exhibit adverse effects such as headaches (25% in VR P increased learner immersion and engagement. These outcomes show great promise for the effective use of virtual and augmented reality as means to supplement lesson content in anatomical education. Anat Sci Educ 10: 549-559. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. The Effectiveness of Virtual and Augmented Reality in Health Sciences and Medical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Christian; Štromberga, Zane; Raikos, Athanasios; Stirling, Allan

    Although cadavers constitute the gold standard for teaching anatomy to medical and health science students, there are substantial financial, ethical, and supervisory constraints on their use. In addition, although anatomy remains one of the fundamental areas of medical education, universities have decreased the hours allocated to teaching gross…

  16. The Effectiveness of Virtual and Augmented Reality in Health Sciences and Medical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Christian; Štromberga, Zane; Raikos, Athanasios; Stirling, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Although cadavers constitute the gold standard for teaching anatomy to medical and health science students, there are substantial financial, ethical, and supervisory constraints on their use. In addition, although anatomy remains one of the fundamental areas of medical education, universities have decreased the hours allocated to teaching gross…

  17. African Health Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The African Health Sciences is an internationally refereed journal publishing original articles on research, clinical practice, public health, policy, planning, implementation and evaluation, in the health and related sciences relevant to Africa and the tropics. Its objectives are to: Advocate for and promote the ...

  18. Center for Environmental Health Sciences

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The primary research objective of the Center for Environmental Health Sciences (CEHS) at the University of Montana is to advance knowledge of environmental impacts...

  19. Tropical Journal of Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tropical Journal of Health Sciences (TJHS) is an international journal which provides a forum for exchange of ideas to those engaged in work in the Health Sciences and related fields. The journal intends to publish high quality papers on original research, case reports, short communications, commentary, review ...

  20. Research Journal of Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Research Journal of Health Sciences is dedicated to promoting high quality research work in the field of health and related biological sciences. It aligns with the mission of the Osun State University, which is “to create a unique institution, committed to the pursuit of academic innovation, skills-based training and a ...

  1. Citizen Science for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Broeder, Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Van Oers, Hans; Schuit, A Jantine; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2016-12-23

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in knowledge production could enable inclusive health policy making. Building on non-health work fields, we describe different types of citizen engagement in scientific research, or 'Citizen Science'. We describe the challenges that Citizen Science poses for public health, and how these could be addressed. Despite these challenges, we expect that Citizen Science or similar approaches such as participatory action research and 'popular epidemiology' may yield better knowledge, empowered communities, and improved community health. We provide a draft framework to enable evaluation of Citizen Science in practice, consisting of a descriptive typology of different kinds of Citizen Science and a causal framework that shows how Citizen Science in public health might benefit both the knowledge produced as well as the 'Citizen Scientists' as active participants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Facebook use and its effects on the life of health science students in a private medical college of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Rajesh Kumar; Shah, Dev Kumar; Basnet, Sangharshila; Paudel, Keshab Raj; Sah, Phoolgen; Sah, Ajit Kumar; Adhikari, Kishor

    2016-08-02

    Facebook, a popular social networking site, has been used by people of different ages and professions for various purposes. Its use in the field of medical education is increasing dramatically. At the same time, the pros and cons of facebook use among the health science students has attracted the attention of educators. The data regarding its use and the effect on the life of Nepalese health science students has not yet been documented. Therefore, this study is carried out to evaluate the effect of facebook use on social interactions, behaviour, academics, and the health of students in a medical college of Nepal. A cross-sectional descriptive study conducted among medical, dental, nursing and allied health science students using self-administered questionnaire. The study showed that 98.2 % of participants were facebook users. Among 452 respondents, 224 and 228 were male and female respectively, with a mean age of 20.2 ± 1.2 years. The main reason for using facebook was to remain in contact with family and friend (32 %), while its use for the academic purpose was only 5 %. However, 80.8 % of students acknowledged ease in acquiring academic materials from others, through facebook. One-fourth of the students acknowledged that they are using facebook late at night on a regular basis, while surprisingly 4.2 % of the students admitted accessing facebook during the classroom lectures. Almost two-third of the users, further admitted that facebook has had a negative impact on their studies. Burning eyes (21 %), disturbed sleep (19 %), and headache (16 %) were the most common adverse health effects reported by the facebook users. Many students (71.4 %) tried and most of them (68.7 %) succeeded, in reducing time spent on facebook, to allow for increased time devoted to their studies. The widespread use of facebook among the health science students, was found to have both positive and negative effects on their academics, social life, and health.

  3. The effect of life skills education on the mental health of First year student in Ilam university of medical science in 2013 year

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L Naseri; Y Azizpour; MR Saiedy; M Rahmani; K Syaehmiri

    2015-01-01

    .... The deals with these changes require psycho-social abilities. In the present paper it had been reviewed the effect of educating life skills on the mental health of students of Ilam University of medical sciences. Methods...

  4. The Effectiveness of Training Islamic Meaning the Students’ Accountability in School of Paramedical & Health in Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hakimzadeh Ardakani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to limited studies on educational interventions and its effect on accountability, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Islamic meaning on the students’ accountability in School of Paramedical & Health in Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services. Methods: This is an interventional study with pre-test/post-test design conducted by a control group. 30 students of School of Paramedical & Health in Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services in 2015-2016 entered the study who were selected via multistage cluster sampling and divided randomly to two groups experimental (n = 15 and control (n = 15. Data collection was administered by the students' accountability questionnaire before the education as a pre-test to both experimental and control groups. Islamic meaning training course was prepared based on the Quran and was performed in 8 sessions for experimental groups. Finally, post-test was performed for both groups and data were analyzed by using statistical methods, multivariate analysis of covariance. Results: At baseline, the mean scores of experimental and control groups, no significant difference was observed responsibility, but after applying the independent variable, no notceable or significant difference was considerable. In other words, the Islamic meaning education cuase increase accountability in students of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services. Conclusion: as regards in this study, the Islamic meaning education promoted the students' accountability, therefore it seems this type of training can be a way of promoting self-esteem and thereby increasing the students' accountability.

  5. African Health Sciences: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · Journals · African Health Sciences · About · Log In · Register · Advanced Search · By Author · By Title. Issues. Current Issue · Archives · Open Journal Systems · Help. ISSN: 1680-6905. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  6. Marketing the Health Sciences Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, O. Gene

    The basic activities of marketing are discussed, including gathering information and determining needs, designing a program around the elements of the marketing mix, and managing the marketing program. Following a general discussion, applications of the marketing concepts to a health sciences library are described. The administrator of the health…

  7. A restatement of the natural science evidence base concerning the health effects of low-level ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Angela R; Adlen, Ella K; Cardis, Elisabeth; Elliott, Alex; Goodhead, Dudley T; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats; Hendry, Jolyon H; Hoskin, Peter; Jeggo, Penny A; Mackay, David J C; Muirhead, Colin R; Shepherd, John; Shore, Roy E; Thomas, Geraldine A; Wakeford, Richard; Godfray, H Charles J

    2017-09-13

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is ubiquitous, and it is well established that moderate and high doses cause ill-health and can be lethal. The health effects of low doses or low dose-rates of ionizing radiation are not so clear. This paper describes a project which sets out to summarize, as a restatement, the natural science evidence base concerning the human health effects of exposure to low-level ionizing radiation. A novel feature, compared to other reviews, is that a series of statements are listed and categorized according to the nature and strength of the evidence that underpins them. The purpose of this restatement is to provide a concise entrée into this vibrant field, pointing the interested reader deeper into the literature when more detail is needed. It is not our purpose to reach conclusions on whether the legal limits on radiation exposures are too high, too low or just right. Our aim is to provide an introduction so that non-specialist individuals in this area (be they policy-makers, disputers of policy, health professionals or students) have a straightforward place to start. The summary restatement of the evidence and an extensively annotated bibliography are provided as appendices in the electronic supplementary material. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. How behavioral science can advance digital health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoto, Sherry; Bennett, Gary G

    2013-09-01

    The field of behavioral science has produced myriad data on health behavior change strategies and leveraged such data into effective human-delivered interventions to improve health. Unfortunately, the impact of traditional health behavior change interventions has been heavily constrained by patient and provider burden, limited ability to measure and intervene upon behavior in real time, variable adherence, low rates of implementation, and poor third-party coverage. Digital health technologies, including mobile phones, sensors, and online social networks, by being available in real time, are being explored as tools to increase our understanding of health behavior and to enhance the impact of behavioral interventions. The recent explosion of industry attention to the development of novel health technologies is exciting but has far outpaced research. This Special Section of Translational Behavioral Medicine, Smartphones, Sensors, and Social Networks: A New Age of Health Behavior Change features a collection of studies that leverage health technologies to measure, change, and/or understand health behavior. We propose five key areas in which behavioral science can improve the impact of digital health technologies on public health. First, research is needed to identify which health technologies actually impact behavior and health outcomes. Second, we need to understand how online social networks can be leveraged to impact health behavior on a large scale. Third, a team science approach is needed in the developmental process of health technologies. Fourth, behavioral scientists should identify how a balance can be struck between the fast pace of innovation and the much slower pace of research. Fifth, behavioral scientists have an integral role in informing the development of health technologies and facilitating the movement of health technologies into the healthcare system.

  9. Twitter and Health Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    Twitter is a communication platform that can be used to conduct health science research, but a full understanding of its use remains unclear. The purpose of this narrative literature review was to examine how Twitter is currently being used to conduct research in the health sciences and to consider how it might be used in the future. A time-limited search of the health-related research was conducted, which resulted in 31 peer-reviewed articles for review. Information relating to how Twitter is being used to conduct research was extracted and categorized, and an explanatory narrative was developed. To date, Twitter is largely being used to conduct large-scale studies, but this research is complicated by challenges relating to collecting and analyzing big data. Conversely, the use of Twitter to conduct small-scale investigations appears to be relatively unexplored. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    health science is to contribute scientific information to environmental, natural resource, agricultural, and public-health managers, who use that science to support sound decision making. USGS provides the science to: * Goal 1: Identify, prioritize, and detect contaminants and pathogens of emerging environmental concern. * Goal 2: Reduce the impact of contaminants on the environment, fish, wildlife, and people. * Goal 3: Reduce the impact of pathogens on the environment, fish, wildlife, and people. * Goal 4: Discover the complex interactions and combined effects of exposure to contaminants and pathogens. * Goal 5: Prepare for and respond to environmental impacts and related health threats of natural and anthropogenic disasters. Goals 1 through 4 are intended to provide science to address environmental health threats in a logical order, from informing prevention and preparedness, to supporting systematic management response to environmental health issues. Goal 4 addresses the interaction among contaminants and pathogens, an issue of emerging concern in environmental health science. Goal 5 acknowledges the fact that natural and anthropogenic disasters can cause immediate and prolonged adverse environmental health threats. This strategy proposes that USGS take the following strategic science actions to achieve each of the five goals of this strategy: Goal 1: Identify, prioritize, and detect contaminants and pathogens of emerging environmental concern. * Strategic Science Action 1. - Prioritize contaminants and pathogens of emerging concern to guide research, detection, and management activities. * Strategic Science Action 2. - Conduct surveillance and monitoring to provide early warning of emerging health threats. * Strategic Science Action 3. - Develop approaches and tools that identify vulnerable environmental settings, ecosystems, and species. Goal 2: Reduce the impact of contaminants on the environment, fish, wildlife, and people. * Strategic Science Action 1

  11. The effect of DOCLINE on interlibrary loan volume and patterns among health sciences libraries in Michigan: preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaugh, D L

    1990-04-01

    Six years of statistics on interlibrary lending and borrowing among basic unit health sciences libraries in Michigan are examined to determine the effect of the availability of an automated interlibrary loan system, DOCLINE, on interlibrary lending volume and patterns within Michigan. A trend analysis projection of expected volume is made and the predicted value compared with the actual value following the adoption of the DOCLINE system. Interlibrary loan (ILL) volume is tested to see if yearly volume increases are statistically significant. The number of libraries changing from net lender to net borrower or the reverse after the adoption of DOCLINE is tracked. Results fail to support the expectation that DOCLINE would produce major change in ILL volume or pattern.

  12. Current state of the science: health effects and indoor environmental quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Clifford S; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2007-01-01

    Our understanding of the relationship between human health and the indoor environment continues to evolve. Previous research on health and indoor environments has tended to concentrate on discrete pollutant sources and exposures and on specific disease processes. Recently, efforts have been made...... environments. Advances in source characterization include a better understanding of how chemicals are transported and processed within spaces and the role that other factors such as lighting and building design may play in determining health. Efforts are under way to improve our ability to measure exposures...

  13. Rwanda Journal of Health Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Rwanda Journal of Health Sciences, a publication of Kigali Health Institute publishes original research, short communications, and review articles on current topics of special interest and relevance in various health related fields including public health, allied health sciences, nursing, environmental ...

  14. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences is a general health science journal addressing clinical medicine, public health and biomedical sciences. Rarely, it covers veterinary medicine. .... AJPP also helped EJHS partner with Annals of Internal Medicine published by American College of Physicians. In 2009 ...

  15. Population Health Science: A Core Element of Health Science Education in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Robert A; Engmann, Natalie J; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Amarsi, Yasmin; Macharia, William M; Macfarlane, Sarah B; Ngugi, Anthony K; Rabbani, Fauziah; Walraven, Gijs; Armstrong, Robert W

    2017-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa suffers an inordinate burden of disease and does not have the numbers of suitably trained health care workers to address this challenge. New concepts in health sciences education are needed to offer alternatives to current training approaches.A perspective of integrated training in population health for undergraduate medical and nursing education is advanced, rather than continuing to take separate approaches for clinical and public health education. Population health science educates students in the social and environmental origins of disease, thus complementing disease-specific training and providing opportunities for learners to take the perspective of the community as a critical part of their education.Many of the recent initiatives in health science education in sub-Saharan Africa are reviewed, and two case studies of innovative change in undergraduate medical education are presented that begin to incorporate such population health thinking. The focus is on East Africa, one of the most rapidly growing economies in sub-Saharan Africa where opportunities for change in health science education are opening. The authors conclude that a focus on population health is a timely and effective way for enhancing training of health care professionals to reduce the burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa.

  16. Social Science Collaboration with Environmental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Elizabeth; Renauld, Mia; Edelstein, Michael R; Brown, Phil

    2015-11-01

    Social science research has been central in documenting and analyzing community discovery of environmental exposure and consequential processes. Collaboration with environmental health science through team projects has advanced and improved our understanding of environmental health and justice. We sought to identify diverse methods and topics in which social scientists have expanded environmental health understandings at multiple levels, to examine how transdisciplinary environmental health research fosters better science, and to learn how these partnerships have been able to flourish because of the support from National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). We analyzed various types of social science research to investigate how social science contributes to environmental health. We also examined NIEHS programs that foster social science. In addition, we developed a case study of a community-based participation research project in Akwesasne in order to demonstrate how social science has enhanced environmental health science. Social science has informed environmental health science through ethnographic studies of contaminated communities, analysis of spatial distribution of environmental injustice, psychological experience of contamination, social construction of risk and risk perception, and social impacts of disasters. Social science-environmental health team science has altered the way scientists traditionally explore exposure by pressing for cumulative exposure approaches and providing research data for policy applications. A transdisciplinary approach for environmental health practice has emerged that engages the social sciences to paint a full picture of the consequences of contamination so that policy makers, regulators, public health officials, and other stakeholders can better ameliorate impacts and prevent future exposure. Hoover E, Renauld M, Edelstein MR, Brown P. 2015. Social science collaboration with environmental health. Environ Health

  17. Presenting Food Science Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Carl K.

    2016-01-01

    While the need to present food science information effectively is viewed as a critical competency for food scientists by the Institute of Food Technologists, most food scientists may not receive adequate training in this area. Effective presentations combine both scientific content and delivery mechanisms that demonstrate presenter enthusiasm for…

  18. Effect of Personal Response Systems on Student Perception and Academic Performance in Courses in a Health Sciences Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzPatrick, Kathleen A.; Finn, Kevin E.; Campisi, Jay

    2011-01-01

    To increase student engagement, active participation, and performance, personal response systems (clickers) were incorporated into six lecture-based sections of four required courses within the Health Sciences Department major curriculum: freshman-level Anatomy and Physiology I and II, junior-level Exercise Physiology, and senior-level Human…

  19. Cohort studies in health sciences librarianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Question: What are the key characteristics of the cohort study design and its varied applications, and how can this research design be utilized in health sciences librarianship? Data Sources: The health, social, behavioral, biological, library, earth, and management sciences literatures were used as sources. Study Selection: All fields except for health sciences librarianship were scanned topically for either well-known or diverse applications of the cohort design. The health sciences library literature available to the author principally for the years 1990 to 2000, supplemented by papers or posters presented at annual meetings of the Medical Library Association. Data Extraction: A narrative review for the health, social, behavioral, biological, earth, and management sciences literatures and a systematic review for health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000, with three exceptions, were conducted. The author conducted principally a manual search of the health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000 as part of this systematic review. Main Results: The cohort design has been applied to answer a wide array of theoretical or practical research questions in the health, social, behavioral, biological, and management sciences. Health sciences librarianship also offers several major applications of the cohort design. Conclusion: The cohort design has great potential for answering research questions in the field of health sciences librarianship, particularly evidence-based librarianship (EBL), although that potential has not been fully explored. PMID:12398244

  20. Cohort studies in health sciences librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Jonathan

    2002-10-01

    What are the key characteristics of the cohort study design and its varied applications, and how can this research design be utilized in health sciences librarianship? The health, social, behavioral, biological, library, earth, and management sciences literatures were used as sources. All fields except for health sciences librarianship were scanned topically for either well-known or diverse applications of the cohort design. The health sciences library literature available to the author principally for the years 1990 to 2000, supplemented by papers or posters presented at annual meetings of the Medical Library Association. A narrative review for the health, social, behavioral, biological, earth, and management sciences literatures and a systematic review for health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000, with three exceptions, were conducted. The author conducted principally a manual search of the health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000 as part of this systematic review. The cohort design has been applied to answer a wide array of theoretical or practical research questions in the health, social, behavioral, biological, and management sciences. Health sciences librarianship also offers several major applications of the cohort design. The cohort design has great potential for answering research questions in the field of health sciences librarianship, particularly evidence-based librarianship (EBL), although that potential has not been fully explored.

  1. African Journal of Oral Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Oral Health Sciences is devoted to research into oral diseases and encourages a multidisciplinary approach. Emphasis is on oral pathology, oral microbiology, oral medicine, oral physiology and biochemistry and related clinical sciences.

  2. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences is a multidisciplinary and peer-reviewed journal. This journal was established to meet the challenges of health care delivery in the 21st century in Nigeria and other countries with similar setting in the ever-changing world of science and technology. The health care ...

  3. Effect of personal response systems on student perception and academic performance in courses in a health sciences curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzPatrick, Kathleen A; Finn, Kevin E; Campisi, Jay

    2011-09-01

    To increase student engagement, active participation, and performance, personal response systems (clickers) were incorporated into six lecture-based sections of four required courses within the Health Sciences Department major curriculum: freshman-level Anatomy and Physiology I and II, junior-level Exercise Physiology, and senior-level Human Pathophysiology. Clickers were used to gather anonymous student responses to questions posed within the class period after individual thought and peer discussion. Students (n = 293, 88% of students completing the courses) completed a perceptual survey on clicker effectiveness inserted into the Student Assessment of Learning Gains online instrument. Across courses and years, students uniformly rated several dimensions of clicker use as providing good to great gain in engaging them in active learning, increasing participation and involvement during class, maintaining attention, applying material immediately, providing feedback concerning their understanding, and offering an anonymous format for participation. Within these four sections, quiz grades were compared between clicker and nonclicker years. Significant increases in pre- and posttest scores were seen in Exercise Physiology in clicker years and on some, but not all material, in Anatomy and Physiology I and II based on content quizzes. Human Pathophysiology results were unexpected, with higher quiz scores in the nonclicker year. The results support the hypothesis of increased engagement with clicker use. The hypothesis of increased student performance was not consistently supported. Increased performance was seen in Exercise Physiology. In Anatomy and Physiology I and II, performance improved on some content quizzes. In Human Pathophysiology, performance did not improve with clickers.

  4. Leadership styles in interdisciplinary health science education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasnett, Bonita; Clay, Maria

    2008-12-01

    The US Institute of Medicine recommends that all health professionals should deliver patient-centered care as members of interdisciplinary health science teams. The current application of the Bolman and Deal Leadership model to health sciences provides an interesting point of reference to compare leadership styles. This article reviews several applications of that model within academic health care and the aggregate recommendations for leaders of health care disciplines based on collective findings.

  5. [Analysis and identification of illegal constituents in health food products implicitly advertizing tonic or slimming effect in the National Institute of Health Sciences in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    With the prefectural governments' aid of the purchase, the Division of Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Narcotics, National Institute of Health Sciences (NIHS) successively has surveyed illegal constituents in health food products implicitly advertizing tonic or slimming effect since the fiscal year of 2002 (slimming type) or 2003 (tonic type). The average numbers of the analyzed products per year are about 100 (slimming type) and 150 (tonic type), respectively. We also continuously distribute standards of authentic samples of several illegal components such as N-nitrosofenfluramine (NFF) and sildenafil (SIL) to prefectural institutes and the average gross number per year is about 140. In the case of slimming type, the fact that the products containing NFF were widely sold in Japanese markets in 2002 is well known. In addition, phenolphthalein, fenfluramine, sibtramine, desdimethylsibtramine, orlistat, mazindol, Rhubarb, Senna Leaf, etc. have been found as illegal constituents. In the tonic type products, we have identified more than 20 synthetic compounds relating to the erectile dysfunction (ED) treatment drugs, SIL, vardenafil and tadalafil (TDF). Since 2005, their synthetic intermediates and the patented but non-approved PDE5 inhibitors also have been found. It should be noted that TDF was found in the shells of capsule in 2009 and that mutaprodenafil was found as pro-drug type illegal component in 2010. In this report identification method of these illegal constituents is briefly described and then analytical trend in this decade is reviewed.

  6. Health, Wellbeing and Social Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Giovanni; Agostoni, Carlo

    2016-09-09

    For social interventions aimed at improving nutrition behavior evidence from randomized trials is essential but cannot be the only approach of research activities. Interventions on dietary habits require considerations on food security, economic and environmental sustainability, and a broad meaning of wellbeing which includes, but also goes beyond, health effects. The model of research in nutrition requires a new consideration of observational studies, mainly through different analytical models. Nutrition and food studies need research programs where medical (nutrition and health), psychology (how we behave), economics (how resources are used and their impact on wellbeing) and sociology (how social determinant shape behavior) collaborate.

  7. Human Health and the Biological Effects of Tritium in Drinking Water: Prudent Policy Through Science - Addressing the ODWAC New Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingwall, S; Mills, C E; Phan, N; Taylor, K; Boreham, D R

    2011-02-22

    tritium exposure at 20 Bq/L would be orders of magnitude less than that from exposure to natural background sources of radiation. The new proposed standard would set the radiation dose limit for drinking water to 0.0003 mSv/year, which is equivalent to approximately three times the dose from naturally occurring tritium in drinking water. This new standard is incongruent with national and international standards for safe levels of radiation exposure, currently set at 1 mSv/year for the general public. Scientific research from leading authorities on the carcinogenic health effects of tritium exposure supports the notion that the current standard of 7,000 Bq/L (annual dose of 0.1 mSv) is a safe standard for human health.Policy-making for the purpose of regulating tritium levels in drinking water is a dynamic multi-stage process that is influenced by more than science alone. Ethics, economics, and public perception also play important roles in policy development; however, these factors sometimes undermine the scientific evidence that should form the basis of informed decision making. Consequently, implementing a new standard without a scientific basis may lead the public to perceive that risks from tritium have been historically underestimated. It was concluded that the new recommendation is not supported by any new scientific insight regarding negative consequences of low dose effects, and may be contrary to new data on the potential benefits of low dose effects. Given the lack of cost versus benefit analysis, this type of dramatic policy change could have detrimental effects to society from an ethical, economical, and public perception perspective.

  8. Trend spotting--whither health science librarianship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jeannette

    2011-12-01

    This feature surveys 20th-century trends in health sciences librarianship. It sets the scene for a series of features looking at 21st-century trends in various countries and regions. Whilst the mission of the health science library remains constant, librarians must find ways of adjusting their role and the services they provide to take account of changes in the external environment. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.

  9. Climate Change: Science, Health and the Environment

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Climate Change: Science, Health and the Environment Howard Frumkin, MD, DrPH, Director of CDC's National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, discusses the science of climate change, the potential for shifts in the natural world to affect our wellbeing, and the challenges of emerging issues in environmental health.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  10. Health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahieu, L

    1998-07-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of health effects at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study; (4) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (5) to assess the genetic risks of material exposure to ionizing radiation; (6) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (7) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas for 1997 are reported.

  11. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal covers technical and clinical studies related to health, ethical and social issues in field of all aspects of medicine (Basic and Clinical), Health Sciences, Nursing, Medical Laboratory Sciences, Medical Radiography and Rehabilitation, Pharmacy, Biomedical Engineering, etc. Articles with clinical interest and ...

  12. African Journal of Health Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Health Sciences provide a forum for communication of research results and policy issues in the health sciences and related disciplines. The Journal is dedicated to serving primarily scientists in Africa who desire to publish their research findings, and those outside the continent wishing to contribute to ...

  13. Smoking in Health Science Students with Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Krommydas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that asthmatic students in a health science department would avoid the hazards of cigarette smoking due to the knowledge they gain through their studies. Surprisingly, health science students with asthma had a higher prevalence of smoking than their healthy colleagues.

  14. Welcome to Health Information Science and Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yanchun

    2013-01-01

    Health Information Science and Systems is an exciting, new, multidisciplinary journal that aims to use technologies in computer science to assist in disease diagnoses, treatment, prediction and monitoring through the modeling, design, development, visualization, integration and management of health related information. These computer-science technologies include such as information systems, web technologies, data mining, image processing, user interaction and interface, sensors and wireless n...

  15. 75 FR 65365 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Environmental Health Sciences Review Committee; Research Career... applications. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W...

  16. Welcome to health information science and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanchun

    2013-01-01

    Health Information Science and Systems is an exciting, new, multidisciplinary journal that aims to use technologies in computer science to assist in disease diagnoses, treatment, prediction and monitoring through the modeling, design, development, visualization, integration and management of health related information. These computer-science technologies include such as information systems, web technologies, data mining, image processing, user interaction and interface, sensors and wireless networking and are applicable to a wide range of health related information including medical data, biomedical data, bioinformatics data, public health data.

  17. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 13 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 13, No 3 (2007) ... Integrated approach to teaching African dance and music: Challenges and prospects ... Effects of exercise on visual performance of female rugby players · EMAIL ...

  18. Health sciences librarian as an adult trainer

    OpenAIRE

    Tsalapatani, Eirini; Kalogeraki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The role of the health sciences librarian as it is shaped by the socio-economic conditions, technological developments and specific information needs of health professionals requires knowledge, skills and attitudes combined with communication skills, management and leadership abilities. The modern health sciences librarian seems to be “borrowing" features from the adult qualified instructor who constantly has to adopt roles in a dynamic learning process, and depending on the circumstances...

  19. Political Science Theory for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…

  20. African Health Sciences - Vol 8 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resilience research and policy/practice discourse in health, social, behavioral, and environmental sciences over the last ten years. EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. AM Almedom ...

  1. Constructivist strategy for health science education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Klopper

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to explore and describe a constructivist strategy for Health Science Educators. Changes in the higher education field in South Africa have impacted on the practice of health science educators. In the past, health science educators often envisaged their teaching task as  the transmission of content. This however no longer meets the needs of our practices.  In order to describe the strategy, the survey list of Dickoff, James and Wiedenbach (1968 was used to identify the core concepts. Each of the identified concepts was then described based on a literature review. The strategy advocates that health science  educators should shift from being lecturers to being learning facilitators based on the principles of constructivist learning, in order to create a context conducive to learning.

  2. Health Sciences in Iran; Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani R.* PhD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As this is the first issue of the International Archives of Health Sciences, a scholarly journal of Kashan University of medical Sciences, we start with an editorial of Dr. Rouhullah Dehghani, the editor-in-chief, to explain the aims and views of the editorial board members and the scope of the journal.

  3. Translating science into action: periodontal health through public health approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgensen, Nanna; Petersen, Poul E; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Sayaka

    2012-10-01

    Clinical and public health research data have shown that a number of individual, professional and community health measures may be valuable in preventing the major oral diseases. The fundamental gap in knowledge, however, is not confined to 'what to do' but rather 'how' to translate the scientific findings into effective and sustainable programs for groups and populations. The advances in oral health science have not yet benefitted the poor and disadvantaged population groups around the world to the fullest extent possible and this has led to inequalities in periodontal health as well as in other chronic diseases. Research on the causative role of tobacco use in periodontal disease is strong because of the fact that tobacco-induced disease ultimately may lead to the loss of teeth. Studies also indicate that wound healing may be negatively affected by the use of tobacco. Likewise, research has shown that extreme use of alcohol, poor diet and nutrition, and psychological stress all have negative effects on periodontal health. Research on sociobehavioral risk factors has great implication to prevent periodontal disease. The case for tobacco is illustrated in this report. The global exposure to tobacco use in adults and adolescents is outlined. Because of the global Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (2003), the solid research on the harmful effect of tobacco is now being widely used for public health. The importance of tobacco prevention within the context of health-promoting schools is emphasized. Research on other population-directed strategies and their implications on public health would be instrumental to integrated prevention of chronic disease and periodontal disease. Community interventions and delivery of preventive oral care by oral health services may have positive outcomes for periodontal health but periodontal research needs to be further strengthened by the provision of sound evidence. It is somewhat remarkable that research on true population

  4. Impact of regulatory science on global public health

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Meghal; Miller, Margaret Ann

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory science plays a vital role in protecting and promoting global public health by providing the scientific basis for ensuring that food and medical products are safe, properly labeled, and effective. Regulatory science research was first developed for the determination of product safety in the early part of the 20th Century, and continues to support innovation of the processes needed for regulatory policy decisions. Historically, public health laws and regulations were enacted followi...

  5. A greater voice for academic health sciences libraries: the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Alison

    2003-04-01

    The founders of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL) envisioned the development of a professional organization that would provide a greater voice for academic health sciences libraries, facilitate cooperation and communication with the Association of American Medical Colleges, and create a forum for identifying problems and solutions that are common to academic health sciences libraries. This article focuses on the fulfillment of the "greater voice" vision by describing action and leadership by AAHSL and its members on issues that directly influenced the role of academic health sciences libraries. These include AAHSL's participation in the work that led to the publication of the landmark report, Academic Information in the Academic Health Sciences Center: Roles for the Library in Information Management; its contributions to the recommendations of the Physicians for the Twenty-first Century: The GPEP Report; and the joint publication with the Medical Library Association of Challenge to Action: Planning and Evaluation Guidelines for Academic Health Sciences Libraries.

  6. The perceived effects of electronic cigarettes on health by adult users: A state of the science systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomashefski, Amy

    2016-09-01

    There is a lack of research on perceived health effects of electronic cigarettes by adult users. Because more people are choosing electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in addition to, or instead of traditional cigarettes, it is important for the nurse practitioner (NP) to understand why. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using four scholarly databases. The search strategy utilized remained consistent. Qualitative, quantitative, observational studies and meta-analyses were considered for review. Of the 52 articles preliminarily retrieved, 9 met inclusion criteria and were analyzed. The majority of e-cigarette users perceive they are less harmful to health than traditional cigarettes. One reason for use is smoking cessation. Current guidelines recommend against promoting e-cigarette use. More research is needed on the long-term health effects of e-cigarettes as well as regulatory statements to guide future healthcare practice. As prevalence of e-cigarette use increases, it is important for NPs to understand the perceived effects on health by adults who use them and, specifically, how these perceptions motivate use. Armed with this information, the NP can communicate with patients about e-cigarettes, confidently recommend against their use, and begin discussions about reliable smoking cessation tools and resources that will help patients achieve their goals. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  7. Habermasian knowledge interests: epistemological implications for health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero-Molina, José; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano; Muñoz Terrón, José María; Aranda Torres, Cayetano

    2015-04-01

    The Habermasian concept of 'interest' has had a profound effect on the characterization of scientific disciplines. Going beyond issues unrelated to the theory itself, intra-theoretical interest characterizes the specific ways of approaching any science-related discipline, defining research topics and methodologies. This approach was developed by Jürgen Habermas in relation to empirical-analytical sciences, historical-hermeneutics sciences, and critical sciences; however, he did not make any specific references to health sciences. This article aims to contribute to shaping a general epistemological framework for health sciences, as well as its specific implications for the medical and nursing areas, via an analysis of the basic knowledge interests developed by Habermas. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Citizen Science for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, Den Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Oers, Van Hans; Schuit, A.J.; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in

  9. Citizen Science for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Broeder, Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Van Oers, Hans; Schuit, A.J.; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in

  10. The Effects of Education on Spirituality through Virtual Social Media on the Spiritual Well-Being of the Public Health Students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2015

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hasanshahi, Maryam; Mazaheri, Maryam Amidi

    2016-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of education on spirituality through social media in the spirituality well-being of public health students of Isfahan University of medical science...

  11. Health effects of electromagnetic fields.

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Gajšek

    1990-01-01

    Abstract: Devices that emit electromagnetic fields (EMF) have become a part of our daily life and can be found in telecommunications, industry, traffic, science, medicine and in every household. Due to the fact that general public is massively exposed to the EMF, even very small health effects could become a serious public health problem. Many studies show that the EMF above a certain threshold can have a negative health impact. The studies, which could explain the question of health risks as...

  12. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The application of molecular biology and information technology is taking a center-stage in this century. Scope: Basic Medical Sciences Behavioural Sciences Biomedical Communications Biomedical Engineering Biotechnology in relation to Medicine Clinical Sciences Dental Sciences Environment and Health

  13. Effects of passive smoking on students at College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Abdullah; Al Enezi, Farhan; Alqahtani, Mohammd Mesfer; Alshammari, Turki Faleh; Ansari, Mumtaz Ahmed; Al-Oraibi, Saleh; Qureshi, Shoeb

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent campaigns to eliminate smoking, the rates are still increasing world-wide. Exposure to passive smoking (PS) is associated with morbidity and mortality from awful diseases. Although many college students smoke, little is known about their exposure to PS, common places and sources of exposures in Saudi Arabia. The aim of the following study is to identify prevalence and magnitude of PS among college students, exposure time, locations, sources of exposure, investigate the effects and make recommendations. A cross-sectional study was performed to identify factors associated with PS exposure among students of College of Applied Medical Sciences, Riyadh. Out of 61 students included in the study, 91.8% were found exposed to PS. Exposure in Hospitality venues (Estirah) was the most common followed by other areas. Among the sources of exposure, the highest was among friends and the least were parents and guests. The frequency of highest exposure per month was >15 times and the lowest was 10-15 times. Levels of annoyance varied between 18% and 37.7%, respectively. Since the values obtained for different markers in the pulmonary function test are more than the predicted values, the observed spirometry is normal. The percent oxygen saturation in hemoglobin and blood pressure of PS were in normal range. Since the properties of mainstream smoke and environmental tobacco smoke are quite different, risk extrapolation from active to PS is uncertain, especially during a short period. Nevertheless, it can be deteriorating during a longer duration, hence; the administrators, policy makers and tobacco control advocates may endorse policies to restrict smoking in shared areas, particularly working environment.

  14. The impact of a developmental science course on college success for underprepared health science students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Candace A.

    Developmental education for the academically underprepared college student has been aimed at helping students succeed in college. However, developmental education courses have traditionally focused on reading, writing and math. This quantitative study examined the relationship between a developmental science course for underprepared health science students on grades achieved in college level medical terminology courses. The effect was measured by analyzing student grades retrieved from a college database of official school records through the use of correlation research methodology during a previous 2-year academic period at a selected independent 4-year right-to-try college. The results yielded a weakly positive correlation, but not statistically significant coefficient of 0.325 between grades for students who successfully completed the developmental science course and their subsequent success in a college-level science course. The study added to the gap in knowledge in terms of the effect a developmental science course has on grades in college-level science courses.

  15. Health sciences research and Aboriginal communities: pathway or pitfall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smylie, Janet; Kaplan-Myrth, Nili; Tait, Caroline; Martin, Carmel Mary; Chartrand, Larry; Hogg, William; Tugwell, Peter; Valaskakis, Gail; Macaulay, Ann C

    2004-03-01

    To provide health researchers and clinicians with background information and examples regarding Aboriginal health research challenges, in an effort to promote effective collaborative research with Aboriginal communities. An interdisciplinary team of experienced Aboriginal-health researchers conducted a thematic analysis of their planning meetings regarding a community-based Aboriginal health research training project and of the text generated by the meetings and supplemented the analysis with a literature review. Four research challenges are identified and addressed: (1) contrasting frameworks of Western science and indigenous knowledge systems; (2) the impact of historic colonialist processes upon the interface between health science research and Aboriginal communities; (3) culturally relevant frameworks and processes for knowledge generation and knowledge transfer; and (4) Aboriginal leadership, governance, and participation. Culturally appropriate and community-controlled collaborative research can result in improved health outcomes in Aboriginal communities and contribute new insights and perspectives to the fields of public health and medicine in general.

