WorldWideScience

Sample records for science foundation opened

  1. Foundations of image science

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Harrison H

    2013-01-01

    Winner of the 2006 Joseph W. Goodman Book Writing Award! A comprehensive treatment of the principles, mathematics, and statistics of image science In today's visually oriented society, images play an important role in conveying messages. From seismic imaging to satellite images to medical images, our modern society would be lost without images to enhance our understanding of our health, our culture, and our world. Foundations of Image Science presents a comprehensive treatment of the principles, mathematics, and st

  2. The openEHR Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Dipak; Beale, Thomas; Heard, Sam

    2005-01-01

    The openEHR Foundation is an independent, not-for-profit organisation and community, facilitating the creation and sharing of health records by consumers and clinicians via open-source, standards-based implementations. It was formed as a union of ten-year international R&D efforts in specifying the requirements, information models and implementation of comprehensive and ethico-legally sound electronic health record systems. Between 2000 and 2004 it has grown to having an on-line membership of over 300, published a wide range of EHR information viewpoint specifications. Several groups have now begun collaborative software development, within an open source framework. This chapter summarises the formation of openEHR, its research underpinning, practical demonstrators, the principle design concepts, and the roles openEHR members are playing in international standards.

  3. OSGeo - Open Source Geospatial Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Di Leo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available L'esigenza nata verso la fine del 2005 di selezionare ed organizzare più di 200 progetti FOSS4G porta alla nascita nel Febbraio2006 di OSGeo (the Open Source Geospatial Foundation, organizzazione internazionale la cui mission è promuovere lo sviluppo collaborativo di software libero focalizzato sull'informazione geografica (FOSS4G.Open   Source   Geospatial   Foundation (OSGeoThe Open Source Geospatial Foundation (OSGeo  is  a  not-for-profit  organization, created  in  early  2006  to  the  aim  at  sup-porting   the   collaborative   development of  geospatial  open  source  software,  and promote its widespread use. The founda-tion provides financial, organizational and legal support to the broader open source geospatial community. It also serves as an independent  legal  entity  to  which  com-munity  members  can  contribute  code, funding  and  other  resources,  secure  in the knowledge that their contributions will be maintained for public benefit. OSGeo also  serves  as  an  outreach  and  advocacy organization for the open source geospa-tial  community,  and  provides  a  common forum  and  shared  infrastructure  for  im-proving  cross-project  collaboration.  The foundation's projects are all freely available and  useable  under  an  OSI-certified  open source license. The Italian OSGeo local chapter is named GFOSS.it     (Associazione     Italiana     per l'informazione Geografica Libera.

  4. Open Science Training Handbook

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Bezjak; April Clyburne-Sherin; Philipp Conzett; Pedro Fernandes; Edit Görögh; Kerstin Helbig; Bianca Kramer; Ignasi Labastida; Kyle Niemeyer; Fotis Psomopoulos; Tony Ross-Hellauer; René Schneider; Jon Tennant; Ellen Verbakel; Helene Brinken

    2018-01-01

    For a readable version of the book, please visit https://book.fosteropenscience.eu A group of fourteen authors came together in February 2018 at the TIB (German National Library of Science and Technology) in Hannover to create an open, living handbook on Open Science training. High-quality trainings are fundamental when aiming at a cultural change towards the implementation of Open Science principles. Teaching resources provide great support for Open Science instructors and trainers. The ...

  5. Science Opens Doors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Steve; Smyth, Jen

    2016-01-01

    Science Opens Doors is the creation of Clive Thompson of the Horners' Livery Company. The Science Opens Doors project philosophy is strongly based upon the King's College London ASPIRES project, which established that children like doing science in junior school (ages 7-11), but that by the age of 12-14 they are firmly against becoming scientists.…

  6. Defining Success in Open Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Khan, Sarah E; Jean, Antoine; MacDonald, Emily; Gold, E Richard

    2018-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that worldwide, innovation systems are increasing unsustainable. Equally, concerns about inequities in the science and innovation process, and in access to its benefits, continue. Against a backdrop of growing health, economic and scientific challenges global stakeholders are urgently seeking to spur innovation and maximize the just distribution of benefits for all. Open Science collaboration (OS) - comprising a variety of approaches to increase open, public, and rapid mobilization of scientific knowledge - is seen to be one of the most promising ways forward. Yet, many decision-makers hesitate to construct policy to support the adoption and implementation of OS without access to substantive, clear and reliable evidence. In October 2017, international thought-leaders gathered at an Open Science Leadership Forum in the Washington DC offices of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to share their views on what successful Open Science looks like. Delegates from developed and developing nations, national governments, science agencies and funding bodies, philanthropy, researchers, patient organizations and the biotechnology, pharma and artificial intelligence (AI) industries discussed the outcomes that would rally them to invest in OS, as well as wider issues of policy and implementation. This first of two reports, summarizes delegates' views on what they believe OS will deliver in terms of research, innovation and social impact in the life sciences. Through open and collaborative process over the next months, we will translate these success outcomes into a toolkit of quantitative and qualitative indicators to assess when, where and how open science collaborations best advance research, innovation and social benefit. Ultimately, this work aims to develop and openly share tools to allow stakeholders to evaluate and re-invent their innovation ecosystems, to maximize value for the global public and patients, and address long-standing questions

  7. Open Education and the Open Science Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Openness as a complex code word for a variety of digital trends and movements has emerged as an alternative mode of "social production" based on the growing and overlapping complexities of open source, open access, open archiving, open publishing, and open science. This paper argues that the openness movement with its reinforcing structure of…

  8. Open Media Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Moltke Martiny, Kristian; Pedersen, David Budtz; Hansted, Allan Alfred Birkegaard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present three challenges to the emerging Open Science (OS) movement: the challenge of communication, collaboration and cultivation of scientific research. We argue that to address these challenges OS needs to include other forms of data than what can be captured in a text...... and extend into a fully-fledged Open Media movement engaging with new media and non-traditional formats of science communication. We discuss two cases where experiments with open media have driven new collaborations between scientists and documentarists. We use the cases to illustrate different advantages...... of using open media to face the challenges of OS....

  9. Governance of Open Source Software Foundations: Who Holds the Power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Prattico

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this article attempts to discover who holds the power in open source software foundations through the analysis of governance documents. Artificial neural network analysis is used to analyse the content of the bylaws of six open source foundations (Apache, Eclipse, GNOME, Plone, Python, and SPI for the purpose of identifying power structures. Results of the research suggest that: i the actions of an open source software foundation are centered around one of three groups: Members, Chairman/President/Executive Director, and Board of Directors; ii in only one of the six foundations is the Board of Directors responsible for both the community and the product; and iii artificial neural network analysis of the content of bylaws provides unbiased insights of the power structure of open source software foundations. These results may prove useful to those who contribute to open source foundations and use their products and services.

  10. Physical foundations of materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Gottstein, Günter

    2004-01-01

    In this vivid and comprehensible introduction to materials science, the author expands the modern concepts of metal physics to formulate basic theory applicable to other engineering materials, such as ceramics and polymers. Written for engineering students and working engineers with little previous knowledge of solid-state physics, this textbook enables the reader to study more specialized and fundamental literature of materials science. Dozens of illustrative photographs, many of them Transmission Electron Microscopy images, plus line drawings, aid developing a firm appreciation of this complex topic. Hard-to-grasp terms such as "textures" are lucidly explained - not only the phenomenon itself, but also its consequences for the material properties. This excellent book makes materials science more transparent.

  11. Open Media Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Kristian Møller Moltke; Pedersen, David Budtz; Hansted, Alfred Birkegaard

    2016-01-01

    and extend into a fully-fledged Open Media movement engaging with new media and non-traditional formats of science communication. We discuss two cases where experiments with open media have driven new collaborations between scientists and documentarists. We use the cases to illustrate different advantages...

  12. Open Media Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Moltke Martiny, Kristian; Pedersen, David Budtz; Hansted, Allan Alfred Birkegaard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present three challenges to the emerging Open Science (OS) movement: the challenge of communication, collaboration and cultivation of scientific research. We argue that to address these challenges OS needs to include other forms of data than what can be captured in a text...... and extend into a fully-fledged Open Media movement engaging with new media and non-traditional formats of science communication. We discuss two cases where experiments with open media have driven new collaborations between scientists and documentarists. We use the cases to illustrate different advantages...

  13. A new foundation for the social sciences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of John Searle’s philosophy of society is to provide a foundation for the social sciences. Arguing that the study of social reality needs to be based on a philosophy of language, Searle claims that sociology has little to offer, since no sociologist ever took language seriously. Attacking...

  14. Open hardware for open science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the open source software movement, the Open Hardware Repository was created to enable hardware developers to share the results of their R&D activities. The recently published CERN Open Hardware Licence offers the legal framework to support this knowledge and technology exchange.   Two years ago, a group of electronics designers led by Javier Serrano, a CERN engineer, working in experimental physics laboratories created the Open Hardware Repository (OHR). This project was initiated in order to facilitate the exchange of hardware designs across the community in line with the ideals of “open science”. The main objectives include avoiding duplication of effort by sharing results across different teams that might be working on the same need. “For hardware developers, the advantages of open hardware are numerous. For example, it is a great learning tool for technologies some developers would not otherwise master, and it avoids unnecessary work if someone ha...

  15. Plasma Physics at the National Science Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, Vyacheslav

    2017-10-01

    The Town Meeting on Plasma Physics at the National Science Foundation will provide an opportunity for Q&A about the variety of NSF programs and solicitations relevant to a broad cross-section of the academic plasma science community, from graduating college seniors to senior leaders in the field, and from plasma astrophysics to basic physics to plasma engineering communities. We will discuss recent NSF-hosted events, research awards, and multi-agency partnerships aimed at enabling the progress of science in plasma science and engineering. Future outlook for plasma physics and broader plasma science support at NSF, with an emphasis on how you can help NSF to help the community, will be speculated upon within the uncertainty of the federal budgeting process.

  16. Open life science research, open software and the open century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhua Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available At the age of knowledge explosion and mass scientific information, I highlighted the importance of conducting open science in life and medical researches through the extensive usage of open software and documents. The proposal of conducting open science is to reduce the limited repeatability of researches in life science. I outlined the essential steps for conducting open life science and the necessary standards for creating, reusing and reproducing open materials. Different Creative Commons licenses were presented and compared of their usage scope and restriction. As a conclusion, I argued that open materials should be widely adopted in doing life and medical researches.

  17. The open science grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, R.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. LHC Tier-1 and Tier-2 laboratories and universities are developing production Grids to support LHC applications running across a worldwide Grid computing system. Together with partners in computer science, physics grid projects and active experiments, we will build a common national production grid infrastructure which is open in its architecture, implementation and use. The Open Science Grid (OSG) model builds upon the successful approach of last year's joint Grid2003 project. The Grid3 shared infrastructure has for over eight months provided significant computational resources and throughput to a range of applications, including ATLAS and CMS data challenges, SDSS, LIGO, and biology analyses, and computer science demonstrators and experiments. To move towards LHC-scale data management, access and analysis capabilities, we must increase the scale, services, and sustainability of the current infrastructure by an order of magnitude or more. Thus, we must achieve a significant upgrade in its functionalities and technologies. The initial OSG partners will build upon a fully usable, sustainable and robust grid. Initial partners include the US LHC collaborations, DOE and NSF Laboratories and Universities and Trillium Grid projects. The approach is to federate with other application communities in the U.S. to build a shared infrastructure open to other sciences and capable of being modified and improved to respond to needs of other applications, including CDF, D0, BaBar, and RHIC experiments. We describe the application-driven, engineered services of the OSG, short term plans and status, and the roadmap for a consortium, its partnerships and national focus

  18. The National Science Foundation and the History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) is the major funder of the history of science in the United States. Between 1958 and 2010, the NSF program for the history of science has given 89 awards in the history of astronomy. This paper analyzes the award recipients and subject areas of the awards and notes significant shifts in the concentration of award recipients and the chronological focus of the research being funded.

  19. General Atomics Sciences Education Foundation Outreach Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Patricia S.

    1997-11-01

    Scientific literacy for all students is a national goal. The General Atomics (GA) Foundation Outreach Program is committed to playing a major role in enhancing pre-college education in science, engineering and new technologies. GA has received wide recognition for its Sciences Education Program, a volunteer effort of GA employees and San Diego science teachers. GA teacher/scientist teams have developed inquiry-based education modules and associated workshops based on areas of core competency at GA: Fusion -- Energy of the Stars; Explorations in Materials Science; Portrait of an Atom; DNA Technology. [http://www.sci-ed-ga.org]. Workshops [teachers receive printed materials and laboratory kits for ``hands-on" modules] have been presented for 700+ teachers from 200+ area schools. Additional workshops include: University of Denver for Denver Public Schools; National Educators Workshop; Standard Experiments in Engineering Materials; Update '96 in Los Alamos; Newspapers in Education Workshop (LA Times); American Chemical Society Regional/National meetings, and California Science Teachers Association Conference. Other outreach includes High School Science Day, school partnerships, teacher and student mentoring and the San Diego Science Alliance [http://www.sdsa.org].

  20. 45 CFR 650.2 - National Science Foundation patent policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Science Foundation patent policy. 650.2... FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.2 National Science Foundation patent policy. As authorized by the National Science... adopted the following statement of NSF patent policy. (a) In accordance with the Bayh-Dole Act and the...

  1. The Open Science Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab; Kramer, Bill; Olson, Doug; / /LBL, Berkeley; Livny, Miron; Roy, Alain; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Avery, Paul; /Florida U.; Blackburn, Kent; /Caltech; Wenaus, Torre; /Brookhaven; Wurthwein, Frank; /UC, San Diego; Gardner, Rob; Wilde, Mike; /Chicago U. /Indiana U.

    2007-06-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) provides a distributed facility where the Consortium members provide guaranteed and opportunistic access to shared computing and storage resources. OSG provides support for and evolution of the infrastructure through activities that cover operations, security, software, troubleshooting, addition of new capabilities, and support for existing and engagement with new communities. The OSG SciDAC-2 project provides specific activities to manage and evolve the distributed infrastructure and support its use. The innovative aspects of the project are the maintenance and performance of a collaborative (shared & common) petascale national facility over tens of autonomous computing sites, for many hundreds of users, transferring terabytes of data a day, executing tens of thousands of jobs a day, and providing robust and usable resources for scientific groups of all types and sizes. More information can be found at the OSG web site: www.opensciencegrid.org.

  2. Mathematical logic foundations for information science

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical logic is a branch of mathematics that takes axiom systems and mathematical proofs as its objects of study. This book shows how it can also provide a foundation for the development of information science and technology. The first five chapters systematically present the core topics of classical mathematical logic, including the syntax and models of first-order languages, formal inference systems, computability and representability, and Gödel’s theorems. The last five chapters present extensions and developments of classical mathematical logic, particularly the concepts of version sequences of formal theories and their limits, the system of revision calculus, proschemes (formal descriptions of proof methods and strategies) and their properties, and the theory of inductive inference. All of these themes contribute to a formal theory of axiomatization and its application to the process of developing information technology and scientific theories. The book also describes the paradigm of three kinds...

  3. Openness, Web 2.0 Technology, and Open Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Open science is a term that is being used in the literature to designate a form of science based on open source models or that utilizes principles of open access, open archiving and open publishing to promote scientific communication. Open science increasingly also refers to open governance and more democratized engagement and control of science…

  4. Dr. William C. Harris, Director-General, Science Foundation Ireland

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Pictured with Robert Eisenstein, former assistant director for mathematical and physical sciences (MPS) at the US National Science Foundation (NSF), who is spending a year at CERN as a member of the ATLAS collaboration.

  5. Opening science to the world; opening the world to science

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrew Purcell

    2015-01-01

    ‘Engaging the research community towards an Open Science Commons’ was the main theme of the European Grid Infrastructure (EGI) annual conference that was held in Lisbon from 18 to 22 May. At the conference, the EGI­Engage project was launched and the European Open Science Cloud was discussed.   Tiziana Ferrari, technical director of EGI.eu, speaks at the EGI Annual conference in Lisbon this year. The EGI­Engage project was launched during the opening session of the conference by Tiziana Ferrari, technical director of EGI.eu. This project, which has been funded through the EU’s Horizon 2020 Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, aims to accelerate progress towards the implementation of the Open Science Commons. It seeks to do so by expanding the capabilities of a European backbone of federated services for computing, storage, data, communication, knowledge and expertise, as well as related community­-specific capabilities. &l...

  6. Open Science Interview mit PA

    OpenAIRE

    Scheliga, Kaja

    2014-01-01

    This interview is part of a series of interviews on open science and digital scholarship conducted in 2013 with researchers from various backgrounds. For an analysis of the interviews see: Scheliga, Kaja and Sascha Friesike. 2014. “Putting open science into practice: A social dilemma?” First Monday. Volume 19, Number 9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i9.5381

  7. Open Science Interview mit IB

    OpenAIRE

    Scheliga, Kaja

    2014-01-01

    This interview is part of a series of interviews on open science and digital scholarship conducted in 2013 with researchers from various backgrounds. For an analysis of the interviews see: Scheliga, Kaja and Sascha Friesike. 2014. “Putting open science into practice: A social dilemma?” First Monday. Volume 19, Number 9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i9.5381

  8. Recommendations for open data science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gymrek, Melissa; Farjoun, Yossi

    2016-01-01

    Life science research increasingly relies on large-scale computational analyses. However, the code and data used for these analyses are often lacking in publications. To maximize scientific impact, reproducibility, and reuse, it is crucial that these resources are made publicly available and are fully transparent. We provide recommendations for improving the openness of data-driven studies in life sciences.

  9. Surface Science Foundations of Catalysis and Nanoscience

    CERN Document Server

    Kolasinski, Kurt K

    2012-01-01

    Surface science has evolved beyond being a sub-field of chemistry or physics and has now become an underpinning science. The Third Edition of this book incorporates extensive worked solutions, as well as details on how problem solving relevant to surface science should be performed. It contextualizes the exercises and their solutions to further explicate the methods of problem solving, application of scientific principles and to deliver a deeper understanding of the field of surface science. Solutions will be accompanied by figures and/or graphs of data, as appropriate.

  10. Opening science: New publication forms in science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheliga, Kaja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] Digital technologies change how scientists access and process information and consequently impact publication forms in science. Even though the core of scientific publications has remained the same, established publication formats, such as the scientific paper or book, are succumbing to the transitions caused by digital technologies. At the same time, new online tools enable new publication forms, such as blogs, microblogs or wikis, to emerge. This article explores the changing and emerging publications forms in science and also reflects upon the changing role of libraries. The transformations of publishing forms are discussed in the context of open science.

  11. New science on the Open Science Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, R; Altunay, M; Sehgal, C [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Avery, P [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Bejan, A; Gardner, R; Wilde, M [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Blackburn, K [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Blatecky, A; McGee, J [Renaissance Computing Institute, Chapel Hill, NC 27517 (United States); Kramer, B; Olson, D; Roy, A [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Livny, M [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Potekhin, M; Quick, R; Wenaus, T [Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Wuerthwein, F [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)], E-mail: ruth@fnal.gov

    2008-07-15

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) includes work to enable new science, new scientists, and new modalities in support of computationally based research. There are frequently significant sociological and organizational changes required in transformation from the existing to the new. OSG leverages its deliverables to the large-scale physics experiment member communities to benefit new communities at all scales through activities in education, engagement, and the distributed facility. This paper gives both a brief general description and specific examples of new science enabled on the OSG. More information is available at the OSG web site: www.opensciencegrid.org.

  12. New science on the Open Science Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, R; Altunay, M; Sehgal, C; Avery, P; Bejan, A; Gardner, R; Wilde, M; Blackburn, K; Blatecky, A; McGee, J; Kramer, B; Olson, D; Roy, A; Livny, M; Potekhin, M; Quick, R; Wenaus, T; Wuerthwein, F

    2008-01-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) includes work to enable new science, new scientists, and new modalities in support of computationally based research. There are frequently significant sociological and organizational changes required in transformation from the existing to the new. OSG leverages its deliverables to the large-scale physics experiment member communities to benefit new communities at all scales through activities in education, engagement, and the distributed facility. This paper gives both a brief general description and specific examples of new science enabled on the OSG. More information is available at the OSG web site: www.opensciencegrid.org

  13. Tools for open geospatial science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, V.; Petrasova, A.; Mitasova, H.

    2017-12-01

    Open science uses open source to deal with reproducibility challenges in data and computational sciences. However, just using open source software or making the code public does not make the research reproducible. Moreover, the scientists face the challenge of learning new unfamiliar tools and workflows. In this contribution, we will look at a graduate-level course syllabus covering several software tools which make validation and reuse by a wider professional community possible. For the novices in the open science arena, we will look at how scripting languages such as Python and Bash help us reproduce research (starting with our own work). Jupyter Notebook will be introduced as a code editor, data exploration tool, and a lab notebook. We will see how Git helps us not to get lost in revisions and how Docker is used to wrap all the parts together using a single text file so that figures for a scientific paper or a technical report can be generated with a single command. We will look at examples of software and publications in the geospatial domain which use these tools and principles. Scientific contributions to GRASS GIS, a powerful open source desktop GIS and geoprocessing backend, will serve as an example of why and how to publish new algorithms and tools as part of a bigger open source project.

  14. Logic, mathematics, and computer science modern foundations with practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nievergelt, Yves

    2015-01-01

    This text for the first or second year undergraduate in mathematics, logic, computer science, or social sciences, introduces the reader to logic, proofs, sets, and number theory. It also serves as an excellent independent study reference and resource for instructors. Adapted from Foundations of Logic and Mathematics: Applications to Science and Cryptography © 2002 Birkhӓuser, this second edition provides a modern introduction to the foundations of logic, mathematics, and computers science, developing the theory that demonstrates construction of all mathematics and theoretical computer science from logic and set theory.  The focus is on foundations, with specific statements of all the associated axioms and rules of logic and set theory, and  provides complete details and derivations of formal proofs. Copious references to literature that document historical development is also provided. Answers are found to many questions that usually remain unanswered: Why is the truth table for logical implication so uni...

  15. Surface Science Foundations of Catalysis and Nanoscience

    CERN Document Server

    Kolasinski, Kurt K

    2012-01-01

    Surface science has evolved from being a sub-field of chemistry or physics, and has now established itself as an interdisciplinary topic. Knowledge has developed sufficiently that we can now understand catalysis from a surface science perspective. No-where is the underpinning nature of surface science better illustrated than with nanoscience. Now in its third edition, this successful textbook aims to provide students with an understanding of chemical transformations and the formation of structures at surfaces. The chapters build from simple to more advanced principles with each featuring exerc

  16. The interactional foundations of MaxEnt: Open questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harré, Michael S., E-mail: michael.harre@sydney.edu.au [Complex Systems Research Group, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-12-05

    One of the simplest and potentially most useful techniques to be developed in the 20{sup th} century, a century noted for an ever more mathematically sophisticated formulation of the sciences, is that of maximising the entropy of a system in order to generate a descriptive, stochastic model of that system in closed form, often abbreviated to MaxEnt. The extension of MaxEnt to systems beyond the physics from which it originated is hampered by the fact that the microscopic physical interactions that are not justified or justifiable within the MaxEnt framework need to be falsifiably evaluated in each new field of application. It is not obvious that such justification exists for many systems in which the interactions are not directly based on physics. For example what is the justification for the use of MaxEnt in biology, climate modelling or economics? Is it simply a useful heuristic or is there some deeper connection with the foundations of some systems? Without further critical examination of the microscopic foundations that give rise to the success of the MaxEnt principle it is difficult to motivate the use of such techniques in other fields except through theoretically an practically unsatisfying analogical arguments. This article briefly presents the basis of MaxEnt principles as originally introduced in statistical mechanics in the Jaynes form, the Tsallis form and the Rényi form. Several different applications are introduced including that of ecological diversity where maximising the different diversity measures is equivalent to maximising different entropic functionals.

  17. The interactional foundations of MaxEnt: Open questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harré, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    One of the simplest and potentially most useful techniques to be developed in the 20 th century, a century noted for an ever more mathematically sophisticated formulation of the sciences, is that of maximising the entropy of a system in order to generate a descriptive, stochastic model of that system in closed form, often abbreviated to MaxEnt. The extension of MaxEnt to systems beyond the physics from which it originated is hampered by the fact that the microscopic physical interactions that are not justified or justifiable within the MaxEnt framework need to be falsifiably evaluated in each new field of application. It is not obvious that such justification exists for many systems in which the interactions are not directly based on physics. For example what is the justification for the use of MaxEnt in biology, climate modelling or economics? Is it simply a useful heuristic or is there some deeper connection with the foundations of some systems? Without further critical examination of the microscopic foundations that give rise to the success of the MaxEnt principle it is difficult to motivate the use of such techniques in other fields except through theoretically an practically unsatisfying analogical arguments. This article briefly presents the basis of MaxEnt principles as originally introduced in statistical mechanics in the Jaynes form, the Tsallis form and the Rényi form. Several different applications are introduced including that of ecological diversity where maximising the different diversity measures is equivalent to maximising different entropic functionals

  18. Close connections between open science and open-source software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YouHua Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Open science is increasingly gaining attention in recent years. In this mini-review, we briefly discuss and summarize the reasons of introducing open science into academic publications for scientists. We argue that open-source software (like R and Python software can be the universal and important platforms for doing open science because of their appealing features: open source, easy-reading document, commonly used in various scientific disciplines like statistics, chemistry and biology. At last, the challenges and future perspectives of performing open science are discussed.

  19. Commonly Shared Foundation of Mathematics, Information Science, Natural Science, Social Science, and Theology

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Through a simple thought experiment, this paper shows that there must be a shared foundation of mathematics, information science, natural science, social science, and theology. The thought experiment is to ask a volunteer to write down an arbitrary real number between 0 and 1 with many digits. For example, 0.19823765010367129462…. would be one of such numbers. Then we analyze this experiment result by asking five simple questions: Is the real number a random real? Can the observed real numbe...

  20. Foundations for a new science of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzoff, Andrew N; Kuhl, Patricia K; Movellan, Javier; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2009-07-17

    Human learning is distinguished by the range and complexity of skills that can be learned and the degree of abstraction that can be achieved compared with those of other species. Homo sapiens is also the only species that has developed formal ways to enhance learning: teachers, schools, and curricula. Human infants have an intense interest in people and their behavior and possess powerful implicit learning mechanisms that are affected by social interaction. Neuroscientists are beginning to understand the brain mechanisms underlying learning and how shared brain systems for perception and action support social learning. Machine learning algorithms are being developed that allow robots and computers to learn autonomously. New insights from many different fields are converging to create a new science of learning that may transform educational practices.

  1. Introductory Statistics Education and the National Science Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Megan R.; Rowell, Ginger Holmes

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes 27 National Science Foundation supported grant projects that have innovations designed to improve teaching and learning in introductory statistics courses. The characteristics of these projects are compared with the six recommendations given in the "Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education (GAISE)…

  2. Seven propositions of the science of improvement: exploring foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perla, Rocco J; Provost, Lloyd P; Parry, Gareth J

    2013-01-01

    The phrase "Science of Improvement" or "Improvement Science" is commonly used today by a range of people and professions to mean different things, creating confusion to those trying to learn about improvement. In this article, we briefly define the concepts of improvement and science, and review the history of the consideration of "improvement" as a science. We trace key concepts and ideas in improvement to their philosophical and theoretical foundation with a focus on Deming's System of Profound Knowledge. We suggest that Deming's system has a firm association with many contemporary and historic philosophic and scientific debates and concepts. With reference to these debates and concepts, we identify 7 propositions that provide the scientific and philosophical foundation for the science of improvement. A standard view of the science of improvement does not presently exist that is grounded in the philosophical and theoretical basis of the field. The 7 propositions outlined here demonstrate the value of examining the underpinnings of improvement. This is needed to both advance the field and minimize confusion about what the phrase "science of improvement" represents. We argue that advanced scientists of improvement are those who like Deming and Shewhart can integrate ideas, concepts, and models between scientific disciplines for the purpose of developing more robust improvement models, tools, and techniques with a focus on application and problem solving in real world contexts. The epistemological foundations and theoretical basis of the science of improvement and its reasoning methods need to be critically examined to ensure its continued development and relevance. If improvement efforts and projects in health care are to be characterized under the canon of science, then health care professionals engaged in quality improvement work would benefit from a standard set of core principles, a standard lexicon, and an understanding of the evolution of the science of

  3. An open science peer review oath

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aleksic, Jelena; Adrian Alexa, Adrian Alexa; Attwood, Teresa K.

    2015-01-01

    One of the foundations of the scientific method is to be able to reproduce experiments and corroborate the results of research that has been done before. However, with the increasing complexities of new technologies and techniques, coupled with the specialisation of experiments, reproducing......: specifically, we introduce a peer-review oath and accompanying manifesto. These have been designed to offer guidelines to enable reviewers (with the minimum friction or bias) to follow and apply open science principles, and support the ideas of transparency, reproducibility and ultimately greater societal...... research findings has become a growing challenge. Clearly, scientific methods must be conveyed succinctly, and with clarity and rigour, in order for research to be reproducible. Here, we propose steps to help increase the transparency of the scientific method and the reproducibility of research results...

  4. Natural frequencies of Euler-Bernoulli beam with open cracks on elastic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young Jae; Yun, Jong Hak; Seong, Kyeong Youn; Kim, Jae Ho; Kang, Sung Hwang

    2006-01-01

    A study of the natural vibrations of beam resting on elastic foundation with finite number of transverse open cracks is presented. Frequency equations are derived for beams with different end restraints. Euler-Bernoulli beam on Winkler foundation and Euler-Bernoulli beam on Paster nak foundation are investigated. The cracks are modeled by massless substitute spring. The effects of the crack location, size and its number and the foundation constants, on the natural frequencies of the beam, are investigated

  5. Open Genetic Code: on open source in the life sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Deibel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of open source in the life sciences is increasingly being suggested as an alternative to patenting. This is an alternative, however, that takes its shape at the intersection of the life sciences and informatics. Numerous examples can be identified wherein open source in the life sciences refers to access, sharing and collaboration as informatic practices. This includes open source as an experimental model and as a more sophisticated approach of genetic engineering. The first ...

  6. CJEP will offer open science badges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pexman, Penny M

    2017-03-01

    This editorial announces the decision of the Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology (CJEP) to offer Open Science Framework (OSF) Badges. The Centre for Open Science provides tools to facilitate open science practices. These include the OSF badges. The badges acknowledge papers that meet standards for openness of data, methods, or research process. They are now described in the CJEP Submission Guidelines, and are provided in the editorial. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The Eugenides Foundation Interactive Exhibition of Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogiannis, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    The Interactive Exhibition of Science and Technology is installed in an area of 1200 m2 at the Eugenides Foundation. 65 interactive exhibits, designed by the "Cites des Science et de l' Industrie" are organised in themes, stimulate the visitors' mind and provoke scientific thinking. Parallel activities take place inside the exhibition, such as live science demonstrations, performed by young scientists. Extra material such as news bulletins (short news, science comics and portraits), educational paths and treasure-hunting based games, all available online as well, are prepared on a monthly basis and provided along with the visit to the exhibition. Through these exhibits and activities, scientific facts are made simple and easy to comprehend using modern presentation tools. We present details on how this exhibition acts complementary to the science education provided by schools, making it a highly sophisticated educational tool.

  8. Open Genetic Code : On open source in the life sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deibel, E.

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of open source in the life sciences is increasingly being suggested as an alternative to patenting. This is an alternative, however, that takes its shape at the intersection of the life sciences and informatics. Numerous examples can be identified wherein open source in the life

  9. Open Data for Global Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F Uhlir

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available he digital revolution has transformed the accumulation of properly curated public research data into an essential upstream resource whose value increases with use. The potential contributions of such data to the creation of new knowledge and downstream economic and social goods can in many cases be multiplied exponentially when the data are made openly available on digital networks. Most developed countries spend large amounts of public resources on research and related scientific facilities and instruments that generate massive amounts of data. Yet precious little of that investment is devoted to promoting the value of the resulting data by preserving and making them broadly available. The largely ad hoc approach to managing such data, however, is now beginning to be understood as inadequate to meet the exigencies of the national and international research enterprise. The time has thus come for the research community to establish explicit responsibilities for these digital resources. This article reviews the opportunities and challenges to the global science system associated with establishing an open data policy.

  10. The Open Science Grid status and architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; Petravick, Don; /Fermilab; Kramer, Bill; Olsen, James D.; /LBL, Berkeley; Livny, Miron; Roy, Gordon A.; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Avery, Paul Ralph; /Florida U.; Blackburn, Kent; /Caltech; Wenaus, Torre J.; /Brookhaven; Wuerthwein, Frank K.; /UC, San Diego; Foster, Ian; /Chicago U. /Indiana U.

    2007-09-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) provides a distributed facility where the Consortium members provide guaranteed and opportunistic access to shared computing and storage resources. The OSG project[1] is funded by the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing program. The OSG project provides specific activities for the operation and evolution of the common infrastructure. The US ATLAS and US CMS collaborations contribute to and depend on OSG as the US infrastructure contributing to the World Wide LHC Computing Grid on which the LHC experiments distribute and analyze their data. Other stakeholders include the STAR RHIC experiment, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and several Fermilab Tevatron experiments- CDF, D0, MiniBoone etc. The OSG implementation architecture brings a pragmatic approach to enabling vertically integrated community specific distributed systems over a common horizontal set of shared resources and services. More information can be found at the OSG web site: www.opensciencegrid.org.

  11. The Open Science Grid status and architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, R; Petravick, D; Kramer, B; Olson, D; Livny, M; Roy, A; Avery, P; Blackburn, K; Wenaus, T; Wuerthwein, F; Foster, I; Gardner, R; Wilde, M; Blatecky, A; McGee, J; Quick, R

    2008-01-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) provides a distributed facility where the Consortium members provide guaranteed and opportunistic access to shared computing and storage resources. The OSG project[1] is funded by the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing program. The OSG project provides specific activities for the operation and evolution of the common infrastructure. The US ATLAS and US CMS collaborations contribute to and depend on OSG as the US infrastructure contributing to the World Wide LHC Computing Grid on which the LHC experiments distribute and analyze their data. Other stakeholders include the STAR RHIC experiment, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and several Fermilab Tevatron experiments- CDF, D0, MiniBoone etc. The OSG implementation architecture brings a pragmatic approach to enabling vertically integrated community specific distributed systems over a common horizontal set of shared resources and services. More information can be found at the OSG web site: www.opensciencegrid.org

  12. Tensor constructions of open string theories. I. Foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaberdiel, M.R.; Zwiebach, B.

    1997-01-01

    The possible tensor constructions of open string theories are analyzed from first principles. To this end the algebraic framework of open string field theory is clarified, including the role of the homotopy associative A ∞ algebra, the odd symplectic structure, cyclicity, star conjugation, and twist. It is also shown that two string theories are off-shell equivalent if the corresponding homotopy associative algebras are homotopy equivalent in a strict sense. It is demonstrated that a homotopy associative star algebra with a compatible even bilinear form can be attached to an open string theory. If this algebra does not have a space-time interpretation, positivity and the existence of a conserved ghost number require that its cohomology is at degree zero, and that it has the structure of a direct sum of full matrix algebras. The resulting string theory is shown to be physically equivalent to a string theory with a familiar open string gauge group. (orig.)

  13. Fuzziness and Foundations of Exact and Inexact Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Dompere, Kofi Kissi

    2013-01-01

    The monograph is an examination of the fuzzy rational foundations of the structure of exact and inexact sciences over the epistemological space which is distinguished from the ontological space. It is thus concerned with the demarcation problem. It examines exact science and its critique of inexact science. The role of fuzzy rationality in these examinations is presented. The driving force of the discussions is the nature of the information that connects the cognitive relational structure of the epistemological space to the ontological space for knowing. The knowing action is undertaken by decision-choice agents who must process information to derive exact-inexact or true-false conclusions. The information processing is done with a paradigm and laws of thought that constitute the input-output machine. The nature of the paradigm selected depends on the nature of the information structure that is taken as input of the thought processing. Generally, the information structure received from the ontological space i...

  14. Dr Pierre Perrolle, Director, Office of International Science and Engineering, National Science Foundation, United States of America

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photo 01: Dr Pierre Perrolle, Director, Office of International Science and Engineering, National Science Foundation, USA (second from right) in the ATLAS assembly hall with from left to right Randi Ruchti, Peter Jenni and Robert Eisenstein, Senior Science Advisor, National Science Foundation, USA. Photo 02: Dr Pierre Perrolle, Director, Office of International Science and Engineering, National Science Foundation, USA (second from right) in the ATLAS assembly hall with from left to right Randi Ruchti, Robert Eisenstein, Senior Science Advisor, National Science Foundation, USA and Peter Jenni. Photo 03: Dr Pierre Perrolle, Director, Office of International Science and Engineering, National Science Foundation, USA (second from right) in front of the ATLAS End-Cap Toroid vacuum vessel in the ATLAS assembly hall with from left to right Peter Jenni, Robert Eisenstein, Senior Science Advisor, National Science Foundation, USA and Randi Ruchti ________________________________

  15. Towards Constructive Foundations of Cognitivism: Breaking in Open Doors?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2013), s. 38-40 ISSN 1782-348X Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : constructive cognitivism * diffusion search algorithm * amorphous computing system Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/journal/9/1/038.wiedermann

  16. Open Genetic Code: on open source in the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of open source in the life sciences is increasingly being suggested as an alternative to patenting. This is an alternative, however, that takes its shape at the intersection of the life sciences and informatics. Numerous examples can be identified wherein open source in the life sciences refers to access, sharing and collaboration as informatic practices. This includes open source as an experimental model and as a more sophisticated approach of genetic engineering. The first section discusses the greater flexibly in regard of patenting and the relationship to the introduction of open source in the life sciences. The main argument is that the ownership of knowledge in the life sciences should be reconsidered in the context of the centrality of DNA in informatic formats. This is illustrated by discussing a range of examples of open source models. The second part focuses on open source in synthetic biology as exemplary for the re-materialization of information into food, energy, medicine and so forth. The paper ends by raising the question whether another kind of alternative might be possible: one that looks at open source as a model for an alternative to the commodification of life that is understood as an attempt to comprehensively remove the restrictions from the usage of DNA in any of its formats.

  17. BOOK REVIEW: OPENING SCIENCE, THE EVOLVING GUIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The way we get our funding, collaborate, do our research, and get the word out has evolved over hundreds of years but we can imagine a more open science world, largely facilitated by the internet. The movement towards this more open way of doing and presenting science is coming, and it is not taking hundreds of years. If you are interested in these trends, and would like to find out more about where this is all headed and what it means to you, consider downloding Opening Science, edited by Sönke Bartling and Sascha Friesike, subtitled The Evolving Guide on How the Internet is Changing Research, Collaboration, and Scholarly Publishing. In 26 chapters by various authors from a range of disciplines the book explores the developing world of open science, starting from the first scientific revolution and bringing us to the next scientific revolution, sometimes referred to as “Science 2.0”. Some of the articles deal with the impact of the changing landscape of how science is done, looking at the impact of open science on Academia, or journal publishing, or medical research. Many of the articles look at the uses, pitfalls, and impact of specific tools, like microblogging (think Twitter), social networking, and reference management. There is lots of discussion and definition of terms you might use or misuse like “altmetrics” and “impact factor”. Science will probably never be completely open, and Twitter will probably never replace the journal article,

  18. Revista ORL at Open Science Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tránsito FERRERAS FERNÁNDEZ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In October 2017 they were held at the University of Salamanca the congress Open Knowledge Ecosystems (ACE 2017 posed as an international meeting point for specialists in open access. The congress allowed to approach the open knowledge from the perspectives I + D + i, offering papers and communications on research related to Open Access, as well as experiences developed in repositories and institutions and approaches to innovative trends in any of the fields of open knowledge.The experience of Revista ORL was present in ECA 2017 through a joint communication of several authors titled Nuevas vías de publicación para revistas biomédicas. Proyecto Revista ORL de Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, offering an overview of the history of the Revista as an open edition project. Although on that occasion it was called a project, now we should call it "reality" fully consolidated because the data on results obtained.Open Science represents a paradigm change in the way to make science. Although this doesn't change substantially with respect to its motivations and objectives, it changes its methods. The change lies in how it is done, not in what is done. It is an open science, collaborative and made with and for society.The concept of Open Science has been preceded by Open Access to academic content and this may have conditioned its understanding. Open Access has been assimilated only with open access to articles, while with Open Science it is considered that what must be open is any research result (articles + data as well as the auxiliary instruments used (for example, laboratory notebooks. However, the double meaning of "open" (free and free is the same for the two concepts.In this paper we pose questions such as What is Open Science? What are the motivations of governments for its promotion? What components does make up this ecosystem? What are the implications for agents of scientific research? What does represent all this for the edition of

  19. Achieving open access to conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Richard A; Lee, Jasmine R; Watson, James E M

    2014-12-01

    Conservation science is a crisis discipline in which the results of scientific enquiry must be made available quickly to those implementing management. We assessed the extent to which scientific research published since the year 2000 in 20 conservation science journals is publicly available. Of the 19,207 papers published, 1,667 (8.68%) are freely downloadable from an official repository. Moreover, only 938 papers (4.88%) meet the standard definition of open access in which material can be freely reused providing attribution to the authors is given. This compares poorly with a comparable set of 20 evolutionary biology journals, where 31.93% of papers are freely downloadable and 7.49% are open access. Seventeen of the 20 conservation journals offer an open access option, but fewer than 5% of the papers are available through open access. The cost of accessing the full body of conservation science runs into tens of thousands of dollars per year for institutional subscribers, and many conservation practitioners cannot access pay-per-view science through their workplace. However, important initiatives such as Research4Life are making science available to organizations in developing countries. We urge authors of conservation science to pay for open access on a per-article basis or to choose publication in open access journals, taking care to ensure the license allows reuse for any purpose providing attribution is given. Currently, it would cost $51 million to make all conservation science published since 2000 freely available by paying the open access fees currently levied to authors. Publishers of conservation journals might consider more cost effective models for open access and conservation-oriented organizations running journals could consider a broader range of options for open access to nonmembers such as sponsorship of open access via membership fees. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the Society for

  20. Normative ethics does not need a foundation: it needs more science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintelier, Katinka; Van Speybroeck, Linda; Braeckman, Johan

    2011-03-01

    The impact of science on ethics forms since long the subject of intense debate. Although there is a growing consensus that science can describe morality and explain its evolutionary origins, there is less consensus about the ability of science to provide input to the normative domain of ethics. Whereas defenders of a scientific normative ethics appeal to naturalism, its critics either see the naturalistic fallacy committed or argue that the relevance of science to normative ethics remains undemonstrated. In this paper, we argue that current scientific normative ethicists commit no fallacy, that criticisms of scientific ethics contradict each other, and that scientific insights are relevant to normative inquiries by informing ethics about the options open to the ethical debate. Moreover, when conceiving normative ethics as being a nonfoundational ethics, science can be used to evaluate every possible norm. This stands in contrast to foundational ethics in which some norms remain beyond scientific inquiry. Finally, we state that a difference in conception of normative ethics underlies the disagreement between proponents and opponents of a scientific ethics. Our argument is based on and preceded by a reconsideration of the notions naturalistic fallacy and foundational ethics. This argument differs from previous work in scientific ethics: whereas before the philosophical project of naturalizing the normative has been stressed, here we focus on concrete consequences of biological findings for normative decisions or on the day-to-day normative relevance of these scientific insights.

  1. Open Science Interview mit Christian Heise

    OpenAIRE

    Scheliga, Kaja

    2014-01-01

    This interview is part of a series of interviews on open science and digital scholarship conducted in 2013 with researchers from various backgrounds. For an analysis of the interviews see: Scheliga, Kaja and Sascha Friesike. 2014. “Putting open science into practice: A social dilemma?” First Monday. Volume 19, Number 9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i9.5381

  2. Open Science Interview mit Daniel Mietchen

    OpenAIRE

    Scheliga, Kaja

    2014-01-01

    This interview is part of a series of interviews on open science and digital scholarship conducted in 2013 with researchers from various backgrounds. For an analysis of the interviews see: Scheliga, Kaja and Sascha Friesike. 2014. “Putting open science into practice: A social dilemma?” First Monday. Volume 19, Number 9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i9.5381

  3. Open Science Interview with Christobal Cobo

    OpenAIRE

    Scheliga, Kaja

    2014-01-01

    This interview is part of a series of interviews on open science and digital scholarship conducted in 2013 with researchers from various backgrounds. For an analysis of the interviews see: Scheliga, Kaja and Sascha Friesike. 2014. “Putting open science into practice: A social dilemma?” First Monday. Volume 19, Number 9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i9.5381

  4. Open Science Interview with Jon Crowcroft

    OpenAIRE

    Scheliga, Kaja

    2014-01-01

    This interview is part of a series of interviews on open science and digital scholarship conducted in 2013 with researchers from various backgrounds. For an analysis of the interviews see: Scheliga, Kaja and Sascha Friesike. 2014. “Putting open science into practice: A social dilemma?” First Monday. Volume 19, Number 9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i9.5381

  5. Collaborative Web between open and closed science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Delfanti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available “Web 2.0” is the mantra enthusiastically repeated in the past few years on anything concerning the production of culture, dialogue and online communication. Even science is changing, along with the processes involving the communication, collaboration and cooperation created through the web, yet rooted in some of its historical features of openness. For this issue, JCOM has asked some experts on the most recent changes in science to analyse the potential and the contradictions lying in online collaborative science. The new open science feeds on the opportunity to freely contribute to knowledge production, sharing not only data, but also software and hardware. But it is open also to the outside, where citizens use Web 2.0 instruments to discuss about science in a horizontal way.

  6. Open access: changing global science publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Kitas, George D

    2013-08-01

    The article reflects on open access as a strategy of changing the quality of science communication globally. Successful examples of open-access journals are presented to highlight implications of archiving in open digital repositories for the quality and citability of research output. Advantages and downsides of gold, green, and hybrid models of open access operating in diverse scientific environments are described. It is assumed that open access is a global trend which influences the workflow in scholarly journals, changing their quality, credibility, and indexability.

  7. Opening science: New publication forms in science

    OpenAIRE

    Scheliga, Kaja

    2014-01-01

    Digital technologies change how scientists access and process information and consequently impact publication forms in science. Even though the core of scientific publications has remained the same, established publication formats, such as the scientific paper or book, are succumbing to the transitions caused by digital technologies. At the same time, new online tools enable new publication forms, such as blogs, microblogs or wikis, to emerge. This article explores the changing and emerging p...

  8. ScienceSoft: Open software for open science

    CERN Document Server

    Di Meglio, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Most of the software developed today by research institutes, university, research projects, etc. is typically stored in local source and binary repositories and available for the duration of a project lifetime only. Finding software based on given functional characteristics is almost impossible and binary packages are mostly available from local university or project repositories rather than the open source community repositories like Fedora/EPEL or Debian. Furthermore general information about who develops, contributes to and most importantly uses a given software program is very difficult to find out and yet the widespread availability of such information would give more visibility and credibility to the software products. The creation of links or relationships not only among pieces of software, but equally among the people interacting with the software across and beyond specific project and communities would foster a more active community and create the conditions for sharing ideas and skills, a ...

  9. The logical foundations of forensic science: towards reliable knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evett, Ian

    2015-08-05

    The generation of observations is a technical process and the advances that have been made in forensic science techniques over the last 50 years have been staggering. But science is about reasoning-about making sense from observations. For the forensic scientist, this is the challenge of interpreting a pattern of observations within the context of a legal trial. Here too, there have been major advances over recent years and there is a broad consensus among serious thinkers, both scientific and legal, that the logical framework is furnished by Bayesian inference (Aitken et al. Fundamentals of Probability and Statistical Evidence in Criminal Proceedings). This paper shows how the paradigm has matured, centred on the notion of the balanced scientist. Progress through the courts has not been always smooth and difficulties arising from recent judgments are discussed. Nevertheless, the future holds exciting prospects, in particular the opportunities for managing and calibrating the knowledge of the forensic scientists who assign the probabilities that are at the foundation of logical inference in the courtroom. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Gender Differences in Online Participation: Examining a History and a Mathematics Open Foundation Online Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morante, Annette; Djenidi, Valerie; Clark, Helene; West, Susan

    2017-01-01

    With enrolment and completion rates in the University of Newcastle's online Open Foundation enabling program being considerably higher for women than for men, this case study investigates the engagement of male and female students in two different subject areas. History and Mathematics students' online behaviour is examined to identify whether…

  11. Better Broader Impacts through National Science Foundation Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, K. M.

    2010-12-01

    National Science Foundation Science and Technology Centers (STCs) play a leading role in developing and evaluating “Better Broader Impacts”; best practices for recruiting a broad spectrum of American students into STEM fields and for educating these future professionals, as well as their families, teachers and the general public. With staff devoted full time to Broader Impacts activities, over the ten year life of a Center, STCs are able to address both a broad range of audiences and a broad range of topics. Along with other NSF funded centers, such as Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence, Engineering Research Centers and Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers, STCs develop both models and materials that individual researchers can adopt, as well as, in some cases, direct opportunities for individual researchers to offer their disciplinary research expertise to existing center Broader Impacts Programs. The National Center for Earth-surface Dynamics is an STC headquartered at the University of Minnesota. NCED’s disciplinary research spans the physical, biological and engineering issues associated with developing an integrative, quantitative and predictive understanding of rivers and river basins. Funded in 2002, we have had the opportunity to partner with individuals and institutions ranging from formal to informal education and from science museums to Tribal and women’s colleges. We have developed simple table top physical models, complete museum exhibitions, 3D paper maps and interactive computer based visualizations, all of which have helped us communicate with this wide variety of learners. Many of these materials themselves or plans to construct them are available online; in many cases they have also been formally evaluated. We have also listened to the formal and informal educators with whom we partner, from whom we have learned a great deal about how to design Broader Impacts activities and programs. Using NCED as a case study

  12. GOSH! A roadmap for open-source science hardware

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the Gathering for Open Science Hardware (GOSH! 2016), held from 2 to 5 March 2016 at IdeaSquare, was to lay the foundations of the open-source hardware for science movement.   The participants in the GOSH! 2016 meeting gathered in IdeaSquare. (Image: GOSH Community) “Despite advances in technology, many scientific innovations are held back because of a lack of affordable and customisable hardware,” says François Grey, a professor at the University of Geneva and coordinator of Citizen Cyberlab – a partnership between CERN, the UN Institute for Training and Research and the University of Geneva – which co-organised the GOSH! 2016 workshop. “This scarcity of accessible science hardware is particularly obstructive for citizen science groups and humanitarian organisations that don’t have the same economic means as a well-funded institution.” Instead, open sourcing science hardware co...

  13. Open Science: a first step towards Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Ivo; Tuddenham, Peter

    2015-04-01

    As Earth Science communicators gear up to adopt the new tools and captivating approaches to engage citizen scientists, budding entrepreneurs, policy makers and the public in general, researchers have the responsibility, and opportunity, to fully adopt Open Science principles and capitalize on its full societal impact and engagement. Open Science is about removing all barriers to basic research, whatever its formats, so that it can be freely used, re-used and re-hashed, thus fueling discourse and accelerating generation of innovative ideas. The concept is central to EU's Responsible Research and Innovation philosophy, and removing barriers to basic research measurably contributes to engaging citizen scientists into the research process, it sets the scene for co-creation of solutions to societal challenges, and raises the general science literacy level of the public. Despite this potential, only 50% of today's basic research is freely available. Open Science can be the first passive step of communicating marine research outside academia. Full and unrestricted access to our knowledge including data, software code and scientific publications is not just an ethical obligation, but also gives solid credibility to a more sophisticated communication strategy on engaging society. The presentation will demonstrate how Open Science perfectly compliments a coherent communication strategy for placing Marine Research in societal context, and how it underpin an effective integration of Ocean & Earth Literacy principles in standard educational, as well mobilizing citizen marine scientists, thus making marine science Open Science.