  16. Teachers' perceptions of the effectiveness of an urban health sciences curriculum in closing the Black-White test score gap: A participatory case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Joan Marie

    1999-12-01

    Over the past years, progress in Black academic achievement, particularly in the area of science, has generally slowed or ceased. According to the 1994 NAEP assessment, twelfth-grade Black students are performing at the level of White eighth-grade students in the discipline of science (Department of Education, 1996). These students, in their last year of required schooling, are about to graduate, yet they lag at least four years behind their white counterparts in science achievement. Despite the establishment and implementation of numerous science intervention programs, Black students still suffer from a disparate gap in standardized test score achievement. The purpose of this research is to investigate teachers' perceptions of the effectiveness of an urban sciences intervention tool that was designed to assist in narrowing the Black-White science academic achievement gap. Specifically, what factors affect teachers' personal sense of instructional efficacy, and how does this translate into their outcome expectancy for student academic success? A multiple-case, replicative design, grounded in descriptive theory, was selected for the study. Multiple sources of evidence were queried to provide robust findings. These sources included a validated health sciences self-efficacy instrument, an interview protocol, a classroom observation, and a review of archival material that included case study participants' personnel files and meeting minutes. A cross-comparative analytic approach was selected for interpretation (Yin, 1994). Findings indicate that teachers attribute the success or failure of educational intervention tools in closing the Black-White test score gap to a variety of internal and external factors. These factors included a perceived lack of both monetary and personal support by the school leadership, as well as a perceived lack of parental involvement which impacted negatively on student achievement patterns. The case study participants displayed a depressed

  17. EFFECTIVE INDICATORS FOR SCIENCE INTERNATIONALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renan da Cunha-Melo

    Full Text Available Objective: To review of concepts and actions that aim to analyze the effects of internationalization of science and education, with emphasis in the medical field and its basement in development policies adopted by nations, exploring the potential for international interdisciplinary cooperation of each laboratory, department, university or institute. Method: Search of indicators to assess the degree of internationalization of universities and research institutes in several interconnected levels: organizational, regional, sectoral and global, and policy-making in science, technology innovation and higher education. Result: Scientific research is still carried out individually, but is now much more closely integrated with other social processes. The scientist is no longer a stranger who is allowed to surrender to his hobby to do what it wants. Internationalization of research and medical education, although it is among the topics of greatest need, as the globalized world, is difficult activity to be assessed. The leaders seem to have understood that the knowledge societies, leading to economic policy based on knowledge, can result in economic and social progress of nations. This fact has motivated increasingly the incentive to actions aimed at addressing global problems (eg health, climate change by funding research that generates new knowledge. Conclusion: The consensus is that the internationalization of science is desirable and necessary for the sustainable development of nations. However it cannot be done only by encouraging and promoting the outward students and researchers abroad. It is necessary, in addition, offer conditions to foreign researchers and students teachers to work in collaboration with Brazilian and raise the country to international scientific standards.

  18. Citation analysis in health care sciences. Innovative investigation or seductive pseudo-science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, M

    2014-01-01

    Citations of scientific papers in health care have become a subject of interest, as in any scientific sector. However, such a metric, while useful in a simple way, can become subject to too much credibility, and therefore to advanced analyses which are not soundly grounded even if methodologically valid. The objective was to contextualise citation indices in health care science, juxtaposed with a parallel analytic paper. The literature was reviewed and set against the objectives of metrics of literature and of researchers. The strengths and weaknesses of citation indices in the health sector were identified, with practical examples of perverse effects, and compared with the core objectives of health care development. Citation indices in health care science have a value, but this is limited to giving a broad overview. Other measures of effectiveness, including impact on education, on health care development, and on stimulation of applied developments, are needed rather than spuriously scientific advanced analyses of citation counts.

  19. Oral Health Literacy and Behavior of Health Sciences University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti N Mohd-Dom

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the level of oral health literacy and behavior among health sciences. Methods: The method used descriptive cross-sectional survey involving 609 students from Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences in the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Oral health literacy level and behaviour was assessed with a validated and pretested self-administered questionnaire using the Newest Vital Sign (NVS tool and modified Oral Health Adult Literacy Questionnaire (OHL-AQ. Results: A total of 509 participants involved in the study (83.6%. The overall mean oral health literacy score was 10.27 (95% CI 7.92, 12.62, which found dental students showing statistically significant higher scores (mean=11.36, 95% CI 9.70, 13.02 compared to medical (mean=10.72, 95% CI 8.67, 12.77, allied health sciences (mean=9.89, 95% CI 7.34, 12.44 and pharmacy (mean=9.55, 95% CI 7.23, 11.87. Almost all respondents are non-smokers (99.8% and non-drinkers (97.2%. Only 19.1% pay regular dental visits every 6-12 months while 51.1% visit dentist only when they have dental pain. Conclusion: There appears to be a positive relationship between oral health literacy and oral health behavior. Health science university students should be provided substantial dental health education in their curriculum as they show good potential as strategic partners in oral health.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v22i2.404

  20. Effects of Teacher Lesson Introduction on Second Graders' Creativity in a Science/Literacy Integrated Unit on Health and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Angela Naomi; Rule, Audrey C.

    2014-01-01

    The focus on standardized testing in the areas of reading and mathematics in early elementary education often minimalizes science and the arts in the curriculum. The science topics of health and nutrition were integrated into the reading curriculum through read aloud books. Inclusion of creativity skills through figural transformation drawings…

  1. Radiation and Health: A Workshop for Science Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Kenneth

    2010-03-01

    This workshop covers nuclear science and technology topics suitable for science teachers to use in grade 4-12 classes. Subjects included are Fundamentals of Radiation, Exposure to natural and man- made Radiation, Cellular Biology and Radiation Effects, Radioactive Waste Management, Health Physics and Radiation Physics, and Career possibilities in Nuclear Technology. Schools of participants will receive a working Geiger Counter. Workshop presenter is a TEA-approved CPE Provider. Limited to 20 participants - 3 hours - Cost 2.00

  2. W3 - Radiation and Health: A Workshop for Science Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Kenneth

    2009-04-01

    This workshop covers nuclear science and technology topics suitable for science teachers to use in grade 4-12 classes. Subjects included are Fundamentals of Radiation, Exposure to natural and man-made Radiation, Cellular Biology and Radiation Effects, Radioactive Waste Management, Health Physics and Radiation Physics, and Career possibilities in Nuclear Technology. Schools of participants will receive a working Geiger Counter. Lunch will be served. Workshop presenter is a TEA-approved CPE Provider.

  3. The emergent discipline of health web science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Joanne S; Cumming, Grant P; Wilkinson, Mark D; Kahana, Eva

    2013-08-22

    The transformative power of the Internet on all aspects of daily life, including health care, has been widely recognized both in the scientific literature and in public discourse. Viewed through the various lenses of diverse academic disciplines, these transformations reveal opportunities realized, the promise of future advances, and even potential problems created by the penetration of the World Wide Web for both individuals and for society at large. Discussions about the clinical and health research implications of the widespread adoption of information technologies, including the Internet, have been subsumed under the disciplinary label of Medicine 2.0. More recently, however, multi-disciplinary research has emerged that is focused on the achievement and promise of the Web itself, as it relates to healthcare issues. In this paper, we explore and interrogate the contributions of the burgeoning field of Web Science in relation to health maintenance, health care, and health policy. From this, we introduce Health Web Science as a subdiscipline of Web Science, distinct from but overlapping with Medicine 2.0. This paper builds on the presentations and subsequent interdisciplinary dialogue that developed among Web-oriented investigators present at the 2012 Medicine 2.0 Conference in Boston, Massachusetts.

  4. The Emergent Discipline of Health Web Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The transformative power of the Internet on all aspects of daily life, including health care, has been widely recognized both in the scientific literature and in public discourse. Viewed through the various lenses of diverse academic disciplines, these transformations reveal opportunities realized, the promise of future advances, and even potential problems created by the penetration of the World Wide Web for both individuals and for society at large. Discussions about the clinical and health research implications of the widespread adoption of information technologies, including the Internet, have been subsumed under the disciplinary label of Medicine 2.0. More recently, however, multi-disciplinary research has emerged that is focused on the achievement and promise of the Web itself, as it relates to healthcare issues. In this paper, we explore and interrogate the contributions of the burgeoning field of Web Science in relation to health maintenance, health care, and health policy. From this, we introduce Health Web Science as a subdiscipline of Web Science, distinct from but overlapping with Medicine 2.0. This paper builds on the presentations and subsequent interdisciplinary dialogue that developed among Web-oriented investigators present at the 2012 Medicine 2.0 Conference in Boston, Massachusetts. PMID:23968998

  5. Science cafés: engaging scientists and community through health and science dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed; DeFino, Mia C; Connors, Emily R; Kissack, Anne; Franco, Zeno

    2014-06-01

    Engagement of the community through informal dialogue with researchers and physicians around health and science topics is an important avenue to build understanding and affect health and science literacy. Science Cafés are one model for this casual interchange; however the impact of this approach remains under researched. The Community Engagement Key Function of the Clinical and Translational Science Institute of Southeast Wisconsin hosted a series of Science Cafés in which topics were collaboratively decided upon by input from the community. Topics ranged from Personalized Medicine to Alzheimer's and Dementia to BioMedical Innovation. A systematic evaluation of the impact of Science Cafés on attendees' self-confidence related to five health and scientific literacy concepts showed statistically significant increases across all items (Mean differences between mean retrospective pre-scores and post-scores, one tailed, paired samples t-test, n=141, phealth and scientific literacy items was excellent (n=126, α=0.87). Thematic analysis of attendees' comments provides more nuance about positive experience and suggestions for possible improvements. The evaluation provides important evidence supporting the effectiveness of brief, casual dialogue as a way to increase the public's self-rated confidence in health and science topics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. D:\\African Health Sciences\\Afri

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    advocate with rare leadership skills. African Health Sciences 2004; 4(1) 71-74. AHS: What do you specialise in? A: I'm a cardio-thoracic surgeon. Having graduated with the first degree in medicine I undertook a. Masters course in Surgery and became a general surgeon then I specialised in cardio-thoracic surgery. I did my ...

  7. In this issue | Tumwine | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In light of this, African Health Sciences brings you an update on Ebola haemorrhagic fever in an article by some of the doctors who experienced the last Ebola outbreak in Gulu, northern Uganda last year, first hand1. They give us a glimpse of the epidemic as it affected children and adolescents, a sector of the population ...

  8. Archives: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 64 ... ... Home > Archives: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 50 of 64 Items, 1 2 > >>. 2018. Vol 28, No 1 (2018) ...

  9. Tropical Journal of Health Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The Tropical Journal of Health Sciences accords special interest and high priority to: original work; research and training innovations and clinical observations. Articles submitted to the THJS should not be under consideration for publication by another journal nor should such an article be previously ...

  10. Dissemination, Implementation, and Improvement Science Research in Population Health: Opportunities for Public Health and CTSAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tony; Gase, Lauren N; Inkelas, Moira

    2015-12-01

    The complex, dynamic nature of health systems requires dissemination, implementation, and improvement (DII) sciences to effectively translate emerging knowledge into practice. Although they hold great promise for informing multisector policies and system-level changes, these methods are often not strategically used by public health. More than 120 stakeholders from Southern California, including the community, federal and local government, university, and health services were convened to identify key priorities and opportunities for public health departments and Clinical and Translational Science Awards programs (CTSAs) to advance DII sciences in population health. Participants identified challenges (mismatch of practice realities with narrowly focused research questions; lack of iterative learning) and solutions (using methods that fit the dynamic nature of the real world; aligning theories of change across sectors) for applying DII science research to public health problems. Pragmatic steps that public health and CTSAs can take to facilitate DII science research include: employing appropriate study designs; training scientists and practicing professionals in these methods; securing resources to advance this work; and supporting team science to solve complex-systems issues. Public health and CTSAs represent a unique model of practice for advancing DII research in population health. The partnership can inform policy and program development in local communities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Dissemination, Implementation, and Improvement Science Research in Population Health: Opportunities for Public Health and CTSAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N.; Inkelas, Moira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Importance The complex, dynamic nature of health systems requires dissemination, implementation, and improvement (DII) sciences to effectively translate emerging knowledge into practice. Although they hold great promise for informing multisector policies and system‐level changes, these methods are often not strategically used by public health. Objectives and Methods More than 120 stakeholders from Southern California, including the community, federal and local government, university, and health services were convened to identify key priorities and opportunities for public health departments and Clinical and Translational Science Awards programs (CTSAs) to advance DII sciences in population health. Main Outcomes Participants identified challenges (mismatch of practice realities with narrowly focused research questions; lack of iterative learning) and solutions (using methods that fit the dynamic nature of the real world; aligning theories of change across sectors) for applying DII science research to public health problems. Pragmatic steps that public health and CTSAs can take to facilitate DII science research include: employing appropriate study designs; training scientists and practicing professionals in these methods; securing resources to advance this work; and supporting team science to solve complex‐systems issues. Conclusions Public health and CTSAs represent a unique model of practice for advancing DII research in population health. The partnership can inform policy and program development in local communities. PMID:26243323

  12. Nursing and the science of prevention for population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joan Shinkus; Bujnowski, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    The topic of patient-centered care is at the very epicenter of the contemporary emphasis on a value-based approach to health care. Multiple studies confirm that positive outcomes are consistently achieved when clinicians and administrators put appropriate emphasis on patient-centered care. Although we would agree that the patient-centered approach is necessary for achieving positive clinical outcomes for individual patients, we suggest that this approach alone is insufficient to sustain these outcomes across large populations over an extended-period of time. We believe that a science-based approach to population health coupled with patient-centered care pathways will achieve the most effective, long-term impact for large groups of individuals. Furthermore, we believe that nurses play a central role in a science-based approach to patient-centered medical care. In this article, we discuss the intersection of preventative science, patient-centered care, and the role of nurses. We present our experience at Texas Health Resources with the use of clinical nurse leaders in a science-based population health approach to achieve more consistent, positive outcomes during transition of care. Finally, we suggest that care providers integrate the science of prevention with the principles of patient-centered care to more consistently deliver on the promise of population health.

  13. Comparison of health risk behavior, awareness, and health benefit beliefs of health science and non-health science students: An international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Yung, Tony K C; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Rehman, Rehana

    2016-06-01

    This study determines the differences in health risk behavior, knowledge, and health benefit beliefs between health science and non-health science university students in 17 low and middle income countries. Anonymous questionnaire data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 13,042 undergraduate university students (4,981 health science and 8,061 non-health science students) from 17 universities in 17 countries across Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Results indicate that overall, health science students had the same mean number of health risk behaviors as non-health science university students. Regarding addictive risk behavior, fewer health science students used tobacco, were binge drinkers, or gambled once a week or more. Health science students also had a greater awareness of health behavior risks (5.5) than non-health science students (4.6). Linear regression analysis found a strong association with poor or weak health benefit beliefs and the health risk behavior index. There was no association between risk awareness and health risk behavior among health science students and an inverse association among non-health science students. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Implementation science and its application to population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobb, Rebecca; Colditz, Graham A

    2013-01-01

    Implementation science studies the use of strategies to adapt and use evidence-based interventions in targeted settings (e.g., schools, workplaces, health care facilities, public health departments) to sustain improvements to population health. This nascent field of research is in the early stages of developing theories of implementation and evaluating the properties of measures. Stakeholder engagement, effectiveness studies, research synthesis, and mathematical modeling are some of the methods used by implementation scientists to identify strategies to embed evidence-based interventions in clinical and public health programs. However, for implementation science to reach its full potential to improve population health the existing paradigm for how scientists create evidence, prioritize publications, and synthesize research needs to shift toward greater stakeholder input and improved reporting on external validity. This shift will improve the relevance of the research that is produced and provide information that will help guide decision makers in their selection of research-tested interventions.

  15. Science, advocacy, human and environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolston, H

    1996-05-17

    Medicine and public health sciences are applied sciences. The research upon which these are based is mission-oriented and as such they are underlain by advocacy. Ecological sciences, by way of parallel, involve managing ecological systems so they can remain healthy to support productive natural processes and the human population. In any eco-system, however, renewal has associated with it naturally occurring background levels of diseases and death. These are normal in all biological systems. 'Sustainable development' has been focused on commodity-based, managed systems where the goal is to ensure that the needs of growing human populations are met, producing healthy people. This objective is deemed by the Ecological Society of America to be too narrow. Priority should rather be given to the sustainability of natural ecosystems, otherwise the biosphere that sustains all life forms is neglected. Epidemiologists concerned with the health of populations need to recognize that human health and the health of natural systems have entwined destinies. Some convictions about limits, about the role of disease, degeneration, and death in healthy, that is, stable and sustainable human ecologies, ought to be embedded into any ethics for epidemiologists.

  16. Subject knowledge in the health sciences library: an online survey of Canadian academic health sciences librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Erin M

    2005-10-01

    This study investigated whether Canadian academic health sciences librarians found knowledge of the health sciences to be important and, if so, how they acquired and maintained this knowledge. Data were gathered using a Web-based questionnaire made available to Canadian academic health sciences librarians. Respondents recognized the need for subject knowledge: 93.3% of respondents indicated that subject knowledge was "very important" or "somewhat important" to doing their job. However, few respondents felt that holding a degree in the health sciences was necessary. Respondents reported devoting on average more than 6 hours per week to continuing education through various means. Reading or browsing health sciences journals, visiting Websites, studying independently, and participating in professional associations were identified by the largest number of participants as the best ways to become and stay informed. Although more research needs to be done with a larger sample, subject knowledge continues to be important to Canadian academic health sciences librarians. Continuing education, rather than formal degree studies, is the method of choice for obtaining and maintaining this knowledge.

  17. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 16 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 16, No 4 (2010) ... The acute effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on power-related ... Dance and music as mediums for the social integration of children with intellectual ...

  18. Afican Health Sciences Vol 10 No 2.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Key Words: IgG subtypes; MSP-1; malaria. African Health Sciences 2010; 10(2): 106 - 110. Introduction. There are 300-500 million cases of malaria each year, resulting in over 1 million deaths, mainly of children under 5 years of age in Africa1. Deployment of an effective malaria vaccine would have a significant.

  19. The Effective Teaching Method of Pharmacology for the Students in the Faculty of Health and Nutrition in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Najafi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pharmacology is one of the specific courses of the medical sciences students. Multiplicity of drugs and a lot of similarities in their characteristics make the learning of this lesson difficult and no common methods of teaching have been able to fix this problem so far. This study aimed to examine the effect of observing the dosage forms appropriate to each training session on enhancing learning pharmacology and comparing it with other traditional teaching methods. Methods: Fifty six Health Care Management and Family Health students in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences participated in this descriptive study. Each session was held using lectures and PowerPoint during half of educational classes and the other half was conducte d using whiteboard and at the same time the teaching pharmaceutical dosage forms, their functions and properties were shown. A standardized questionnaire based on Likert scale was given to the students and the level of learning was reviewed by self-assessment method. The data were analyzed using SPSS and descriptive statistical parameters. Results: Teaching pharmacology through showing pharmaceutical dosage forms had significant effect on improving students learning in both fields based on their self-assessment, so that more than 95% of students were satisfied with the teaching methods. From point view of students, the understanding of pharmacology using whiteboard and showing pharmaceutical dosage forms was significantly more than PowerPoint. Conclusion: The students believe that the level of the learning pharmacology through using whiteboard along with observing the dosage forms appropriate to each training session is outstanding.

  20. Health science students' conceptions of group supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangasniemi, Mari; Ahonen, Sanna-Mari; Liikanen, Eeva; Utriainen, Kati

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe health science university students' conceptions of group supervision during work on bachelor's thesis. This study is a qualitative research. Data were collected with an open data collection form from health science students (N=77). It was analysed by using inductive content analysis, conducted by a multidisciplinary research team. Appropriate ethical principles and scientific practice were followed. All the participants provided informed consent. Students' conceptions of group supervisions consisted of organization of group supervision, the nature of supervision, the interaction between students, the role of the supervisor and learning results. Group supervision is a student-centred and problem-based method of supervision achieving a common target. It consists of interaction between students and supervisor. The supervisor's role is profiled as scientific and substantial expertise. Group supervision is a suitable supervision method for achieving theoretical and practical scientific skills. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of life skills education on the mental health of First year student in Ilam university of medical science in 2013 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Naseri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The rapid socio-cultural changes, i.e. changing the structure of the family and human lifestyle can change the humans with various issues. The deals with these changes require psycho-social abilities. In the present paper it had been reviewed the effect of educating life skills on the mental health of students of Ilam University of medical sciences. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental research using post and pre tests. In this study, 61 freshmen were selected through stratified random sampling method in 2013. From this population, 34 ones were in the experimental group and 27 in the control group. For data collection, the general health questionnaire of Goldberg was used. The data were analyzed using SPSS20 software. The univariate analysis of covariance and multivariate analysis of covariance and paired T-test were analyzed. Results: The results showed that based on univariate analysis there was a significant correlation between the experimental and control groups in the scales of physical  symptoms (p = 0.002, social dysfunction symptoms (p = 0.001 and depression symptoms  (p = 0.048, but there was not a significant relationship in the scale of anxiety symptoms (p = 0.174. Multivariate analysis of covariance showed that there are significance deference between the subscales of mental health in experimental and control groups (P=.002. According to the analysis of paired t-test in the experimental group, life skill decreased the mean of scores in posttest compared to the pretest in the scales of the physical (p=0.001, anxiety (p=0.006, social dysfunction (0.017 and depression (p=0.001. Conclusion: Life skills training had an effect on reducing the impact of students' mental health scores. Training of these kinds of skills causes the progress among the freshmen.

  2. Assessing clinical competency in the health sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarella, Karen Joanne

    To test the success of integrated curricula in schools of health sciences, meaningful measurements of student performance are required to assess clinical competency. This research project analyzed a new performance assessment tool, the Integrated Standardized Patient Examination (ISPE), for assessing clinical competency: specifically, to assess Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) students' clinical competence as the ability to integrate basic science knowledge with clinical communication skills. Thirty-four DPT students performed two ISPE cases, one of a patient who sustained a stroke and the other a patient with a herniated lumbar disc. Cases were portrayed by standardized patients (SPs) in a simulated clinical setting. Each case was scored by an expert evaluator in the exam room and then by one investigator and the students themselves via videotape. The SPs scored each student on an overall encounter rubric. Written feedback was obtained from all participants in the study. Acceptable reliability was demonstrated via inter-rater agreement as well as inter-rater correlations on items that used a dichotomous scale, whereas the items requiring the use of the 4-point rubric were somewhat less reliable. For the entire scale both cases had a significant correlation between the Expert-Investigator pair of raters, for the CVA case r = .547, p < .05 and for the HD case r = .700, p < .01. The SPs scored students higher than the other raters. Students' self-assessments were most closely aligned with the investigator. Effects were apparent due to case. Content validity was gathered in the process of developing cases and patient scenarios that were used in this study. Construct validity was obtained from the survey results analyzed from the experts and students. Future studies should examine the effect of rater training upon the reliability. Criterion or predictive validity could be further studied by comparing students' performances on the ISPE with other independent estimates

  3. Archives: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 33 of 33 ... Archives: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. Journal Home > Archives: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Climate Effects on Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guidance and Trainings Webinars Data and Tools Publications Climate Effects on Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... effects has been excerpted from the Third National Climate Assessment’s Health Chapter . Additional information regarding the health ...

  5. Using Systems Science for Population Health Management in Primary Care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Yan; Kong, Nan; Lawley, Mark A; Pagán, José A

    2014-01-01

    .... The objective of this study is to show how systems science methodologies could be incorporated into population health management to compare different interventions and improve health outcomes. Methods...

  6. Sleep Disorders and Complementary Health Approaches : What the Science Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Integrative Health NCCIH Clinical Digest for health professionals Sleep Disorders and Complementary Health Approaches: What the Science ... 2014 Clinical Guidelines, Scientific Literature, Info for Patients: Sleep Disorders and Complementary Health Approaches Mind and Body ...

  7. Assessment of Scholarly Publications of Nigerian Health Sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health science researchers are health care providers, faculty, medical scientists and other allied health professionals who conduct research in health related fields. Research articles written by Nigerian health sciences' researchers published during 1996-2007 were accessed through the MEDLINE/PubMed database.

  8. Health promotion as a systems science and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Cameron D

    2009-10-01

    Health promotion is where clinical practice and prevention science intersect to address complex or 'wicked' problems that have multiple sources and require a broad perspective to address. This means focusing on the social determinants of health and the complex individual, community and environmental interactions that influence health and wellbeing. Health promotion research and practice recognizes that social change is not linear and involves multiple communities of interest working together in a coordinated manner in order to address health problems. An approach that acknowledges this non-linear system of interaction in its data gathering, strategic planning, and program implementation is necessary to addressing this complexity in practice. Concepts such as chaos theory, self-organization, social emergence can inform how health promotion is practiced at multiple levels. Evaluation approaches such as social network analysis, system dynamics modeling combined with social organizing strategies like communities of practice and unconferences provide opportunities to leverage social capital effectively to promote health in complex environments with diverse populations. Health promotion's focus on the multi-layered, complex interactions that create or limit health and wellbeing require knowledge and action that match this complexity. Approaches to engagement and evaluation that are based on systems theories and methodologies provide the means of addressing this complexity, while framing health promotion as a systems science and practice.

  9. Eating, drinking and physical activity in Faculty of Health Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 70% of Health Science students and 64% of other students consumed less than one vegetable per day, while 91% of Health Science students and 93% of students in other faculties consumed less than two glasses of milk per day. Although not significant, fewer Health Science students (4%) than students of other faculties ...

  10. Research methods from social science can contribute much to the health sciences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensing, M.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research methods from social science, such as social network analysis, random coefficient modeling, and advanced measurement techniques, can contribute much to the health sciences. There is, however, a slow rate of transmission of social science methodology into the health sciences. This

  11. Medical informatics: the role of health science librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunyade, T O; Ibegwam, A

    2011-01-01

    Medical informatics, a newly emerged concept has in recent years attracted the attention of scholars. This concept therefore needs thorough discourse and interpretations as relating to information packaging and its access in the field of medicine and its allies. Therefore, the would--be information manager needs to be grounded in the medical informatics for him to effectively have full control of the information environment. Research work delved into the meanings of medical informatics and its impact on health sciences and the need for adequate education of health science librarians for them to be effective and efficient in their service delivery. It is a review of information sources on the medical informatics. Sources consulted were print, electronic and on-line sources. The opinions and theories of scholars on this subject matter were analysed and discussed. This work discovered two basic facts as follows:--Medical informatics is embedded in information science and two fields have a meeting point. Secondly, medical informatics as a discipline needs to be studied and understood by health science librarians--a shift that is very much necessary now for him not only to be information container manager but also information "content manager". Medical informatics has come to stay and its understanding becomes imperative on the part of health information broker as this will enhance increase in job performance, productivity and recognition in the organization where he serves.

  12. Statistical concepts in biology and health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahir, Huma; Javaid, Aisha; Rehman, Rehana; Hussain, Zahir

    2014-01-01

    In view of its applied aspects, Statistics serves as a separate mathematical science. In that respect, biostatistics is the application of statistical concepts and methods in biology, public health and medicine. One major task of medical biostatistics is to understand why a disease occurs in certain area and why that disease does not occur in other areas. In general, the advantages for properly applying statistics for a country are to keep the detailed information of people in a country. However, there must in mind be the other face of the task remembering not to adapt these surveys and limited data with entirety for quick applications that might be less advantageous. Some of the programs are much expensive and time consuming and people may feel not comfortable conveying their personal information just for the sake of applying a so called organized procedure. In such conditions, one must consider the moral values as well. Another quite unfortunate fact is that a statistical data can be misused for personal needs of a presenter. There must be ways to eradicate such customs at the governmental level. Basic and higher courses, certificate courses, diploma programs, degree programs, and other opportunities for students can be well organized and can be utilized in various employment areas in industry, government, life sciences, computer science, medicine, public health, education, teaching, research, and survey research. Statisticians, hence, are very important people for establishing various schemes, programs, institutions and organizations in medical and biological sectors.

  13. Data science, learning, and applications to biomedical and health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Nabil R; Wieder, Robert; Ghosh, Debopriya

    2017-01-01

    The last decade has seen an unprecedented increase in the volume and variety of electronic data related to research and development, health records, and patient self-tracking, collectively referred to as Big Data. Properly harnessed, Big Data can provide insights and drive discovery that will accelerate biomedical advances, improve patient outcomes, and reduce costs. However, the considerable potential of Big Data remains unrealized owing to obstacles including a limited ability to standardize and consolidate data and challenges in sharing data, among a variety of sources, providers, and facilities. Here, we discuss some of these challenges and potential solutions, as well as initiatives that are already underway to take advantage of Big Data. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Public access computing in health science libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehm, S

    1987-01-01

    Public access computing in health science libraries began with online computer-assisted instruction. Library-based collections and services have expanded with advances in microcomputing hardware and software. This growth presents problems: copyright, quality, instability in the publishing industry, and uncertainty about collection scope; librarians managing the new services require new skills to support their collections. Many find the cooperative efforts of several organizational units are required. Current trends in technology for the purpose of information management indicate that these services will continue to be a significant focus for libraries.

  15. Introducing health sciences librarians to the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikita, E G; Drusedum, L A

    1993-01-01

    The Internet is no longer just for the adventurous explorers or the technical experts--it has found its way into the mainstream of librarianship. New users are coming onto "the net" in droves. A wealth of information is currently available dealing with the mechanics of the Internet and there are general guides to the available resources. More work needs to be done, however, in developing subject specific materials. This paper will report on the strategy that Scott Memorial Library, Thomas Jefferson University, has employed to develop staff skills and awareness and to take advantage of the resources and opportunities that the network provides for the health sciences community.

  16. GeoHealth: A Transdisciplinary Science Comes of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntee, C.

    2016-12-01

    GeoHealth is a transdisciplinary research discipline that connects Earth and environmental sciences with ecosystem and human health sciences. Geohealth research advances both basic and solutions focused research to address global societal challenges in ecosystem and human health. Some of the areas being addressed by geohealth include toxic substances in water, atmosphere, and soil and their effect on human health and environmental health. Geohealth research has been underway for several decades; several examples of recent prominent research findings include identifying complex exposures to dust in the aftermath of the 9/11 attack on the World Trade Center and a better understanding of toxic exposures from the Gulf oil spill and their health effects on humans and other species both on land and in water. Over the past decade, GeoHealth research output has grown significantly as evidenced by research output in both the volume of meeting abstracts and journal articles and by significant funding commitments by governmental funding agencies around the world. This presentation will provide an overview of scientific research areas encompassed in geohealth, data that demonstrate a nearly 50% increase in geohealth research output between 2010 and 2015, the double digit growth of geohealth research output in AGU meetings and journals, and which countries are currently leading in geohealth research output. An overview of government funding sources for geohealth research both within and outside the United States along with new AGU geohealth initiatives will also be presented.

  17. A hermeneutic science: health economics and Habermas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Neil; Mannion, Russell

    2005-01-01

    Mainstream health economics labours under a misleading understanding of the nature of the topic area and suffers from a concomitant poverty of thinking about theory and method. The purpose here is to explore this critical position and argue that health economics should aspire to being more than a technical discipline. It can, and should, engage with transformative discourse. It is argued that the hermeneutic sciences, emphasising interpretation not instrumentality or domination, offer a route into the change to which one seeks to contribute. The article specifically focuses on the way Habermas provides insights in his approach to knowledge, reason and political economy. How he emphasises complexity and interaction within cultural milieu is explored and primacy is given to preserving the life-world against the encroachments of a narrow rationalization. The argument for a critical re-imagining of health economics is presented in three stages. First, the antecedents, current assumptions and critical voices from contemporary economics and health economics are reviewed. Second, the way in which health is best understood via engaging with the complexity of both the subject itself and the society and culture within which it is embedded is explored. Third, the contribution that hermeneutics, and Habermas' critical theory, could make to a new health economics is examined. The paper offers a radical alternative to health economics. It explores the shortcomings of current thinking and argues an optimistic position. Progress via reason is possible if one reframes both in the direction of communication and in the appreciation of reflexivity and communality. This is a position that resonates with many who challenge prevailing paradigms, in economics and elsewhere.

  18. Exposures Associated with Minority High Schoolers' Predisposition for Health Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekeloo, Bradley O; Todaro Brooks, Alyssa; Qi Wang, Min

    2017-03-01

    We examined modifiable facilitation strategies (exposures) during high school that are associated with motiva- tion for minority youth pursuit of health science. A sample (N = 116) of minority (73% African-American/Black, 21% Hispanic/Latino) 12th graders from 6 high schools in a lower socioeconomic area bordering Washington, DC completed a self-administered survey. Path modeling was used to examine whether: (1) exposures: high school science courses, extra-curricular science activities, personal health experiences, and adult encouragement predict Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) constructs including attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control, and (2) TPB constructs predict the outcome of intent to pursue college health science. The path model indicated that adult encouragement was associated with attitude (p health experiences were associated with attitude (p health experiences to value health scientists and to perceive that others support their pursuit of health science may be pathways for facilitating their intention to pursue college health science.

  19. [Social Sciences and Humanities in Health in ABRASCO: the construction of social theory in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Aurea Maria Zöllner; Spadacio, Cristiane; Barboza, Renato; Alves, Olga Sofia Fabergé; Viana, Sabrina Daniela Lopes; Rocha, Ane Talita

    2014-11-01

    The development of recent social thinking in health in Brazil is associated with the establishment of the Public Health field and the Brazilian Association of Graduate Studies in Public Health (ABRASCO). The area of Social Sciences in Health was created together with the founding of ABRASCO. This article presents the main aspects related to the establishment and institutionalization of Social Sciences in Health in ABRASCO, based on interviews with its presidents and the coordinators of the Social Sciences Committees from 1995 to 2011. The interviews allowed capturing and analyzing the context in which this field was established and its relevance and history in Public Health as a whole, grouped in five analytical categories: (1) the development of Social Sciences and the Humanities in Health; (2) interdisciplinarity in Public Health; (3) the contribution of Social Sciences to Public Health; (4) Social Sciences in Health and the "traditional" Social Sciences; and (5) challenges for Social Sciences and the Humanities in Health.

  20. High Cholesterol and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health NCCIH Clinical Digest for health professionals High Cholesterol and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says ... chemically identical to the active ingredient in the cholesterol-lowering drug lovastatin. Available evidence on the cholesterol- ...

  1. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences: 50 Years of Advancing Science and Improving Lung Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Veena B; Redlich, Carrie A; Pinkerton, Kent E; Balmes, John; Harkema, Jack R

    2016-11-15

    The American Thoracic Society celebrates the 50th anniversary of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). The NIEHS has had enormous impact through its focus on research, training, and translational science on lung health. It has been an advocate for clean air both in the United States and across the world. The cutting-edge science funded by the NIEHS has led to major discoveries that have broadened our understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment for lung disease. Importantly, the NIEHS has developed and fostered mechanisms that require cross-cutting science across the spectrum of areas of inquiry, bringing together environmental and social scientists with clinicians to bring their expertise on specific areas of investigation. The intramural program of the NIEHS nurtures cutting-edge science, and the extramural program encourages investigator-initiated research while at the same time providing broader direction through important initiatives. Under the umbrella of the NIEHS and guided by Dr. Linda Birnbaum, the director of the NIEHS, important collaborative programs, such as the Superfund Program and the National Toxicology Program, work to discover mechanisms to protect from environmental toxins. The American Thoracic Society has overlapping goals with the NIEHS, and the strategic plans of both august bodies converge to synergize on population lung health. These bonds must be tightened and highlighted as we work toward our common goals.

  2. Academic dishonesty among health science school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oran, Nazan Tuna; Can, Hafize Öztürk; Şenol, Selmin; Hadımlı, Aytül Pelik

    2016-12-01

    Academic dishonesty has become a serious problem at institutions of higher learning. What is the frequency of academic dishonesty and what factors affect the tendency of dishonesty among Turkish health science school students? This descriptive and cross-sectional study aims to evaluate academic dishonesty among university nursing, midwifery, and dietetic students. Participants and research context: The study sample consisted of 499 health science students in Turkey. The tendency toward academic dishonesty was investigated using the Academic Dishonesty Tendency Scale. Ethical considerations: Institutional review board approved the study. Written permission was obtained from the researcher to use Turkish version of the Academic Dishonesty Tendency Scale. Of all the students, 80.0% claimed to refer to Internet during homework preparation and 49.1% of students reported to cite the references at the end of article on some instances. Of the students, 56.1% claimed never to have cheated in the exams. It was found that academic dishonesty was partly low (1.80-2.59) in students. For students using a library while doing their homework, mean scores were significantly lower ( p academic dishonesty was lower among students who use Internet and library more frequently. These findings are consistent with previous studies. Measurements to take against academic dishonesty should be directed toward not only students but institutions and instructors as well.

  3. Qualitative Descriptive Methods in Health Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorafi, Karen Jiggins; Evans, Bronwynne

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this methodology paper is to describe an approach to qualitative design known as qualitative descriptive that is well suited to junior health sciences researchers because it can be used with a variety of theoretical approaches, sampling techniques, and data collection strategies. It is often difficult for junior qualitative researchers to pull together the tools and resources they need to embark on a high-quality qualitative research study and to manage the volumes of data they collect during qualitative studies. This paper seeks to pull together much needed resources and provide an overview of methods. A step-by-step guide to planning a qualitative descriptive study and analyzing the data is provided, utilizing exemplars from the authors' research. This paper presents steps to conducting a qualitative descriptive study under the following headings: describing the qualitative descriptive approach, designing a qualitative descriptive study, steps to data analysis, and ensuring rigor of findings. The qualitative descriptive approach results in a summary in everyday, factual language that facilitates understanding of a selected phenomenon across disciplines of health science researchers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Multipollutant health effect simulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Resulting betas (health effects) from a variety of copollutant epidemiologic models used to analyze the impact of exposure measurement error on health effect...

  5. A Paradigm for the Next Millenium: Health Information Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Lewis

    1991-01-01

    Described is a curriculum for a new multidisciplinary science-Health Information Science-that incorporates aspects of computer science, cognitive psychology, bioengineering, biomedical visualization, medicine, dentistry, anthropology, mathematics, library science, and the visual arts. The situation of the medical illustration profession is…

  6. Network science and oral health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupome, Gerardo; McCranie, Ann

    2015-01-01

    The present overview of research methods describes a scientific enquiry paradigm that is well established in other disciplines, including health research, but that is fairly new to oral health research. Social networks analysis (SNA) or network science research is a set of relational methods purporting to identify and characterize the connections between members of a system or network, as well as the structure of the network. Persons and communities making up the members of networks have commonly been the focus of SNA studies but corporations or living organisms might just as well be organized in networks. SNA is grounded in both graphic imagery and computational models. SNA is based on the assumptions that features and structure of networks are amenable to characterization, that such information sheds light on the ways members of the network relate to each other (sharing information, diseases, norms, and so on), and that through these connections between members the overall network structure and characteristics are shaped. The overview resorts to examples specific to oral health themes and proposes a few general avenues for population-based research. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  7. Health Informatics Master Program at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altwaijiri, M; Aldosari, B

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the Health Informatics Master Program at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We have reviewed health informatics master programs worldwide with more emphasis on the recommendations of the International Medical Informatics Association on education in health informatics, research, and faculty/trainee participation at KSAU-HS. An applied health informatics master program has been designed where graduates will be able to deploy information and communication technology in support of health systems' processes. This is due to the fact that most of health organizations are driven by information and communication technology. The program embodies the features of effective applied health informatics master programs recommended by the International Medical Informatics Association on education in health informatics and delineated as curricula integrating three areas of knowledge and skills: 1) Methodology and technology for the processing of data, information and knowledge in medicine and healthcare, 2) Medicine, health and biosciences, and 3) Informatics/computer science, mathematics and biometry. The health informatics master program (MHI) immerses students in the multidisciplinary field of health informatics education. Graduates of the MHI program will be well-prepared informaticians for leadership positions, able to meet the increasing demands in the field of health informatics to manage, plan, develop, and provide expert consultations to the healthcare sectors.

  8. Using systems science for population health management in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Kong, Nan; Lawley, Mark A; Pagán, José A

    2014-10-01

    Population health management is becoming increasingly important to organizations managing and providing primary care services given ongoing changes in health care delivery and payment systems. The objective of this study is to show how systems science methodologies could be incorporated into population health management to compare different interventions and improve health outcomes. The New York Academy of Medicine Cardiovascular Health Simulation model (an agent-based model) and data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to evaluate a lifestyle program that could be implemented in primary care practice settings. The program targeted Medicare-age adults and focused on improving diet and exercise and reducing weight. The simulation results suggest that there would be significant reductions projected in the proportion of the Medicare-age population with diabetes after the implementation of the proposed lifestyle program for a relatively long term (3 and 5 years). Similar results were found for the subpopulations with high cholesterol, but the proposed intervention would not have a significant effect in the proportion of the population with hypertension over a time period of science methodologies can be useful to compare the health outcomes of different interventions. These tools can become an important component of population health management because they can help managers and other decision makers evaluate alternative programs in primary care settings. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Impact of regulatory science on global public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghal Patel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory science plays a vital role in protecting and promoting global public health by providing the scientific basis for ensuring that food and medical products are safe, properly labeled, and effective. Regulatory science research was first developed for the determination of product safety in the early part of the 20th Century, and continues to support innovation of the processes needed for regulatory policy decisions. Historically, public health laws and regulations were enacted following public health tragedies, and often the research tools and techniques required to execute these laws lagged behind the public health needs. Throughout history, similar public health problems relating to food and pharmaceutical products have occurred in countries around the world, and have usually led to the development of equivalent solutions. For example, most countries require a demonstration of pharmaceutical safety and efficacy prior to marketing these products using approaches that are similar to those initiated in the United States. The globalization of food and medical products has created a shift in regulatory compliance such that gaps in food and medical product safety can generate international problems. Improvements in regulatory research can advance the regulatory paradigm toward a more preventative, proactive framework. These improvements will advance at a greater pace with international collaboration by providing additional resources and new perspectives for approaching and anticipating public health problems. The following is a review of how past public health disasters have shaped the current regulatory landscape, and where innovation can facilitate the shift from reactive policies to proactive policies.

  10. [Various necessary steps in clarification of relationships between health care science, medical science and nursing science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa da Silva, A

    1991-01-01

    The article asserts that a scientific discipline is defined by both its object of research or knowledge (domain) and its specific or adequate method. An appropriate definition should fulfill other necessary conditions implicit in certain fundamental rules of definition, e.g., a definition should not be too narrow or too broad. It should also respect well established uses of language, in which the concept to be defined may already have a given meaning. In Scandinavia there are three words used for the Science of Health Care. "Vårdvetenskap" e.g., is used both in Sweden and Finland. In Finland it is used to convey the view that care is essential to Man, and a holistic concept of Man/Health. So demarcated, Vårdvetenskapen complements Medicine which ontologically reduces Man to biochemistry and sickness to disease. To fulfill this function the Science of health Care should be humanistic and interdisciplinary, and not purely empirico-positivistic like Medicine.

  11. Dual pricing of health sciences periodicals: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D R; Jensen, J E

    1980-01-01

    A survey of dual pricing practices among publishers of health-related journals identified 281 periodicals with an average price differential of over 100% between individual and institutional subscription rates. Both the practice itself and the amount of the differential are increasing, indicating that journal subscriptions of health sciences libraries increasingly provide the financial support necessary for the publication of health sciences journals. Dual pricing is also correlated with copyright royalties. The problems that dual pricing creates for health sciences libraries' budgets are due in part to uncritical purchasing by libraries. Increased consumerism on the part of health science librarians is recommended. PMID:7437588

  12. Health Science Career Education for Minority Junior High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nancy J.; Cohen, Ellen J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes and evaluates a health science career education program in which eighth- and ninth-grade minority students fulfill their science requirement by attending lecture and laboratory sessions at a Manhattan medical center and working individually with a professional. (DC)

  13. African Journal of Oral Health Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The African Journal of Oral Health Sciences is devoted to research into oral diseases and encourages a multidisciplinary approach. Emphasis is on oral pathology, oral microbiology, oral medicine, oral physiology and biochemistry and related clinical sciences.

  14. 78 FR 26026 - Draft Plan for Development of the Integrated Science Assessment for Nitrogen Oxides-Health Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... AGENCY Draft Plan for Development of the Integrated Science Assessment for Nitrogen Oxides--Health... Science Assessment for Nitrogen Oxides--Health Criteria.'' The draft document was prepared by the National... Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for the health effects of nitrogen oxides (NO X ), which will provide a...

  15. Distance learning approach to train health sciences students at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The University of Nairobi (UoN) College of Health Sciences (CHS) established Partnership for Innovative Medical Education in Kenya (PRIME-K) programmeme to enhance health outcomes in Kenya through extending the reach of medical training outside Nairobi to help health sciences students enhance their ...

  16. International trends in health science librarianship part 20: Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jeannette; Jargin, Serge

    2017-03-01

    This is the last in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is Russia. The next feature column will initiate a new series entitled New Directions in Health Science Librarianship. The first contribution will be from Australia. JM. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.

  17. Digital reference service: trends in academic health science libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Cheryl R

    2005-01-01

    Two years after the initial 2002 study, a greater number of academic health science libraries are offering digital reference chat services, and this number appears poised to grow in the coming years. This 2004 follow-up study found that 36 (27%) of the academic health science libraries examined provide digital chat reference services; this was an approximately 6% increase over the 25 libraries (21%) located in 2002. Trends in digital reference services in academic health science libraries were derived from the exploration of academic health science library Web sites and from digital correspondence with academic health science library personnel using e-mail and chat. This article presents an overview of the current state of digital reference service in academic health science libraries.

  18. Reinventing a health sciences digital library--organizational impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Margaret E; Garrison, Scott; Hayes, Barrie; McLendon, Wallace

    2003-01-01

    What is the organizational impact of becoming a digital library, as well as a physical entity with facilities and collections? Is the digital library an add-on or an integrated component of the overall library package? Librarians see sweeping environmental and technological changes. The staff members feel exhilarated and challenged by the pressures to adapt quickly and effectively. Librarians recognize that a Web presence, like other technology components, must be continuously enhanced and regularly re-engineered. The Health Sciences Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, is reinventing its digital presence to better meet the needs of the community. This paper provides a case study focusing on major changes in planning processes, organizational structure, staffing, budgeting, training, communications, and operations at the Health Sciences Library.

  19. Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Gajšek

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Devices that emit electromagnetic fields (EMF have become a part of our daily life and can be found in telecommunications, industry, traffic, science, medicine and in every household. Due to the fact that general public is massively exposed to the EMF, even very small health effects could become a serious public health problem. Many studies show that the EMF above a certain threshold can have a negative health impact. The studies, which could explain the question of health risks as a result of chronic exposure to low intensities, are often contradictory and deficient. In this review the state of the art in the field of health risks associated with the EMF exposure in our environment is presented.

  20. Human Health and the Biological Effects of Tritium in Drinking Water: Prudent Policy Through Science – Addressing the ODWAC New Recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingwall, S.; Mills, C.E.; Phan, N.; Taylor, K.; Boreham, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    tritium exposure at 20 Bq/L would be orders of magnitude less than that from exposure to natural background sources of radiation. The new proposed standard would set the radiation dose limit for drinking water to 0.0003 mSv/year, which is equivalent to approximately three times the dose from naturally occurring tritium in drinking water. This new standard is incongruent with national and international standards for safe levels of radiation exposure, currently set at 1 mSv/year for the general public. Scientific research from leading authorities on the carcinogenic health effects of tritium exposure supports the notion that the current standard of 7,000 Bq/L (annual dose of 0.1 mSv) is a safe standard for human health. Policy-making for the purpose of regulating tritium levels in drinking water is a dynamic multi-stage process that is influenced by more than science alone. Ethics, economics, and public perception also play important roles in policy development; however, these factors sometimes undermine the scientific evidence that should form the basis of informed decision making. Consequently, implementing a new standard without a scientific basis may lead the public to perceive that risks from tritium have been historically underestimated. It was concluded that the new recommendation is not supported by any new scientific insight regarding negative consequences of low dose effects, and may be contrary to new data on the potential benefits of low dose effects. Given the lack of cost versus benefit analysis, this type of dramatic policy change could have detrimental effects to society from an ethical, economical, and public perception perspective. PMID:21431084

  1. EFFECTIVE INDICATORS FOR SCIENCE INTERNATIONALIZATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Melo, José Renan da

    2015-01-01

    To review of concepts and actions that aim to analyze the effects of internationalization of science and education, with emphasis in the medical field and its basement in development policies adopted by nations, exploring the potential for international interdisciplinary cooperation of each laboratory, department, university or institute. Search of indicators to assess the degree of internationalization of universities and research institutes in several interconnected levels: organizational, regional, sectoral and global, and policy-making in science, technology innovation and higher education. Scientific research is still carried out individually, but is now much more closely integrated with other social processes. The scientist is no longer a stranger who is allowed to surrender to his hobby to do what it wants. Internationalization of research and medical education, although it is among the topics of greatest need, as the globalized world, is difficult activity to be assessed. The leaders seem to have understood that the knowledge societies, leading to economic policy based on knowledge, can result in economic and social progress of nations. This fact has motivated increasingly the incentive to actions aimed at addressing global problems (eg health, climate change) by funding research that generates new knowledge. The consensus is that the internationalization of science is desirable and necessary for the sustainable development of nations. However it cannot be done only by encouraging and promoting the outward students and researchers abroad. It is necessary, in addition, offer conditions to foreign researchers and students teachers to work in collaboration with Brazilian and raise the country to international scientific standards. Apresentar revisão dos conceitos e ações que objetivam analisar os efeitos da internacionalização da ciência e da educação, com ênfase na área médica e seu embasamento nas políticas de desenvolvimento adotadas pelas na

  2. Operational Health Physics-Science or Philosophy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M. W.

    2004-07-01

    Operational health physics is concerned with protecting workers and the public from harm due to ionizing radiation. This requires the application of philosophy (ethics) as well as science. Operational health physics philosophy has been dominated by the ICRP. A particular aspect of ICRP's philosophy that is often misunderstood is (As low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account). (ALARA) Although the ALARA philosophy has been interpreted as a cost-benefit approach it is in fact a risk-benefit approach including social considerations as the ICRP has emphasised from time to time. A recent report has accused the ICRP of using a discarded philosophical approach, namely Utilitarianism, as a result of which its recommendations are unethical. The report suggests that a (rights) based philosophy such as Rawls' Theory of Justice would be a more appropriate basis. This paper discusses this accusation, considers some relevant philosophies and concludes that the accusation is not valid and that ICRP's recommendations are ethical but are frequently misinterpreted. (Author)

  3. Implementation Science to Accelerate Clean Cooking for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Joshua; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Bruce, Nigel; Chambers, David; Graham, Jay; Jack, Darby; Kline, Lydia; Masera, Omar; Mehta, Sumi; Mercado, Ilse Ruiz; Neta, Gila; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Puzzolo, Elisa; Petach, Helen; Punturieri, Antonello; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Sage, Michael; Sturke, Rachel; Shankar, Anita; Sherr, Kenny; Smith, Kirk; Yadama, Gautam

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Clean cooking has emerged as a major concern for global health and development because of the enormous burden of disease caused by traditional cookstoves and fires. The World Health Organization has developed new indoor air quality guidelines that few homes will be able to achieve without replacing traditional methods with modern clean cooking technologies, including fuels and stoves. However, decades of experience with improved stove programs indicate that the challenge of modernizing cooking in impoverished communities includes a complex, multi-sectoral set of problems that require implementation research. The National Institutes of Health, in partnership with several government agencies and the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, has launched the Clean Cooking Implementation Science Network that aims to address this issue. In this article, our focus is on building a knowledge base to accelerate scale-up and sustained use of the cleanest technologies in low- and middle-income countries. Implementation science provides a variety of analytical and planning tools to enhance effectiveness of clinical and public health interventions. These tools are being integrated with a growing body of knowledge and new research projects to yield new methods, consensus tools, and an evidence base to accelerate improvements in health promised by the renewed agenda of clean cooking. PMID:28055947

  4. Meeting global health challenges through operational research and management science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royston, Geoff

    2011-09-01

    This paper considers how operational research and management science can improve the design of health systems and the delivery of health care, particularly in low-resource settings. It identifies some gaps in the way operational research is typically used in global health and proposes steps to bridge them. It then outlines some analytical tools of operational research and management science and illustrates how their use can inform some typical design and delivery challenges in global health. The paper concludes by considering factors that will increase and improve the contribution of operational research and management science to global health.

  5. Meeting global health challenges through operational research and management science

    OpenAIRE

    Royston, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers how operational research and management science can improve the design of health systems and the delivery of health care, particularly in low-resource settings. It identifies some gaps in the way operational research is typically used in global health and proposes steps to bridge them. It then outlines some analytical tools of operational research and management science and illustrates how their use can inform some typical design and delivery challenges in global health. ...

  6. Experiences of health science students during clinical placements at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Clinical placement is an essential component of training in health sciences because it is where theory and practice interface. Objective: To explore experiences of health sciences students during clinical placement in terms of supervision, challenges and coping strategies. Design: It was a cross sectional survey ...

  7. African Health Sciences Vol 9 Special Issue.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    African Health Sciences Vol 9 Special Issue 1 August 2009. S35. Adaptation of the multidimensional scale of perceived social support in a Ugandan setting. Janet Nakigudde1, Seggane Musisi1, Anna Ehnvall3, Eija Airaksinen4, Hans Agren5. 1Department of Psychiatry, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, ...

  8. Survey of audiovisual standards and practices in health sciences libraries.

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, J

    1983-01-01

    A survey of audiovisual (AV) practices in health sciences libraries was conducted by the Audiovisual Standards and Practices Committee of the Medical Library Association. The objective was to determine the variety and extent of AV practices currently in use in health sciences libraries, as a preliminary step toward developing AV standards.

  9. Eating, drinking and physical activity in Faculty of Health Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-29

    Jan 29, 2015 ... Original Research: Eating, drinking and physical activity in Faculty of Health Science students compared to other students. 2015 ... of milk per day. Although not significant, fewer Health Science students (4%) than students of other faculties (9%) consumed alcohol more than .... behaviour by young adults.13 ...

  10. Towards a Common Understanding of the Health Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, G; Rubinelli, S; Reinhardt, J D; Bickenbach, J E

    2016-09-01

    The aim of health sciences is to maintain and improve the health of individuals and populations and to limit disability. Health research has expanded astoundingly over the last century and a variety of scientific disciplines rooted in very different scientific and intellectual traditions has contributed to these goals. To allow health scientists to fully contextualize their work and engage in interdisciplinary research, a common understanding of the health sciences is needed. The aim of this paper is to respond to the call of the 1986 Ottawa Charter to improve health care by looking both within and beyond health and health care, and to use the opportunity offered by WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) for a universal operationalization of health, in order to develop a common understanding and conceptualization of the field of health sciences that account for its richness and vitality. A critical analysis of health sciences based on WHO's ICF, on WHO's definition of health systems and on the content and methodological approaches promoted by the biological, clinical and socio-humanistic traditions engaged in health research. The field of health sciences is presented according to: 1) a specification of the content of the field in terms of people's health needs and the societal response to them, 2) a meta-level framework to exhaustively represent the range of mutually recognizable scientific disciplines engaged in health research and 3) a heuristic framework for the specification of a set of shared methodological approaches relevant across the range of these disciplines. This conceptualization of health sciences is offered to contextualize the work of health researchers, thereby fostering interdisciplinarity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. 78 FR 18359 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis....nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis...

  12. 78 FR 59944 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Branch, Division of Extramural Research and Training, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences...

  13. 77 FR 6569 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Special Emphasis... Branch, Division of Extramural Research and Training, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences...

  14. 77 FR 26300 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... and projects conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, including.... Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W. Alexander Drive...

  15. 78 FR 64221 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. ] Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis...: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences...

  16. 76 FR 26311 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Manpower Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental...

  17. 77 FR 40076 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Branch, Division of Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P...

  18. 78 FR 59042 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... and projects conducted by the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES, including... Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle...

  19. 78 FR 42968 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101...

  20. 77 FR 61771 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Environmental Health Sciences Review Committee. Date: November 15... Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W. Alexander Drive...

  1. 78 FR 26793 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Keystone...

  2. 77 FR 33472 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Administrator, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Office of Program Operations, Scientific Review...

  3. 77 FR 22793 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Branch, Division of Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P...

  4. 76 FR 5184 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis.... Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences...

  5. 77 FR 61613 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2012-10-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Branch, Division of Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Institute Environmental Health Sciences, P. O...

  6. 76 FR 52672 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis.... Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences...

  7. 76 FR 63311 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section... Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Review of Worker... Review Administrator, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Office of Program Operations...

  8. 77 FR 16844 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... . Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Marine...

  9. 76 FR 27653 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Review Branch, Division of Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Institute Environmental Health Sciences...

  10. 78 FR 32672 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS... that the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Division of Extramural Research... Division. Organizing Institute: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Dates and Times: June...

  11. 76 FR 19378 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ...: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis...

  12. 77 FR 9673 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... and projects conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, including... Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle...

  13. 76 FR 57065 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... and projects conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, including.... Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W...

  14. 77 FR 5261 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis..., Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Office of Program Operations, Scientific Review...

  15. 76 FR 59147 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice..., Director, Division of Extramural Research and Training, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences..., Director, Division of Extramural Research and Training, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences...

  16. 77 FR 60448 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice... and projects conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, including...:50 a.m. Agenda: Scientific Presentations Place: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences...

  17. 77 FR 21788 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice...., Director, Division of Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences... Manpower Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental...

  18. 78 FR 18997 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... and projects conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, including..., Neuropharmacology and Human Metabolism Groups. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101...

  19. Arsenic and Environmental Health: State of the Science and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Exposure to inorganic and organic arsenic compounds is a major public health problem that affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Exposure to arsenic is associated with cancer and noncancer effects in nearly every organ in the body, and evidence is mounting for health effects at lower levels of arsenic exposure than previously thought. Building from a tremendous knowledge base with > 1,000 scientific papers published annually with “arsenic” in the title, the question becomes, what questions would best drive future research directions? Objectives: The objective is to discuss emerging issues in arsenic research and identify data gaps across disciplines. Methods: The National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program convened a workshop to identify emerging issues and research needs to address the multi-faceted challenges related to arsenic and environmental health. This review summarizes information captured during the workshop. Discussion: More information about aggregate exposure to arsenic is needed, including the amount and forms of arsenic found in foods. New strategies for mitigating arsenic exposures and related health effects range from engineered filtering systems to phytogenetics and nutritional interventions. Furthermore, integration of omics data with mechanistic and epidemiological data is a key step toward the goal of linking biomarkers of exposure and suscepti

  20. Cognitive computing and eScience in health and life science research: artificial intelligence and obesity intervention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Thomas; Champagne-Langabeer, Tiffiany; Castelli, Darla; Hoelscher, Deanna

    2017-12-01

    To present research models based on artificial intelligence and discuss the concept of cognitive computing and eScience as disruptive factors in health and life science research methodologies. The paper identifies big data as a catalyst to innovation and the development of artificial intelligence, presents a framework for computer-supported human problem solving and describes a transformation of research support models. This framework includes traditional computer support; federated cognition using machine learning and cognitive agents to augment human intelligence; and a semi-autonomous/autonomous cognitive model, based on deep machine learning, which supports eScience. The paper provides a forward view of the impact of artificial intelligence on our human-computer support and research methods in health and life science research. By augmenting or amplifying human task performance with artificial intelligence, cognitive computing and eScience research models are discussed as novel and innovative systems for developing more effective adaptive obesity intervention programs.

  1. Health sciences libraries in the United States: new directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Barbara A

    2017-12-01

    This article is the third in a series in this regular feature. The intention of the series is to look at important global developments in health science libraries. These articles will serve as a road map, describing the key changes in the field and exploring factors driving these changes. The present article by the current president of the Medical Library Association outlines two important developments in the United States. The topics chosen for consideration are national initiatives in the United States impacting health sciences libraries and librarians and enhanced roles for U.S. health sciences librarians in providing support for research. J.M. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.

  2. Social Science-Environmental Health Collaborations: An Exciting New Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Jacob; Brown, Phil; Brody, Julia

    2016-08-22

    The Social Science-Environmental Health Collaborations Conference in May 2016 was a unique gathering of scholars from the social sciences and environmental health sciences, government agency professionals, community organizers and activists, and students. Conference participants described the research and practice of environmental public health as done through a transdisciplinary lens and with a community-based participatory research/community-engaged research model. NIEHS' role in supporting such work has helped create a growing number of social and environmental health scientists who cross boundaries as they work with each other and with community-based organizations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Sustaining librarian vitality: embedded librarianship model for health sciences libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin; Mi, Misa

    2013-01-01

    With biomedical information widely accessible from anywhere at any time, health sciences libraries have become less centralized, and they are challenged to stay relevant and vital to the mission and strategic goals of their home institution. One solution is to embed librarians at strategic points in health professions' education, research, and patient care. This article discusses a proposed five-level model of embedded librarianship within the context of health sciences libraries and describes different roles, knowledge, and skills desirable for health sciences librarians working as embedded librarians.

  4. Applied Statistics for the Social and Health Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, Rachel A A

    2012-01-01

    Applied Statistics for the Social and Health Sciences provides graduate students in the social and health sciences with the basic skills that they need to estimate, interpret, present, and publish statistical models using contemporary standards. The book targets the social and health science branches such as human development, public health, sociology, psychology, education, and social work in which students bring a wide range of mathematical skills and have a wide range of methodological affinities. For these students, a successful course in statistics will not only offer statistical content

  5. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides – Health Criteria (Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SOx ISA reviews information on atmospheric science, exposure, dosimetry, mode of action, and health effects related to sulfur oxides and sulfur dioxide (SO2), including evidence from controlled human exposure, epidemiologic, and toxicological studies.

  6. Health Information Needs and Reliability of Sources Among Nondegree Health Sciences Students: A Prerequisite for Designing eHealth Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruna, Hussein; Tshuma, Ndumiso; Hu, Xiao

    Understanding health information needs and health-seeking behavior is a prerequisite for developing an electronic health information literacy (EHIL) or eHealth literacy program for nondegree health sciences students. At present, interest in researching health information needs and reliable sources paradigms has gained momentum in many countries. However, most studies focus on health professionals and students in higher education institutions. The present study was aimed at providing new insight and filling the existing gap by examining health information needs and reliability of sources among nondegree health sciences students in Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 15 conveniently selected health training institutions, where 403 health sciences students were participated. Thirty health sciences students were both purposely and conveniently chosen from each health-training institution. The selected students were pursuing nursing and midwifery, clinical medicine, dentistry, environmental health sciences, pharmacy, and medical laboratory sciences courses. Involved students were either in their first year, second year, or third year of study. Health sciences students' health information needs focus on their educational requirements, clinical practice, and personal information. They use print, human, and electronic health information. They lack eHealth research skills in navigating health information resources and have insufficient facilities for accessing eHealth information, a lack of specialists in health information, high costs for subscription electronic information, and unawareness of the availability of free Internet and other online health-related databases. This study found that nondegree health sciences students have limited skills in EHIL. Thus, designing and incorporating EHIL skills programs into the curriculum of nondegree health sciences students is vital. EHIL is a requirement common to all health settings, learning environments, and

  7. Systemic hydration: relating science to clinical practice in vocal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Naomi A; Thibeault, Susan L

    2014-09-01

    To examine the current state of the science regarding the role of systemic hydration in vocal function and health. Literature review. Literature search spanning multiple disciplines, including speech-language pathology, nutrition and dietetics, medicine, sports and exercise science, physiology, and biomechanics. The relationship between hydration and physical function is an area of common interest among multiple professions. Each discipline provides valuable insight into the connection between performance and water balance, as well as complimentary methods of investigation. Existing voice literature suggests a relationship between hydration and voice production; however, the underlying mechanisms are not yet defined and a treatment effect for systemic hydration remains to be demonstrated. Literature from other disciplines sheds light on methodological shortcomings and, in some cases, offers an alternative explanation for observed phenomena. A growing body of literature in the field of voice science is documenting a relationship between hydration and vocal function; however, greater understanding is required to guide best practice in the maintenance of vocal health and management of voice disorders. Integration of knowledge and technical expertise from multiple disciplines facilitates analysis of existing literature and provides guidance as to future research. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Systemic Hydration: Relating Science to Clinical Practice in Vocal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Naomi A.; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the current state of the science regarding the role of systemic hydration in vocal function and health. Study Design Literature Review Methods Literature search spanning multiple disciplines, including speech-language pathology, nutrition and dietetics, medicine, sports and exercise science, physiology and biomechanics. Results The relationship between hydration and physical function is an area of common interest amongst multiple professions. Each discipline provides valuable insight into the connection between performance and water balance, as well as complimentary methods of investigation. Existing voice literature suggests a relationship between hydration and voice production, however the underlying mechanisms are not yet defined and a treatment effect for systemic hydration remains to be demonstrated. Literature from other disciplines sheds light on methodological shortcomings and in some cases offers an alternative explanation for observed phenomena. Conclusions A growing body of literature in the field of voice science is documenting a relationship between hydration and vocal function, however greater understanding is required to guide best practice in the maintenance of vocal health and management of voice disorders. Integration of knowledge and technical expertise from multiple disciplines facilitates analysis of existing literature and provides guidance as to future research. PMID:24880674

  9. A current perspective on medical informatics and health sciences librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Gerald J; Roderer, Nancy K; Assar, Soraya

    2005-04-01

    The article offers a current perspective on medical informatics and health sciences librarianship. The authors: (1) discuss how definitions of medical informatics have changed in relation to health sciences librarianship and the broader domain of information science; (2) compare the missions of health sciences librarianship and health sciences informatics, reviewing the characteristics of both disciplines; (3) propose a new definition of health sciences informatics; (4) consider the research agendas of both disciplines and the possibility that they have merged; and (5) conclude with some comments about actions and roles for health sciences librarians to flourish in the biomedical information environment of today and tomorrow. Boundaries are disappearing between the sources and types of and uses for health information managed by informaticians and librarians. Definitions of the professional domains of each have been impacted by these changes in information. Evolving definitions reflect the increasingly overlapping research agendas of both disciplines. Professionals in these disciplines are increasingly functioning collaboratively as "boundary spanners," incorporating human factors that unite technology with health care delivery.

  10. Research methods from social science can contribute much to the health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensing, Michel

    2008-06-01

    Research methods from social science, such as social network analysis, random coefficient modeling, and advanced measurement techniques, can contribute much to the health sciences. There is, however, a slow rate of transmission of social science methodology into the health sciences. This paper identifies some of the barriers for adoption and proposes ideas for the future. Commentary. Contributions of social science to the health sciences are not always recognized as such. It may help if the professional profile of social science in the health sciences would be higher and if its focus would be more on making useful predictions. Clinical epidemiologists may assume that their discipline includes all relevant methods and that social science is largely based on qualitative research. These perceptions need to be challenged in order to widen the scope of clinical epidemiology and include relevant methods from other sciences. New methods help to ask new research questions and to provide better to old questions. This paper has sketched challenges for both social science researchers and clinical epidemiologists.

  11. The pivotal role of the social sciences in environmental health sciences research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Symma; Collman, Gwen

    2016-09-06

    Environmental health sciences research seeks to elucidate environmental factors that put human health at risk. A primary aim is to develop strategies to prevent or reduce exposures and disease occurrence. Given this primary focus on prevention, environmental health sciences research focuses on the populations most at risk such as communities of color and/or low socioeconomic status. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences research programs incorporate the principles of Community-Based Participatory Research to study health disparities. These programs promote community engagement, culturally appropriate communications with a variety of stakeholders, and consideration of the social determinants of health that interact with environmental factors to increase risk. Multidisciplinary research teams that include social and behavioral scientists are essential to conduct this type of research. This article outlines the history of social and behavioral research funding at National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and offers examples of National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences-funded projects that exemplify the value of social science to the environmental health sciences. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Appy Hour: Health Sciences Professionals Learn About Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casucci, Tallie; Gregory, Joan M; Shipman, Jean P

    2016-01-01

    Appy Hour is a recurring event hosted by an academic health sciences library featuring apps that are informally presented and demonstrated by invited speakers. The audience is encouraged to ask questions during the presentation of the featured app(s). This event provides learning and networking opportunities for health sciences faculty, staff, students, and health care professionals. This article illustrates the process for hosting the event, shares lessons learned, and discusses possible future directions to gain a wider audience.

  13. African Health Sciences - Equinet.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brian

    of Public-Private Partnerships Addressing Access to. Pharmaceuticals in Low Income Countries: Uganda Pilot. Study. Geneva: The Initiative on Public-Private Partnerships for Health, Global Forum for Health Research; 2003; 10-. 11. 10) Uganda Ministry of Health. National Health Policy. Ministry of Health, Kampala Uganda; ...

  14. Tibetan medicine: a complementary science of optimal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Joseph J; Blackhall, Leslie J; Rapgay, Lobsang

    2009-08-01

    Traditional medical systems are challenging because their theories and practices strike many conventionally trained physicians and researchers as incomprehensible. Should modern medicine dismiss them as unscientific, view them as sources of alternatives hidden in a matrix of superstition, or regard them as complementary sciences of medicine? We make the latter argument using the example of Tibetan medicine. Tibetan medicine is based on analytic models and methods that are rationally defined, internally coherent, and make testable predictions, meeting current definitions of "science." A ninth century synthesis of Indian, Chinese, Himalayan, and Greco-Persian traditions, Tibetan medicine is the most comprehensive form of Eurasian healthcare and the world's first integrative medicine. Incorporating rigorous systems of meditative self-healing and ascetic self-care from India, it includes a world-class paradigm of mind/body and preventive medicine. Adapting the therapeutic philosophy and contemplative science of Indian Buddhism to the quality of secular life and death, it features the world's most effective systems of positive and palliative healthcare. Based on qualitative theories and intersubjective methods, it involves predictions and therapies shown to be more accurate and effective than those of modern medicine in fields from physiology and pharmacology to neuroscience, mind/body medicine, and positive health. The possibility of complementary sciences follows from the latest view of science as a set of tools--instruments of social activity based on learned agreement in aims and methods--rather than as a monolith of absolute truth. Implications of this pluralistic outlook for medical research and practice are discussed.

  15. International trends in health science librarianship part 17: a comparison of health science libraries with academic and research libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jeannette

    2015-12-01

    Over the last 4 years this Regular Feature has looked at trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. Although there are still a few more regions to be covered in this series, this issue explores general trends in academic and research libraries with a view to discovering whether the trends identified for health science libraries are similar. Are health science libraries unique? Or do their experiences mirror those found in the wider world of academic and research libraries? © 2015 Health Libraries Group.

  16. Online interprofessional health sciences education: From theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Robert; Solomon, Patty; Baptiste, Sue; Hall, Pippa; Orchard, Carole; Rukholm, Ellen; Carter, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    Online learning (e-learning) has a nascent but established history. Its application to interprofessional education (IPE), however, is relatively new. Over the past 2 decades the Internet has been used increasingly to mediate education. We have come past the point of "should we use the Internet for education" to "how should we use the Internet for education." Research has begun on the optimal development of online learning environments to support IPE. Developing online IPE should follow best practices in e-learning generally, though there are some special considerations for acknowledging the interprofessional context and clinical environments that online IPE is designed to support. The design, development, and deployment of effective online IPE must therefore pay special attention to the particular constraints of the health care worker educational matrix, both pre- and postlicensure. In this article we outline the design of online, interprofessional health sciences education. Our work has involved 4 educational and 4 clinical service institutions. We establish the context in which we situate our development activities that created learning modules designed to support IPE and its transfer into new interprofessional health care practices. We illustrate some best practices for the design of effective online IPE, and show how this design can create effective learning for IPE. Challenges exist regarding the full implementation of interprofessional clinical practice that are beginning to be met by coordinated efforts of multiple health care education silos.

  17. Using design science and artificial intelligence to improve health communication: ChronologyMD case example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, Linda; Kreps, Gary L; Morrison, Kathleen; Athanasoulis, Marcos; Kirienko, Nikolai; Van Brunt, Deryk

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes how design science theory and methods and use of artificial intelligence (AI) components can improve the effectiveness of health communication. We identified key weaknesses of traditional health communication and features of more successful eHealth/AI communication. We examined characteristics of the design science paradigm and the value of its user-centered methods to develop eHealth/AI communication. We analyzed a case example of the participatory design of AI components in the ChronologyMD project intended to improve management of Crohn's disease. eHealth/AI communication created with user-centered design shows improved relevance to users' needs for personalized, timely and interactive communication and is associated with better health outcomes than traditional approaches. Participatory design was essential to develop ChronologyMD system architecture and software applications that benefitted patients. AI components can greatly improve eHealth/AI communication, if designed with the intended audiences. Design science theory and its iterative, participatory methods linked with traditional health communication theory and methods can create effective AI health communication. eHealth/AI communication researchers, developers and practitioners can benefit from a holistic approach that draws from theory and methods in both design sciences and also human and social sciences to create successful AI health communication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Arts-Informed Research Dissemination in the Health Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Lapum

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Arts-informed dissemination of health care research is an emerging field of scholarship. Our team chose to use the arts as a means to disseminate findings from a study about patients’ experiences of open-heart surgery and recovery. We transformed patients’ stories, gathered through interviews and journal writings, into poetry and photographic imagery and displayed this within a 1,739 ft2 art installation titled “The 7,024th Patient.” Our intention was to use the arts as dissemination method that could convey the sentiments and perspectives of patients. To evaluate this novel method of dissemination in the health sciences, we conducted a study to analyze its effect on viewers. We used a narrative methodology with a multimodal theoretical lens. Thirty-four individuals participated in either an individual interview or a focus group. In addition, more than 200 anonymous, written comments were generated at research stations placed throughout the installation. In this article, we present the findings. Participants found this art installation of poetry and imagery to be a valid, meaningful, and authentic representation of patients’ experiences. They also described being immersed into patients’ journeys and evoking self-reflection. Based on this research, arts-informed dissemination is a powerful medium to report findings. Our work provides empirical evidence that expands the different ways to distribute research in the health and social sciences.