  14. Transparency: the emerging third dimension of Open Science and Open Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Lyon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an exploration of the concept of research transparency. The policy context is described and situated within the broader arena of open science. This is followed by commentary on transparency within the research process, which includes a brief overview of the related concept of reproducibility and the associated elements of research integrity, fraud and retractions. A two-dimensional model or continuum of open science is considered and the paper builds on this foundation by presenting a three-dimensional model, which includes the additional axis of ‘transparency’. The concept is further unpacked and preliminary definitions of key terms are introduced: transparency, transparency action, transparency agent and transparency tool.  An important linkage is made to the research lifecycle as a setting for potential transparency interventions by libraries. Four areas are highlighted as foci for enhanced engagement with transparency goals: Leadership and Policy, Advocacy and Training, Research Infrastructures and Workforce Development.

  15. [Analysis of ophthalmic projects granted by National Natural Science Foundation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jing-Jing; Mo, Xiao-Fen; Pan, Zhi-Qiang; Gan, De-Kang; Xu, Yan-Ying

    2008-09-01

    To understand the status of basic research work in the field of ophthalmology by analyzing the projects funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) from the year of 1986 to 2007, and offer as a reference to the ophthalmologists and researchers. NSFC supported ophthalmology projects in the 22 year's period were collected from the database of NSFC. The field of funded projects, the research team and their achievements were analyzed. There were 228 applicants from 47 home institutions were funded in the field of ophthalmology during the past 22 years, 323 projects funded with 66.74 million Yuan in total, in which 165 projects were fulfilled before the end of 2006. The applied and funded projects mainly focus on six different kinds of research area related to retinal diseases, corneal diseases, glaucoma, optic nerve diseases, myopia and cataract, and 70% of them were basic research in nature. As a brief achievement of 165 fulfilled projects, more than 610 papers were published in domestic journals, over 140 papers were published in Science Citation Index journals, more than 600 people were trained, and over 20 scientific awards were obtained. The number of funded projects and achievement of fulfilled projects in the discipline of ophthalmology gradually increased over the past two decades, the research fields were concentrated in certain diseases. NSFC has played an important role in promoting the development of ophthalmology research and bringing up specialists in China. However, clinical research, continuously research, transforming from basic research to clinic applications and multidisciplinary cross studies should be strengthened.

  16. Space Weather Research at the National Science Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, T.

    2015-12-01

    There is growing recognition that the space environment can have substantial, deleterious, impacts on society. Consequently, research enabling specification and forecasting of hazardous space effects has become of great importance and urgency. This research requires studying the entire Sun-Earth system to understand the coupling of regions all the way from the source of disturbances in the solar atmosphere to the Earth's upper atmosphere. The traditional, region-based structure of research programs in Solar and Space physics is ill suited to fully support the change in research directions that the problem of space weather dictates. On the observational side, dense, distributed networks of observations are required to capture the full large-scale dynamics of the space environment. However, the cost of implementing these is typically prohibitive, especially for measurements in space. Thus, by necessity, the implementation of such new capabilities needs to build on creative and unconventional solutions. A particularly powerful idea is the utilization of new developments in data engineering and informatics research (big data). These new technologies make it possible to build systems that can collect and process huge amounts of noisy and inaccurate data and extract from them useful information. The shift in emphasis towards system level science for geospace also necessitates the development of large-scale and multi-scale models. The development of large-scale models capable of capturing the global dynamics of the Earth's space environment requires investment in research team efforts that go beyond what can typically be funded under the traditional grants programs. This calls for effective interdisciplinary collaboration and efficient leveraging of resources both nationally and internationally. This presentation will provide an overview of current and planned initiatives, programs, and activities at the National Science Foundation pertaining to space weathe research.

  17. Open Science: Trends in the Development of Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    This article comments on some trends in the evolution of science teaching at a distance using the Open University UK (OU UK) experience as a benchmark. Even from the first years of the university there was an understanding of the potential role for media in developing methods for teaching science at a distance, in particular the potential for…

  18. Social Media, Open Science, and Data Science Are Inextricably Linked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytek, Bradley

    2017-12-20

    Should scientists use social media? Why practice open science? What is data science? Ten years ago, these phrases hardly existed. Now they are ubiquitous. Here I argue that these phenomena are inextricably linked and reflect similar underlying social and technological transformations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mentoring Faculty: Results from National Science Foundation's ADVANCE Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Faculty mentoring programs are common components of National Science Foundation ADVANCE awards. The ADVANCE program aims to increase the number of women on the faculty in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) departments through grants to individuals and to entire institutions. These grants target a change in institutional culture so that faculty from non-majority groups will succeed and thrive. Mentoring programs are generally designed to fit the particular institution(s) or target population (e.g., meteorologists at the beginning of their careers). A successful mentoring program makes the implicit knowledge necessary for faculty success explicit: policies and practices are made transparent; routes for finding answers are clarified or generated with faculty input; faculty overcome a sense of isolation and develop a community. Mentoring programs may be formal, with assigned mentors and mentees, or informal, with opportunities for beginning, middle and advanced career STEM faculty to mingle, generally over food and sometimes with a formal speaker. The programs are formally evaluated; in general, attention to mentoring generates better outcomes for all faculty. Research indicates that most successful scientists have a network of mentors rather than relying on one person to help navigate department, institution, and profession. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln's (UNL) award, ADVANCE-Nebraska, offered opportunities for faculty to informally network over luncheons with women speakers, advanced in their careers. We also offered after-hours networking receptions. In response to faculty feedback, we shifted to a series of panel discussions entitled "Conversations". Most panels were conducted by successful UNL faculty; about one-third had an outside expert on a given topic. Topics were chosen based on faculty feedback and targeted specifically to beginning faculty (How to Start Up a Lab; How to Balance Teaching and Writing), mid-career faculty (Putting

  20. Eclecticism as the foundation of meta-theoretical, mixed methods and interdisciplinary research in social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroos, Karmo

    2012-03-01

    This article examines the value of "eclecticism" as the foundation of meta-theoretical, mixed methods and interdisciplinary research in social sciences. On the basis of the analysis of the historical background of the concept, it is first suggested that eclecticism-based theoretical scholarship in social sciences could benefit from the more systematic research method that has been developed for synthesizing theoretical works under the name metatheorizing. Second, it is suggested that the mixed methods community could base its research approach on philosophical eclecticism instead of pragmatism because the basic idea of eclecticism is much more in sync with the nature of the combined research tradition. Finally, the Kuhnian frame is used to support the argument for interdisciplinary research and, hence, eclecticism in social sciences (rather than making an argument against multiple paradigms). More particularly, it is suggested that integrating the different (inter)disciplinary traditions and schools into one is not necessarily desirable at all in social sciences because of the complexity and openness of the research field. If it is nevertheless attempted, experience in economics suggests that paradigmatic unification comes at a high price.

  1. An Open and Holistic Approach for Geo and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, Bernd; Seelus, Christoph; Neher, Günther; Toshihiko, Iyemori; Yatagai, Akiyo; Koyama, Yukinobu; Murayama, Yasuhiro; King, Todd; Hughes, Steve; Fung, Shing; Galkin, Ivan; Hapgood, Mike; Belehaki, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Geo and space sciences thus far have been very successful, even often an open, cross-domain and holistic approach did not play an essential role. But this situation is changing rapidly. The research focus is shifting into more complex, non-linear and multi-domain specified phenomena, such as e.g. climate change or space environment. This kind of phenomena only can be understood step by step using the holistic idea. So, what is necessary for a successful cross-domain and holistic approach in geo and space sciences? Research and science in general become more and more dependent from a rich fundus of multi-domain data sources, related context information and the use of highly advanced technologies in data processing. Such buzzword phrases as Big Data and Deep Learning are reflecting this development. Big Data also addresses the real exponential growing of data and information produced by measurements or simulations. Deep Learning technology may help to detect new patterns and relationships in data describing high sophisticated natural phenomena. And further on, we should not forget science and humanities are only two sides of the same medal in the continuing human process of knowledge discovery. The concept of Open Data or in particular the open access to scientific data is addressing the free and open availability of -at least publicly founded and generated- data. The open availability of data covers the free use, reuse and redistribution of data which have been established with the formation of World Data Centers already more than 50 years ago. So, we should not forget, the foundation for open data is the responsibility of the individual scientist up until the big science institutions and organizations for a sustainable management of data. Other challenges are discovering and collecting the appropriate data, and preferably all of them or at least the majority of the right data. Therefore a network of individual or even better institutional catalog-based and at least

  2. An open science cloud for scientific research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bob

    2016-04-01

    The Helix Nebula initiative was presented at EGU 2013 (http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2013/EGU2013-1510-2.pdf) and has continued to expand with more research organisations, providers and services. The hybrid cloud model deployed by Helix Nebula has grown to become a viable approach for provisioning ICT services for research communities from both public and commercial service providers (http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.16001). The relevance of this approach for all those communities facing societal challenges in explained in a recent EIROforum publication (http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.34264). This presentation will describe how this model brings together a range of stakeholders to implement a common platform for data intensive services that builds upon existing public funded e-infrastructures and commercial cloud services to promote open science. It explores the essential characteristics of a European Open Science Cloud if it is to address the big data needs of the latest generation of Research Infrastructures. The high-level architecture and key services as well as the role of standards is described. A governance and financial model together with the roles of the stakeholders, including commercial service providers and downstream business sectors, that will ensure a European Open Science Cloud can innovate, grow and be sustained beyond the current project cycles is described.

  3. The Fu Foundation School of Engineering & Applied Science - Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Mechanics Computer Science Earth and Environmental Engineering Electrical Engineering Industrial Engineering & Applied Science - Columbia University Admissions Undergraduates Graduates Distance Learning Physics and Applied Mathematics Biomedical Engineering Chemical Engineering Civil Engineering and

  4. Open Science as a Knowledge Transfer strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Ivo; Dalmeier-Thiessen, Suenje

    2015-04-01

    Beyond providing basic understanding of how our Blue Planet functions, flows and breathes, the collection of Earth & Marine Research disciplines are of major service to most of today's Societal Challenges: from Food Security and Sustainable Resource Management, to Renewable Energies, Climate Mitigation & Ecosystem Services and Hazards. Natural Resources are a key commodity in the long-term strategy of the EU Innovation Union(1), and better understanding of the natural process governing them, as well as science-based management are seen as a key area for stimulating future economic growth. Such potential places responsibility on research project managers to devise innovative methods to ensure effective transfer of new research to public and private sector users, and society at large. Open Science is about removing all barriers to full sphere basic research knowledge and outputs, not just the publishable part of research but also the data, the software code, and failed experiments. The concept is central to EU's Responsible Research and Innovation philosophy(2), and removing barriers to basic research measurably contributes to the EU's Blue Growth Agenda(3). Despite the potential of the internet age to deliver on that promise, only 50% of today's basic research is freely available(4). The talk will demonstrate how and why Open Science can be a first, passive but effective strategy for any research project to transfer knowledge to society by allowing access and dicoverability to the full sphere of new knowledge, not just the published outputs. Apart from contributing to economic growth, Open Science can also optimize collaboration, within academia, assist with better engagement of citizen scientists into the research process and co-creation of solutions to societal challenges, as well as providing a solid ground for more sophisticated communication strategies and Ocean/Earth Literacy initiatives targeting policy makers and the public at large. (1)EC Digital Agenda

  5. Foundations in Science and Mathematics Program for Middle School and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Karna Mahadev; Yang, Jing; Hemann, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The Foundations in Science and Mathematics (FSM) is a graduate student led summer program designed to help middle school and high school students strengthen their knowledge and skills in mathematics and science. FSM provides two-week-long courses over a broad spectrum of disciplines including astronomy, biology, chemistry, computer programming, geology, mathematics, and physics. Students can chose two types of courses: (1) courses that help students learn the fundamental concepts in basic sciences and mathematics (e.g., "Precalculus"); and (2) knowledge courses that might be excluded from formal schooling (e.g., "Introduction to Universe"). FSM has served over 500 students in the Bloomington, IN, community over six years by acquiring funding from Indiana University and the Indiana Space Grant Consortium. FSM offers graduate students the opportunity to obtain first hand experience through independent teaching and curriculum design as well as leadership experience.We present the design of the program, review the achievements, and explore the challenges we face. We are open to collaboration with similar educational outreach programs. For more information, please visit http://www.indiana.edu/~fsm/ .

  6. Social Science Boot Camp: Development and Assessment of a Foundational Course on Academic Literacy in the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Judy; Long, Jennifer; Morris, David

    2018-01-01

    We developed a course, as part of our institution's core program, which provides students with a foundation in academic literacy in the social sciences: how to find, read, critically assess, and communicate about social science research. It is not a research methods course; rather, it is intended to introduce students to the social sciences and be…

  7. Persistent Identifiers, Discoverability and Open Science (Communication)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Fiona; Lehnert, Kerstin; Hanson, Brooks

    2016-04-01

    Early in 2016, the American Geophysical Union announced it was incorporating ORCIDs into its submission workflows. This was accompanied by a strong statement supporting the use of other persistent identifiers - such as IGSNs, and the CrossRef open registry 'funding data'. This was partly in response to funders' desire to track and manage their outputs. However the more compelling argument, and the reason why the AGU has also signed up to the Center for Open Science's Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines (http://cos.io/top), is that ultimately science and scientists will be the richer for these initiatives due to increased opportunities for interoperability, reproduceability and accreditation. The AGU has appealed to the wider community to engage with these initiatives, recognising that - unlike the introduction of Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) for articles by CrossRef - full, enriched use of persistent identifiers throughout the scientific process requires buy-in from a range of scholarly communications stakeholders. At the same time, across the general research landscape, initiatives such as Project CRediT (contributor roles taxonomy), Publons (reviewer acknowledgements) and the forthcoming CrossRef DOI Event Tracker are contributing to our understanding and accreditation of contributions and impact. More specifically for earth science and scientists, the cross-functional Coalition for Publishing Data in the Earth and Space Sciences (COPDESS) was formed in October 2014 and is working to 'provide an organizational framework for Earth and space science publishers and data facilities to jointly implement and promote common policies and procedures for the publication and citation of data across Earth Science journals'. Clearly, the judicious integration of standards, registries and persistent identifiers such as ORCIDs and International Geo Sample Numbers (IGSNs) to the research and research output processes is key to the success of this venture

  8. Understanding How Science Works: The Nature of Science as The Foundation for Science Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, William F.

    2017-01-01

    The nature of science (NOS) is a phrase used to represent the rules of the game of science. Arguably, NOS is the most important content issue in science instruction because it helps students understand the way in which knowledge is generated and validated within the scientific enterprise. This article offers a proposal for the elements of NOS that…

  9. "WALLS": Providing a Firm Foundation for Progression in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jo

    1997-01-01

    Describes a means for determining student knowledge in science. Written in student-level language, WALLS contains statements about science knowledge within bricks on a worksheet. Students shade in bricks they know or activities they have done and part-shade any they are unsure about, giving a differentiated starting point that allows them to plan…

  10. On What Foundation is Africa Building its Science and Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2003, six African countries - Ghana Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Botswana and South Africa - participated in an international assessment programme in science and mathematics, called the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). The study examined the performance of eighth graders in mathematics ...

  11. Environmental Science and Research Foundation annual technical report: Calendar year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, R.C.; Blew, R.D. [eds.

    1997-07-01

    This Annual Technical Report describes work conducted for the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID), by the Environmental Science and Research Foundation (Foundation). The Foundation`s mission to DOE-ID provides support in several key areas. The authors conduct an environmental monitoring and surveillance program over an area covering much of the upper Snake River Plain, and provide environmental education and support services related to Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) natural resource issues. Also, the Foundation, with its University Affiliates, conducts ecological and radioecological research in the Idaho National Environmental Research Park. This research benefits major DOE-ID programs including Waste Management, Environmental Restoration, Spent Nuclear Fuels, and Land Management Issues. The major accomplishments of the Foundation and its University Affiliates during the calendar year 1996 are discussed.

  12. Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc. annual technical report: Calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, R.D.; Warren, R.W. [eds.

    1998-05-01

    This Annual Technical Report describes work conducted for the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID), by the Environmental Science and Research Foundation (Foundation). The Foundation`s mission to DOE-ID provides support in several key areas. The Foundation conducts an environmental monitoring and surveillance program over an area covering much of the upper Snake River Plain, and provides environmental education and support services related to Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) natural resource issues. Also, the Foundation, with its University Affiliates, conducts ecological and radioecological research on the Idaho National Environmental Research Park. This research benefits major DOE-ID programs including Waste Management, Environmental Restoration, Spent Nuclear Fuels, and Land Management Issues. Summaries are included of the individual research projects.

  13. Improving Undergraduate STEM Education: Pathways into Geoscience (IUSE: GEOPATHS) - A National Science Foundation Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.; Patino, L. C.

    2016-12-01

    Preparation of the future professional geoscience workforce includes increasing numbers as well as providing adequate education, exposure and training for undergraduates once they enter geoscience pathways. It is important to consider potential career trajectories for geoscience students, as these inform the types of education and skill-learning required. Recent reports have highlighted that critical thinking and problem-solving skills, spatial and temporal abilities, strong quantitative skills, and the ability to work in teams are among the priorities for many geoscience work environments. The increasing focus of geoscience work on societal issues (e.g., climate change impacts) opens the door to engaging a diverse population of students. In light of this, one challenge is to find effective strategies for "opening the world of possibilities" in the geosciences for these students and supporting them at the critical junctures where they might choose an alternative pathway to geosciences or otherwise leave altogether. To address these and related matters, The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Geosciences (GEO) has supported two rounds of the IUSE: GEOPATHS Program, to create and support innovative and inclusive projects to build the future geoscience workforce. This program is one component in NSF's Improving Undergraduate STEM Education (IUSE) initiative, which is a comprehensive, Foundation-wide effort to accelerate the quality and effectiveness of the education of undergraduates in all of the STEM fields. The two tracks of IUSE: GEOPATHS (EXTRA and IMPACT) seek to broaden and strengthen connections and activities that will engage and retain undergraduate students in geoscience education and career pathways, and help prepare them for a variety of careers. The long-term goal of this program is to dramatically increase the number and diversity of students earning undergraduate degrees or enrolling in graduate programs in geoscience fields, as well as

  14. ECHO Services: Foundational Middleware for a Science Cyberinfrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes ECHO, an interoperability middleware solution. It uses open, XML-based APIs, and supports net-centric architectures and solutions. ECHO has a set of interoperable registries for both data (metadata) and services, and provides user accounts and a common infrastructure for the registries. It is built upon a layered architecture with extensible infrastructure for supporting community unique protocols. It has been operational since November, 2002 and it available as open source.

  15. Achieving Open Access to Conservation Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Richard A; Lee, Jasmine R; Watson, James E M

    2014-01-01

    Conservation science is a crisis discipline in which the results of scientific enquiry must be made available quickly to those implementing management. We assessed the extent to which scientific research published since the year 2000 in 20 conservation science journals is publicly available. Of the 19,207 papers published, 1,667 (8.68%) are freely downloadable from an official repository. Moreover, only 938 papers (4.88%) meet the standard definition of open access in which material can be freely reused providing attribution to the authors is given. This compares poorly with a comparable set of 20 evolutionary biology journals, where 31.93% of papers are freely downloadable and 7.49% are open access. Seventeen of the 20 conservation journals offer an open access option, but fewer than 5% of the papers are available through open access. The cost of accessing the full body of conservation science runs into tens of thousands of dollars per year for institutional subscribers, and many conservation practitioners cannot access pay-per-view science through their workplace. However, important initiatives such as Research4Life are making science available to organizations in developing countries. We urge authors of conservation science to pay for open access on a per-article basis or to choose publication in open access journals, taking care to ensure the license allows reuse for any purpose providing attribution is given. Currently, it would cost $51 million to make all conservation science published since 2000 freely available by paying the open access fees currently levied to authors. Publishers of conservation journals might consider more cost effective models for open access and conservation-oriented organizations running journals could consider a broader range of options for open access to nonmembers such as sponsorship of open access via membership fees. Obtención de Acceso Abierto a la Ciencia de la Conservación Resumen La ciencia de la conservación es una

  16. The logical foundations of forensic science: towards reliable knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Evett, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The generation of observations is a technical process and the advances that have been made in forensic science techniques over the last 50 years have been staggering. But science is about reasoning—about making sense from observations. For the forensic scientist, this is the challenge of interpreting a pattern of observations within the context of a legal trial. Here too, there have been major advances over recent years and there is a broad consensus among serious thinkers, both scientific an...

  17. Earth observation open science and innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Aubrecht, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    This book is published open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. Over  the  past  decades,  rapid developments in digital and sensing technologies, such  as the Cloud, Web and Internet of Things, have dramatically changed the way we live and work. The digital transformation is revolutionizing our ability to monitor our planet and transforming the  way we access, process and exploit Earth Observation data from satellites. This book reviews these megatrends and their implications for the Earth Observation community as well as the wider data economy. It provides insight into new paradigms of Open Science and Innovation applied to space data, which are characterized by openness, access to large volume of complex data, wide availability of new community tools, new techniques for big data analytics such as Artificial Intelligence, unprecedented level of computing power, and new types of collaboration among researchers, innovators, entrepreneurs and citizen scientists. In addition, this book aims to provide reade...

  18. Laying the Foundations for Scientometric Research: A Data Science Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Brian E.; Victor, Bryan G.; Hodge, David R.; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Scientometric studies of social work have stagnated due to problems with the organization and structure of the disciplinary literature. This study utilized data science to produce a set of research tools to overcome these methodological challenges. Method: We constructed a comprehensive list of social work journals for a 25-year time…

  19. Informetrics needs a foundation in the theory of science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2016-01-01

    Taking the Kuhnian revolution in the philosophy of science as its point of departure, this chapter discusses the lessening influence of logical positivism as well as how the recognition of the subjectivity of the researcher, the social and historical nature of bibliometric patterns, and the impor...

  20. How to compare the social foundations of science culture: A trial with five cities in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinwoong; Chung, Minkyung; Choi, Eunjeong; Kim, Leekyoung; Cho, Sook-Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    Though there have been several indicator systems to monitor the status quo of science and technology and of scientific literacy, few are especially designed for science culture, especially for its social dimension. Furthermore there is little agreement on how to measure it. In a previous study, an indicator system, SCI (Science Culture Indicators), had been developed to monitor the status quo of the science culture of a nation at both individual and social dimensions. The purpose of this study was to explore a practical way to measure and compare local cities' social foundation of science culture by revising and standardizing the social dimension of SCI and by applying it to five metropolitan cities in Korea. Despite some limits, the results of this study appear not only to reflect the cities' current situations but also to show the strength and weakness of their social foundation of science culture.

  1. Environmental Science and Research Foundation annual technical report: Calendar year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, R.C.; Blew, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    This Annual Technical Report describes work conducted for the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID), by the Environmental Science and Research Foundation (Foundation). The Foundation's mission to DOE-ID provides support in several key areas. The authors conduct an environmental monitoring and surveillance program over an area covering much of the upper Snake River Plain, and provide environmental education and support services related to Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) natural resource issues. Also, the Foundation, with its University Affiliates, conducts ecological and radioecological research in the Idaho National Environmental Research Park. This research benefits major DOE-ID programs including Waste Management, Environmental Restoration, Spent Nuclear Fuels, and Land Management Issues. The major accomplishments of the Foundation and its University Affiliates during the calendar year 1996 are discussed

  2. Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc. annual technical report: Calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, R.D.; Warren, R.W.

    1998-05-01

    This Annual Technical Report describes work conducted for the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID), by the Environmental Science and Research Foundation (Foundation). The Foundation's mission to DOE-ID provides support in several key areas. The Foundation conducts an environmental monitoring and surveillance program over an area covering much of the upper Snake River Plain, and provides environmental education and support services related to Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) natural resource issues. Also, the Foundation, with its University Affiliates, conducts ecological and radioecological research on the Idaho National Environmental Research Park. This research benefits major DOE-ID programs including Waste Management, Environmental Restoration, Spent Nuclear Fuels, and Land Management Issues. Summaries are included of the individual research projects

  3. Open Science and Open Data: Evolving Business Models

    OpenAIRE

    Melero, Remedios

    2013-01-01

    The rise of ICT has changed the way scientific inputs and outputs are disseminated and diffused. As a consequence, new business models for open access to Scientific publications and datasets are emerging. This session will explore the new features of the business models for open access and open data as well as the associated benefits and risks.

  4. Educing Information - Interrogation: Science and Art, Foundations for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    imprisonment as an integral component of the inquisitor’s interrogation strategy…. [C]oupled if necessary, with hunger , shackles, and torture…[it...computer science with a concentration in machine intelligence and cognition, and minors in neuropsychology and developmental psychology, from The George...a solid theoretical base, then a signifi cant research investment into the underlying neuropsychological mechanisms of deception must be made before

  5. Senator Fred Harris's National Social Science Foundation proposal: Reconsidering federal science policy, natural science-social science relations, and American liberalism during the 1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovey, Mark

    2012-03-01

    During the 1960s, a growing contingent of left-leaning voices claimed that the social sciences suffered mistreatment and undue constraints within the natural science-dominated federal science establishment. According to these critics, the entrenched scientific pecking order in Washington had an unreasonable commitment to the unity of the sciences, which reinforced unacceptable inequalities between the social and the natural sciences. The most important political figure who advanced this critique, together with a substantial legislative proposal for reform, was the Oklahoma Democratic Senator Fred Harris. Yet histories of science and social science have told us surprisingly little about Harris. Moreover, existing accounts of his effort to create a National Social Science Foundation have misunderstood crucial features of this story. This essay argues that Harris's NSSF proposal developed into a robust, historically unique, and increasingly critical liberal challenge to the post-World War II federal science establishment's treatment of the social sciences as "second-class citizens."

  6. Environmental Science and Research Foundation. Annual technical report, April 11, 1994--December 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, T.D.; Morris, R.C.; Markham, O.D.

    1995-06-01

    This Annual Technical Report describes work conducted for the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office, by the Environmental Science and Research Foundation (Foundation) for work under contract DE-AC07-94ID13268. The Foundation began, on April 11, 1994, to conduct environmental surveillance near to and distant from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, provide environmental public relations and education related to INEL natural resource issues, and conduct ecological and radioecological research benefiting major DOE-ID programs including Waste Management, Environmental Restoration, Spent Nuclear Fuels, and Infrastructure

  7. Environmental Science and Research Foundation. Annual technical report, April 11, 1994--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, T.D.; Morris, R.C.; Markham, O.D. [eds.

    1995-06-01

    This Annual Technical Report describes work conducted for the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office, by the Environmental Science and Research Foundation (Foundation) for work under contract DE-AC07-94ID13268. The Foundation began, on April 11, 1994, to conduct environmental surveillance near to and distant from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, provide environmental public relations and education related to INEL natural resource issues, and conduct ecological and radioecological research benefiting major DOE-ID programs including Waste Management, Environmental Restoration, Spent Nuclear Fuels, and Infrastructure.

  8. Cuban Science and the Open Access Alternative

    CERN Document Server

    Arencibia Jorge, Ricardo; Torricella-Morales, Raúl G

    2004-01-01

    Science in Cuba has experienced extraordinary development since the triumph of the Cuban Revolution, in spite of the blockade to which Cuba has been subjected by the United States Government, and thanks to the support and cooperation of the countries that were part of the former Socialist Block. However, after the destruction of the Socialist Block, the Cuban economy suffered through a restructuring process that included the reorganization of the traditional systems for spreading scientific information. At that moment, it was necessary to use alternative means to effectively publicise, to the international scientific community, the information generated by Cuban scientists and scholars. This paper briefly reviews this new era, the institutions that led the process of change, and the future projections based on knowledge of the digital environment and the creation of electronic and open access information sources.

  9. Trinity Phase 2 Open Science: CTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggirello, Kevin Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vogler, Tracy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    CTH is an Eulerian hydrocode developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to solve a wide range of shock wave propagation and material deformation problems. Adaptive mesh refinement is also used to improve efficiency for problems with a wide range of spatial scales. The code has a history of running on a variety of computing platforms ranging from desktops to massively parallel distributed-data systems. For the Trinity Phase 2 Open Science campaign, CTH was used to study mesoscale simulations of the hypervelocity penetration of granular SiC powders. The simulations were compared to experimental data. A scaling study of CTH up to 8192 KNL nodes was also performed, and several improvements were made to the code to improve the scalability.

  10. Catalyzing Open and Collaborative Science to Address Global ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As the cost of computer hardware continues to drop and developing-country researchers get increased access to the Internet and mobile phones, each offers the potential for solving these development challenges by opening up the scientific process. What is open science? At the heart of the open science concept is the ...

  11. Swiss Life Sciences - a science communication project for both schools and the wider public led by the foundation Science et Cité.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röthlisberger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The foundation Science et Cité was founded 1998 with the aim to inform the wider Swiss public about current scientific topics and to generate a dialogue between science and society. Initiated as an independent foundation by the former State Secretary for Science and Research, Dr. Charles Kleiber, Science et Cité is now attached to the Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences as a competence center for dialogue with the public. Due to its branches in all language regions of the country, the foundation is ideally suited to initiate and implement communication projects on a nationwide scale. These projects are subdivided into three categories: i) science communication for children/adolescents, ii) establishing a dialogue between science and the wider public, and iii) conducting the role of a national center of competence and networking in science communication. Swiss Life Sciences is a project that fits into all of these categories: a year-round program for schools is complemented with an annual event for the wider public. With the involvement of most of the major Swiss universities, the Swiss National Science Foundation, the foundation Gen Suisse and many other partners, Swiss Life Sciences also sets an example of national networking within the science communication community.

  12. Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation at the National Science Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczynski, Peter; Neff, James E.

    2018-01-01

    Over its more than thirty-year history, the Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation (ATI) program within the Division of Astronomical Sciences has provided grants to support the development and deployment of detectors and instrumentation for ground-based astronomy. This program has enabled scientific advances in diverse fields from solar physics to exoplanets to cosmology. ATI has provided instrumentation for both small and large observatories from radio through visible wavebands. It has played a role in the early development of major initiatives such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. Technology development for astronomy unfolds over a longer period than the lifetime of a single grant. This review will consider ATI from an historical perspective to assess its impact on astronomy.

  13. Alchemy & algorithms: perspectives on the philosophy and history of open science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Lahti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the reader a chance to experience, or revisit, PHOS16: a conference on the History and Philosophy of Open Science. In the winter of 2016, we invited a varied international group to engage with these topics at the University of Helsinki, Finland. Our aim was a critical assessment of the defining features, underlying narratives, and overall objectives of the contemporary open science movement. The event brought together contemporary open science scholars, publishers, and advocates to discuss the philosophical foundations and historical roots of openness in academic research. The eight sessions combined historical views with more contemporary perspectives on topics such as transparency, reproducibility, collaboration, publishing, peer review, research ethics, as well as societal impact and engagement. We gathered together expert panelists and 15 invited speakers who have published extensively on these topics, which allowed us to engage in a thorough and multifaceted discussion. Together with our involved audience we charted the role and foundations of openness of research in our time, considered the accumulation and dissemination of scientific knowledge, and debated the various technical, legal, and ethical challenges of the past and present. In this article, we provide an overview of the topics covered at the conference as well as individual video interviews with each speaker. In addition to this, all the talks were recorded and they are offered here as an openly licensed community resource in both video and audio form.

  14. Open Science: Open source licenses in scientific research

    OpenAIRE

    Guadamuz, Andres

    2006-01-01

    The article examines the validity of OSS (open source software) licenses for scientific, as opposed to creative works. It draws on examples of OSS licenses to consider their suitability for the scientific community and scientific research.

  15. [Funding for Division of Microbiology in 2014 by National Natural Science Foundation of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jianjun; Huang, Chenyang; Liu, Lin; Wen, Mingzhang

    2015-02-04

    In this paper, we provided an overview of proposals submitted and projects funded in 2014 at the Division of Microbiology, Department of Life Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China. The traits and problems in different sub-disciplines were analyzed, the background, results and analysis of internet voting before panel meetings in Microbiology discipline were also introduced. The information will provide references for Chinese researchers to apply funding in microbiology discipline in the future.

  16. Order Without Intellectual Property Law: Open Science in Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Amy

    Today, intellectual property (IP) scholars accept that IP as an approach to information production has serious limits. But what lies beyond IP? A new literature on "intellectual production without IP" (or "IP without IP") has emerged to explore this question, but its examples and explanations have yet to convince skeptics. This Article reorients this new literature via a study of a hard case: a global influenza virus-sharing network that has for decades produced critically important information goods, at significant expense, and in a loose-knit group--all without recourse to IP. I analyze the Network as an example of "open science," a mode of information production that differs strikingly from conventional IP, and yet that successfully produces important scientific goods in response to social need. The theory and example developed here refute the most powerful criticisms of the emerging "IP without IP" literature, and provide a stronger foundation for this important new field. Even where capital costs are high, creation without IP can be reasonably effective in social terms, if it can link sources of funding to reputational and evaluative feedback loops like those that characterize open science. It can also be sustained over time, even by loose-knit groups and where the stakes are high, because organizations and other forms of law can help to stabilize cooperation. I also show that contract law is well suited to modes of information production that rely upon a "supply side" rather than "demand side" model. In its most important instances, "order without IP" is not order without governance, nor order without law. Recognizing this can help us better ground this new field, and better study and support forms of knowledge production that deserve our attention, and that sometimes sustain our very lives.

  17. Community College Economics Instruction: Results from a National Science Foundation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Mark; Chi, W. Edward

    2016-01-01

    The principal investigator of a National Science Foundation project, "Economics at Community Colleges," surveyed community college economics faculty and organized workshops, webinars, and regional meetings to address community college faculty isolation from new ideas in economics and economics instruction. Survey results, combined with…

  18. Charitable Foundation for Education and Science as a channel of funding of universities in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadikina Anastasiia Aleksandrovna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The legal, organizational and financial characteristics of charitable foundations of Germany are explored in the paper. The funds for the support of education and science as an additional channel of the financial provision of higher education are considered. Emphasizes the importance of the development of various forms and methods of financing of higher education through extra-budgetary sources.

  19. 76 FR 3853 - National Science Foundation Rules of Practice and Statutory Conflict-of-Interest Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... Practice and Statutory Conflict-of-Interest Exemptions AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Final... provisions concerning statutory conflict-of- interest exemptions. DATES: The final rule is effective on.... List of Subjects in 45 CFR Part 680 Conflict of interests. Accordingly, 45 CFR part 680 is amended as...

  20. 77 FR 12331 - Membership of National Science Foundation's Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Director, Division of Human Resource Management, National Science Foundation, Room 315, 4201 Wilson... Resource Management and Chief Human Capital Officer. Deborah F. Lockhart, Deputy Director, Division of.... Sunley, Director, Division of Human Resource Management and PRB Executive Secretary. Dated: February 21...

  1. Migrating Open Science Grid to RPMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Alain

    2012-01-01

    We recently completed a significant transition in the Open Science Grid (OSG) in which we moved our software distribution mechanism from the useful but niche system called Pacman to a community-standard native package system, RPM. In this paper we explore some of the lessons learned during this transition as well as our earlier work, lessons that we believe are valuable not only for software distribution and packaging, but also for software engineering in a distributed computing environment where reliability is critical. We discuss the benefits found in moving to a community standard, including the abilities to reuse existing packaging, to donate existing packaging back to the community, and to leverage existing skills in the community. We describe our approach to testing in which we test our software against multiple versions of the OS, including pre-releases of the OS, in order to find surprises before our users do. Finally, we discuss our large-scale evaluation testing and community testing, which are essential for both quality and community acceptance.

  2. How open science helps researchers succeed

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKiernan, Erin C; Bourne, Philip E; Brown, C Titus; Buck, Stuart; Kenall, Amye; Lin, Jennifer; McDougall, Damon; Nosek, Brian A; Ram, Karthik; Soderberg, Courtney K; Spies, Jeffrey R; Thaney, Kaitlin; Updegrove, Andrew; Woo, Kara H; Yarkoni, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Open access, open data, open source and other open scholarship practices are growing in popularity and necessity. However, widespread adoption of these practices has not yet been achieved. One reason is that researchers are uncertain about how sharing their work will affect their careers. We review literature demonstrating that open research is associated with increases in citations, media attention, potential collaborators, job opportunities and funding opportunities. These findings are evidence that open research practices bring significant benefits to researchers relative to more traditional closed practices. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16800.001 PMID:27387362

  3. 25 October 2017- Austrian, German and Swiss Science Foundations signing the guest book in the Globe of Science and Innovation

    CERN Multimedia

    Ordan, Julien Marius

    2017-01-01

    Austrian, German and Swiss Science Foundations in Globe: Professor Klement Tockner, Präsident, Fonds zur Förderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung, Austria; Professor Peter, Strohschneider, Präsident, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Germany; Professor Matthias Egger, Präsident, Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung, Switzerland

  4. Secondary Students' Perceptions of Open Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rebecca; Baker, Alesha

    2018-01-01

    In an attempt to align instructional resources with new state standards and to increase teacher awareness of these standards, one large suburban public school district piloted the development and adoption of open secondary science textbooks. Open textbooks created by teachers in grades six through nine replaced conventional science textbooks…

  5. Public storage for the Open Science Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levshina, T; Guru, A

    2014-01-01

    The Open Science Grid infrastructure doesn't provide efficient means to manage public storage offered by participating sites. A Virtual Organization that relies on opportunistic storage has difficulties finding appropriate storage, verifying its availability, and monitoring its utilization. The involvement of the production manager, site administrators and VO support personnel is required to allocate or rescind storage space. One of the main requirements for Public Storage implementation is that it should use SRM or GridFTP protocols to access the Storage Elements provided by the OSG Sites and not put any additional burden on sites. By policy, no new services related to Public Storage can be installed and run on OSG sites. Opportunistic users also have difficulties in accessing the OSG Storage Elements during the execution of jobs. A typical users' data management workflow includes pre-staging common data on sites before a job's execution, then storing for a subsequent download to a local institution the output data produced by a job on a worker node. When the amount of data is significant, the only means to temporarily store the data is to upload it to one of the Storage Elements. In order to do that, a user's job should be aware of the storage location, availability, and free space. After a successful data upload, users must somehow keep track of the data's location for future access. In this presentation we propose solutions for storage management and data handling issues in the OSG. We are investigating the feasibility of using the integrated Rule-Oriented Data System developed at RENCI as a front-end service to the OSG SEs. The current architecture, state of deployment and performance test results will be discussed. We will also provide examples of current usage of the system by beta-users.

  6. Public storage for the Open Science Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levshina, T.; Guru, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Open Science Grid infrastructure doesn't provide efficient means to manage public storage offered by participating sites. A Virtual Organization that relies on opportunistic storage has difficulties finding appropriate storage, verifying its availability, and monitoring its utilization. The involvement of the production manager, site administrators and VO support personnel is required to allocate or rescind storage space. One of the main requirements for Public Storage implementation is that it should use SRM or GridFTP protocols to access the Storage Elements provided by the OSG Sites and not put any additional burden on sites. By policy, no new services related to Public Storage can be installed and run on OSG sites. Opportunistic users also have difficulties in accessing the OSG Storage Elements during the execution of jobs. A typical users' data management workflow includes pre-staging common data on sites before a job's execution, then storing for a subsequent download to a local institution the output data produced by a job on a worker node. When the amount of data is significant, the only means to temporarily store the data is to upload it to one of the Storage Elements. In order to do that, a user's job should be aware of the storage location, availability, and free space. After a successful data upload, users must somehow keep track of the data's location for future access. In this presentation we propose solutions for storage management and data handling issues in the OSG. We are investigating the feasibility of using the integrated Rule-Oriented Data System developed at RENCI as a front-end service to the OSG SEs. The current architecture, state of deployment and performance test results will be discussed. We will also provide examples of current usage of the system by beta-users.

  7. The Taskforce on Conceptual Foundations of Earth System Governance: Sustainability Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Ness

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We are pleased to introduce the second special issue from Challenges in Sustainability, this time as a part of the Taskforce on Conceptual Foundations of Earth System Governance, an initiative by the Earth System Governance Project (ESG (http://www.earthsystemgovernance.net/conceptual-foundations/. The ESG Project is a global research alliance. It is the largest social science research network in the field of governance and global environmental change. ESG is primarily a scientific effort but is also designed to assist policy responses to pressing problems of earth system transformation.

  8. 45 CFR 630.400 - What are my responsibilities as a(n) National Science Foundation awarding official?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....400 What are my responsibilities as a(n) National Science Foundation awarding official? As a(n... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are my responsibilities as a(n) National Science Foundation awarding official? 630.400 Section 630.400 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to...

  9. OpenSesame: An Open-source, Graphical Experiment Builder for the Social Sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathot, S.; Schreij, D.B.B.; Theeuwes, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the present article, we introduce OpenSesame, a graphical experiment builder for the social sciences. OpenSesame is free, open-source, and cross-platform. It features a comprehensive and intuitive graphical user interface and supports Python scripting for complex tasks. Additional functionality,

  10. Die Open-Data-Bewegung : Das Verhältnis von Praktiken, Zielen und Selbstbild der Open Knowledge Foundation Deutschland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baack, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Open Data bzw. Open Government Data meint den freien Zugang zu und die uneingeschränkt Nutzung und Weiterverbreitung von unbearbeiteten Rohdaten der öffentlichen Verwaltung durch jedermann für jegliche Zwecke. Spätestens seit der Eröffnung des ersten offiziellen Open-Data-Portals Data.gov in den USA

  11. The art and science of selecting graduate students in the biomedical sciences: Performance in doctoral study of the foundational sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee-Young; Berkowitz, Oren; Symes, Karen; Dasgupta, Shoumita

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate associations between admissions criteria and performance in Ph.D. programs at Boston University School of Medicine. The initial phase of this project examined student performance in the classroom component of a newly established curriculum named "Foundations in Biomedical Sciences (FiBS)". Quantitative measures including undergraduate grade point average (GPA), graduate record examination (GRE; a standardized, computer-based test) scores for the verbal (assessment of test takers' ability to analyze, evaluate, and synthesize information and concepts provided in writing) and quantitative (assessment of test takers' problem-solving ability) components of the examination, previous research experience, and competitiveness of previous research institution were used in the study. These criteria were compared with competencies in the program defined as students who pass the curriculum as well as students categorized as High Performers. These data indicated that there is a significant positive correlation between FiBS performance and undergraduate GPA, GRE scores, and competitiveness of undergraduate institution. No significant correlations were found between FiBS performance and research background. By taking a data-driven approach to examine admissions and performance, we hope to refine our admissions criteria to facilitate an unbiased approach to recruitment of students in the life sciences and to share our strategy to support similar goals at other institutions.

  12. Stepping up Open Science Training for European Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Schmidt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Open science refers to all things open in research and scholarly communication: from publications and research data to code, models and methods as well as quality evaluation based on open peer review. However, getting started with implementing open science might not be as straightforward for all stakeholders. For example, what do research funders expect in terms of open access to publications and/or research data? Where and how to publish research data? How to ensure that research results are reproducible? These are all legitimate questions and, in particular, early career researchers may benefit from additional guidance and training. In this paper we review the activities of the European-funded FOSTER project which organized and supported a wide range of targeted trainings for open science, based on face-to-face events and on a growing suite of e-learning courses. This article reviews the approach and experiences gained from the first two years of the project.

  13. The Historical Origins and Economic Logic of 'Open Science'

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Modern "big science" projects, such as the LHC experiments in physics that are being prepared to run at CERN, embody the distinctive ethos of cooperation and mechanisms of coordination among distributed groups of researchers that are characteristic of 'open science'. Much has been written about the institutions of open science, their supporting social norms, and their effectiveness in generating additions to the stock of reliable knowledge. But from where have these institutions and their supporting ethos come? How robust can we assume them to be in the face of the recent trends for universities and research institutes in some domains of science to seek to appropriate the benefits of new discoveries and inventions by asserting intellectual property claims? A search for the historical origins of the institutions of open science throws some new light on these issues, and the answers may offer some lessons for contemporary science and technology policy-making.

  14. The Ford Foundation and the rise of behavioralism in political science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Emily

    2012-01-01

    How did behavioralism, one of the most influential approaches to the academic study of politics in the twentieth century, become so prominent so quickly? I argue that many political scientists have either understated or ignored how the Ford Foundation's Behavioral Sciences Program gave form to behavioralism, accelerated its rise, and helped root it in political science. I then draw on archived documents from Ford as well as one of its major grantees, U. C. Berkeley, to present several examples of how Ford used its funds to encourage the behavioral approach at a time when it had few adherents among political scientists. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Can psychology walk the walk of open science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Bradford W

    2018-01-01

    An "open science movement" is gaining traction across many disciplines within the research enterprise but is also precipitating consternation among those who worry that too much disruption may be hampering professional productivity. Despite this disruption, proponents of open data collaboration have argued that some of the biggest problems of the 21st century need to be solved with the help of many people and that data sharing will be the necessary engine to make that happen. In the United States, a national strategic plan for data sharing encouraged the federally funded scientific agencies to (a) publish open data for community use in discoverable, machine-readable, and useful ways; (b) work with public and civil society organizations to set priorities for data to be shared; (c) support innovation and feedback on open data solutions; and (d) continue efforts to release and enhance high-priority data sets funded by taxpayer dollars. One of the more visible open data projects in the psychological sciences is the presidentially announced "Brain Research Through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies" (BRAIN) initiative. Lessons learned from initiatives such as these are instructive both from the perspective of open science within psychology and from the perspective of understanding the psychology of open science. Recommendations for creating better pathways to "walk the walk" in open science include (a) nurturing innovation and agile learning, (b) thinking outside the paradigm, (c) creating simplicity from complexity, and (d) participating in continuous learning evidence platforms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Catalyzing Open and Collaborative Science to Address Global ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Climate change, environmental degradation, emerging infectious diseases, ... Examples include crowdsourcing to map and monitor deforestation in Brazil to support conservation efforts in the Amazon. ... The costs and risks of open science

  17. Open Science Interview mit Sönke Bartling

    OpenAIRE

    Scheliga, Kaja

    2014-01-01

    This interview is part of a series of interviews on open science and digital scholarship conducted in 2013 with researchers from various backgrounds. For an analysis of the interviews see: Scheliga, Kaja and Sascha Friesike. 2014. “Putting open science into practice: A social dilemma?” First Monday. Volume 19, Number 9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i9.5381

  18. Open Science Interview with Carolina Ödman-Govender

    OpenAIRE

    Scheliga, Kaja

    2014-01-01

    This interview is part of a series of interviews on open science and digital scholarship conducted in 2013 with researchers from various backgrounds. For an analysis of the interviews see: Scheliga, Kaja and Sascha Friesike. 2014. “Putting open science into practice: A social dilemma?” First Monday. Volume 19, Number 9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i9.5381

  19. Open Science: Dimensions to a new scientific practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carla Silva de Oliveira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The practices of e-science and the use and reuse of scientific data have constituted a new scientific work that leads to the reflection on new regulatory, legal, institutional and technological frameworks for open science. Objective: This study shows the following research question: which dimensions provide sustainability for the formulation of a policy geared to open science and its practices in the Brazilian context? The aim of this study is to discuss the dimensions that support transversely the formulation of a policy for open science and its scientific practices. Methodology:Theoretically, the study is guided by the fourth scientific paradigm grounded in the e-Science. The methodology is supported by Bufrem’s studies (2013, which propose an alternative and multidimensional model for analysis and discussion of scientific research. Technically, the literature review and documentary survey were the methods used on the Data Lifecycle scientific model, laws and international agreements.For this study purpose, five dimensions were proposed, namely: epistemological, political, ethical-legal-cultural, morphological, and technological. Results: This studyunderstands that these dimensions substantiate an information policy or the development of minimum guidelines for the open science agenda in Brazil. Conclusions: The dimensions put away the reductionist perspective on survey data and they conducted the study for the multi-dimensional and multi-relational vision of open science.

  20. Open-science projects get kickstarted at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Achintya Rao

    2015-01-01

    CERN is one of the host sites for the Mozilla Science Lab Global Sprint to be held on 4 and 5 June, which will see participants around the world work on projects to further open science and educational tools.   IdeaSquare will be hosting the event at CERN. The Mozilla Science Lab Global Sprint was first held in 2014 to bring together open-science practitioners and enthusiasts to collaborate on projects designed to advance science on the open web. The sprint is a loosely federated event, and CERN is participating in the 2015 edition, hosting sprinters in the hacker-friendly IdeaSquare. Five projects have been formally proposed and CERN users and staff are invited to participate in a variety of ways. A special training session will also be held to introduce the CERN community to existing open-science and collaborative tools, including ones that have been deployed at CERN. 1. GitHub Science Badges: Sprinters will work on developing a badge-style visual representation of how open a software pro...

  1. Putting open science into practice: A social dilemma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheliga, Kaja; Friesike, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Digital technologies carry the promise of transforming science and opening up the research process. We interviewed researchers from a variety of backgrounds about their attitudes towards and experiences with openness in their research practices. We observe a considerable discrepancy between the

  2. The Open Access Availability of Library and Information Science Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Doug

    2010-01-01

    To examine the open access availability of Library and Information Science (LIS) research, a study was conducted using Google Scholar to search for articles from 20 top LIS journals. The study examined whether Google Scholar was able to find any links to full text, if open access versions of the articles were available and where these articles…

  3. INSTRUMENTS OF SUPPORT FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FUNDED BY LEADING DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina E. Ilina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: one of the key aspects of the knowledge economy development is the growing significance of the results of research and development. The education and basic research play a key role in this process. Funding for education and fundamental science is carried out mainly at the expense of the state resources, including a system of foundations for scientific, engineering and innovation activities in Russia. The purpose of this article is to present recommendations for improving the tools of domestic foundations in funding fundamental research and development, including education and training. The propositions are made with a comparative analysis of the domestic and foreign science foun dations’ activities. Materials and Methods: the authors used analysis, comparison, induction, deduction, graphical analysis, generalisation and other scientific methods during the study. Results: the lack of comparability between domestic and foreign scientific funds in the volume of funding allocated for basic research and development is revealed. This situation affects the scientific research. The foreign foundations have a wide range of instruments to support research projects at all stages of the life cycle of grants for education and training prior to release of an innovative product to market (the use of “innovation elevator” system. The Russian national scientific foundations have no such possibilities. The authors guess that the Russian organisations ignore some of the instruments for supporting research and development. Use of these tools could enhance the effectiveness of research projects. According to the study of domestic and foreign experience in supporting research and development, the authors proposed a matrix composed of instruments for support in the fields of basic scientific researches and education with such phases of the project life cycle as “research” and “development”. Discussion and Conclusions: the foreign science

  4. Anatomical sciences: A foundation for a solid learning experience in dental technology and dental prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, Mahmoud M; Thompson, C Mark; Massadiq, Magdalena

    2017-07-01

    Basic science courses are extremely important as a foundation for scaffolding knowledge and then applying it in future courses, clinical situations as well as in a professional career. Anatomical sciences, which include tooth morphology, oral histology, oral embryology, and head and neck anatomy form a core part of the preclinical courses in dental technology programs. In this article, the importance and relevance of anatomical sciences to dental personnel with no direct contact with patients (dental technicians) and limited discipline related contact with patients (dental prosthetists) is highlighted. Some light is shed on the role of anatomical sciences in the pedagogical framework and its significance in the educational process and interprofessional learning of dental technicians and prosthetists using oral biology as an example in the dental curriculum. To conclude, anatomical sciences allow dental technicians and prosthetists to a gain a better insight of how tissues function, leading to a better understanding of diagnosis, comprehensive treatment planning and referrals if needed. Patient communication and satisfaction also increases as a result of this deep understanding of oral tissues. Anatomical sciences bridge the gap between basic science, preclinical, and clinical courses, which leads to a holistic approach in patient management. Finally, treatment outcomes are positively affected due to the appreciation of the macro and micro structure of oral tissues. Anat Sci Educ 10: 395-404. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. LLNL Mercury Project Trinity Open Science Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Shawn A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-17

    The Mercury Monte Carlo particle transport code is used to simulate the transport of radiation through urban environments. These challenging calculations include complicated geometries and require significant computational resources to complete. In the proposed Trinity Open Science calculations, I will investigate computer science aspects of the code which are relevant to convergence of the simulation quantities with increasing Monte Carlo particle counts.