  19. The flipped classroom: practices and opportunities for health sciences librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngkin, C Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The "flipped classroom" instructional model is being introduced into medical and health sciences curricula to provide greater efficiency in curriculum delivery and produce greater opportunity for in-depth class discussion and problem solving among participants. As educators employ the flipped classroom to invert curriculum delivery and enhance learning, health sciences librarians are also starting to explore the flipped classroom model for library instruction. This article discusses how academic and health sciences librarians are using the flipped classroom and suggests opportunities for this model to be further explored for library services.

  20. Educational technologies in health sciences libraries: teaching technology skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Emily J

    2014-01-01

    As technology rapidly changes, libraries remain go-to points for education and technology skill development. In academic health sciences libraries, trends suggest librarians provide more training on technology topics than ever before. While education and training have always been roles for librarians, providing technology training on new mobile devices and emerging systems requires class creation and training capabilities that are new to many librarians. To appeal to their users, many health sciences librarians are interested in developing technology-based classes. This column explores the question: what skills are necessary for developing and teaching technology in an academic health sciences library setting?

  1. Educational Technologies in Health Science Libraries: Teaching Technology Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Emily J.

    2014-01-01

    As technology rapidly changes, libraries remain go-to points for education and technology skill development. In academic health sciences libraries, trends suggest librarians provide more training on technology topics than ever before. While education and training have always been roles for librarians, providing technology training on new mobile devices and emerging systems requires class creation and training capabilities that are new to many. To appeal to their users, many health sciences librarians are interested in developing technology-based classes. This column explores the question: what skills are necessary for developing and teaching technology in an academic health sciences library setting? PMID:24528269

  2. Advancing Environmental Health: A Ballroom Dance Between Human Health and Earth Sciences Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A.

    2016-12-01

    The mission of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) is to discover how the environment affects people in order to promote healthier lives. Translation of this mission into a meaningful reality entails extensive interdisciplinary interactions, expertise, and collaborations between the traditional health and earth sciences communities. Efforts to advance our understanding of adverse effects and illness associated with environmental factors requires not only a refined understanding of the biological mechanisms and pathways (e.g., inflammation, epigenetic changes, oxidative stress, mutagenesis, etc.) related to function and disease, but also the incredibly broad and complex environmental exposures and systems that influence these processes. Further complicating efforts to understand such interactions is the need to take into account individual susceptibility to disease across the human life span. While it is clear that environmental exposures can be readily linked to disease in individuals and to disproportionate health disparities in populations, the underlying risk factors for such findings are often elusive. Health and earth scientists have a long tradition of crossing their scientific divides to work together on a wide range of problems and issues, including disasters. Emergency situations, such as the environmental asbestos contamination in Libby, Montana, the Gulf Oil Spill, numerous chemical releases into air and water, wildfires, the World Trade Center Attack, and responses to Ebola, and now Zika, demand the collective expertise of the "environmental health sciences enterprise" to protect the public's health, facilitate recovery, and improve future preparedness. Furthermore, such high visibility efforts stand as a clear example of what human and earth sciences research can accomplish when transformative interdisciplinary approaches and a diverse well-trained cadre of scientists dance together on the ballroom floor.

  3. Health Effects of Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pet Shelters Protect Your Pets Health Effects of Tsunamis Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... environmental hazards. The majority of deaths associated with tsunamis are related to drownings, but traumatic injuries are ...

  4. The health sciences librarian in medical education: a vital pathways project task force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Diane G.; Blobaum, Paul M.; Shipman, Jean P.; Markwell, Linda Garr; Marshall, Joanne Gard

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The Medical Education Task Force of the Task Force on Vital Pathways for Hospital Librarians reviewed current and future roles of health sciences librarians in medical education at the graduate and undergraduate levels and worked with national organizations to integrate library services, education, and staff into the requirements for training medical students and residents. Methods: Standards for medical education accreditation programs were studied, and a literature search was conducted on the topic of the role of the health sciences librarian in medical education. Results: Expectations for library and information services in current standards were documented, and a draft standard prepared. A comprehensive bibliography on the role of the health sciences librarian in medical education was completed, and an analysis of the services provided by health sciences librarians was created. Conclusion: An essential role and responsibility of the health sciences librarian will be to provide the health care professional with the skills needed to access, manage, and use library and information resources effectively. Validation and recognition of the health sciences librarian's contributions to medical education by accrediting agencies will be critical. The opportunity lies in health sciences librarians embracing the diverse roles that can be served in this vital activity, regardless of accrediting agency mandates. PMID:19851492

  5. The health sciences librarian in medical education: a vital pathways project task force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Diane G; Blobaum, Paul M; Shipman, Jean P; Markwell, Linda Garr; Marshall, Joanne Gard

    2009-10-01

    The Medical Education Task Force of the Task Force on Vital Pathways for Hospital Librarians reviewed current and future roles of health sciences librarians in medical education at the graduate and undergraduate levels and worked with national organizations to integrate library services, education, and staff into the requirements for training medical students and residents. Standards for medical education accreditation programs were studied, and a literature search was conducted on the topic of the role of the health sciences librarian in medical education. Expectations for library and information services in current standards were documented, and a draft standard prepared. A comprehensive bibliography on the role of the health sciences librarian in medical education was completed, and an analysis of the services provided by health sciences librarians was created. An essential role and responsibility of the health sciences librarian will be to provide the health care professional with the skills needed to access, manage, and use library and information resources effectively. Validation and recognition of the health sciences librarian's contributions to medical education by accrediting agencies will be critical. The opportunity lies in health sciences librarians embracing the diverse roles that can be served in this vital activity, regardless of accrediting agency mandates.

  6. Afican Health Sciences Vol 9 No 3.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2-Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala Uganda. 3-Department of Microbiology, Weill Bugando University College of Health ..... campylobacter to macrolides, including erythromycin is resulting of inappropriate use these drugs in treating human infection rather ...

  7. Basic Behavioral Science Research for Mental Health. Social Influence and Social Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses social influence and social cognition's effect on health and social well-being, and examines the efficacy of public health campaigns, the effects of negative stereotyping, and why some teenagers resist drug use and others do not as part of the social problems addressed by behavioral science research. Future directions for research on…

  8. 75 FR 6658 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Health Effects... Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public teleconference of the Health Effects Subcommittee (HES) of... comply with the provisions of FACA and all appropriate SAB Staff Office procedural policies. Pursuant to...

  9. 78 FR 70040 - Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Nitrogen Oxides-Health Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... policy or views. EPA will consider any public comments submitted in response to this notice when revising... and external to EPA, key science and policy issues relevant to the review of the health effects of... of the review, and the key policy-relevant science issues that will guide the review. The draft IRP...

  10. Human genes and genomes: science, health, society

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosenberg, Leon E; Rosenberg, Diane Drobnis

    2012-01-01

    "In the nearly 60 years since Watson and Crick proposed the double helical structure of DNA, the molecule of heredity, waves of discoveries have made genetics the most thrilling field in the sciences...

  11. Interdisciplinary Environmental-health Science Throughout Disaster Lifecycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.; Hoefen, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Potential human health effects from exposures to hazardous disaster materials and environmental contamination are common concerns following disasters. Using several examples from US Geological Survey environmental disaster responses (e.g., 2001 World Trade Center, mine tailings spills, 2005 Hurricane Katrina, 2007-2013 wildfires, 2011 Gulf oil spill, 2012 Hurricane Sandy, 2013 Colorado floods) and disaster scenarios (2011 ARkStorm, 2013 SAFRR tsunami) this presentation will illustrate the role for collaborative earth, environmental, and health science throughout disaster lifecycles. Pre-disaster environmental baseline measurements are needed to help understand environmental influences on pre-disaster health baselines, and to constrain the magnitude of a disaster's impacts. During and following disasters, there is a need for interdisciplinary rapid-response and longer-term assessments that: sample and characterize the physical, chemical, and microbial makeup of complex materials generated by the disasters; fingerprint material sources; monitor, map, and model dispersal and evolution of disaster materials in the environment; help understand how the materials are modified by environmental processes; and, identify key characteristics and processes that influence the exposures and toxicity of disaster materials to humans and the living environment. This information helps emergency responders, public health experts, and cleanup managers: 1) identify short- and long-term exposures to disaster materials that may affect health; 2) prioritize areas for cleanup; and 3) develop appropriate disposal solutions or restoration uses for disaster materials. By integrating lessons learned from past disasters with geospatial information on vulnerable sources of natural or anthropogenic contaminants, the environmental health implications of looming disasters or disaster scenarios can be better anticipated, which helps enhance preparedness and resilience. Understanding economic costs of

  12. Health Technology Assessment - science or art?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    The founding disciplines of HTA are clearly scientific, and have been firmly based among the natural sciences. However, common definitions of HTA indicate that HTA is something more than the "pure application of science". This article investigates whether this "something" also makes HTA an art. The question of whether HTA is a science or an art is pursued in two specific and historically rich directions. The first is whether HTA is an art in the same way that medicine is described as an art. It has been argued extensively that medicine is based on two different and partly incompatible cultures, i.e., the natural sciences and humanities. Medicine is based on disciplines within the natural sciences, while its value judgments have been placed in the humanities camp. This dichotomy is present in HTA as well, and the first part of the investigation illustrates how HTA is an art in terms of its inherent and constitutive value-judgments. The second part of the science/art-scrutiny leads us to the ancient (Hippocratic) concept of art, téchne, where we find an etymological and a conceptual link between HTA and art. It demonstrates HTA is not an arbitrary process, even though it involves value judgments and relates complex decision making processes. As an art (téchne) HTA has a specific subject matter, requires inquiry and mastery of general rational principles, and is oriented to a specific end. In conclusion, the science-or-art-question makes sense in two specific perspectives, illustrating that HTA is a science based art. This has implications for the practice of HTA, for its education, and for the status of its results.

  13. Delivering effective science communication: advice from a professional science communicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Sam

    2017-10-01

    Science communication is becoming ever more prevalent, with more and more scientists expected to not only communicate their research to a wider public, but to do so in an innovative and engaging manner. Given the other commitments that researchers and academics are required to fulfil as part of their workload models, it is unfair to be expect them to also instantly produce effective science communication events and activities. However, by thinking carefully about what it is that needs to be communicated, and why this is being done, it is possible to develop high-quality activities that are of benefit to both the audience and the communicator(s). In this paper, I present some practical advice for developing, delivering and evaluating effective science communication initiatives, based on over a decade of experience as being a professional science communicator. I provide advice regarding event logistics, suggestions on how to successfully market and advertise your science communication initiatives, and recommendations for establishing effective branding and legacy. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Social science and health research: growth at the National Institutes of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Christine A; Abeles, Ronald P

    2004-01-01

    Programs within the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have recently taken steps to enhance social science contributions to health research. A June 2000 conference convened by the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research highlighted the role of the social sciences in health research and developed an agenda for advancing such research. The conference and agenda underscored the importance of research on basic social scientific concepts and constructs, basic social science research on the etiology of health and illness, and the application of basic social science constructs in health services, treatment, and prevention research. Recent activities at NIH suggest a growing commitment to social science research and its integration into interdisciplinary multilevel studies of health.

  15. Health Technology Assessment – science or art?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    The founding disciplines of HTA are clearly scientific, and have been firmly based among the natural sciences. However, common definitions of HTA indicate that HTA is something more than the “pure application of science”. This article investigates whether this “something” also makes HTA an art. The question of whether HTA is a science or an art is pursued in two specific and historically rich directions. The first is whether HTA is an art in the same way that medicine is described as an art. It has been argued extensively that medicine is based on two different and partly incompatible cultures, i.e., the natural sciences and humanities. Medicine is based on disciplines within the natural sciences, while its value judgments have been placed in the humanities camp. This dichotomy is present in HTA as well, and the first part of the investigation illustrates how HTA is an art in terms of its inherent and constitutive value-judgments. The second part of the science/art-scrutiny leads us to the ancient (Hippocratic) concept of art, téchne, where we find an etymological and a conceptual link between HTA and art. It demonstrates HTA is not an arbitrary process, even though it involves value judgments and relates complex decision making processes. As an art (téchne) HTA has a specific subject matter, requires inquiry and mastery of general rational principles, and is oriented to a specific end. In conclusion, the science-or-art-question makes sense in two specific perspectives, illustrating that HTA is a science based art. This has implications for the practice of HTA, for its education, and for the status of its results. PMID:23935761

  16. Occupational Safety and Health Act: A Responsibility for Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Presents implications of the Occupational Safety and Health Act for science teachers both as workers and as they encourage, in students, the development of positive safety attitudes for future occupations. (PEB)

  17. Afican Health Sciences Vol 10 No 3.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Department of Human anatomy, University of Nairobi. Abstract. Background: The ... Objective: To describe the morphological characteristics of myocardial bridges and their influence on coronary histology. Design: A descriptive ... Key word: Myocardial Bridge, Morphology, Histological organization. African Health Sciences ...

  18. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 22 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 22, No 4:2 (2016) ... Inequality of ownership of foreign and local tourism investments and its constraints on implementation of business social responsibility (BSR) in the Western ...

  19. Entrepreneurial Health Informatics for Computer Science and Information Systems Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, James; Joseph, Anthony; Narula, Stuti

    2014-01-01

    Corporate entrepreneurship is a critical area of curricula for computer science and information systems students. Few institutions of computer science and information systems have entrepreneurship in the curricula however. This paper presents entrepreneurial health informatics as a course in a concentration of Technology Entrepreneurship at a…

  20. African Health Sciences - Equinet.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brian

    2- Medical Research Council, Uganda. 3- World Health Organisation, Uganda Country Office. Abstract. Introduction: Uganda is currently designing a National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme, with the aim of raising additional resources for the health .... informative results on the opinions of people are covered under these ...

  1. African Health Sciences - Equinet.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brian

    financing. Methods: We carried out a descriptive cross-sectional study employing qualitative techniques. Eight focus group discussions. (FGDs) with CHI ... (KIs) were held with scheme managers, officials from Ministry of Health and one health financing organisation. We ..... Health System Financing, Cluster Evidence and.

  2. African Health Sciences - Equinet.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brian

    Abstract: Introduction: Health care financing provides the resources and economic incentives for operating health systems and is a ... action to promote equitable health care financing by establishing pre-payment schemes, enhancing cross-subsidisation mechanisms and .... a slower rate of growth in the MOH budget, with.

  3. The Skill Set of a Health Science Library Assistant

    OpenAIRE

    Waters, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    The Skillset of a Health Science Library Assistant` highlights the core skills required from a library assistant, and those which are developed over time while working at the service desk of a health science library. From my own experience, I have identified three categories of skills that a library assistant should possess. First are the skills necessary before you enter the role, such as communication and research skills. Second are the skills which are realised when one becomes comfortable...

  4. Systems science: a good investment for the public's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry, Patricia L; Kaplan, Robert M

    2013-10-01

    This supplement of Health Education & Behavior showcases the current state of the field of systems science applications in health promotion and public health. Behind this work lies a steady stream of public dollars at the federal level. This perspective details nearly a decade of investment by the National Institutes of Health's Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research. These investments have included funding opportunity announcements, training programs, developing resources for researchers, cross-disciplinary fertilization, and publication. While much progress has been made, continuing investment is needed in the future to ensure the viability and sustainability of this young but increasingly important field.

  5. Health trajectory research: a call to action for nursing science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henly, Susan J; Wyman, Jean F; Gaugler, Joseph E

    2011-01-01

    The focus of health trajectory research is study of health over time for individual persons, families, or communities. The person-focused, time-based perspective reflects health as it is experienced over the life course and maps directly onto processes of care, contributing to ease in translation of results to practice. The agenda focuses on theoretical and empirical components needed to (a) build health trajectory science; (b) develop the scientific workforce to conduct health trajectory research; (c) integrate health trajectory research with other critical, emerging areas of nursing science (genomics and genetics, informatics, dynamic systems and communication); and (d) apply health trajectory research across the life span and continuum of care. Agenda items point the way toward a reorientation of nursing research that incorporates and emphasizes understanding of individual health trajectories.

  6. Big Data and Intellectual Property Rights in the Health and Life Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    The vast prospects of Big Data and the shift to more “personalized”, “open” and “transparent” innovation models highlight the importance of an effective governance, regulation and stimulation of high-quality data-uses in the health and life sciences. Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) and related...... selected areas that demonstrate emerging tensions and potential solutions at the interface of Big Data, Standardization and Intellectual Property Rights in the Health and Life Sciences....

  7. Health Sciences Patrons Use Electronic Books More than Print Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Elizabeth Miller

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Li, J. (2016. Is it cost-effective to purchase print books when the equivalent e-book is available? Journal of Hospital Librarianship, 16(1, 40-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15323269.2016.1118288 Abstract Objective – To compare use of books held simultaneously in print and electronic formats. Design – Case study. Setting – A health sciences library at a public comprehensive university with a medical college in the southern United States. Subjects – Usage data for 60 books held by the library simultaneously in print and electronically. The titles were on standing order in print and considered “core” texts for clinical, instructional, or reference for health sciences faculty, students, and medical residents. Methods – Researchers collected usage data for 60 print titles from the integrated library system and compared the data to COUNTER reports for electronic versions of the same titles, for the period spanning 2010-2014. Main Results – Overall, the 60 e-book titles were used more than the print versions, with the electronic versions used a total of 370,695 times while the print versions were used 93 times during the time period being examined. Conclusion – The use of electronic books outnumbers the use of print books of the same title.

  8. Governing GMOs in the USA: science, law and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y Tony; Chen, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Controversy surrounds the production and consumption of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Proponents argue that GMO food sources represent the only viable solution to food shortages in an ever-growing global population. Science reports no harm from GMO use and consumption so far. Opponents fear the potentially negative impact that GMO development and use could have on the environment and consumers, and are concerned about the lack of data on the long-term effects of GMO use. We discuss the development of GMO food sources, the history of legislation and policy for the labeling requirements of GMO food products, and the health, environmental, and legal rationale for and against GMO food labeling. The Food and Drug Administration regulates food with GMOs within a coordinated framework of federal agencies. Despite mounting scientific evidence that GMO foods are substantially equivalent to traditionally bred food sources, debate remains over the appropriateness of GMO food labeling. In fact, food manufacturers have mounted a First Amendment challenge against Vermont's passage of a law that requires GMO labeling. Mandatory GMO labeling is not supported by science. Compulsory GMO labels may not only hinder the development of agricultural biotechnology, but may also exacerbate the misconception that GMOs endanger people's health. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. [The approach of sciences of complexity in health services administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo; Ortiz-Montalvo, Armando

    2013-01-01

    Historically, health services administration has been managed under a Taylorist, Fayolist, humanist and bureaucratic focus approach. However, today dynamic and competitive behaviors that require others approaches in management are developing. Because of the social, scientific and technological changes that are occurring, it is necessary to abandon hierarchical and authoritarian schemes, "up and down" lines, prescriptive rules and order line up must be left behind. Health services administration is an adapted complex system that is not proportional, neither predictable in direction or magnitude. A new proposal is to focus on the sciences of complexity, where the social factors, materials, economics, human and ethics coincide with order and disorder, reason and unreason, and in which we must accept that the phenomenon that emerges creates different organizing different structures from the addition or subtraction of components. There is distance in the process of cause and direct effect. The mirage from the sciences of complexity are trans-disciplinary and we have accepted this in others branches of knowledge, such as quantum physics, non-linear mathematics and cybernetics, so we have to accept the influence of entropy, non-entropy, attractors, the theory of chaos and fractals.

  10. Interdisciplinarity and Systems Science to Improve Population Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry, Patricia L.; Olster, Deborah H.; Morgan, Glen D.; Abrams, David B.

    2008-01-01

    Fueled by the rapid pace of discovery, humankind's ability to understand the ultimate causes of preventable common disease burdens and to identify solutions is now reaching a revolutionary tipping point. Achieving optimal health and well-being for all members of society lies as much in the understanding of the factors identified by the behavioral, social, and public health sciences as by the biological ones. Accumulating advances in mathematical modeling, informatics, imaging, sensor technology, and communication tools have stimulated several converging trends in science: an emerging understanding of epigenomic regulation; dramatic successes in achieving population health-behavior changes; and improved scientific rigor in behavioral, social, and economic sciences. Fostering stronger interdisciplinary partnerships to bring together the behavioral–social–ecologic models of multilevel “causes of the causes” and the molecular, cellular, and, ultimately, physiological bases of health and disease will facilitate breakthroughs to improve the public's health. The strategic vision of the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is rooted in a collaborative approach to addressing the complex and multidimensional issues that challenge the public's health. This paper describes OBSSR's four key programmatic directions (next-generation basic science, interdisciplinary research, systems science, and a problem-based focus for population impact) to illustrate how interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary perspectives can foster the vertical integration of research among biological, behavioral, social, and population levels of analysis over the lifespan and across generations. Interdisciplinary and multilevel approaches are critical both to the OBSSR's mission of integrating behavioral and social sciences more fully into the NIH scientific enterprise and to the overall NIH mission of utilizing science in the pursuit

  11. Human genes and genomes: science, health, society

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosenberg, Leon E; Rosenberg, Diane Drobnis

    2012-01-01

    .... With the use of core concepts and the integration of extensive references, this book provides students and professionals alike with the most in-depth view of the current state of the science and its relevance across disciplines."--Publisher's website.

  12. Integration of Basic Sciences in Health's Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzalis, L. A.; Giavarotti, L.; Sato, S. N.; Barros, N. M. T.; Junqueira, V. B. C.; Fonseca, F. L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Concepts from disciplines such as Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular and Molecular Biology are essential to the understanding and treatment of an elevated number of illnesses, but often they are studied separately, with no integration between them. This article proposes a model for basic sciences integration based on problem-based learning (PBL) and…

  13. Scenario planning: a tool for academic health sciences libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Logan; Giesecke, Joan; Walton, Linda

    2010-03-01

    Review the International Campaign to Revitalise Academic Medicine (ICRAM) Future Scenarios as a potential starting point for developing scenarios to envisage plausible futures for health sciences libraries. At an educational workshop, 15 groups, each composed of four to seven Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL) directors and AAHSL/NLM Fellows, created plausible stories using the five ICRAM scenarios. Participants created 15 plausible stories regarding roles played by health sciences librarians, how libraries are used and their physical properties in response to technology, scholarly communication, learning environments and health care economic changes. Libraries are affected by many forces, including economic pressures, curriculum and changes in technology, health care delivery and scholarly communications business models. The future is likely to contain ICRAM scenario elements, although not all, and each, if they come to pass, will impact health sciences libraries. The AAHSL groups identified common features in their scenarios to learn lessons for now. The hope is that other groups find the scenarios useful in thinking about academic health science library futures.

  14. Attitude in students of Health Sciences toward scientific knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merideidy Plazas Vargas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Educating health professionals implies the challenge of creating and developing an inquiring mind, ready to be in a state of permanent questioning. For this purpose, it is fundamental to generate a positive attitude toward the generation of knowledge and science. Objective: to determine the attitude toward science and the scientific method in undergraduate students of health sciences. Materials and methods: a cross-sectional study was made by applying a self-administered survey, excluding those who were transferred from other universities and repeated. The attitude toward science and the scientific method were valued using the scale validated and published by Hren, which contains three domains: value of scientific knowledge, value of scientific methodology, and value of science for health professions. Results: 362 students were included, 86,6% of them graded the attitude toward scientific knowledge above 135 points, neutral scale value. Similar scores were registered in the domains value of scientific knowlede for the human dimension of the students and value of science for health professions. 91,4% of the students graded the value of scientific methodology below 48 points. Conclusions: the favorable attitude of the students can be explained by the contact that they have with the scientific method since the beginning of their studies and its concordance with the evolution of science. The domain value of scientific methodology obtained the lowest grade on the part of the students, which could be related to the lack of knowledge about scientific methodology.

  15. Problem-based learning in a health sciences librarianship course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitroff, A; Ancona, A M; Beman, S B; Dodge, A M; Hutchinson, K L; LaBonte, M J; Mays, T L; Simon, D T

    1998-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has been adopted by many medical schools in North America. Because problem solving, information seeking, and lifelong learning skills are central to the PBL curriculum, health sciences librarians have been actively involved in the PBL process at these medical schools. The introduction of PBL in a library and information science curriculum may be appropriate to consider at this time. PBL techniques have been incorporated into a health sciences librarianship course at the School of Library and Information Science (LIS) at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee to explore the use of this method in an advanced Library and Information Science course. After completion of the course, the use of PBL has been evaluated by the students and the instructor. The modified PBL course design is presented and the perceptions of the students and the instructor are discussed. PMID:9681169

  16. Informatics for Health 2017: Advancing both science and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Philip J; Cornet, Ronald; McCowan, Colin; Peek, Niels; Fraccaro, Paolo; Geifman, Nophar; Gude, Wouter T; Hulme, William; Martin, Glen P; Williams, Richard

    2017-04-21

    The Informatics for Health congress, 24-26 April 2017, in Manchester, UK, brought together the Medical Informatics Europe (MIE) conference and the Farr Institute International Conference. This special issue of the Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics contains 113 presentation abstracts and 149 poster abstracts from the congress. The twin programmes of "Big Data" and "Digital Health" are not always joined up by coherent policy and investment priorities. Substantial global investment in health IT and data science has led to sound progress but highly variable outcomes. Society needs an approach that brings together the science and the practice of health informatics. The goal is multi-level Learning Health Systems that consume and intelligently act upon both patient data and organizational intervention outcomes. Informatics for Health demonstrated the art of the possible, seen in the breadth and depth of our contributions. We call upon policy makers, research funders and programme leaders to learn from this joined-up approach.

  17. Complex systems and health behavior change: insights from cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Mark G; Plaut, David C

    2014-05-01

    To provide proof-of-concept that quantum health behavior can be instantiated as a computational model that is informed by cognitive science, the Theory of Reasoned Action, and quantum health behavior theory. We conducted a synthetic review of the intersection of quantum health behavior change and cognitive science. We conducted simulations, using a computational model of quantum health behavior (a constraint satisfaction artificial neural network) and tested whether the model exhibited quantum-like behavior. The model exhibited clear signs of quantum-like behavior. Quantum health behavior can be conceptualized as constraint satisfaction: a mitigation between current behavioral state and the social contexts in which it operates. We outlined implications for moving forward with computational models of both quantum health behavior and health behavior in general.

  18. Bioinformatic training needs at a health sciences campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jeffrey C

    2017-01-01

    Health sciences research is increasingly focusing on big data applications, such as genomic technologies and precision medicine, to address key issues in human health. These approaches rely on biological data repositories and bioinformatic analyses, both of which are growing rapidly in size and scope. Libraries play a key role in supporting researchers in navigating these and other information resources. With the goal of supporting bioinformatics research in the health sciences, the University of Arizona Health Sciences Library established a Bioinformation program. To shape the support provided by the library, I developed and administered a needs assessment survey to the University of Arizona Health Sciences campus in Tucson, Arizona. The survey was designed to identify the training topics of interest to health sciences researchers and the preferred modes of training. Survey respondents expressed an interest in a broad array of potential training topics, including "traditional" information seeking as well as interest in analytical training. Of particular interest were training in transcriptomic tools and the use of databases linking genotypes and phenotypes. Staff were most interested in bioinformatics training topics, while faculty were the least interested. Hands-on workshops were significantly preferred over any other mode of training. The University of Arizona Health Sciences Library is meeting those needs through internal programming and external partnerships. The results of the survey demonstrate a keen interest in a variety of bioinformatic resources; the challenge to the library is how to address those training needs. The mode of support depends largely on library staff expertise in the numerous subject-specific databases and tools. Librarian-led bioinformatic training sessions provide opportunities for engagement with researchers at multiple points of the research life cycle. When training needs exceed library capacity, partnering with intramural and

  19. ALA Guide to Medical & Health Sciences Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALA Editions, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This resource provides an annotated list of print and electronic biomedical and health-related reference sources, including Internet resources and digital image collections. Readers will find relevant research, clinical, and consumer health information resources. The emphasis is on resources within the United States, with a few representative…

  20. Health and environment: social science perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopnina, H.; Keune, H.

    2010-01-01

    In this new book the authors examine the contribution of social scientists to the topics of health and environment. They present diverse perspectives on classical and contemporary debates by focusing on social scientific framing of environment and health, as well as on the potential contribution of

  1. African Health Sciences - Equinet.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brian

    2- Medical Research Council, Uganda. 3- World Health Organisation, Uganda Country Office. Abstract .... of the study, such providers included: Case Medical. Centre (CMC), Kadic Hospital, International Health .... of SHI and PHI, due to insufficient oversight and regulation by the government, a large part of the wealthy ...

  2. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 23 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 23, No 1:1 (2017) ... Sport students' perception of their learning experience: Amazing Race as an innovative outdoor teaching and learning strategy · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  3. Curriculum challenges faced by rural-origin health science students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is one of a series of investigations into various aspects of university life and career choices of health science students. Data were collected at three South African universities by the Collaboration for Health Equity through Education and Research (CHEER) collaborators. Ethical permission was sought from each ...

  4. Use of Information Resources in some Selected Health Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unfortunately the information resources and services were inadequate and the researcher called for urgent attention as raised by WEITZEL in the WORLD HEALTH FORUM, that the neglect of health science libraries was as a result of wrong placement in the ministries where they are being attached. It was recommended ...

  5. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 18 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 18, No 4 (2012) ... The influence of student internship work experience on their self-improvement and professionalism in Sport Management · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  6. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 22 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 22, No 1:1 (2016) ... The influence of an abductor pollicis longus strengthening programme on symptoms experienced by elderly females with osteoarthritis of the 1st carpo-metacarpal joint ...

  7. Learning from Longitudinal Research in Criminology and the Health Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderstaay, Steven L.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews longitudinal research within criminology and the health sciences on the relationship between reading and criminal, delinquent, or antisocial behavior. Longitudinal research in criminology, medicine, and psychology examines the role of reading within a broad set of interactive processes, connecting literacy to public health via…

  8. [Scientific output in the health sciences in Ecuador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisa, Iván; Espinel, Mauricio; Fornasini, Marco; Mantilla, Gonzalo

    2011-10-01

    This cross-sectional study describes the characteristics and trends of health sciences-related studies published in Ecuador from 1999-2009. Its objective is to contribute to the design and implementation of a research and development policy whose work is centered on the country's health priorities. Bibliometric indicators of production applied to publications in health sciences in Ecuador were used for the analysis. The publications were from the LILACS and MEDLINE databases. It was found that 625 articles were published from 1999-2009, primarily in the clinical-surgical areas (60%), followed by epidemiology (17.4%), basic sciences (14.1%), and health systems (8.5%). Only 4.3% and 7.2% of the production in this period was related to the primary causes of morbidity and mortality, respectively. It was found that private institutions generated more health research than public institutions, and hospitals (public, private, and mixed) produced a higher percentage than universities. The analysis showed that there was limited scientific production in health sciences in Ecuador during the study period, with a slight increase in the last two years that may be due in part to greater investment in research and development by the National Secretariat of Science and Technology (SENACYT). Investment increased from 0.20% to 0.44% of gross domestic product between 2006 and 2009.

  9. Using Multiple High-Impact Practices to Improve Student Learning in an Undergraduate Health Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Chandrakala; Smith, Jason A.

    2017-01-01

    Problem-based learning can be an effective educational approach for students entering the health care field. While broadly used in graduate and professional education in the health sciences, it is less widely used in undergraduate programs. We discuss the use of problem-based learning as part of an approach to address failure rates in select…

  10. 76 FR 4925 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... the meeting will be provided. In Person: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Keystone..., Director, Division of Extramural Research and Training, National Institute of ] Environmental Health...

  11. Abstracts of the International Congress of Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences & Human Development (2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Reis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The papers published in this book of abstracts / proceedings were submitted to the Scientific Commission of the International Congress of Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences & Human Development, held on 11 and 12 November 2016, at the University of Évora, Évora, Portugal, under the topic of Exercise and Health, Sports and Human Development. The content of the abstracts is solely and exclusively of its authors responsibility. The editors and the Scientific Committee of the International Congress of Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences & Human Development do not assume any responsibility for the opinions and statements expressed by the authors. Partial reproduction of the texts and their use without commercial purposes is allowed, provided the source / reference is duly mentioned.

  12. Health benefits and health claims of probiotics: bridging science and marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkers, Ger T; de Vos, Willem M; Brummer, Robert-Jan; Morelli, Lorenzo; Corthier, Gerard; Marteau, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Health claims for probiotics are evaluated by the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies of the European Food Safety Authority. Despite a substantial amount of basic and clinical research on the beneficial effects of probiotics, all of the evaluated claim applications thus far have received a negative opinion. With the restrictions on the use of clinical endpoints, validated biomarkers for gut health and immune health in relation to reduction in disease risk are needed. Clear-cut criteria for design as well as evaluation of future studies are needed. An open dialogue between basic and clinical scientists, regulatory authorities, food and nutrition industry, and consumers could bridge the gap between science and marketing of probiotics.

  13. International trends in health science librarianship: Part 2--Northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollfuss, Helmut; Bauer, Bruno; Declève, Ghislaine; Verhaaren, Henri; Utard-Wlerick, Guillemette; Bakker, Suzanne; Leclerq, Edith; Murphy, Jeannette

    2012-06-01

    This is the third in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors were asked to reflect on developments in their country--viz. Austria, Belgium, France and the Netherlands. Future issues will track trends in the Nordic countries, Southern Europe and Latin America. JM. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.

  14. Health metrics and evaluation: strengthening the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christopher J L; Frenk, Julio

    2008-04-05

    With the growing importance of health in the global agenda comes the responsibility to develop a scientific foundation of metrics and evaluation. The scope of this emerging field can be viewed in terms of key topics, including health outcomes, other social outcomes related to health systems, health services, resource inputs, evaluations of programmes and systems, and analyses to support policy choice. It can also be defined in terms of key activities that are needed to strengthen the scientific basis of the field: development of new methods, instruments, software, and hardware; setting global norms and standards for data collection; increasing the availability of high-quality primary data; systematic analysis and synthesis of existing datasets; strengthening national capacity to obtain, analyse, and use data; and reporting and disseminating results. We explore in depth topics with major scientific challenges and institutional and cultural barriers that are slowing the development of the field. Cutting across the various topical areas and disciplinary approaches to these problems are some common scientific issues, including limited comparability of measurement, uncorrected known biases in data, no standard approach to missing data, unrealistic uncertainty estimates, and the use of disease models that have not been properly validated. Only through concerted action will it be possible to assure the production, reproduction, and use of knowledge that is crucial to the advancement of global health.

  15. Culture, Health, and Science: A Multidisciplinary Liberal Arts Alternative to the Public Health Major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lynn M; Knight, Sabina; Gubrium, Aline C

    2016-01-01

    Since the 2003 call by the Institute of Medicine to educate undergraduates in public health, various models have emerged for incorporating public health into the liberal arts and sciences. One model is a professionalized public health major that uses core public health competencies to prepare a workforce of health professionals. A second model offers a broad-based public health major rooted in liberal arts principles, resisting the utilitarian trend toward human capital formation. A third model resists even the label of "public health," preferring instead to introduce undergraduates to many ways of analyzing human health and healing. The multidisciplinary Culture, Health, and Science Program, based on six key commitments for preparing liberal arts students to analyze health and respond to global health challenges, is offered as an alternative to the public health major. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Learning style preferences of Australian health science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghi, Maryam; Brown, Ted; Williams, Brett; Roller, Louis; Jaberzadeh, Shapour; Palermo, Claire; McKenna, Lisa; Wright, Caroline; Baird, Marilyn; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal; Hewitt, Lesley; Sim, Jenny; Holt, Tangerine-Ann

    2010-01-01

    It has been identified that health science student groups may have distinctive learning needs. By university educators' and professional fieldwork supervisors' being aware of the unique learning style preferences of health science students, they have the capacity to adjust their teaching approaches to best fit with their students' learning preferences. The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning style preferences of a group of Australian health science students enrolled in 10 different disciplines. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory was distributed to 2,885 students enrolled in dietetics and nutrition, midwifery, nursing, occupational therapy, paramedics, pharmacy, physiotherapy, radiation therapy, radiography, and social work at one Australian university. A total of 752 usable survey forms were returned (response rate 26%). The results indicated the converger learning style to be most frequently preferred by health science students and that the diverger and accommodator learning styles were the least preferred. It is recommended that educators take learning style preferences of health science students into consideration when planning, implementing, and evaluating teaching activities, such as including more problem-solving activities that fit within the converger learning style.