  6. Public science policy and administration. [cooperation of government industry, foundations, and educational institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, A. H. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Science, the overwhelming concern of our time, is no longer a matter of private research and development but one of public policy and administration, in which government, industry, foundations, and educational institutions must all work together as never before. Few other single tasks are of such decisive importance to the collective and individual welfare of American citizens as the formulation of public science policy and the administration of scientific programs. Eleven national authorities of varied background in science, education, and government administration contribute their experience and their judgment in an effort to deal with the major aspects of the subject. Their focus is on the meeting of actual problems; they consider the decision making process in both public and public-private organizations. Topics are grouped in three general categories: personnel needs and resources, organizational problems and techniques, and the administrative role in policy leadership.

  7. Teaching Development of Foundation Environmental Science Course Using Undergraduate Handbook of Buriram Rajabhat University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntida Thammamrat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to apply the handbook as a tool for teaching foundation of environmental science. The aims of this investigation were 1 to develop a course handbook that fills the standard criteria of 80/80 2 to compare mean derived from pretest and posttest scores 3 to compare student’s attitude toward environmental science from the pretest and posttest scores and 4 to compare student’s environmental scientific skills prior to and after using a study handbook. The key informants were 56 students drawn from 1st- year students of Environmental Science Department of Buriram Rajabhat University in 2558 (B.E academic year. Four instruments of data collection were constructed including 1 the course handbook 2 test of student’s basic knowledge on environmental science, 3 the test of student’s attitude toward environmental science, and 4 the test of student’s environmental scientific skills. The statistics analysis in this study comprised frequency percentage, mean, standard deviation and dependent t – test, which were of used for examining the hypothesis. The findings of this investigation revealed that 1 the efficiency of the handbook entitled “Foundation of environmental science” met the criteria of 80/80 in all aspects with value 83.93/91.81 2 the scores derived from student’s posttest is higher than pretest with .05 statistical significant difference 3 teaching through the handbook enhanced the level of student attitude toward environmental science with .05 statistical significant difference and 4 the environmental scientific skills of the students learning through the handbook are significantly higher than before, at .05 level.

  8. Pre-Service Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Science and Their Science Learning at Indonesia Open University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadi SUPRAPTO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on attitudes toward (teaching science and the learning of science for primary school among pre-service teachers at the Open University of Indonesia. A three-year longitudinal survey was conducted, involving 379 students as pre-service teachers (PSTs from the Open University in Surabaya regional office. Attitudes toward (teaching science’ (ATS instrument was used to portray PSTs’ preparation for becoming primary school teachers. Data analyses were used, including descriptive analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The model fit of the attitudes toward (teaching science can be described from seven dimensions: self-efficacy for teaching science, the relevance of teaching science, gender-stereotypical beliefs, anxiety in teaching science, the difficulty of teaching science, perceived dependency on contextual factors, and enjoyment in teaching science. The results of the research also described science learning at the Open University of Indonesia looks like. Implications for primary teacher education are discussed.

  9. USGS Science Data Catalog - Open Data Advances or Declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, M. T.; Hutchison, V.; Zolly, L.; Wheeler, B.; Latysh, N.; Devarakonda, R.; Palanisamy, G.; Shrestha, B.

    2014-12-01

    The recent Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) White House Open Data Policies (2013) have required Federal agencies to establish formal catalogues of their science data holdings and make these data easily available on Web sites, portals, and applications. As an organization, the USGS has historically excelled at making its data holdings freely available on its various Web sites (i.e., National, Scientific Programs, or local Science Center). In response to these requirements, the USGS Core Science Analytics, Synthesis, and Libraries program, in collaboration with DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Mercury Consortium (funded by NASA, USGS, and DOE), and a number of other USGS organizations, established the Science Data Catalog (http://data.usgs.gov) cyberinfrastructure, content management processes/tools, and supporting policies. The USGS Science Data Catalog led the charge at USGS to improve the robustness of existing/future metadata collections; streamline and develop sustainable publishing to external aggregators (i.e., data.gov); and provide leadership to the U.S. Department of Interior in emerging Open Data policies, techniques, and systems. The session will discuss the current successes, challenges, and movement toward meeting these Open Data policies for USGS scientific data holdings. A retrospective look at the last year of implementation of these efforts within USGS will occur to determine whether these Open Data Policies are improving data access or limiting data availability. To learn more about the USGS Science Data Catalog, visit us at http://data.usgs.gov/info/about.html

  10. Approaches to Open Data for Science in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Wulff-Barreiro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available As observational data has attained new legal status, allowing their integration into open Internet systems, and experimental data continues to be assembled in common and free platforms, state of the art, easy to access data repositories have been designed in Spain. These repositories have removed many obstacles to re-utilization of GIS and other data. European legislation has also made advances in opening biodiversity data, including a European space in the Latin-American grid infrastructure. Open access biomedical repositories attract commercial attention while astronomical, meteorological, and oncological institutions promote data quality and access. This paper describes recent approaches to open access data for science in Spain.

  11. Open Science & Open Data Global Sprint 2016 | 2–3 June 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Achintya Rao

    2016-01-01

    Join us as we learn to collaboratively build projects transforming science on the web! Thursday 2 June 2016 8.00 a.m. – Friday 3 June 20.00 p.m. CERN (3179-R-E06) This two-day sprint event brings together researchers, coders, librarians and the public from around the globe to hack on open science and open data projects in their communities. This year, we have four tracks you can contribute to: tools, citizen science, curriculum and open data. CERN is hosting three projects: Everware Open Cosmics CrowdAI   You can also participate in any of the other mozsprint projects for 2016. For more information, please visit: https://indico.cern.ch/event/535760/

  12. Open data science technical and cultural aspects

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Research in STM fields routinely generates and requires large amounts of data in electronic form. The growth of scientific research using infrastructures such as the Grid, UK's eScience programme and cyber infrastructure requires the re-use, repurposing and redissemination of this information. Fields like bioinformatics, astronomy, physics, and earth/environmental sciences routinely use such data as primary research input. Much of this is now carried out by machines which harvest data from multiple sources in dynamic and iterative ways, validate, filter compute and republish it. The current publication process and legal infrastructure is now a serious hindrance to this. Most STM data are never published and the re-usability of those that are is often unclear as authors and publishers give no explicit permission. However almost all authors intend that published data (non-copyrightable “facts”) are for the re-use of and redissemination to the STM community and the world in general. Many publishers agree wit...

  13. ITK: Enabling Reproducible Research and Open Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Michael McCormick

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reproducibility verification is essential to the practice of the scientific method. Researchers report their findings, which are strengthened as other independent groups in the scientific community share similar outcomes. In the many scientific fields where software has become a fundamental tool for capturing and analyzing data, this requirement of reproducibility implies that reliable and comprehensive software platforms and tools should be made available to the scientific community. The tools will empower them and the public to verify, through practice, the reproducibility of observations that are reported in the scientific literature.Medical image analysis is one of the fields in which the use of computational resources, both software and hardware, are an essential platform for performing experimental work. In this arena, the introduction of the Insight Toolkit (ITK in 1999 has transformed the field and facilitates its progress by accelerating the rate at which algorithmic implementations are developed, tested, disseminated and improved. By building on the efficiency and quality of open source methodologies, ITK has provided the medical image community with an effective platform on which to build a daily workflow that incorporates the true scientific practices of reproducibility verification.This article describes the multiple tools, methodologies, and practices that the ITK community has adopted, refined, and followed during the past decade, in order to become one of the research communities with the most modern reproducibility verification infrastructure. For example, 207 contributors have created over 2400 unit tests that provide over 84% code line test coverage. The Insight Journal, an open publication journal associated with the toolkit, has seen over 360,000 publication downloads. The median normalized closeness centrality, a measure of knowledge flow, resulting from the distributed peer code review system was high, 0.46.

  14. Embracing Open Source for NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, Katie; Pilone, Dan; Boller, Ryan; Meyer, David; Murphy, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The overarching purpose of NASAs Earth Science program is to develop a scientific understanding of Earth as a system. Scientific knowledge is most robust and actionable when resulting from transparent, traceable, and reproducible methods. Reproducibility includes open access to the data as well as the software used to arrive at results. Additionally, software that is custom-developed for NASA should be open to the greatest degree possible, to enable re-use across Federal agencies, reduce overall costs to the government, remove barriers to innovation, and promote consistency through the use of uniform standards. Finally, Open Source Software (OSS) practices facilitate collaboration between agencies and the private sector. To best meet these ends, NASAs Earth Science Division promotes the full and open sharing of not only all data, metadata, products, information, documentation, models, images, and research results but also the source code used to generate, manipulate and analyze them. This talk focuses on the challenges to open sourcing NASA developed software within ESD and the growing pains associated with establishing policies running the gamut of tracking issues, properly documenting build processes, engaging the open source community, maintaining internal compliance, and accepting contributions from external sources. This talk also covers the adoption of existing open source technologies and standards to enhance our custom solutions and our contributions back to the community. Finally, we will be introducing the most recent OSS contributions from NASA Earth Science program and promoting these projects for wider community review and adoption.

  15. Antecedents and effects of individual absorptive capacity : a micro-foundational perspective on open innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowik, Sandor; Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen; Groen, Aard J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose - The paper aims to understand how individuals differ in individual absorptive capacity - their ability to recognize, assimilate, transform and exploit external knowledge. These individual absorptive capacities are a key knowledge management building block for an organization's open

  16. Integrating Free and Open Source Solutions into Geospatial Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaclav Petras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available While free and open source software becomes increasingly important in geospatial research and industry, open science perspectives are generally less reflected in universities’ educational programs. We present an example of how free and open source software can be incorporated into geospatial education to promote open and reproducible science. Since 2008 graduate students at North Carolina State University have the opportunity to take a course on geospatial modeling and analysis that is taught with both proprietary and free and open source software. In this course, students perform geospatial tasks simultaneously in the proprietary package ArcGIS and the free and open source package GRASS GIS. By ensuring that students learn to distinguish between geospatial concepts and software specifics, students become more flexible and stronger spatial thinkers when choosing solutions for their independent work in the future. We also discuss ways to continually update and improve our publicly available teaching materials for reuse by teachers, self-learners and other members of the GIS community. Only when free and open source software is fully integrated into geospatial education, we will be able to encourage a culture of openness and, thus, enable greater reproducibility in research and development applications.

  17. Accelerating Translational Research through Open Science: The Neuro Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, E Richard

    2016-12-01

    Translational research is often afflicted by a fundamental problem: a limited understanding of disease mechanisms prevents effective targeting of new treatments. Seeking to accelerate research advances and reimagine its role in the community, the Montreal Neurological Institute (Neuro) announced in the spring of 2016 that it is launching a five-year experiment during which it will adopt Open Science-open data, open materials, and no patenting-across the institution. The experiment seeks to examine two hypotheses. The first is whether the Neuro's Open Science initiative will attract new private partners. The second hypothesis is that the Neuro's institution-based approach will draw companies to the Montreal region, where the Neuro is based, leading to the creation of a local knowledge hub. This article explores why these hypotheses are likely to be true and describes the Neuro's approach to exploring them.

  18. Accelerating Translational Research through Open Science: The Neuro Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Richard Gold

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Translational research is often afflicted by a fundamental problem: a limited understanding of disease mechanisms prevents effective targeting of new treatments. Seeking to accelerate research advances and reimagine its role in the community, the Montreal Neurological Institute (Neuro announced in the spring of 2016 that it is launching a five-year experiment during which it will adopt Open Science-open data, open materials, and no patenting-across the institution. The experiment seeks to examine two hypotheses. The first is whether the Neuro's Open Science initiative will attract new private partners. The second hypothesis is that the Neuro's institution-based approach will draw companies to the Montreal region, where the Neuro is based, leading to the creation of a local knowledge hub. This article explores why these hypotheses are likely to be true and describes the Neuro's approach to exploring them.

  19. An Analysison Provincial Medical Science Basic Research Competitiveness Based on the National Natural Science Foundation of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Xia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] The National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC is one of the most important channels to support basic research in China. Competition for funding by the NSFC has been a very important indicator to measure the basic research level of various province and scientific research institutions. [Method/process] By combing and analyzing the status quo of NSFC in medical science, it is helpful to narrow the provincial gap and improve the basic research of medical science in China. Based on the project information of NSFC and previous scholars’ research, the paper update the index of basic research competitiveness, and analyzes project number and project funding of medical science during 2006-2016. At the same time, the competitiveness of medical science basic research and its changing trend in 31 provinces of China are analyzed. [Result/conclusion] The result shows that, in recent years, China’s basic scientific research has greatly improved, but there is a large gap between the provinces.

  20. Open science initiatives: challenges for public health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmeyer, Cheryl

    2018-03-07

    While academic open access, open data and open science initiatives have proliferated in recent years, facilitating new research resources for health promotion, open initiatives are not one-size-fits-all. Health research particularly illustrates how open initiatives may serve various interests and ends. Open initiatives not only foster new pathways of research access; they also discipline research in new ways, especially when associated with new regimes of research use and peer review, while participating in innovation ecosystems that often perpetuate existing systemic biases toward commercial biomedicine. Currently, many open initiatives are more oriented toward biomedical research paradigms than paradigms associated with public health promotion, such as social determinants of health research. Moreover, open initiatives too often dovetail with, rather than challenge, neoliberal policy paradigms. Such initiatives are unlikely to transform existing health research landscapes and redress health inequities. In this context, attunement to social determinants of health research and community-based local knowledge is vital to orient open initiatives toward public health promotion and health equity. Such an approach calls for discourses, norms and innovation ecosystems that contest neoliberal policy frameworks and foster upstream interventions to promote health, beyond biomedical paradigms. This analysis highlights challenges and possibilities for leveraging open initiatives on behalf of a wider range of health research stakeholders, while emphasizing public health promotion, health equity and social justice as benchmarks of transformation.

  1. Mapping the hinterland: Data issues in open science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Ann; Wilkinson, Clare; Bultitude, Karen; Winfield, Alan F. T.

    2016-01-01

    Open science is a practice in which the scientific process is shared completely and in real time. It offers the potential to support information flow, collaboration and dialogue among professional and non-professional participants. Using semi-structured interviews and case studies, this research investigated the relationship between open science and public engagement. This article concentrates on three particular areas of concern that emerged: first, how to effectively contextualise and narrate information to render it accessible, as opposed to simply available; second, concerns about data quantity and quality; and third, concerns about the skills required for effective contextualisation, mapping and interpretation of information. PMID:24769860

  2. Mapping the hinterland: Data issues in open science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Ann; Wilkinson, Clare; Bultitude, Karen; Winfield, Alan F T

    2016-01-01

    Open science is a practice in which the scientific process is shared completely and in real time. It offers the potential to support information flow, collaboration and dialogue among professional and non-professional participants. Using semi-structured interviews and case studies, this research investigated the relationship between open science and public engagement. This article concentrates on three particular areas of concern that emerged: first, how to effectively contextualise and narrate information to render it accessible, as opposed to simply available; second, concerns about data quantity and quality; and third, concerns about the skills required for effective contextualisation, mapping and interpretation of information. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Open Data and Open Science for better Research in the Geo and Space Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, B.; Seelus, C.; Neher, G.; Iyemori, T.; Koyama, Y.; Yatagai, A. I.; Murayama, Y.; King, T. A.; Hughes, S.; Fung, S. F.; Galkin, I. A.; Hapgood, M. A.; Belehaki, A.

    2015-12-01

    Main open data principles had been worked out in the run-up and finally adopted in the Open Data Charta at the G8 summit in Lough Erne, Northern Ireland in June 2013. Important principles are also valid for science data, such as Open Data by Default, Quality and Quantity, Useable by All, Releasing Data for Improved Governance, Releasing Data for Innovation. There is also an explicit relationship to such areas of high values as earth observation, education and geospatial data. The European union implementation plan of the Open Data Charta identifies among other things objectives such as making data available in an open format, enabling semantic interoperability, ensuring quality, documentation and where appropriate reconciliation across different data sources, implementing software solutionsallowing easy management, publication or visualization of datasets and simplifying clearance of intellectual property rights.Open Science is not just a list of already for a longer time known principles but stands for a lot of initiatives and projects around a better handling of scientific data and openly shared scientific knowledge. It is also about transparency in methodology and collection of data, availability and reuse of scientific data, public accessibility to scientific communication and using of social media to facility scientific collaboration. Some projects are concentrating on open sharing of free and open source software and even further hardware in kind of processing capabilities. In addition question about the mashup of data and publication and an open peer review process are addressed.Following the principles of open data and open science the newest results of the collaboration efforts in mashing up the data servers related to the Japanese IUGONET, the European Union ESPAS and the GFZ ISDC semantic Web projects will be presented here. The semantic Web based approach for the mashup is focusing on the design and implementation of a common but still distributed data

  4. Using Decision Tree Analysis to Understand Foundation Science Student Performance. Insight Gained at One South African University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Nicola Frances; Dempster, Edith Roslyn

    2014-01-01

    The Foundation Programme of the Centre for Science Access at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa provides access to tertiary science studies to educationally disadvantaged students who do not meet formal faculty entrance requirements. The low number of students proceeding from the programme into mainstream is of concern, particularly…

  5. Antecedents and effects of individual absorptive capacity : A micro-foundational perspective on open innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löwik, Sandor; Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen; Groen, Aard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The paper aims to understand how individuals differ in individual absorptive capacity – their ability to recognize, assimilate, transform and exploit external knowledge. These individual absorptive capacities are a key knowledge management building block for an organization’s open innovation

  6. Projects of Earth Sciences Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    information please contract: Director Song Changqing, Dr. Leng Shuying, Division of Geography, National Natural Science Foundation of China. P.O.Box 8610, Beijing, 100085, China. E-mail:Songcq@nsfc.gov.cn. Lengsy@mail.nsfc.gov.cn

  7. Vibration analysis of Euler-Bernoulli beam with open cracks on elastic foundations using differential transformation method and generalized differential quadrature method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young Jae; Hwang, Ki Sup; Yun, Jong Hak

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to apply Differential Transformation Method(DTM) and Generalized Differential Quadrature Method(GDQM) to vibration analysis of Euler-Bernoulli beam with open cracks on elastic foundation. In this paper the concepts of DTM and GDQM were briefly introduced. The governing equation of motion of the beam with open cracks on elastic foundation is derived. The cracks are modeled by massless substitute spring. The effects of the crack location, size and the foundation constants, on the natural frequencies of the beam, are investigated. Numerical calculations are carried out and compared with previous published results

  8. Open science versus commercialization: a modern research conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy; Harmon, Shawn He; Joly, Yann

    2012-02-27

    Efforts to improve research outcomes have resulted in genomic researchers being confronted with complex and seemingly contradictory instructions about how to perform their tasks. Over the past decade, there has been increasing pressure on university researchers to commercialize their work. Concurrently, they are encouraged to collaborate, share data and disseminate new knowledge quickly (that is, to adopt an open science model) in order to foster scientific progress, meet humanitarian goals, and to maximize the impact of their research. We present selected guidelines from three countries (Canada, United States, and United Kingdom) situated at the forefront of genomics to illustrate this potential policy conflict. Examining the innovation ecosystem and the messages conveyed by the different policies surveyed, we further investigate the inconsistencies between open science and commercialization policies. Commercialization and open science are not necessarily irreconcilable and could instead be envisioned as complementary elements of a more holistic innovation framework. Given the exploratory nature of our study, we wish to point out the need to gather additional evidence on the coexistence of open science and commercialization policies and on its impact, both positive and negative, on genomics academic research.

  9. Evolution of Nursing Science: Is Open Access the Answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Pamela N; Garcia, Jenny

    2015-10-01

    The open access movement where journal content is made freely available over the Internet is purported to increase scientific exchange, yet has pros and cons. There are issues related to quality that need to be examined in relation to evolution of nursing science. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. TCIA: An information resource to enable open science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Fred W; Clark, Ken; Commean, Paul; Freymann, John; Jaffe, Carl; Kirby, Justin; Moore, Stephen; Smith, Kirk; Tarbox, Lawrence; Vendt, Bruce; Marquez, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Reusable, publicly available data is a pillar of open science. The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA) is an open image archive service supporting cancer research. TCIA collects, de-identifies, curates and manages rich collections of oncology image data. Image data sets have been contributed by 28 institutions and additional image collections are underway. Since June of 2011, more than 2,000 users have registered to search and access data from this freely available resource. TCIA encourages and supports cancer-related open science communities by hosting and managing the image archive, providing project wiki space and searchable metadata repositories. The success of TCIA is measured by the number of active research projects it enables (>40) and the number of scientific publications and presentations that are produced using data from TCIA collections (39).

  11. Theoretical foundation, goals, and methodology of a new science--biospherics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, J A

    1994-01-01

    Scientific endeavor is motivated by mankind's needs, desires, and inherent nature to explore. The history of scientific revolutions involves paradigmatic breakthroughs that uncover previously unknown perspectives by which a phenomenon can be viewed. In this issue a noted scientist, Nickolai Pechurkin, gives a seminal brief on the theoretical foundation, goals, and methodology leading to a new science--biospherics. While biospherics has so far eluded a simple definition, it is not something taken from "whole cloth." Biospherics has many antecedents, but most noticeably arises from the global scale research and theory associated with the technological advances of the Space-Age. The Space-Age also created the need for totally closed life-support systems which involve experimentation with artificial biospheres.

  12. [Analysis of projects of schistosomiasis sponsored by National Science Foundation of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-di, Zhou; Liang, Shi; Xue-Dan, Ke; Jie, Wang

    2017-07-27

    To summarize the present development by analysis of projects in schistosomiasis funded by National Science Foundation of China (NSFC). Based on the ISIS database of NFSC, the projects in the studies of schistosomiasis from 2005 to 2016 were analyzed. The distributions of sponsored numbers, amounts, types, agencies, disciplines and changes in research topics by means of network profiles were described. During the study period, 198 projects were funded by NSFC totally with 76.05 million yuan in which the general and youth projects were main types. The main sponsored agencies were research institutes and medical colleges. The top three fields sponsored were medical pathogenic microbes and infection, veterinary and medical immunology. The funding on schistosomiasis researches has a downward trend, but studies are continuing in depth. In this situation, innovative and interdisciplinary researches need to be encouraged to promote the development of schistosomiasis.

  13. Monitoring the southwestern Wyoming landscape—A foundation for management and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manier, Daniel J.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Assal, Timothy J.; Chong, Geneva W.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2017-08-29

    Natural resource monitoring involves repeated collections of resource condition data and analyses to detect possible changes and identify underlying causes of changes. For natural resource agencies, monitoring provides the foundation for management and science. Specifically, analyses of monitoring data allow managers to better understand effects of land-use and other changes on important natural resources and to achieve their conservation and management goals. Examples of natural resources monitored on public lands include wildlife habitats, plant productivity, animal movements and population trends, soil chemistry, and water quality and quantity. Broader definitions of monitoring also recognize the need for scientifically valid data to help support planning efforts and informed decisions, to develop adaptive management strategies, and to provide the means for evaluating management outcomes.

  14. Emphaty as the foundation of the social sciences and of social life: a reading of Husserl's phenomenology of transcendental intersubjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Vandenberghe

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting with an overview of possible solutions to the problem of social order, the author presents a non-acritical reconstruction of Edmund Husserl's transcendental phenomenology of intersubjectivity as a sympathetic alternative to Habermas's theory of communicative action. By means of a detailed analysis of the concept of empathy (Einfühlung, he shows that Husserl's phenomenology of intersubjectivity offers a triple foundation of the sciences. As a warrant of the objectivity of the world, it grounds the natural sciences; as a presupposition of sociality, it founds the social sciences; as mediated by culture, it grounds the social sciences as human sciences.

  15. Pre-Service Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Science and Their Science Learning at Indonesia Open University

    OpenAIRE

    Nadi SUPRAPTO; Ali MURSID

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on attitudes toward (teaching) science and the learning of science for primary school among pre-service teachers at the Open University of Indonesia. A three-year longitudinal survey was conducted, involving 379 students as pre-service teachers (PSTs) from the Open University in Surabaya regional office. Attitudes toward (teaching) science’ (ATS) instrument was used to portray PSTs’ preparation for becoming primary school teachers. Data analyses were used, including descrip...

  16. Conventional Principles in Science: On the foundations and development of the relativized a priori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Milena; Farr, Matt

    2015-11-01

    The present volume consists of a collection of papers originally presented at the conference Conventional Principles in Science, held at the University of Bristol, August 2011, which featured contributions on the history and contemporary development of the notion of 'relativized a priori' principles in science, from Henri Poincaré's conventionalism to Michael Friedman's contemporary defence of the relativized a priori. In Science and Hypothesis, Poincaré assessed the problematic epistemic status of Euclidean geometry and Newton's laws of motion, famously arguing that each has the status of 'convention' in that their justification is neither analytic nor empirical in nature. In The Theory of Relativity and A Priori Knowledge, Hans Reichenbach, in light of the general theory of relativity, proposed an updated notion of the Kantian synthetic a priori to account for the dynamic inter-theoretic status of geometry and other non-empirical physical principles. Reichenbach noted that one may reject the 'necessarily true' aspect of the synthetic a priori whilst preserving the feature of being constitutive of the object of knowledge. Such constitutive principles are theory-relative, as illustrated by the privileged role of non-Euclidean geometry in general relativity theory. This idea of relativized a priori principles in spacetime physics has been analysed and developed at great length in the modern literature in the work of Michael Friedman, in particular the roles played by the light postulate and the equivalence principle - in special and general relativity respectively - in defining the central terms of their respective theories and connecting the abstract mathematical formalism of the theories with their empirical content. The papers in this volume guide the reader through the historical development of conventional and constitutive principles in science, from the foundational work of Poincaré, Reichenbach and others, to contemporary issues and applications of the

  17. Dissipative open systems theory as a foundation for the thermodynamics of linear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Sandberg, Henrik

    2017-03-06

    In this paper, we advocate the use of open dynamical systems, i.e. systems sharing input and output variables with their environment, and the dissipativity theory initiated by Jan Willems as models of thermodynamical systems, at the microscopic and macroscopic level alike. We take linear systems as a study case, where we show how to derive a global Lyapunov function to analyse networks of interconnected systems. We define a suitable notion of dynamic non-equilibrium temperature that allows us to derive a discrete Fourier law ruling the exchange of heat between lumped, discrete-space systems, enriched with the Maxwell-Cattaneo correction. We complete these results by a brief recall of the steps that allow complete derivation of the dissipation and fluctuation in macroscopic systems (i.e. at the level of probability distributions) from lossless and deterministic systems.This article is part of the themed issue 'Horizons of cybernetical physics'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Inequalities in Open Source Software Development: Analysis of Contributor's Commits in Apache Software Foundation Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chełkowski, Tadeusz; Gloor, Peter; Jemielniak, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    While researchers are becoming increasingly interested in studying OSS phenomenon, there is still a small number of studies analyzing larger samples of projects investigating the structure of activities among OSS developers. The significant amount of information that has been gathered in the publicly available open-source software repositories and mailing-list archives offers an opportunity to analyze projects structures and participant involvement. In this article, using on commits data from 263 Apache projects repositories (nearly all), we show that although OSS development is often described as collaborative, but it in fact predominantly relies on radically solitary input and individual, non-collaborative contributions. We also show, in the first published study of this magnitude, that the engagement of contributors is based on a power-law distribution.

  19. Openness and Continuous Collaboration as the Foundation for Entrepreneurial Discovery Process in Finnish Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona ROMAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial discovery process (EDP is a bottom-up process engaging regional actors from academic, business, government and civil society together to identify new market opportunities and overcome the potential barriers to innovation. While EDP forms the key principle behind the smart specialization policy of European Commission, its operationalization has remained a challenge. We adopted a grounded theory approach to explore the dynamics of EDP through a case study in Finnish regions. Our aim is to identify the key underlying factors of EDP. Based on the semi-structured interviews with 10 Finnish regions during September 2016, we identified openness, engaging, focused networking and continuous collaboration as the key factors underlying EDP. Our findings contribute to the theoretical debate on what constitutes EDP in the context of smart specialization. We also provide examples for policymakers how to implement these factors based on our case study.

  20. Longitudinal Nanotechnology Development (1991-2002): National Science Foundation Funding and its Impact on Patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zan; Chen Hsinchun; Yan Lijun; Roco, Mihail C.

    2005-01-01

    Nanotechnology holds the promise to revolutionize a wide range of products, processes and applications. It is recognized by over sixty countries as critical for their development at the beginning of the 21st century. A significant public investment of over $1 billion annually is devoted to nanotechnology research in the United States. This paper provides an analysis of the National Science Foundation (NSF) funding of nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) and its relationship to the innovation as reflected in the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) patent data. Using a combination of bibliometric analysis and visualization tools, we have identified several general trends, the key players, and the evolution of technology topics in the NSF funding and commercial patenting activities. This study documents the rapid growth of innovation in the field of nanotechnology and its correlation to funding. Statistical analysis shows that the NSF-funded researchers and their patents have higher impact factors than other private and publicly funded reference groups. This suggests the importance of fundamental research on nanotechnology development. The number of cites per NSF-funded inventor is about 10 as compared to 2 for all inventors of NSE-related patents recorded at USPTO, and the corresponding Authority Score is 20 as compared to 1.8

  1. Longitudinal Nanotechnology Development (1991-2002): National Science Foundation Funding and its Impact on Patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Zan, E-mail: zhuang@eller.arizona.edu; Chen Hsinchun; Yan Lijun [University of Arizona, Department of Management Information Systems, Artificial Intelligence Lab, Eller College of Management (United States); Roco, Mihail C. [National Science Foundation (United States)

    2005-10-15

    Nanotechnology holds the promise to revolutionize a wide range of products, processes and applications. It is recognized by over sixty countries as critical for their development at the beginning of the 21st century. A significant public investment of over $1 billion annually is devoted to nanotechnology research in the United States. This paper provides an analysis of the National Science Foundation (NSF) funding of nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) and its relationship to the innovation as reflected in the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) patent data. Using a combination of bibliometric analysis and visualization tools, we have identified several general trends, the key players, and the evolution of technology topics in the NSF funding and commercial patenting activities. This study documents the rapid growth of innovation in the field of nanotechnology and its correlation to funding. Statistical analysis shows that the NSF-funded researchers and their patents have higher impact factors than other private and publicly funded reference groups. This suggests the importance of fundamental research on nanotechnology development. The number of cites per NSF-funded inventor is about 10 as compared to 2 for all inventors of NSE-related patents recorded at USPTO, and the corresponding Authority Score is 20 as compared to 1.8.

  2. Scientific foundation of regulating ionizing radiation: application of metrics for evaluation of regulatory science information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghissi, A Alan; Gerraa, Vikrham Kumar; McBride, Dennis K; Swetnam, Michael

    2014-11-01

    This paper starts by describing the historical evolution of assessment of biologic effects of ionizing radiation leading to the linear non-threshold (LNT) system currently used to regulate exposure to ionizing radiation. The paper describes briefly the concept of Best Available Science (BAS) and Metrics for Evaluation of Scientific Claims (MESC) derived for BAS. It identifies three phases of regulatory science consisting of the initial phase, when the regulators had to develop regulations without having the needed scientific information; the exploratory phase, when relevant tools were developed; and the standard operating phase, when the tools were applied to regulations. Subsequently, an attempt is made to apply the BAS/MESC system to various stages of LNT. This paper then compares the exposure limits imposed by regulatory agencies and also compares them with naturally occurring radiation at several cities. Controversies about LNT are addressed, including judgments of the U.S. National Academies and their French counterpart. The paper concludes that, based on the BAS/MESC system, there is no disagreement between the two academies on the scientific foundation of LNT; instead, the disagreement is based on their judgment or speculation.

  3. [Review and analysis of transplant biological research projects funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Weihua; Sun, Ruijuan; Dong, Erdan

    2015-08-01

    To study the funding and achievements in the field of organ transplantation support by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC). A search of NSFC database was made by using the key word "transplantation" and excluding "bone marrow transplantation" for the projects funded between 1988 and 2013. SCI indexed publications that marked with NSFC project number were collected by searching each grant number in the database of the Web of Science. Six hundreds fifty-five projects were identified and received about 220 million yuan in grant funding. These funded research projects were distributed among 25 provinces and autonomous regions, however, which were mainly in the developed coastal areas; of them, 43 (6.56%) projects were granted in xenotransplantation and 17 projects (2.60%) were funded in the field of traditional Chinese medicine-related organ transplantation; Transplantation on blood vessels, heart, kidney, liver, lung, small intestine, pancreatic, cornea, trachea, skin, etc. were primarily performed in research. Nine hundreds and sixty-one SCI-indexed publications were achieved. Magnitude and intensity of NSFC funding, output of SCI publications have been increasing, suggesting that NSFC positively promotes the development of organ transplantation. Although a great progress of transplantation has been made, basic and translational studies should be vigorously strengthened.

  4. Enabling Campus Grids with Open Science Grid Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzel, Derek; Fraser, Dan; Pordes, Ruth; Bockelman, Brian; Swanson, David

    2011-01-01

    The Open Science Grid is a recognized key component of the US national cyber-infrastructure enabling scientific discovery through advanced high throughput computing. The principles and techniques that underlie the Open Science Grid can also be applied to Campus Grids since many of the requirements are the same, even if the implementation technologies differ. We find five requirements for a campus grid: trust relationships, job submission, resource independence, accounting, and data management. The Holland Computing Center's campus grid at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln was designed to fulfill the requirements of a campus grid. A bridging daemon was designed to bring non-Condor clusters into a grid managed by Condor. Condor features which make it possible to bridge Condor sites into a multi-campus grid have been exploited at the Holland Computing Center as well.

  5. Enabling campus grids with open science grid technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, Derek [Nebraska U.; Bockelman, Brian [Nebraska U.; Swanson, David [Nebraska U.; Fraser, Dan [Argonne; Pordes, Ruth [Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    The Open Science Grid is a recognized key component of the US national cyber-infrastructure enabling scientific discovery through advanced high throughput computing. The principles and techniques that underlie the Open Science Grid can also be applied to Campus Grids since many of the requirements are the same, even if the implementation technologies differ. We find five requirements for a campus grid: trust relationships, job submission, resource independence, accounting, and data management. The Holland Computing Center's campus grid at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln was designed to fulfill the requirements of a campus grid. A bridging daemon was designed to bring non-Condor clusters into a grid managed by Condor. Condor features which make it possible to bridge Condor sites into a multi-campus grid have been exploited at the Holland Computing Center as well.

  6. Advancing Earth System Science Literacy and Preparing the Future Geoscience Workforce Through Strategic Investments at the National Science Foundation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, J. L.; Patino, L. C.; Rom, E. L.; Weiler, C. S.

    2010-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency created 60 years ago by the U.S. Congress "to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense…" NSF is the primary funding agency in the U.S. to support basic, frontier research across all fields in science, engineering, and education, except for medical sciences. With a FY 2011 budget request of more than $955 million, the NSF Directorate for Geosciences (GEO) is the principle source of federal funding for university-based fundamental research in the geosciences and preparation of the next generation of geoscientists. Since its inception, GEO has supported the education and training of a diverse and talented pool of future scientists, engineers, and technicians in the Earth, Ocean, Atmospheric and Geospatial Sciences sub-fields, through support of graduate research assistants, post-doctoral fellows, and undergraduate research experiences. In the late 1990’s and early 2000’s, GEO initiated several programs that expanded these investments to also support improvements in pre-college and undergraduate geoscience education through a variety of mechanisms (e.g., professional development support for K-12 teachers, development of innovative undergraduate curricula, and scientist-mentored research experiences for elementary and secondary students). In addition to GEO’s Geoscience Education (GeoEd), Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences (OEDG), Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE), and Geoscience Teacher Training (GEO-Teach) programs, GEO participates in a number of cross-Foundation programs, including the Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU), Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT), Ethics Education in Science and Engineering (EESE), NSF Graduate STEM Fellows in K-12 Education (GK-12), and Partnerships for International Research and Education

  7. Life after National Science Foundation fellowships: The implications for a graduate student's professional endeavors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obarski, Kelly Josephine

    Each year, hundreds of graduate and undergraduate students, participate as Fellows in National Science Foundation GK-12 Grants throughout the U.S. These Fellowships create opportunities for university students to improve their communication skills, teaching proficiencies, and team-building skills, in addition to expanding their interest in educational endeavors in their respective communities while pursuing their college degrees. STEP (Science and Technology Enhancement Project) is one such project. University faculty, public school teachers, and community leaders collaborated together in order to bring scientists into middle and secondary classrooms to focus on increasing student interest and proficiency in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) skills. Seventeen Fellows, in the previous four years, designed, developed, and implemented innovative, hands-on lessons in seven local schools. The evaluation team collected a tremendous amount of research evidence focused on the effect of the program on the Fellows while they were participants in the study, but there has been very little data collected about the Fellows after leaving the program. This research study, consisting of two-hour interviews, qualitatively explores how the skills learned while participating in the STEP program affected the Fellows' career and educational choices once leaving the project. This data was analyzed along with historical attitude surveys and yearly tracking documents to determine the effect that participation in the program had on their choices post-STEP. An extensive literature review has been conducted focusing on other GK-12 programs throughout the country, K-16 collaboration, Preparing Future Faculty Programs, as well as on teaching and learning literature. These bodies of literature provide the theoretical basis in which the research is framed in order to assess the impact on Fellow educational and professional choices since leaving the STEP program. This

  8. Helix Nebula Science Cloud pilot phase open session

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    This Helix Nebula Science Cloud (HNSciCloud) public session is open to everyone and will be webcast. The session will provide the audience with an overview of the HNSciCloud pre-commercial procurement project and the innovative cloud platforms that have been developed. A number of practical use-cases from the physics community will be presented as well as the next steps to be undertaken.

  9. The Foundations of Quantum Mechanics: Historical Analysis and Open Questions -- Cesena, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garola, Claudio; Rossi, Arcangelo; Sozzo, Sandro

    Introduction / C. Garola, A. Rossi and S. Sozzo -- If Bertlmann had three feet / A. Afriat -- Macroscopic interpretability of quantum component systems / R. Ascoli -- Premeasurement versus measurement: a basic form of complementarity / G. Auletta and G. Tarozzi -- Remarks on conditioning / E. G. Beltrametti -- Entangled state preparation in experiments on quantum non-locality / V. Berardi and A. Garuccio -- The first steps of quantum electrodynamics: what is it that's being quantized? / S. Bergia -- On the meaning of element in the science of italic tradition, the question of physical objectivity (and/or physical meaning) and quantum mechanics / G. Boscarino -- Mathematics and epistemology in Planck's theoretical work (1898-1915) / P. Campogalliani -- On the free motion with noise / B. Carazza and R. Tedeschi -- Field quantization and wave/particle duality / M. Cini -- Parastatistics in econophysics? / D. Costantini and U. Garibaldi -- Theory-laden instruments and quantum mechanics / S. D'Agostino -- Quantum non-locality and the mathematical representation of experience / V. Fano -- On the notion of proposition in classical and quantum mechanics / C. Garola and S. Sozzo -- The electromagnetic conception of nature and the origins of quantum physics / E. A. Giannetto -- What we talk about when we talk about universe computability / S. Guccione -- Bohm and Bohmian mechanics / G. Introzzi and M. Rossetti -- An objective background for quantum theory relying on thermodynamic concepts / L. Lanz and B. Vacchini -- The entrance of quantum mechanics in Italy: from Garbasso to Fermi / M. Leone and N. Robotti -- The measure of momentum in quantum mechanics / F. Logiurato and C. Tarsitani -- On the two-slit interference experiment: a statistical discussion / M. Minozzo -- Why the reactivity of the elements is a relational property, and why it matters / V. Mosini -- Detecting non compatible properties in double-slit experiment without erasure / G. Nisticò -- If you can

  10. Anarchist Epistemologies and the Separation of Science and State: The Critique and Relevance of Paul Feyerabend to Educational Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfmeyer, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This article synthesizes Paul Feyerabend's controversial contributions to 20th-century philosophy of science through the synthesis of his works and the secondary literature, with specific foci on current trends in educational foundations and the potentials and pitfalls for applying Feyerabendian logics to our work. First, I situate his strains of…

  11. 78 FR 20666 - Food and Drug Administration/National Institutes of Health/National Science Foundation Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0345] Food and Drug Administration/National Institutes of Health/ National Science Foundation Public Workshop... public workshop; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing its...

  12. Historical Development and Key Issues of Data Management Plan Requirements for National Science Foundation Grants: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Judith E.

    2017-01-01

    Sharing scientific research data has become increasingly important for knowledge advancement in today's networked, digital world. This article describes the evolution of access to United States government information in relation to scientific research funded by federal grants. It analyzes the data sharing policy of the National Science Foundation,…

  13. Extending the Pathway: Building on a National Science Foundation Workforce Development Project for Underserved k-12 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, W.; Smith, T.

    2014-12-01

    With new career openings in the geosciences expected and a large number of presently employed geoscientists retiring in the next decade there is a critical need for a new cadre of geoscientists to fill these positions. A project funded by the National Science Foundation titled K-12 Students, Teachers, Parents, Administrators and Higher Education Faculty: Partners Helping Rural Disadvantaged Students Stay on the Pathway to a Geoscience Career involving Wright State University and the Ripley, Lewis, Union, Huntington k-12 school district in Appalachian Ohio took led to dozens of seventh and eighth grade students traveling to Sandy Hook, New Jersey for a one week field experience to study oceanography with staff of the New Jersey Sea Grant Consortium. Teachers, parent chaperones, administrators and university faculty accompanied the students in the field. Teachers worked alongside their students in targeted professional development during the weeklong field experience. During the two academic years of the project, both middle school and high school teachers received professional development in Earth system science so that all students, not just those that were on the summer field experience could receive enhanced science learning. All ninth grade high school students were given the opportunity to take a high school/college dual credit Earth system science course. Community outreach provided widespread knowledge of the project and interest among parents to have their children participate. In addition, ninth grade students raised money themselves to fund a trip to the International Field Studies Forfar Field Station on Andros Island, Bahamas to study a tropical aquatic system. Students who before this project had never traveled outside of Ohio are currently discussing ways that they can continue on the pathway to a geoscience career by applying for internships for the summer between their junior and senior years. These are positive steps towards taking charge of their

  14. Contested Domains of Science and Science Learning in Contemporary Native American Communities: Three Case Studies from a National Science Foundation grant titled, "Archaeology Pathways for Native Learners"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Nancy Brossard

    This dissertation provides a critical analysis of three informal science education partnerships that resulted from a 2003-2006 National Science Foundation grant titled, "Archaeology Pathways for Native Learners" (ESI-0307858), hosted by the Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center. This dissertation is designed to contribute to understandings of learning processes that occur within and at the intersection of diverse worldviews and knowledge systems, by drawing upon experiences derived from three disparate contexts: 1) The Navajo Nation Museum in Window Rock, Arizona; 2) The A:shiwi A:wan Museum and Heritage Center on the Zuni Reservation in Zuni, New Mexico; and 3) Science learning camps at the Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center for Native youth of southern New England. While informal science education is increasingly moving toward decolonizing and cross-cutting institutional boundaries of learning through critical thinking and real-world applications, the construction of "science" (even within diverse contexts) continues to be framed within a homogenous, predominantly Euro-American perspective. This study analyzes the language of Western science employed in these partnerships, with particular attention to the use of Western/Native binaries that shape perceptions of Native peoples and communities, real or imagined. Connections are drawn to broader nation-state interests in education, science, and the global economy. The role of educational evaluation in these case studies is also critically analyzed, by questioning the ways in which it is constructed, conducted, and evaluated for the purposes of informing future projects and subsequent funding. This study unpacks problems of the dominant language of "expert" knowledge embedded in Western science discourse, and highlights the possibilities of indigenous knowledge systems that can inform Western science frameworks of education and evaluation. Ultimately, this study suggests that research

  15. The National Science Foundation's Coupling, Energetics and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) Student Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sox, L.; Duly, T.; Emery, B.

    2014-12-01

    The National Science Foundation sponsors Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) Workshops, which have been held every summer, for the past 29 years. CEDAR Workshops are on the order of a week long and at various locations with the goal of being close to university campuses where CEDAR type scientific research is done. Although there is no formal student group within the CEDAR community, the workshops are very student-focused. Roughly half the Workshop participants are students. There are two Student Representatives on the CEDAR Science Steering Committee (CSSC), the group of scientists who organize the CEDAR Workshops. Each Student Representative is nominated by his or her peers, chosen by the CSSC and then serves a two year term. Each year, one of the Student Representatives is responsible for organizing and moderating a day-long session targeted for students, made up of tutorial talks, which aim to prepare both undergraduate and graduate students for the topics that will be discussed in the main CEDAR Workshop. The theme of this session changes every year. Past themes have included: upper atmospheric instrumentation, numerical modeling, atmospheric waves and tides, magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, equatorial aeronomy and many others. Frequently, the Student Workshop has ended with a panel of post-docs, researchers and professors who discuss pressing questions from the students about the next steps they will take in their careers. As the present and past CSSC Student Representatives, we will recount a brief history of the CEDAR Workshops, our experiences serving on the CSSC and organizing the Student Workshop, a summary of the feedback we collected about the Student Workshops and what it's like to be student in the CEDAR community.

  16. Open science, e-science and the new technologies: Challenges and old problems in qualitative research in the social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercilia García-Álvarez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As well as introducing the articles in the special issue titled "Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences", this article reviews the challenges, problems and main advances made by the qualitative paradigm in the context of the new European science policy based on open science and e-Science and analysis alternative technologies freely available in the 2.0 environment and their application to fieldwork and data analysis. Design/methodology: Theoretical review. Practical implications: The article identifies open access technologies with applications in qualitative research such as applications for smartphones and tablets, web platforms and specific qualitative data analysis software, all developed in both the e-Science context and the 2.0 environment. Social implications: The article discusses the possible role to be played by qualitative research in the open science and e-Science context and considers the impact of this new context on the size and structure of research groups, the development of truly collaborative research, the emergence of new ethical problems and quality assessment in review processes in an open environment. Originality/value: The article describes the characteristics that define the new scientific environment and the challenges posed for qualitative research, reviews the latest open access technologies available to researchers in terms of their main features and proposes specific applications suitable for fieldwork and data analysis.

  17. [Analysis of projects of infectious disease epidemiology sponsored by National Natural Science Foundation of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian-Ming, Wang; Yan-Kai, Xia; Hui-Juan, Zhu; Feng, Chen; Hong-Bing, Shen

    2016-05-10

    To analyze the projects on the infectious disease epidemiology sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), explore the hotspot and development trend, and offer a reference for researchers in this field. Based on the NSFC database, the projects on the infectious disease epidemiology (H2609) sponsored from 1987 to 2014 were analyzed. The changes of fund numbers, amounts and research fields were described. During the study period, NSFC sponsored 373 projects, including 228 general projects (61.1%), 78 youth projects (20.9%) and 67 other projects (18.0%). The average amount of the grant was 358.2 thousand Yuan (20 thousand-8 million). The main sponsored research fields were mechanisms of pathogen and immunity (36.2%) and population-based epidemiological studies (33.0%). The top three diseases were hepatitis, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. The amount of funding on researches of infectious disease epidemiology has increased continuously, which has played an important role in training scientific talents in the field of prevention and control of infectious diseases.

  18. Activities of the National Academy of Sciences in relation to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edington, C.W.

    1991-02-01

    The activities of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), in relation to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), has a long history and the specific time period supported by this contract is but a small piece of the long-term continuing program. As a background, in August 1945, atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima (6 August) and Nagasaki (9 August). Shortly after the bombings, US medical teams joined forces with their Japanese counterparts to form a Joint Commission for the Investigation of the Effects of the Atomic Bombs. As a result of the Joint Commission's investigations, it was determined that consideration should be given to the establishment of a long-term study of the potential late health effects of exposure of the survivors to radiation from the bombs. The results obtained from RERF studies contribute the vast majority of information that provides a better understanding of radiation effects on humans. This information has been used extensively by national organizations and international committees for estimating risks associated with radiation exposures. The estimated risks developed by these independent organizations are used by government agencies around the world to establish standards for protection of individuals exposed in the occupational, medical, and general environment. Some of these results are described briefly in this report

  19. Common foundations of optimal control across the sciences: evidence of a free lunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Benjamin; Rabitz, Herschel

    2017-03-01

    A common goal in the sciences is optimization of an objective function by selecting control variables such that a desired outcome is achieved. This scenario can be expressed in terms of a control landscape of an objective considered as a function of the control variables. At the most basic level, it is known that the vast majority of quantum control landscapes possess no traps, whose presence would hinder reaching the objective. This paper reviews and extends the quantum control landscape assessment, presenting evidence that the same highly favourable landscape features exist in many other domains of science. The implications of this broader evidence are discussed. Specifically, control landscape examples from quantum mechanics, chemistry and evolutionary biology are presented. Despite the obvious differences, commonalities between these areas are highlighted within a unified mathematical framework. This mathematical framework is driven by the wide-ranging experimental evidence on the ease of finding optimal controls (in terms of the required algorithmic search effort beyond the laboratory set-up overhead). The full scope and implications of this observed common control behaviour pose an open question for assessment in further work. This article is part of the themed issue 'Horizons of cybernetical physics'.

  20. Interdisciplinary research center devoted to molecular environmental science opens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, David J.

    In October, a new research center opened at the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom. The center is the product of over a decade of ground-breaking interdisciplinary research in the Earth and related biological and chemical sciences at the university The center also responds to the British governments policy of investing in research infrastructure at key universities.The Williamson Research Centre, the first of its kind in Britain and among the first worldwide, is devoted to the emerging field of molecular environmental science. This field also aims to bring about a revolution in understanding of our environment. Though it may be a less violent revolution than some, perhaps, its potential is high for developments that could affect us all.

  1. LAMMPS Project Report for the Trinity KNL Open Science Period.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Stan Gerald [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thompson, Aidan P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wood, Mitchell [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    LAMMPS is a classical molecular dynamics code (lammps.sandia.gov) used to model materials science problems at Sandia National Laboratories and around the world. LAMMPS was one of three Sandia codes selected to participate in the Trinity KNL (TR2) Open Science period. During this period, three different problems of interest were investigated using LAMMPS. The first was benchmarking KNL performance using different force field models. The second was simulating void collapse in shocked HNS energetic material using an all-atom model. The third was simulating shock propagation through poly-crystalline RDX energetic material using a coarse-grain model, the results of which were used in an ACM Gordon Bell Prize submission. This report describes the results of these simulations, lessons learned, and some hardware issues found on Trinity KNL as part of this work.

  2. 'The industry must be inconspicuous': Japan Tobacco's corruption of science and health policy via the Smoking Research Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Kaori; Proctor, Robert N

    2018-02-04

    To investigate how and why Japan Tobacco, Inc. (JT) in 1986 established the Smoking Research Foundation (SRF), a research-funding institution, and to explore the extent to which SRF has influenced science and health policy in Japan. We analysed documents in the Truth Tobacco Industry Documents archive, along with recent Japanese litigation documents and published documents. JT's effort to combat effective tobacco control was strengthened in the mid-1980s, following privatisation of the company. While remaining under the protection of Japan's Ministry of Finance, the semiprivatised company lost its 'access to politicos', opening up a perceived need for collaboration with global cigarette makers. One solution, arrived at through clandestine planning with American companies, was to establish a third-party organisation, SRF, with the hope of capturing scientific and medical authority for the industry. Guarded by powerful people in government and academia, SRF was launched with the covert goal of influencing tobacco policy both inside and outside Japan. Scholars funded by SRF have participated in international conferences, national advisory committees and tobacco litigation, in most instances helping the industry to maintain a favourable climate for the continued sale of cigarettes. Contrary to industry claims, SRF was never meant to be independent or neutral. With active support from foreign cigarette manufacturers, SRF represents the expansion into Asia of the denialist campaign that began in the USA in 1953. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Open Access to Scientific Data: Promoting Science and Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Hua Xu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of the science and technology infrastructure platform of China, the Ministry of Science and Technology launched the Scientific Data Sharing Program in 2002. Twenty-four government agencies now participate in the Program. After five years of hard work, great progress has been achieved in the policy and legal framework, data standards, pilot projects, and international cooperation. By the end of 2005, one-third of the existing public-interest and basic scientific databases in China had been integrated and upgraded. By 2020, China is expected to build a more user-friendly scientific data management and sharing system, with 80 percent of scientific data available to the general public. In order to realize this objective, the emphases of the project are to perfect the policy and legislation system, improve the quality of data resources, expand and establish national scientific data centers, and strengthen international cooperation. It is believed that with the opening up of access to scientific data in China, the Program will play a bigger role in promoting science and national innovation.

  4. Using Decision Tree Analysis to Understand Foundation Science Student Performance. Insight Gained at One South African University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Nicola Frances; Dempster, Edith Roslyn

    2014-11-01

    The Foundation Programme of the Centre for Science Access at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa provides access to tertiary science studies to educationally disadvantaged students who do not meet formal faculty entrance requirements. The low number of students proceeding from the programme into mainstream is of concern, particularly given the national imperative to increase participation and levels of performance in tertiary-level science. An attempt was made to understand foundation student performance in a campus of this university, with the view to identifying challenges and opportunities for remediation in the curriculum and processes of selection into the programme. A classification and regression tree analysis was used to identify which variables best described student performance. The explanatory variables included biographical and school-history data, performance in selection tests, and socio-economic data pertaining to their year in the programme. The results illustrate the prognostic reliability of the model used to select students, raise concerns about the inefficiency of school performance indicators as a measure of students' academic potential in the Foundation Programme, and highlight the importance of accommodation arrangements and financial support for student success in their access year.

  5. Semantic Web-based Vocabulary Broker for Open Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, B.; Neher, G.; Iyemori, T.; Murayama, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Koyama, Y.; King, T. A.; Galkin, I. A.; Fung, S. F.; Wharton, S.; Cecconi, B.

    2016-12-01

    Keyword vocabularies are used to tag and to identify data of science data repositories. Such vocabularies consist of controlled terms and the appropriate concepts, such as GCMD1 keywords or the ESPAS2 keyword ontology. The Semantic Web-based mash-up of domain-specific, cross- or even trans-domain vocabularies provides unique capabilities in the network of appropriate data resources. Based on a collaboration between GFZ3, the FHP4, the WDC for Geomagnetism5 and the NICT6 we developed the concept of a vocabulary broker for inter- and trans-disciplinary data detection and integration. Our prototype of the Semantic Web-based vocabulary broker uses OSF7 for the mash-up of geo and space research vocabularies, such as GCMD keywords, ESPAS keyword ontology and SPASE8 keyword vocabulary. The vocabulary broker starts the search with "free" keywords or terms of a specific vocabulary scheme. The vocabulary broker almost automatically connects the different science data repositories which are tagged by terms of the aforementioned vocabularies. Therefore the mash-up of the SKOS9 based vocabularies with appropriate metadata from different domains can be realized by addressing LOD10 resources or virtual SPARQL11 endpoints which maps relational structures into the RDF format12. In order to demonstrate such a mash-up approach in real life, we installed and use a D2RQ13 server for the integration of IUGONET14 data which are managed by a relational database. The OSF based vocabulary broker and the D2RQ platform are installed at virtual LINUX machines at the Kyoto University. The vocabulary broker meets the standard of a main component of the WDS15 knowledge network. The Web address of the vocabulary broker is http://wdcosf.kugi.kyoto-u.ac.jp 1 Global Change Master Directory2 Near earth space data infrastructure for e-science3 German Research Centre for Geosciences4 University of Applied Sciences Potsdam5 World Data Center for Geomagnetism Kyoto6 National Institute of Information and

  6. Developing Healthcare Data Analytics APPs with Open Data Science Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Bibo; Sun, Wen; Yu, Yiqin; Xie, Guotong

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in big data analytics provide more flexible, efficient, and open tools for researchers to gain insight from healthcare data. Whilst many tools require researchers to develop programs with programming languages like Python, R and so on, which is not a skill set grasped by many researchers in the healthcare data analytics area. To make data science more approachable, we explored existing tools and developed a practice that can help data scientists convert existing analytics pipelines to user-friendly analytics APPs with rich interactions and features of real-time analysis. With this practice, data scientists can develop customized analytics pipelines as APPs in Jupyter Notebook and disseminate them to other researchers easily, and researchers can benefit from the shared notebook to perform analysis tasks or reproduce research results much more easily.

  7. LLNL Mercury Project Trinity Open Science Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brantley, Patrick [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dawson, Shawn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McKinley, Scott [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); O' Brien, Matt [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Peters, Doug [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pozulp, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Becker, Greg [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mohror, Kathryn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moody, Adam [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-20

    The Mercury Monte Carlo particle transport code developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is used to simulate the transport of radiation through urban environments. These challenging calculations include complicated geometries and require significant computational resources to complete. As a result, a question arises as to the level of convergence of the calculations with Monte Carlo simulation particle count. In the Trinity Open Science calculations, one main focus was to investigate convergence of the relevant simulation quantities with Monte Carlo particle count to assess the current simulation methodology. Both for this application space but also of more general applicability, we also investigated the impact of code algorithms on parallel scaling on the Trinity machine as well as the utilization of the Trinity DataWarp burst buffer technology in Mercury via the LLNL Scalable Checkpoint/Restart (SCR) library.

  8. A Bibliometric Study of Scholarly Articles Published by Library and Information Science Authors about Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandbois, Jennifer; Beheshti, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to gain a greater understanding of the development of open access practices amongst library and information science authors, since their role is integral to the success of the broader open access movement. Method: Data were collected from scholarly articles about open access by library and information science authors…

  9. The Tanenbaum Open Science Institute: Leading a Paradigm Shift at the Montreal Neurological Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupon, Viviane; Seyller, Annabel; Rouleau, Guy A

    2017-08-30

    The Montreal Neurological Institute is adopting an Open Science Policy that will be enacted by the Tanenbaum Open Science Institute. The aim is to accelerate the generation of knowledge and novel effective treatments for brain disorders by freeing science. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Professor Tony F. Chan Assistant Director for Mathematics and Physical Sciences National Science Foundation United States of America on 23rd May 2007. Here visiting ATLAS experiment with P. Jenni and M. Tuts.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    Professor Tony F. Chan Assistant Director for Mathematics and Physical Sciences National Science Foundation United States of America on 23rd May 2007. Here visiting ATLAS experiment with P. Jenni and M. Tuts.

  11. National Science Foundation Assistant Director for Mathematics and Physical Sciences Tony Chan (USA) visiting LHCb experiment on 23rd May 2007 with Spokesperson T. Nakada, Advisor to CERN Director-General J. Ellis and I. Belyaev of Syracuse

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    National Science Foundation Assistant Director for Mathematics and Physical Sciences Tony Chan (USA) visiting LHCb experiment on 23rd May 2007 with Spokesperson T. Nakada, Advisor to CERN Director-General J. Ellis and I. Belyaev of Syracuse

  12. Cyberinfrastructure for Open Science at the Montreal Neurological Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Samir; Glatard, Tristan; Rogers, Christine; Saigle, John; Paiva, Santiago; MacIntyre, Leigh; Safi-Harab, Mouna; Rousseau, Marc-Etienne; Stirling, Jordan; Khalili-Mahani, Najmeh; MacFarlane, David; Kostopoulos, Penelope; Rioux, Pierre; Madjar, Cecile; Lecours-Boucher, Xavier; Vanamala, Sandeep; Adalat, Reza; Mohaddes, Zia; Fonov, Vladimir S; Milot, Sylvain; Leppert, Ilana; Degroot, Clotilde; Durcan, Thomas M; Campbell, Tara; Moreau, Jeremy; Dagher, Alain; Collins, D Louis; Karamchandani, Jason; Bar-Or, Amit; Fon, Edward A; Hoge, Rick; Baillet, Sylvain; Rouleau, Guy; Evans, Alan C

    2016-01-01

    Data sharing is becoming more of a requirement as technologies mature and as global research and communications diversify. As a result, researchers are looking for practical solutions, not only to enhance scientific collaborations, but also to acquire larger amounts of data, and to access specialized datasets. In many cases, the realities of data acquisition present a significant burden, therefore gaining access to public datasets allows for more robust analyses and broadly enriched data exploration. To answer this demand, the Montreal Neurological Institute has announced its commitment to Open Science, harnessing the power of making both clinical and research data available to the world (Owens, 2016a,b). As such, the LORIS and CBRAIN (Das et al., 2016) platforms have been tasked with the technical challenges specific to the institutional-level implementation of open data sharing, including: Comprehensive linking of multimodal data (phenotypic, clinical, neuroimaging, biobanking, and genomics, etc.)Secure database encryption, specifically designed for institutional and multi-project data sharing, ensuring subject confidentiality (using multi-tiered identifiers).Querying capabilities with multiple levels of single study and institutional permissions, allowing public data sharing for all consented and de-identified subject data.Configurable pipelines and flags to facilitate acquisition and analysis, as well as access to High Performance Computing clusters for rapid data processing and sharing of software tools.Robust Workflows and Quality Control mechanisms ensuring transparency and consistency in best practices.Long term storage (and web access) of data, reducing loss of institutional data assets.Enhanced web-based visualization of imaging, genomic, and phenotypic data, allowing for real-time viewing and manipulation of data from anywhere in the world.Numerous modules for data filtering, summary statistics, and personalized and configurable dashboards. Implementing

  13. How FOSTER supports training Open Science in the GeoSciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    FOSTER (1) is about promoting and facilitating the adoption of Open Science by the European research community, and fostering compliance with the open access policies set out in Horizon 2020 (H2020). FOSTER aims to reach out and provide training to the wide range of disciplines and countries involved in the European Research Area (ERA) by offering and supporting face-to-face as well as distance training. Different stakeholders, mainly young researchers, are trained to integrate Open Science in their daily workflow, supporting researchers to optimise their research visibility and impact. Strengthening the institutional training capacity is achieved through a train-the-trainers approach. The two-and-half-year project started in February 2014 with identifying, enriching and providing training content on all relevant topics in the area of Open Science. One of the main elements was to support two rounds of trainings, which were conducted during 2014 and 2015, organizing more than 100 training events with around 3000 participants. The presentation will explain the project objectives and results and will look into best practice training examples, among them successful training series in the GeoSciences. The FOSTER portal that now holds a collection of training resources (e.g. slides and PDFs, schedules and design of training events dedicated to different audiences, video captures of complete events) is presented. It provides easy ways to identify learning materials and to create own e-learning courses based on the materials and examples. (1) FOSTER is funded through the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no 612425. http://fosteropenscience.eu

  14. The EPOS Vision for the Open Science Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Keith; Harrison, Matt; Cocco, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Cloud computing offers dynamic elastic scalability for data processing on demand. For much research activity, demand for computing is uneven over time and so CLOUD computing offers both cost-effectiveness and capacity advantages. However, as reported repeatedly by the EC Cloud Expert Group, there are barriers to the uptake of Cloud Computing: (1) security and privacy; (2) interoperability (avoidance of lock-in); (3) lack of appropriate systems development environments for application programmers to characterise their applications to allow CLOUD middleware to optimize their deployment and execution. From CERN, the Helix-Nebula group has proposed the architecture for the European Open Science Cloud. They are discussing with other e-Infrastructure groups such as EGI (GRIDs), EUDAT (data curation), AARC (network authentication and authorisation) and also with the EIROFORUM group of 'international treaty' RIs (Research Infrastructures) and the ESFRI (European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures) RIs including EPOS. Many of these RIs are either e-RIs (electronic-RIs) or have an e-RI interface for access and use. The EPOS architecture is centred on a portal: ICS (Integrated Core Services). The architectural design already allows for access to e-RIs (which may include any or all of data, software, users and resources such as computers or instruments). Those within any one domain (subject area) of EPOS are considered within the TCS (Thematic Core Services). Those outside, or available across multiple domains of EPOS, are ICS-d (Integrated Core Services-Distributed) since the intention is that they will be used by any or all of the TCS via the ICS. Another such service type is CES (Computational Earth Science); effectively an ICS-d specializing in high performance computation, analytics, simulation or visualization offered by a TCS for others to use. Already discussions are underway between EPOS and EGI, EUDAT, AARC and Helix-Nebula for those offerings to be

  15. Normative Ethics Does Not Need a Foundation : It Needs More Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quintelier, Katinka; van Speybroeck, Linda; Braeckman, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The impact of science on ethics forms since long the subject of intense debate. Although there is a growing consensus that science can describe morality and explain its evolutionary origins, there is less consensus about the ability of science to provide input to the normative domain of ethics.

  16. Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes toward Teaching Science and Their Science Learning at Indonesia Open University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprapto, Nadi; Mursid, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on attitudes toward (teaching) science and the learning of science for primary school among pre-service teachers at the Open University of Indonesia. A three-year longitudinal survey was conducted, involving 379 students as pre-service teachers (PSTs) from the Open University in Surabaya regional office. Attitudes toward…

  17. ROSA P : The National Transportation Library’s Repository and Open Science Access Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The National Transportation Library (NTL) was founded as an all-digital repository of US DOT research reports, technical publications and data products. NTLs primary public offering is ROSA P, the Repository and Open Science Access Portal. An open...

  18. Social sciences research in neglected tropical diseases 3: Investment in social science research in neglected diseases of poverty: a case study of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Subhash; Reidpath, Daniel; Allotey, Pascale

    2011-01-06

    The level of funding provides a good proxy for the level of commitment or prioritisation given to a particular issue. While the need for research relevant to social, economic, cultural and behavioural aspects of neglected tropical diseases (NTD) control has been acknowledged, there is limited data on the level of funding that supports NTD social science research. A case study was carried out in which the spending of a major independent funder, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) - was analysed. A total of 67 projects funded between October 1998 and November 2008 were identified from the BMGF database. With the help of keywords within the titles of 67 grantees, they were categorised as social science or non-social science research based on available definition of social science. A descriptive analysis was conducted. Of 67 projects analysed, 26 projects (39%) were social science related while 41 projects (61%) were basic science or other translational research including drug development. A total of US$ 697 million was spent to fund the projects, of which 35% ((US$ 241 million) went to social science research. Although the level of funding for social science research has generally been lower than that for non-social science research over 10 year period, social science research attracted more funding in 2004 and 2008. The evidence presented in this case study indicates that funding on NTD social science research compared to basic and translational research is not as low as it is perceived to be. However, as there is the acute need for improved delivery and utilisation of current NTD drugs/technologies, informed by research from social science approaches, funding priorities need to reflect the need to invest significantly more in NTD social science research.

  19. Social sciences research in neglected tropical diseases 3: Investment in social science research in neglected diseases of poverty: a case study of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reidpath Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The level of funding provides a good proxy for the level of commitment or prioritisation given to a particular issue. While the need for research relevant to social, economic, cultural and behavioural aspects of neglected tropical diseases (NTD control has been acknowledged, there is limited data on the level of funding that supports NTD social science research. Method A case study was carried out in which the spending of a major independent funder, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF - was analysed. A total of 67 projects funded between October 1998 and November 2008 were identified from the BMGF database. With the help of keywords within the titles of 67 grantees, they were categorised as social science or non-social science research based on available definition of social science. A descriptive analysis was conducted. Results Of 67 projects analysed, 26 projects (39% were social science related while 41 projects (61% were basic science or other translational research including drug development. A total of US$ 697 million was spent to fund the projects, of which 35% ((US$ 241 million went to social science research. Although the level of funding for social science research has generally been lower than that for non-social science research over 10 year period, social science research attracted more funding in 2004 and 2008. Conclusion The evidence presented in this case study indicates that funding on NTD social science research compared to basic and translational research is not as low as it is perceived to be. However, as there is the acute need for improved delivery and utilisation of current NTD drugs/technologies, informed by research from social science approaches, funding priorities need to reflect the need to invest significantly more in NTD social science research.

  20. Reading for meaning: The foundational knowledge every teacher of science should have

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Alexis; Roman, Diego; Friend, Michelle; Osborne, Jonathan; Donovan, Brian

    2018-02-01

    Reading is fundamental to science and not an adjunct to its practice. In other words, understanding the meaning of the various forms of written discourse employed in the creation, discussion, and communication of scientific knowledge is inherent to how science works. The language used in science, however, sets up a barrier, that in order to be overcome requires all students to have a clear understanding of the features of the multimodal informational texts employed in science and the strategies they can use to decode the scientific concepts communicated in informational texts. We argue that all teachers of science must develop a functional understanding of reading comprehension as part of their professional knowledge and skill. After describing our rationale for including knowledge about reading as a professional knowledge base every teacher of science should have, we outline the knowledge about language teachers must develop, the knowledge about the challenges that reading comprehension of science texts poses for students, and the knowledge about instructional strategies science teachers should know to support their students' reading comprehension of science texts. Implications regarding the essential role that knowledge about reading should play in the preparation of science teachers are also discussed here.

  1. [The analysis on the funding of Natural Science Foundation of China for acupuncture projects from 2005 to 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongyong; Xu, Ji

    2017-05-12

    The funding of Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) for acupuncture projects from 2005 to 2015 was summarized and analyzed. The results indicated during past 11 years, 711 projects regarding acupuncture were funded by NSFC, with a total of 281 million RMB, accounting for 12.39% in TCM projects. It was concluded the funding for acupuncture projects was increased year by year, but was still relatively weak; in addition, the funding was unbalanced in different areas and organizations, mainly in Beijing, Shanghai, Sichuan, Guangdong, Tianjin, and the continuity and variability both existed in research content and direction.

  2. [Characteristics and innovation in projects of ethnomedicine and ethnopharmacology funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li-wei

    2015-09-01

    The overall situation of projects of ethnomedicine and ethnopharmacology funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) since 2008 has been presented in this paper. The main source of characteristics and innovation of the funded projects were summarized, which may come from several aspects, such as the ethnomedical theories, the dominant diseases of ethnomedicine, special diseases in ethnic minorities inhabited areas, unique ethnomedical therapy, special methods for applying medication, endemic medicinal materials in ethnic minorities inhabited areas, same medicinal materials with different applications. Examples have been provided to give references to the applicants in the fields of ethnomedicine and ethnopharmacology.

  3. Principles and foundation: national standards on quantities and units in nuclear science field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lishu

    1993-11-01

    The main contents of National Standards on Quantities and units of atomic and nuclear physics (GB 3102.9) and Quantities and Units of nuclear reactions and ionizing radiations (GB 310.10) are presented in which most important quantities with their symbols and definitions in the nuclear scientific field are given. The principles and foundation, including the International System of Units (SI) and its application to the nuclear scientific field, in the setting of the National Standards are explained

  4. Making USGS Science Data more Open, Accessible, and Usable: Leveraging ScienceBase for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M.; Ignizio, D.; Langseth, M. L.; Norkin, T.

    2016-12-01

    In 2013, the White House released initiatives requiring federally funded research to be made publicly available and machine readable. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been developing a unified approach to make USGS data available and open. This effort has involved the establishment of internal policies and the release of a Public Access Plan, which outlines a strategy for the USGS to move forward into the modern era in scientific data management. Originally designed as a catalog and collaborative data management platform, ScienceBase (www.sciencebase.gov) is being leveraged to serve as a robust data hosting solution for USGS researchers to make scientific data accessible. With the goal of maintaining persistent access to formal data products and developing a management approach to facilitate stable data citation, the ScienceBase Data Release Team was established to ensure the quality, consistency, and meaningful organization of USGS data through standardized workflows and best practices. These practices include the creation and maintenance of persistent identifiers for data, improving the use of open data formats, establishing permissions for read/write access, validating the quality of standards compliant metadata, verifying that data have been reviewed and approved prior to release, and connecting to external search catalogs such as the USGS Science Data Catalog (data.usgs.gov) and data.gov. The ScienceBase team is actively building features to support this effort by automating steps to streamline the process, building metrics to track site visits and downloads, and connecting published digital resources in line with USGS and Federal policy. By utilizing ScienceBase to achieve stewardship quality and employing a dedicated team to help USGS scientists improve the quality of their data, the USGS is helping to meet today's data quality management challenges and ensure that reliable USGS data are available to and reusable for the public.

  5. DZero data-intensive computing on the Open Science Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.; Baranovski, A.; Diesburg, M.; Garzoglio, G.; Kurca, T.; Mhashilkar, P.

    2007-01-01

    High energy physics experiments periodically reprocess data, in order to take advantage of improved understanding of the detector and the data processing code. Between February and May 2007, the DZero experiment has reprocessed a substantial fraction of its dataset. This consists of half a billion events, corresponding to about 100 TB of data, organized in 300,000 files. The activity utilized resources from sites around the world, including a dozen sites participating to the Open Science Grid consortium (OSG). About 1,500 jobs were run every day across the OSG, consuming and producing hundreds of Gigabytes of data. Access to OSG computing and storage resources was coordinated by the SAM-Grid system. This system organized job access to a complex topology of data queues and job scheduling to clusters, using a SAM-Grid to OSG job forwarding infrastructure. For the first time in the lifetime of the experiment, a data intensive production activity was managed on a general purpose grid, such as OSG. This paper describes the implications of using OSG, where all resources are granted following an opportunistic model, the challenges of operating a data intensive activity over such large computing infrastructure, and the lessons learned throughout the project

  6. DZero data-intensive computing on the Open Science Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B; Baranovski, A; Diesburg, M; Garzoglio, G; Mhashilkar, P; Kurca, T

    2008-01-01

    High energy physics experiments periodically reprocess data, in order to take advantage of improved understanding of the detector and the data processing code. Between February and May 2007, the DZero experiment has reprocessed a substantial fraction of its dataset. This consists of half a billion events, corresponding to about 100 TB of data, organized in 300,000 files. The activity utilized resources from sites around the world, including a dozen sites participating to the Open Science Grid consortium (OSG). About 1,500 jobs were run every day across the OSG, consuming and producing hundreds of Gigabytes of data. Access to OSG computing and storage resources was coordinated by the SAM-Grid system. This system organized job access to a complex topology of data queues and job scheduling to clusters, using a SAM-Grid to OSG job forwarding infrastructure. For the first time in the lifetime of the experiment, a data intensive production activity was managed on a general purpose grid, such as OSG. This paper describes the implications of using OSG, where all resources are granted following an opportunistic model, the challenges of operating a data intensive activity over such large computing infrastructure, and the lessons learned throughout the project

  7. Next-Generation Metrics: Responsible Metrics & Evaluation for Open Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilsdon, J.; Bar-Ilan, J.; Peters, I.; Wouters, P.

    2016-07-01

    Metrics evoke a mixed reaction from the research community. A commitment to using data to inform decisions makes some enthusiastic about the prospect of granular, real-time analysis o of research and its wider impacts. Yet we only have to look at the blunt use of metrics such as journal impact factors, h-indices and grant income targets, to be reminded of the pitfalls. Some of the most precious qualities of academic culture resist simple quantification, and individual indicators often struggle to do justice to the richness and plurality of research. Too often, poorly designed evaluation criteria are “dominating minds, distorting behaviour and determining careers (Lawrence, 2007).” Metrics hold real power: they are constitutive of values, identities and livelihoods. How to exercise that power to more positive ends has been the focus of several recent and complementary initiatives, including the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA1), the Leiden Manifesto2 and The Metric Tide3 (a UK government review of the role of metrics in research management and assessment). Building on these initiatives, the European Commission, under its new Open Science Policy Platform4, is now looking to develop a framework for responsible metrics for research management and evaluation, which can be incorporated into the successor framework to Horizon 2020. (Author)

  8. A New Open Access Journal of Marine Science and Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S. Clare

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The oceans cover approximately 71% of the Earth’s surface and contain more than 97% of the planet’s water, representing over 100 times more liveable volume than the terrestrial habitat. Approximately fifty percent of the species on the planet occupy this ocean biome, much of which remains unexplored. The health and sustainability of the oceans are threatened by a combination of pressures associated with climate change and the ever-increasing demands we place on them for food, recreation, trade, energy and minerals. The biggest threat, however, is the pace of change to the oceans, e.g., ocean acidification, which is unprecedented in human history. Consequently, there has never been a greater need for the rapid and widespread dissemination of the outcomes of research aimed at improving our understanding of how the oceans work and solutions to their sustainable use. It is our hope that this new online, open-access Journal of Marine Science and Engineering will go some way to fulfilling this need. [...

  9. Solar panel foundation device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, W.W.

    1983-03-29

    A transportable solar panel foundation device which has a bottom member, at least one upstanding side member, and an essentially open top. The side members are angled to permit nesting of a plurality of the foundation devices, and reinforcement pads are carried by the foundation device to support legs for one or more solar panels.

  10. 75 FR 9000 - Comment Request: National Science Foundation Proposal/Award Information-Grant Proposal Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... of women and minorities in science and engineering. Another major change occurred in 1986, when... directed NSF to initiate and support: Basic scientific research and research fundamental to the engineering process; Programs to strengthen scientific and engineering research potential; Science and engineering...

  11. 78 FR 9071 - Comment Request: National Science Foundation Proposal/Award Information-Grant Proposal Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... activities to improve the participation of women and minorities in science and engineering. Another major... and research fundamental to the engineering process; Programs to strengthen scientific and engineering research potential; Science and engineering education programs at all levels and in all the various fields...

  12. 76 FR 4947 - Comment Request: National Science Foundation Proposal & Award Policies and Procedures Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... of women and minorities in science and engineering. Another major change occurred in 1986, when... directed NSF to initiate and support: Basic scientific research and research fundamental to the engineering process; Programs to strengthen scientific and engineering research potential; Science and engineering...

  13. Developing a Foundation for Constructing New Curricula in Soil, Crop, and Turfgrass Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Holly D.; Collett, Ryan; Wingenbach, Gary; Heilman, James L.; Fowler, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Some soil and crop science university programs undergo curricula revision to maintain relevancy with their profession and/or to attract the best students to such programs. The Department of Soil and Crop Sciences at Texas A&M University completed a thorough data gathering process as part of its revision of the undergraduate curriculum and…

  14. Authentic school science knowing and learning in open-inquiry science laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    1995-01-01

    According to John Dewey, Seymour Papert, Donald Schon, and Allan Collins, school activities, to be authentic, need to share key features with those worlds about which they teach. This book documents learning and teaching in open-inquiry learning environments, designed with the precepts of these educational thinkers in mind. The book is thus a first-hand report of knowing and learning by individuals and groups in complex open-inquiry learning environments in science. As such, it contributes to the emerging literature in this field. Secondly, it exemplifies research methods for studying such complex learning environments. The reader is thus encouraged not only to take the research findings as such, but to reflect on the process of arriving at these findings. Finally, the book is also an example of knowledge constructed by a teacher-researcher, and thus a model for teacher-researcher activity.

  15. Biological Evolution and the History of the Earth Are Foundations of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    AGU affirms the central importance of including scientific theories of Earth history and biological evolution in science education. Within the scientific community, the theory of biological evolution is not controversial, nor have ``alternative explanations'' been found. This is why no competing theories are required by the U.S. National Science Education Standards. Explanations of natural phenomena that appeal to the supernatural or are based on religious doctrine-and therefore cannot be tested through scientific inquiry-are not scientific, and have no place in the science classroom.

  16. Open Science Strategies in Research Policies: A Comparative Exploration of Canada, the US and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasthiotakis, Helen; Kretz, Andrew; Sá, Creso

    2015-01-01

    Several movements have emerged related to the general idea of promoting "openness" in science. Research councils are key institutions in bringing about changes proposed by these movements, as sponsors and facilitators of research. In this paper we identify the approaches used in Canada, the US and the UK to advance open science, as a…

  17. 76 FR 60564 - President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology; Notice of Meeting: Open Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... development. Facility and infrastructure sharing. Policies that could create a fertile innovation environment...; Notice of Meeting: Open Regional Meeting of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology... schedule and summary agenda for an open regional meeting of the President's Council of Advisors on Science...

  18. Foundations of the Formal Sciences VI: Probabilistic reasoning and reasoning with probabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löwe, B.; Pacuit, E.; Romeijn, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic methods are increasingly becoming an important tool in a variety of disciplines including computer science, mathematics, artificial intelligence, epistemology, game and decision theory and linguistics. In addition to the discussion on applications of probabilistic methods there is an

  19. Automatic Integration Testbeds validation on Open Science Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, J.; Thapa, S.; Gardner, R.; Potekhin, M.

    2011-12-01

    A recurring challenge in deploying high quality production middleware is the extent to which realistic testing occurs before release of the software into the production environment. We describe here an automated system for validating releases of the Open Science Grid software stack that leverages the (pilot-based) PanDA job management system developed and used by the ATLAS experiment. The system was motivated by a desire to subject the OSG Integration Testbed to more realistic validation tests. In particular those which resemble to every extent possible actual job workflows used by the experiments thus utilizing job scheduling at the compute element (CE), use of the worker node execution environment, transfer of data to/from the local storage element (SE), etc. The context is that candidate releases of OSG compute and storage elements can be tested by injecting large numbers of synthetic jobs varying in complexity and coverage of services tested. The native capabilities of the PanDA system can thus be used to define jobs, monitor their execution, and archive the resulting run statistics including success and failure modes. A repository of generic workflows and job types to measure various metrics of interest has been created. A command-line toolset has been developed so that testbed managers can quickly submit "VO-like" jobs into the system when newly deployed services are ready for testing. A system for automatic submission has been crafted to send jobs to integration testbed sites, collecting the results in a central service and generating regular reports for performance and reliability.

  20. Automatic Integration Testbeds validation on Open Science Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, J; Potekhin, M; Thapa, S; Gardner, R

    2011-01-01

    A recurring challenge in deploying high quality production middleware is the extent to which realistic testing occurs before release of the software into the production environment. We describe here an automated system for validating releases of the Open Science Grid software stack that leverages the (pilot-based) PanDA job management system developed and used by the ATLAS experiment. The system was motivated by a desire to subject the OSG Integration Testbed to more realistic validation tests. In particular those which resemble to every extent possible actual job workflows used by the experiments thus utilizing job scheduling at the compute element (CE), use of the worker node execution environment, transfer of data to/from the local storage element (SE), etc. The context is that candidate releases of OSG compute and storage elements can be tested by injecting large numbers of synthetic jobs varying in complexity and coverage of services tested. The native capabilities of the PanDA system can thus be used to define jobs, monitor their execution, and archive the resulting run statistics including success and failure modes. A repository of generic workflows and job types to measure various metrics of interest has been created. A command-line toolset has been developed so that testbed managers can quickly submit 'VO-like' jobs into the system when newly deployed services are ready for testing. A system for automatic submission has been crafted to send jobs to integration testbed sites, collecting the results in a central service and generating regular reports for performance and reliability.

  1. Perspectives on Open Science and scientific data sharing:an interdisciplinary workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destro Bisol, Giovanni; Anagnostou, Paolo; Capocasa, Marco; Bencivelli, Silvia; Cerroni, Andrea; Contreras, Jorge; Enke, Neela; Fantini, Bernardino; Greco, Pietro; Heeney, Catherine; Luzi, Daniela; Manghi, Paolo; Mascalzoni, Deborah; Molloy, Jennifer; Parenti, Fabio; Wicherts, Jelte; Boulton, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Looking at Open Science and Open Data from a broad perspective. This is the idea behind "Scientific data sharing: an interdisciplinary workshop", an initiative designed to foster dialogue between scholars from different scientific domains which was organized by the Istituto Italiano di Antropologia in Anagni, Italy, 2-4 September 2013.We here report summaries of the presentations and discussions at the meeting. They deal with four sets of issues: (i) setting a common framework, a general discussion of open data principles, values and opportunities; (ii) insights into scientific practices, a view of the way in which the open data movement is developing in a variety of scientific domains (biology, psychology, epidemiology and archaeology); (iii) a case study of human genomics, which was a trail-blazer in data sharing, and which encapsulates the tension that can occur between large-scale data sharing and one of the boundaries of openness, the protection of individual data; (iv) open science and the public, based on a round table discussion about the public communication of science and the societal implications of open science. There were three proposals for the planning of further interdisciplinary initiatives on open science. Firstly, there is a need to integrate top-down initiatives by governments, institutions and journals with bottom-up approaches from the scientific community. Secondly, more should be done to popularize the societal benefits of open science, not only in providing the evidence needed by citizens to draw their own conclusions on scientific issues that are of concern to them, but also explaining the direct benefits of data sharing in areas such as the control of infectious disease. Finally, introducing arguments from social sciences and humanities in the educational dissemination of open data may help students become more profoundly engaged with Open Science and look at science from a broader perspective.

  2. SemMat: Federated Semantic Services Platform for Open materials Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    SEMMAT: FEDERATED SEMANTIC SERVICES PLATFORM FOR OPEN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING WRIGHT STATE UNIVERSITY JANUARY 2017 FINAL TECHNICAL...COVERED (From - To) JUL 2013 – JUN 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SemMat: FEDERATED SEMANTIC SERVICES PLATFORM FOR OPEN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING...models to represent materials data. This provides a data exchange scheme for materials science , which also includes provenance information to promote

  3. The autonomous system a foundational synthesis of the sciences of the mind

    CERN Document Server

    de Gyurky, Szabolcs Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book describes-in modern computer science terms-the Level II architecture of the meaning and definition of the process referred to as ""thinking."" It applies the basis of early cognitive science research to the creation of autonomous system architectures-connecting philosophical findings of the past with cutting-edge progress in artificial intelligence. Providing an in-depth introduction to the classical, philosophical theories of cognitive scientists like Immanuel Kant, Arthur Schopenhauer, and G.W.F. Hegel, the book examines the Will System, Reason System, Imagination System, and the C

  4. Open Data in Biomedical Science: Policy Drivers and Recent ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's progress in implementing the open data initiatives first outlined in the 2009 Presidential memorandum on open government and more specifically regarding publications and data from publications in the 2013 Holdren memorandum. The presentation outlines the major points in both memorandums regarding open data, presents several (but not exhaustive) EPA initiatives on open data, some of which occurred will before both policy memorandums. The presentation concludes by outlining the initiatives to ensure public access to all EPA publications through PubMed Central and all publication-associated data through the Environmental Data Gateway and Data.gov. The purpose of this presentation is to present EPA's progress in implementing the open data initiatives first outlined in the 2009 Presidential memorandum on open government and more specifically regarding publications and data from publications in the 2013 Holdren memorandum.

  5. Freud, Weber, Durkheim: A Philosophical Foundation for Writing in the Humanities and Social Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeFevre, Karen B.; Larkin, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Proposes a continuum of lines of inquiry applicable to many of the human sciences. Illustrates the continuum by discussing the approaches of Sigmund Freud, Max Weber, and Emile Durkheim. Suggests uses of the continuum as an aid to invention and as a method of analysis. (RAE)

  6. Spatial Foundations of Science Education: The Illustrative Case of Instruction on Introductory Geological Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liben, Lynn S.; Kastens, Kim A.; Christensen, Adam E.

    2011-01-01

    To study the role of spatial concepts in science learning, 125 college students with high, medium, or low scores on a horizontality (water-level) spatial task were given information about geological strike and dip using existing educational materials. Participants mapped an outcrop's strike and dip, a rod's orientation, pointed to a distant…

  7. 75 FR 65528 - Membership of National Science Foundation's Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Director, Division of Human Resource Management and Chief Human Capital Officer, National Science..., Division of Human Resource Management and Chief Human Capital Officer; Mark L. Weiss, Director, Division of... Human Resource Management and Chief Human Capital Officer. [FR Doc. 2010-26763 Filed 10-22-10; 8:45 am...

  8. The Jan Korec Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In this video-film activities of the the Jan Korec Foundation are presented. The Jan Korec Foundation supports students of technical sciences, sport activities, science and support of book publishing, humanitarian supports, the environment protection as well as support of different social projects.

  9. Science standards: The foundation of evolution education in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Watts

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Science standards and textbooks have a huge impact on the manner in which evolution is taught in American classrooms. Standards dictate how much time and what points have to be dedicated to the subject in order to prepare students for state-wide assessments, while the textbooks will largely determine how the subject is presented in the classroom. In the United States both standards and textbooks are determined at the state-level through a political process. Currently there is a tremendous amount of pressure arising from anti-evolutionists in the United States to weaken or omit the teaching of evolution despite recommendations from central institutions such as the National Academy of Science. Results from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA showed that not only are American students performing below average, but also that their performance is declining as they scored worse in 2012 than they did in 2010. Interestingly PISA also found that the internal variation within a country is often greater than between countries with a variation of up to 300 points, which is equivalent to seven years of education pointing to the extreme heterogeneous quality of education within a country (OECD, 2012. An implementation of strong standards would not only help to increase the average performance of American students but could also alleviate the vast discrepancy between the highest and lowest scoring groups of American students. Although the Next Generation Science Standards have been in existence since 2013 and A Framework for K-12 Science Education has been available to the public since 2011 many American states still continue to create their own standards that, according to the Fordham study, are well below par (Lerner et al., 2012. Due to the political nature of the adoption procedure of standards and textbooks, there are many opportunities for interested individuals to get involved in the process of improving these fundamental elements of

  10. Information Quality as a Foundation for User Trustworthiness of Earth Science Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Moroni, D. F.; Ramapriyan, H.; Peng, G.

    2017-12-01

    Information quality is multidimensional. Four different aspects of information quality can be defined based on the lifecycle stages of Earth Science data products: science, product, stewardship and services. With increasing requirements on ensuring and improving information quality coming from multiple government agencies and throughout industry, there have been considerable efforts toward improving information quality during the last decade, much of which has not been well vetted in a collective sense until recently. Given this rich background of prior work, the Information Quality Cluster (IQC), established within the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) in 2011, and reactivated in the summer of 2014, has been active with membership from multiple organizations. The IQC's objectives and activities, aimed at ensuring and improving information quality for Earth science data and products, are also considered vital toward improving the trustworthiness of Earth science data to a vast and interdisciplinary community of data users. During 2016, several members of the IQC have led the development and assessment of four use cases. This was followed up in 2017 with multiple panel sessions at the 2017 Winter and Summer ESIP Meetings to survey the challenges posed in the various aspects of information quality. What was discovered to be most lacking is the transparency of data lineage (i.e., provenance and maturity), uniform methods for uncertainty characterization, and uniform quality assurance data and metadata. While solutions to these types of issues exist, most data producers have little time to investigate and collaborate to arrive at and conform to a consensus approach. The IQC has positioned itself as a community platform to bring together all relevant stakeholders from data producers, repositories, program managers, and the end users. A combination of both well-vetted and "trailblazing" solutions are presented to address how data trustworthiness can

  11. Foundations for Science of Information: Reflection on the Method of Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin J. Schroeder

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers necessary conditions for establishing information science as a scientific autonomous disci- pline. The lack of a commonly accepted definition of information is not as threatening as it may seem, as each study within the discipline may choose an own definition, as well as an own philosophical framework, when there are some alternatives to choose between. More important is the development of a common methodology of inquiry and some range of standard questions regarding the concept of information. Also, it is important to develop some standards of inquiry, which would make information scientific studies accessible to philosophical analysis and reflection. In turn, contributions of information science to the resolution of problems identified within philosophy will give the best measure of maturity for information sci- ence as a discipline.

  12. The map and the territory exploring the foundations of science, thought and reality

    CERN Document Server

    Doria, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    The Map/Territory distinction is a foundational part of the scientific method and, in fact, underlies all of thought, and even reality itself. This fascinating and fundamental topic is addressed here by some of the world’s leading thinkers and intellectual giants, whose accessible essays cover six and more fields of endeavor. It is imperative to distinguish the Map from the Territory when analyzing any subject, yet we often mistake the map for the territory; the meaning for the reference; a computational tool for what it computes. Representations are so handy and tempting that we often end up committing the category error of over-associating the representation with the thing it represents, so much so that the distinction between them is lost. This error, whose roots frequently lie in pedagogy, generates a plethora of paradoxes/confusions which hinder a proper understanding of the subject. What are wave functions? Fields? Forces? Numbers? Sets? Classes? Operators? Functions? Alphabets and Sentences? Are they...

  13. Against all odds: Tales of survival and growth of the Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching (FAST) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Karen Kina

    This study examines the dynamics of survival and growth of curricular and instructional innovations. It focuses on the Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching (FAST) project, a long-term survivor of reform in science education. Key questions guiding this study include: (1) How did the FAST project survive over the past 30 years? (2) What elements are essential for long-term survival and growth of an innovative science program? (3) Why did the project continue to survive amidst several waves of educational reform? The core of my conceptual framework is that the odds of survival and growth of curricular and instructional innovations are increased by the extent to which resources, theory-based curriculum development processes, and professional development strategies are not only incorporated into but also interdependent within a project. With this framework as a guide, the main methods of data collection were document analysis, interviews, and observations. FAST, developed by the University of Hawaii's Curriculum Research and Development Group (CRDG), consists of a sequential and interdisciplinary middle and high school science program for students in grades 6-10. According to the results of this study, the project was able to survive by receiving constant organizational support from CRDG and a steady source of State funding through the university since 1966; it also retained a relatively small but stable staff of highly qualified project personnel. Formulated on a discipline-based theory that values development of students' intellectual capacities as the platform for curriculum research, design, and development, the FAST project translated this vision of science education into key elements of an innovative program that survived and thrived: (1) an interdisciplinary program consisting of physical, biological, and earth sciences; inquiry as content and process; history and philosophy of science; and links between and among sciences, technology, and society; and (2

  14. [Applications and approved projects on traditional Chinese medicine in National Natural Science Foundation of China in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Hong-cai; Huang, Jin-ling; Han, Li-wei; Pei, Ling-peng; Guo, Lin; Lin, Na; Wang, Chang-en

    2011-10-01

    In this article, the authors firstly summarized the number of applications submitted to and projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) in the field of traditional Chinese medicine research in 2010. Then they described the district distribution, research direction layout and allotment of the approved projects in the three primary disciplines (traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese materia medica and integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine) and their 43 subdisciplines. The targeting suggestions for improvement were given respectively by concluding the reason of disapproved projects from the point of view of applicants and supporting institution, and by stating the common problems existing in the review process from the perspectives of fund managers and evaluation experts. Lastly, the major funding fields in the near future were predicted in the hope of providing guidance for applicants.

  15. Kahua A';o--A Learning Foundation: Using Hawaiian Language Newspaper Articles for Science and Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, P. W.; Businger, S.

    2013-12-01

    Kahua A';o, an NSF OEDG project, utilizes Hawaiian language newspaper articles written between 1843 and 1948 in lessons and professional development intended to increase participation of underrepresented Native Hawaiian students in earth science. Guided by sociocultural theories that view learning as experiential and culturally situated, geoscientists (Steven Businger, Scott Rowland, Floyd McCoy, UG student Kelly Lance); Hawaiian translators (M. Puakea Nogelmeier, GRAs Kapomaikai Stone and Iasona Ellinwood); science educators (Pauline Chinn, graduate student Lindsey Spencer), utilize articles to develop place-based meteorology and geology curricula for middle school teachers. Articles are valuable to science and science education: Native Hawaiians are citizen scientists who recorded, interpreted, and communicated findings to potentially critical audiences, while dated, descriptive, eye witness reports provide data on events unrecorded by westerners. Articles reveal Hawaiian intellectual tradition placed great value on environmental knowledge. Moolelo (traditional stories) e.g., Kuapākaa (Nakuina, 1905), translated as The Wind Gourd of Laamaomao, tells of Kuapākaa controlling all the winds of Hawai';i by chanting their names--a metaphor for the power of knowledge of winds, rains and their patterns. In the moolelo of Kalapana, a boy hero challenges and defeats the king of Kauai to a life-and-death riddling contest (Nakuina, 1902). Maly's (2001) translation of a riddle involving 22 zones spanning mountaintop to deep-sea underscores the knowledge base informing sustainable practices. Articles provide insight into indigenous maps (Nogelmeier, personal communication) while riddling contests (Beckwith, 1940/1970) establish demonstrations of knowledge as central to power, identity, and status. Eight field-based lessons have been presented to formal and informal science educators, with teachers adapting lessons for 3rd-12th grade students. Graduate students Spencer, Stone

  16. Virtual Labs (Science Gateways) as platforms for Free and Open Source Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescinsky, David; Car, Nicholas; Fraser, Ryan; Friedrich, Carsten; Kemp, Carina; Squire, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    The Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) movement promotes community engagement in software development, as well as provides access to a range of sophisticated technologies that would be prohibitively expensive if obtained commercially. However, as geoinformatics and eResearch tools and services become more dispersed, it becomes more complicated to identify and interface between the many required components. Virtual Laboratories (VLs, also known as Science Gateways) simplify the management and coordination of these components by providing a platform linking many, if not all, of the steps in particular scientific processes. These enable scientists to focus on their science, rather than the underlying supporting technologies. We describe a modular, open source, VL infrastructure that can be reconfigured to create VLs for a wide range of disciplines. Development of this infrastructure has been led by CSIRO in collaboration with Geoscience Australia and the National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) with support from the National eResearch Collaboration Tools and Resources (NeCTAR) and the Australian National Data Service (ANDS). Initially, the infrastructure was developed to support the Virtual Geophysical Laboratory (VGL), and has subsequently been repurposed to create the Virtual Hazards Impact and Risk Laboratory (VHIRL) and the reconfigured Australian National Virtual Geophysics Laboratory (ANVGL). During each step of development, new capabilities and services have been added and/or enhanced. We plan on continuing to follow this model using a shared, community code base. The VL platform facilitates transparent and reproducible science by providing access to both the data and methodologies used during scientific investigations. This is further enhanced by the ability to set up and run investigations using computational resources accessed through the VL. Data is accessed using registries pointing to catalogues within public data repositories (notably including the

  17. [Analysis on Research Projects Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China at the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases during 2003-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-jun; Zheng, Bin; Yi, Feng-yun; Xiong, Yan-hong; Zhang, Min-qi

    2015-04-01

    The data of the National Natural Science Foundation (NSFC) projests obtained by the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases (NIPD), Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) during 2003-2013 were collected from internet-based science information system of NSFC, and NSFC search tool of Dingxiang Garden (http://nsfc.biomart.cn/). The number of funded projects, their subject classification and approved amount were analyzed, and compared with the other institutes of China CDC. Furthermore, the rationalization proposals were given in order to enhance the level of foundation management in the future.

  18. Kahua A'o—A Learning Foundation: Using Hawaiian Language Newspaper Articles for Earth Science Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, P. W.

    2012-12-01

    Kahua A'o, an NSF OEDG project, utilizes Hawaiian language newspaper articles written between 1843 and 1948 as a foundation for culturally responsive geoscience curriculum and professional development. In Hawaii, a lack of qualified teachers limits students' awareness of Earth Science in their lives, as careers and a way to understand past, present, and future. This particularly impacts Native Hawaiians, 28% of students in Hawaii''s public schools but underrepresented in STEM majors and careers. Guided by sociocultural theories that view learning as experiential and culturally situated, geoscientists, Hawaiian translators, and science educators utilize articles to develop meteorology and geology modules for middle school teachers. Articles provide insights about living sustainably on islands exposed to volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunami, drought, and storms. Hawaii's remoteness and diverse topography supported the development of mountain-to-sea, sustainable, social ecosystems called ahupuaa. Hawaiians recognized each ahupuaa's unique winds, rains, fauna, flora, cultivars, and geologic features. The story of Pele chanting the winds of Kauai to prove she was not a stranger grounds identity and status in environmental knowledge. The story is culturally congruent with science explanations of how the Hawaiian Islands' diverse shapes and topography interact with heating, cooling, and large scale wind systems to create hundreds of local winds and rains. This presentation reports on "Local Winds and Rains of Hawaii, I Kamaāina i Na Makani a Me Nā Ua and "Weather Maps and Hazardous Storms in Hawaii, Nā 'Ino Ma Hawaii Nei." Highly detailed observations of an 1871 severe wind event enable students to estimate winds speeds using the Beaufort Scale, determine the storm's path and decide if it was the first recorded hurricane on the island of Hawaii. A visit to NOAA's National Weather Service triggered discussions about Hawaiian language weather reports. A Hawaiian

  19. Digital platforms for research collaboration: using design science in developing a South African open knowledge repository

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    van Biljon, J

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ) enabled collaboration through the design and development of a sustainable open knowledge repository (OKR) according to the design science research (DSR) paradigm. OKRs are tools used to support knowledge sharing and collaboration. The theoretical...

  20. Open-access databases as unprecedented resources and drivers of cultural change in fisheries science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Utz, Ryan [National Ecological Observatory Network

    2014-01-01

    Open-access databases with utility in fisheries science have grown exponentially in quantity and scope over the past decade, with profound impacts to our discipline. The management, distillation, and sharing of an exponentially growing stream of open-access data represents several fundamental challenges in fisheries science. Many of the currently available open-access resources may not be universally known among fisheries scientists. We therefore introduce many national- and global-scale open-access databases with applications in fisheries science and provide an example of how they can be harnessed to perform valuable analyses without additional field efforts. We also discuss how the development, maintenance, and utilization of open-access data are likely to pose technical, financial, and educational challenges to fisheries scientists. Such cultural implications that will coincide with the rapidly increasing availability of free data should compel the American Fisheries Society to actively address these problems now to help ease the forthcoming cultural transition.