  17. Cyclotrons: From Science to Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Lawrence's invention of the cyclotron, whose 80th anniversary we have just celebrated, not only revolutionized nuclear physics, but proved the starting point for a whole variety of recirculating accelerators, from the smallest microtron to the largest synchrotron, that have had an enormous impact in almost every branch of science and in several areas of medicine and industry. Cyclotrons themselves have proved remarkably adaptable, incorporating a variety of new ideas and technologies over the years: frequency modulation, edge focusing, AG focusing, separate magnet sectors, axial and azimuthal injection, ring geometries, stripping extraction, superconducting magnets and rf...... Even FFAGs, those most complex members of the cyclotron (fixed-magnetic-field) family, are making a comeback. Currently there are more than 50 medium or large cyclotrons around the world devoted to research. These provide intense primary beams of protons or stable ions, and correspondingly intense secondary beams of neutrons, pions, muons and radioactive ions, for experiments in nuclear, particle and condensed-matter physics, and in the materials and life sciences. Far outnumbering these, however, are the 800 or so small and medium cyclotrons used to produce radioisotopes for medical and other purposes. In addition, a rapidly growing number of 230-MeV proton cyclotrons are being built for cancer therapy -12 brought into operation since 1998 and as many more in the works. Altogether, cyclotrons are flourishing!

  18. 76 FR 79201 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... Research and Training, Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 615... the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114...

  19. 76 FR 50234 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice... and Training (DERT), Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 615... and Training (DERT), Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 615...

  20. Improving Health with Science: Exploring Community-Driven Science Education in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leak, Anne Emerson

    This study examines the role of place-based science education in fostering student-driven health interventions. While literature shows the need to connect science with students' place and community, there is limited understanding of strategies for doing so. Making such connections is important for underrepresented students who tend to perceive learning science in school as disconnected to their experiences out of school (Aikenhead, Calabrese-Barton, & Chinn, 2006). To better understand how students can learn to connect place and community with science and engineering practices in a village in Kenya, I worked with community leaders, teachers, and students to develop and study an education program (a school-based health club) with the goal of improving knowledge of health and sanitation in a Kenyan village. While students selected the health topics and problems they hoped to address through participating in the club, the topics were taught with a focus on providing opportunities for students to learn the practices of science and health applications of these practices. Students learned chemistry, physics, environmental science, and engineering to help them address the health problems they had identified in their community. Surveys, student artifacts, ethnographic field notes, and interview data from six months of field research were used to examine the following questions: (1) In what ways were learning opportunities planned for using science and engineering practices to improve community health? (2) In what ways did students apply science and engineering practices and knowledge learned from the health club in their school, homes, and community? and (3) What factors seemed to influence whether students applied or intended to apply what they learned in the health club? Drawing on place-based science education theory and community-engagement models of health, process and structural coding (Saldana, 2013) were used to determine patterns in students' applications of their

  1. The impact of institutional ethics on academic health sciences library leadership: a survey of academic health sciences library directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooey, Mary Joan M J; Arnold, Gretchen N

    2014-10-01

    Ethical behavior in libraries goes beyond service to users. Academic health sciences library directors may need to adhere to the ethical guidelines and rules of their institutions. Does the unique environment of an academic health center imply different ethical considerations? Do the ethical policies of institutions affect these library leaders? Do their personal ethical considerations have an impact as well? In December 2013, a survey regarding the impact of institutional ethics was sent to the director members of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries. The objective was to determine the impact of institutional ethics on these leaders, whether through personal conviction or institutional imperative.

  2. Social Media in Health Science Education: An International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Elizabeth; Cutts, Emily; Kavikondala, Sushma; Salcedo, Alejandra; D'Souza, Karan; Hernandez-Torre, Martin; Anderson, Claire; Tiwari, Agnes; Ho, Kendall; Last, Jason

    2017-01-04

    Social media is an asset that higher education students can use for an array of purposes. Studies have shown the merits of social media use in educational settings; however, its adoption in health science education has been slow, and the contributing reasons remain unclear. This multidisciplinary study aimed to examine health science students' opinions on the use of social media in health science education and identify factors that may discourage its use. Data were collected from the Universitas 21 "Use of social media in health education" survey, distributed electronically among the health science staff and students from 8 universities in 7 countries. The 1640 student respondents were grouped as users or nonusers based on their reported frequency of social media use in their education. Of the 1640 respondents, 1343 (81.89%) use social media in their education. Only 462 of the 1320 (35.00%) respondents have received specific social media training, and of those who have not, the majority (64.9%, 608/936) would like the opportunity. Users and nonusers reported the same 3 factors as the top barriers to their use of social media: uncertainty on policies, concerns about professionalism, and lack of support from the department. Nonusers reported all the barriers more frequently and almost half of nonusers reported not knowing how to incorporate social media into their learning. Among users, more than one fifth (20.5%, 50/243) of students who use social media "almost always" reported sharing clinical images without explicit permission. Our global, interdisciplinary study demonstrates that a significant number of students across all health science disciplines self-reported sharing clinical images inappropriately, and thus request the need for policies and training specific to social media use in health science education.

  3. African Health Sciences - Equinet.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brian

    Objectives: To examine issues of equity and sustainability in CHI schemes, which are prerequisites to health sector financing. Methods: We carried out .... We employed a cross-sectional design and used qualitative data collection methods ..... linked to a broader strategy to ensure universal insurance coverage. Conclusions ...

  4. D:\\African Health Sciences\\New

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Subjects: Healthcare workers in public health centers in Blantyre District, Malawi. Results: Fifty-seven ... quality of healthcare delivery services1-2. It is for this .... while only 18 (31.6%) had prior training in research methods. Twenty-three ...

  5. Research Journal of Health Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The University of Notre Dame Australia (UNDA),. Consultant Psychiatrist at Mercy Mental Health,. Melbourne Area, Australia. Endocrinology. aakinbiyi@gmail.com. 29. Editorial Adviser. Professor Basden JC Onwubere, MBChB, FMCP, FWACP, FCAP. (Nigeria). Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of ...

  6. D:\\African Health Sciences\\New

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study utilizing an interviewer-administered questionnaire. ... laboratory technician and a dental therapist who were found at the .... services delivery. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. We are deeply indebted to the District Health Officer,. Blantyre District, Dr. Atupele Kapito for permission to.

  7. Burton's microbiology for the health sciences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Engelkirk, Paul G; Duben-Engelkirk, Janet L; Burton, Gwendolyn R. W

    2011-01-01

    .... Moreover, you'll get the lastest information on such key topics as antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents, epidemiology and public health, healthcare-associated infections, infection control and laboratory tests used to assist in the diagnosis of infectious diseases."--BOOK JACKET.

  8. African Health Sciences - Equinet.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brian

    sample of 10 administrative officers in Mpigi district ; and d) desk-review of the Mpigi district Budget Framework Paper 4. Results: Health needs consist of the daily requirements, which, arise out of ..... over resources like shelter for accommodation and land for growing food is minimal. According to the respondents, women ...

  9. D:\\African Health Sciences\\New

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    epiupdate2003_I_en.pdf (Accessed 2 December, 2003). Since the WHO's declaration in 1993, the TB emergency has regrettably grown much larger and funding has been. “severely neglected''7. Although TB treatment and prevention alone are relatively inexpensive, “affordable life- saving health interventions for infectious ...

  10. Social Determinants of Population Health: A Systems Sciences Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, David S; Keyes, Katherine M; Cerdá, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    Population distributions of health emerge from the complex interplay of health-related factors at multiple levels, from the biological to the societal level. Individuals are aggregated within social networks, affected by their locations, and influenced differently across time. From aggregations of individuals, group properties can emerge, including some exposures that are ubiquitous within populations but variant across populations. By combining a focus on social determinants of health with a conceptual framework for understanding how genetics, biology, behavior, psychology, society, and environment interact, a systems science approach can inform our understanding of the underlying causes of the unequal distribution of health across generations and populations, and can help us identify promising approaches to reduce such inequalities. In this paper, we discuss how systems science approaches have already made several substantive and methodological contributions to the study of population health from a social epidemiology perspective.

  11. Journal rankings by citation analysis in health sciences librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, M L

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify objectively a hierarchical ranking of journals for health sciences librarians with faculty status. Such a guideline can indicate a journal's value for promotion and tenure consideration. Lists of recent research articles (1982-1986) in health sciences librarianship, and articles written by health sciences librarians, were compiled by searching Social SCISEARCH and MEDLINE. The journals publishing those articles are presented. Results show BMLA as the most prominent journal in the field. Therefore, citations from articles in BMLA from 1982 to 1986 were chosen as a sample for citation analysis. Citation analysis was employed to identify the most frequently cited journals. Some characteristics of the citations in BMLA are also discussed. The ranking of journals based on citation frequency, as a result, was identified. PMID:2655785

  12. The Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction to Teach Physical Examination to Students and Trainees in the Health Sciences Professions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomesko, Jennifer; Touger-Decker, Riva; Dreker, Margaret; Zelig, Rena; Parrott, James Scott

    2017-01-01

    To explore knowledge and skill acquisition outcomes related to learning physical examination (PE) through computer-assisted instruction (CAI) compared with a face-to-face (F2F) approach. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis published between January 2001 and December 2016 was conducted. Databases searched included Medline, Cochrane, CINAHL, ERIC, Ebsco, Scopus, and Web of Science. Studies were synthesized by study design, intervention, and outcomes. Statistical analyses included DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model. In total, 7 studies were included in the review, and 5 in the meta-analysis. There were no statistically significant differences for knowledge (mean difference [MD] = 5.39, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.05 to 12.84) or skill acquisition (MD = 0.35, 95% CI: -5.30 to 6.01). The evidence does not suggest a strong consistent preference for either CAI or F2F instruction to teach students/trainees PE. Further research is needed to identify conditions which examine knowledge and skill acquisition outcomes that favor one mode of instruction over the other.

  13. Preparedness for eHealth: Health Sciences Students’ Knowledge, Skills, and Confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Lam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing recognition of the role eHealth will play in the effective and efficient delivery of healthcare. This research challenges the assumption that students enter university as digital natives, able to confidently and competently adapt their use of information and communication technology (ICT to new contexts. This study explored health sciences students’ preparedness for working, and leading change, in eHealth-enabled environments. Using a cross-sectional study design, 420 undergraduate and postgraduate students participated in an online survey investigating their understanding of and attitude towards eHealth, frequency of online activities and software usage, confidence learning and using ICTs, and perceived learning needs. Although students reported that they regularly engaged with a wide range of online activities and software and were confident learning new ICT skills especially where they have sufficient time or support, their understanding of eHealth was uncertain or limited. Poor understanding of and difficulty translating skills learned in personal contexts to the professional context may impair graduates ability to con-fidently engage in the eHealth-enabled workplace. These results suggest educators need to scaffold the learning experience to ensure students build on their ICT knowledge to transfer this to their future workplaces.

  14. International cooperation for science and technology development: a way forward for equity in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Priscila Almeida; Carvalho, Denise Bomtempo Birche de

    2015-01-01

    Since 1990, international organizations have been increasingly involved in building an international sub-regime for research, development and innovation in health. This article analyzes the priorities of developing countries in health since the 1990s. It is a descriptive and analytical study that investigates the literature and contributions of key informants. Calling for the end of global inequities in the support for science and technology in health, international organizations recommend that developing countries focus their efforts on neglected diseases and operational research, an insufficient agenda for science and technology cooperation to effectively overcome the vulnerabilities between countries.

  15. Developing a taxonomy for the science of improvement in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, William; Lownik, Beth; Halverson, Paul; Parrotta, Carmen; Godsall, Jonathan R; Gyllstrom, Elizabeth; Gearin, Kimberly J; Mays, Glen

    2012-11-01

    Quality improvement (QI) methods have been used for almost a decade in public health departments to increase effectiveness and efficiency. Although results are rapidly accumulating, the evidence for the science of improvement is shallow and limited. To advance the use and effectiveness of QI in public health, it is important to develop a science of improvement using practice-based research to build an evidence base for QI projects. This purpose of this study is to advance the science of improvement in public health departments with 3 objectives: (1) establish a taxonomy of QI projects in public health, (2) categorize QI projects undertaken in health departments using the taxonomy, and (3) create an opportunity modes and effects analysis. This study is a qualitative analysis of archival data from 2 separate large databases consisting of 51 QI projects undertaken in public health departments over the last 5 years. The study involves 2 separate QI collaboratives. One includes Minnesota health departments; the other is a national collaborative. We propose a standardized case definition, common metrics, and a taxonomy of QI projects to begin building the evidence base for QI in public health and to advance the science of continuous quality improvement. All projects created an aim statement and used metrics while 53% used a specific QI model with an average of 3.25 QI techniques per project. Approximately 40% of the projects incorporated a process control methodology, and 60% of the projects identified the process from beginning to end, while 11 of 12 PHAB (Public Health Accreditation Board) domains were included. The findings provide a baseline for QI taxonomy to operationalize a science of improvement for public health departments.

  16. 76 FR 67748 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 615 Davis Dr., KEY615/3112, Research Triangle Park... and Education; 93.894, Resources and Manpower Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113...

  17. 75 FR 45133 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards...

  18. 76 FR 50235 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice..., Director, Division of Extramural Research and Training (DERT), Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences... and Training (DERT), Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 615...

  19. 76 FR 77239 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W. Alexander Drive... Research and Training, Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 615...

  20. 75 FR 55805 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... Director, Division of Extramural Research and Training, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences... Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied...

  1. A comparison of 17 author-level bibliometric indicators for researchers in Astronomy, Environmental Science, Philosophy and Public Health in Web of Science and Google Scholar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildgaard, Lorna Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    were calculated for 512 researchers in Astronomy, Environmental Science, Philosophy and Public Health. Indicator scores and scholar rankings calculated in Web of Science (WoS) and Google Scholar (GS) were analyzed. The indexing policies of WoS and GS were found to have a direct effect on the amount...

  2. Increasing the capacity of health sciences to address health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Sandra P; Broyles, Shelia L; Rivera, Lourdes M; Reznik, Vivian M

    2009-09-01

    In order to create a cohort of investigators who are engaged in health disparities research, scholarship, and practice, and to increase the amount of funding in the university that is invested in research focused on reducing health disparities, the San Diego EXPORT Center implemented 2 major initiatives: (1) the support of underrepresented minority (URM) junior faculty development and (2) the funding for pilot research grants in health disparities. This paper describes the activities employed by the center and summarizes the outcomes of these two initiatives. Ninety-five percent (18 of 19) URM junior faculty completed the faculty development program, and 83.3% (15 of 18) of the completers are advancing in their academic careers at University of California San Diego (UCSD) and are teaching, working with populations at risk and/or conducting research in health disparities. EXPORT awarded 7 investigators a total of $429186 to conduct pilot research, and 71.4% (5/7) have now obtained $4.7 million in independent extramural funding. The San Diego EXPORT Center has increased the research capacity, strengthened the infrastructure for health disparities research, and created a cohort of successful URM junior faculty who are advancing in their academic careers. These investigators are already changing the climate at UCSD by their leadership activities, research focus, peer-networking, and mentoring of students.

  3. Psychological Science and Innovative Strategies for Informing Health Care Redesign: A Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Stancin, Terry; Lochman, John E.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Miranda, Jeanne M.; Wysocki, Tim; Portwood, Sharon G.; Piacentini, John; Tynan, Douglas; Atkins, Marc; Kazak, Anne E.

    2017-01-01

    Recent health care legislation and shifting health care financing strategies are transforming health and behavioral health (a broad term referring to mental health, substance use, and health behavior) care in the United States. Advances in knowledge regarding effective treatment and services coupled with incentives for innovation in health and behavioral health care delivery systems make this a unique time for mobilizing our science to enhance the success of health and behavioral health care redesign. To optimize the potential of our current health care environment, a team was formed composed of leaders from the Societies of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, Pediatric Psychology, and Child and Family Policy and Practice (Divisions 53, 54, and 37 of the American Psychological Association). This team was charged with reviewing the scientific and policy literature with a focus on five major issues: (a) improving access to care and reducing health disparities, (b) integrating behavioral health care within primary care, (c) preventive services, (d) enhancing quality and outcomes of care, and (e) training and workforce development. The products of that work are summarized here, including recommendations for future research, clinical, training, and policy directions. We conclude that the current emphasis on accountable care and evaluation of the outcomes of care offer numerous opportunities for psychologists to integrate science and practice for the benefit of our children, families, and nation. The dramatic changes that are occurring in psychological and behavioral health care services and payment systems also require evolution in our practice and training models. PMID:26430948

  4. Psychological Science and Innovative Strategies for Informing Health Care Redesign: A Policy Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Stancin, Terry; Lochman, John E; Hughes, Jennifer L; Miranda, Jeanne M; Wysocki, Tim; Portwood, Sharon G; Piacentini, John; Tynan, Douglas; Atkins, Marc; Kazak, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    Recent health care legislation and shifting health care financing strategies are transforming health and behavioral health (a broad term referring to mental health, substance use, and health behavior) care in the United States. Advances in knowledge regarding effective treatment and services coupled with incentives for innovation in health and behavioral health care delivery systems make this a unique time for mobilizing our science to enhance the success of health and behavioral health care redesign. To optimize the potential of our current health care environment, a team was formed composed of leaders from the Societies of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, Pediatric Psychology, and Child and Family Policy and Practice (Divisions 53, 54, and 37 of the American Psychological Association). This team was charged with reviewing the scientific and policy literature with a focus on five major issues: (a) improving access to care and reducing health disparities, (b) integrating behavioral health care within primary care, (c) preventive services, (d) enhancing quality and outcomes of care, and (e) training and workforce development. The products of that work are summarized here, including recommendations for future research, clinical, training, and policy directions. We conclude that the current emphasis on accountable care and evaluation of the outcomes of care offer numerous opportunities for psychologists to integrate science and practice for the benefit of our children, families, and nation. The dramatic changes that are occurring in psychological and behavioral health care services and payment systems also require evolution in our practice and training models.

  5. D:\\African Health Sciences\\New

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    using AZT from 36 weeks gestation with or without dosing of ... Some experts do not recommend use of NVP for PMTCT, since it may reduce the effectiveness of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. (NNRTI's) in future HAART regimens. In HIVNET ... counseling has to be strengthened and appropriate guidance.

  6. D:\\African Health Sciences\\Augu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Sex, age, education and occupation were also significantly associated with the development of PTSD symptoms. The population prevalence of. PTSD was estimated to be 48% for Sudanese stayees, 46% for .... for comparing populations with a design effect factor ..... Sudanese refugees, there is a reversal in the sex ratio.

  7. Training on intellectual disability in health sciences: the European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Martínez-Leal, Rafael; Heyler, Carla; Alvarez-Galvez, Javier; Veenstra, Marja Y.; García-Ibáñez, Jose; Carpenter, Sylvia; Bertelli, Marco; Munir, Kerim; Torr, Jennifer; Van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Intellectual disability (ID) has consequences at all stages of life, requires high service provision and leads to high health and societal costs. However, ID is largely disregarded as a health issue by national and international organisations, as are training in ID and in the health aspects of ID at every level of the education system. Specific aim This paper aims to (1) update the current information about availability of training and education in ID and related health issues in Europe with a particular focus in mental health; and (2) to identify opportunities arising from the initial process of educational harmonization in Europe to include ID contents in health sciences curricula and professional training. Method We carried out a systematic search of scientific databases and websites, as well as policy and research reports from the European Commission, European Council and WHO. Furthermore, we contacted key international organisations related to health education and/or ID in Europe, as well as other regional institutions. Results ID modules and contents are minimal in the revised health sciences curricula and publications on ID training in Europe are equally scarce. European countries report few undergraduate and graduate training modules in ID, even in key specialties such as paediatrics. Within the health sector, ID programmes focus mainly on psychiatry and psychology. Conclusion The poor availability of ID training in health sciences is a matter of concern. However, the current European policy on training provides an opportunity to promote ID in the curricula of programmes at all levels. This strategy should address all professionals working in ID and it should increase the focus on ID relative to other developmental disorders at all stages of life. PMID:25705375

  8. Science to support aquatic animal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Harris, M. Camille

    2016-10-18

    Healthy aquatic ecosystems are home to a diversity of plants, invertebrates, fish and wildlife. Aquatic animal populations face unprecedented threats to their health and survival from climate change, water shortages, habitat alteration, invasive species and environmental contaminants. These environmental stressors can directly impact the prevalence and severity of disease in aquatic populations. For example, periodic fish kills in the upper Chesapeake Bay Watershed are associated with many different opportunistic pathogens that proliferate in stressed fish populations. An estimated 80 percent of endangered juvenile Puget Sound steelhead trout die within two weeks of entering the marine environment, and a role for disease in these losses is being investigated. The introduction of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) into the Great Lakes—a fishery worth an estimated 7 billion dollars annually—resulted in widespread fish die-offs and virus detections in 28 different fish species. Millions of dying sea stars along the west coast of North America have led to investigations into sea star wasting disease. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are assisting managers with these issues through ecological investigations of aquatic animal diseases, field surveillance, and research to promote the development of mitigation strategies.

  9. Integrating design science theory and methods to improve the development and evaluation of health communication programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, Linda; Kreps, Gary L

    2014-12-01

    Traditional communication theory and research methods provide valuable guidance about designing and evaluating health communication programs. However, efforts to use health communication programs to educate, motivate, and support people to adopt healthy behaviors often fail to meet the desired goals. One reason for this failure is that health promotion issues are complex, changeable, and highly related to the specific needs and contexts of the intended audiences. It is a daunting challenge to effectively influence health behaviors, particularly culturally learned and reinforced behaviors concerning lifestyle factors related to diet, exercise, and substance (such as alcohol and tobacco) use. Too often, program development and evaluation are not adequately linked to provide rapid feedback to health communication program developers so that important revisions can be made to design the most relevant and personally motivating health communication programs for specific audiences. Design science theory and methods commonly used in engineering, computer science, and other fields can address such program and evaluation weaknesses. Design science researchers study human-created programs using tightly connected build-and-evaluate loops in which they use intensive participatory methods to understand problems and develop solutions concurrently and throughout the duration of the program. Such thinking and strategies are especially relevant to address complex health communication issues. In this article, the authors explore the history, scientific foundation, methods, and applications of design science and its potential to enhance health communication programs and their evaluation.

  10. Perspectives on Information Science and Health Informatics Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunin, Lois F., Ed.; Ball, Marion J., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This theoretical discussion of what information science can contribute to the health professions addresses questions of definition and describes application and knowledge models for the emerging profession of informatics. A review of existing programs includes curriculum models and provides details on informatics programs emphasizing information…

  11. Editorial: Challenges in health science education | Pick | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial: Challenges in health science education. William M. Pick. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors. OTHER ...

  12. Afican Health Sciences Vol 10 No 1.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    4Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. 5Department of ... Conclusion: Public health education programmes and advocacy activities geared towards raising awareness of the identified risk factors for ...... snoring and obstructive sleep apnea, and.

  13. Health Science One and Two: First Two Years of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, John; Nichols, Michele; Camp, Cynthia; Hartwick, Erin; Mortensen, Jennifer; Beck, Laurie; LaNeve, Shannon; Sutter, Nancy; Ryan, Dennis; Wright, Carla; Castro, Patricia; Bell, Hilary; Sella, Gina; Smith, Vicki; Wyatt, Garry

    2010-01-01

    The development of skill standards for Health Science was a result of a collaborative effort involving the Nevada Department of Education and a writing team with extensive experience in both teaching and in the field. The skill standards presented in this report features a framework for students interested in pursuing careers in healthcare and…

  14. Science for Health Literacy: It's Never Been so Important

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Marcus; Woods-Townsend, Kathryn; Griffiths, Janice; Christodoulou, Andri; Byrne, Jenny; Bay, Jacquie; Godfrey, Keith; Inskip, Hazel; Hanson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a project called "LifeLab," developed by researchers at the Education School, Faculty of Medicine and the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at the University of Southampton (UK), to promote a science-oriented approach to health literacy among teenagers. The main purposes of "LifeLab" are: (1) to improve…

  15. West Virginia University's Health Sciences and Technology Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Ann; Dooley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the Health Sciences and Technology Academy, an outreach and engagement program by West Virginia University to encourage higher education faculty members and administrators, public school teachers, and community leaders to assume the responsibility of mentoring high school students. The primary goal is to increase the college…

  16. Editorial comments | Okesina | Tropical Journal of Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Health Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 24, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  17. Editorial Comments | Okesina | Tropical Journal of Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Health Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 23, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  18. Improving Public Health through Innovations in Exposure Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the traditional risk assessment paradigm, exposure science is relegated to a supporting role, providing an exposure estimate for comparison with hazard-based guidance values to determine whether there may be an unacceptable risk to public health. More recently, exposure scien...

  19. Faculty Perceptions of Critical Thinking at a Health Sciences University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowles, Joie; Morgan, Christine; Burns, Shari; Merchant, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The fostering of critical thinking skills has become an expectation of faculty, especially those teaching in the health sciences. The manner in which critical thinking is defined by faculty impacts how they will address the challenge to promote critical thinking among their students. This study reports the perceptions of critical thinking held by…

  20. Afican Health Sciences Vol 9 No 2.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    knowledge about AIDS is not a predictor for behavioural change4, 5, 6, 7 although knowledge about the ... Anthony M. Sallar. Ohio University, School of Public Health Sciences and Professions, Grover Center E335, Athens, OH 45701 ... approach was that it made each testing unique and resulted in three episodes of testing ...

  1. ARL Academic Health Sciences Library Statistics, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Bland, Les, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents data that describe collections, expenditures, personnel, and services in 64 medical libraries at Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member institutions throughout North America. In 2007-2008, the reporting health sciences libraries held a median of 240,955 volumes, spent a total of $240,019,298, and employed 2,304…

  2. Rural origin health science students in South African universities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted in 2003. Lists of undergraduate students admitted from 1999 to 2002 for medicine, dentistry, physiotherapy and occupational therapy were obtained from 9 health science faculties. Origins of students were classified as city, town and rural by means of postal codes.

  3. Teaching spirituality and spiritual care in health sciences education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teaching spirituality and spiritual care in health sciences education has been identified as a need to enhance holistic care. However, educators seemed to be unprepared and have insufficient knowledge about how to include spirituality in teaching. This review aimed to systematically review previous literature from 2000 to ...

  4. Career and practice intentions of health science students at three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The distribution and accessibility of healthcare professionals as well as the quality of healthcare services are significantly affected by the career choices of medical and other health science graduates. Objective. While much has been reported on the career intentions of medical students, little is known about ...

  5. COCTAILS: automated interlibrary loan statistics at health sciences library, SUNYAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, M D; Miller, A P

    1977-04-01

    An automated interlibrary loan statistics compilation system used at the Health Sciences Library at the State University of New York at Buffalo is described. The system provides standardized input to produce various statistical reports as well as additional information for collection development and improved user service.

  6. Letter to the Editor | Joob | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 4 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Letter to the Editor. B Joob, V Wiwanitkit. Abstract. Ebola outbreak in west Africa ...

  7. Letter to Editor | Kieran | Annals of Medical and Health Sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Letter to Editor. W Kieran. Abstract.

  8. Afican Health Sciences Vol 9 No 2.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    African Health Sciences Vol 9 No 2 June 2009. 92. Condom use amongst out of school youths in a local ... Kajola Local Government Area of Oyo State in the southwestern part of Nigeria. It was a cross sectional ..... HIV and AIDS through various media of communication in Nigeria. However, more males reported having had ...

  9. Health sciences libraries building survey, 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Logan

    2010-04-01

    A survey was conducted of health sciences libraries to obtain information about newer buildings, additions, remodeling, and renovations. An online survey was developed, and announcements of survey availability posted to three major email discussion lists: Medical Library Association (MLA), Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL), and MEDLIB-L. Previous discussions of library building projects on email discussion lists, a literature review, personal communications, and the author's consulting experiences identified additional projects. Seventy-eight health sciences library building projects at seventy-three institutions are reported. Twenty-two are newer facilities built within the last ten years; two are space expansions; forty-five are renovation projects; and nine are combinations of new and renovated space. Six institutions report multiple or ongoing renovation projects during the last ten years. The survey results confirm a continuing migration from print-based to digitally based collections and reveal trends in library space design. Some health sciences libraries report loss of space as they move toward creating space for "community" building. Libraries are becoming more proactive in using or retooling space for concentration, collaboration, contemplation, communication, and socialization. All are moving toward a clearer operational vision of the library as the institution's information nexus and not merely as a physical location with print collections.

  10. From trauma to resilience | Christensen | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if ...

  11. From trauma to resilience | Christensen | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract African Health Sciences Vol. 8 Special Edition 2008: pp. S39-S40. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  12. Resilience in MSF and its Personnel | Filot | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract African Health Sciences Vol. 8 Special Edition 2008: pp. S44-S45. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  13. Resilience in MSF and its Personnel | Filot | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser ...

  14. Integrating health sciences library resources into course management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Amy E; Inman, Megan B

    2014-01-01

    As distance education and blended learning grows, so does the need for health sciences librarians to become involved with course management systems. This article will provide some information on how to become involved with course management systems and will also provide information on a few of the more popular systems available.

  15. Qualitative Research in PBL in Health Sciences Education: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun; Bridges, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Context: Qualitative methodologies are relatively new in health sciences education research, especially in the area of problem-based learning (PBL). A key advantage of qualitative approaches is the ability to gain in-depth, textured insights into educational phenomena. Key methodological issues arise, however, in terms of the strategies of…

  16. Afican Health Sciences Vol 9 No 3.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    African Health Sciences 2009; 9(3): 137-142. Introduction. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Hepatitis. C virus (HCV) co-infection is becoming increasingly recognized world wide because of the similarities in the mode of transmission 1. A recent Austrian study.

  17. Funding health sciences research: a strategy to restore balance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bloom, Floyd E; Randolph, Mark A

    1990-01-01

    ... Funds Division of Health Sciences Policy Institute of Medicine Floyd E. Bloom and Mark A. Randolph, editors NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1990 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative the typesetting-specific created from the as publication files other...

  18. Counting Journal Title Usage in the Health Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Ruth W.

    1979-01-01

    A noncomputerized study of the journal title usage by the clients of the Extension Division of the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center Library showed that its validity increased in direct proportion to the number of relevant parameters. Such studies should include both numbers of requesters and numbers of requests. (Author)

  19. Reconciling Statistical and Systems Science Approaches to Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Edward H.; Rahmandad, Hazhir; Shoham, David A.; Hammond, Ross; Huang, Terry T. -K.; Wang, Youfa; Mabry, Patricia L.

    2013-01-01

    Although systems science has emerged as a set of innovative approaches to study complex phenomena, many topically focused researchers including clinicians and scientists working in public health are somewhat befuddled by this methodology that at times appears to be radically different from analytic methods, such as statistical modeling, to which…

  20. Radiography - A new field among health sciences in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakarinen, Ritva [Licentiate of Health Sciences, Department of Nursing Science and Health Administration, University of Oulu, Lamsantie 14 A1, 90230 Oulu (Finland)]. E-mail: ritva.pakarinen@oulu.fi; Jussila, Aino-Liisa [Doctor of Health Sciences, Department of Social and Health Care, Oulu Polytechnic, Oulu (Finland)

    2007-08-15

    In order to secure high quality X-ray services and efficient operation of clinical radiography, a study programme in radiography science was implemented at the University of Oulu in 1999. The need for a specific field of science has emerged as a result of social changes, such as the aging population, and the fast development of technology that has caused significant changes in the radiological working environment and clinical radiography. A need for a new, research-based informational foundation of clinical radiography is the basis for the programme. As service producers, radiographers need vast knowledge as well as specific expertise. The research object of radiography science is clinical radiography. If it was studied from the viewpoint of other sciences, the key professional skills of a radiographer would remain unexplored. Implementing an own field of science has enabled the development of radiography from its own bases. Basic research in the field is represented, for example, by the concept analysis of radiography in health sciences. Radiography science should produce research results for both clinical radiography and the instruction of radiography. So far, research results have dealt with the professional decision-making of a radiographer, the influences of computer technology on a radiographer's work and measuring the radiation exposure of a population.

  1. Smoking Prevalence Among Mugla School of Health Sciences Students and Causes of Leading Increase in Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Picakciefe

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the smoking prevalence among Mugla School of Health Sciences students, to determine the effects the increasing causes of smoking and their education about adverse health outcome of smoking. A cross-sectional study was performed among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. All students (417 in Mugla School of Health Sciences included in the study. The participation rates was 85.1%. Data were obtained by the self-administered questionnaire without teachers in classes. SPSS 11.0 was used for data analysis, and the differentiation was assessed by Chi-square analysis. P < 0.05 was accepted statistically significant. The prevalence of current smokers was 25.3% among students in Mugla School of Health Sciences. The students stated that the most important factor of smoking initiation was stress (59.2%. The univariable analysis showed that the friends’ smoking (p: 0.000 , having knowledge about smoking habits of teachers (p: 0.020 , alcohol consumption (p: 0.000, and other smokers out of parent in the home (p: 0.000 was significantly associated with increasing rate of smoking prevalence. The smoking prevalence was quite high (25.3% among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. It is needed to decreasing smoking prevalence among students that antismoking education should be reevaluated, that antismoking campaign should be administered in schools. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 267-272

  2. Smoking Prevalence Among Mugla School of Health Sciences Students and Causes of Leading Increase in Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Picakciefe

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the smoking prevalence among Mugla School of Health Sciences students, to determine the effects the increasing causes of smoking and their education about adverse health outcome of smoking. A cross-sectional study was performed among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. All students (417 in Mugla School of Health Sciences included in the study. The participation rates was 85.1%. Data were obtained by the self-administered questionnaire without teachers in classes. SPSS 11.0 was used for data analysis, and the differentiation was assessed by Chi-square analysis. P < 0.05 was accepted statistically significant. The prevalence of current smokers was 25.3% among students in Mugla School of Health Sciences. The students stated that the most important factor of smoking initiation was stress (59.2%. The univariable analysis showed that the friends’ smoking (p: 0.000 , having knowledge about smoking habits of teachers (p: 0.020 , alcohol consumption (p: 0.000, and other smokers out of parent in the home (p: 0.000 was significantly associated with increasing rate of smoking prevalence. The smoking prevalence was quite high (25.3% among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. It is needed to decreasing smoking prevalence among students that antismoking education should be reevaluated, that antismoking campaign should be administered in schools. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 267-272

  3. A Study of the Competencies Needed of Entry-Level Academic Health Sciences Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbrick, Jodi Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the professional and personal competencies that entry-level academic health sciences librarians should possess from the perspectives of academic health sciences library directors, library and information sciences (LIS) educators who specialize in educating health sciences librarians, and individuals who…

  4. Advancing global health through regulatory science research: summary of the Global Summit on Regulatory Science Research and Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slikker, William; Miller, Margaret Ann; Lou Valdez, Mary; Hamburg, Margaret A

    2012-04-01

    As a first step in the implementation of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Pathway to Global Product Safety and Quality (Anonymous, 2011), FDA's Office of International Programs (OIP) and the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) sponsored a Global Summit on Regulatory Science Research and Innovation. Through a series of presentations and panel discussions, the Global Summit participants explored how research could be used more effectively as a tool for advancing regulatory science, food safety, medical technologies, and public health. Speakers provided an overview of each of the components in the global regulatory-science research initiative, including scientific innovation and modernizing toxicology; and discussed how the integration of these components is needed to achieve the promise of regulatory science at the global level. All participants agreed with the formation of a Global Coalition of Regulatory Research Scientists who will work collaboratively to build knowledge, promote the development of regulatory science, discover novel ways to clearly define research needs, and improve public health. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The impact of institutional ethics on academic health sciences library leadership: a survey of academic health sciences library directors

    OpenAIRE

    Tooey, Mary Joan (M.J.); Arnold, Gretchen N.

    2014-01-01

    Ethical behavior in libraries goes beyond service to users. Academic health sciences library directors may need to adhere to the ethical guidelines and rules of their institutions. Does the unique environment of an academic health center imply different ethical considerations? Do the ethical policies of institutions affect these library leaders? Do their personal ethical considerations have an impact as well? In December 2013, a survey regarding the impact of institutional ethics was sent to ...

  6. International trends in health science librarianship: Part 7. Taking stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jeannette

    2013-09-01

    This article reviews the six papers published so far in this series on global trends in health science librarianship. Starting with a retrospective review of trends in the twentieth-century, the series has covered 6 different regions, with contributions from 21 countries. As this is the half-way point in the survey, it seems a useful point at which to reflect on what has emerged so far. The method of content analysis is used to identify key trends. The top five trends are explored. © 2013 The author. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2013 Health Libraries Group.