  1. Science foundation Chapter 5 Appendix 5.1: Case study diving ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, Susan; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Yarris, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    Diving ducks are the most abundant group of waterfowl that overwinter in the open bays and ponds of San Francisco Bay (SFB). Species within this group are primarily benthivores that dive to obtain their macroinvertebrate prey in bottom sediments, although at times they may eat plant matter or forage in the water column. These migratory species include bay ducks (lesser scaup Aythya affinis, greater scaup A. marila, canvasback A. valisineria), sea ducks (surf scoter Melanitta perspicillata and bufflehead Bucephala albeola), and a stiff-tailed duck (ruddy duck Oxyura jamaicensis). These species vary from largest to smallest body mass: canvasback, greater scaup, surf scoter, lesser scaup, ruddy duck, and bufflehead. Their breeding grounds range from Central Valley grasslands, intermountain wetlands, prairie potholes, boreal forest, and Arctic tundra. Their wintering populations in SFB are most abundant between October and April, and SFB comprises up to 50% of the number counted during midwinter surveys on the lower Pacific coast. Species are found in all SFB regions, but greater scaup and surf scoter are most often seen in subtidal to intertidal waters and are not commonly found in baylands. In contrast, ruddy duck and bufflehead populations are most abundant in baylands, particularly in managed ponds. Canvasbacks are commonly found at estuaries or creek mouths.

  2. National Science Foundation Grant Implementation: Perceptions of Teachers and Graduate Fellows in One School Regarding the Barriers and Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Sharon Durham

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the perceptions of partner teachers and graduate fellows in 1 school regarding the barriers and successes made during their participation in a National Science Foundation Grant. This study included 9 partner teachers and 7 graduate fellows who participated in the Science First! NSF GK-12 Grant. There were 16 participants in this study. This study was conducted at North Side Elementary and East Tennessee State University. Partner teachers and graduate fellows were interviewed to gain perceptions of the barriers and successes of their participation in the implementation of the Science First! grant at North Side and East Tennessee State University from 2008-2013. A list of possible participants in the study was provided from the grant leadership team. The 16 participants in the study were chosen through purposeful sampling. During data analysis, 4 themes arose as successes and 4 themes arose as barriers. The success themes were (a) relationships, (b) mutual appreciation, (c) increased academic depth, and (d) professional growth. The barriers were (a) communication, (b) time, (c) expectations, and (d) preparation. Based on the research, the following conclusions were presented. The coordination of a major NSF-GK12 grant can provide STEM support and academic rigor for a high poverty school with leadership. Positive relationships between the graduate fellows and partner teachers as well as the 2 participating institutions are critical in fostering successful grant implementation. Professional growth through the grant partnerships was obtained. The participants gained a mutual appreciation for the roles and responsibilities of each other. There are ups and downs in implementing a large grant at 1 elementary school with a university, but the rewards of the potential to influence teacher practices in STEM and student learning are great. Recommendations from the study findings may assist future grant award winners or

  3. On the evolving open peer review culture for chemical information science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, W Patrick; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the traditional anonymous peer review process, open post-publication peer review provides additional opportunities -and challenges- for reviewers to judge scientific studies. In this editorial, we comment on the open peer review culture and provide some guidance for reviewers of manuscripts submitted to the Chemical Information Science channel of F1000Research.

  4. Perspectives on open science and scientific data sharing : An interdisciplinary workshop”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Destro Bisol, G.; Anagnostou, P.; Capocasa, M.; Bencivelli, S.; Cerroni, A.; Contreras, J.; Enke, N.; Fantini, B.; Greco, P.; Heeney, C.; Luzi, D.; Manghi, P.; Mascalzoni, D.; Molloy, J.; Parenti, F.; Wicherts, J.M.; Boulton, G.

    2014-01-01

    Looking at Open Science and Open Data from a broad perspective. This is the idea behind “Scientific data sharing: an interdisciplinary workshop”, an initiative designed to foster dialogue between scholars from different scientific domains which was organized by the Istituto Italiano di Antropologia

  5. From the NSF: The National Science Foundation's Investments in Broadening Participation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education through Research and Capacity Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Sylvia M; Singer, Susan R

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) has a long history of investment in broadening participation (BP) in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. A review of past NSF BP efforts provides insights into how the portfolio of programs and activities has evolved and the broad array of innovative strategies that has been used to increase the participation of groups underrepresented in STEM, including women, minorities, and persons with disabilities. While many are familiar with these long-standing programmatic efforts, BP is also a key component of NSF's strategic plans, has been highlighted in National Science Board reports, and is the focus of ongoing outreach efforts. The majority of familiar BP programs, such as the Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation (now 25 years old), are housed in the Directorate for Education and Human Resources. However, fellowship programs such as the Graduate Research Fellowships and Postdoctoral Research Fellowships under the Directorate for Biological Sciences (and parallel directorates in other STEM disciplines) are frequently used to address underrepresentation in STEM disciplines. The FY2016 and FY2017 budget requests incorporate funding for NSF INCLUDES, a new cross-agency BP initiative that will build on prior successes while addressing national BP challenges. NSF INCLUDES invites the use of innovative approaches for taking evidence-based best practices to scale, ushering in a new era in NSF BP advancement. © 2016 S. M. James and S. R. Singer. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  6. 'Open SESAME' for science in the Middle-East

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A memorandum of understanding has just been signed between CERN, SESAME and Jordan. SESAME, the international centre for Synchrotron light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East, is currently being built in Jordan. Its President of Council is no other than CERN's former Director-General, Herwig Schopper.

  7. 75 FR 9876 - Science Advisory Board; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ..., each individual or group making a verbal presentation will be limited to a total time of five (5... Science Advisory Board (SAB) was established by a Decision Memorandum dated September 25, 1997, and is the... resource management. Time and Date: The meeting will be held Tuesday March 23, 2010, from 8:30 a.m. to 5:30...

  8. Inequalities in Open Source Software Development: Analysis of Contributor’s Commits in Apache Software Foundation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    While researchers are becoming increasingly interested in studying OSS phenomenon, there is still a small number of studies analyzing larger samples of projects investigating the structure of activities among OSS developers. The significant amount of information that has been gathered in the publicly available open-source software repositories and mailing-list archives offers an opportunity to analyze projects structures and participant involvement. In this article, using on commits data from 263 Apache projects repositories (nearly all), we show that although OSS development is often described as collaborative, but it in fact predominantly relies on radically solitary input and individual, non-collaborative contributions. We also show, in the first published study of this magnitude, that the engagement of contributors is based on a power-law distribution. PMID:27096157

  9. The Preparation of Students from National Science Foundation-Funded and Commercially Developed High School Mathematics Curricula for their First University Mathematics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, Michael; Post, Thomas R.; Cutler, Arnie; Maeda, Yukiko; Anderson, Edwin; Norman, Ke Wu; Medhanie, Amanuel

    2009-01-01

    The selection of K-12 mathematics curricula has become a polarizing issue for schools, teachers, parents, and other educators and has raised important questions about the long-term influence of these curricula. This study examined the impact of participation in either a National Science Foundation-funded or commercially developed mathematics…

  10. 76 FR 26721 - Re-Issuance of a General Permit to the National Science Foundation for the Ocean Disposal of Man...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ...EPA proposes to re-issue a permit authorizing the National Science Foundation (NSF) to dispose of ice piers in ocean waters. Permit re-issuance is necessary because the current permit has expired. EPA does not propose changes to the content of the permit because ocean disposal under the terms of the previous permit will continue to meet the ocean disposal criteria.

  11. The Open Microscopy Environment: open image informatics for the biological sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Colin; Allan, Chris; Besson, Sébastien; Burel, Jean-Marie; Carroll, Mark; Ferguson, Richard K.; Flynn, Helen; Gault, David; Gillen, Kenneth; Leigh, Roger; Leo, Simone; Li, Simon; Lindner, Dominik; Linkert, Melissa; Moore, Josh; Moore, William J.; Ramalingam, Balaji; Rozbicki, Emil; Rustici, Gabriella; Tarkowska, Aleksandra; Walczysko, Petr; Williams, Eleanor; Swedlow, Jason R.

    2016-07-01

    Despite significant advances in biological imaging and analysis, major informatics challenges remain unsolved: file formats are proprietary, storage and analysis facilities are lacking, as are standards for sharing image data and results. While the open FITS file format is ubiquitous in astronomy, astronomical imaging shares many challenges with biological imaging, including the need to share large image sets using secure, cross-platform APIs, and the need for scalable applications for processing and visualization. The Open Microscopy Environment (OME) is an open-source software framework developed to address these challenges. OME tools include: an open data model for multidimensional imaging (OME Data Model); an open file format (OME-TIFF) and library (Bio-Formats) enabling free access to images (5D+) written in more than 145 formats from many imaging domains, including FITS; and a data management server (OMERO). The Java-based OMERO client-server platform comprises an image metadata store, an image repository, visualization and analysis by remote access, allowing sharing and publishing of image data. OMERO provides a means to manage the data through a multi-platform API. OMERO's model-based architecture has enabled its extension into a range of imaging domains, including light and electron microscopy, high content screening, digital pathology and recently into applications using non-image data from clinical and genomic studies. This is made possible using the Bio-Formats library. The current release includes a single mechanism for accessing image data of all types, regardless of original file format, via Java, C/C++ and Python and a variety of applications and environments (e.g. ImageJ, Matlab and R).

  12. The Open Science Grid – Support for Multi-Disciplinary Team Science – the Adolescent Years

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    As it enters adolescence the Open Science Grid (OSG) is bringing a maturing fabric of Distributed High Throughput Computing (DHTC) services that supports an expanding HEP community to an increasingly diverse spectrum of domain scientists. Working closely with researchers on campuses throughout the US and in collaboration with national cyberinfrastructure initiatives, we transform their computing environment through new concepts, advanced tools and deep experience. We discuss examples of these including: the pilot-job overlay concepts and technologies now in use throughout OSG and delivering 1.4 Million CPU hours/day; the role of campus infrastructures- built out from concepts of sharing across multiple local faculty clusters (made good use of already by many of the HEP Tier-2 sites in the US); the work towards the use of clouds and access to high throughput parallel (multi-core and GPU) compute resources; and the progress we are making towards meeting the data management and access needs of non-HEP communiti...

  13. Toward Open Science at the European Scale: Geospatial Semantic Array Programming for Integrated Environmental Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rigo, Daniele; Corti, Paolo; Caudullo, Giovanni; McInerney, Daniel; Di Leo, Margherita; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    ://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1213847 Morin, A., Urban, J., Adams, P. D., Foster, I., Sali, A., Baker, D., Sliz, P., 2012. Shining light into black boxes. Science 336 (6078), 159-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1218263 Nature, 2011. Devil in the details. Nature 470 (7334), 305-306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/470305b Stodden, V., 2012. Reproducible research: Tools and strategies for scientific computing. Computing in Science and Engineering 14, 11-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MCSE.2012.82 de Rigo, D., Corti, P., Caudullo, G., McInerney, D., Di Leo, M., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., (exp. 2013). Supporting Environmental Modelling and Science-Policy Interface at European Scale with Geospatial Semantic Array Programming. In prep. Molloy, J. C., 2011. The open knowledge foundation: Open data means better science. PLoS Biology 9 (12), e1001195+. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001195 de Rigo, D., 2013. Software Uncertainty in Integrated Environmental Modelling: the role of Semantics and Open Science. Geophysical Research Abstracts 15, EGU General Assembly 2013. Cerf, V. G., 2012. Where is the science in computer science? Commun. ACM 55 (10), 5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2347736.2347737 Wilson, G., 2006. Where's the real bottleneck in scientific computing? American Scientist 94 (1), 5+. http://dx.doi.org/10.1511/2006.1.5 de Rigo, D. 2012. Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management: minimal redefinition of a known challenge for environmental modelling. Excerpt from the Call for a shared research agenda toward scientific knowledge freedom, Maieutike Research Initiative. http://www.citeulike.org/groupfunc/15400/home Stallman, R. M., 2005. Free community science and the free development of science. PLoS Med 2 (2), e47+. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0020047 Stallman, R. M., 2009. Viewpoint: Why "open source" misses the point of free software. Communications of the ACM 52 (6), 31-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1516046.1516058 (free access version: http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/open

  14. Supporting science in developing countries using open technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canessa, Enrique; Zennaro, Marco; Fonda, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    We describe our contributions in using information and communication technologies (ICT) to address the digital and knowledge divides in developing regions. These include the implementation of new prototype systems using state-of-the-art, low-cost technologies based on the scientific audience, the local information technology infrastructure and the level of support available from local technical staff. Efforts are made to provide the necessary capacity and know-how to understand and manage their available information infrastructure with the final goal of supporting their science to allow participation at an international level

  15. Promoting open access to science through effective communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, A. E.

    2006-12-01

    Geology is a difficult subject to communicate effectively. Many people associate geology with memorizing rock and mineral names and not with dynamic earth processes. Even more challenging for the non-geologist is the concept of deep time, and why processes that happened millions of years ago are important to us today. Additionally, many people view science itself as inaccessible and difficult. And yet, geology is a naturally accessible subject, as it is all around us. In order to communicate effectively, geologists must convince others that their work is both accessible and relevant, even though it may not directly generate economic benefits or lend insight into solutions for our modern problems like climate change. As scientists, we know the connections are there, but convincing others requires creating face-to-face, positive interactions through the use of active techniques to help bring the audience to an understanding of the process of science in addition to the subject matter itself. My overarching motive for creating and participating in communication activities with a broad audience is thus to demonstrate that science is accessible to everyone, that a scientific way of thinking can be both fun and useful, and that a little knowledge about geology can give you a new perspective on the world. Using this motivation as a guiding principle regardless of the specific audience, two techniques are important to make the communication effective. First, whenever possible, I conduct activities in the field (broadly speaking), or at least bring the field into the talk, and model the scientific process by asking for participation. This allows the audience to fully understand how geologic work is done, including the mundane and the mistakes. Second, I take my audience seriously, including all questions and observations, in order to build confidence in everyone that they are able to contribute to and understand both geology and the scientific process in general. Despite the

  16. Successful Massive Open Online Climate Course on Climate Science and Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccitelli, D. A.; Cook, J.

    2015-12-01

    In 2015, the University of Queensland and edX launched a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC), 'Making Sense of Climate Science Denial.' The MOOC debunked approximately 50 common climate myths using elements of both physical science and psychology. Students learned how to recognise the social and psychological drivers of climate science denial, how to better understand climate change, how to identify the techniques and fallacies that climate myths employ to distort climate science, and how to effectively debunk climate misinformation. Contributors to the website Skeptical Science delivered the lectures, which were reinforced via interviews with climate science and psychology experts. Over 15,000 students from 167 countries enrolled in the course, and student feedback was overwhelmingly positive. This MOOC provides a model for effective climate science education.

  17. Open Access Citation Advantage in selected Information Science journals: an extended analysis to altmetrics indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Cintra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Open access refers to scientific literature available free of charge and free of copyright restrictions and licensing for its reuse. An increase in the total number of citations received by articles available in open access in relation to those of restricted, pay-walled access is expected, according to the Open Access Citation Advantage hypothesis. Objective: Assess the possible citation advantages and mentions on the social web that open access can offer to the Information Science area. Methodology: Bibliometric and altmetric indicators were analyzed in two journals: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Scientometrics. Data collection was conducted in the Web of Science, Google Scholar, Altmetric.com and Mendeley. Results: The results indicated that for both journals, open access offers an advantage in the number of citations received by articles. It was also demonstrated that the advantage is maintained over time. Conclusions: This research confirmed the hypothesis of an Open Access Citation Advantage for the journals analyzed in the area of Information Science. This pattern was also observed for the altmetric data.

  18. The Open Science Grid – Support for Multi-Disciplinary Team Science – the Adolescent Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauerdick, Lothar; Ernst, Michael; Fraser, Dan; Livny, Miron; Pordes, Ruth; Sehgal, Chander; Würthwein, Frank

    2012-01-01

    As it enters adolescence the Open Science Grid (OSG) is bringing a maturing fabric of Distributed High Throughput Computing (DHTC) services that supports an expanding HEP community to an increasingly diverse spectrum of domain scientists. Working closely with researchers on campuses throughout the US and in collaboration with national cyberinfrastructure initiatives, we transform their computing environment through new concepts, advanced tools and deep experience. We discuss examples of these including: the pilot-job overlay concepts and technologies now in use throughout OSG and delivering 1.4 Million CPU hours/day; the role of campus infrastructures- built out from concepts of sharing across multiple local faculty clusters (made good use of already by many of the HEP Tier-2 sites in the US); the work towards the use of clouds and access to high throughput parallel (multi-core and GPU) compute resources; and the progress we are making towards meeting the data management and access needs of non-HEP communities with general tools derived from the experience of the parochial tools in HEP (integration of Globus Online, prototyping with IRODS, investigations into Wide Area Lustre). We will also review our activities and experiences as HTC Service Provider to the recently awarded NSF XD XSEDE project, the evolution of the US NSF TeraGrid project, and how we are extending the reach of HTC through this activity to the increasingly broad national cyberinfrastructure. We believe that a coordinated view of the HPC and HTC resources in the US will further expand their impact on scientific discovery.

  19. The Open Science Grid - Support for Multi-Disciplinary Team Science - the Adolescent Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerdick, Lothar; Ernst, Michael; Fraser, Dan; Livny, Miron; Pordes, Ruth; Sehgal, Chander; Würthwein, Frank; Open Science Grid

    2012-12-01

    As it enters adolescence the Open Science Grid (OSG) is bringing a maturing fabric of Distributed High Throughput Computing (DHTC) services that supports an expanding HEP community to an increasingly diverse spectrum of domain scientists. Working closely with researchers on campuses throughout the US and in collaboration with national cyberinfrastructure initiatives, we transform their computing environment through new concepts, advanced tools and deep experience. We discuss examples of these including: the pilot-job overlay concepts and technologies now in use throughout OSG and delivering 1.4 Million CPU hours/day; the role of campus infrastructures- built out from concepts of sharing across multiple local faculty clusters (made good use of already by many of the HEP Tier-2 sites in the US); the work towards the use of clouds and access to high throughput parallel (multi-core and GPU) compute resources; and the progress we are making towards meeting the data management and access needs of non-HEP communities with general tools derived from the experience of the parochial tools in HEP (integration of Globus Online, prototyping with IRODS, investigations into Wide Area Lustre). We will also review our activities and experiences as HTC Service Provider to the recently awarded NSF XD XSEDE project, the evolution of the US NSF TeraGrid project, and how we are extending the reach of HTC through this activity to the increasingly broad national cyberinfrastructure. We believe that a coordinated view of the HPC and HTC resources in the US will further expand their impact on scientific discovery.

  20. Student Science Training Program in Mathematics, Physics and Computer Science. Final Report to the National Science Foundation. Artificial Intelligence Memo No. 393.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Harold; diSessa, Andy

    During the summer of 1976, the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory sponsored a Student Science Training Program in Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science for high ability secondary school students. This report describes, in some detail, the style of the program, the curriculum and the projects the students under-took. It is hoped that this…

  1. Research, Collaboration, and Open Science Using Web 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Shee

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available There is little doubt that the Internet has transformed the world in which we live. Information that was once archived in bricks and mortar libraries is now only a click away, and people across the globe have become connected in a manner inconceivable only 20 years ago. Although many scientists and educators have embraced the Internet as an invaluable tool for research, education and data sharing, some have been somewhat slower to take full advantage of emerging Web 2.0 technologies. Here we discuss the benefits and challenges of integrating Web 2.0 applications into undergraduate research and education programs, based on our experience utilizing these technologies in a summer undergraduate research program in synthetic biology at Harvard University. We discuss the use of applications including wiki-based documentation, digital brainstorming, and open data sharing via the Web, to facilitate the educational aspects and collaborative progress of undergraduate research projects. We hope to inspire others to integrate these technologies into their own coursework or research projects.

  2. Student Contributions to Citizen Science Programs As a Foundation for Independent and Classroom-Based Undergraduate Research in the Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental monitoring projects on the grounds of a campus can serve as data collection sites for undergraduate research. Penn State Brandywine has utilized students in independent study projects to establish two citizen science programs and to begin collecting data, with the data sets serving as a foundation for authentic inquiry-based exercises in introductory-level Earth science courses. The first citizen science program is The Smithsonian Institution's Global Tree Banding Project, which contributes to research about tree biomass by tracking how trees respond to climate. We are going beyond the requirements of the Smithsonian project. Instead of only taking two measurements each in the spring and fall, undergraduate researchers are taking measurements every two weeks throughout the year. We started taking measurements of ten trees on campus in 2012 will continue until each tree outgrows its tree band. The data is available for download in Google Spreadsheets for students to examine changes in tree diameter within one or between growing seasons, supplemented with temperature and precipitation data (see http://sites.psu.edu/treebanding/). A second citizen science program we have begun on campus is the NASA-funded Digital Earth Watch (DEW) Picture Post Project, allowing students to monitor the environment and share observations through digital photography. We established four Picture Post sites on campus, with students taking weekly photos to establish an environmental baseline of the campus landscape and to document future environmental changes pre- and post-construction. We started taking digital photos on campus in 2014 will continue well past the completion of construction to continue to look for changes. The image database is less than a year old, but the images provide enough information for some early analyses, such as the variations in "greenness" over the seasons. We have created a website that shares the purpose of our participation in the Picture Post

  3. [Research progresses of the completed pediatrics projects funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China from 2002 to 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling; Hao, Jie; Deng, Min; Xu, Yan-ying

    2009-05-01

    To understand the projects completion and research progresses in pediatrics which were funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), and evaluate the accomplishment objectively and justly. The completion status of projects in pediatrics funded by department of clinical medicine II from 2002 to 2006 was analysed retrospectively, and important research achievement and outstanding development in some projects were reported. During the period between 2002 and 2006, 420 articles were published, and the average was 8.1 papers per project, which included 56 papers that were published in journals indexed by SCI (the average was 1.1 papers per project). The completion of general project was better than that of "the Young Researchers Fund" and small grant project. Ten post-doctors, 102 doctors and 109 masters were trained. Two projects were awarded with the first grade prize and another 2 with the second grade prize at the provincial and ministerial level, 4 items applied for patent and 1 was granted. These completed projects, which were mainly related to 7 of 12 subspecialties in the field of pediatrics, such as the respiratory disease, nephrology, neurology, cardiology, endocrinology, hematology, neonatology, are the major portion of the application projects and subsidized projects funded by NSFC, and achieved great research progresses. During the period between 2002 and 2006, the 52 completed projects in pediatrics showed difference in the distribution and quality of accomplishment among subspecialties and among types of supported projects; there are some gaps between pediatrics and some other clinical basic subspecialties II, this situation released the research status and problems in development of pediatrics in China. The general projects completion was good, and many projects obtained research achievements, which reflect the leading function of NSFC in pediatric research.

  4. Risk assessment of student performance in the International Foundations of Medicine Clinical Science Examination by the use of statistical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Michael C; Eley, Diann S; Schafer, Jennifer; Davies, Leo

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the predictive validity of cumulative grade point average (GPA) for performance in the International Foundations of Medicine (IFOM) Clinical Science Examination (CSE). A secondary aim was to develop a strategy for identifying students at risk of performing poorly in the IFOM CSE as determined by the National Board of Medical Examiners' International Standard of Competence. Final year medical students from an Australian university medical school took the IFOM CSE as a formative assessment. Measures included overall IFOM CSE score as the dependent variable, cumulative GPA as the predictor, and the factors age, gender, year of enrollment, international or domestic status of student, and language spoken at home as covariates. Multivariable linear regression was used to measure predictor and covariate effects. Optimal thresholds of risk assessment were based on receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Cumulative GPA (nonstandardized regression coefficient [B]: 81.83; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 68.13 to 95.53) and international status (B: -37.40; 95% CI: -57.85 to -16.96) from 427 students were found to be statistically associated with increased IFOM CSE performance. Cumulative GPAs of 5.30 (area under ROC [AROC]: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.82) and 4.90 (AROC: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.66 to 0.78) were identified as being thresholds of significant risk for domestic and international students, respectively. Using cumulative GPA as a predictor of IFOM CSE performance and accommodating for differences in international status, it is possible to identify students who are at risk of failing to satisfy the National Board of Medical Examiners' International Standard of Competence.

  5. ABIM Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In conjunction with the… mailchi.mp View on Facebook ABIM Foundation shared Business Radio Powered by The Wharton School's post. 2 days ago View on Facebook ABIM Foundation 2 days ago The Android version ...

  6. Open Access Policies of Research Funders: The Case Study of the Austrian Science Fund (FWF)

    OpenAIRE

    Tonto, Yaşar; Doğan, Güleda; Al, Umut; Madran, Orçun

    2015-01-01

    The Austrian Science Fund (FWF) is the main funder for basic research in Austria. FWF has been instrumental in promoting Open Access in Austria and elsewhere and possesses a strong Open Access policy for the research it funds. This case study presents FWF as a good practice of an effective funder policy on account of its comprehensive strategy and multi-faceted approach for implementing and supporting it.

  7. Design and Implementation of a Library and Information Science Open Access Journal Union Catalogue System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinn-Cheng Lin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Open access is a mode of academic communication that has been on the rise in recent years, but open access academic resources are widely dispersed across the internet, making it occasionally inconvenient in terms of its use. This research is focused on library and information science, using the OAIS reference model as the system framework, two open access platform, DOAJ and E-LIS as the data sources, and through system implementation develop a “library and information science open access journal union catalogue” system. Using the OAI-PMH protocol as the data interoperability standard, and LAMP as the development environment, four major functionalities: injest, archiving, management and access of information were designed, developed, and integrated into system build. Actual testing and verification showed this system is able to successfully collect data from DOAJ and E-LIS open journal resources related to library and information science. The system is now active and functional, and can be used by researchers in the library and science information field.

  8. Open science: policy implications for the evolving phenomenon of user-led scientific innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Stodden

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available From contributions of astronomy data and DNA sequences to disease treatment research, scientific activity by non-scientists is a real and emergent phenomenon, and raising policy questions. This involvement in science can be understood as an issue of access to publications, code, and data that facilitates public engagement in the research process, thus appropriate policy to support the associated welfare enhancing benefits is essential. Current legal barriers to citizen participation can be alleviated by scientists’ use of the “Reproducible Research Standard,” thus making the literature, data, and code associated with scientific results accessible. The enterprise of science is undergoing deep and fundamental changes, particularly in how scientists obtain results and share their work: the promise of open research dissemination held by the Internet is gradually being fulfilled by scientists. Contributions to science from beyond the ivory tower are forcing a rethinking of traditional models of knowledge generation, evaluation, and communication. The notion of a scientific “peer” is blurred with the advent of lay contributions to science raising questions regarding the concepts of peer-review and recognition. New collaborative models are emerging around both open scientific software and the generation of scientific discoveries that bear a similarity to open innovation models in other settings. Public engagement in science can be understood as an issue of access to knowledge for public involvement in the research process, facilitated by appropriate policy to support the welfare enhancing benefits deriving from citizen-science.

  9. Open access publishing in the biomedical sciences: could funding agencies accelerate the inevitable changes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Steven William; Webb, Anne; Gleghorn, Colette

    2006-09-01

    Open access is making a noticeable impact on access to information. In 2005, many major research funders, including the Wellcome Trust, National Institutes for Health (NIH), and the Research Councils UK (RCUK), set out their position in a number of statements. Of particular note was the stipulation that authors receiving grants must deposit their final manuscript in an open access forum within 6-12 months of publication. The paper will look at the open access position statements issued by some of the major funding bodies in the biomedical sciences. The paper will also look at the models used by publishers to provide open or delayed access, such as Oxford Open from Oxford University Press, HighWire Press' delayed access policy, BioMed Central, and Public Library of Science (PLoS). There are now over 1.2 million articles in PubMed that are freely accessible via publishers' websites.(1) Could funding agencies accelerate the move to open access? The list of funding agencies supporting open access is growing. The National Institutes for Health and the Wellcome Trust have been joined by many of the world's major funders in biomedical research whose goal it is to make their research findings available with no barriers.

  10. Comments from the Science Education Directorate, National Science Foundation: CAUSE, ISEP, and LOCI: Three-Program Approach to College-Level Science Improvement. II. Patterns and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Judith B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Discusses patterns resulting from the monitor of science education proposals which may reflect problems or differing perceptions of NSF. Discusses these areas: proposal submissions from two-year institutions and social and behavioral scientists, trends in project content at the academic-industrial interface and in computer technology, and…

  11. Eighth-grade science teachers use of instructional time: Examining questions from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and comparing TIMSS and National Science Foundation questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Anne Burgess

    Did the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) ask science teachers the right questions about their use of instructional time? Part I of this 2-part study used the TIMSS database to answer the question: Do 8th grade science teachers in the U.S., Czech Republic, Hungary, Japan, and Korea differ significantly in their perceived use of instructional time? Using the instructional activities in the TIMSS teacher question "How did the lesson proceed?" the teacher-reported times were analyzed using a repeated measures multivariate analysis. Significant differences were found between teacher-reported times in the U.S. and the other 4 TIMSS countries, whose 8th grade students outperformed U.S. students on TIMSS achievement tests. Post-hoc analysis indicated that TIMSS U.S. 8th grade science teachers report spending more time on homework in class, on group activities, and on lab activities, but less time on topic development, than TIMSS teachers from some or all of the other countries. Part II of this study further examined the question "How did the lesson proceed?" by videotaping 6 classes of 8th grade science in Alabama and Virginia and comparing observer coding of the video to the teachers' recalled descriptions of the same class. The difference between observer and teacher responses using TIMSS categories was not significant; however, 43% of the total variance was explained by whether the teacher or the observer reported the times for the instructional activities. The teachers also responded to questions from the NSF Local Systemic Change Through Teacher Enhancement K--8 Teacher Questionnaire to describe the same class. The difference found between the teacher and the observer coding was not significant, but the amount of variance explained by the data source (observer or teacher) dropped to 33% when using NSF student activity categories and to 26% when using NSF teacher activity categories. The conclusion of this study was that questionnaires to

  12. Automated conversion of Docker images to CVMFS for LIGO and the Open Science Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    In this lightning talk, I will discuss the development of a webhook-based tool for automatically converting Docker images from DockerHub and private registries to CVMFS filesystems. The tool is highly reliant on previous work by the Open Science Grid for scripted nightly conversion of images from DockerHub.

  13. Challenges of Virtual and Open Distance Science Teacher Education in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Vongai; Samukange, Tendai; Kusure, Lovemore M.; Zinyandu, Tinoidzwa M.; Denhere, Clever; Huggins, Nyakotyo; Wiseman, Chingombe; Ndlovu, Shakespear; Chiveya, Renias; Matavire, Monica; Mukavhi, Leckson; Gwizangwe, Isaac; Magombe, Elliot; Magomelo, Munyaradzi; Sithole, Fungai; Bindura University of Science Education (BUSE),

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the implementation of science teacher education through virtual and open distance learning in the Mashonaland Central Province, Zimbabwe. The study provides insight into challenges faced by students and lecturers on inception of the program at four centres. Data was collected from completed evaluation survey forms…

  14. A Survey of Physical Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics Faculty Regarding Author Fees in Open Access Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusker, Jeremy; Rauh, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Discussions of the potential of open access publishing frequently must contend with the skepticism of research authors regarding the need to pay author fees (also known as publication fees). With that in mind, the authors undertook a survey of faculty, postdocs, and graduate students in physical science, mathematics, and engineering fields at two…

  15. Open Educational Resources in Support of Science Learning: Tools for Inquiry and Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the potential of free tools, particularly inquiry tools for influencing participation in twenty-first-century learning in science, as well as influencing the development of communities around tools. Two examples are presented: one on the development of an open source tool for structured inquiry learning that can bridge the…

  16. Unlocking the full potential of Open Innovation in the Life Sciences through a classification system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niclas; Minssen, Timo

    2018-01-01

    Open Innovation (OI) holds much promise as a new business model for collaborative value creation in life science. From a corporate perspective, benefits include faster access to new relevant technology; the opportunity for Biotechs and Small to Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) to explore new marke...

  17. A Bright Spark: Open Teaching of Science Using Faraday's Lectures on Candles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark; Groger, Martin; Schutler, Kirsten; Mosler, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    As well as being a founding father of modern chemistry and physics Michael Faraday was also a skilled lecturer, able to explain scientific principles and ideas simply and concisely to nonscientific audiences. However science didactics today emphasizes the use of open and student-centered methods of teaching in which students find and develop…

  18. Open Access Research via Collaborative Educational Blogging: A Case Study from Library & Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebmann, Kristen Radsliff; Clark, Camden Bernard

    2017-01-01

    This article charts the development of activities for online graduate students in library and information science. Project goals include helping students develop competencies in understanding open access publishing, synthesizing research in the field, and engaging in scholarly communication via collaborative educational blogging. Using a design…

  19. Impact of problem finding on the quality of authentic open inquiry science research projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labanca, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully completed and presented the results of their open inquiry research at the 2007 Connecticut Science Fair and the 2007 International Science and Engineering Fair. A multicase qualitative study was framed through the lenses of creativity, inquiry strategies, and situated cognition learning theory. Data were triangulated by methods (interviews, document analysis, surveys) and sources (students, teachers, mentors, fair directors, documents). The data demonstrated that the quality of student projects was directly impacted by the quality of their problem finding. Effective problem finding was a result of students using resources from previous, specialized experiences. They had a positive self-concept and a temperament for both the creative and logical perspectives of science research. Successful problem finding was derived from an idiosyncratic, nonlinear, and flexible use and understanding of inquiry. Finally, problem finding was influenced and assisted by the community of practicing scientists, with whom the students had an exceptional ability to communicate effectively. As a result, there appears to be a juxtaposition of creative and logical/analytical thought for open inquiry that may not be present in other forms of inquiry. Instructional strategies are suggested for teachers of science research students to improve the quality of problem finding for their students and their subsequent research projects.

  20. Risk assessment of student performance in the International Foundations of Medicine Clinical Science Examination by the use of statistical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David MC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael C David,1 Diann S Eley,2 Jennifer Schafer,2 Leo Davies,3 1School of Public Health, 2School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Herston, QLD, 3Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to assess the predictive validity of cumulative grade point average (GPA for performance in the International Foundations of Medicine (IFOM Clinical Science Examination (CSE. A secondary aim was to develop a strategy for identifying students at risk of performing poorly in the IFOM CSE as determined by the National Board of Medical Examiners’ International Standard of Competence. Methods: Final year medical students from an Australian university medical school took the IFOM CSE as a formative assessment. Measures included overall IFOM CSE score as the dependent variable, cumulative GPA as the predictor, and the factors age, gender, year of enrollment, international or domestic status of student, and language spoken at home as covariates. Multivariable linear regression was used to measure predictor and covariate effects. Optimal thresholds of risk assessment were based on receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curves. Results: Cumulative GPA (nonstandardized regression coefficient [B]: 81.83; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 68.13 to 95.53 and international status (B: –37.40; 95% CI: –57.85 to –16.96 from 427 students were found to be statistically associated with increased IFOM CSE ­performance. Cumulative GPAs of 5.30 (area under ROC [AROC]: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.82 and 4.90 (AROC: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.66 to 0.78 were identified as being thresholds of significant risk for domestic and international students, respectively. Conclusion: Using cumulative GPA as a predictor of IFOM CSE performance and accommodating for differences in international status, it is possible to identify students who are at risk of failing to satisfy the National Board of Medical Examiners’ International

  1. Documentation in Otolaryngology. Sharing Otolaryngology research data in an open science ecosyste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda PESET

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The present text addresses the most significant aspects to share research data in otolaryngology in the context of open science as an ecosystem. Its aim is to offer a panoramic view that helps the researcher to manage their data as part of enriched science. Method: A bibliographical review and of the own experience in the field of the investigation data was performed. Results: The basic pillars for success are offered: its political, technical and necessary capacities. Discussion: The tasks of making data available should be recognized as part of the researcher's curriculum because documenting them to be reusable is a highly specialized and time-consuming task. Conclusions: It is considered that we are at a crucial moment to begin to share data. It is being considered in all scientific policy scenarios as in the EU through the European Open Science Computing.

  2. Enabling Open Science for Health Research: Collaborative Informatics Environment for Learning on Health Outcomes (CIELO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Philip; Lele, Omkar; Johnson, Beth; Holve, Erin

    2017-07-31

    There is an emergent and intensive dialogue in the United States with regard to the accessibility, reproducibility, and rigor of health research. This discussion is also closely aligned with the need to identify sustainable ways to expand the national research enterprise and to generate actionable results that can be applied to improve the nation's health. The principles and practices of Open Science offer a promising path to address both goals by facilitating (1) increased transparency of data and methods, which promotes research reproducibility and rigor; and (2) cumulative efficiencies wherein research tools and the output of research are combined to accelerate the delivery of new knowledge in proximal domains, thereby resulting in greater productivity and a reduction in redundant research investments. AcademyHealth's Electronic Data Methods (EDM) Forum implemented a proof-of-concept open science platform for health research called the Collaborative Informatics Environment for Learning on Health Outcomes (CIELO). The EDM Forum conducted a user-centered design process to elucidate important and high-level requirements for creating and sustaining an open science paradigm. By implementing CIELO and engaging a variety of potential users in its public beta testing, the EDM Forum has been able to elucidate a broad range of stakeholder needs and requirements related to the use of an open science platform focused on health research in a variety of "real world" settings. Our initial design and development experience over the course of the CIELO project has provided the basis for a vigorous dialogue between stakeholder community members regarding the capabilities that will add the greatest value to an open science platform for the health research community. A number of important questions around user incentives, sustainability, and scalability will require further community dialogue and agreement. ©Philip Payne, Omkar Lele, Beth Johnson, Erin Holve. Originally published

  3. Software Uncertainty in Integrated Environmental Modelling: the role of Semantics and Open Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rigo, Daniele

    2013-04-01

    . Semantic Array Programming for Environmental Modelling: Application of the Mastrave library. In: Seppelt, R., Voinov, A. A., Lange, S., Bankamp, D. (Eds.), International Environmental Modelling and Software Society (iEMSs) 2012 International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software. Managing Resources of a Limited Planet: Pathways and Visions under Uncertainty, Sixth Biennial Meeting. pp. 1167-1176. http://www.iemss.org/iemss2012/proceedings/D3_1_0715_deRigo.pdf de Rigo, D., 2012. Semantic Array Programming with Mastrave - Introduction to Semantic Computational Modelling. http://mastrave.org/doc/MTV-1.012-1 Free Software Foundation, 2012. What is free software? http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html (revision 1.118 archived at http://www.webcitation.org/6DXqCFAN3 ) Stallman, R. M., 2009. Viewpoint: Why "open source" misses the point of free software. Communications of the ACM 52 (6), 31-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1516046.1516058 (free access version: http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html ) Lempert, R., Schlesinger, M. E., Jul. 2001. Climate-change strategy needs to be robust. Nature 412 (6845), 375. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35086617 Shell, K. M., Nov. 2012. Constraining cloud feedbacks. Science 338 (6108), 755-756. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1231083 van der Sluijs, J. P., 2012. Uncertainty and dissent in climate risk assessment: A Post-Normal perspective. Nature and Culture 7 (2), 174-195. http://dx.doi.org/10.3167/nc.2012.070204 Lenton, T. M., Held, H., Kriegler, E., Hall, J. W., Lucht, W., Rahmstorf, S., Schellnhuber, H. J., Feb. 2008. Tipping elements in the earth's climate system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 (6), 1786-1793. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0705414105 Hastings, A., Wysham, D. B., Apr. 2010. Regime shifts in ecological systems can occur with no warning. Ecology Letters 13 (4), 464-472. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01439.x Barnosky, A. D., Hadly, E. A., Bascompte, J

  4. Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial in the field of planetary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigeri, A.

    2012-12-01

    Information technology applied to geospatial analyses has spread quickly in the last ten years. The availability of OpenData and data from collaborative mapping projects increased the interest on tools, procedures and methods to handle spatially-related information. Free Open Source Software projects devoted to geospatial data handling are gaining a good success as the use of interoperable formats and protocols allow the user to choose what pipeline of tools and libraries is needed to solve a particular task, adapting the software scene to his specific problem. In particular, the Free Open Source model of development mimics the scientific method very well, and researchers should be naturally encouraged to take part to the development process of these software projects, as this represent a very agile way to interact among several institutions. When it comes to planetary sciences, geospatial Free Open Source Software is gaining a key role in projects that commonly involve different subjects in an international scenario. Very popular software suites for processing scientific mission data (for example, ISIS) and for navigation/planning (SPICE) are being distributed along with the source code and the interaction between user and developer is often very strict, creating a continuum between these two figures. A very widely spread library for handling geospatial data (GDAL) has started to support planetary data from the Planetary Data System, and recent contributions enabled the support to other popular data formats used in planetary science, as the Vicar one. The use of Geographic Information System in planetary science is now diffused, and Free Open Source GIS, open GIS formats and network protocols allow to extend existing tools and methods developed to solve Earth based problems, also to the case of the study of solar system bodies. A day in the working life of a researcher using Free Open Source Software for geospatial will be presented, as well as benefits and

  5. Leveraging Open Standards and Technologies to Enhance Community Access to Earth Science Lidar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, C. J.; Nandigam, V.; Krishnan, S.; Cowart, C.; Baru, C.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2011-12-01

    Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) data, collected from space, airborne and terrestrial platforms, have emerged as an invaluable tool for a variety of Earth science applications ranging from ice sheet monitoring to modeling of earth surface processes. However, lidar present a unique suite of challenges from the perspective of building cyberinfrastructure systems that enable the scientific community to access these valuable research datasets. Lidar data are typically characterized by millions to billions of individual measurements of x,y,z position plus attributes; these "raw" data are also often accompanied by derived raster products and are frequently terabytes in size. As a relatively new and rapidly evolving data collection technology, relevant open data standards and software projects are immature compared to those for other remote sensing platforms. The NSF-funded OpenTopography Facility project has developed an online lidar data access and processing system that co-locates data with on-demand processing tools to enable users to access both raw point cloud data as well as custom derived products and visualizations. OpenTopography is built on a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) in which applications and data resources are deployed as standards compliant (XML and SOAP) Web services with the open source Opal Toolkit. To develop the underlying applications for data access, filtering and conversion, and various processing tasks, OpenTopography has heavily leveraged existing open source software efforts for both lidar and raster data. Operating on the de facto LAS binary point cloud format (maintained by ASPRS), open source libLAS and LASlib libraries provide OpenTopography data ingestion, query and translation capabilities. Similarly, raster data manipulation is performed through a suite of services built on the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL). OpenTopography has also developed our own algorithm for high-performance gridding of lidar point cloud data

  6. Environmental Science and Research Foundation annual technical report to DOE-ID, January , 1995--December 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The foundation conducts an environmental monitoring and surveillance program over an area covering much of the upper Snake River Plain and provide environmental education and support services related to INEL natural resource issues. Also, the foundation, with its university affiliates, conducts ecological and radioecological research on the Idaho National Environmental Research Park. This research benefits major DOE-ID programs including waste management, environmental restoration, spent nuclear fuels, and land management issues. Major accomplishments during CY1995 can be divided into five categories: environmental surveillance program, environmental education, environmental services and support, ecological risk assessment, and research benefitting the DOE-ID mission

  7. Environmental Science and Research Foundation annual technical report to DOE-ID, January , 1995--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The foundation conducts an environmental monitoring and surveillance program over an area covering much of the upper Snake River Plain and provide environmental education and support services related to INEL natural resource issues. Also, the foundation, with its university affiliates, conducts ecological and radioecological research on the Idaho National Environmental Research Park. This research benefits major DOE-ID programs including waste management, environmental restoration, spent nuclear fuels, and land management issues. Major accomplishments during CY1995 can be divided into five categories: environmental surveillance program, environmental education, environmental services and support, ecological risk assessment, and research benefitting the DOE-ID mission.

  8. Book Review: Opening Science, the Evolving Guide on How the Internet is Changing Research, Collaboration, and Scholarly Publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The way we get our funding, collaborate, do our research, and get the word out has evolved over hundreds of years but we can imagine a more open science world, largely facilitated by the internet. The movement towards this more open way of doing and presenting science is coming, ...

  9. Harnessing the Use of Open Learning Exchange to Support Basic Education in Science and Mathematics in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Josephine S.; Mandapat, Louie Carl R.; Khan, Concepcion L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the open learning initiatives of the Science Education Institute of the Department of Science and Technology to overcome certain barriers, such as enabling access, cost of replication, timely feedback, monitoring and continuous improvement of learning modules. Using an open-education model, like MIT's (Massachusetts Institute…

  10. Physical Science Informatics: Providing Open Science Access to Microheater Array Boiling Experiment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillen, John; Green, Robert D.; Henrie, Ben; Miller, Teresa; Chiaramonte, Fran

    2014-01-01

    The Physical Science Informatics (PSI) system is the next step in this an effort to make NASA sponsored flight data available to the scientific and engineering community, along with the general public. The experimental data, from six overall disciplines, Combustion Science, Fluid Physics, Complex Fluids, Fundamental Physics, and Materials Science, will present some unique challenges. Besides data in textual or numerical format, large portions of both the raw and analyzed data for many of these experiments are digital images and video, requiring large data storage requirements. In addition, the accessible data will include experiment design and engineering data (including applicable drawings), any analytical or numerical models, publications, reports, and patents, and any commercial products developed as a result of the research. This objective of paper includes the following: Present the preliminary layout (Figure 2) of MABE data within the PSI database. Obtain feedback on the layout. Present the procedure to obtain access to this database.

  11. Maintaining the momentum of Open Search in Earth Science Data discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D. J.; Lynnes, C.

    2013-12-01

    Federated Search for Earth Observation data has been a hallmark of EOSDIS (Earth Observing System Data and Information System) for two decades. Originally, the EOSDIS Version 0 system provided both data-collection-level and granule/file-level search in the mid 1990s with EOSDIS-specific socket protocols and message formats. Since that time, the advent of several standards has helped to simplify EOSDIS federated search, beginning with HTTP as the transfer protocol. Most recently, OpenSearch (www.opensearch.org) was employed for the EOS Clearinghouse (ECHO), based on a set of conventions that had been developed within the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation. The ECHO OpenSearch API has evolved to encompass the ESIP RFC and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Open Search standard. Uptake of the ECHO Open Search API has been significant and has made ECHO accessible to client developers that found the previous ECHO SOAP API and current REST API too complex. Client adoption of the OpenSearch API appears to be largely driven by the simplicity of the OpenSearch convention. This simplicity is thus important to retain as the standard and convention evolve. For example, ECHO metrics indicate that the vast majority of ECHO users favor the following search criteria when using the REST API, - Spatial - bounding box, polygon, line and point - Temporal - start and end time - Keywords - free text Fewer than 10% of searches use additional constraints, particularly those requiring a controlled vocabulary, such as instrument, sensor, etc. This suggests that ongoing standardization efforts around OpenSearch usage for Earth Observation data may be more productive if oriented toward improving support for the Spatial, Temporal and Keyword search aspects. Areas still requiring improvement include support of - Concrete requirements for keyword constraints - Phrasal search for keyword constraints - Temporal constraint relations - Terminological symmetry between search URLs

  12. Our path to better science in less time using open data science tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowndes, Julia S Stewart; Best, Benjamin D; Scarborough, Courtney; Afflerbach, Jamie C; Frazier, Melanie R; O'Hara, Casey C; Jiang, Ning; Halpern, Benjamin S

    2017-05-23

    Reproducibility has long been a tenet of science but has been challenging to achieve-we learned this the hard way when our old approaches proved inadequate to efficiently reproduce our own work. Here we describe how several free software tools have fundamentally upgraded our approach to collaborative research, making our entire workflow more transparent and streamlined. By describing specific tools and how we incrementally began using them for the Ocean Health Index project, we hope to encourage others in the scientific community to do the same-so we can all produce better science in less time.

  13. Open access behaviours and perceptions of health sciences faculty and roles of information professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwoga, Edda T; Questier, Frederik

    2015-03-01

    This study sought to investigate the faculty's awareness, attitudes and use of open access, and the role of information professionals in supporting open access (OA) scholarly communication in Tanzanian health sciences universities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 librarians, while questionnaires were physically distributed to 415 faculty members in all eight Tanzanian health sciences universities, with a response rate of 71.1%. The study found that most faculty members were aware about OA issues. However, the high level of OA awareness among faculty members did not translate into actual dissemination of faculty's research outputs through OA web avenues. A small proportion of faculty's research materials was made available as OA. Faculty were more engaged with OA journal publishing than with self-archiving practices. Senior faculty with proficient technical skills were more likely to use open access than junior faculty. Major barriers to OA usage were related to ICT infrastructure, awareness, skills, author-pay model, and copyright and plagiarism concerns. Interviews with librarians revealed that there was a strong support for promoting OA issues on campus; however, this positive support with various open access-related tasks did not translate into actual action. It is thus important for librarians and OA administrators to consider all these factors for effective implementation of OA projects in research and academic institutions. This is the first comprehensive and detailed study focusing on the health sciences faculty's and librarians' behaviours and perceptions of open access initiatives in Tanzania and reveals findings that are useful for planning and implementing open access initiatives in other institutions with similar conditions. © 2015 Health Libraries Journal.

  14. HSC Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in disability information or services and that add value to our existing programs. The Foundation also works to bring additional support to initiatives by serving as funding partners on projects that have local impact and national relevance. Supporting a Continuum of Care The HSC Foundation ...

  15. Corporate Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Heidi; Thusgaard Pedersen, Janni

    2013-01-01

    action between business and NGOs through convening, translation, collaboration, and mediation. Our study provides valuable insights into the tri-part relationship of company foundation NGO by discussing the implications of corporate foundations taking an active role in the realm of corporate social...... responsibility (CSR). The paper hence illuminates the fascinating and overlooked role of corporate foundations as potential bridges between business and civil society. It also informs theory on boundary organizations by clarifying challenges and limits of such institutions.......This paper aims to explore the potential of Danish corporate foundations as boundary organizations facilitating relationships between their founding companies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Hitherto, research has been silent about the role of corporate foundations in relation to cross...

  16. Global forces and local currents in Argentina's science policy crossroads: restricted access or open knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Javier Etchichury

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the tensions between two competing approaches to scientific policy in Argentina. The traditional vision favors autonomous research. The neoliberal conception fosters the link between science and markets. In the past few years, a neodevelopmentalist current also tries to stress relevance of scientific research. Finally, the article describes how the Open Access movement has entered the debate. The World Bank intervention and the human rights dimension of the question are discussed in depth. The article introduces the notion of open knowledge as a guiding criterion to design a human-rights based scientific policy.

  17. White paper on science and technology, 1997. Striving for an open research community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report concerns the policy measures intended to promote science and technology, pursuant to Article 8 of the Science and Technology Basic Law (Law No. 130), enacted in 1995. This report is constituted from three parts. Part 1 and 2 discuss trends in a wide range of scientific and technological activities to help the reader understand the policy measures implemented to promote science and technology, which are then discussed in Part 3. Part 1, titled 'striving for an open research community', attempt an analysis of reform and current and future issues addressed in the Science and Technology Basic Plan, which was enacted in July, 1996. Part 2 uses various data to compare scientific and technological activities in Japan with those in other selected countries. Part 3 relates to policies implanted for the promotion of science and technology in the Science and Technology Agency, Japan Government. Here is described on science and technology policy development, development of comprehensive and systematic policies and promotion of research activities. (G.K.)

  18. 10th December 2010 - German Delegation from the Novartis Foundation for Sustainable Development visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Technology Department S. Russenschuck and accompanied by Adviser for Life Sciences M. Dosanjh.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    10th December 2010 - German Delegation from the Novartis Foundation for Sustainable Development visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Technology Department S. Russenschuck and accompanied by Adviser for Life Sciences M. Dosanjh.

  19. Cooperation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and The Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and The Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High Energy Physics

  20. An Open Science Peer Review Oath [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4wf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Aleksic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the foundations of the scientific method is to be able to reproduce experiments and corroborate the results of research that has been done before. However, with the increasing complexities of new technologies and techniques, coupled with the specialisation of experiments, reproducing research findings has become a growing challenge. Clearly, scientific methods must be conveyed succinctly, and with clarity and rigour, in order for research to be reproducible. Here, we propose steps to help increase the transparency of the scientific method and the reproducibility of research results: specifically, we introduce a peer-review oath and accompanying manifesto. These have been designed to offer guidelines to enable reviewers (with the minimum friction or bias to follow and apply open science principles, and support the ideas of transparency, reproducibility and ultimately greater societal impact. Introducing the oath and manifesto at the stage of peer review will help to check that the research being published includes everything that other researchers would need to successfully repeat the work. Peer review is the lynchpin of the publishing system: encouraging the community to consciously (and conscientiously uphold these principles should help to improve published papers, increase confidence in the reproducibility of the work and, ultimately, provide strategic benefits to authors and their institutions.

  1. Unlocking the full potential of open innovation in the life sciences through a classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Niclas; Minssen, Timo

    2018-04-01

    A common understanding of expectations and requirements is critical for boosting research-driven business opportunities in open innovation (OI) settings. Transparent communication requires common definitions and standards for OI to align the expectations of both parties. Here, we suggest a five-level classification system for OI models, reflecting the degree of openness. The aim of this classification system is to reduce contract negotiation complexity and times between two parties looking to engage in OI. Systematizing definitions and contractual terms for OI in the life sciences helps to reduce entry barriers and boosts collaborative value generation. By providing a contractual framework with predefined rules, science will be allowed to move more freely, thus maximizing the potential of OI. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Challenges of Virtual and Open Distance Science Teacher Education in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vongai Mpofu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study of the implementation of science teacher education through virtual and open distance learning in the Mashonaland Central Province, Zimbabwe. The study provides insight into challenges faced by students and lecturers on inception of the program at four centres. Data was collected from completed evaluation survey forms of forty-two lecturers who were directly involved at the launch of the program and in-depth interviews. Qualitative data analysis revealed that the programme faces potential threat from centre-, institution-, lecturer-, and student-related factors. These include limited resources, large classes, inadequate expertise in open and distance education, inappropriate science teacher education qualifications, implementer conflict of interest in program participation, students’ low self-esteem, lack of awareness of quality parameters of delivery systems among staff, and lack of standard criteria to measure the quality of services. The paper recommends that issues raised be addressed in order to produce quality teachers.

  3. Improved Management of Water and Natural Resources Requires Open, Cognizant, Adaptive Science and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P. D.; Voinov, A. A.; Shapiro, C. D.; Jenni, K. E.

    2017-12-01

    Water issues impact the availability and use of other natural resources as well as environmental conditions. In an increasingly populated hyper-connected world, water issues are increasingly "wicked problems": complex problems with high uncertainties and no independent observers. Water is essential to life, and life affects water quality and availability. Scientists, managers, decision-makers, and the greater public all have a stake in improving the management of water resources. In turn, they are part of the systems that they are studying, deciding on, affecting, or trying to improve. Governance of water issues requires greater accessibility, traceability, and accountability (ATA) in science and policy. Water-related studies and decision-making need transdisciplinary science, inclusive participatory processes, and consideration and acceptance of multiple perspectives. Biases, Beliefs, Heuristics, and Values (BBHV) shape much of our perceptions and knowledge, and inevitably, affect both science and policy. Understanding the role of BBHV is critical to (1) understanding individual and group judgments and choices, (2) recognizing potential differences between societal "wants" and societal "needs", and (3) identifying "winners" and "losers" of policy decisions. Societal acceptance of proposed policies and actions can be fostered by enhancing participatory processes and by providing greater ATA in science, in policy, and in development of the laws, rules, and traditions that constrain decision-making. An adaptive science-infused governance framework is proposed that seeks greater cognizance of the role of BBHV in shaping science and policy choices and decisions, and that also seeks "Open Traceable Accountable Policy" to complement "Open Science". We discuss the limitations of the governance that we suggest, as well as tools and approaches to help implementation.

  4. Polymers – A New Open Access Scientific Journal on Polymer Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymers is a new interdisciplinary, Open Access scientific journal on polymer science, published by Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI. This journal welcomes manuscript submissions on polymer chemistry, macromolecular chemistry, polymer physics, polymer characterization and all related topics. Both synthetic polymers and natural polymers, including biopolymers, are considered. Manuscripts will be thoroughly peer-reviewed in a timely fashion, and papers will be published, if accepted, within 6 to 8 weeks after submission. [...

  5. Challenges of Virtual and Open Distance Science Teacher Education in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Vongai Mpofu; Tendai Samukange; Lovemore M Kusure; Tinoidzwa M Zinyandu; Clever Denhere; Nyakotyo Huggins; Chingombe Wiseman; Shakespear Ndlovu; Rennias Chiveya; Monica Matavire; Leckson Mukavhi; Isaac Gwizangwe; Elliot Magombe; Munyaradzi Magomelo; Fungai Sithole

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the implementation of science teacher education through virtual and open distance learning in the Mashonaland Central Province, Zimbabwe. The study provides insight into challenges faced by students and lecturers on inception of the program at four centres. Data was collected from completed evaluation survey forms of forty-two lecturers who were directly involved at the launch of the program and in-depth interviews. Qualitative data analysis revealed that the ...

  6. Foundation Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Method of installing a bucket foundation structure comprising one, two, three or more skirts, into soils in a controlled manner. The method comprises two stages: a first stage being a design phase and the second stage being an installation phase. In the first stage, design parameters are determined...... relating to the loads on the finished foundation structure; soil profile on the location; allowable installation tolerances, which parameters are used to estimate the minimum diameter and length of the skirts of the bucket. The bucket size is used to simulate load situations and penetration into foundation...

  7. The ICTJA-CSIC Science Week 2016: an open door to Earth Sciences for secondary education students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Picas, Jordi; Diaz, Jordi; Fernandez-Turiel, Jose-Luis; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel; Geyer, Adelina; Jurado, Maria-Jose; Montoya, Encarni; Rejas Alejos, Marta; Sánchez-Pastor, Pilar; Valverde-Perez, Angel

    2017-04-01

    The Science Week is one of the main scientific outreach events every year in Spain. The Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera of CSIC (ICTJA-CSIC) participates in it since many years ago, opening its doors and proposing several activities in which it is shown what kind of multidisciplinary research is being developed at the Institute and in Geosciences. The activities,developed as workshops, are designed and conducted by scientific and technical personnel of the centre, who participates in the Science Week voluntarily. The activities proposed by the ICTJA-CSIC staff are designed for a target audience composed by secondary school students (12-18 years). The ICTJA-CSIC joined Science Week 2016 in the framework of the activity entitled "What we investigate in Earth Sciences?". The aim is to show to the society what is being investigated in the ICTJA-CSIC. In addition, it is intended, with the contact and interaction between the public and the institute researchers, to increase the interest in scientific activity and, if possible, to generate new vocations in the field of the Earth Sciences among secondary school pupils. We show in this communication the experience of the Science Week 2016 at the ICTJA-CSIC, carried out with the effort and commitment of the of the Institute's personnel with the outreach of Earth Sciences research. Between November 14th and 19th 2016, more than 100 students from four secondary schools from Barcelona area visited the Institute and took part in the Science Week. A total of six interactive workshops were prepared showing different features of seismology, geophysical borehole logging, analog and digital modelling, paleoecology, volcanology and geochemistry. As a novelty, this year a new workshop based on an augmented reality sandbox was offered to show and to simulate the processes of creation and evolution of the topographic relief. In addition, within the workshop dedicated to geophysical borehole logging, six exact replicates of

  8. The General Philosophy Behind the New Integrated and Co-ordinated Science Courses in N.S.W. and the Science Foundation for Physics Textbook Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messel, H.; Barker, E. N.

    Described are the science syllabuses and texts for the science courses written to fulfill the aims of the new system of education in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The science course was developed in two stages: (1) A four year integrated science syllabus for grades 7-10, and (2) separate courses in physics, chemistry, and biology with…

  9. Vasculitis Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Board Our Team Anniversary Vasculitis Foundation Newsletters Annual Reports Press Page Literature Order Form Join Contact Us Dream Big Donate Donate Support the VF Through the Amazon Smile Program United Way Giving Ways to Give ...

  10. Marfan Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Click to see what's happening around the country! Marfan syndrome is a life-threatening genetic disorder, and an ...

  11. CARES Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foundation Video Get Involved EMS and Newborn Screening campaigns Clincal trials Fundraisers Support groups Connect and promote with Social Media: Facebook , Twitter , Instagram and LinkedIn News & Notes from ...

  12. Supporting open collaboration in science through explicit and linked semantic description of processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Yolanda; Michel, Felix; Ratnakar, Varun; Read, Jordan S.; Hauder, Matheus; Duffy, Christopher; Hanson, Paul C.; Dugan, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    The Web was originally developed to support collaboration in science. Although scientists benefit from many forms of collaboration on the Web (e.g., blogs, wikis, forums, code sharing, etc.), most collaborative projects are coordinated over email, phone calls, and in-person meetings. Our goal is to develop a collaborative infrastructure for scientists to work on complex science questions that require multi-disciplinary contributions to gather and analyze data, that cannot occur without significant coordination to synthesize findings, and that grow organically to accommodate new contributors as needed as the work evolves over time. Our approach is to develop an organic data science framework based on a task-centered organization of the collaboration, includes principles from social sciences for successful on-line communities, and exposes an open science process. Our approach is implemented as an extension of a semantic wiki platform, and captures formal representations of task decomposition structures, relations between tasks and users, and other properties of tasks, data, and other relevant science objects. All these entities are captured through the semantic wiki user interface, represented as semantic web objects, and exported as linked data.

  13. The Role of Semantics in Open-World, Integrative, Collaborative Science Data Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Peter; Chen, Yanning; Wang, Han; West, Patrick; Erickson, John; Ma, Marshall

    2014-05-01

    As collaborative science spreads into more and more Earth and space science fields, both participants and funders are expressing stronger needs for highly functional data and information capabilities. Characteristics include a) easy to use, b) highly integrated, c) leverage investments, d) accommodate rapid technical change, and e) do not incur undue expense or time to build or maintain - these are not a small set of requirements. Based on our accumulated experience over the last ~ decade and several key technical approaches, we adapt, extend, and integrate several open source applications and frameworks to handle major portions of functionality for these platforms. This includes: an object-type repository, collaboration tools, identity management, all within a portal managing diverse content and applications. In this contribution, we present our methods and results of information models, adaptation, integration and evolution of a networked data science architecture based on several open source technologies (Drupal, VIVO, the Comprehensive Knowledge Archive Network; CKAN, and the Global Handle System; GHS). In particular we present the Deep Carbon Observatory - a platform for international science collaboration. We present and discuss key functional and non-functional attributes, and discuss the general applicability of the platform.

  14. `Opening up' a science task: an exploration of shifting embodied participation of a multilingual primary student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Fernández, Roberto; Siry, Christina

    2018-05-01

    Culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students have different home languages and cultures from many of their peers, In our context, these students suffer from higher school drop-out rates than their peers and are far behind their peers in sciences. This study investigates the interactions of a nine-year-old child whose home language is Portuguese and who learns science in this specific case in a diglossic environment in the Luxembourgish school system, in which his teacher used German for written tasks and Luxembourgish for oral communication. We examine, moment-by-moment, the interactions around a task regarding environmental protection. The role of this Lusoburguês (Luxembourgish and Portuguese identities and nationalities combined) student and his embodiment and participation changes when his group is confronted with an activity that requires an increased amount of manipulation. His identity evolves in interaction, as he becomes the leader in his group, and through a playful stance, manages to open the task so that his peers can further explore. Implications include the value of including more open-ended investigations in the teaching and learning of science as well as implications for further study concerning practice-based approaches in science classrooms with CLD students, particularly in increasingly multilingual/cultural and/or diglossic or heteroglossic school contexts.

  15. Antithetic Foundations of Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Marin DINU

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at decrypting the manner in which the foundations of Economics as a science and the meanings of the relevant explanatory formulas are being shaped. My analytical endeavor focuses on understanding the peculiarities of what is referred to as the object of study of the science known as Economics, an academic synthesis of concept-related breakthroughs regarding economicity. The explicit purpose of this analysis is to identify perennial benchmarks in economic c...

  16. BrightFocus Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About BrightFocus Foundation Featured Content BrightFocus: Investing in Science to Save Mind and Sight We're here to help. Explore ... recognition is very important. Monday, November 6, 2017 New Diagnosis? Managing a mind and sight disease is a journey. And you’ ...

  17. [Continuous funding of National Natural Science Foundation of China has boosted the development of the discipline of ophthalmology over the past 25 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ren-bing; Fan, Xian-qun; Xu, Yan-ying; Dong, Er-dan

    2012-02-01

    To analyze the role of National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) on the development of the discipline of Ophthalmology from 1986 to 2010. Data on the total number of projects and funding of NSFC allocated to Ophthalmology, as well as papers published, awards, personnel training, subject construction were collected, and the role of NSFC on other sources of funding was evaluated. From 1986 to 2010, NSFC supported a total of 593 scientific research projects of Ophthalmology, funding a total amount of 152.44 million Yuan, among which were 371 free application projects, 156 Young Scientist Funds, 9 Key Programs, 5 National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars, 3 Major international (regional) joint research programs, 1 Science Fund for Creative Research Group and 48 other projects. Over the past 25 years, the number of NSFC projects received by Ophthalmology has been an overall upward trend in the share in the Department of Life (Health) Sciences. Take the projects (186 of 292, 63.7%) as examples completed between 2002 and 2010, a total 262 papers were published in Science Citation Index (SCI) included journals and 442 papers were published in Chinese journals. Meanwhile, 8 Second prizes of National Science and Technology Progress Award and 1 State Technological Invention Award were received. As of 2010, the training of a total of more than 40 postdoctoral, more than 400 doctoral students and more than 600 graduate students have been completed. 5 national key disciplines and 1 national key laboratory have been built. Moreover, 2 "973" programs from Ministry of Science and Technology and 1 project of special fund in the public interest from Ministry of Public Health were obtained. 2 scholars were among the list of Yangtze Fund Scholars granted by Ministry of Education. Over the past 25 years, a full range of continuous funding from NSFC has led to fruitful results and a strong impetus to the progress of discipline of Ophthalmology.

  18. Foundations of data-intensive science: Technology and practice for high throughput, widely distributed, data management and analysis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, William; Ernst, M.; Dart, E.; Tierney, B.

    2014-04-01

    Today's large-scale science projects involve world-wide collaborations depend on moving massive amounts of data from an instrument to potentially thousands of computing and storage systems at hundreds of collaborating institutions to accomplish their science. This is true for ATLAS and CMS at the LHC, and it is true for the climate sciences, Belle-II at the KEK collider, genome sciences, the SKA radio telescope, and ITER, the international fusion energy experiment. DOE's Office of Science has been collecting science discipline and instrument requirements for network based data management and analysis for more than a decade. As a result of this certain key issues are seen across essentially all science disciplines that rely on the network for significant data transfer, even if the data quantities are modest compared to projects like the LHC experiments. These issues are what this talk will address; to wit: 1. Optical signal transport advances enabling 100 Gb/s circuits that span the globe on optical fiber with each carrying 100 such channels; 2. Network router and switch requirements to support high-speed international data transfer; 3. Data transport (TCP is still the norm) requirements to support high-speed international data transfer (e.g. error-free transmission); 4. Network monitoring and testing techniques and infrastructure to maintain the required error-free operation of the many R&E networks involved in international collaborations; 5. Operating system evolution to support very high-speed network I/O; 6. New network architectures and services in the LAN (campus) and WAN networks to support data-intensive science; 7. Data movement and management techniques and software that can maximize the throughput on the network connections between distributed data handling systems, and; 8. New approaches to widely distributed workflow systems that can support the data movement and analysis required by the science. All of these areas must be addressed to enable large

  19. Open Science Meets Stem Cells: A New Drug Discovery Approach for Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chanshuai; Chaineau, Mathilde; Chen, Carol X-Q; Beitel, Lenore K; Durcan, Thomas M

    2018-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a challenge for drug discovery, as the biological mechanisms are complex and poorly understood, with a paucity of models that faithfully recapitulate these disorders. Recent advances in stem cell technology have provided a paradigm shift, providing researchers with tools to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patient cells. With the potential to generate any human cell type, we can now generate human neurons and develop "first-of-their-kind" disease-relevant assays for small molecule screening. Now that the tools are in place, it is imperative that we accelerate discoveries from the bench to the clinic. Using traditional closed-door research systems raises barriers to discovery, by restricting access to cells, data and other research findings. Thus, a new strategy is required, and the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) and its partners are piloting an "Open Science" model. One signature initiative will be that the MNI biorepository will curate and disseminate patient samples in a more accessible manner through open transfer agreements. This feeds into the MNI open drug discovery platform, focused on developing industry-standard assays with iPSC-derived neurons. All cell lines, reagents and assay findings developed in this open fashion will be made available to academia and industry. By removing the obstacles many universities and companies face in distributing patient samples and assay results, our goal is to accelerate translational medical research and the development of new therapies for devastating neurodegenerative disorders.

  20. Open science resources for the discovery and analysis of Tara Oceans data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesant, Stéphane; Not, Fabrice; Picheral, Marc; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Le Bescot, Noan; Gorsky, Gabriel; Iudicone, Daniele; Karsenti, Eric; Speich, Sabrina; Troublé, Romain; Dimier, Céline; Searson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The Tara Oceans expedition (2009-2013) sampled contrasting ecosystems of the world oceans, collecting environmental data and plankton, from viruses to metazoans, for later analysis using modern sequencing and state-of-the-art imaging technologies. It surveyed 210 ecosystems in 20 biogeographic provinces, collecting over 35,000 samples of seawater and plankton. The interpretation of such an extensive collection of samples in their ecological context requires means to explore, assess and access raw and validated data sets. To address this challenge, the Tara Oceans Consortium offers open science resources, including the use of open access archives for nucleotides (ENA) and for environmental, biogeochemical, taxonomic and morphological data (PANGAEA), and the development of on line discovery tools and collaborative annotation tools for sequences and images. Here, we present an overview of Tara Oceans Data, and we provide detailed registries (data sets) of all campaigns (from port-to-port), stations and sampling events.

  1. Open data used in water sciences - Review of access, licenses and understandability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenroth, Esa; Lagerbäck Adolphi, Emma; Arheimer, Berit

    2016-04-01

    The amount of open data available for hydrology research is continually growing. In the EU-funded project SWITCH-ON (Sharing Water-related Information to Tackle Changes in the Hydrosphere - for Operational Needs: www.water-switch-on.eu), we are addressing water concerns by exploring and exploiting the untapped potential of these new open data. This work is enabled by many ongoing efforts to facilitate the use of open data. For instance, a number of portals provide the means to search for open data sets and open spatial data services (such as the GEOSS Portal, INSPIRE community geoportal or various Climate Services and public portals). However, in general, many research groups in water sciences still hesitate in using this open data. We therefore examined some limiting factors. Factors that limit usability of a dataset include: (1) accessibility, (2) understandability and (3) licences. In the SWITCH-ON project we have developed a search tool for finding and accessing data with relevance to water science in Europe, as the existing ones are not addressing data needs in water sciences specifically. The tool is filled with some 9000 sets of metadata and each one is linked to water related key-words. The keywords are based on the ones developed within the CUAHSI community in USA, but extended with non-hydrosphere topics, additional subclasses and only showing keywords actually having data. Access to data sets: 78% of the data is directly accessible, while the rest is either available after registration and request, or through a web client for visualisation but without direct download. However, several data sets were found to be inaccessible due to server downtime, incorrect links or problems with the host database management system. One possible explanation for this could be that many datasets have been assembled by research project that no longer are funded. Hence, their server infrastructure would be less maintained compared to large-scale operational services

  2. Pika: A snow science simulation tool built using the open-source framework MOOSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, A.; Johnson, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investing millions of dollars annually into various modeling and simulation tools for all aspects of nuclear energy. An important part of this effort includes developing applications based on the open-source Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE; mooseframework.org) from Idaho National Laboratory (INL).Thanks to the efforts of the DOE and outside collaborators, MOOSE currently contains a large set of physics modules, including phase-field, level set, heat conduction, tensor mechanics, Navier-Stokes, fracture and crack propagation (via the extended finite-element method), flow in porous media, and others. The heat conduction, tensor mechanics, and phase-field modules, in particular, are well-suited for snow science problems. Pika--an open-source MOOSE-based application--is capable of simulating both 3D, coupled nonlinear continuum heat transfer and large-deformation mechanics applications (such as settlement) and phase-field based micro-structure applications. Additionally, these types of problems may be coupled tightly in a single solve or across length and time scales using a loosely coupled Picard iteration approach. In addition to the wide range of physics capabilities, MOOSE-based applications also inherit an extensible testing framework, graphical user interface, and documentation system; tools that allow MOOSE and other applications to adhere to nuclear software quality standards. The snow science community can learn from the nuclear industry and harness the existing effort to build simulation tools that are open, modular, and share a common framework. In particular, MOOSE-based multiphysics solvers are inherently parallel, dimension agnostic, adaptive in time and space, fully coupled, and capable of interacting with other applications. The snow science community should build on existing tools to enable collaboration between researchers and practitioners throughout the world, and advance the

  3. Geosciences: An Open Access Journal on Earth and Planetary Sciences and Their Interdisciplinary Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Martinez-Frias

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available On behalf of the Editorial Board and the editorial management staff of MDPI, it is my great pleasure to introduce this new journal Geosciences. Geosciences is an international, peer-reviewed open access journal, which publishes original papers, rapid communications, technical notes and review articles, and discussions about all interdisciplinary aspects of the earth and planetary sciences. Geosciences may also include papers presented at scientific conferences (proceedings or articles on a well defined topic assembled by individual editors or organizations/institutions (special publications.

  4. Analysis of the current use, benefit, and value of the Open Science Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, R; Weichel, J

    2010-01-01

    The Open Science Grid usage has ramped up more than 25% in the past twelve months due to both the increase in throughput of the core stakeholders - US LHC, LIGO and Run II - and increase in usage by non-physics communities. It is important to understand the value collaborative projects, such as the OSG, contribute to the scientific community. This needs to be cognizant of the environment of commercial cloud offerings, the evolving and maturing middleware for grid based distributed computing, and the evolution in science and research dependence on computation. We present a first categorization of OSG value and analysis across several different aspects of the Consortium's goals and activities. And lastly, we presents some of the upcoming challenges of LHC data analysis ramp up and our ongoing contributions to the World Wide LHC Computing Grid.

  5. The integration of open access journals in the scholarly communication system: Three science fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2009-01-01

    across disciplines. This study is an analysis of the citing behaviour in journals within three science fields: biology, mathematics, and pharmacy and pharmacology. It is a statistical analysis of OAJs as well as non-OAJs including both the citing and cited side of the journal to journal citations......The greatest number of open access journals (OAJs) is found in the sciences and their influence is growing. However, there are only a few studies on the acceptance and thereby integration of these OAJs in the scholarly communication system. Even fewer studies provide insight into the differences....... The multivariate linear regression reveals many similarities in citing behaviour across fields and media. But it also points to great differences in the integration of OAJs. The integration of OAJs in the scholarly communication system varies considerably across fields. The implications for bibliometric research...

  6. Analysis of the Current Use, Benefit, and Value of the Open Science Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, R.; /Fermilab

    2009-04-01

    The Open Science Grid usage has ramped up more than 25% in the past twelve months due to both the increase in throughput of the core stakeholders - US LHC, LIGO and Run II - and increase in usage by nonphysics communities. It is important to understand the value collaborative projects, such as the OSG, contribute to the scientific community. This needs to be cognizant of the environment of commercial cloud offerings, the evolving and maturing middleware for grid based distributed computing, and the evolution in science and research dependence on computation. We present a first categorization of OSG value and analysis across several different aspects of the Consortium's goals and activities. And lastly, we presents some of the upcoming challenges of LHC data analysis ramp up and our ongoing contributions to the World Wide LHC Computing Grid.

  7. Arthritis Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vision Leadership News Partners & Sponsors Careers Code of Ethics Financials Annual Report Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms & Conditions Donate Press Store Blog Community Local Offices Kids Get Arthritis Too Español Arthritis Today Social Media Newsletters Sign Up for E-Newsletters Arthritis Foundation ...

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: Research: Research Foundations: Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundations Bioscience Computing & Information Science Electromagnetics Engineering Science Geoscience Mexico Small Business Assistance Program Sandia Science & Technology Park Careers Community Library Events Careers View All Jobs Students & Postdocs Internships & Co-ops Fellowships

  9. Optimization Foundations and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, H Ronald

    2011-01-01

    A thorough and highly accessible resource for analysts in a broad range of social sciences. Optimization: Foundations and Applications presents a series of approaches to the challenges faced by analysts who must find the best way to accomplish particular objectives, usually with the added complication of constraints on the available choices. Award-winning educator Ronald E. Miller provides detailed coverage of both classical, calculus-based approaches and newer, computer-based iterative methods. Dr. Miller lays a solid foundation for both linear and nonlinear models and quickly moves on to dis

  10. A Template for Open Inquiry: Using Questions to Encourage and Support Inquiry in Earth and Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Ronald S.; Miranda, Rommel J.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an instructional approach to helping students generate open-inquiry research questions, which the authors call the "open-inquiry question template." This template was created based on their experience teaching high school science and preservice university methods courses. To help teachers implement this template, they…

  11. Unleashing the Power of Science in Early Childhood: A Foundation for High-Quality Interactions and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Daryl B.; Alexander, Alexandra; Frechette, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    When science is integrated into early childhood learning experiences, it becomes a critical area supporting young children's development. Young children are natural scientists, curious about their world, and they engage in scientific practices to learn about and explore their world. This article describes how the K-12 Framework for Science…

  12. Enabling a new Paradigm to Address Big Data and Open Science Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, Mohan; Fisher, Ward

    2017-04-01

    Data are not only the lifeblood of the geosciences but they have become the currency of the modern world in science and society. Rapid advances in computing, communi¬cations, and observational technologies — along with concomitant advances in high-resolution modeling, ensemble and coupled-systems predictions of the Earth system — are revolutionizing nearly every aspect of our field. Modern data volumes from high-resolution ensemble prediction/projection/simulation systems and next-generation remote-sensing systems like hyper-spectral satellite sensors and phased-array radars are staggering. For example, CMIP efforts alone will generate many petabytes of climate projection data for use in assessments of climate change. And NOAA's National Climatic Data Center projects that it will archive over 350 petabytes by 2030. For researchers and educators, this deluge and the increasing complexity of data brings challenges along with the opportunities for discovery and scientific breakthroughs. The potential for big data to transform the geosciences is enormous, but realizing the next frontier depends on effectively managing, analyzing, and exploiting these heterogeneous data sources, extracting knowledge and useful information from heterogeneous data sources in ways that were previously impossible, to enable discoveries and gain new insights. At the same time, there is a growing focus on the area of "Reproducibility or Replicability in Science" that has implications for Open Science. The advent of cloud computing has opened new avenues for not only addressing both big data and Open Science challenges to accelerate scientific discoveries. However, to successfully leverage the enormous potential of cloud technologies, it will require the data providers and the scientific communities to develop new paradigms to enable next-generation workflows and transform the conduct of science. Making data readily available is a necessary but not a sufficient condition. Data providers

  13. The Open Science Peer Review Oath [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4ou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Aleksic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the foundations of the scientific method is to be able to reproduce experiments and corroborate the results of research that has been done before. However, with the increasing complexities of new technologies and techniques, coupled with the specialisation of experiments, reproducing research findings has become a growing challenge. Clearly, scientific methods must be conveyed succinctly, and with clarity and rigour, in order for research to be reproducible. Here, we propose steps to help increase the transparency of the scientific method and the reproducibility of research results: specifically, we introduce a peer-review oath and accompanying manifesto. These have been designed to offer guidelines to enable reviewers (with the minimum friction or bias to follow and apply open science principles, and support the ideas of transparency, reproducibility and ultimately greater societal impact. Introducing the oath and manifesto at the stage of peer review will help to check that the research being published includes everything that other researchers would need to successfully repeat the work. Peer review is the lynchpin of the publishing system: encouraging the community to consciously (and conscientiously uphold these principles should help to improve published papers, increase confidence in the reproducibility of the work and, ultimately, provide strategic benefits to authors and their institutions. Future incarnations of the various national Research Excellence Frameworks (REFs will evolve away from simple citations towards measurable societal value and impact. The proposed manifesto aspires to facilitate this goal by making transparency, reproducibility and citizen-scientist engagement (with the knowledge-creation and dissemination processes the default parameters for performing sound research.

  14. Afraid of Scooping – Case Study on Researcher Strategies against Fear of Scooping in the Context of Open Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Laine

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The risk of scooping is often used as a counter argument for open science, especially open data. In this case study I have examined openness strategies, practices and attitudes in two open collaboration research projects created by Finnish researchers, in order to understand what made them resistant to the fear of scooping. The radically open approach of the projects includes open by default funding proposals, co-authorship and community membership. Primary sources used are interviews of the projects’ founding members. The analysis indicates that openness requires trust in close peers, but not necessarily in research community or society at large. Based on the case study evidence, focusing on intrinsic goals, like new knowledge and bringing about ethical reform, instead of external goals such as publications, supports openness. Understanding fundaments of science, philosophy of science and research ethics, can also have a beneficial effect on willingness to share. Whether there are aspects in open sharing that makes it seem riskier from the point of view of certain demographical groups within research community, such as women, could be worth closer inspection.

  15. Data Science: History repeated? - The heritage of the Free and Open Source GIS community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Peter; Neteler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Data Science is described as the process of knowledge extraction from large data sets by means of scientific methods. The discipline draws heavily from techniques and theories from many fields, which are jointly used to furthermore develop information retrieval on structured or unstructured very large datasets. While the term Data Science was already coined in 1960, the current perception of this field places is still in the first section of the hype cycle according to Gartner, being well en route from the technology trigger stage to the peak of inflated expectations. In our view the future development of Data Science could benefit from the analysis of experiences from related evolutionary processes. One predecessor is the area of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The intrinsic scope of GIS is the integration and storage of spatial information from often heterogeneous sources, data analysis, sharing of reconstructed or aggregated results in visual form or via data transfer. GIS is successfully applied to process and analyse spatially referenced content in a wide and still expanding range of science areas, spanning from human and social sciences like archeology, politics and architecture to environmental and geoscientific applications, even including planetology. This paper presents proven patterns for innovation and organisation derived from the evolution of GIS, which can be ported to Data Science. Within the GIS landscape, three strategic interacting tiers can be denoted: i) Standardisation, ii) applications based on closed-source software, without the option of access to and analysis of the implemented algorithms, and iii) Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) based on freely accessible program code enabling analysis, education and ,improvement by everyone. This paper focuses on patterns gained from the synthesis of three decades of FOSS development. We identified best-practices which evolved from long term FOSS projects, describe the role of community

  16. [Overview of research projects funding in traditional Chinese medicine oncology field supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dong-Xin; Chen, Lian-Yu; Guo, Shu-Zhen; Han, Li-Wei; Zhang, Feng-Zhu

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the funding situation of traditional Chinese medicine oncology research projects supported by National Natural Science Fund from 1986-2016 was reviewed. The characteristics of funded projects were summarized from funding amount, funding expenses, funding category, and the main research contents of projects, etc. At the same time, the main problems in the projects were analyzed in this paper, in order to provide reference for the relevant fund applicants. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. a History of Funding for WOMEN’S Programs at the National Science Foundation: from Individual Powre Approaches to the Advance of Institutional Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Sue V.; Lane, Eliesh O'neil

    The biennial reports on women, minorities, and persons with disabilities produced by the National Science Foundation (NSF) because of congressional mandate laid the statistical foundation for NSF initiatives to redress the underrepresentation of these groups. Programs established in the 1980s such as Research Opportunities for Women, Visiting Professorships for Women, Graduate Fellowships for Women, and Career Advancement Awards provided support to individual women for their research. In the 1990s, the NSF also began to focus on systemic initiatives, creating the Program for Women and Girls, although it continued to address the problem through support of individual researchers in the newly created Professional Opportunities for Women in Research and Education (POWRE) initiative. The responses from more than 400 awardees during the 4 years of POWRE provide insights into the current issues these women perceive surrounding their grants, funding, and interactions with NSF bureaucracy and staff members. The results of the POWRE survey support the institutional, systemic thrust of the NSF’s new ADVANCE initiative to attempt to solve problems such as balancing career and family that cannot be addressed solely by supporting research projects of individual female scientists and engineers.

  18. The integration of Mathematics, Science and Technology in early childhood education and the foundation phase: The role of the formation of the professional identities of beginner teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Botha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the professional identity formation of six beginner teachers (three in early childhood education and three in the foundation phase, involved in the teaching of Mathematics, Science and Technology (MST. Attention is in particular being paid to the role of professional identity in how they applied innovative teaching methods such as enquiry-based teaching. The study is based on the personal narratives of the six teachers, regarding their own learning experiences in MST, the impact of their professional training at an institution of higher education, as well as their first experiences as MST teachers in the workplace. A qualitative research design was applied and data was obtained through visual (photo collages and written stories, observation and interviews. Whilst all the teachers held negative attitudes towards Mathematics, this situation was turned around during their university training. The three teachers in early childhood education experienced their entrance to the profession as positive, due mainly to the support of colleagues in their application of innovative teaching methods. Two teachers in the foundation phase, however, experienced the opposite. The findings emphasise the complex processes in the moulding of a professional teacher identity and how teaching practices are influenced by these processes.

  19. From quantum foundations to applications and back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisin, Nicolas; Fröwis, Florian

    2018-07-13

    Quantum non-locality has been an extremely fruitful subject of research, leading the scientific revolution towards quantum information science, in particular, to device-independent quantum information processing. We argue that the time is ripe to work on another basic problem in the foundations of quantum physics, the quantum measurement problem, which should produce good physics in theoretical, mathematical, experimental and applied physics. We briefly review how quantum non-locality contributed to physics (including some outstanding open problems) and suggest ways in which questions around macroscopic quantumness could equally contribute to all aspects of physics.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Foundations of quantum mechanics and their impact on contemporary society'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  20. Citizen Science and Open Data: a model for Invasive Alien Species in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Cardoso

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Alien Species (IAS are a growing threat to Europe's biodiversity. The implementation of European Union Regulation on IAS can benefit from the involvement of the public in IAS recording and management through Citizen Science (CS initiatives. Aiming to tackle issues related with the use of CS projects on IAS topics, a dedicated workshop titled “Citizen Science and Open Data: a model for Invasive Alien Species in Europe” was organized by the Joint Research Centre (JRC and the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST Association. Fifty key stakeholders from all Europe, including two Members of the European Parliament, attended the workshop. With a clear focus on IAS, the workshop aimed at addressing the following issues: a CS and policy, b citizen engagement, and c CS data management. Nine short presentations provided input on CS and IAS issues. Participants discussed specific topics in several round tables (“world café” style and reported back their conclusions to the audience and full assembly moderated discussions. Overall, the workshop enabled the sharing of ideas, approaches and best practices regarding CS and IAS. Specific opportunities and pitfalls of using CS data in the whole policy cycle for IAS were recognized. Concerning the implementation of the IAS Regulation, CS data could complement official surveillance systems, and contribute to the early warning of the IAS of Union concern after appropriate validation by the Member States’ competent authorities. CS projects can additionally increase awareness and empower citizens. Attendees pointed out the importance for further public engagement in CS projects on IAS that demonstrate specific initiatives and approaches and analyze lessons learned from past experiences. In addition, the workshop noted that the data gathered from different CS projects on IAS are fragmented. It highlighted the need for using an open and accessible platform to upload data originating

  1. GSNL 2.0: leveraging on Open Science to promote science-based decision making in Disaster Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Stefano; Rubbia, Giuliana; Abruzzese, Luigi

    2017-04-01

    In 2010 the GEO Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories initiative (GSNL) launched the concept of a global partnership among the geophysical scientific community and the satellite and in situ data providers, aiming to promote scientific advancements in the knowledge of seismic and volcanic phenomena. The initial goal was successfully achieved, and many more new scientific results were obtained than it could have been possible if the Supersites had not existed (http://www.earthobservations.org/gsnl.php). At the same time the Supersites have demonstrated to be able to effectively support the rapid transfer of useful scientific information to the risk managers, exploiting the existing institutional relationships between the Supersite coordinators and the local decision makers. However, a more demanding call for action is given by the Sendai Framework 2015-2030 (outcome of the 2015 UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction), where for the first time the knowledge of the risk components and the science based decision-making process are defined as top priorities for an effective DRR. There are evident possible synergies between the Sendai framework, GEO, the CEOS (Committee on Earth Observation Satellites), and GSNL, but for maximum benefit and effectiveness the latter needs to progress at a faster pace towards a full implementation of the Open Science approach to geohazard science. In the above global framework the Supersites can represent local test beds where to experiment coordination, collaboration and communication approaches and technological solutions tailored to the local situation, to ensure that the scientific community can contribute the information needed for the best possible decision making. This vision and the new developments of GSNL 2.0 have been approved by the GEO Program Board, and a clear roadmap has been set for the period 2017-2019. We will present the approach and the implementation plan at the conference.

  2. [Analysis of the application and funding projects of National Natural Science Foundation of China in the field of burns and plastic surgery from 2010 to 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z C; Dou, D; Wang, X Y; Xie, D H; Yan, Z C

    2017-02-20

    We analyzed the data of application and funding projects of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) during 2010-2016 in the field of burns and plastic surgery and summarized the NSFC funding pattern, the research hotspots, and weaknesses in this field. The NSFC has funded 460 projects in the field of burns and plastic surgery, with total funding of RMB 227.96 million. The scientific issues involved in the funding projects include orthotherapy against malformations, wound repair, basic research of burns, skin grafting, scars prevention, and regeneration of hair follicle and sweat glands. The research techniques involved in the funding projects are diversified. NSFC plays an important role in the scientific research and talents training in the field of burns and plastic surgery.

  3. [Analysis of hot spots and trend of molecular pharmacognosy research based on project supported by National Natural Science Foundation of 1995-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Wen; Liu, Yang; Tong, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Ce; Li, Hai-Yan

    2016-05-01

    This study collected 1995-2014 molecular pharmacognosy study, a total of 595 items, funded by Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC). TDA and Excel software were used to analyze the data of the projects about general situation, hot spots of research with rank analytic and correlation analytic methods. Supported by NSFC molecular pharmacognosy projects and funding a gradual increase in the number of, the proportion of funds for pharmaceutical research funding tends to be stable; mainly supported by molecular biology methods of genuine medicinal materials, secondary metabolism and Germplasm Resources Research; hot drugs including Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Rehmanniae, Cordyceps sinensis, hot contents including tanshinone biosynthesis, Rehmannia glutinosa continuous cropping obstacle. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Running an open experiment: transparency and reproducibility in soil and ecosystem science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Peyton Smith, A.; Bailey, Vanessa

    2016-08-01

    Researchers in soil and ecosystem science, and almost every other field, are being pushed—by funders, journals, governments, and their peers—to increase transparency and reproducibility of their work. A key part of this effort is a move towards open data as a way to fight post-publication data loss, improve data and code quality, enable powerful meta- and cross-disciplinary analyses, and increase trust in, and the efficiency of, publicly-funded research. Many scientists however lack experience in, and may be unsure of the benefits of, making their data and fully-reproducible analyses publicly available. Here we describe a recent ‘open experiment’, in which we documented every aspect of a soil incubation online, making all raw data, scripts, diagnostics, final analyses, and manuscripts available in real time. We found that using tools such as version control, issue tracking, and open-source statistical software improved data integrity, accelerated our team’s communication and productivity, and ensured transparency. There are many avenues to improve scientific reproducibility and data availability, of which is this only one example, and it is not an approach suited for every experiment or situation. Nonetheless, we encourage the communities in our respective fields to consider its advantages, and to lead rather than follow with respect to scientific reproducibility, transparency, and data availability.

  5. An Open Hardware seismic data recorder - a solid basis for citizen science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertl, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    "Ruwai" is a 24-Bit Open Hardware seismic data recorder. It is built up of four stackable printed circuit boards fitting the Arduino Mega 2560 microcontroller prototyping platform. An interface to the BeagleBone Black single-board computer enables extensive data storage, -processing and networking capabilities. The four printed circuit boards provide a uBlox Lea-6T GPS module and real-time clock (GPS Timing shield), an Texas Instruments ADS1274 24-Bit analog to digital converter (ADC main shield), an analog input section with a Texas Instruments PGA281 programmable gain amplifier and an analog anti-aliasing filter (ADC analog interface pga) and the power conditioning based on 9-36V DC input (power supply shield). The Arduino Mega 2560 is used for controlling the hardware components, timestamping sampled data using the GPS timing information and transmitting the data to the BeagleBone Black single-board computer. The BeagleBone Black provides local data storage, wireless mesh networking using the optimized link state routing daemon and differential GNSS positioning using the RTKLIB software. The complete hardware and software is published under free software - or open hardware licenses and only free software (e.g. KiCad) was used for the development to facilitate the reusability of the design and increases the sustainability of the project. "Ruwai" was developed within the framework of the "Community Environmental Observation Network (CEON)" (http://www.mertl-research.at/ceon/) which was supported by the Internet Foundation Austria (IPA) within the NetIdee 2013 call.

  6. William James on a phenomenological psychology of immediate experience: the true foundation for a science of consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    Throughout his career, William James defended personal consciousness. In his "Principles of Psychology" (1890), he declared that psychology is the scientific study of states of consciousness as such and that he intended to presume from the outset that the thinker was the thought. But while writing it, he had been investigating a dynamic psychology of the subconscious, which found a major place in his Gifford Lectures, published as "The Varieties of Religious Experience" in 1902. This was the clearest statement James was able to make before he died with regard to his developing tripartite metaphysics of pragmatism, pluralism and radical empiricism, which essentially asked "Is a science of consciousness actually possible?" James's lineage in this regard, was inherited from an intuitive psychology of character formation that had been cast within a context of spiritual self-realization by the Swedenborgians and Transcendentalists of New England. Chief among these was his father, Henry James, Sr., and his godfather, Ralph Waldo Emerson. However, james was forced to square these ideas with the more rigorous scientific dictates of his day, which have endured to the present. As such, his ideas remain alive and vibrant, particularly among those arguing for the fusion of phenomenology, embodiment and cognitive neuroscience in the renewed search for a science of consciousness.

  7. Science education through open and distance learning at Higher Education level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita NIGAM

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The changes faced by the society in the past few decades brought revolution in all areas. The job requirements have undergone change tremendously. The emergence of e-culture, e-education, e-governance, e-training, e-work sites and so on questioned the capacity of conventional face to face education in catering to all and relevance of existing job related skills to a great extent in the emerging global society. Today, every one has to update his/her educational and/or professional skills and competencies to cope up with the emerging work challenges. This is more so in the field of science and technology. At the same time, it is impossible to cater to educational and training opportunities to one and all those who aspire for it through the conventional set up. The distance and open learning (ODL seems to be one of the viable alternatives. Today, the success and viability of ODL is accepted globally. Coulter (1989, through a study demonstrated that ODL is a cost-effective medium in providing educational opportunities. Similarly Holmberg (1981 also mentioned ODL as a systematic teaching-learning medium by using variety of medium for imparting learning. The present study is an attempt to study the experiences of the open science learners of IGNOU on different aspect of the science higher education. Here a questionnaire was used to collect the data and responses from 81 students enrolled for B. Sc. from IGNOU were collected. The findings of the study reported that society has undergone drastic changes in the last few decades. The revolution led due to Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs have widely affected all aspects of society. The emerging jobs require entirely new skills and competencies i.e., employment in BPOs or switching over to e-governance, e-Banking and e- based sectors. Even e-learning has made numerous expectations from teachers and other personnel. The use of ICTs in almost every field needs adequately trained

  8. The methodological foundations of mutual integration of scientific knowledge in the field of physical education and sports and related sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of application of scientific knowledge in physical education and sport in contiguous scientific directions are considered. The advanced studies of leading specialists in area of physical education and sport are analysed. It is rotined that on the modern stage scientific developments in area of physical education and sport attained a level, when can be utillized in fundamental and applied sciences. Scientific researches in area of physical education and sport to the application scientific areas, such as pedagogics, psychology, design, programming et al are related. One of examples of mutual integration of scientific knowledge in area of physical education and sport there is theoretical conception of individualization of preparation of sportsmen.

  9. Torsional Post-Buckling of a Simply Supported Thin-Walled Open-Section Beam Resting on a Two-Parameter Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Ch. K.; Rao, L. B.

    2018-01-01

    The problem of the post-buckling response of a simply supported thin-walled beam subjected to an axial compressive load and supported by the Winkler-Pasternak foundation is studied in this paper. The strains are assumed to be small and elastic. The shear deformations and the in-plane cross-sectional deformations are assumed to be negligible. The post-buckling paths of the simply supported beam are determined for different values of the Winkler and Pasternak stiffness parameters. Bifurcation points are found.

  10. Opening science the evolving guide on how the Internet is changing research, collaboration and scholarly publishing

    CERN Document Server

    Friesike, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Modern information and communication technologies, together with a cultural upheaval within the research community, have profoundly changed research in nearly every aspect. Ranging from sharing and discussing ideas in social networks for scientists to new collaborative environments and novel publication formats, knowledge creation and dissemination as we know it is experiencing a vigorous shift towards increased transparency, collaboration and accessibility. Many assume that research workflows will change more in the next 20 years than they have in the last 200. This book provides researchers, decision makers, and other scientific stakeholders with a snapshot of the basics, the tools, and the underlying visions that drive the current scientific (r)evolution, often called ‘Open Science.’

  11. The event notification and alarm system for the Open Science Grid operations center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, S.; Teige and, S.; Quick, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Open Science Grid Operations (OSG) Team operates a distributed set of services and tools that enable the utilization of the OSG by several HEP projects. Without these services users of the OSG would not be able to run jobs, locate resources, obtain information about the status of systems or generally use the OSG. For this reason these services must be highly available. This paper describes the automated monitoring and notification systems used to diagnose and report problems. Described here are the means used by OSG Operations to monitor systems such as physical facilities, network operations, server health, service availability and software error events. Once detected, an error condition generates a message sent to, for example, Email, SMS, Twitter, an Instant Message Server, etc. The mechanism being developed to integrate these monitoring systems into a prioritized and configurable alarming system is emphasized.

  12. Welcome to Systems — A New Interdisciplinary Open Access Journal for Systems Science and Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Huynh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural and human-made systems abound around us. Our solar system, the human body, the food chain, and ecosystems are some examples of natural systems. Some human-made systems are transportation systems, weapon systems, computer systems, software systems, satellite communications systems, ships, missile defense systems, health care systems, the internet, financial systems, and regional economies. Understanding of natural systems is essential to the survival of the human species, which is intertwined with the survival of other species on earth. Having the knowledge and ability to build human-made systems is critical to the employment of systems that effectively serve the needs of their users. To gain such understanding and to acquire such knowledge and ability, it is necessary that cutting-edge research in systems science, systems engineering, and systems-related fields continue. This open access journal aims to achieve quick and global dissemination of results of such research. [...

  13. The event notification and alarm system for the Open Science Grid operations center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, S; Teige and, S; Quick, R [Indiana University, University Information Technology Services (United States)

    2012-12-13

    The Open Science Grid Operations (OSG) Team operates a distributed set of services and tools that enable the utilization of the OSG by several HEP projects. Without these services users of the OSG would not be able to run jobs, locate resources, obtain information about the status of systems or generally use the OSG. For this reason these services must be highly available. This paper describes the automated monitoring and notification systems used to diagnose and report problems. Described here are the means used by OSG Operations to monitor systems such as physical facilities, network operations, server health, service availability and software error events. Once detected, an error condition generates a message sent to, for example, Email, SMS, Twitter, an Instant Message Server, etc. The mechanism being developed to integrate these monitoring systems into a prioritized and configurable alarming system is emphasized.

  14. The event notification and alarm system for the Open Science Grid operations center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, S; Teige and, S; Quick, R

    2012-01-01

    The Open Science Grid Operations (OSG) Team operates a distributed set of services and tools that enable the utilization of the OSG by several HEP projects. Without these services users of the OSG would not be able to run jobs, locate resources, obtain information about the status of systems or generally use the OSG. For this reason these services must be highly available. This paper describes the automated monitoring and notification systems used to diagnose and report problems. Described here are the means used by OSG Operations to monitor systems such as physical facilities, network operations, server health, service availability and software error events. Once detected, an error condition generates a message sent to, for example, Email, SMS, Twitter, an Instant Message Server, etc. The mechanism being developed to integrate these monitoring systems into a prioritized and configurable alarming system is emphasized.

  15. Listmania. How lists can open up fresh possibilities for research in the history of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbourgo, James; Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2012-12-01

    Anthropologists, linguists, cultural historians, and literary scholars have long emphasized the value of examining writing as a material practice and have often invoked the list as a paradigmatic example thereof. This Focus section explores how lists can open up fresh possibilities for research in the history of science. Drawing on examples from the early modern period, the contributors argue that attention to practices of list making reveals important relations between mercantile, administrative, and scientific attempts to organize the contents of the world. Early modern lists projected both spatial and temporal visions of nature: they inventoried objects in the process of exchange and collection; they projected possible trajectories for future endeavor; they publicized the social identities of scientific practitioners; and they became research tools that transformed understandings of the natural order.

  16. Supporting the advancement of science: Open access publishing and the role of mandates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phelps Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In December 2011 the United States House of Representatives introduced a new bill, the Research Works Act (H.R.3699, which if passed could threaten the public's access to US government funded research. In a digital age when professional and lay parties alike look more and more to the online environment to keep up to date with developments in their fields, does this bill serve the best interests of the community? Those in support of the Research Works Act argue that government open access mandates undermine peer-review and take intellectual property from publishers without compensation, however journals like Journal of Translational Medicine show that this is not the case. Journal of Translational Medicine in affiliation with the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer demonstrates how private and public organisations can work together for the advancement of science.

  17. The 2016 Bioinformatics Open Source Conference (BOSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Nomi L; Cock, Peter J A; Chapman, Brad; Fields, Christopher J; Hokamp, Karsten; Lapp, Hilmar; Muñoz-Torres, Monica; Wiencko, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Message from the ISCB: The Bioinformatics Open Source Conference (BOSC) is a yearly meeting organized by the Open Bioinformatics Foundation (OBF), a non-profit group dedicated to promoting the practice and philosophy of Open Source software development and Open Science within the biological research community. BOSC has been run since 2000 as a two-day Special Interest Group (SIG) before the annual ISMB conference. The 17th annual BOSC ( http://www.open-bio.org/wiki/BOSC_2016) took place in Orlando, Florida in July 2016. As in previous years, the conference was preceded by a two-day collaborative coding event open to the bioinformatics community. The conference brought together nearly 100 bioinformatics researchers, developers and users of open source software to interact and share ideas about standards, bioinformatics software development, and open and reproducible science.