  7. Attitudes of students of health sciences towards the older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Ebru; Yanardag, Mehmet; Metintas, Selma

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare attitudes towards the elderly of Turkish students of various disciplines in health sciences at the level of associate and bachelor degree. 685 students participated in this descriptive study. Data were collected with a questionnaire administered to the students and the Turkish version of Kogan's Attitudes Towards Old People Scale (KAOP). Statistical evaluation of the data was included in percentage, mean, median, t-test, and one-way variance analysis. The average age of the students was 20.91±2.25years, and mean and median scores of KAOP for these students were 131.21±14.403 and 130, respectively. The attitudes of physiotherapy students towards older people were better than students in other health disciplines (pattitudes of health science students towards the older persons in eastern and western cities of Turkey (pattitudes of the health science professionals of tomorrow towards older people should be evaluated currently to be able to improve the provision of health care standards and to prevent possible negative beliefs and opinions in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Health Sciences Information Tools 2000: a cooperative health sciences library/public school information literacy program for medical assistant students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, L; Marks, E; Adams, N

    1998-01-01

    Educating diverse groups in how to access, use, and evaluate information available through information technologies is emerging as an essential responsibility for health sciences librarians in today's complex health care system. One group requiring immediate attention is medical assistants. Projections indicate that medical assistant careers will be among the fastest growing occupations in the twenty-first century. The expanding use and importance of information in all health care settings requires that this workforce be well versed in information literacy skills. But, for public school vocational education staff charged with educating entry level workers to meet this specialized demand, the expense of hiring qualified professionals and acquiring the sophisticated technology necessary to teach such skills poses a dilemma. Health Sciences Information Tools 2000, a cooperative work-study information literacy program jointly formulated by the Wayne State University's Shiffman Medical Library and the Detroit Public Schools' Crockett Career and Technical Center, demonstrates that cooperation between the health sciences library and the public school is a mutually beneficial and constructive solution. This article describes the background, goals, curriculum, personnel, costs, and evaluation methods of Tools 2000. The Shiffman-Crockett information literacy program, adaptable to a variety of library settings, is an innovative means of preparing well-trained high school vocational education students for beginning level medical assistant positions as well as further education in the health care field. PMID:9803297

  9. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - 2011

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. ... The effect of an eight-week training programme on core stability in female junior elite ... and behaviour of FET college students: Implications for sexual health promotion ...

  10. An Overview of R in Health Decision Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Hawre; Pechlivanoglou, Petros; Krijkamp, Eline; Alarid-Escudero, Fernando; Enns, Eva; Hunink, M G Myriam

    2017-10-01

    As the complexity of health decision science applications increases, high-level programming languages are increasingly adopted for statistical analyses and numerical computations. These programming languages facilitate sophisticated modeling, model documentation, and analysis reproducibility. Among the high-level programming languages, the statistical programming framework R is gaining increased recognition. R is freely available, cross-platform compatible, and open source. A large community of users who have generated an extensive collection of well-documented packages and functions supports it. These functions facilitate applications of health decision science methodology as well as the visualization and communication of results. Although R's popularity is increasing among health decision scientists, methodological extensions of R in the field of decision analysis remain isolated. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of existing R functionality that is applicable to the various stages of decision analysis, including model design, input parameter estimation, and analysis of model outputs.

  11. Improving Medical Decision Making and Health Promotion through Culture-Sensitive Health Communication: An Agenda for Science and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsch, Cornelia; Böhm, Robert; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Butler, Robb; Chapman, Gretchen B; Haase, Niels; Herrmann, Benedikt; Igarashi, Tasuku; Kitayama, Shinobu; Korn, Lars; Nurm, Ülla-Karin; Rohrmann, Bernd; Rothman, Alexander J; Shavitt, Sharon; Updegraff, John A; Uskul, Ayse K

    2016-10-01

    This review introduces the concept of culture-sensitive health communication. The basic premise is that congruency between the recipient's cultural characteristics and the respective message will increase the communication's effectiveness. Culture-sensitive health communication is therefore defined as the deliberate and evidence-informed adaptation of health communication to the recipients' cultural background in order to increase knowledge and improve preparation for medical decision making and to enhance the persuasiveness of messages in health promotion. To achieve effective health communication in varying cultural contexts, an empirically and theoretically based understanding of culture will be indispensable. We therefore define culture, discuss which evolutionary and structural factors contribute to the development of cultural diversity, and examine how differences are conceptualized as scientific constructs in current models of cultural differences. In addition, we will explicate the implications of cultural differences for psychological theorizing, because common constructs of health behavior theories and decision making, such as attitudes or risk perception, are subject to cultural variation. In terms of communication, we will review both communication strategies and channels that are used to disseminate health messages, and we will discuss the implications of cultural differences for their effectiveness. Finally, we propose an agenda both for science and for practice to advance and apply the evidence base for culture-sensitive health communication. This calls for more interdisciplinary research between science and practice but also between scientific disciplines and between basic and applied research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Changes in Elementary Student Perceptions of Science, Scientists, and Science Careers after Participating in a Curricular Module on Health and Veterinary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soo Yeon; Parker, Loran Carleton; Adedokun, Omolola; Mennonno, Ann; Wackerly, Amy; San Miguel, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study examined to what extent a curriculum module that uses animal and human health scientists and science concepts to portray science and scientists in a relevant and authentic manner could enhance elementary students' aspiration for science careers, attitudes to science, positive perceptions of scientists, and perceived relevance of…

  13. Smart device use and burnout among health science educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killion, Jeffrey B; Johnston, James Neal; Gresham, Jennifer; Gipson, Martha; Vealé, Beth L; Behrens, Phyllis I; Velasquez, Benito; Jansen, Lauren; Woods-Fidelie, Laura; Close, Daria M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the perceived level of stress and burnout among health science educators related to smart device use. An interdisciplinary health science research team was created to perform a literature review and design a survey and assessment instrument to investigate the level of stress and burnout among health science educators as a result of excessive connectivity to the workplace through smart device use. A total of 977 assessments were completed through distribution by program directors in athletic training, nursing, radiologic sciences, and respiratory care. Participants in the study, who represented program directors and educators in the allied health sciences, reported 70% of their smart device use taking place between the hours of 6 am and 6 pm, followed by 30% between 6 pm and 12 am. Slightly more than 60% of participants reported feeling connected to the workplace at all hours of the day. Emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment scores for participants were stronger than the norm as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. There appears to be a strong feeling of connectedness to the workplace caused by the use of smart devices (60.7%). Some surveyed educators appear to manage their smart device use better than others because 55% of participants indicated they sometimes ignore work-related items after hours. Although several participants demonstrated physical signs of stress and burnout, a causal relationship between use of smart devices or work connectedness could not be established. Based on the findings of this study, the null hypothesis was rejected. Significant levels of emotional exhaustion were seen in a subset of study participants. Our findings indicate that emotional exhaustion occurs when healthy boundaries are not maintained for smart device use for work purposes after hours.

  14. 78 FR 7794 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological...

  15. 76 FR 13650 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30/Room 3171, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (919) 541...

  16. 75 FR 78719 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

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  17. 76 FR 35225 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2011-06-16

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  18. 77 FR 43849 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-07-26

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  19. 75 FR 55807 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2010-09-14

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  20. 76 FR 5594 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

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    2011-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. The.... Agenda: Discussion of program policies and issues. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences...

  1. 76 FR 58521 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2011-09-21

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  2. 75 FR 41506 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-07-16

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  3. 78 FR 48695 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

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  4. 75 FR 3474 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

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  5. 76 FR 7225 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meetings

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    2011-02-09

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  6. 75 FR 41505 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-07-16

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  7. 77 FR 4572 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-01-30

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  8. 75 FR 32797 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-06-09

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  9. 77 FR 60445 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2012-10-03

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  10. 76 FR 11500 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2011-03-02

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  11. 78 FR 51734 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-08-21

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  12. 77 FR 74198 - National Institute Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meeting

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    2012-12-13

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  13. 76 FR 80954 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

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    2011-12-27

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  14. 76 FR 7572 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meetings

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    2011-02-10

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  15. 78 FR 14562 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-03-06

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  16. 75 FR 61765 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2010-10-06

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  17. 78 FR 14312 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2013-03-05

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  18. 77 FR 66853 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2012-11-07

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  19. 78 FR 8156 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-02-05

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  20. 78 FR 39739 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-07-02

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  1. 77 FR 30019 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

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  2. 75 FR 7487 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

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  3. 76 FR 46823 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. The... of Committee: National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. Date: September 1-2, 2011...

  4. 75 FR 68367 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-11-05

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  5. 77 FR 37423 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2012-06-21

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  6. 76 FR 62080 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-10-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Environmental Health Sciences Review Committee. Date: November 9, 2011...'l Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30, Research Triangle Park, NC...

  7. 78 FR 27410 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Research and Education; 93.894, Resources and Manpower Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93...

  8. 75 FR 2876 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (919) 541- 0752...

  9. 75 FR 34147 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-06-16

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  10. 78 FR 25754 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special ] Emphasis.... Institute of Environmental Health Science, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30/Room 3170 B, Research Triangle Park, NC...

  11. 75 FR 10293 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory.... Institute Environmental Health Sciences, P. O. Box 12233, MD EC-30, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (919... Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied...

  12. 76 FR 21387 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2011-04-15

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  13. 75 FR 8976 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

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  14. 75 FR 35076 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2010-06-21

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  15. 75 FR 44273 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    .... Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences... Branch, Division of Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Institute Environmental Health Sciences, P.O... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice...

  16. 78 FR 13358 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2013-02-27

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  17. 77 FR 48164 - National Institute Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. The... Health Sciences Council. Date: September 11, 2012. Time: 8:30 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. Agenda: Discussion of...

  18. 78 FR 56902 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-09-16

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  19. 77 FR 18252 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

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    2012-03-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. The... Health Sciences Council. Date: May 22-23, 2012. Open: May 22, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda...

  20. 78 FR 35637 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting

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    2013-06-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences... Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, July 15, 2013, 8:00 a.m. to July 15, 2013, 5:00 p.m., National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 111 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC...

  1. 78 FR 64511 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Environmental Health Sciences Review Committee. Date: November 14... Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Rall Building 101, Conference Room B, 111 T.W. Alexander Drive...

  2. 76 FR 10040 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

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    2011-02-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... and projects conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, including... Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 111 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. (919...

  3. 78 FR 20931 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. The...: Discussion of program policies and issues. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101...

  4. 75 FR 49500 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. The...: Discussion of program policies and issues. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101...

  5. The Effects of Education on Spirituality through Virtual Social Media on the Spiritual Well-Being of the Public Health Students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanshahi, Maryam; Mazaheri, Maryam Amidi

    2016-04-01

    The role and effects of people's spiritual well-being have received more attention in recent years. Knowing the factors related to spiritual well-being, especially in students as the educated class and future builders of society, is too important. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of education on spirituality through social media in the spirituality well-being of public health students of Isfahan University of medical science. A semi-experimental, pre-test, post-test study was conducted on 50 under- graduate public health students (3 men, 47 women; age range 18-30 years) of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences through convenience and purposive sampling. The educational content of spirituality education was used to promote and improve spiritual well-being, being sent by using one of the mobile phone applications. Using spiritual well-being questionnaire, the level of the individuals' spiritual well-being before and after the educational was evaluated. To analyze the data in this study, descriptive statistics and t-test were use SPSS software was used to analyze the data and the significance level was considered lower than 0.05%. In total, 50 students including 3 men and 47women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 22.02±3.78. About 68% of the students were single and the remaining were married. The score of the participants' spiritual well-being was 96.5 before the intervention and it promoted to 103.3 after the intervention. The result of the analysis by t-test on the two groups showed that spirituality education can cause a significant increase in peoples' spiritual well-being (P<0.001). After the educational intervention, the level of people's spiritual well-being increased significantly. As a result, spirituality education causes conditions to improve the peoples' spiritual well-being.

  6. Lifestyle of health sciences students at Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Alfhaid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background We all want to live a long, happy and healthy life with an abundance of energy and vitality to perform well both mentally and physically. A healthy lifestyle is a valuable resource for reducing the incidence and impact of health problems, enabling you better to cope with life stressors, as well as improving your quality of life. Aims The study was aimed to assess the lifestyle (eating habits and physical activity of health sciences students studying at Majmaah University. Methods This cross-sectional institutional based study was conducted from 25th November 2014-3rd May 2015. A total of 450 students (370 males and 80 females aged between 18–28 years were randomly chosen. Self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection from the College of Medicine, College of Applied Medical Sciences and College of Dentistry. Results Majority of the students, 62.4 per cent, were physically inactive. Students from the College of Medicine, 40.4 per cent, were the most physically active. The most common reason that restrained the students from being active was time limitation. In addition to that, many of the participants, 29.6 per cent, have never had breakfast at home. Also, most of the participants, 42.7 per cent, were not satisfied with their eating habits. Almost one quarter of students were consuming soft drinks more than four times a day. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of sedentary lifestyle, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among health sciences students studying at Majmaah University. There is an urgent need for arranging health education programs for promoting healthy and active living among health sciences students of Majmaah University in Saudi Arabia.

  7. Phytochemicals: Health Protective Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Winston; Beck, Leslie

    1999-01-01

    Consuming a diet rich in plant foods will provide a milieu of phytochemicals, non-nutritive substances in plants that possess health-protective benefits. Vegetables, fruits, whole grains, herbs, nuts and seeds contain an abundance of phenolic compounds, terpenoids, sulfur compounds, pigments, and other natural antioxidants that have been associated with protection from and/or treatment of conditions such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. The foods and herbs with the highest anticancer activity include garlic, soybeans, cabbage, ginger, licorice root, and the umbelliferous vegetables. Citrus, in addition to providing an ample supply of vitamin C, folic acid, potassium, and soluble fibre, contains a host of active phytochemicals. Clinical trials have not yet been able to demonstrate the same protective effects from taking supplements. It is difficult to estimate how many Canadians achieve an adequate level of consumption, but it seems reasonable to assume that many Canadians could benefit from substantially increasing their intake of vegetables and fruit.

  8. ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI), global leader in advancing translational science to create science-based solutions for a sustainable, healthier world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Ayako

    2015-01-01

    The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) is a non-profit scientific research organization based in Washington, D.C., U.S.A. HESI was established in 1989 as a global branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) to provide an international forum to advance the understanding of scientific issues related to human health, toxicology, risk assessment and the environment. For the last 25 years, HESI has been the global leader to advance application of new science and technologies in the areas of human health, toxicology, risk assessment and environment. The core principle of "tripartite approach" and the multi-sector operational model have successfully supported HESI's scientific programs to create science-based solutions for a sustainable and healthier world. HESI's achievements include the dataset to guide the selection of appropriate supporting assays for carcinogenicity testing, a new testing framework for agricultural chemicals with enhanced efficacy, predictivity, and reduced animal usage, novel biomarkers of nephrotoxicity which provide data on the location of timing of drug effects in the kidney allowing for enhanced drug development, etc.

  9. Health and Illness in History, Science and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Rovesti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Health is a fundamental human right. The World Health Organization defines it as a "state of complete physical, psychological and social well - being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". The health of individuals, however, is also linked to the environment in which they live and especially to their ability to adapt and integrate into their life context. The relationship with the environment is extremely important because it is that interaction that outlines the concept of normality compared to pathology. Such normality needs to be contextualised by gender, geographical origin and by the individuals’ living conditions: as a matter of fact, what is normal for a young person may differ from what is normal for a senior one. That is to say, the concept of health is indeed relative and it is the result of an interesting evolution of the concept of illness. From the first approaches - dealing with the mere treatment of the symptoms - to the promise of a free-from-pain society, science and economics have played a significant role in redefining the dualism health/ illness. The article reflects on these two concepts, health and illness, in history and nowadays, and discusses the future of the medical science.

  10. Science and scepticism: Drug information, young men and counterpublic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Adrian; Fraser, Suzanne

    2017-11-01

    It is perhaps no surprise that young people can be sceptical of the drug-related information they receive in school-based health education, health promotion and the media. Significant societal anxiety surrounds young people's drug consumption, so it is tempting to approach this scepticism as a problem to be solved. In this article, we look closely at a group of young Australian men (n = 25), all of whom hold deeply sceptical views about the drug information they received in schools, social marketing campaigns and public speech generally. We do not approach their scepticism as a problem to be solved in itself, however. Instead, we analyse its origins and how it relates to the way knowledge is constructed in drug education, health promotion and media accounts of drug use. To conceptualise this scepticism, we draw on Irwin and Michael's analysis of the changing relationship between science and society, Warner's theorisation of publics and counterpublics, and Race's related notion of 'counterpublic health'. The article organises the data into three key themes: scepticism about the accuracy of the claims made about drug risks and dangers, scepticism about representations of drug users, and scepticism about the motivations behind the health messages and drug policy in general. We then draw these different aspects of scepticism together to argue that the young men can be seen to constitute a health 'counterpublic', and we consider the implications of this approach, arguing for what has been described as a more diplomatic engagement between science and publics.

  11. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen – Health Criteria (Final Report, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final report provides the U.S. EPA’s evaluation and synthesis of the most policy-relevant science related to the health effects of gaseous oxides of nitrogen. It provides a critical part of the scientific foundation for the U.S. EPA’s decision regarding the adequacy of the c...

  12. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen – Health Criteria (Second External Review Draft, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft document provides EPA’s evaluation and synthesis of the most policy-relevant science related to the health effects of oxides of nitrogen. When final, it will provide a critical part of the scientific foundation for EPA’s decision regarding the adequacy of the current ...

  13. An innovative approach in health sciences: Yoga for obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Dushyant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global health burden and its prevalence is increasing substantially due to changing lifestyle. A yoga-based lifestyle intervention appears to be a promising option in obesity. The present study is designed to assess the effects of Integrated Approach of Yoga Therapy (IAYT in patients with obesity. Twenty-four obese patients (8 males and 16 females between18 to 60 years were assessed on the first and last day of a 7 days′ residential intensive IAYT program. The body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, hip circumferences (HC, and mid-arm circumference (MC were recorded before and after the IAYT program. Paired Samples t test (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, SPSS-16 was used to compare the means before (pre and after (post the intervention. The statistical analysis showed that there was a significant (P < 0.01, all comparisons decrease (Ϳ in mean body weight from 86.52 ± 15.23 to 84.54 ± 14.95 (2.29% Ϳ, mean BMI from 32.04 ± 5.02 to 31.30 ± 4.88 (2.33% Ϳ, WC by 3.46% Ϳ, HC by 4.65% Ϳ, and MC by 4.74% Ϳ. The results suggest that IAYT program was beneficial for patients with obesity and may offer better option to obesity-related problems. Randomized control trials are needed before a strong recommendation can be made.

  14. Problem-based learning online: perceptions of health science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valaitis, Ruta K; Sword, Wendy A; Jones, Bob; Hodges, Andrea

    2005-08-01

    This qualitative study explored health sciences students' perceptions of their experiences in online problem based learning (PBL) and focused on their views about learning and group process in the online environment. Participants were novices to online learning and highly experienced in PBL, therefore, they could reflect on past face-to-face PBL experiences. Three groups of learners were involved, including undergraduate nursing and midwifery students and graduate students in a neonatal nurse practitioner program. Findings are presented using the six steps of the PBL process (Rideout & Carpio, 2001). Results indicated that it is feasible to conduct PBL online. Students felt that it increased their flexibility for learning, enhanced their ability to deeply process content, and provided access to valuable learning resources. Students experienced a period of adaptation to the online environment, perceived a heavy workload, and had difficulties making group decisions online. In addition to using asynchronous communication, chats (synchronous communication) were valued to support group decision-making online. Students appreciated validation of their online contributions from their peers and wanted clear expectations of what constituted successful tutorial participation from their tutors. Although online PBL can work effectively, tutors and students need to develop online literacy skills to smooth their transition to an online PBL environment.

  15. Discovery machines accelerators for science, technology, health and innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Australian Academy of Sciences

    2016-01-01

    Discovery machines: Accelerators for science, technology, health and innovation explores the science of particle accelerators, the machines that supercharge our ability to discover the secrets of nature and have opened up new tools in medicine, energy, manufacturing, and the environment as well as in pure research. Particle accelerators are now an essential ingredient in discovery science because they offer new ways to analyse the world, such as by probing objects with high energy x-rays or colliding them beams of electrons. They also have a huge—but often unnoticed—impact on all our lives; medical imaging, cancer treatment, new materials and even the chips that power our phones and computers have all been transformed by accelerators of various types. Research accelerators also provide fundamental infrastructure that encourages better collaboration between international and domestic scientists, organisations and governments.

  16. Collection development and outsourcing in academic health sciences libraries: a survey of current practices.

    OpenAIRE

    Blecic, D D; Hollander, S; Lanier, D

    1999-01-01

    Academic health sciences libraries in the United States and Canada were surveyed regarding collection development trends, including their effect on approval plan and blanket order use, and use of outsourcing over the past four years. Results of the survey indicate that serials market forces, budgetary constraints, and growth in electronic resources purchasing have resulted in a decline in the acquisition of print items. As a result, approval plan use is being curtailed in many academic health...

  17. Effect of health development assistance on health status in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negeri KG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Keneni Gutema Negeri,1 Damen Halemariam,21School of Public and Environmental Health, Health Service Management Unit, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Introduction: Data on the effect of health aid on the health status in developing countries are inconclusive. Moreover, studies on this issue in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effect of health development aid in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Using panel data analytic method, as well as infant mortality rate as a proxy for health status, this study examines the effect of health aid on infant mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa. The panel was constructed from data on 43 countries for the period 1990–2010. Fixed effect, random effect, and first difference generalized method of moments estimator were used for estimation. Results: Health development aid has a statistically significant positive effect. A 1% increase of health development assistance per capita saves the lives of two infants per 1,000 live births (P=0.000 in the region. Conclusion: Contrary to health aid pessimists’ view, this study observes the fact that health development assistance has strong favorable effect in improving health status in sub-Saharan Africa. Keywords: health aid, infant mortality, developing countries, panel data

  18. Tobacco and alcohol consumption among health sciences students in Cuba and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabelo, Justo R; Iglesias, Serguei; Cabrera, René; Maldonado, María Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Smoking and alcohol use (beyond social norms) by health sciences students are behaviors contradictory to the social function they will perform as health promoters in their eventual professions. Identify prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use in health sciences students in Mexico and Cuba, in order to support educational interventions to promote healthy lifestyles and development of professional competencies to help reduce the harmful impact of these legal drugs in both countries. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using quantitative and qualitative techniques. Data were collected from health sciences students on a voluntary basis in both countries using the same anonymous self-administered questionnaire, followed by an in-depth interview. Prevalence of tobacco use was 56.4% among Mexican students and 37% among Cuban. It was higher among men in both cases, but substantial levels were observed in women as well. The majority of both groups were regularly exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Prevalence of alcohol use was 76.9% in Mexican students, among whom 44.4% were classified as at-risk users. Prevalence of alcohol use in Cuban students was 74.1%, with 3.7% classified as at risk. The high prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use in these health sciences students is cause for concern, with consequences not only for their individual health, but also for their professional effectiveness in helping reduce these drugs' impact in both countries.

  19. Health behaviour surveillance of Health Sciences students in Northern Germany: Design and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tobisch

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHealth of students have most often been neglected in recent studies, although students face a transition of life during their studies which has strong implications on health.  During that time, universities play a key role as a setting where future professionals develop independence and learn skills possibly affecting their development and health. Nevertheless, less in known about this group in society and consequently, the aim of this research project was to monitor health of Health Sciences students through a long-term health surveillance system.MethodsSince 2014, an almost complete convenience sample of Health Sciences students is surveyed twice a year at Hamburg University of Applied Sciences. A paper-pencil questionnaire, which includes questions about socio-demographics, well-being, health-promoting and health-risk behaviours, is administered during courses.ResultsOur first surveys achieved response rates of more than 97%. Up to 83% of enrolled students were reached. Undergraduate Health Sciences students reported health-risk behaviours, e.g. binge-drinking on 1 to 2 days (33.9%, regular cannabis use (4.2%, regular cognitive-enhancement (4.0%. Moreover, unhealthy diet was prevalent but almost all students were physically active.ConclusionsA short paper-pencil questionnaire administered during courses and conducted according to standardized processes provides complete data on students’ health with little effort. Trends can be determined, which assist in making decision whether to take action in prevention and/or to evaluate campaigns. These first results show the need for a more targeted health promotion action for students.

  20. Students’ Ideas Regarding Science and Pseudo-science in Relation to the Human Body and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Lundström

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the pseudo-scientific and superstitious ideas Swedish upper-secondary students articulate and if there is a relationship between their ideas and their knowledge of the human body and health. The study is based on a questionnaire among 300 students in which the students were asked to consider statements related to different treatments that may influence the human body and health, and questions about physiology, health and nutrition. The analysis reveals that a relatively large group of students give credance to statements such as that some people can transfer thoughts or that the phases of the moon can affect a person’s health. The analysis also shows that there is no apparent relationship between the students’ pseudo-scientific beliefs and their scientific knowledge about the human body. Furthermore, although the results do not indicate a gender difference with regards to the power of faith in pseudo-scientific ideas, they do indicate that male and females consider these questions differently. The results imply a need for discussion and critical investigation in school science concerning the relationship between science and pseudo-scientific ideas in order to enhance critical thinking and development of the understanding of the nature of science.

  1. Leisure reading collections in academic health sciences and science libraries: results of visits to seven libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Erin M

    2014-03-01

    To visit leisure reading collections in academic science and health sciences libraries to determine how they function and what role they play in their libraries. The author visited seven libraries with leisure reading collections and carried out a semistructured interview with those responsible either for selection of materials or for the establishment of the collection. These collections contained a variety of materials, with some libraries focusing on health-science-related materials and others on providing recreational reading. The size of the collections also varied, from 186 to 9700 books, with corresponding differences in budget size. All collections were housed apart, with the same loan period as the regular collection. No collections contained electronic materials. Although there was little comparable statistical data on usage, at the six libraries at which active selection was occurring, librarians and library staff felt that the collection was well used and felt that it provided library users with benefits such as stress relief and relaxation and exposure to other perspectives. Librarians and library staff at the libraries that undertook active selection felt that their leisure reading collection was worthwhile. It would be interesting for future work to focus on the user experience of such collections. © 2013 The author. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2013 Health Libraries Group.

  2. Reflections on the health social sciences--then and now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elling, Ray

    2007-01-01

    After its beginnings in the United States, medical sociology started to take hold in Germany in 1958 with a conference that resulted in the first book on medical sociology published in Germany. From uneasy marginality, the field has grown to include disciplines other than sociology--anthropology, economics, and political economy. Today, the field might best be called the "health social sciences." The main body of work employs the consensual perspective, but work done using a class conflict perspective is increasingly significant.

  3. Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Journal, 2001 Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-15

    physi- cians, dentists, nurses, and other health care providers in their pursuit of oncology research in compliance with Federal regulations and...effort between the Departments of Pathology and Surgery, serves as a bridge between basic science and clinical practice in Medical Oncology . The...prosthetics, has also been installed at the Handicap International facilities in Aden and Taiz and in the Physiotherapy Department of the Aden General

  4. The application of health sciences library skills in other settings.

    OpenAIRE

    Snape, M F

    1995-01-01

    Medical librarians have been urged to assume personal responsibility for seeking lifelong education and professional development opportunities, but it is not always clear which opportunities should be sought or which skills will be needed in the rapidly changing health sciences environment. To shed some light on these issues, the author interviewed former medical librarians from southern California and Arizona who are now employed in other settings, to determine the skills that aided their tr...

  5. Fetishizing the health sciences: Queer theory as an intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüello, Tyler M

    Queer theory often falls impotent in its palatability across disciplinary lines. I offer a conceptual paper that interrogates the disease and divide when considering queer theory in and for the health sciences. In so doing, I look to foster a process of making queer theory more tenable to applied practice - and to make practice in social work, at least, more queer. The exemplar of HIV is deconstructed as a preeminent discourse and health disparity. In the end, it is argued that queer theory may be an essential intervention in the arsenal of the helping professions.

  6. Fetishizing the health sciences: Queer theory as an intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Arg?ello, Tyler M.

    2016-01-01

    Queer theory often falls impotent in its palatability across disciplinary lines. I offer a conceptual paper that interrogates the disease and divide when considering queer theory in and for the health sciences. In so doing, I look to foster a process of making queer theory more tenable to applied practice ? and to make practice in social work, at least, more queer. The exemplar of HIV is deconstructed as a preeminent discourse and health disparity. In the end, it is argued that queer theory m...

  7. "Hidden treasures": librarian office hours for three health sciences schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Lara; Lackey, Mellanye; Vaughan, K T L

    2009-10-01

    The changing needs of students and faculty have prompted UNC Chapel Hill's Health Sciences Library to reconsider the delivery of library services. Several years of outreach and office hours have yielded an array of "hidden treasures," or secondary outcomes, of both online and in-person office hours. The online office hours are tailored for the Schools of Medicine, Pharmacy, and Public Health. This article examines the benefits that go beyond simple consultation statistics and encompass more qualitative aspects of success resulting from increased outreach, goodwill, and stronger library-departmental partnerships.

  8. GIS: A Spatial Turn in the Health Science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Ejstrud, Bo; Troelsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In recent years health science seems to have taken a “spatial turn” with a renewed interest in spatially oriented research. There are a number of reasons behind this rediscovery of “the power of maps”. One of the predominant drivers has been the development of Geographical Information Systems (GIS...... of the available GIS data. With the increased use of GIS, the limitations of existing GIS data are becoming more apparent. However, we expect that methodological and technical developments will increase the usefulness and validity of using GIS-derived environmental parameters in health research, which in turn...

  9. Health science center faculty attitudes towards interprofessional education and teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Jodie C; Gosselin, Kevin; Bentley, Regina

    2018-03-01

    The attitudes of faculty towards interprofessional education (IPE) and teamwork impact the education of health professions education (HPE) students. This paper reports on a study evaluating attitudes from health professions educators towards IPE and teamwork at one academic health science center (HSC) where modest IPE initiatives have commenced. Drawing from the results of a previous investigation, this study was conducted to examine current attitudes of the faculty responsible for the training of future healthcare professionals. Survey data were collected to evaluate attitudes from HSC faculty, dentistry, nursing, medicine, pharmacy and public health. In general, positive HSC faculty attitudes towards interprofessional learning, education, and teamwork were significantly predicted by those affiliated with the component of nursing. Faculty development aimed at changing attitudes and increasing understanding of IPE and teamwork are critical. Results of this study serve as an underpinning to leverage strengths and evaluate weakness in initiating IPE.

  10. Health Effects of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is known about the actual and potential human health impacts of climate change, many effects are speculative and targeted research efforts ... extensive research needs, particularly regarding adaptive responses to climate ... Examples of key research needs include: Identifying health ...

  11. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and your health: Green living Sun Water Air Health effects of air pollution How to protect yourself from air pollution Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth. ...

  12. Musical mnemonics in health science: a first look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirigliano, Matthew M

    2013-01-01

    Song, with its memory enhancement potential and ability to engage, has been employed as a learning tool in some academic settings. Of the countless learning environments, health science may seem the most atypical setting for the musical mnemonic, and yet it may be the most suitable for its application. With medicine's robust history of student-made mnemonics, it only seems natural that learners and instructors alike have begun to experiment with song meant to educate and entertain, primarily imparting them through popular media-sharing sites. This initial assessment of song in health science is meant to highlight notions of efficacy, audience, and use through an informal survey of 10 user-made YouTube musical mnemonics. Two of these mnemonics were co-created by the author, while the remaining eight were identified via select search terms and significant viewer numbers. Resulting YouTube data infers that instructors play a major role in the use of musical mnemonics in health science education. User comments indicate that some students have found value in mnemonic songs, helping them recall information during assessments. More robust research methods, like Q-method, meta-analysis, and opinion mining, can further confirm the value and role of musical mnemonics as they pertain to medicine and healthcare.

  13. JPRS Report Science & Technology USSR: Life Sciences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    Partial Contents: Agricultural Science, Biochemistry, Biophysics, Epidemiology, Genetics, Laser Bioeffects, Medicine, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Nonionizing Radiation Effects, Physiology, Public Health...

  14. Action research--a necessary complement to traditional health science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Mike; Grant, Gordon; Coleman, Zoë

    2008-06-01

    There is continuing interest in action research in health care. This is despite action researchers facing major problems getting support for their projects from mainstream sources of R&D funds partly because its validity is disputed and partly because it is difficult to predict or evaluate and is therefore seen as risky. In contrast traditional health science dominates and relies on compliance with strictly defined scientific method and rules of accountability. Critics of scientific health care have highlighted many problems including a perpetual quality gap between what is publicly expected and what is deliverable in the face of rising costs and the cultural variability of scientific medicine. Political demand to close the quality gap led to what can be seen as an elitist reform of policy on UK health research by concentrating more resources on better fewer centres and this may also have reduced support for action research. However, incompetent, unethical or criminal clinical practice in the UK has shifted policy towards greater patient and public involvement in health care and research. This highlights complementarity between health science and action research because action research can, as UK health policy requires, involve patients and public in priority setting, defining research outcomes, selecting research methodology, patient recruitment, and interpretation of findings and dissemination of results. However action research will remain marginalised unless either scientific research is transformed generally into a more reflective cycle or there is increased representation of action research enthusiasts within the establishment of health R&D or current peer review and public accountability arrangements are modified. None of these seem likely at this time. The case for complementarity is illustrated with two case studies.

  15. How do early career health sciences information professionals gain competencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Bethany A; Rodriguez, Bredny

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe early career health sciences information professionals' self-reported attainment of the Medical Library Association (MLA) Competencies for Lifelong Learning and Professional Success and to investigate the various methods by which participants developed these competencies. A SurveyMonkey survey was designed to ascertain participants' demographic information and their competency attainment. "Early career" health information professionals were defined as those with less than five years of professional experience. Participants were asked to rate each of the seven competencies on a five-point Likert scale regarding their level of agreement with the statement, "I have demonstrated this competency." Participants who responded positively were then asked to indicate how they acquired the competency on a multiple-choice, multiple-answer list. Free-text fields were provided for general comments and for participants to elaborate on their answers. The survey was distributed through the MLA email discussion list and other related email discussion lists. Participation was anonymous. One hundred eighty-seven responses were received. Out of those 187 respondents, 95 completed the entire survey. The majority of early career health sciences information professionals agreed that they had attained all 7 competencies. Of the various methods used to develop competencies, the most selected method was formal library and information studies education. Participants were least likely to report attaining competencies via mentoring, volunteering, or internships. Participants reported the highest level of confidence in having attained the "Health Sciences Information Services" competency, and the lowest level of confidence in having attained the "Research, Analysis, and Interpretation" competency. These results contribute to the ongoing discussions regarding proposed changes to the MLA competencies. The results may also inform the development of

  16. How do early career health sciences information professionals gain competencies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany A. Myers, MSLIS, AHIP

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe early career health sciences information professionals’ self-reported attainment of the Medical Library Association (MLA Competencies for Lifelong Learning and Professional Success and to investigate the various methods by which participants developed these competencies. Methods: A SurveyMonkey survey was designed to ascertain participants’demographic information and their competency attainment. ‘‘Early career’’ health information professionals were defined as those with less than five years of professional experience. Participants were asked to rate each of the seven competencies on a five-point Likert scale regarding their level of agreement with the statement, ‘‘I have demonstrated this competency.’’ Participants who responded positively were then asked to indicate how they acquired the competency on a multiple-choice, multiple-answer list. Free-text fields were provided for general comments and for participants to elaborate on their answers. The survey was distributed through the MLA email discussion list and other related email discussion lists. Participation was anonymous. Results: One hundred eighty-seven responses were received. Out of those 187 respondents, 95 completed the entire survey. The majority of early career health sciences information professionals agreed that they had attained all 7 competencies. Of the various methods used to develop competencies, the most selected method was formal library and information studies education. Participants were least likely to report attaining competencies via mentoring, volunteering, or internships. Participants reported the highest level of confidence in having attained the ‘‘Health Sciences Information Services’’ competency, and the lowest level of confidence in having attained the ‘‘Research, Analysis, and Interpretation’’ competency. Conclusions: These results contribute to the ongoing discussions

  17. Achieving Equity through Critical Science Agency: An Ethnographic Study of African American Students in a Health Science Career Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun-Frank, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of a High School Health Science Career Academy to support African American students' science career trajectories. I used three key theoretical tools---critical science agency (Basu, 2007; Calabrese Barton & Tan, 2008), power (Nespor, 1994), and cultural production (Carlone, 2004; Eisenhart &…

  18. 77 FR 3480 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below... Environmental Health Sciences Council. Date: February 15-16, 2012. Time: February 15, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to 2 p.m...

  19. 76 FR 7574 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... Extramural Research and Training, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 615 Davis Dr., KEY615...: Interagency Breast Cancer and Environmental Research Coordinating Committee (IBCERC) State of the Science...

  20. 75 FR 57280 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... Toxicology. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W...: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W. Alexander... Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology. ] Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101...