  18. Formatting Open Science: agilely creating multiple document formats for academic manuscripts with Pandoc Scholar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Krewinkel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The timely publication of scientific results is essential for dynamic advances in science. The ubiquitous availability of computers which are connected to a global network made the rapid and low-cost distribution of information through electronic channels possible. New concepts, such as Open Access publishing and preprint servers are currently changing the traditional print media business towards a community-driven peer production. However, the cost of scientific literature generation, which is either charged to readers, authors or sponsors, is still high. The main active participants in the authoring and evaluation of scientific manuscripts are volunteers, and the cost for online publishing infrastructure is close to negligible. A major time and cost factor is the formatting of manuscripts in the production stage. In this article we demonstrate the feasibility of writing scientific manuscripts in plain markdown (MD text files, which can be easily converted into common publication formats, such as PDF, HTML or EPUB, using Pandoc. The simple syntax of Markdown assures the long-term readability of raw files and the development of software and workflows. We show the implementation of typical elements of scientific manuscripts—formulas, tables, code blocks and citations—and present tools for editing, collaborative writing and version control. We give an example on how to prepare a manuscript with distinct output formats, a DOCX file for submission to a journal, and a LATEX/PDF version for deposition as a PeerJ preprint. Further, we implemented new features for supporting ‘semantic web’ applications, such as the ‘journal article tag suite’—JATS, and the ‘citation typing ontology’—CiTO standard. Reducing the work spent on manuscript formatting translates directly to time and cost savings for writers, publishers, readers and sponsors. Therefore, the adoption of the MD format contributes to the agile production of open science

  19. Oral Traditions: A Contextual Framework for Complex Science Concepts--Laying the Foundation for a Paradigm of Promise in Rural Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Leanne M.; Hains, Bryan J.

    2017-01-01

    The overarching goal of this paper is to bring a diverse educational context--rural sayings and oral traditions situated in ecological habitats--to light and emphasize that they need to be taken into consideration regarding twenty-first century science education. The rural sayings or tenets presented here are also considered alternative ways of…

  20. Social.Water--Open Source Citizen Science Software for CrowdHydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienen, M. N.; Lowry, C.

    2013-12-01

    CrowdHydrology is a crowd-sourced citizen science project in which passersby near streams are encouraged to read a gage and send an SMS (text) message with the water level to a number indicated on a sign. The project was initially started using free services such as Google Voice, Gmail, and Google Maps to acquire and present the data on the internet. Social.Water is open-source software, using Python and JavaScript, that automates the acquisition, categorization, and presentation of the data. Open-source objectives pervade both the project and the software as the code is hosted at Github, only free scripting codes are used, and any person or organization can install a gage and join the CrowdHydrology network. In the first year, 10 sites were deployed in upstate New York, USA. In the second year, expansion to 44 sites throughout the upper Midwest USA was achieved. Comparison with official USGS and academic measurements have shown low error rates. Citizen participation varies greatly from site to site, so surveys or other social information is sought for insight into why some sites experience higher rates of participation than others.

  1. When data sharing gets close to 100%: what human paleogenetics can teach the open science movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Paolo; Capocasa, Marco; Milia, Nicola; Sanna, Emanuele; Battaggia, Cinzia; Luzi, Daniela; Destro Bisol, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes data sharing regarding mitochondrial, Y chromosomal and autosomal polymorphisms in a total of 162 papers on ancient human DNA published between 1988 and 2013. The estimated sharing rate was not far from totality (97.6% ± 2.1%) and substantially higher than observed in other fields of genetic research (evolutionary, medical and forensic genetics). Both a questionnaire-based survey and the examination of Journals' editorial policies suggest that this high sharing rate cannot be simply explained by the need to comply with stakeholders requests. Most data were made available through body text, but the use of primary databases increased in coincidence with the introduction of complete mitochondrial and next-generation sequencing methods. Our study highlights three important aspects. First, our results imply that researchers' awareness of the importance of openness and transparency for scientific progress may complement stakeholders' policies in achieving very high sharing rates. Second, widespread data sharing does not necessarily coincide with a prevalent use of practices which maximize data findability, accessibility, useability and preservation. A detailed look at the different ways in which data are released can be very useful to detect failures to adopt the best sharing modalities and understand how to correct them. Third and finally, the case of human paleogenetics tells us that a widespread awareness of the importance of Open Science may be important to build reliable scientific practices even in the presence of complex experimental challenges.

  2. The CEDPS troubleshooting architecture and deployment on the open science grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierney, Brian L; Gunter, Dan; Schopf, Jennifer M

    2007-01-01

    Tracking failures and poor performance across a widely distributed system of resources has proven challenging for many ongoing DOE applications. An example is the Open Science Grid (OSG) project, which currently experiences a roughly 15% job failure rate. This can be an issue not only for Grid computing but for anyone performing large-scale data transfers to remote machines because of the large number of interconnected components and services. As part of the Center for Enabling Distributed Petascale Science (CEDPS) project we have been building an infrastructure to work with current middleware and existing system tools to more easily track failures and discover anomalous behavior. This consists of a common logging format, the extension of syslog-ng for centralized collection of data, a data summarizer to more easily manage the volume of logging, and an anomaly detection system that can connect to a warning system when unexpected behaviors occur. We are currently working with OSG to deploy a prototype of the full system. The initial logs gathered will be used to extend the analysis tools and to increase the reliability of the services for the SciDAC end user community

  3. Web-Enabled Mechanistic Case Diagramming: A Novel Tool for Assessing Students' Ability to Integrate Foundational and Clinical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kristi J; Kreiter, Clarence D; Haugen, Thomas H; Dee, Fred R

    2018-02-20

    As medical schools move from discipline-based courses to more integrated approaches, identifying assessment tools that parallel this change is an important goal. The authors describe the use of test item statistics to assess the reliability and validity of web-enabled mechanistic case diagrams (MCDs) as a potential tool to assess students' ability to integrate basic science and clinical information. Students review a narrative clinical case and construct an MCD using items provided by the case author. Students identify the relationships among underlying risk factors, etiology, pathogenesis and pathophysiology, and the patients' signs and symptoms. They receive one point for each correctly-identified link. In 2014-15 and 2015-16, case diagrams were implemented in consecutive classes of 150 medical students. The alpha reliability coefficient for the overall score, constructed using each student's mean proportion correct across all cases, was 0.82. Discrimination indices for each of the case scores with the overall score ranged from 0.23 to 0.51. In a G study using those students with complete data (n = 251) on all 16 cases, 10% of the variance was true score variance, and systematic case variance was large. Using 16 cases generated a G coefficient (relative score reliability) equal to .72 and a Phi equal to .65. The next phase of the project will involve deploying MCDs in higher-stakes settings to determine whether similar results can be achieved. Further analyses will determine whether these assessments correlate with other measures of higher-order thinking skills.

  4. BioFed: federated query processing over life sciences linked open data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Ali; Mehmood, Qaiser; Sana E Zainab, Syeda; Saleem, Muhammad; Warren, Claude; Zehra, Durre; Decker, Stefan; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2017-03-15

    Biomedical data, e.g. from knowledge bases and ontologies, is increasingly made available following open linked data principles, at best as RDF triple data. This is a necessary step towards unified access to biological data sets, but this still requires solutions to query multiple endpoints for their heterogeneous data to eventually retrieve all the meaningful information. Suggested solutions are based on query federation approaches, which require the submission of SPARQL queries to endpoints. Due to the size and complexity of available data, these solutions have to be optimised for efficient retrieval times and for users in life sciences research. Last but not least, over time, the reliability of data resources in terms of access and quality have to be monitored. Our solution (BioFed) federates data over 130 SPARQL endpoints in life sciences and tailors query submission according to the provenance information. BioFed has been evaluated against the state of the art solution FedX and forms an important benchmark for the life science domain. The efficient cataloguing approach of the federated query processing system 'BioFed', the triple pattern wise source selection and the semantic source normalisation forms the core to our solution. It gathers and integrates data from newly identified public endpoints for federated access. Basic provenance information is linked to the retrieved data. Last but not least, BioFed makes use of the latest SPARQL standard (i.e., 1.1) to leverage the full benefits for query federation. The evaluation is based on 10 simple and 10 complex queries, which address data in 10 major and very popular data sources (e.g., Dugbank, Sider). BioFed is a solution for a single-point-of-access for a large number of SPARQL endpoints providing life science data. It facilitates efficient query generation for data access and provides basic provenance information in combination with the retrieved data. BioFed fully supports SPARQL 1.1 and gives access to the

  5. Opening up animal research and science-society relations? A thematic analysis of transparency discourses in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Carmen; Hobson-West, Pru

    2016-10-01

    The use of animals in scientific research represents an interesting case to consider in the context of the contemporary preoccupation with transparency and openness in science and governance. In the United Kingdom, organisations critical of animal research have long called for more openness. More recently, organisations involved in animal research also seem to be embracing transparency discourses. This article provides a detailed analysis of publically available documents from animal protection groups, the animal research community and government/research funders. Our aim is to explore the similarities and differences in the way transparency is constructed and to identify what more openness is expected to achieve. In contrast to the existing literature, we conclude that the slipperiness of transparency discourses may ultimately have transformative implications for the relationship between science and society and that contemporary openness initiatives might be sowing the seeds for change to the status quo. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Towards a global participatory platform. Democratising open data, complexity science and collective intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham Shum, S.; Aberer, K.; Schmidt, A.; Bishop, S.; Lukowicz, P.; Anderson, S.; Charalabidis, Y.; Domingue, J.; de Freitas, S.; Dunwell, I.; Edmonds, B.; Grey, F.; Haklay, M.; Jelasity, M.; Karpištšenko, A.; Kohlhammer, J.; Lewis, J.; Pitt, J.; Sumner, R.; Helbing, D.

    2012-11-01

    The FuturICT project seeks to use the power of big data, analytic models grounded in complexity science, and the collective intelligence they yield for societal benefit. Accordingly, this paper argues that these new tools should not remain the preserve of restricted government, scientific or corporate élites, but be opened up for societal engagement and critique. To democratise such assets as a public good, requires a sustainable ecosystem enabling different kinds of stakeholder in society, including but not limited to, citizens and advocacy groups, school and university students, policy analysts, scientists, software developers, journalists and politicians. Our working name for envisioning a sociotechnical infrastructure capable of engaging such a wide constituency is the Global Participatory Platform (GPP). We consider what it means to develop a GPP at the different levels of data, models and deliberation, motivating a framework for different stakeholders to find their ecological niches at different levels within the system, serving the functions of (i) sensing the environment in order to pool data, (ii) mining the resulting data for patterns in order to model the past/present/future, and (iii) sharing and contesting possible interpretations of what those models might mean, and in a policy context, possible decisions. A research objective is also to apply the concepts and tools of complexity science and social science to the project's own work. We therefore conceive the global participatory platform as a resilient, epistemic ecosystem, whose design will make it capable of self-organization and adaptation to a dynamic environment, and whose structure and contributions are themselves networks of stakeholders, challenges, issues, ideas and arguments whose structure and dynamics can be modelled and analysed.

  7. Neue Aufgaben für wissenschaftliche Bibliotheken: Das Beispiel Open Science Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambert Heller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Vor dem Hintergrund des Aufkommens vieler neuer digitaler Werkzeuge und Methoden zur Unterstützung des wissenschaftlichen Arbeitens wird seit etwa fünf Jahren unter wissenschaftlichen Bibliothekaren in Deutschland immer häufiger über Innovationsmanagement diskutiert. Wie lassen sich relevante Trends und Herausforderungen rechtzeitig erkennen und mit den begrenzten Ressourcen einer Einrichtung des öffentlichen Dienstes adäquat aufgreifen, bis hin zu einer Veränderung der Bibliotheksstrategie? Der Beitrag behandelt das Modell des an der Technischen Informationsbibliothek Hannover (TIB 2013 ins Leben gerufenen Open Science Lab. Unter Leitung des Autors werden Trends beobachtet und aufgegriffen, um in enger Zusammenarbeit mit Wissenschaftlern und Wissenschaftlerinnen neue digitale Werkzeuge und Methoden zu erproben, eine neue Informationspraxis zu kultivieren und daraus Innovationen für das Dienste-Spektrum der Bibliothek abzuleiten. Dies wird beispielhaft anhand der beiden Schwerpunktthemen kollaboratives Schreiben sowie linked-data-basierte Forschungsinformationssysteme (FIS geschildert und diskutiert. Given the rise of many new digital tools and methods for supporting scientific work, the last five years have seen a lot of discussion amongst German academic librarians about innovation management. How can we discover relevant trends and challenges in time and respond to them adequately up to the point of changing whole library strategies, despite the limited resources of a public sector institution? The paper presents the model of the Open Science Lab which was set up at the German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB Hannover in 2013. Under the direction of the author and in close collaboration with scientific communities, the lab group keeps track of trends and selects some of them in order to try out new tools and methods. The ultimate aim is to cultivate new information practices and develop new, innovative

  8. Oral traditions: a contextual framework for complex science concepts—laying the foundation for a paradigm of promise in rural science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Leanne M.; Hains, Bryan J.

    2017-03-01

    The overarching goal of this paper is to bring a diverse educational context—rural sayings and oral traditions situated in ecological habitats—to light and emphasize that they need to be taken into consideration regarding twenty-first century science education. The rural sayings or tenets presented here are also considered alternative ways of learning and knowing that rural people (elders and children) acquire outside of school in rural places of home and habitat. Throughout this paper we explore the complex nature of rural sayings or tenets that have been shared by community elders and examine their historic scientific roots. In so doing, we uncover a wealth of information regarding the diverse rural sociocultural and ecological connections and the situated macro and micro-contexts from which these tenets arise. We argue for a preservation and educational revitalization of these tenets for current and future generations. We show how this knowledge both augments and differs from traditional western science and science curricula by illuminating the ways in which oral traditions are embedded in place, people, memory and culture. We close by presenting an alternative paradigm for science education that incorporates pluralism as a means to enrich current place-based pedagogies and practices. We suggest that in order to tackle the complex problems in this new age of the Anthropocene, revitalizing elders' wisdom as well as valuing rural children's diverse knowledge and the inherent connectivity to their habitats needs be cultivated and not expunged by the current trends that standardize learning. As stated in the call for this special issue, "rurality has a real positionality" and much can be learned from individual and unique rural contexts.

  9. Opening up Openness to Experience: A Four-Factor Model and Relations to Creative Achievement in the Arts and Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Scott Barry

    2013-01-01

    Openness to experience is the broadest personality domain of the Big Five, including a mix of traits relating to intellectual curiosity, intellectual interests, perceived intelligence, imagination, creativity, artistic and aesthetic interests, emotional and fantasy richness, and unconventionality. Likewise, creative achievement is a broad…

  10. Protecting Information: The Role of Community Colleges in Cybersecurity Education. A Report from a Workshop Sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the American Association of Community Colleges (Washington, DC, June 26-28, 2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Community Colleges, Washington, DC.

    The education and training of the cybersecurity workforce is an essential element in protecting the nation's computer and information systems. On June 26-28, 2002, the National Science Foundation supported a cybersecurity education workshop hosted by the American Association of Community Colleges. The goals of the workshop were to map out the role…

  11. Managing ocean information in the digital era--events in Canada open questions about the role of marine science libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Peter G

    2014-06-15

    Information is the foundation of evidence-based policies for effective marine environmental protection and conservation. In Canada, the cutback of marine science libraries introduces key questions about the role of such institutions and the management of ocean information in the digital age. How vital are such libraries in the mission of studying and protecting the oceans? What is the fate and value of the massive grey literature holdings, including archival materials, much of which is not in digital form but which often contains vital data? How important is this literature generally in the marine environmental sciences? Are we likely to forget the history of the marine pollution field if our digital focus eclipses the need for and access to comprehensive collections and skilled information specialists? This paper explores these and other questions against the backdrop of unprecedented changes in the federal libraries, marine environmental science and legislation in Canada. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. OPEN INNOVATION PROJECT: THE SYSTEM OF ONLINE INDICATORS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION OF AMAZONAS (SiON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises Andrade Coelho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the implementation of an open innovation project in a public institution in the state of Amazonas. The theoretical and empirical background deals with science, technology and innovation indicators and open innovation. The study is characterized as a qualitative and descriptive research, with the case study as a methodological procedure. The delimitation of the universe was composed by a public institution in the area of science, technology and innovation (ST&I. In the case study, it was used an approach as tool to assess the implementation of open innovation projects. The results are shown several stages of open innovation project analyzed.  The study demonstrates the implications of open innovation project adoption to the strengthening of external networks and the maturing of the internal environment. The relevance of the study is based on the evaluation of an open innovation project in a public institution in order to foster the transition from traditional innovation processes to open innovation processes.

  13. An Investigation of How Black STEM Faculty at Historically Black Colleges and Universities Approach the National Science Foundation Merit Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankins, Falcon

    This qualitative inquiry explored the ways in which US-born, Black faculty member participants in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) interact with the National Science Foundation (NSF). Eight Black HBCU STEM faculty members with a range of involvement in NSF-related activities were individually interviewed. Topics of discussion with participants included their prior experiences with NSF, their understanding of the merit review process, and their understanding of their personal and institutional relationships with NSF and the STEM community. Two broad findings emerged from the conversations. The first was that issues of communities and social identity were important to the participants' work as research scientists. Participants prioritized advancing people and communities over advancing the knowledge of ambiguous, disembodied scientific disciplines, and some participants were motivated by interests in social justice. However, participants maintained strong identities as scientists and the discussions provided no evidence that other social factors influenced their application of the scientific method. The second major finding dealt with the role participants perceived their institutions playing in their involvement with NSF. All participants described challenges associated with pursuing research in HBCU environments and, in some cases, the institutional challenges served as the motivation for participants' projects, with varying consequences. The participants' discussions about their institutions also raised important questions about how well-aligned participants' visions are with the visions of their institutional leadership, regarding how research should be incorporated into the HBCU mission. Finally, this study developed and refined a theoretical framework for explaining the underrepresentation of HBCUs in NSF funding streams. In developing this framework, a brief history of

  14. Open source software and low cost sensors for teaching UAV science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefauver, S. C.; Sanchez-Bragado, R.; El-Haddad, G.; Araus, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Drones, also known as UASs (unmanned aerial systems), UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) or RPAS (Remotely piloted aircraft systems), are both useful advanced scientific platforms and recreational toys that are appealing to younger generations. As such, they can make for excellent education tools as well as low-cost scientific research project alternatives. However, the process of taking pretty pictures to remote sensing science can be daunting if one is presented with only expensive software and sensor options. There are a number of open-source tools and low cost platform and sensor options available that can provide excellent scientific research results, and, by often requiring more user-involvement than commercial software and sensors, provide even greater educational benefits. Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm implementations, such as the Microsoft Image Composite Editor (ICE), which can create quality 2D image mosaics with some motion and terrain adjustments and VisualSFM (Structure from Motion), which can provide full image mosaicking with movement and orthorectification capacities. RGB image quantification using alternate color space transforms, such as the BreedPix indices, can be calculated via plugins in the open-source software Fiji (http://fiji.sc/Fiji; http://github.com/george-haddad/CIMMYT). Recent analyses of aerial images from UAVs over different vegetation types and environments have shown RGB metrics can outperform more costly commercial sensors. Specifically, Hue-based pixel counts, the Triangle Greenness Index (TGI), and the Normalized Green Red Difference Index (NGRDI) consistently outperformed NDVI in estimating abiotic and biotic stress impacts on crop health. Also, simple kits are available for NDVI camera conversions. Furthermore, suggestions for multivariate analyses of the different RGB indices in the "R program for statistical computing", such as classification and regression trees can allow for a more approachable

  15. 78 FR 45992 - National Science and Technology Council; Notice of Meeting: Open Meeting of the National Science...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ..., Engineering, and Technology Subcommittee National Nanotechnology Coordination Office ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The National Nanotechnology Coordination Office (NNCO), on behalf of the Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology (NSET) Subcommittee of the Committee on Technology, National Science...

  16. Global benchmarking of medical student learning outcomes? Implementation and pilot results of the International Foundations of Medicine Clinical Sciences Exam at The University of Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David; Schafer, Jennifer; Hewett, David; Eley, Diann; Swanson, Dave

    2014-01-01

    To report pilot results for international benchmarking of learning outcomes among 426 final year medical students at the University of Queensland (UQ), Australia. Students took the International Foundations of Medicine (IFOM) Clinical Sciences Exam (CSE) developed by the National Board of Medical Examiners, USA, as a required formative assessment. IFOM CSE comprises 160 multiple-choice questions in medicine, surgery, obstetrics, paediatrics and mental health, taken over 4.5 hours. Significant implementation issues; IFOM scores and benchmarking with International Comparison Group (ICG) scores and United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) Step 2 Clinical Knowledge (CK) scores; and correlation with UQ medical degree cumulative grade point average (GPA). Implementation as an online exam, under university-mandated conditions was successful. Mean IFOM score was 531.3 (maximum 779-minimum 200). The UQ cohort performed better (31% scored below 500) than the ICG (55% below 500). However 49% of the UQ cohort did not meet the USMLE Step 2 CK minimum score. Correlation between IFOM scores and UQ cumulative GPA was reasonable at 0.552 (p benchmarking is feasible and provides a variety of useful benchmarking opportunities.

  17. Study of the National Science Foundation's South Pole Station as an analogous data base for the logistical support of a Moon laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickam, H. H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The day will come when the United States will want to return to the Earth's Moon. When that occurs, NASA may look to the Apollo program for technical and inspirational guidance. The Apollo program, however, was designed to be an end to itself--the landing of a man on the Moon and his return safely within the decade of the 1960's. When that was accomplished, the program folded because it was not self-sustaining. The next time we return to the Moon, we should base our planning on a program that is designed to be a sustained effort for an indefinite period. It is the thrust of this report that the South Pole Station of the National Science Foundation can be used to develop analogs for the construction, funding, and logistical support of a lunar base. Other analogs include transportation and national efforts versus international cooperation. A recommended lunar base using the South Pole Station as inspiration is provided, as well as details concerning economical construction of the base over a 22-year period.

  18. Use of international foundations of medicine clinical sciences examination to evaluate students' performance in the local examination at the University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Nihar Ranjan; Abdalla, Mohamed Elhassan; Hussein, Amal

    2017-01-01

    Several medical schools around the world are moving away from isolated, locally developed in-house assessments to the introduction of external examinations into their curriculum. Although the objective varies, it is typically done to evaluate, audit, and compare students' performance to international standards. Similarly, the International Foundations of Medicine-Clinical Sciences Examination (IFOM-CSE) was introduced in the College of Medicine at the University of Sharjah as an external assessment criterion in addition to the existing in-house assessments. The aim of this study was to compare the student performance in this newly introduced IFOM-CSE examination and the existing in-house final examination in the college. The scores of three consecutive final-year undergraduate medical student batches (2013-2015) who took both the IFOM-CSE and the existing in-house final examination were analyzed. Pearson correlation and one-way analysis of variance test were conducted using SPSS 22. The students' scores in the IFOM-CSE and in the final examination prepared locally were highly correlated with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.787 for batch 2013, 0.827 for batch 2014, and 0.830 for batch 2015 (P correlated with their scores in the IFOM-CSE over all the three batches. Thus, introduction of external examination can be an important evaluation tool to a comprehensive internal assessment system providing evidence of external validity.

  19. Biochemistry - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tests. Data file File name: open_tggates_biochemistry.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-...tggates/LATEST/open_tggates_biochemistry.zip File size: 666 KB Simple search URL ...http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/open_tggates_biochemistry#en Data acquisition method - Data analy

  20. Pathological items - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . Data file File name: open_tggates_pathology.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/open_tggates_patho...b.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/open_tggates_pathology#en Data acquisition method We prepared hematoxylin-eos...logy.zip File size: 89 KB Simple search URL http://togod

  1. Open-Ended Science Inquiry in Lower Secondary School: Are Students' Learning Needs Being Met?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whannell, Robert; Quinn, Fran; Taylor, Subhashni; Harris, Katherine; Cornish, Scott; Sharma, Manjula

    2018-01-01

    Australian science curricula have promoted the use of investigations that allow secondary students to engage deeply with the methods of scientific inquiry, through student-directed, open-ended investigations over an extended duration. This study presents the analysis of data relating to the frequency of completion and attitudes towards long…

  2. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  3. Molecular Energy and Environmental Science: A Workshop Sponsored by The National Science Foundation and The Department of Energy May 26-27, 1999 in Rosemont, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stair, Peter C [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); DeSimone, Joseph M. [University of North Carolina Chapel Hill; Frost, John W. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1999-05-26

    Energy and the environment pose major scientific and technological challenges for the 21st century. New technologies for increasing the efficiency of harvesting and utilizing energy resources are essential to the nation’s economic competitiveness. At the same time, the quality of life in the United States depends inherently on the environmental impact of energy production and utilization. This interdependence makes it imperative to develop a better understanding of the environment and new strategies for minimizing the impact of energy-related activities. Recent advances in techniques for the synthesis and characterization of chemicals and materials and for the molecular control of biological organisms make it possible, for the first time, to address this imperative. Chemistry, with its focus on the molecular level, plays a central role in addressing the needs for fundamental understanding and technology development in both the energy and environmental fields. Understanding environmental processes and consequences requires studying natural systems, rather than focussing exclusively on laboratory models. Natural systems and their complexity pose an enormous, perhaps the ultimate, challenge to chemists, and will provide them with varied and exciting new problems for years to come. In addition, the complexity of the underlying systems and processes often requires multi-disciplinary programs that bridge the interfaces between chemistry and other disciplines. (See Figure 1) This has ramifications in the approach to funding research and suggests needs for broadening the educational training of future scientists and engineers in these programs. Figure 1. NSF and DOE should consider sponsoring research centers and focused research groups organized to optimize their impact on Technological Challenges of national interest. The research will have significant impact if it addresses issues of fundamental molecular science in one or more Enabling Research Areas. Approximately 7

  4. Large Scale Monte Carlo Simulation of Neutrino Interactions Using the Open Science Grid and Commercial Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, A.; Boyd, J.; Davies, G.; Flumerfelt, E.; Herner, K.; Mayer, N.; Mhashilhar, P.; Tamsett, M.; Timm, S.

    2015-01-01

    Modern long baseline neutrino experiments like the NOvA experiment at Fermilab, require large scale, compute intensive simulations of their neutrino beam fluxes and backgrounds induced by cosmic rays. The amount of simulation required to keep the systematic uncertainties in the simulation from dominating the final physics results is often 10x to 100x that of the actual detector exposure. For the first physics results from NOvA this has meant the simulation of more than 2 billion cosmic ray events in the far detector and more than 200 million NuMI beam spill simulations. Performing these high statistics levels of simulation have been made possible for NOvA through the use of the Open Science Grid and through large scale runs on commercial clouds like Amazon EC2. We details the challenges in performing large scale simulation in these environments and how the computing infrastructure for the NOvA experiment has been adapted to seamlessly support the running of different simulation and data processing tasks on these resources. (paper)

  5. Fostering Data Openness by Enabling Science: A Proposal for Micro-Funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Rappert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the promotion of data sharing has come with the recognition that not all scientists around the world are equally placed to partake in such activities. Notably, those within developing countries are sometimes regarded as experiencing hardware infrastructure challenges and data management skill shortages. Proposed remedies often focus on the provision of information and communication technology as well as enhanced data management training. Building on prior empirical social research undertaken in sub-Sahara Africa, this article provides a complementary but alternative proposal; namely, fostering data openness by enabling research. Towards this end, the underlying rationale is outlined for a ‘bottom-up’ system of research support that addresses the day-to-day demands in low-resourced environments. This approach draws on lessons from development financial assistance programs in recent decades. In doing so, this article provides an initial framework for science funding that call for holding together concerns for ensuring research can be undertaken in low-resourced laboratory environments with concerns about the data generated in such settings can be shared.

  6. How partnership accelerates Open Science: High Energy Physics and INSPIRE, a case study of a complex repository ecosystem

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079501; Hecker, Bernard Louis; Holtkamp, Annette; Mele, Salvatore; O'Connell, Heath; Sachs, Kirsten; Simko, Tibor; Schwander, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Public calls, agency mandates and scientist demand for Open Science are by now a reality with different nuances across diverse research communities. A complex “ecosystem” of services and tools, mostly communityDdriven, will underpin this revolution in science. Repositories stand to accelerate this process, as “openness” evolves beyond text, in lockstep with scholarly communication. We present a case study of a global discipline, HighDEnergy Physics (HEP), where most of these transitions have already taken place in a “social laboratory” of multiple global information services interlinked in a complex, but successful, ecosystem at the service of scientists. We discuss our firstDhand experience, at a technical and organizational level, of leveraging partnership across repositories and with the user community in support of Open Science, along threads relevant to the OR2013 community.

  7. [Analysis of funding of projects on obstetrics and gynecology supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China from 2007 to 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, S H; Huang, Q S; Yao, S Z

    2017-04-25

    Objective: To summarize the funding of scientific research projects on obstetrics and gynecology by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) from 2007 to 2016 and to display the hotspots of scientific research on obstetrics and gynecology. Methods: A systemic search was performed for the information of projects supported by NSFC from 2007 to 2016. The indicators for analysis included the number of projects, total investment, project categories, research units and research field. The research direction of each project was decided based on title, summary and key words provided by the profile of each project. Results: The total investment on obstetrics and gynecology by NSFC was 23.214 million with a total of 82 projects in 2007. It increased year by year and reached the peak in 2014 (359 projects 208.990 million). The investment and number of projects remained stable after 2014. General projects (1 109 projects 608.000 million) formed the majority of projects. Youth science fund projects (1 035 projects 214.976 million) increased steadily and the number was nearly equal to general projects. There were only a small amount of key projects (20 projects 54.720 million) and major projects (7 projects 38.400 million). The investment varied in different research units. The greatest 10 units (less than 6% of total), including 7 comprehensive universities, 2 medical universities and 1 institute of medicine, got 1 113 projects invested (43.84% of total, 1 113/2 539). The hot areas like gynecological tumor (920 projects 350.615 million), hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy (91 projects 37.470 million) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (77 projects 29.540 million) were more likely to receive investment, while some interdisciplinary science like maternal and child health (28 projects 12.050 million), imaging and biomedicine (37 projects 14.770 million) began to achieve attention in recent years. Conclusions: The number of researches invested will be increased

  8. Mathematical foundation of computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, YN

    2005-01-01

    The interesting feature of this book is its organization and structure. That consists of systematizing of the definitions, methods, and results that something resembling a theory. Simplicity, clarity, and precision of mathematical language makes theoretical topics more appealing to the readers who are of mathematical or non-mathematical background. For quick references and immediate attentions¾concepts and definitions, methods and theorems, and key notes are presented through highlighted points from beginning to end. Whenever, necessary and probable a visual approach of presentation is used. The amalgamation of text and figures make mathematical rigors easier to understand. Each chapter begins with the detailed contents, which are discussed inside the chapter and conclude with a summary of the material covered in the chapter. Summary provides a brief overview of all the topics covered in the chapter. To demonstrate the principles better, the applicability of the concepts discussed in each topic are illustrat...

  9. Edaq530: a transparent, open-end and open-source measurement solution in natural science education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopasz, Katalin; Makra, Peter; Gingl, Zoltan, E-mail: phil@titan.physx.u-szeged.hu [Department of Experimental Physics, University of Szeged, Dom ter 9, Szeged, H6720 (Hungary)

    2011-03-15

    We present Edaq530, a low-cost, compact and easy-to-use digital measurement solution consisting of a thumb-sized USB-to-sensor interface and measurement software. The solution is fully open-source, our aim being to provide a viable alternative to professional solutions. Our main focus in designing Edaq530 has been versatility and transparency. In this paper, we shall introduce the capabilities of Edaq530, complement it by showing a few sample experiments, and discuss the feedback we have received in the course of a teacher training workshop in which the participants received personal copies of Edaq530 and later made reports on how they could utilize Edaq530 in their teaching.

  10. National Science Foundation Assistant Director for Mathematics and Physical Sciences Tony Chan (USA) visiting CMS experiment on 23rd May 2007 with Spokesperson T. Virdee, Deputy Spokesperson R. Cousins, Advisor to CERN Director-General J. Ellis, US CMS Research Program Deputy Manager D. Marlow and FNAL D. Green

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    National Science Foundation Assistant Director for Mathematics and Physical Sciences Tony Chan (USA) visiting CMS experiment on 23rd May 2007 with Spokesperson T. Virdee, Deputy Spokesperson R. Cousins, Advisor to CERN Director-General J. Ellis, US CMS Research Program Deputy Manager D. Marlow and FNAL D. Green

  11. The OpenEarth Framework (OEF) for the 3D Visualization of Integrated Earth Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, David; Moreland, John; Baru, Chaitan; Crosby, Chris

    2010-05-01

    Data integration is increasingly important as we strive to combine data from disparate sources and assemble better models of the complex processes operating at the Earth's surface and within its interior. These data are often large, multi-dimensional, and subject to differing conventions for data structures, file formats, coordinate spaces, and units of measure. When visualized, these data require differing, and sometimes conflicting, conventions for visual representations, dimensionality, symbology, and interaction. All of this makes the visualization of integrated Earth science data particularly difficult. The OpenEarth Framework (OEF) is an open-source data integration and visualization suite of applications and libraries being developed by the GEON project at the University of California, San Diego, USA. Funded by the NSF, the project is leveraging virtual globe technology from NASA's WorldWind to create interactive 3D visualization tools that combine and layer data from a wide variety of sources to create a holistic view of features at, above, and beneath the Earth's surface. The OEF architecture is open, cross-platform, modular, and based upon Java. The OEF's modular approach to software architecture yields an array of mix-and-match software components for assembling custom applications. Available modules support file format handling, web service communications, data management, user interaction, and 3D visualization. File parsers handle a variety of formal and de facto standard file formats used in the field. Each one imports data into a general-purpose common data model supporting multidimensional regular and irregular grids, topography, feature geometry, and more. Data within these data models may be manipulated, combined, reprojected, and visualized. The OEF's visualization features support a variety of conventional and new visualization techniques for looking at topography, tomography, point clouds, imagery, maps, and feature geometry. 3D data such as

  12. Hematology - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ivo tests. Data file File name: open_tggates_hematology.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/ope...n-tggates/LATEST/open_tggates_hematology.zip File size: 636 KB Simple search URL ...http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/open_tggates_hematology#en Data acquisition method - Data analysi

  13. Body weight - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...le URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/open_tggates_body_...atabase Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Body weight - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive ...

  14. Tenure-Track Science Faculty and the 'Open Access Citation Effect'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Christopher Doty

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The observation that open access (OA articles receive more citations than subscription-based articles is known as the OA citation effect (OACE. Implicit in many OACE studies is the belief that authors are heavily invested in the number of citations their articles receive. This study seeks to determine what influence the OACE has on the decision-making process of tenure-track science faculty when they consider where to submit a manuscript for publication. METHODS Fifteen tenure-track faculty members in the Departments of Biology and Chemistry at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill participated in semi-structured interviews employing a variation of the critical incident tecnique. RESULTS Seven of the fifteen faculty members said they would consider making a future article freely-available based on the OACE. Due to dramatically different expectations with respect to the size of the OACE, however, only one of them is likely to seriously consider the OACE when deciding where to submit their next manuscript for publication. DISCUSSION Journal reputation and audience, and the quality of the editorial and review process are the most important factors in deciding where to submit a manuscript for publication. Once a subset of journals has satisfied these criteria, financial and access issues compete with the OACE in making a final decision. CONCLUSION In order to increase the number of OA materials, librarians should continue to emphasize depositing pre- and post-prints in disciplinary and institutional repositories and retaining the author rights prior to publication in order to make it possible to do so.

  15. The Martian Goes To College: Open Inquiry with Science Fiction in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, L.; Patterson, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Storytelling is an ancient art; one that can get lost in the reams of data available in a typical geology or astronomy classroom. But storytelling draws us to a magical place. Our students, with prior experience in either a geology or astronomy course, were invited to explore Mars in a special topics course at Johnson County Community College through reading The Martian by Andy Weir. As they traveled with astronaut Mark Watney, the students used Google Mars, Java Mission-planning and Analysis for Remote Sensing (JMARS), and learning modules from the Mars for Earthlings web site to investigate the terrain and the processes at work in the past and present on Mars. Our goal was to apply their understanding of processes on Earth in order to explain and predict what they observed on Mars courtesy of the remote sensing opportunities available from Viking, Pathfinder, the Mars Exploration Rovers, and Maven missions; sort of an inter-planetary uniformitarianism. Astronaut Mark Watney's fictional journey from Acidalia Planitia to Schiaparelli Crater was analyzed using learning modules in Mars for Earthlings and exercises that we developed based on Google Mars, JMARS, Rotating Sky Explorer, and Science Friday podcasts. Each student also completed an individual project that either focused on a particular region that Astronaut Mark Watney traveled through or a problem that he faced. Through this open-inquiry learning style, they determined some processes that shaped Mars such as crater impacts, volcanism, fluid flow, mass movement, and groundwater sapping and also investigated the efficacy of solar energy as a power source based on location and the likelihood of regolith potential as a mineral matter source for soil.

  16. 76 FR 20051 - Advisory Committee for Computer and Information; Science and Engineering; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Computer and Information; Science and... Committee for Computer and Information Science and Engineering--(1115). Date and Time: May 6, 2011 8:30 a.m... Meeting: Open. Contact Person: Carmen Whitson, Directorate for Computer and Information, Science and...

  17. Accelerating target discovery using pre-competitive open science-patients need faster innovation more than anyone else.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Eric; Bountra, Chas; Lee, Wen Hwa

    2016-01-01

    We are experiencing a new era enabled by unencumbered access to high quality data through the emergence of open science initiatives in the historically challenging area of early stage drug discovery. At the same time, many patient-centric organisations are taking matters into their own hands by participating in, enabling and funding research. Here we present the rationale behind the innovative partnership between the Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC)-an open, pre-competitive pre-clinical research consortium and the research-focused patient organisation Myeloma UK to create a new, comprehensive platform to accelerate the discovery and development of new treatments for multiple myeloma.

  18. [Statistics and analysis on acupuncture and moxibustion projects of the National Natural Science Foundation of China of traditional Chinese medicine universities and colleges in recent 10 years: taking the General Program and National Science Fund for Young Scholars as examples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingling; Ma, Qiang; Li, Dan; Liu, Nana; Yang, Jiahui; Sun, Chun; Cheng, Cheng; Jia, Xuezhao; Wang, Jing; Zeng, Yonglei

    2018-03-12

    To analyze statistically the situation of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) from 2007 to 2016 in the field of acupuncture and moxibustion for supporting the national Universities colleges of traditional Chinese medicine on the General Program (GP) and the National Science Fund for Young Scholars (NSFYS). In view of five aspects, named fund, supporting units, key words, method, disorder and signal path, the differences were compared between GP and NSFYS, the following characteristics were summarized. ① The fund aid was increased from 2007 through 2013 and down-regulated from 2013 through 2016. In recent ten years, the funding condition was fluctuated, but increasing in tendency generally. ② The relevant projects of the same research direction had been approved continuously for over 3 years in a part of TCM universities, in which, the research continuity was the hot topic. ③ Regarding the therapeutic methods, acupuncture was the chief therapy; electroacupuncture, moxibustion and acupoints were involved as well. ④ The disorders involved in the research were cerebral ischemia, myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. It is suggested that the ischemic disorder is predominated in the research. ⑤ The signal path occupied the main research index system, including cell proliferation, metabolism, immune, apoptosis and autophagy. The researches on the other aspects were less.

  19. Audiovisual heritage preservation in Earth and Space Science Informatics: Videos from Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial (FOSS4G) conferences in the TIB|AV-Portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Peter; Marín Arraiza, Paloma; Plank, Margret

    2016-04-01

    The influence of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) projects on Earth and Space Science Informatics (ESSI) continues to grow, particularly in the emerging context of Data Science or Open Science. The scientific significance and heritage of FOSS projects is only to a limited amount covered by traditional scientific journal articles: Audiovisual conference recordings contain significant information for analysis, reference and citation. In the context of data driven research, this audiovisual content needs to be accessible by effective search capabilities, enabling the content to be searched in depth and retrieved. Thereby, it is ensured that the content producers receive credit for their efforts within the respective communities. For Geoinformatics and ESSI, one distinguished driver is the OSGeo Foundation (OSGeo), founded in 2006 to support and promote the interdisciplinary collaborative development of open geospatial technologies and data. The organisational structure is based on software projects that have successfully passed the OSGeo incubation process, proving their compliance with FOSS licence models. This quality assurance is crucial for the transparent and unhindered application in (Open) Science. The main communication channels within and between the OSGeo-hosted community projects for face to face meetings are conferences on national, regional and global scale. Video recordings have been complementing the scientific proceedings since 2006. During the last decade, the growing body of OSGeo videos has been negatively affected by content loss, obsolescence of video technology and dependence on commercial video portals. Even worse, the distributed storage and lack of metadata do not guarantee concise and efficient access of the content. This limits the retrospective analysis of video content from past conferences. But, it also indicates a need for reliable, standardized, comparable audiovisual repositories for the future, as the number of OSGeo projects

  20. 76 FR 72724 - Advisory Committee For Biological Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22230. Type of Meeting: Open. Contact Person: Chuck... research that is the basis for the 21st century bio-economy and the undergraduate and graduate biology...

  1. Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foundation Experts Can Answer Your Questions! The Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation's team of experts is available to answer ... a law firm. Read more about the Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation . TO GET HELP CALL: (877) End-Meso ...

  2. Foundations of resilience thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P

    2014-08-01

    Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Food consumption - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available c00954-01-011 Description of data contents The list regarding results of food consumption measurement acquir...ed from rats used in the in vivo tests. Data file File name: open_tggates_food_consumption.zip File URL: ftp...://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/open_tggates_food_consumption....zip File size: 108 KB Simple search URL http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/open_tggates_food_consum...ption#en Data acquisition method The amount of daily food intake of the first day is calculated as the amount of food

  4. Coalescent: an open-science framework for importance sampling in coalescent theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Susanta; Spouge, John L

    2015-01-01

    Background. In coalescent theory, computer programs often use importance sampling to calculate likelihoods and other statistical quantities. An importance sampling scheme can exploit human intuition to improve statistical efficiency of computations, but unfortunately, in the absence of general computer frameworks on importance sampling, researchers often struggle to translate new sampling schemes computationally or benchmark against different schemes, in a manner that is reliable and maintainable. Moreover, most studies use computer programs lacking a convenient user interface or the flexibility to meet the current demands of open science. In particular, current computer frameworks can only evaluate the efficiency of a single importance sampling scheme or compare the efficiencies of different schemes in an ad hoc manner. Results. We have designed a general framework (http://coalescent.sourceforge.net; language: Java; License: GPLv3) for importance sampling that computes likelihoods under the standard neutral coalescent model of a single, well-mixed population of constant size over time following infinite sites model of mutation. The framework models the necessary core concepts, comes integrated with several data sets of varying size, implements the standard competing proposals, and integrates tightly with our previous framework for calculating exact probabilities. For a given dataset, it computes the likelihood and provides the maximum likelihood estimate of the mutation parameter. Well-known benchmarks in the coalescent literature validate the accuracy of the framework. The framework provides an intuitive user interface with minimal clutter. For performance, the framework switches automatically to modern multicore hardware, if available. It runs on three major platforms (Windows, Mac and Linux). Extensive tests and coverage make the framework reliable and maintainable. Conclusions. In coalescent theory, many studies of computational efficiency consider only

  5. Coalescent: an open-science framework for importance sampling in coalescent theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta Tewari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. In coalescent theory, computer programs often use importance sampling to calculate likelihoods and other statistical quantities. An importance sampling scheme can exploit human intuition to improve statistical efficiency of computations, but unfortunately, in the absence of general computer frameworks on importance sampling, researchers often struggle to translate new sampling schemes computationally or benchmark against different schemes, in a manner that is reliable and maintainable. Moreover, most studies use computer programs lacking a convenient user interface or the flexibility to meet the current demands of open science. In particular, current computer frameworks can only evaluate the efficiency of a single importance sampling scheme or compare the efficiencies of different schemes in an ad hoc manner.Results. We have designed a general framework (http://coalescent.sourceforge.net; language: Java; License: GPLv3 for importance sampling that computes likelihoods under the standard neutral coalescent model of a single, well-mixed population of constant size over time following infinite sites model of mutation. The framework models the necessary core concepts, comes integrated with several data sets of varying size, implements the standard competing proposals, and integrates tightly with our previous framework for calculating exact probabilities. For a given dataset, it computes the likelihood and provides the maximum likelihood estimate of the mutation parameter. Well-known benchmarks in the coalescent literature validate the accuracy of the framework. The framework provides an intuitive user interface with minimal clutter. For performance, the framework switches automatically to modern multicore hardware, if available. It runs on three major platforms (Windows, Mac and Linux. Extensive tests and coverage make the framework reliable and maintainable.Conclusions. In coalescent theory, many studies of computational efficiency

  6. Auscope: Australian Earth Science Information Infrastructure using Free and Open Source Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, R.; Cox, S. J.; Fraser, R.; Wyborn, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Since 2005 the Australian Government has supported a series of initiatives providing researchers with access to major research facilities and information networks necessary for world-class research. Starting with the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) the Australian earth science community established an integrated national geoscience infrastructure system called AuScope. AuScope is now in operation, providing a number of components to assist in understanding the structure and evolution of the Australian continent. These include the acquisition of subsurface imaging , earth composition and age analysis, a virtual drill core library, geological process simulation, and a high resolution geospatial reference framework. To draw together information from across the earth science community in academia, industry and government, AuScope includes a nationally distributed information infrastructure. Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) has been a significant enabler in building the AuScope community and providing a range of interoperable services for accessing data and scientific software. A number of FOSS components have been created, adopted or upgraded to create a coherent, OGC compliant Spatial Information Services Stack (SISS). SISS is now deployed at all Australian Geological Surveys, many Universities and the CSIRO. Comprising a set of OGC catalogue and data services, and augmented with new vocabulary and identifier services, the SISS provides a comprehensive package for organisations to contribute their data to the AuScope network. This packaging and a variety of software testing and documentation activities enabled greater trust and notably reduced barriers to adoption. FOSS selection was important, not only for technical capability and robustness, but also for appropriate licensing and community models to ensure sustainability of the infrastructure in the long term. Government agencies were sensitive to these issues and Au

  7. Managing open innovation projects with science-based and market-based partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, J.; Leten, B.; Vanhaverbeke, W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between (outside-in) open innovation and the financial performance of R&D projects, drawing on a unique dataset that contains information on the open innovation practices, management and performance of 489 R&D projects of a large European multinational firm. We

  8. Ultraviolet and visible radiation at Barrow, Alaska: Climatology and influencing factors on the basis of version 2 National Science Foundation network data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Germar; Booth, Charles R.; Ehramjian, James C.; Stone, Robert; Dutton, Ellsworth G.

    2007-05-01

    Spectral ultraviolet (UV) and visible irradiance has been measured near Barrow, Alaska (71°N, 157°W), between 1991 and 2005 with a SUV-100 spectroradiometer. The instrument is part of the U.S. National Science Foundation's UV Monitoring Network. Here we present results based on the recently produced "version 2" data release, which supersedes published "version 0" data. Cosine error and wavelength-shift corrections applied to the new version increased biologically effective UV dose rates by 0-10%. Corrected clear-sky measurements of different years are typically consistent to within ±3%. Measurements were complemented with radiative transfer model calculations to retrieve total ozone and surface albedo from measured spectra and for the separation of the different factors influencing UV and visible radiation. A climatology of UV and visible radiation was established, focusing on annual cycles, trends, and the effect of clouds. During several episodes in spring of abnormally low total ozone, the daily UV dose at 305 nm exceeded the climatological mean by up to a factor of 2.6. Typical noontime UV Indices during summer vary between 2 and 4; the highest UV Index measured was 5.0 and occurred when surface albedo was unusually high. Radiation levels in the UV-A and visible exhibit a strong spring-autumn asymmetry. Irradiance at 345 nm peaks on approximately 20 May, 1 month before the solstice. This asymmetry is caused by increased cloudiness in autumn and high albedo in spring, when the snow covered surface enhances downwelling UV irradiance by up to 57%. Clouds reduce UV radiation at 345 nm on average by 4% in March and by more than 40% in August. Aerosols reduce UV by typically 5%, but larger reductions were observed during Arctic haze events. Stratospheric aerosols from the Pinatubo eruption in 1991 enhanced spectral irradiance at 305 nm for large solar zenith angles. The year-to-year variations of spectral irradiance at 305 nm and of the UV Index are mostly caused

  9. Living Digital Ecosystems for Data Preservation: An Austrian Use Case Towards the European Open Science Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    R. Ganguly; P. Budroni; B.Sánchez Solís

    2017-01-01

    This paper will address issues concerning the handling of complex data such as research data, multimedia content, e-learning content, and the use of repositories infrastructures. At the University of Vienna, an ecosystem for digital data preservation and research data management has already been established and will be subsequently be enlarged according to future needs and requirements. in the future. This living digital ecosystem is the foundation for research data management and was impleme...

  10. Oceans and Human Health (OHH): a European perspective from the Marine Board of the European Science Foundation (Marine Board-ESF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael N; Depledge, Michael H; Fleming, Lora; Hess, Philipp; Lees, David; Leonard, Paul; Madsen, Lise; Owen, Richard; Pirlet, Hans; Seys, Jan; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Viarengo, Aldo

    2013-05-01

    will impact adversely on efforts to alleviate poverty, sustain the availability of environmental goods and services and improve health and social and economic stability; and thus, will impinge on many policy decisions, both nationally and internationally. Knowledge exchange (KE) will be a key element of any ensuing research. KE will facilitate the integration of biological, medical, epidemiological, social and economic disciplines, as well as the emergence of synergies between seemingly unconnected areas of science and socio-economic issues, and will help to leverage knowledge transfer across the European Union (EU) and beyond. An integrated interdisciplinary systems approach is an effective way to bring together the appropriate groups of scientists, social scientists, economists, industry and other stakeholders with the policy formulators in order to address the complexities of interfacial problems in the area of environment and human health. The Marine Board of the European Science Foundation Working Group on "Oceans and Human Health" has been charged with developing a position paper on this topic with a view to identifying the scientific, social and economic challenges and making recommendations to the EU on policy-relevant research and development activities in this arena. This paper includes the background to health-related issues linked to the coastal environment and highlights the main arguments for an ecosystem-based whole systems approach.

  11. The effects of blogs versus dialogue journals on open-response writing scores and attitudes of grade eight science students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Diane K.

    Today's students have grown up surrounded by technology. They use cell phones, word processors, and the Internet with ease, talking with peers in their community and around the world through e-mails, chatrooms, instant messaging, online discussions, and weblogs ("blogs"). In the midst of this technological explosion, adolescents face a growing need for strong literacy skills in all subject areas for achievement in school and on mandated state and national high stakes tests. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of blogs as a tool for improving open-response writing in the secondary science classroom in comparison to the use of handwritten dialogue journals. The study used a mixed-method approach, gathering both quantitative and qualitative data from 94 students in four eighth-grade science classes. Two classes participated in online class blogs where they posted ideas about science and responded to the ideas of other classmates. Two classes participated in handwritten dialogue journals, writing ideas about science and exchanging journals to respond to the ideas of classmates. The study explored these research questions: Does the use of blogs, as compared to the use of handwritten dialogue journals, improve the open-response writing scores of eighth grade science students? How do students describe their experience using blogs to study science as compared to students using handwritten dialogue journals? and How do motivation, self-efficacy, and community manifest themselves in students who use blogs as compared to students who use handwritten dialogue journals? The quantitative aspect of the study used data from pre- and post-tests and from a Likert-scale post-survey. The pre- and post-writing on open-response science questions were scored using the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) open-response scoring rubric. The study found no statistically significant difference in the writing scores between the blog group and the dialogue journal

  12. Foundations of combinatorics with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, Edward A

    2006-01-01

    This introduction to combinatorics, the foundation of the interaction between computer science and mathematics, is suitable for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in engineering, science, and mathematics.The four-part treatment begins with a section on counting and listing that covers basic counting, functions, decision trees, and sieving methods. The following section addresses fundamental concepts in graph theory and a sampler of graph topics. The third part examines a variety of applications relevant to computer science and mathematics, including induction and recursion, sorti

  13. Download - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive ...

  14. Anatomy of BioJS, an open source community for the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yachdav, Guy; Goldberg, Tatyana; Wilzbach, Sebastian; Dao, David; Shih, Iris; Choudhary, Saket; Crouch, Steve; Franz, Max; García, Alexander; García, Leyla J; Grüning, Björn A; Inupakutika, Devasena; Sillitoe, Ian; Thanki, Anil S; Vieira, Bruno; Villaveces, José M; Schneider, Maria V; Lewis, Suzanna; Pettifer, Steve; Rost, Burkhard; Corpas, Manuel

    2015-07-08

    BioJS is an open source software project that develops visualization tools for different types of biological data. Here we report on the factors that influenced the growth of the BioJS user and developer community, and outline our strategy for building on this growth. The lessons we have learned on BioJS may also be relevant to other open source software projects.