  1. 76 FR 6146 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Advisory Environmental Health Sciences. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. Date: February 16-17, 2011. Open...

  2. Understanding health systems, health economies and globalization: the need for social science perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Susan F; Bisht, Ramila; Baru, Rama; Pitchforth, Emma

    2012-08-31

    The complex relationship between globalization and health calls for research from many disciplinary and methodological perspectives. This editorial gives an overview of the content trajectory of the interdisciplinary journal 'Globalization and Health' over the first six years of production, 2005 to 2010. The findings show that bio-medical and population health perspectives have been dominant but that social science perspectives have become more evident in recent years. The types of paper published have also changed, with a growing proportion of empirical studies. A special issue on 'Health systems, health economies and globalization: social science perspectives' is introduced, a collection of contributions written from the vantage points of economics, political science, psychology, sociology, business studies, social policy and research policy. The papers concern a range of issues pertaining to the globalization of healthcare markets and governance and regulation issues. They highlight the important contribution that can be made by the social sciences to this field, and also the practical and methodological challenges implicit in the study of globalization and health.

  3. Developing E-science and Research Services and Support at the University of Minnesota Health Sciences Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Layne M.; Butler, John T.; Johnston, Lisa R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of e-science and research support services in the Health Sciences Libraries (HSL) within the Academic Health Center (AHC) at the University of Minnesota (UMN). A review of the broader e-science initiatives within the UMN demonstrates the needs and opportunities that the University Libraries face while building knowledge, skills, and capacity to support e-research. These experiences are being used by the University Libraries administration and HSL to apply support for the growing needs of researchers in the health sciences. Several research areas that would benefit from enhanced e-science support are described. Plans to address the growing e-research needs of health sciences researchers are also discussed. PMID:23585706

  4. Developing E-science and Research Services and Support at the University of Minnesota Health Sciences Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Layne M; Butler, John T; Johnston, Lisa R

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of e-science and research support services in the Health Sciences Libraries (HSL) within the Academic Health Center (AHC) at the University of Minnesota (UMN). A review of the broader e-science initiatives within the UMN demonstrates the needs and opportunities that the University Libraries face while building knowledge, skills, and capacity to support e-research. These experiences are being used by the University Libraries administration and HSL to apply support for the growing needs of researchers in the health sciences. Several research areas that would benefit from enhanced e-science support are described. Plans to address the growing e-research needs of health sciences researchers are also discussed.

  5. Integrating Science and Engineering to Implement Evidence-Based Practices in Health Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shinyi; Duan, Naihua; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Kravitz, Richard L; Owen, Richard R; Sullivan, J Greer; Wu, Albert W; Di Capua, Paul; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton

    2015-09-01

    Integrating two distinct and complementary paradigms, science and engineering, may produce more effective outcomes for the implementation of evidence-based practices in health care settings. Science formalizes and tests innovations, whereas engineering customizes and optimizes how the innovation is applied tailoring to accommodate local conditions. Together they may accelerate the creation of an evidence-based healthcare system that works effectively in specific health care settings. We give examples of applying engineering methods for better quality, more efficient, and safer implementation of clinical practices, medical devices, and health services systems. A specific example was applying systems engineering design that orchestrated people, process, data, decision-making, and communication through a technology application to implement evidence-based depression care among low-income patients with diabetes. We recommend that leading journals recognize the fundamental role of engineering in implementation research, to improve understanding of design elements that create a better fit between program elements and local context.

  6. Science-based health innovation in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years emerging markets such as India, China, and Brazil have developed appropriate business models and lower-cost technological innovations to address health challenges locally and internationally. But it is not well understood what capabilities African countries, with their high disease burden, have in science-based health innovation. This gap in knowledge is addressed by this series in BMC International Health and Human Rights. The series presents the results of extensive on-the-ground research in the form of four country case studies of health and biotechnology innovation, six studies of institutions within Africa involved in health product development, and one study of health venture funds in Africa. To the best of our knowledge it is the first extensive collection of empirical work on African science-based health innovation. The four country cases are Ghana, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The six case studies of institutions are A to Z Textiles (Tanzania, Acorn Technologies (South Africa, Bioventures venture capital fund (South Africa, the Malagasy Institute of Applied Research (IMRA; Madagascar, the Kenyan Medical Research Institute (KEMRI; Kenya, and Niprisan’s development by Nigeria’s National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development and Xechem (Nigeria. All of the examples highlight pioneering attempts to build technological capacity, create economic opportunities, and retain talent on a continent significantly affected by brain drain. They point to the practical challenges for innovators on the ground, and suggest potentially helpful policies, funding streams, and other support systems. For African nations, health innovation represents an opportunity to increase domestic capacity to solve health challenges; for international funders, it is an opportunity to move beyond foreign aid and dependency. The shared goal is creating self-sustaining innovation that has both health and development impacts. While

  7. Science-based health innovation in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bader, Sara; Masum, Hassan; Simiyu, Ken; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2010-12-13

    In recent years emerging markets such as India, China, and Brazil have developed appropriate business models and lower-cost technological innovations to address health challenges locally and internationally. But it is not well understood what capabilities African countries, with their high disease burden, have in science-based health innovation.This gap in knowledge is addressed by this series in BMC International Health and Human Rights. The series presents the results of extensive on-the-ground research in the form of four country case studies of health and biotechnology innovation, six studies of institutions within Africa involved in health product development, and one study of health venture funds in Africa. To the best of our knowledge it is the first extensive collection of empirical work on African science-based health innovation.The four country cases are Ghana, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The six case studies of institutions are A to Z Textiles (Tanzania), Acorn Technologies (South Africa), Bioventures venture capital fund (South Africa), the Malagasy Institute of Applied Research (IMRA; Madagascar), the Kenyan Medical Research Institute (KEMRI; Kenya), and Niprisan's development by Nigeria's National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development and Xechem (Nigeria).All of the examples highlight pioneering attempts to build technological capacity, create economic opportunities, and retain talent on a continent significantly affected by brain drain. They point to the practical challenges for innovators on the ground, and suggest potentially helpful policies, funding streams, and other support systems.For African nations, health innovation represents an opportunity to increase domestic capacity to solve health challenges; for international funders, it is an opportunity to move beyond foreign aid and dependency. The shared goal is creating self-sustaining innovation that has both health and development impacts. While this is a long-term strategy

  8. Complementary Health Approaches for Smoking Cessation: What the Science Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cessation, is not currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) but has been shown to be effective in helping smokers quit. NCCIH is part of a strategic collaboration with Achieve Life Science, Inc. and OncoGenex Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and is supporting a series of non- ...

  9. [Science, health and education: a priority and a model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fúster, Valentin

    2010-01-01

    Myocardial infarction and brain infarction are personally dramatic events. However, these cardiovascular events are also globally dramatic not just for being the first cause of death all over the world. In addition, their prevalence is increasing and the high economic cost of treatment - technological and pharmacological - is already inaccessible in many regions of the world. In light of the above, we have established an international foundation under the priority concept "Science, Health and Education" (SHE). This fundation is based in a new Spanish research and funding model, the "Nacional Cardiovascular Research Center (CNIC). The research aspect is geared towards promoting cardiovascular health and disease management both individually and among the population. Funding is public and private, excluding the fharmaceutical industry, wich thus prevents conflicts of interest. In the cardiovascular setting, the entity SHE as conceptual priority, and the CNIC as Scientific basis or model can be pilot or applicable to other health and disease issues in general.

  10. Health effects of exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihlava, T.; Uuppo, M.; Niemi, S.

    2013-11-01

    This report introduces general information about diesel particles and their health effects. The purpose of this report is to introduce particulate matter pollution and present some recent studies made regarding the health effects of particulate matter. The aim is not to go very deeply into the science, but instead to keep the text understandable for the average layman. Particulate matter is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets. These small particles are made up of a number of components that include for example acids, such as nitrates and sulphates, as well as organic chemicals, metals and dust particles from the soil. Particulate matter comes from several sources, such as transportation emissions, industrial emissions, forest fires, cigarette smoke, volcanic ash and climate variations. Particles are divided into coarse particles with diameters less than 10 ..m, fine particles with diameters smaller than 2.5 ..m and ultra-fine particles with diameters less than 0.1 ..m. The particulate matter in diesel exhaust gas is a highly complex mixture of organic, inorganic, solid, volatile and partly volatile compounds. Many of these particles do not form until they reach the air. Many carcinogenic compounds have been found in diesel exhaust gas and it is considered carcinogenic to humans. Particulate matter can cause several health effects, such as premature death in persons with heart or lung disease, cancer, nonfatal heart attacks, irregular heartbeat, aggravated asthma, decreased lung function and an increase in respiratory symptoms, such as irritation of the airways, coughing or difficulty breathing. It is estimated that in Finland about 1300 people die prematurely due to particles and the economic loss in the EU due to the health effects of particles can be calculated in the billions. Ultra-fine particles are considered to be the most harmful to human health. Ultrafine particles usually make the most of their quantity and surface area

  11. The 'medical humanities' in health sciences education in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, S

    2014-02-01

    A new masters-level course, 'Medicine and the Arts" will be offered in 2014 at the University of Cape Town, setting a precedent for interdisciplinary education in the field of medical humanities in South Africa. The humanities and social sciences have always been an implicit part of undergraduate and postgraduate education in the health sciences, but increasingly they are becoming an explicit and essential component of the curriculum, as the importance of graduate attributes and outcomes in the workplace is acknowledged. Traditionally, the medical humanities have included medical ethics, history, literature and anthropology. Less prominent in the literature has been the engagement with medicine of the disciplines of sociology, politics, philosophy, linguistics, education, and law, as well as the creative and expressive arts. The development of the medical humanities in education and research in South Africa is set to expand over the next few years, and it looks as if it will be an exciting inter-disciplinary journey.

  12. Sexual health and older adults: suggestions for social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliff, Sharron

    2016-11-01

    The body of evidence on older adults' sexual health is beginning to grow. However, it remains an under-researched area particularly within the social sciences. This viewpoint outlines four considerations for those who carry out social science research in this area: 1. defining the age category "older adults"; 2. being clear about the types of sex under research; 3. capturing a range of diverse voices; and 4. considering the use of qualitative research methods to explore the topic in depth. These suggestions are aimed at helping researchers to avoid some of the pitfalls of research in this area, as well as improving the evidence base in order to advance recognition of the issues and drive change in service provision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Applying Nanotechnology to Human Health: Revolution in Biomedical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Shrivastava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on biosystems at the nanoscale has created one of the most dynamic science and technology domains at the confluence of physical sciences, molecular engineering, biology, biotechnology, and medicine. This domain includes better understanding of living and thinking systems, revolutionary biotechnology processes, synthesis of new drugs and their targeted delivery, regenerative medicine, neuromorphic engineering, and developing a sustainable environment. Nanobiosystems research is a priority in many countries and its relevance within nanotechnology is expected to increase in the future. The realisation that the nanoscale has certain properties needed to solve important medical challenges and cater to unmet medical needs is driving nanomedical research. The present review explores the significance of nanoscience and latest nanotechnologies for human health. Addressing the associated opportunities, the review also suggests how to manage far-reaching developments in these areas.

  14. Enabling Open Science for Health Research: Collaborative Informatics Environment for Learning on Health Outcomes (CIELO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Philip; Lele, Omkar; Johnson, Beth; Holve, Erin

    2017-07-31

    There is an emergent and intensive dialogue in the United States with regard to the accessibility, reproducibility, and rigor of health research. This discussion is also closely aligned with the need to identify sustainable ways to expand the national research enterprise and to generate actionable results that can be applied to improve the nation's health. The principles and practices of Open Science offer a promising path to address both goals by facilitating (1) increased transparency of data and methods, which promotes research reproducibility and rigor; and (2) cumulative efficiencies wherein research tools and the output of research are combined to accelerate the delivery of new knowledge in proximal domains, thereby resulting in greater productivity and a reduction in redundant research investments. AcademyHealth's Electronic Data Methods (EDM) Forum implemented a proof-of-concept open science platform for health research called the Collaborative Informatics Environment for Learning on Health Outcomes (CIELO). The EDM Forum conducted a user-centered design process to elucidate important and high-level requirements for creating and sustaining an open science paradigm. By implementing CIELO and engaging a variety of potential users in its public beta testing, the EDM Forum has been able to elucidate a broad range of stakeholder needs and requirements related to the use of an open science platform focused on health research in a variety of "real world" settings. Our initial design and development experience over the course of the CIELO project has provided the basis for a vigorous dialogue between stakeholder community members regarding the capabilities that will add the greatest value to an open science platform for the health research community. A number of important questions around user incentives, sustainability, and scalability will require further community dialogue and agreement.

  15. Building capacity in a health sciences library to support global health projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Mellanye; Swogger, Susan; McGraw, Kathleen A

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes how a large, academic health sciences library built capacity for supporting global health at its university and discusses related outcomes. Lean budgets require prioritization and organizational strategy. A committee, with leadership responsibilities assigned to one librarian, guided strategic planning and the pursuit of collaborative, global health outreach activities. A website features case studies and videos of user stories to promote how library partnerships successfully contributed to global health projects. Collaborative partnerships were formed through outreach activities and from follow-up to reference questions. The committee and a librarian's dedicated time established the library's commitment to help the university carry out its ambitious global agenda.

  16. Building capacity in a health sciences library to support global health projects*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Mellanye; Swogger, Susan; McGraw, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes how a large, academic health sciences library built capacity for supporting global health at its university and discusses related outcomes. Lean budgets require prioritization and organizational strategy. A committee, with leadership responsibilities assigned to one librarian, guided strategic planning and the pursuit of collaborative, global health outreach activities. A website features case studies and videos of user stories to promote how library partnerships successfully contributed to global health projects. Collaborative partnerships were formed through outreach activities and from follow-up to reference questions. The committee and a librarian's dedicated time established the library's commitment to help the university carry out its ambitious global agenda. PMID:24860264

  17. Understanding health systems, health economies and globalization: the need for social science perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The complex relationship between globalization and health calls for research from many disciplinary and methodological perspectives. This editorial gives an overview of the content trajectory of the interdisciplinary journal ‘Globalization and Health’ over the first six years of production, 2005 to 2010. The findings show that bio-medical and population health perspectives have been dominant but that social science perspectives have become more evident in recent years. The types of paper published have also changed, with a growing proportion of empirical studies. A special issue on ‘Health systems, health economies and globalization: social science perspectives’ is introduced, a collection of contributions written from the vantage points of economics, political science, psychology, sociology, business studies, social policy and research policy. The papers concern a range of issues pertaining to the globalization of healthcare markets and governance and regulation issues. They highlight the important contribution that can be made by the social sciences to this field, and also the practical and methodological challenges implicit in the study of globalization and health. PMID:22938504

  18. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and gas field facilities : interpretive overview by the science advisory panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidotti, T.; Nielsen, O.; Berhane, K.; Cohen, B.S.; Hunter, B.; Lasley, B.; Martin, W.; Ribble, C.; Thorne, P.; Tollerud, D.; Witschi, H. [Western Interprovincial Scientific Studies Association, Calgary, AB (Canada). Science Advisory Panel

    2006-05-15

    The results of a study to determine if chronic exposure to emissions from the oil and gas industry influence the health and reproductive performance of cattle and wildlife in western Canada was presented. Individual cows in herds from Alberta, Saskatchewan and northeastern British Columbia were monitored in pens and pastures to determine their exposure status. Data on other known risk factors such as the cow's age, breed and body condition were collected. The study measured concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}); hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S); and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured as benzene and toluene. Passive air monitors were located on all occupied pastures and wintering areas for each herd. Information on the location of over 39,000 animals from 205 herds on 3355 different parcels of land was recorded at 2 week intervals. Each animal's exposure was then averaged to create cumulative exposure values for biologically relevant risk periods for each outcome. Exposures to fine particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured a total of 365 times near the calving area for 32 herds. Five primary health outcomes were studied: (1) nonpregnancy; (2) length of breeding-to-calving interval; (3) abortion; (4) stillbirth; and (5) calf mortality. No associations were found among any of the exposure measures and the risk of nonpregnancy, abortion or stillbirth. Sulphur-containing exposures showed no associations with secondary outcome measures in the respiratory, immune and nervous systems. An association was found between exposure to SO{sub 2} and the increased risk of calf mortality. Findings also suggested that there was a greater risk of lesions in the calf skeletal or cardiac muscle with increased prenatal exposure to SO{sub 2}. Increased exposure to VOCs contributed to a greater risk of calf respiratory and thyroid lesions, and a lower count of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes in calves. The results of a concurrent study on

  19. The Effects of Education on Spirituality through Virtual Social Media on the Spiritual Well-Being of the Public Health Students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hasanshahi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role and effects of people’s spiritual well-being have received more attention in recent years. Knowing the factors related to spiritual well-being, especially in students as the educated class and future builders of society, is too important. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of education on spirituality through social media in the spirituality well-being of public health students of Isfahan University of medical science. Methods: A semi-experimental, pre-test, post-test study was conducted on 50 under- graduate public health students (3 men, 47 women; age range 18-30 years of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences through convenience and purposive sampling. The educational content of spirituality education was used to promote and improve spiritual well-being, being sent by using one of the mobile phone applications. Using spiritual well-being questionnaire, the level of the individuals’ spiritual well-being before and after the educational was evaluated. To analyze the data in this study, descriptive statistics and t-test were use SPSS software was used to analyze the data and the significance level was considered lower than 0.05%. Result: In total, 50 students including 3 men and 47women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 22.02±3.78. About 68% of the students were single and the remaining were married. The score of the participants’ spiritual well-being was 96.5 before the intervention and it promoted to 103.3 after the intervention. The result of the analysis by t-test on the two groups showed that spirituality education can cause a significant increase in peoples’ spiritual well-being (P<0.001. Conclusion: After the educational intervention, the level of people’s spiritual well-being increased significantly. As a result, spirituality education causes conditions to improve the peoples’ spiritual well-being.

  20. Cumulative advantages and social capabilities in scientific mobility in the Health Sciences: The Spanish case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchor, Lorenzo; Danvila-del-Valle, Joaquín; Bousoño-Calzón, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Background The big problem in global public health, arising from the international migration of physicians from less-developed to more-developed countries, increases if this migration also affects scientists dedicated to health areas. This article analyzes critical variables in the processes of Spanish scientific mobility in Health Sciences to articulate effective management policies for the benefit of national public health services and the balance between local and global science. Methods This study develops a survey to measure and analyze the following crucial variables: research career, training, funding, working with a world-class team, institutional prestige, wages, facilities/infrastructure, working conditions in the organization of the destination country, fringe benefits in the organization of the destination country and social responsibility in the organization of the departure country. A total of 811 researchers have participated in the survey, of which 293 were from the health sector: Spanish scientists abroad (114), scientists that have returned to Spain (32) and young researchers in Spain (147). Results The most crucial variables for Spanish scientists and young researchers in Spain in Health Sciences moving abroad are the cumulative advantages (research career, training, funding and institutional prestige) plus wages. On the other hand, the return of Spanish scientists in the Health Sciences is influenced by cumulative variables (working with a world-class team, research career and institutional prestige) and also by other variables related to social factors, such as working conditions and fringe benefits in the destination country. Permanent positions are rare for these groups and their decisions regarding mobility depend to a large extent on job opportunities. Conclusions Spanish health organizations can influence researchers to return, since these decisions mainly depend on job opportunities. These organizations can complement the cumulative

  1. Cumulative advantages and social capabilities in scientific mobility in the Health Sciences: The Spanish case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceituno-Aceituno, Pedro; Melchor, Lorenzo; Danvila-Del-Valle, Joaquín; Bousoño-Calzón, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The big problem in global public health, arising from the international migration of physicians from less-developed to more-developed countries, increases if this migration also affects scientists dedicated to health areas. This article analyzes critical variables in the processes of Spanish scientific mobility in Health Sciences to articulate effective management policies for the benefit of national public health services and the balance between local and global science. This study develops a survey to measure and analyze the following crucial variables: research career, training, funding, working with a world-class team, institutional prestige, wages, facilities/infrastructure, working conditions in the organization of the destination country, fringe benefits in the organization of the destination country and social responsibility in the organization of the departure country. A total of 811 researchers have participated in the survey, of which 293 were from the health sector: Spanish scientists abroad (114), scientists that have returned to Spain (32) and young researchers in Spain (147). The most crucial variables for Spanish scientists and young researchers in Spain in Health Sciences moving abroad are the cumulative advantages (research career, training, funding and institutional prestige) plus wages. On the other hand, the return of Spanish scientists in the Health Sciences is influenced by cumulative variables (working with a world-class team, research career and institutional prestige) and also by other variables related to social factors, such as working conditions and fringe benefits in the destination country. Permanent positions are rare for these groups and their decisions regarding mobility depend to a large extent on job opportunities. Spanish health organizations can influence researchers to return, since these decisions mainly depend on job opportunities. These organizations can complement the cumulative advantages offered by the wealthier

  2. Prevalence of low back pain among health sciences students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShayhan, Fahad Abdullah; Saadeddin, Munir

    2018-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among health sciences students and to identify the associated factors. Cross-sectional study was conducted among 1163 students from five health sciences colleges during the academic year 2016-2017. Self-administered questionnaire was conducted and included 4 sections: demographic characteristics, risk factors, Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire and Oswestry disability questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Mean age was 20.74 ± (1.59 years). 70.9% of students were female. Lifetime prevalence of LBP was 56.6%, 12-month prevalence 48.8%, and point prevalence 21.2%. Dentistry students had highest lifetime prevalence of LBP (67.6%) with significant p value (Spending more than 10 h on computer or tablet was significantly associated with LBP (OR 2.19; 95% CI 1.30-3.70; p = 0.003). Feeling discomfort on bed was associated with LBP (OR 1.81; 95% CI 1.38-2.38; p ≤ 0.001). Uncomfortable college furniture was associated with LBP (OR 1.40; 95% CI 1.09-1.79; p = 0.008). Using heavy backpack was found to be associated with LBP (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.01-2.03; p = 0.011). Most of students LBP (90.3%) found to cause minimal disability on Oswestry scale. This study has shown high prevalence of LBP among future healthcare provider. These risk factors should be well established to minimize the prevalence of LBP among future health sciences students. Dentistry students at higher risk of developing LBP compared to other students.

  3. U.S. Geological Survey Science at the Intersection of Health and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, S. M.; Plumlee, G. S.

    2016-12-01

    People worldwide worry about how their environment affects their health, and expect scientists to help address these concerns. The OneHealth concept recognizes the crucial linkages between environment, human health, and health of other organisms. Many US Geological Survey science activities directly examine or help inform how the Earth and the environment influence toxicological and infectious diseases. Key is our ability to bring to bear a collective expertise in environmental processes, geology, hydrology, hazards, microbiology, analytical chemistry, ecosystems, energy/mineral resources, geospatial technologies, and other disciplines. Our science examines sources, environmental transport and fate, biological effects, and human exposure pathways of many microbial (e.g. bacteria, protozoans, viruses, fungi), inorganic (e.g. asbestos, arsenic, lead, mercury) and organic (e.g. algal toxins, pesticides, pharmaceuticals) contaminants from geologic, anthropogenic, and disaster sources. We develop new laboratory, experimental, and field methods to analyze, model, and map contaminants, to determine their baseline and natural background levels, and to measure their biological effects. We examine the origins, environmental persistence, wildlife effects, and potential for transmission to humans of pathogens that cause zoonotic or vector-borne diseases (e.g., avian influenza or West Nile virus). Collaborations with human health scientists from many organizations are essential. For example, our work with epidemiologists and toxicologists helps understand the exposure pathways and roles of geologically sourced toxicants such as arsenic (via drinking water) and asbestos (via dusts) in cancer. Work with pulmonologists and pathologists helps clarify the sources and fate of inhaled mineral particles in lungs. Wildlife health scientists help human health scientists assess animals as sentinels of human disease. Such transdisciplinary science is essential at the intersection of health

  4. Teachers ‘And Students ‘View Points about the Characteristics of Effective Teaching, Brijand University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, April2003-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reza Ghaderi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: As achieving the intended goals in medical education necessitates the utilization of effective teaching & learning methods. In order to further retention of the knowledge, continuous research is needed to study the factors affecting the quantitative and qualitative development of medical education. This study was to recognize the factors delineated by the students and teachers as to be important in the teaching-learning process.Methods: this was a cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study comprised of 880 students and 68 teachers at the Medical University of Birjand, lasting from April 2003 till April 2004. SPSS software and statistical test of Mann-Whitney were used for data analysis.Results: In this study, teachers ‘and students’ opinions about the characteristics of an effective teaching includingProfessional, and personal characteristics of the teachers, and motivation students toward independent learning each consisting of several items - were assessed  with regard to their sex, marital status. Residential status, educational level and educational group.The results were as the followings: Professional characteristics of the teachers: mastery over the subject. Rational sequencing of the subject matters, proper use of the basic knowledge of the related discipline, and use of simple language in teaching, were the choices rated by the teachers and students as the most important ones. Personal characteristics of teachers: self confidence in teaching. Interests in teaching, clear speech were the choices most rated by the teachers and students.Amongst the 3 characteristics of an effective teaching, teachers gave the first priority to motivation the students toward independent learning. While students regarded the professional characteristics of the teachers as the most preferred one.Conclusion: The study found that teachers and students regarded mastery over the subject, self confidence in teaching, use of simple

  5. Community-based clinic volunteering: an evaluation of the direct and indirect effects on the experience of health science college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Islam, Adiba; Moraros, John

    2016-01-18

    The present study was conducted in a multi service-learning, student managed and operated, community-based clinic. Its aim was to measure the direct and indirect effects of how proximal factors (i.e., 'management', 'support received', 'duration of involvement', and 'average time spent per month') and mediators (i.e., 'training received', 'motivation', and 'commitment') influence distal outcomes (i.e., 'performance', 'satisfaction', and 'overall experience') within a volunteer organization. Participants were recruited through the use of an email list server. An online survey was used containing multi-item measures from validated scales. Data were collected from 170 volunteers from July to August 2013. Data analysis used a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework for the estimation of direct and indirect effects on constructs and variables of interest. Only statistically significant relationships were reported at p direct effects worthy of note. First, the proximal factor of 'management' plays an important role in influencing the mediators of 'motivation' (standardized beta = 0.55) and 'training received' (0.65) by the student volunteers but has a relatively small impact on their 'commitment' (0.39) to the organization. Second, the mediator of 'motivation' proved to have the strongest impact on the distal outcome of volunteer 'performance' and 'satisfaction' levels (0.41 and 0.58 respectively), whereas 'commitment' (0.44) was the key in determining their 'overall experience' with the organization. These results in turn, help contextualize the indirect effects observed in our study. Namely, the proximal factor of 'management' played a distinctive role in influencing the distal outcomes of volunteer 'performance' (0.32) and 'overall experience' (0.66), whereas the organizational 'support received' by the volunteers was key to their 'satisfaction' (0.21). The findings of the present study shed light into the direct and indirect effects of how proximal factors

  6. Bridging the gap to first year health science: Early engagement enhances student satisfaction and success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi Thalluri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Student academic success and positive satisfaction in first year health sciences programs is shaped by their transition experience. An introduction to core knowledge, study skills, and engagement with staff and students has historically been overlooked, but this has been newly recognised as a contributor to first year success, especially with mass higher education of students from diverse backgrounds. The University of South Australia ‘Preparing for Health Sciences’ workshop was designed to assist the student transition into health science programs. The workshop improved confidence and enthusiasm in starting university (56% pre- and 95% post-workshop, and 97% considered the workshop effective overall. Introduction to biological principles was widely considered to be beneficial (87%. The attrition rate after the first semester in 2014 was 7.6%, which is appreciably lower than the standard 12% in science-based courses. These findings demonstrate that an introductory workshop does greatly assist in the transition of students into their health science programs.

  7. Health policy--why research it and how: health political science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Clavier, Carole; Breton, Eric

    2014-09-23

    The establishment of policy is key to the implementation of actions for health. We review the nature of policy and the definition and directions of health policy. In doing so, we explicitly cast a health political science gaze on setting parameters for researching policy change for health. A brief overview of core theories of the policy process for health promotion is presented, and illustrated with empirical evidence. The key arguments are that (a) policy is not an intervention, but drives intervention development and implementation; (b) understanding policy processes and their pertinent theories is pivotal for the potential to influence policy change; (c) those theories and associated empirical work need to recognise the wicked, multi-level, and incremental nature of elements in the process; and, therefore, (d) the public health, health promotion, and education research toolbox should more explicitly embrace health political science insights. The rigorous application of insights from and theories of the policy process will enhance our understanding of not just how, but also why health policy is structured and implemented the way it is.

  8. The environment and human health; USGS science for solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2001-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases, ground-water contamination, trace-metal poisoning...environmental threats to public health the world over require new solutions. Because of an increased awareness of the issues, greater cooperation among scientific and policy agencies, and powerful new tools and techniques to conduct research, there is new hope that complex ecological health problems can be solved. U.S. Geological Survey scientists are forming partnerships with experts in the public health and biomedical research communities to conduct rigorous scientific inquiries into the health effects of ecological processes.

  9. Science writing heuristic effects on students' understanding of the nature of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickerson, Caroline E.

    Recently there has been a shift in science education that has encouraged teachers to place less emphasis on science content and more emphasis on teaching the Nature of Science. Thus, it is helpful for science educators to be aware of teaching strategies that produce better nature of science learning outcomes. The literature review focuses on the known benefits of using the Science Writing Heuristic. This research focused on the effectiveness of the Science Writing Heuristic in improving Nature of Science learning outcomes among biology students. The data from this research suggests that the Science Writing Heuristic does help students learn the Nature of Science but that this learning is not a significant improvement as compared to more traditional teaching methods. However, more research is needed, as the sample size and research time were a limiting factor in this study.

  10. 78 FR 32259 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences... Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, July 15, 2013, 8:00 a.m. to July 15, 2013, 5:00 p.m...

  11. 77 FR 73667 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Studies to Evaluate Early Life Exposure. Date: January 17... Estimation--Health Risks from Environmental Exposures; 93.142, NIEHS Hazardous Waste Worker Health and Safety...

  12. 78 FR 64516 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences... Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, October 10, 2013, 12:30 p.m. to October 10, 2013, 5:00 p.m...

  13. Science-based health innovation in Uganda: creative strategies for applying research to development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Uganda has a long history of health research, but still faces critical health problems. It has made a number of recent moves towards building science and technology capacity which could have an impact on local health, if innovation can be fostered and harnessed. Methods Qualitative case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 30 people from across the science-based health innovation system, including government officials, researchers in research institutes and universities, entrepreneurs, international donors, and non-governmental organization representatives. Results Uganda has a range of institutions influencing science-based health innovation, with varying degrees of success. However, the country still lacks a coherent mechanism for effectively coordinating STI policy among all the stakeholders. Classified as a least developed country, Uganda has opted for exemptions from the TRIPS intellectual property protection regime that include permitting parallel importation and providing for compulsory licenses for pharmaceuticals. Uganda is unique in Africa in taking part in the Millennium Science Initiative (MSI), an ambitious though early-stage $30m project, funded jointly by the World Bank and Government of Uganda, to build science capacity and encourage entrepreneurship through funding industry-research collaboration. Two universities – Makerere and Mbarara – stand out in terms of health research, though as yet technology development and commercialization is weak. Uganda has several incubators which are producing low-tech products, and is beginning to move into higher-tech ones like diagnostics. Its pharmaceutical industry has started to create partnerships which encourage innovation. Conclusions Science-based health product innovation is in its early stages in Uganda, as are policies for guiding its development

  14. Science-based health innovation in Uganda: creative strategies for applying research to development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamunyori, Sheila; Al-Bader, Sara; Sewankambo, Nelson; Singer, Peter A; Daar, Abdallah S

    2010-12-13

    Uganda has a long history of health research, but still faces critical health problems. It has made a number of recent moves towards building science and technology capacity which could have an impact on local health, if innovation can be fostered and harnessed. Qualitative case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 30 people from across the science-based health innovation system, including government officials, researchers in research institutes and universities, entrepreneurs, international donors, and non-governmental organization representatives. Uganda has a range of institutions influencing science-based health innovation, with varying degrees of success. However, the country still lacks a coherent mechanism for effectively coordinating STI policy among all the stakeholders. Classified as a least developed country, Uganda has opted for exemptions from the TRIPS intellectual property protection regime that include permitting parallel importation and providing for compulsory licenses for pharmaceuticals. Uganda is unique in Africa in taking part in the Millennium Science Initiative (MSI), an ambitious though early-stage $30m project, funded jointly by the World Bank and Government of Uganda, to build science capacity and encourage entrepreneurship through funding industry-research collaboration. Two universities - Makerere and Mbarara - stand out in terms of health research, though as yet technology development and commercialization is weak. Uganda has several incubators which are producing low-tech products, and is beginning to move into higher-tech ones like diagnostics. Its pharmaceutical industry has started to create partnerships which encourage innovation. Science-based health product innovation is in its early stages in Uganda, as are policies for guiding its development. Nevertheless, there is political will for the

  15. Science-based health innovation in Uganda: creative strategies for applying research to development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda has a long history of health research, but still faces critical health problems. It has made a number of recent moves towards building science and technology capacity which could have an impact on local health, if innovation can be fostered and harnessed. Methods Qualitative case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 30 people from across the science-based health innovation system, including government officials, researchers in research institutes and universities, entrepreneurs, international donors, and non-governmental organization representatives. Results Uganda has a range of institutions influencing science-based health innovation, with varying degrees of success. However, the country still lacks a coherent mechanism for effectively coordinating STI policy among all the stakeholders. Classified as a least developed country, Uganda has opted for exemptions from the TRIPS intellectual property protection regime that include permitting parallel importation and providing for compulsory licenses for pharmaceuticals. Uganda is unique in Africa in taking part in the Millennium Science Initiative (MSI, an ambitious though early-stage $30m project, funded jointly by the World Bank and Government of Uganda, to build science capacity and encourage entrepreneurship through funding industry-research collaboration. Two universities – Makerere and Mbarara – stand out in terms of health research, though as yet technology development and commercialization is weak. Uganda has several incubators which are producing low-tech products, and is beginning to move into higher-tech ones like diagnostics. Its pharmaceutical industry has started to create partnerships which encourage innovation. Conclusions Science-based health product innovation is in its early stages in Uganda, as are policies for guiding

  16. Organizational Culture Shock: Ethnographic Fieldwork Strategies for the Novice Health Science Researcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy K. Malachowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of ethnography in health science research warrants an in-depth examination of the experiential account of ethnographic data collection. Using OBERG's classic definition of "culture shock" as a framework, I share my experience as a novice researcher conducting fieldwork as part of an institutional ethnography on workplace mental health. I draw attention to the typically unspoken aspects of ethnography throughout this account by providing insights on role contradictions, in addition to ethical, emotional, and practical issues that are not readily addressed in traditional methodological descriptions of ethnography. I conclude with a variety of strategies for the novice health science researcher to effectively negotiate some of the typical dilemmas experienced in this type of research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150298

  17. Teaching Environmental Health Science for Informed Citizenship in the Science Classroom and Afterschool Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, Alla; Levin, Daniel M.; Hundal, Savreen; Kramer, Judy F.; Matzkin, Karen; Dutcher, Gale

    2013-01-01

    In the era of growing concerns about human-induced climate change and sustainable development, it is important for the schools to prepare students for meaningful engagement with environmental policies that will determine the future of our society. To do this, educators need to face a number of challenges. These include deciding on the science knowledge and skills needed for informed citizenship, identifying teaching practices for fostering such knowledge and skills, and finding ways to implement new practices into the tightly packed existing curriculum. This paper describes two collaborative efforts between the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) and University of Maryland College of Education that attempt to meet these challenges. The focus of both projects is on helping students develop information seeking and evaluation and argumentation skills, and applying them to complex socio-scientific issues that have bearing on students’ daily lives. The first effort involves co-designing an afterschool environmental health club curriculum with an interdisciplinary team of middle school teachers. The second effort is the development and implementation of a week-long school drinking water quality debate activity in a high school environmental science classroom. Both projects center on Tox Town, an NLM web resource that introduces students to environmental health issues in everyday environments. The paper describes successes and challenges of environmental health curriculum development, including teachers’ and researchers’ perception of contextual constraints in the club and classroom setting, tensions inherent in co-design, and students’ experience with socio-scientific argumentation. PMID:24382985

  18. Perceived conflict of interest in health science partnerships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Besley

    Full Text Available University scientists conducting research on topics of potential health concern often want to partner with a range of actors, including government entities, non-governmental organizations, and private enterprises. Such partnerships can provide access to needed resources, including funding. However, those who observe the results of such partnerships may judge those results based on who is involved. This set of studies seeks to assess how people perceive two hypothetical health science research collaborations. In doing so, it also tests the utility of using procedural justice concepts to assess perceptions of research legitimacy as a theoretical way to investigate conflict of interest perceptions. Findings show that including an industry collaborator has clear negative repercussions for how people see a research partnership and that these perceptions shape people's willingness to see the research as a legitimate source of knowledge. Additional research aimed at further communicating procedures that might mitigate the impact of industry collaboration is suggested.

  19. Animal health surveillance applications: The interaction of science and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willeberg, Preben

    2012-08-01

    Animal health surveillance is an ever-evolving activity, since health- and risk-related policy and management decisions need to be backed by the best available scientific evidence and methodology. International organizations, trade partners, politicians, media and the public expect fast, understandable, up-to-date presentation and valid interpretation of animal disease data to support and document proper animal health management - in crises as well as in routine control applications. The delivery and application of surveillance information need to be further developed and optimized, and epidemiologists, risk managers, administrators and policy makers need to work together in order to secure progress. Promising new developments in areas such as risk-based surveillance, spatial presentation and analysis, and genomic epidemiology will be mentioned. Limitations and areas in need of further progress will be underlined, such as the general lack of a wide and open exchange of international animal disease surveillance data. During my more than 30 year career as a professor of Veterinary Epidemiology I had the good fortune of working in challenging environments with different eminent colleagues in different countries on a variety of animal health surveillance issues. My career change from professor to Chief Veterinary Officer (CVO) - "from science to application" - was caused by my desire to see for myself if and how well epidemiology would actually work to solve real-life problems as I had been telling my students for years that it would. Fortunately it worked for me! The job of a CVO is not that different from that of a professor of Veterinary Epidemiology; the underlying professional principles are the same. Every day I had to work from science, and base decisions and discussions on documented evidence - although sometimes the evidence was incomplete or data were simply lacking. A basic understanding of surveillance methodology is very useful for a CVO, since it provides

  20. Has the time come for big science in wildlife health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of wildlife emerging diseases are global and profound with increased burden on the public health system, negative impacts on the global economy, declines and extinctions of wildlife species, and subsequent loss of ecological integrity. Examples of health threats to wildlife include Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which causes a cutaneous fungal infection of amphibians and is linked to declines of amphibians globally; and the recently discovered Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans, the etiologic agent of white nose syndrome which has caused precipitous declines of North American bat species. Of particular concern are the novel pathogens that have emerged as they are particularly devastating and challenging to manage. A big science approach to wildlife health research is needed if we are to make significant and enduring progress in managing these diseases. The advent of new analytical models and bench assays will provide us with the mathematical and molecular tools to identify and anticipate threats to wildlife, and understand the ecology and epidemiology of these diseases. Specifically, new molecular diagnostic techniques have opened up avenues for pathogen discovery, and the application of spatially referenced databases allows for risk assessments that can assist in targeting surveillance. Long-term, systematic collection of data for wildlife health and integration with other datasets is also essential. Multidisciplinary research programs should be expanded to increase our understanding of the drivers of emerging diseases and allow for the development of better disease prevention and management tools, such as vaccines. Finally, we need to create a National Fish and Wildlife Health Network that provides the operational framework (governance, policies, procedures, etc.) by which entities with a stake in wildlife health cooperate and collaborate to achieve optimal outcomes for human, animal, and ecosystem health.

  1. Conceptualising population health: from mechanistic thinking to complexity science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasinghe Saroj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mechanistic interpretation of reality can be traced to the influential work by René Descartes and Sir Isaac Newton. Their theories were able to accurately predict most physical phenomena relating to motion, optics and gravity. This paradigm had at least three principles and approaches: reductionism, linearity and hierarchy. These ideas appear to have influenced social scientists and the discourse on population health. In contrast, Complexity Science takes a more holistic view of systems. It views natural systems as being 'open', with fuzzy borders, constantly adapting to cope with pressures from the environment. These are called Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS. The sub-systems within it lack stable hierarchies, and the roles of agency keep changing. The interactions with the environment and among sub-systems are non-linear interactions and lead to self-organisation and emergent properties. Theoretical frameworks such as epi+demos+cracy and the ecosocial approach to health have implicitly used some of these concepts of interacting dynamic sub-systems. Using Complexity Science we can view population health outcomes as an emergent property of CAS, which has numerous dynamic non-linear interactions among its interconnected sub-systems or agents. In order to appreciate these sub-systems and determinants, one should acquire a basic knowledge of diverse disciplines and interact with experts from different disciplines. Strategies to improve health should be multi-pronged, and take into account the diversity of actors, determinants and contexts. The dynamic nature of the system requires that the interventions are constantly monitored to provide early feedback to a flexible system that takes quick corrections.

  2. How effective is dog culling in controlling zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis? a critical evaluation of the science, politics and ethics behind this public health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Nery Costa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Zoonotic kala-azar, a lethal disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania is considered out of control in parts of the world, particularly in Brazil, where transmission has spread to cities throughout most of the territory and mortality presents an increasing trend. Although a highly debatable measure, the Brazilian government regularly culls seropositive dogs to control the disease. Since control is failing, critical analysis concerning the actions focused on the canine reservoir was conducted. METHODS: In a review of the literature, a historical perspective focusing mainly on comparisons between the successful Chinese and Soviet strategies and the Brazilian approach is presented. In addition, analyses of the principal studies regarding the role of dogs as risk factors to humans and of the main intervention studies regarding the efficacy of the dog killing strategy were undertaken. Brazilian political reaction to a recently published systematic review that concluded that the dog culling program lacked efficiency and its effect on public policy were also reviewed. RESULTS: No firm evidence of the risk conferred by the presence of dogs to humans was verified; on the contrary, a lack of scientific support for the policy of killing dogs was confirmed. A bias for distorting scientific data towards maintaining the policy of culling animals was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Since there is no evidence that dog culling diminishes visceral leishmaniasis transmission, it should be abandoned as a control measure. Ethical considerations have been raised regarding distorting scientific results and the killing of animals despite minimal or absent scientific evidence

  3. How effective is dog culling in controlling zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis? A critical evaluation of the science, politics and ethics behind this public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery

    2011-01-01

    Zoonotic kala-azar, a lethal disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania is considered out of control in parts of the world, particularly in Brazil, where transmission has spread to cities throughout most of the territory and mortality presents an increasing trend. Although a highly debatable measure, the Brazilian government regularly culls seropositive dogs to control the disease. Since control is failing, critical analysis concerning the actions focused on the canine reservoir was conducted. In a review of the literature, a historical perspective focusing mainly on comparisons between the successful Chinese and Soviet strategies and the Brazilian approach is presented. In addition, analyses of the principal studies regarding the role of dogs as risk factors to humans and of the main intervention studies regarding the efficacy of the dog killing strategy were undertaken. Brazilian political reaction to a recently published systematic review that concluded that the dog culling program lacked efficiency and its effect on public policy were also reviewed. No firm evidence of the risk conferred by the presence of dogs to humans was verified; on the contrary, a lack of scientific support for the policy of killing dogs was confirmed. A bias for distorting scientific data towards maintaining the policy of culling animals was observed. Since there is no evidence that dog culling diminishes visceral leishmaniasis transmission, it should be abandoned as a control measure. Ethical considerations have been raised regarding distorting scientific results and the killing of animals despite minimal or absent scientific evidence.

  4. Public health as a catalyst for interprofessional education on a health sciences campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uden-Holman, Tanya M; Curry, Susan J; Benz, Loretta; Aquilino, Mary Lober

    2015-03-01

    Although interprofessional education (IPE) has existed in various formats for several decades, the need for IPE recently has taken on renewed interest and momentum. Public health has a critical role to play in furthering IPE, yet schools of public health are often underrepresented in IPE initiatives. The University of Iowa College of Public Health is serving as a catalyst for IPE activities on our health sciences campus, which includes colleges of dentistry, medicine, nursing, pharmacy, and public health. IPE-related activities have included campus visit by IPE leaders, administration of the Survey of Critical Elements for Implementing IPE, administration of the Interprofessional Learning Opportunities Inventory survey, the development of a comprehensive strategic plan, and the pilot of an IPE course for all first-year prelicensure students and Master of Health Administration students. Although more work is needed to more fully integrate IPE into the curriculum, success to date of the University of Iowa IPE initiative demonstrates that public health can play a critical role as a convener and catalyst for IPE curricular innovations on a health sciences campus.

  5. Teaching lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender health in a South African health sciences faculty: addressing the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Alexandra

    2013-12-27

    People who identity as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) have specific health needs. Sexual orientation and gender identity are social determinants of health, as homophobia and heteronormativity persist as prejudices in society. LGBT patients often experience discrimination and prejudice in health care settings. While recent South African policies recognise the need for providing LGBT specific health care, no curricula for teaching about LGBT health related issues exist in South African health sciences faculties. This study aimed to determine the extent to which LGBT health related content is taught in the University of Cape Town's medical curriculum. A curriculum mapping exercise was conducted through an online survey of all academic staff at the UCT health sciences faculty, determining LGBT health related content, pedagogical methodology and assessment. 127 academics, across 31 divisions and research units in the Faculty of Health Sciences, responded to the survey, of which 93 completed the questionnaire. Ten taught some content related to LGBT health in the MBChB curriculum. No LGBT health related content was taught in the allied health sciences curricula. The MBChB curriculum provided no opportunity for students to challenge their own attitudes towards LGBT patients, and key LGBT health topics such as safer sex, mental health, substance abuse and adolescent health were not addressed. At present, UCTs health sciences curricula do not adequately address LGBT specific health issues. Where LGBT health related content is taught in the MBChB curriculum, it is largely discretionary, unsystematic and not incorporated into the overarching structure. Coordinated initiatives to integrate LGBT health related content into all health sciences curricula should be supported, and follow an approach that challenges students to develop professional attitudes and behaviour concerning care for patients from LGBT backgrounds, as well as providing them with specific LGBT

  6. 5 Things You Should Know: The Science of Chronic Pain and Complementary Health Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 6 Things You Should Know: The Science of Chronic Pain and Complementary Health Practices Share: Reviews of research ... a complementary health practice to help manage your chronic pain, talk with your health care providers first. You ...

  7. Science of odor as a potential health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Susan S; Williams, C M

    2005-01-01

    Historically, unpleasant odors have been considered warning signs or indicators of potential risks to human health but not necessarily direct triggers of health effects. However, citizen complaints to public health agencies suggest that odors may not simply serve as a warning of potential risks but that odor sensations themselves may cause health symptoms. Mal-odors emitted from large animal production facilities and wastewater treatment plants, for example, elicit complaints of eye, nose, and throat irritation, headache, nausea, diarrhea, hoarseness, sore throat, cough, chest tightness, nasal congestion, palpitations, shortness of breath, stress, drowsiness, and alterations in mood. There are at least three mechanisms by which ambient odors may produce health symptoms. First, symptoms can be induced by exposure to odorants (compounds with odor properties) at levels that also cause irritation or other toxicological effects. That is, irritation--rather than the odor--is the cause of the health symptoms, and odor (the sensation) simply serves as an exposure marker. Second, health symptoms from odorants at non-irritant concentrations can be due to innate (genetically coded) or learned aversions. Third, symptoms may be due to a co-pollutant (such as endotoxin) that is part of an odorant mixture. Objective biomarkers of health symptoms must be obtained, however, to determine if health complaints constitute health effects. One industry that is receiving much attention, worldwide, related to this subject is concentrated animal production agriculture. Sustainability of this industry will likely necessitate the development of new technologies to mitigate odorous aerial emissions. Examples of such "environmentally superior technologies" (EST) developed under the initiative sponsored through agreements between the Attorney General of North Carolina and Smithfield Foods and Premium Standard Farms are described.

  8. National Institutes of Health addresses the science of diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valantine, Hannah A; Collins, Francis S

    2015-10-06

    The US biomedical research workforce does not currently mirror the nation's population demographically, despite numerous attempts to increase diversity. This imbalance is limiting the promise of our biomedical enterprise for building knowledge and improving the nation's health. Beyond ensuring fairness in scientific workforce representation, recruiting and retaining a diverse set of minds and approaches is vital to harnessing the complete intellectual capital of the nation. The complexity inherent in diversifying the research workforce underscores the need for a rigorous scientific approach, consistent with the ways we address the challenges of science discovery and translation to human health. Herein, we identify four cross-cutting diversity challenges ripe for scientific exploration and opportunity: research evidence for diversity's impact on the quality and outputs of science; evidence-based approaches to recruitment and training; individual and institutional barriers to workforce diversity; and a national strategy for eliminating barriers to career transition, with scientifically based approaches for scaling and dissemination. Evidence-based data for each of these challenges should provide an integrated, stepwise approach to programs that enhance diversity rapidly within the biomedical research workforce.

  9. Identifying Evidence for Public Health Guidance: A Comparison of Citation Searching with Web of Science and Google Scholar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Paul; Ainsworth, Nicola; Kettle, Rachel; Morgan, Antony

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To examine how effectively forwards citation searching with Web of Science (WOS) or Google Scholar (GS) identified evidence to support public health guidance published by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Method: Forwards citation searching was performed using GS on a base set of 46 publications and replicated using WOS.…

  10. 76 FR 62424 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences... Cancer and Environmental Research Coordinating Committee's State of Science Subcommittee meeting... State of Science Subcommittee meeting to 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. The meeting is open to the public. Dated...

  11. Social Networking Addiction among Health Sciences Students in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Masters

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Addiction to social networking sites (SNSs is an international issue with numerous methods of measurement. The impact of such addictions among health science students is of particular concern. This study aimed to measure SNS addiction rates among health sciences students at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU in Muscat, Oman. Methods: In April 2014, an anonymous English-language six-item electronic self-reporting survey based on the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale was administered to a non-random cohort of 141 medical and laboratory science students at SQU. The survey was used to measure usage of three SNSs: Facebook (Facebook Inc., Menlo Park, California, USA, YouTube (YouTube, San Bruno, California, USA and Twitter (Twitter Inc., San Francisco, California, USA. Two sets of criteria were used to calculate addiction rates (a score of 3 on at least four survey items or a score of 3 on all six items. Work-related SNS usage was also measured. Results: A total of 81 students completed the survey (response rate: 57.4%. Of the three SNSs, YouTube was most commonly used (100%, followed by Facebook (91.4% and Twitter (70.4%. Usage and addiction rates varied significantly across the three SNSs. Addiction rates to Facebook, YouTube and Twitter, respectively, varied according to the criteria used (14.2%, 47.2% and 33.3% versus 6.3%, 13.8% and 12.8%. However, addiction rates decreased when workrelated activity was taken into account. Conclusion: Rates of SNS addiction among this cohort indicate a need for intervention. Additionally, the results suggest that addiction to individual SNSs should be measured and that workrelated activities should be taken into account during measurement.

  12. Social Networking Addiction among Health Sciences Students in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Ken

    2015-08-01

    Addiction to social networking sites (SNSs) is an international issue with numerous methods of measurement. The impact of such addictions among health science students is of particular concern. This study aimed to measure SNS addiction rates among health sciences students at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) in Muscat, Oman. In April 2014, an anonymous English-language six-item electronic self-reporting survey based on the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale was administered to a non-random cohort of 141 medical and laboratory science students at SQU. The survey was used to measure usage of three SNSs: Facebook (Facebook Inc., Menlo Park, California, USA), YouTube (YouTube, San Bruno, California, USA) and Twitter (Twitter Inc., San Francisco, California, USA). Two sets of criteria were used to calculate addiction rates (a score of 3 on at least four survey items or a score of 3 on all six items). Work-related SNS usage was also measured. A total of 81 students completed the survey (response rate: 57.4%). Of the three SNSs, YouTube was most commonly used (100%), followed by Facebook (91.4%) and Twitter (70.4%). Usage and addiction rates varied significantly across the three SNSs. Addiction rates to Facebook, YouTube and Twitter, respectively, varied according to the criteria used (14.2%, 47.2% and 33.3% versus 6.3%, 13.8% and 12.8%). However, addiction rates decreased when work-related activity was taken into account. Rates of SNS addiction among this cohort indicate a need for intervention. Additionally, the results suggest that addiction to individual SNSs should be measured and that work-related activities should be taken into account during measurement.

  13. Air Pollution Exposure Modeling for Health Studies | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Michael Breen is leading the development of air pollution exposure models, integrated with novel personal sensor technologies, to improve exposure and risk assessments for individuals in health studies. He is co-investigator for multiple health studies assessing the exposure and effects of air pollutants. These health studies include participants with asthma, diabetes, and coronary artery disease living in various U.S. cities. He has developed, evaluated, and applied novel exposure modeling and time-activity tools, which includes the Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI), GPS-based Microenvironment Tracker (MicroTrac) and Exposure Tracker models. At this seminar, Dr. Breen will present the development and application of these models to predict individual-level personal exposures to particulate matter (PM) for two health studies in central North Carolina. These health studies examine the association between PM and adverse health outcomes for susceptible individuals. During Dr. Breen’s visit, he will also have the opportunity to establish additional collaborations with researchers at Harvard University that may benefit from the use of exposure models for cohort health studies. These research projects that link air pollution exposure with adverse health outcomes benefit EPA by developing model-predicted exposure-dose metrics for individuals in health studies to improve the understanding of exposure-response behavior of air pollutants, and to reduce participant

  14. Integrating knowledge across domains to advance the science of health behavior: overcoming challenges and facilitating success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William M P; Grenen, Emily G; O'Connell, Mary; Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Hall, Kara L; Taber, Jennifer M; Vogel, Amanda L

    2017-03-01

    Health behaviors often co-occur and have common determinants at multiple levels (e.g., individual, relational, environmental). Nevertheless, research programs often examine single health behaviors without a systematic attempt to integrate knowledge across behaviors. This paper highlights the significant potential of cross-cutting behavioral research to advance our understanding of the mechanisms and causal factors that shape health behaviors. It also offers suggestions for how researchers could develop more effective interventions. We highlight barriers to such an integrative science along with potential steps that can be taken to address these barriers. With a more nuanced understanding of health behavior, redundancies in research can be minimized, and a stronger evidence base for the development of health behavior interventions can be realized.

  15. Interlibrary loan of audiovisual materials in the health sciences: how a system operates in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, C M

    1976-10-01

    An audiovisual loan program developed by the library of the College of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey is described. This program, supported by an NLM grant, has circulated audiovisual software from CMDNJ to libraries since 1974. Project experiences and statistics reflect the great demand for audiovisuals by health science libraries and demonstrate that a borrowing system following the pattern of traditional interlibrary loan can operate effectively and efficiently to serve these needs.

  16. Translations on USSR Science and Technology, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences. Number 48, Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1978-01-01

    ..., epidemiology and immunology, marine biology, military medicine, physiology, public health, toxicology, radiobiology, veterinary medicine, behavioral science, human engineering, psychology, psychiatry...

  17. Sedentary Behavior and Health: Broadening the Knowledge Base and Strengthening the Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadgraft, Nyssa; Owen, Neville

    2017-06-01

    We provide an overview of a recently published, edited book in a rapidly emerging field of research, policy, and practice for physical activity: Sedentary Behavior and Health. In this commentary, we highlight the broad perspectives provided in the 27 chapters of Sedentary Behavior and Health and suggest a research strategy to move the field forward-not only with scientific rigor, but also with breadth of scholarship. The book's chapters provide an overview of the background to and contexts for sedentary behavior and health. They then highlight the importance of understanding health consequences and underlying mechanisms; introduce key measurement technology and analytic strategies; consider sedentary behavior in subpopulations; describe conceptual models and theories to guide sedentary behavior interventions; and explain what is known about interventions in different settings. Considering the breadth of perspectives brought to bear on the field and the plethora of opportunities for research, policy, and practice, we suggest 3 elements of an interdisciplinary research strategy drawing upon the primary knowledge bases of physical activity and health: through the experimental methods of exercise science, through the observational tools of epidemiology, and through the conceptual approaches and methods of behavioral science. A better understanding of the health consequences of sedentary behavior and how they may be influenced can be encompassed by 3 key questions: What changes are needed to most effectively influence sedentary behaviors? What elements of sedentary behavior should be changed to improve health outcomes? What are the feasibility of and the benefits from changing sedentary behavior?

  18. Effect of Teacher Education Program on Science Process Skills of Pre-Service Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakar, Zeha

    2014-01-01

    Over the past three or more decades, many studies have been written about teacher education and the preparation of science teachers. Presented here is one which investigated the effectiveness of scientific process skills on pre-service science teachers of Pamukkale University Primary Science Teacher Education Program for four years. This study…

  19. A university system's approach to enhancing the educational mission of health science schools and institutions: the University of Texas Academy of Health Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buja, L. Maximilian; Cox, Susan M.; Lieberman, Steven A.; MacClements, Jonathan; Williams, Janet F.; Esterl, Robert M.; Shine, Kenneth I.

    2013-01-01

    Background The academy movement developed in the United States as an important approach to enhance the educational mission and facilitate the recognition and work of educators at medical schools and health science institutions. Objectives Academies initially formed at individual medical schools. Educators and leaders in The University of Texas System (the UT System, UTS) recognized the academy movement as a means both to address special challenges and pursue opportunities for advancing the educational mission of academic health sciences institutions. Methods The UTS academy process was started by the appointment of a Chancellor's Health Fellow for Education in 2004. Subsequently, the University of Texas Academy of Health Science Education (UTAHSE) was formed by bringing together esteemed faculty educators from the six UTS health science institutions. Results Currently, the UTAHSE has 132 voting members who were selected through a rigorous, system-wide peer review and who represent multiple professional backgrounds and all six campuses. With support from the UTS, the UTAHSE has developed and sustained an annual Innovations in Health Science Education conference, a small grants program and an Innovations in Health Science Education Award, among other UTS health science educational activities. The UTAHSE represents one university system's innovative approach to enhancing its educational mission through multi- and interdisciplinary as well as inter-institutional collaboration. Conclusions The UTAHSE is presented as a model for the development of other consortia-type academies that could involve several components of a university system or coalitions of several institutions. PMID:23490406

  20. Venture funding for science-based African health innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While venture funding has been applied to biotechnology and health in high-income countries, it is still nascent in these fields in developing countries, and particularly in Africa. Yet the need for implementing innovative solutions to health challenges is greatest in Africa, with its enormous burden of communicable disease. Issues such as risk, investment opportunities, return on investment requirements, and quantifying health impact are critical in assessing venture capital’s potential for supporting health innovation. This paper uses lessons learned from five venture capital firms from Kenya, South Africa, China, India, and the US to suggest design principles for African health venture funds. Discussion The case study method was used to explore relevant funds, and lessons for the African context. The health venture funds in this study included publicly-owned organizations, corporations, social enterprises, and subsidiaries of foreign venture firms. The size and type of investments varied widely. The primary investor in four funds was the International Finance Corporation. Three of the funds aimed primarily for financial returns, one aimed primarily for social and health returns, and one had mixed aims. Lessons learned include the importance of measuring and supporting both social and financial returns; the need to engage both upstream capital such as government risk-funding and downstream capital from the private sector; and the existence of many challenges including difficulty of raising capital, low human resource capacity, regulatory barriers, and risky business environments. Based on these lessons, design principles for appropriate venture funding are suggested. Summary Based on the cases studied and relevant experiences elsewhere, there is a case for venture funding as one support mechanism for science-based African health innovation, with opportunities for risk-tolerant investors to make financial as well as social

  1. Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... still allows smoking in public areas, look for restaurants and other places that do not allow smoking. “ ... Facts Health Effects Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Tobacco Tobacco Marketing and Products Youth Tobacco Use Get Email Updates ...

  2. Exploring the relationship between the Engineering and Physical Sciences and the Health and Life Sciences by advanced bibliometric methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ludo Waltman; van Raan, Anthony F. J.; Sue Smart

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which advances in the health and life sciences (HLS) are dependent on research in the engineering and physical sciences (EPS), particularly physics, chemistry, mathematics, and engineering. The analysis combines two different bibliometric approaches. The first approach to analyze the 'EPS-HLS interface' is based on term map visualizations of HLS research fields. We consider 16 clinical fields and five life science fields. On the basis of expert judgment, EPS resea...

  3. NIH's National Institute of General Medical Sciences celebrates 45 years of Discovery for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... By Alison Davis NIH's National Institute of General Medical Sciences celebrates 45 years of Discovery for Health The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) is the NIH institute that primarily supports ...

  4. Exploring the relationship between the engineering and physical sciences and the health and life sciences by advanced bibliometric methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waltman, L.R.; Van, Raan A.F.J.; Smart, S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which advances in the health and life sciences (HLS) are dependent on research in the engineering and physical sciences (EPS), particularly physics, chemistry, mathematics, and engineering. The analysis combines two different bibliometric approaches. The first approach

  5. Premenstrual syndrome and life quality in Turkish health science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İşik, Hatice; Ergöl, Şule; Aynioğlu, Öner; Şahbaz, Ahmet; Kuzu, Ayşe; Uzun, Müge

    2016-04-19

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the incidence of PMS, risk factors affecting PMS symptoms, and life quality in health science students. A total of 608 volunteer female students studying at the health campus of a state university in Turkey were included in the study. The participants were asked to fill out questionnaires on sociodemographic data, PMS symptoms, and SF-36 life quality tests. The overall frequency of PMS among participants was 84.5%. The average PMS and general health SF scores were 118.34 ± 37.3 and 20.03 ± 3.72, respectively. Students who had irregular breakfast, drank ≥2 cups of coffee/day, and consumed alcohol or fast food had higher PMS scores. Irregular menstruation and family history increased PMS scores and decreased life quality (P bad eating habits such as fast food consumption and irregular breakfasts, and coffee and alcohol consumption increased PMS risk significantly. In order to improve their life quality, students should be informed about the symptoms, risk factors, and management options of PMS.

  6. Biophysics at the intersection of health science and nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquardt, D., E-mail: thad.harroun@brocku.ca [Brock Univ., Dept. of Physics, St. Catherines, Ontario (Canada); Alsop, R.J.; Rheinstadter, M.C. [McMaster Univ., Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Harroun, T.A. [Brock University, Dept. of Physics, St. Catherines, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    We're all on a quest for improved heart health, but what do we really know about it? A daily regimen of aspirin can help some people with heart disease. We need to lower our cholesterol, and increase our intake of omega fatty acids. There is simply no health bene t to taking extra vitamin E, and it's not known why. Apart from cardiac tests with radiopharmaceuticals, what role does nuclear technology play in this story? It turns out that cold and thermal neutrons are important tools for the biophysicists studying these topics. We will review some recently published studies that are advancing our understanding of how cholesterol, vitamin E, and aspirin all work at the molecular level, inside the membrane of our cells. These insights could not have been learned without access to research reactor neutron beams such as those at the Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, and how this new knowledge has really engaged the broader health science community into new ways of thinking about these molecules. (author)

  7. Biophysics at the intersection of health science and nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquardt, D. [Brock Univ., Dept. of Physics, St. Catharines, Ontario (Canada); Alsop, R.J.; Rheinstadter, M.C. [McMaster Univ., Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Harroun, T.A. [Brock Univ., Dept. of Physics, St. Catharines, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-12-15

    We're all on a quest for improved heart health, but what do we really know about it? A daily regimen of aspirin can help some people with heart disease. We need to lower our cholesterol, and increase our intake of omega fatty acids. There is simply no health benefit to taking extra vitamin E, and it's not known why. Apart from cardiac tests with radiopharmaceuticals, what role does nuclear technology play in this story? It turns out that cold and thermal neutrons are important tools for the biophysicists studying these topics. We will review some recently published studies that are advancing our understanding of how cholesterol, vitamin E, and aspirin all work at the molecular level, inside the membrane of our cells. These insights could not have been learned without access to research reactor neutron beams such as those at the Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, and how this new knowledge has really engaged the broader health science community into new ways of thinking about these molecules. (author)

  8. A framework for training health professionals in implementation and dissemination science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Ralph; Handley, Margaret A; Ackerman, Sara; Oʼsullivan, Patricia S

    2012-03-01

    The authors describe a conceptual framework for implementation and dissemination science (IDS) and propose competencies for IDS training. Their framework is designed to facilitate the application of theories and methods from the distinct domains of clinical disciplines (e.g., medicine, public health), population sciences (e.g., biostatistics, epidemiology), and translational disciplines (e.g., social and behavioral sciences, business administration education). They explore three principles that guided the development of their conceptual framework: Behavior change among organizations and/or individuals (providers, patients) is inherent in the translation process; engagement of stakeholder organizations, health care delivery systems, and individuals is imperative to achieve effective translation and sustained improvements; and IDS research is iterative, benefiting from cycles and collaborative, bidirectional relationships. The authors propose seven domains for IDS training-team science, context identification, literature identification and assessment, community engagement, intervention design and research implementation, evaluation of effect of translational activity, behavioral change communication strategies-and define 12 IDS training competencies within these domains. As a model, they describe specific courses introduced at the University of California, San Francisco, which they designed to develop these competencies. The authors encourage other training programs and institutions to use or adapt the design principles, conceptual framework, and proposed competencies to evaluate their current IDS training needs and to support new program development.

  9. 78 FR 47715 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the Environmental Health Sciences Review Committee, July 24, 2013, 08:00 a.m. to July 26, 2013, 02:00 p.m., Double Tree by Hilton...

  10. 76 FR 71046 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice....894, Resources and Manpower Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Interagency Breast Cancer and Environmental Research...

  11. 78 FR 17219 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis...:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: Nat. Inst. of...

  12. Can Low-Cost Support Programmes with Coaching Accelerate Doctoral Completion in Health Science Faculty Academics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Hilary; Bentley, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Career development for full-time Health Sciences academics through to doctoral studies is a monumental task. Many academics have difficulty completing their studies in the minimum time as well as publishing after obtaining their degree. As this problem is particularly acute in the Health Sciences, the PhD Acceleration Programme in Health Sciences…

  13. Action learning enhances professional development of research supervisors: an Australian health science exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kierrynn; Brownie, Sonya; Doran, Frances; Evans, Sue; Hutchinson, Marie; Mozolic-Staunton, Beth; Provost, Stephen; van Aken, Rosalie

    2012-03-01

    The worldwide academic workforce is ageing. At the same time, health and human services workforces are expanding. The preparation of educators to fill gaps in expertise and to position the health sciences for future growth is an urgent need. The findings from a recent action learning project that aimed to enhance the professional growth and development of higher degree researcher student supervisors in a School of Health and Human Sciences are presented. Seven early career researchers and the facilitator met for two hours every two to three weeks over 4 months between April and July 2010, in a rural and regional university in New South Wales, Australia. The processes initiated were a combination of experiential knowledge, referral to relevant published reports, use of an effective supervision checklist, and critical conversations. Learning outcomes centered on higher degree management and supervision pedagogy, communities of practice, knowledge translation, and the establishment of a research culture. The contextual barriers and implications of the methodology and learning outcomes for the professional development of health and human science practitioners, researchers and educators is also discussed. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Using and choosing digital health technologies: a communications science perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovretveit, John; Wu, Albert; Street, Richard; Thimbleby, Harold; Thilo, Friederike; Hannawa, Annegret

    2017-03-20

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore a non-technical overview for leaders and researchers about how to use a communications perspective to better assess, design and use digital health technologies (DHTs) to improve healthcare performance and to encourage more research into implementation and use of these technologies. Design/methodology/approach Narrative overview, showing through examples the issues and benefits of introducing DHTs for healthcare performance and the insights that communications science brings to their design and use. Findings Communications research has revealed the many ways in which people communicate in non-verbal ways, and how this can be lost or degraded in digitally mediated forms. These losses are often not recognized, can increase risks to patients and reduce staff satisfaction. Yet digital technologies also contribute to improving healthcare performance and staff morale if skillfully designed and implemented. Research limitations/implications Researchers are provided with an introduction to the limitations of the research and to how communications science can contribute to a multidisciplinary research approach to evaluating and assisting the implementation of these technologies to improve healthcare performance. Practical implications Using this overview, managers are more able to ask questions about how the new DHTs will affect healthcare and take a stronger role in implementing these technologies to improve performance. Originality/value New insights into the use and understanding of DHTs from applying the new multidiscipline of communications science. A situated communications perspective helps to assess how a new technology can complement rather than degrade professional relationships and how safer implementation and use of these technologies can be devised.

  15. Usability Testing as a Method to Refine a Health Sciences Library Website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Andrea H; Moody, David A; Bennett, Jason C

    2016-01-01

    User testing, a method of assessing website usability, can be a cost-effective and easily administered process to collect information about a website's effectiveness. A user experience (UX) team at an academic health sciences library has employed user testing for over three years to help refine the library's home page. Test methodology used in-person testers using the "think aloud" method to complete tasks on the home page. Review of test results revealed problem areas of the design and redesign; further testing was effective in refining the page. User testing has proved to be a valuable method to engage users and provide feedback to continually improve the library's home page.

  16. Impact of information technology on the role of health sciences librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braude, R M

    1993-01-01

    Information technology is transforming the nature of health sciences information and its management, thereby altering the traditional responsibilities of health sciences librarians. As a result, the traditional educational preparation for librarianship is no longer entirely relevant, and there is a real possibility that information management will be taken over by individuals with different educational backgrounds and skills. This paper explores four topics relevant to this issue: the emergence of new forms of health sciences information, the impact of technology on the practice of health sciences librarianship, the interaction of technology and the practice of health sciences librarianship, and the relationship among these three topics and the educational preparation of health sciences librarians. PMID:8251976

  17. Small grant management in health and behavioral sciences: Lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakraida, Teresa J; D'Amico, Jessica; Thibault, Erica

    2010-08-01

    This article describes considerations in health and behavioral sciences small grant management and describes lessons learned during post-award implementation. Using the components by W. Sahlman [Sahlman, W. (1997). How to write a great business plan. Harvard Business Review, 75(4), 98-108] as a business framework, a plan was developed that included (a) building relationships with people in the research program and with external parties providing key resources, (b) establishing a perspective of opportunity for research advancement, (c) identifying the larger context of scientific culture and regulatory environment, and (d) anticipating problems with a flexible response and rewarding teamwork. Small grant management included developing a day-to-day system, building a grant/study program development plan, and initiating a marketing plan. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The application of health sciences library skills in other settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snape, M F

    1995-10-01

    Medical librarians have been urged to assume personal responsibility for seeking lifelong education and professional development opportunities, but it is not always clear which opportunities should be sought or which skills will be needed in the rapidly changing health sciences environment. To shed some light on these issues, the author interviewed former medical librarians from southern California and Arizona who are now employed in other settings, to determine the skills that aided their transition from the medical library arena to new jobs. In interviews, respondents highlighted the importance of presentation, training, management, reference, computer, and interpersonal skills. Although both technical and interpersonal skills aided successful transitions, strong interpersonal skills augmented technical abilities and may be essential to successful career change. In sum, medical librarians possess skills that transfer well to other settings. Individuals with clear career goals who are able to present themselves and their skills well can take advantage of career opportunities, in both new settings and in medical libraries.

  19. Accuracy of telephone reference service in health sciences libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskoff, B M

    1991-04-01

    Six factual queries were unobtrusively telephoned to fifty-one U.S. academic health sciences and hospital libraries. The majority of the queries (63.4%) were answered accurately. Referrals to another library or information source were made for 25.2% of the queries. Eleven answers (3.6%) were inaccurate, and no answer was provided for 7.8% of the queries. There was a correlation between the number of accurate answers provided and the presence of at least one staff member with a master's degree in library and information science. The correlation between employing a librarian certified by the Medical Library Association (MLA) and providing accurate answers was significant. The majority of referrals were to specific sources. If these "helpful referrals" are counted with accurate answers as correct responses, they total 76.8% of the answers. In a follow-up survey, five libraries stated that they did not provide accurate answers because they did not own an appropriate source. Staff-related problems were given as reasons for other than accurate answers by two of the libraries, while eight indicated that library policy prevented them from providing answers to the public.

  20. Worldwide application of prevention science in adolescent health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Richard F; Fagan, Abigail A; Gavin, Loretta E; Greenberg, Mark T; Irwin, Charles E; Ross, David A; Shek, Daniel T L

    2015-01-01

    The burden of morbidity and mortality from non-communicable disease has risen worldwide and is accelerating in low-income and middle-income countries, whereas the burden from infectious diseases has declined. Since this transition, the prevention of non-communicable disease as well as communicable disease causes of adolescent mortality has risen in importance. Problem behaviours that increase the short-term or long-term likelihood of morbidity and mortality, including alcohol, tobacco, and other drug misuse, mental health problems, unsafe sex, risky and unsafe driving, and violence are largely preventable. In the past 30 years new discoveries have led to prevention science being established as a discipline designed to mitigate these problem behaviours. Longitudinal studies have provided an understanding of risk and protective factors across the life course for many of these problem behaviours. Risks cluster across development to produce early accumulation of risk in childhood and more pervasive risk in adolescence. This understanding has led to the construction of developmentally appropriate prevention policies and programmes that have shown short-term and long-term reductions in these adolescent problem behaviours. We describe the principles of prevention science, provide examples of efficacious preventive interventions, describe challenges and potential solutions to take efficacious prevention policies and programmes to scale, and conclude with recommendations to reduce the burden of adolescent mortality and morbidity worldwide through preventive intervention. PMID:22538180