  15. Research Award: Foundations for Innovation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... The Foundations for Innovation program wishes to better ... disciplines: science, technology and innovation policy; development studies; or economics. ... research to local, national, and/or regional policy debates in Africa.

  16. The 2015 Bioinformatics Open Source Conference (BOSC 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Nomi L; Cock, Peter J A; Lapp, Hilmar; Chapman, Brad; Davey, Rob; Fields, Christopher; Hokamp, Karsten; Munoz-Torres, Monica

    2016-02-01

    The Bioinformatics Open Source Conference (BOSC) is organized by the Open Bioinformatics Foundation (OBF), a nonprofit group dedicated to promoting the practice and philosophy of open source software development and open science within the biological research community. Since its inception in 2000, BOSC has provided bioinformatics developers with a forum for communicating the results of their latest efforts to the wider research community. BOSC offers a focused environment for developers and users to interact and share ideas about standards; software development practices; practical techniques for solving bioinformatics problems; and approaches that promote open science and sharing of data, results, and software. BOSC is run as a two-day special interest group (SIG) before the annual Intelligent Systems in Molecular Biology (ISMB) conference. BOSC 2015 took place in Dublin, Ireland, and was attended by over 125 people, about half of whom were first-time attendees. Session topics included "Data Science;" "Standards and Interoperability;" "Open Science and Reproducibility;" "Translational Bioinformatics;" "Visualization;" and "Bioinformatics Open Source Project Updates". In addition to two keynote talks and dozens of shorter talks chosen from submitted abstracts, BOSC 2015 included a panel, titled "Open Source, Open Door: Increasing Diversity in the Bioinformatics Open Source Community," that provided an opportunity for open discussion about ways to increase the diversity of participants in BOSC in particular, and in open source bioinformatics in general. The complete program of BOSC 2015 is available online at http://www.open-bio.org/wiki/BOSC_2015_Schedule.

  17. Foundations for the future

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Since this is the last Bulletin of 2010, this will be the last word from the Director-General for this remarkable year. I’d like to use it to share some of my reflections on how important it is for CERN, and for science, that the LHC has worked so very well. The scientific results are remarkable, but it’s the political legacy of the LHC’s first year of running that I’d like to talk about here.   Whenever economies are slow, as they are now, basic science comes under pressure as governments look to applied science for winners. Basic science takes too long to deliver products to market – so the conventional logic goes – and it’s much better to concentrate on the applied. There’s merit to this logic, but it’s no cure-all for the economy. We need a broadly balanced approach to science that includes basic and applied research, that harnesses the power of the new media to ensure open access to knowledge, and that...

  18. Open Content in Open Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansa, Sarah Whitcher; Kansa, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the challenges and rewards of sharing research content through a discussion of Open Context, a new open access data publication system for field sciences and museum collections. Open Context is the first data repository of its kind, allowing self-publication of research data, community commentary through tagging, and clear…

  19. Natural sciences in the focus IV. Foundations of atomistics, quantum mechanics, and chemistry; Naturwissenschaften im Fokus IV. Grundlagen der Atomistik, Quantenmechanik und Chemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Christian

    2017-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The electronic structure of the atom, the structure of the atomic nucleus together with radioactive decays, fission, and fusion, the elementary particles together with the standard model, the atomistic foundations of chemistrytogether with the binding types, and inorganic and organic chemistry. (HSI)

  20. Automatic Nephelometer of an Open Type for science atmosphere researches and Practical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razenkov, I. A.; Rostov, A. P.; Park, W. K.; Burkov, V. V.

    1997-01-01

    Intellectual nephelometer of open type designed by the authors for in situ studies of the atmosphere are described. The nephlometer operate in near IR wavelength range. The construction and concept of the devices allow them either to work independently during several hours or to be operated remotely at a distance up to 500 m from the central host computer. The results and their analysis of two weeks test at Kumkang Hu-Tech Co. are represented. This Nephelometer is a new class of intellectual instruments intended for long-term application on open air and allowing to receive qualitative and the quantitative information about a scattering coefficient in situ.

  1. Database Description - Open TG-GATEs Pathological Image Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Open TG-GATEs Pathological Image Database Database Description General information of database Database... name Open TG-GATEs Pathological Image Database Alternative name - DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00954-0...iomedical Innovation 7-6-8, Saito-asagi, Ibaraki-city, Osaka 567-0085, Japan TEL:81-72-641-9826 Email: Database... classification Toxicogenomics Database Organism Taxonomy Name: Rattus norvegi... Article title: Author name(s): Journal: External Links: Original website information Database

  2. An Opening to Society: Chances and Prospects of Science, Research and Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckelmann, Dieter

    1989-01-01

    Describes how the Free University of Berlin (West Germany) has become more open to the public. The Free University has strengthened its cooperation with private companies in research and funding, promoted internal research, and increased its accelerated and continuing education programs in order to improve its image. (LS)

  3. NCI Core Open House Shines Spotlight on Supportive Science and Basic Research | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lobby of Building 549 at NCI at Frederick bustled with activity for two hours on Tuesday, May 1, as several dozen scientists and staff gathered for the NCI Core Open House. The event aimed to encourage discussion and educate visitors about the capabilities of the cores, laboratories, and facilities that offer support to NCI’s Center for Cancer Research.

  4. Open Science Meets Stem Cells: A New Drug Discovery Approach for Neurodegenerative Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanshuai Han

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases are a challenge for drug discovery, as the biological mechanisms are complex and poorly understood, with a paucity of models that faithfully recapitulate these disorders. Recent advances in stem cell technology have provided a paradigm shift, providing researchers with tools to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from patient cells. With the potential to generate any human cell type, we can now generate human neurons and develop “first-of-their-kind” disease-relevant assays for small molecule screening. Now that the tools are in place, it is imperative that we accelerate discoveries from the bench to the clinic. Using traditional closed-door research systems raises barriers to discovery, by restricting access to cells, data and other research findings. Thus, a new strategy is required, and the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI and its partners are piloting an “Open Science” model. One signature initiative will be that the MNI biorepository will curate and disseminate patient samples in a more accessible manner through open transfer agreements. This feeds into the MNI open drug discovery platform, focused on developing industry-standard assays with iPSC-derived neurons. All cell lines, reagents and assay findings developed in this open fashion will be made available to academia and industry. By removing the obstacles many universities and companies face in distributing patient samples and assay results, our goal is to accelerate translational medical research and the development of new therapies for devastating neurodegenerative disorders.

  5. E-GRANTHALAYA: LIBRARY INFORMATION SCIENCE OPEN SOURCE AUTOMATION SOFTWARE: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Umaiyorubagam, R.; JohnAnish, R; Jeyapragash, B

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes that Free Library software’s availability on-line. The open source software is available on three categories.They are library automation software, Digital Library software and integrated library packages. The paper discusses these aspect in detail.

  6. Promoting Continuing Computer Science Education through a Massively Open Online Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparison study between graduate students taking a software security course at an American university and international working professionals taking a version of the same course online through a free massive open online course (MOOC) created in the Google CourseBuilder learning environment. A goal of the study…

  7. To have your citizen science cake and eat it? Delivering research and outreach through Open Air Laboratories (OPAL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakeman-Fraser, Poppy; Gosling, Laura; Moffat, Andy J; West, Sarah E; Fradera, Roger; Davies, Linda; Ayamba, Maxwell A; van der Wal, René

    2016-07-22

    The vast array of citizen science projects which have blossomed over the last decade span a spectrum of objectives from research to outreach. While some focus primarily on the collection of rigorous scientific data and others are positioned towards the public engagement end of the gradient, the majority of initiatives attempt to balance the two. Although meeting multiple aims can be seen as a 'win-win' situation, it can also yield significant challenges as allocating resources to one element means that they may be diverted away from the other. Here we analyse one such programme which set out to find an effective equilibrium between these arguably polarised goals. Through the lens of the Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) programme we explore the inherent trade-offs encountered under four indicators derived from an independent citizen science evaluation framework. Assimilating experience from the OPAL network we investigate practical approaches taken to tackle arising tensions. Working backwards from project delivery to design, we found the following elements to be important: ensuring outputs are fit for purpose, developing strong internal and external collaborations, building a sufficiently diverse partnership and considering target audiences. We combine these 'operational indicators' with four pre-existing 'outcome indicators' to create a model which can be used to shape the planning and delivery of a citizen science project. Our findings suggest that whether the proverb in the title rings true will largely depend on the identification of challenges along the way and the ability to address these conflicts throughout the citizen science project.

  8. Opening the Big Black Box: European study reveals visitors' impressions of science laboratories

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "On 29 - 30 March the findings of 'Inside the Big Black Box'- a Europe-wide science and society project - will be revealed during a two-day seminar hosted by CERN*. The principle aim of Inside the Big Black Box (IN3B) is to determine whether a working scientific laboratory can capture the curiosity of the general public through visits" (1 page)

  9. SMS: a linked open data infrastructure for science and innovation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Besselaar, P.; Khalili, A.; Idrissou, A.; Loizou, A.; Schlobach, S.; Van Harmelen, F.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we describe a data integration infrastructure for Science Technology and Innovation (STI) studies developed within the context of the RISIS project. We outline its architecture and functionalities. In the full paper, we will show the use of the infrastructure in a complex research project. At the conference we will give a demonstration. (Author)

  10. Teaching Botanical Identification to Adults: Experiences of the UK Participatory Science Project "Open Air Laboratories"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Bethan C.; Donkin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Taxonomic education and botany are increasingly neglected in schools and universities, leading to a "missed generation" of adults that cannot identify organisms, especially plants. This study pilots three methods for teaching identification of native plant species to forty-three adults engaged in the participatory science project…

  11. Opening the Classroom Door: Professional Learning Communities in the Math and Science Partnership Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamos, James E.; Bergin, Kathleen B.; Maki, Daniel P.; Perez, Lance C.; Prival, Joan T.; Rainey, Daphne Y.; Rowell, Ginger H.; VanderPutten, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This article looks at how professional learning communities (PLCs) have become an operational approach for professional development with potential to de-isolate the teaching experience in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The authors offer a short synopsis of the intellectual origins of PLCs, provide multiple…

  12. 76 FR 4645 - Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ..., 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.; Tuesday, March 8, 2011, 8:30 a.m. to 12 p.m. ADDRESSES: Doubletree Bethesda Hotel... year (FY) 2012 budget submission to Congress and to conduct other committee business. Tentative Agenda Items: Office of Science FY 2012 Congressional Budget Request FES Program FY 2012 Congressional Budget...

  13. 77 FR 15996 - Science Advisory Board (SAB); Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... limited to a total time of five (5) minutes. Individuals or groups planning to make a verbal presentation... Science Advisory Board (SAB) was established by a Decision Memorandum dated September 25, 1997, and is the... resource management. Time and Date: The meeting will be held Thursday, April 5, 2012 from 9 a.m. to 5:15 p...

  14. 76 FR 10888 - Science Advisory Board (SAB); Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... general, each individual or group making a verbal presentation will be limited to a total time of five (5... meeting. SUMMARY: The Science Advisory Board (SAB) was established by a Decision Memorandum dated... quality and provide optimal support to resource management. TIME AND DATE: The meeting will be held...

  15. Using a Web Site in an Elementary Science Methods Class: Are We Opening a Pandora's Box?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Scott P.; O'Brien, George E.

    This paper describes the introduction and use of the World Wide Web (WWW) in an elementary science methods course at Florida International University (FIU). The goals of creating a web site include engaging conversations among educators, providing access to local resources for students, and examining student use of web sites and the Internet. The…

  16. 78 FR 32475 - Committee on Equal Opportunities in Science and Engineering; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... participation in science and engineering. Agenda: Opening Statement by the CEOSE Chair [[Page 32476... Broader Impacts NCSES Report, Women, Minorities and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering... Director of the National Science Foundation Discussion of CEOSE Unfinished Business and New Business Dated...

  17. Impacts and Characteristics of Computer-Based Science Inquiry Learning Environments for Precollege Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Dermot F.; Linn, Marcia C.; Ludvigsen, Sten

    2014-01-01

    The National Science Foundation-sponsored report "Fostering Learning in the Networked World" called for "a common, open platform to support communities of developers and learners in ways that enable both to take advantage of advances in the learning sciences." We review research on science inquiry learning environments (ILEs)…

  18. Foundations for renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neidlein, H.C. [German Agency Scherer Schnell Walser und Partner (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    In Germany, 77 foundations promote renewable energy technology with around Euro 25 million annually. The most important internationally active foundations, however, can be found in the Anglo-Saxon countries. (orig.)

  19. Toxicology Education Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bodies and our world. Welcome to the Toxicology Education Foundation! Our mission is to enhance public understanding ... In with us, follow our Tweets, choose Toxicology Education Foundation as your preferred charity through Smile.Amazon. ...

  20. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures ...

  1. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Search How We Work Our Focus Areas About RWJF Search Menu How We Work Grants ... Learn more For Grantees and Grantseekers The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funds a wide array of programs ...

  2. Google Classroom and Open Clusters: An Authentic Science Research Project for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chelen H.; Linahan, Marcella; Cuba, Allison Frances; Dickmann, Samantha Rose; Hogan, Eleanor B.; Karos, Demetra N.; Kozikowski, Kendall G.; Kozikowski, Lauren Paige; Nelson, Samantha Brooks; O'Hara, Kevin Thomas; Ropinski, Brandi Lucia; Scarpa, Gabriella; Garmany, Catharine D.

    2016-01-01

    STEM education is about offering unique opportunities to our students. For the past three years, students from two high schools (Breck School in Minneapolis, MN, and Carmel Catholic High School in Mundelein, IL) have collaborated on authentic astronomy research projects. This past year they surveyed archival data of open clusters to determine if a clear turnoff point could be unequivocally determined. Age and distance to each open cluster were calculated. Additionally, students requested time on several telescopes to obtain original data to compare to the archival data. Students from each school worked in collaborative teams, sharing and verifying results through regular online hangouts and chats. Work papers were stored in a shared drive and on a student-designed Google site to facilitate dissemination of documents between the two schools.

  3. Cultures of Science and Technology in the Trading Zone: Biodiversity and Open Source Development

    OpenAIRE

    Heaton , Lorna; Dias da Silva , Patrícia

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This paper explores the work of building open source biodiversity information infrastructure. We analyse collaboration between a Canadian team and a Brazilian one. In particular we focus on the use of WingLongitude, a GitHub space, as a trading zone within which the two teams co-developed solutions. We show how the choice to work in a neutral space, belonging to everyone, and the use of display, representation and assemblage practices enabled sharing of some infrastruc...

  4. Cognitive Foundations for Visual Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Noonan, Christine F.; Franklin, Lyndsey

    2011-02-25

    In this report, we provide an overview of scientific/technical literature on information visualization and VA. Topics discussed include an update and overview of the extensive literature search conducted for this study, the nature and purpose of the field, major research thrusts, and scientific foundations. We review methodologies for evaluating and measuring the impact of VA technologies as well as taxonomies that have been proposed for various purposes to support the VA community. A cognitive science perspective underlies each of these discussions.

  5. Antithetic Foundations of Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at decrypting the manner in which the foundations of Economics as a science and the meanings of the relevant explanatory formulas are being shaped. My analytical endeavor focuses on understanding the peculiarities of what is referred to as the object of study of the science known as Economics, an academic synthesis of concept-related breakthroughs regarding economicity. The explicit purpose of this analysis is to identify perennial benchmarks in economic cognition whereby this ensures its consistency. The implicit purpose is to shape a cognitive model in line with the specifics of the conceptual universe of Economics, as well as with the sources of the economic realities that are subject to a sui-generis relativism. The primary benefit of this endeavor consists in systemizing the conceptual prospects with an antithetic nature that allow for the explanations of the state of economic rationality and generate the understanding of what the source of economicity is and how it behaves. As such, the conclusions are marked by the stringent need of more precisely defining economic knowledge in order to match the changing nature of economic reality, as an expression that embraces the meeting point of two ontological vistas that are methodologically separated by some theories: human nature and human condition. Economics as a science thus features, apart from a conceptual substrate that needs to be spotted, an ontological background that needs to be revealed. The role played by this background appears to be most frequently ignored. The joint identification of both direct and contextual determinants for a sensitive area of humankind, i.e. the economy, is a direction to be followed by the royal path of rational knowledge.

  6. Surveying the citizen science landscape: an exploration of the design, delivery and impact of citizen science through the lens of the Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Linda; Fradera, Roger; Riesch, Hauke; Lakeman-Fraser, Poppy

    2016-07-22

    This paper provides a short introduction to the topic of citizen science (CS) identifying the shift from the knowledge deficit model to more inclusive, participatory science. It acknowledges the benefits of new technology and the opportunities it brings for mass participation and data manipulation. It focuses on the increase in interest in CS in recent years and draws on experience gained from the Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) programme launched in England in 2007. The drivers and objectives for OPAL are presented together with background information on the partnership, methods and scales. The approaches used by researchers ranged from direct public participation in mass data collection through field surveys to research with minimal public engagement. The supporting services focused on education, particularly to support participants new to science, a media strategy and data services. Examples from OPAL are used to illustrate the different approaches to the design and delivery of CS that have emerged over recent years and the breadth of opportunities for public participation the current landscape provides. Qualitative and quantitative data from OPAL are used as evidence of the impact of CS. While OPAL was conceived ahead of the more recent formalisation of approaches to the design, delivery and analysis of CS projects and their impact, it nevertheless provides a range of examples against which to assess the various benefits and challenges emerging in this fast developing field.

  7. The Danish Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    and governed, what role it plays in the Danish economy, and how industrial foundation-owned companies perform. The book is the result of a large collaborative research project, led by the author, on industrial foundations. Some global companies such as IKEA, Robert Bosch or the Tata Group are foundation...

  8. PIV and PTV measurements in hydro-sciences with focus on turbulent open-channel flows

    OpenAIRE

    Nezu, Iehisa; Sanjou, Michio

    2011-01-01

    PIV is one of the most popular measurement techniques in hydraulic engineering as well as in fluid sciences. It has been applied to study various turbulent phenomena in laboratory experiments related to natural rivers, e.g., bursting phenomena near the bed, mixing layers observed at confluences, wake turbulence around dikes and piers, and so on. In these studies, PIV plays important roles in revealing the space-time structure of velocity fluctuations and coherent vortices. This review article...

  9. Big data, open science and the brain: lessons learned from genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparna eChoudhury

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The BRAIN Initiative aims to break new ground in the scale and speed of data collection in neuroscience, requiring tools to handle data in the magnitude of yottabytes (1024. The scale, investment and organization of it are being compared to the Human Genome Project (HGP, which has exemplified ‘big science’ for biology. In line with the trend towards Big Data in genomic research, the promise of the BRAIN Initiative, as well as the European Human Brain Project, rests on the possibility to amass vast quantities of data to model the complex interactions between the brain and behaviour and inform the diagnosis and prevention of neurological disorders and psychiatric disease. Advocates of this ‘data driven’ paradigm in neuroscience argue that harnessing the large quantities of data generated across laboratories worldwide has numerous methodological, ethical and economic advantages, but it requires the neuroscience community to adopt a culture of data sharing and open access to benefit from them. In this article, we examine the rationale for data sharing among advocates and briefly exemplify these in terms of new ‘open neuroscience’ projects. Then, drawing on the frequently invoked model of data sharing in genomics, we go on to demonstrate the complexities of data sharing, shedding light on the sociological and ethical challenges within the realms of institutions, researchers and participants, namely dilemmas around public/private interests in data, (lack of motivation to share in the academic community, and potential loss of participant anonymity. Our paper serves to highlight some foreseeable tensions around data sharing relevant to the emergent ‘open neuroscience’ movement.

  10. License - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Open TG-GATEs License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2012/05/24 You may use this database...scribed below. The Standard License specifies the license terms regarding the use of this database and the r...equirements you must follow in using this database. The Additional License specif...icense. Standard License The Standard License for this database is the license specified in the Creative Com...mons Attribution-Share Alike 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database, plea

  11. An open annotation ontology for science on web 3.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarese, Paolo; Ocana, Marco; Garcia Castro, Leyla Jael; Das, Sudeshna; Clark, Tim

    2011-05-17

    There is currently a gap between the rich and expressive collection of published biomedical ontologies, and the natural language expression of biomedical papers consumed on a daily basis by scientific researchers. The purpose of this paper is to provide an open, shareable structure for dynamic integration of biomedical domain ontologies with the scientific document, in the form of an Annotation Ontology (AO), thus closing this gap and enabling application of formal biomedical ontologies directly to the literature as it emerges. Initial requirements for AO were elicited by analysis of integration needs between biomedical web communities, and of needs for representing and integrating results of biomedical text mining. Analysis of strengths and weaknesses of previous efforts in this area was also performed. A series of increasingly refined annotation tools were then developed along with a metadata model in OWL, and deployed for feedback and additional requirements the ontology to users at a major pharmaceutical company and a major academic center. Further requirements and critiques of the model were also elicited through discussions with many colleagues and incorporated into the work. This paper presents Annotation Ontology (AO), an open ontology in OWL-DL for annotating scientific documents on the web. AO supports both human and algorithmic content annotation. It enables "stand-off" or independent metadata anchored to specific positions in a web document by any one of several methods. In AO, the document may be annotated but is not required to be under update control of the annotator. AO contains a provenance model to support versioning, and a set model for specifying groups and containers of annotation. AO is freely available under open source license at http://purl.org/ao/, and extensive documentation including screencasts is available on AO's Google Code page: http://code.google.com/p/annotation-ontology/ . The Annotation Ontology meets critical requirements for

  12. The Reflective Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    Private foundations and cultural philanthropy by élites is viewed with increasing skepticism in recent years, begging the question of the extent to which foundations reflect on their role vis a vis wider societal norms. Through the prism of the New Carlsberg Foundation, financed by the brewery...... Carlsberg A/S, the paper seeks to elucidate the way in which one culturally significant foundation from Denmark has reflected on - and legitimated - its work and investments at critical moments in the past decades. The paper indicates a foundation with a high degree of reflection on the wider societal...

  13. Environmental Foundations in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Krikser

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Foundations in Germany were examined in the context of environmental issues. Data from environmental foundations show that there is huge difference between private and public foundations concerning financial settings. Furthermore, environment is often not the only objective and sometimes not even processed. Our analysis shows that there are different types of foundations with regard to environmental scopes and activities. Although “attractive topics” such as biodiversity and landscape conservation seem to be more important to foundations, less visible topics such as pollution prevention remain merely a “blind spot.” Together, these findings suggest that there is only a limited potential of private foundations compared with public foundations. Nevertheless, there might be an impact on environmental awareness and local sustainability.

  14. Establishment of the Slovenian Universities' Repositories and of the National Open Science Portal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Ojsteršek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe paper presents the legal, organisational and technical perspectives regarding the implementation of the Slovenian national open access infrastructure for electronic theses and dissertations as well as for research publications. The infrastructure consists of four institutional repositories and a national portal that aggregates content from the university repositories and other Slovenian archives in order to provide a common search engine, recommendation of similar publications, and similar text detection. We have developed the software which is integrated with the universities' information and authentication systems and with the COBISS.SI. During the project the necessary legal background was defined and processes for mandatory submission of electronic theses and dissertations as well as of research publications were designed. The processes for data exchange between the institutional repositories and the national portal, and the processes for similar text detection and recommendation system were established. Bilingual web and mobile applications, a recommendation system and the interface suitable for persons with disabilities are provided to the users from around the world. The repositories are an effective promotion tool for universities and their researchers. It is expected that they will improve the recognition of Slovenian universities in the world. The complex national open access infrastructure with similar text detection support and integration with other systems will enable the storage of almost eighty percent of peer-reviewed scientific papers, annually published by Slovenian researchers. The majority of electronic theses and dissertations yearly produced at the Slovenian higher education institutions will also be accessible.

  15. Do-it-yourself biology: challenges and promises for an open science and technology movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrain, Thomas; Meyer, Morgan; Perez, Ariel Martin; Sussan, Remi

    2013-09-01

    The do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) community is emerging as a movement that fosters open access to resources permitting modern molecular biology, and synthetic biology among others. It promises in particular to be a source of cheaper and simpler solutions for environmental monitoring, personal diagnostic and the use of biomaterials. The successful growth of a global community of DIYbio practitioners will depend largely on enabling safe access to state-of-the-art molecular biology tools and resources. In this paper we analyze the rise of DIYbio, its community, its material resources and its applications. We look at the current projects developed for the international genetically engineered machine competition in order to get a sense of what amateur biologists can potentially create in their community laboratories over the coming years. We also show why and how the DIYbio community, in the context of a global governance development, is putting in place a safety/ethical framework for guarantying the pursuit of its activity. And finally we argue that the global spread of DIY biology potentially reconfigures and opens up access to biological information and laboratory equipment and that, therefore, it can foster new practices and transversal collaborations between professional scientists and amateurs.

  16. The Open

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saitya Brata Das

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Open darkness and light, remembrance and oblivion, coming into existence and disappearing in death play their originary co-belonging, or co-figuration. Existence belongs to this opening and is exposed to its coming to presence: it is on the basis of this originary opening, this originary historical which is revealed to this mortal being called ‘man,’ on the basis of this revelation, man founds something like politics and history. There thus comes into existence out of this freedom, out of this “play space”2, this field called ‘polis’3 where there takes place war and festival, where historical revolutions tear apart history, brings ruptures and discontinuities in the very mode of his existence, where man seeks the foundation of his own foundation (which is his metaphysical task , where occurs the dialectics of negativity between man and man, where man puts at stake his own death, his own dissolution, and by the power of his own dissolution stands in relation to the total world that he seeks to dominate. This means that man’s attempts to metaphysically found his own political and historical existence must presuppose a far more originary non-foundation, the differentiating revealing of the open, the ungrounded spacing play, or playing space of natality and mortality.

  17. Special issue on enabling open and interoperable access to Planetary Science and Heliophysics databases and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The large amount of data generated by modern space missions calls for a change of organization of data distribution and access procedures. Although long term archives exist for telescopic and space-borne observations, high-level functions need to be developed on top of these repositories to make Planetary Science and Heliophysics data more accessible and to favor interoperability. Results of simulations and reference laboratory data also need to be integrated to support and interpret the observations. Interoperable software and interfaces have recently been developed in many scientific domains. The Virtual Observatory (VO) interoperable standards developed for Astronomy by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) can be adapted to Planetary Sciences, as demonstrated by the VESPA (Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access) team within the Europlanet-H2020-RI project. Other communities have developed their own standards: GIS (Geographic Information System) for Earth and planetary surfaces tools, SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) for space plasma, PDS4 (NASA Planetary Data System, version 4) and IPDA (International Planetary Data Alliance) for planetary mission archives, etc, and an effort to make them interoperable altogether is starting, including automated workflows to process related data from different sources.

  18. NEWS: Solid foundations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Among the initiatives to be found at UK universities is a vocational award with the title `University Foundation Degree' at Nottingham Trent University. This qualification will be offered in 14 different subjects including four in the Faculty of Science and Mathematics, in the areas of applied biology, applied sciences, chemistry and physics. The courses will be available on a two-year full-time, three-year sandwich or a part-time basis. Set at a higher standard and specification than the Higher National Diplomas which it replaces, the UFD has been devised in consultation with industry and will cover the technical and specialist areas demanded by employers to combat skills shortages. The UFD in applied sciences concentrates on practical applications through laboratory, IT and project work, supported by lectures and seminars. At the end students can enter the employment market or transfer onto the second year of a degree course. Science-based careers including research and development would be the aim of those taking the UFD in physics. The first year develops the fundamentals of modern physics supported by studies in mathematics, IT and computer programming, whilst year 2 is vocational in nature with industrial problem solving and work experience as well as an academic theme associated with environmental aspects of the subject. Those who complete the UFD will be allowed automatic progression to a specified honours degree course and would normally be expected to study for a further two years for this award. However, those demonstrating an outstanding academic performance can transfer to the linked degree programme at the end of the first year via fast-track modules. Back in May the UK's Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) announced new standard benchmarks for degrees. These will be introduced into higher education institutions from 2002 to outline the knowledge, understanding and skills a student should gain from a particular higher education course. These benchmark

  19. Automatic sleep spindle detection: Benchmarking with fine temporal resolution using open science tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eO'Reilly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sleep spindle properties index cognitive faculties such as memory consolidation and diseases such as major depression. For this reason, scoring sleep spindle properties in polysomnographic recordings has become an important activity in both research and clinical settings. The tediousness of this manual task has motivated efforts for its automation. Although some progress has been made, increasing the temporal accuracy of spindle scoring and improving the performance assessment methodology are two aspects needing more attention. In this paper, four open-access automated spindle detectors with fine temporal resolution are proposed and tested against expert scoring of two proprietary and two open-access databases. Results highlight several findings: 1 that expert scoring and polysomnographic databases are important confounders when comparing the performance of spindle detectors tested using different databases or scorings; 2 because spindles are sparse events, specificity estimates are potentially misleading for assessing automated detector performance; 3 reporting the performance of spindle detectors exclusively with sensitivity and specificity estimates, as is often seen in the literature, is insufficient; including sensitivity, precision and a more comprehensive statistic such as Matthew’s correlation coefficient, F1-score, or Cohen’s κ is necessary for adequate evaluation; 4 reporting statistics for some reasonable range of decision thresholds provides a much more complete and useful benchmarking; 5 performance differences between tested automated detectors were found to be similar to those between available expert scorings; 6 much more development is needed to effectively compare the performance of spindle detectors developed by different research teams. Finally, this work clarifies a long-standing but only seldom posed question regarding whether expert scoring truly is a reliable gold standard for sleep spindle assessment.

  20. GOC-TX: A Reliable Ticket Synchronization Application for the Open Science Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Soichi; Gopu, Arvind; Quick, Robert

    2011-12-01

    One of the major operational issues faced by large multi-institutional collaborations is permitting its users and support staff to use their native ticket tracking environment while also exchanging these tickets with collaborators. After several failed attempts at email-parser based ticket exchanges, the OSG Operations Group has designed a comprehensive ticket synchronizing application. The GOC-TX application uses web-service interfaces offered by various commercial, open source and other homegrown ticketing systems, to synchronize tickets between two or more of these systems. GOC-TX operates independently from any ticketing system. It can be triggered by one ticketing system via email, active messaging, or a web-services call to check for current sync-status, pull applicable recent updates since prior synchronizations to the source ticket, and apply the updates to a destination ticket. The currently deployed production version of GOC-TX is able to synchronize tickets between the Numara Footprints ticketing system used by the OSG and the following systems: European Grid Initiative's system Global Grid User Support (GGUS) and the Request Tracker (RT) system used by Brookhaven. Additional interfaces to the BMC Remedy system used by Fermilab, and to other instances of RT used by other OSG partners, are expected to be completed in summer 2010. A fully configurable open source version is expected to be made available by early autumn 2010. This paper will cover the structure of the GOC-TX application, its evolution, and the problems encountered by OSG Operations group with ticket exchange within the OSG Collaboration.

  1. GOC-TX: A Reliable Ticket Synchronization Application for the Open Science Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Soichi; Gopu, Arvind; Quick, Robert

    2011-01-01

    One of the major operational issues faced by large multi-institutional collaborations is permitting its users and support staff to use their native ticket tracking environment while also exchanging these tickets with collaborators. After several failed attempts at email-parser based ticket exchanges, the OSG Operations Group has designed a comprehensive ticket synchronizing application. The GOC-TX application uses web-service interfaces offered by various commercial, open source and other homegrown ticketing systems, to synchronize tickets between two or more of these systems. GOC-TX operates independently from any ticketing system. It can be triggered by one ticketing system via email, active messaging, or a web-services call to check for current sync-status, pull applicable recent updates since prior synchronizations to the source ticket, and apply the updates to a destination ticket. The currently deployed production version of GOC-TX is able to synchronize tickets between the Numara Footprints ticketing system used by the OSG and the following systems: European Grid Initiative's system Global Grid User Support (GGUS) and the Request Tracker (RT) system used by Brookhaven. Additional interfaces to the BMC Remedy system used by Fermilab, and to other instances of RT used by other OSG partners, are expected to be completed in summer 2010. A fully configurable open source version is expected to be made available by early autumn 2010. This paper will cover the structure of the GOC-TX application, its evolution, and the problems encountered by OSG Operations group with ticket exchange within the OSG Collaboration.

  2. Opening up to Big Data: Computer-Assisted Analysis of Textual Data in Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Wiedemann

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Two developments in computational text analysis may change the way qualitative data analysis in social sciences is performed: 1. the availability of digital text worth to investigate is growing rapidly, and 2. the improvement of algorithmic information extraction approaches, also called text mining, allows for further bridging the gap between qualitative and quantitative text analysis. The key factor hereby is the inclusion of context into computational linguistic models which extends conventional computational content analysis towards the extraction of meaning. To clarify methodological differences of various computer-assisted text analysis approaches the article suggests a typology from the perspective of a qualitative researcher. This typology shows compatibilities between manual qualitative data analysis methods and computational, rather quantitative approaches for large scale mixed method text analysis designs. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1302231

  3. Clinical research data sharing: what an open science world means for researchers involved in evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph S

    2016-09-20

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recently announced a bold step forward to require data generated by interventional clinical trials that are published in its member journals to be responsibly shared with external investigators. The movement toward a clinical research culture that supports data sharing has important implications for the design, conduct, and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. While data sharing is likely to enhance the science of evidence synthesis, facilitating the identification and inclusion of all relevant research, it will also pose key challenges, such as requiring broader search strategies and more thorough scrutiny of identified research. Furthermore, the adoption of data sharing initiatives by the clinical research community should challenge the community of researchers involved in evidence synthesis to follow suit, including the widespread adoption of systematic review registration, results reporting, and data sharing, to promote transparency and enhance the integrity of the research process.

  4. Computer Sciences Applied to Management at Open University of Catalonia: Development of Competences of Teamworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisa, Carlos Cabañero; López, Enric Serradell

    Teamwork is considered one of the most important professional skills in today's business environment. More specifically, the collaborative work between professionals and information technology managers from various functional areas is a strategic key in competitive business. Several university-level programs are focusing on developing these skills. This article presents the case of the course Computer Science Applied to Management (hereafter CSAM) that has been designed with the objective to develop the ability to work cooperatively in interdisciplinary teams. For their design and development have been addressed to the key elements of efficiency that appear in the literature, most notably the establishment of shared objectives and a feedback system, the management of the harmony of the team, their level of autonomy, independence, diversity and level of supervision. The final result is a subject in which, through a working virtual platform, interdisciplinary teams solve a problem raised by a case study.

  5. Protecting the pipeline of science: openness, scientific methods and the lessons from ticagrelor and the PLATO trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Andrew J Stewart; Nijjer, Sukhjinder S; Francis, Darrel P

    2014-10-20

    Ticagrelor, a potent antiplatelet, has been shown to be beneficial in patients with acute coronary syndromes in a randomised controlled trial published in a highly ranked peer reviewed journal. Accordingly it has entered guidelines and has been approved for clinical use by authorities. However, there remains a controversy regarding aspects of the PLATO trial, which are not immediately apparent from the peer-reviewed publications. A number of publications have sought to highlight potential discrepancies, using data available in publicly published documents from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) leading to disagreement regarding the value of open science and data sharing. We reflect upon potential sources of bias present in even rigorously performed randomised controlled trials, on whether peer review can establish the presence of bias and the need to constantly challenge and question even accepted data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Hyper-Commons: how open science prizes can expand and level the medical research playing field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynek, Paul

    2008-12-01

    The largest industry in America is increasingly incapable of serving its customers. Over-fencing of the information commons has led to unaffordable medicine, for want of which millions of Americans and people around the world go without lifesaving treatments. Eliminating patent distribution exclusivity altogether, however, is not feasible, given the entrenched nature of the health-care industry. This paper proposes a program of voluntary Open Science Prizes that would draw large numbers of new players, who would in turn produce much new medical innovation, provide academic priority recognition, and develop a growing body of patent-beating prior art that would serve as public domain firewalls on a new supranational Hyper-Commons.

  7. Overview: Routes to Open Access

    OpenAIRE

    Tullney, Marco; van Wezenbeek, Wilma

    2017-01-01

    Slides of an overview presentation given at a CESAER workshop on Open Access, February 2nd, 2017, in Brussels Cover major routes to more open access as discussed in the Task Force Open Science of CESAER: (national) open access strategies open access mandates open access incentives open access awareness open access publishing open access infrastructure

  8. Shells on elastic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Y.C.; Kedia, K.K.

    1977-01-01

    No realistic analytical work in the area of Shells on Elastic Foundations has been reported in the literature. Various foundation models have been proposed by several authors. These models involve one or more than one parameters to characterise the foundation medium. Some of these models cannot be used to derive the basic equations governing the behaviour of shells on elastic foundations. In the present work, starting from an elastic continuum hypothesis, a mathematical model for foundation has been derived in curvilinear orthogonal coordinates by the help of principle of virtual displacements, treating one of the virtual displacements as known to satisfy certain given conditions at its edge surfaces. In this model, several foundation parameters can be considered and it can also be used for layered medium of both finite and infinite thickness. (Auth.)

  9. Trends in Research and Publication: Science 2.0 and Open Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Hovland

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers current trends in academic research and publication, in particular as seen from the control community. The introduction of Web 2.0 applications for scientists and engineers is currently changing the way research is being conducted. In the near future, participants in the research community will be able to share ideas, data and results like never before. They will also be able to manage the rapidly increasing amount of scientific information much more effectively than today through collaborative efforts enabled by the new Internet tools. However, an important premise for such a development is the availability of research material. Many research results are currently shielded behind expensive subscription schemes that impede the sharing of information. At the same time, an increasing amount of research is being published through open access channels with unrestricted availability. Interestingly, recent studies show that such policies contribute to an increased number of citations compared to the pay-based alternatives. In sum, the parallel development of new tools for research collaboration and an increased access to research material may fundamentally transform the way research is going to be conducted in the future.

  10. HashDist: Reproducible, Relocatable, Customizable, Cross-Platform Software Stacks for Open Hydrological Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadia, A. J.; Kees, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    Developing scientific software is a continuous balance between not reinventing the wheel and getting fragile codes to interoperate with one another. Binary software distributions such as Anaconda provide a robust starting point for many scientific software packages, but this solution alone is insufficient for many scientific software developers. HashDist provides a critical component of the development workflow, enabling highly customizable, source-driven, and reproducible builds for scientific software stacks, available from both the IPython Notebook and the command line. To address these issues, the Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory at the US Army Engineer Research and Development Center has funded the development of HashDist in collaboration with Simula Research Laboratories and the University of Texas at Austin. HashDist is motivated by a functional approach to package build management, and features intelligent caching of sources and builds, parametrized build specifications, and the ability to interoperate with system compilers and packages. HashDist enables the easy specification of "software stacks", which allow both the novice user to install a default environment and the advanced user to configure every aspect of their build in a modular fashion. As an advanced feature, HashDist builds can be made relocatable, allowing the easy redistribution of binaries on all three major operating systems as well as cloud, and supercomputing platforms. As a final benefit, all HashDist builds are reproducible, with a build hash specifying exactly how each component of the software stack was installed. This talk discusses the role of HashDist in the hydrological sciences, including its use by the Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory in the development and deployment of the Proteus Toolkit as well as the Rapid Operational Access and Maneuver Support project. We demonstrate HashDist in action, and show how it can effectively support development, deployment, teaching, and

  11. Open source hardware solutions for low-cost, do-it-yourself environmental monitoring, citizen science, and STEM education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, S. D.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Arscott, D. B.; Muenz, T.; Bressler, D. W.

    2016-12-01

    The explosion in DIY open-source hardware and software has resulted in the development of affordable and accessible technologies, like drones and weather stations, that can greatly assist the general public in monitoring environmental health and its degradation. It is widely recognized that education and support of audiences in pursuit of STEM literacy and the application of emerging technologies is a challenge for the future of citizen science and for preparing high school graduates to be actively engaged in environmental stewardship. It is also clear that detecting environmental change/degradation over time and space will be greatly enhanced with expanded use of networked, remote monitoring technologies by watershed organizations and citizen scientists if data collection and reporting are properly carried out and curated. However, there are few focused efforts to link citizen scientists and school programs with these emerging tools. We have started a multi-year program to develop hardware and teaching materials for training students and citizen scientists about the use of open source hardware in environmental monitoring. Scientists and educators around the world have started building their own dataloggers and devices using a variety of boards based on open source electronics. This new hardware is now providing researchers with an inexpensive alternative to commercial data logging and transmission hardware. We will present a variety of hardware solutions using the Arduino-compatible EnviroDIY Mayfly board (http://envirodiy.org/mayfly) that can be used to build and deploy a rugged environmental monitoring station using a wide variety of sensors and options, giving the users a fully customizable device for making measurements almost anywhere. A database and visualization system is being developed that will allow the users to view and manage the data their devices are collecting. We will also present our plan for developing curricula and leading workshops to various

  12. Open evaluation (OE: A vision for entirely transparent post-publication peer review and rating for science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus eKriegeskorte

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The two major functions of a scientific publishing system are to provide access to and evaluation of scientific papers. While open access (OA is becoming a reality, open evaluation (OE, the other side of coin, has received less attention. Evaluation steers the attention of the scientific community and thus the very course of science. It also influences the use of scientific findings in public policy. The current system of scientific publishing provides only journal prestige as an indication of the quality of new papers and relies on a non-transparent and noisy pre-publication peer review process, which delays publication by many months on average. Here I propose an OE system, in which papers are evaluated post-publication in an ongoing fashion by means of open peer review and rating. Through signed ratings and reviews, scientists steer the attention of their field and build their reputation. Reviewers are motivated to be objective, because low-quality or self-serving signed evaluations will negatively impact their reputation. A core feature of this proposal is a division of powers between the accumulation of evaluative evidence and the analysis of this evidence by paper evaluation functions (PEFs. PEFs can be freely defined by individuals or groups (e.g. scientific societies and provide a plurality of perspectives on the scientific literature. Simple PEFs will use averages of ratings, weighting reviewers (e.g. by H-factor and rating scales (e.g. by relevance to a decision process in different ways. Complex PEFs will use advanced statistical techniques to infer the quality of a paper. Papers with initially promising ratings will be more deeply evaluated. The continual refinement of PEFs in response to attempts by individuals to influence evaluations in their own favor will make the system ungameable. OA and OE together have the power to revolutionize scientific publishing and usher in a new culture of transparency, constructive criticism, and

  13. Earth-Base: A Free And Open Source, RESTful Earth Sciences Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishor, P.; Heim, N. A.; Peters, S. E.; McClennen, M.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation describes the motivation, concept, and architecture behind Earth-Base, a web-based, RESTful data-management, analysis and visualization platform for earth sciences data. Traditionally web applications have been built directly accessing data from a database using a scripting language. While such applications are great at bring results to a wide audience, they are limited in scope to the imagination and capabilities of the application developer. Earth-Base decouples the data store from the web application by introducing an intermediate "data application" tier. The data application's job is to query the data store using self-documented, RESTful URIs, and send the results back formatted as JavaScript Object Notation (JSON). Decoupling the data store from the application allows virtually limitless flexibility in developing applications, both web-based for human consumption or programmatic for machine consumption. It also allows outside developers to use the data in their own applications, potentially creating applications that the original data creator and app developer may not have even thought of. Standardized specifications for URI-based querying and JSON-formatted results make querying and developing applications easy. URI-based querying also allows utilizing distributed datasets easily. Companion mechanisms for querying data snapshots aka time-travel, usage tracking and license management, and verification of semantic equivalence of data are also described. The latter promotes the "What You Expect Is What You Get" (WYEIWYG) principle that can aid in data citation and verification.

  14. Citizen Science and Open Data: a Model for Invasive Alien Plant Species in Kenya's Northern Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirazodi, S.; Griffin, R.; Flores Cordova, A. I.; Ouko, E.; Omondi, S.; Mugo, R. M.; Farah, H.; Flores Cordova, A. I.; Adams, E. C.

    2017-12-01

    Invasive species in African savannas pose great threat to the native biodiversity and changes ecosystem functioning. In the forest sector, for instance Acacia species are important sources of fuel-wood, yet at the same time they have increased strain on water resources and shrunken forage spaces for both livestock and wildlife. In recently infested regions, invasive species can progress through the stages of introduction, establishment and dispersal to a full range. Currently there is much worldwide interest in predicting distributions of invasive species, and several organizations are faced with questions of whether and how to tackle such environmental challenges, or how to interpret predictions from the science community. Conservation practioners require mapped estimates of where species could persist in a given region, and this is associated to information about the biotope - i.e. the geographic location of the species' niche. The process of collecting species distribution data for identifying the potential distribution of the invasive species in the invaded ranges has become a challenge both in terms of resource and time allocation. This study highlights innovative approaches in crowdsourcing validation data in mapping and modelling invasive species (Acacia reficiens and Cactus) through involvement of the local communities. The general approach was to model the distribution of A. reficiens and Cactus (Opuntia Spp) using occurrence records from native range, then project the model into new regions to assess susceptibility to invasion using climatic and topographic environmental variables. The models performed better than random prediction (P 0.75.

  15. [Foundation of the science and society alliance in France. Towards a conscious and recognised collaboration between actors of research and civil society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellini, Nadia; Faroult, Elie

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, the debate on the meaning of science in relation to societies that create it, nourish it, and benefit from it, focused on civil society's ability to produce knowledge. This yielded first the concept of participatory science and later the wider concept of participatory research. Throughout Europe, numerous collective experimentations have generated countless interactions, and new interfaces between the world of research and civil society are constantly being created. But in spite of the proliferation of these experiences, a paradox slows down their acknowledgment and legitimation. On the one hand, these interactions often go unseen and unrecognized by the institutions, public policies, and even at times their very creators. On the other hand, scientists, are still overwhelmingly wary of civil society and, perceiving only its intellectual deficit and lack of comprehension, they fail to consider the study and development of these interactions as being of primary importance. The Sciences and Society Alliance, which was recently founded in France, provides a platform where these collaborative experiences can be collected, studied, supported, communicated, and institutionally acknowledged. The launch of this process,which is soon to be European in scope, answers the need to bring science into the democratic path tread by the societies that create it. In its ability to compose diversity, this process is an example of deep democracy.

  16. Selecting students for a South African mathematics and science foundation programme: effectiveness and fairness of school-leaving examinations and aptitude tests.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Flier, H.; Thijs, G.D.; Zaaiman, H.

    2003-01-01

    The identification of students with the potential to succeed in mathematics- and science-based study despite previous educational disadvantage is a critical issue currently facing many South African higher education institutions. The possible use of school-leaving examination (Matric) results and/or

  17. Learning At The Boundaries In An “Open Regional Innovation System”: A Focus On Firms’ Innovation Strategies In The Emilia Romagna Life Science Industry

    OpenAIRE

    fiorenza belussi; silvia rita sedita; alessia sammarra

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates the existence of an Open Regional Innovation System (ORIS model). This model is characterised by the firms’ adoption of an open innovation strategy, which overcomes not only the boundaries of the firms but also the boundaries of the region. Using data collected in a sample of life science firms, our research provides the evidence that the Emilia Romagna RIS has evolved towards an ORIS model, where firms’ innovation search strategy, despite being still embedded in local ...

  18. ScienceCentral: open access full-text archive of scientific journals based on Journal Article Tag Suite regardless of their languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Sun

    2013-01-01

    ScienceCentral, a free or open access, full-text archive of scientific journal literature at the Korean Federation of Science and Technology Societies, was under test in September 2013. Since it is a Journal Article Tag Suite-based full text database, extensible markup language files of all languages can be presented, according to Unicode Transformation Format 8-bit encoding. It is comparable to PubMed Central: however, there are two distinct differences. First, its scope comprises all science fields; second, it accepts all language journals. Launching ScienceCentral is the first step for free access or open access academic scientific journals of all languages to leap to the world, including scientific journals from Croatia.

  19. JGrass-NewAge hydrological system: an open-source platform for the replicability of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancheri, Marialaura; Serafin, Francesco; Formetta, Giuseppe; Rigon, Riccardo; David, Olaf

    2017-04-01

    JGrass-NewAge is an open source semi-distributed hydrological modelling system. It is based on the object modelling framework (OMS version 3), on the JGrasstools and on the Geotools. OMS3 allows to create independent packages of software which can be connected at run-time in a working modelling solution. These components are available as library/dependency or as repository to fork in order to add further features. Different tools are adopted to make easier the integration, the interoperability and the use of each package. Most of the components are Gradle integrated, since it represents the state-of-art of the building systems, especially for Java projects. The continuous integration is a further layer between local source code (client-side) and remote repository (server-side) and ensures the building and the testing of the source code at each commit. Finally, the use of Zenodo makes the code hosted in GitHub unique, citable and traceable, with a defined DOI. Following the previous standards, each part of the hydrological cycle is implemented in JGrass-NewAge as a component that can be selected, adopted, and connected to obtain a user "customized" hydrological model. A variety of modelling solutions are possible, allowing a complete hydrological analysis. Moreover, thanks to the JGrasstools and the Geotools, the visualization of the data and of the results using a selected GIS is possible. After the geomorphological analysis of the watershed, the spatial interpolation of the meteorological inputs can be performed using both deterministic (IDW) and geostatistic (Kriging) algorithms. For the radiation balance, the shortwave and longwave radiation can be estimated, which are, in turn, inputs for the simulation of the evapotranspiration, according to Priestly-Taylor and Penman-Monteith formulas. Three degree-day models are implemented for the snow melting and SWE. The runoff production can be simulated using two different components, "Adige" and "Embedded Reservoirs

  20. An open source approach to enable the reproducibility of scientific workflows in the ocean sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, M.; Fox, P. A.; West, P.; Hare, J. A.; Maffei, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Every scientist should be able to rerun data analyses conducted by his or her team and regenerate the figures in a paper. However, all too often the correct version of a script goes missing, or the original raw data is filtered by hand and the filtering process is undocumented, or there is lack of collaboration and communication among scientists working in a team. Here we present 3 different use cases in ocean sciences in which end-to-end workflows are tracked. The main tool that is deployed to address these use cases is based on a web application (IPython Notebook) that provides the ability to work on very diverse and heterogeneous data and information sources, providing an effective way to share the and track changes to source code used to generate data products and associated metadata, as well as to track the overall workflow provenance to allow versioned reproducibility of a data product. Use cases selected for this work are: 1) A partial reproduction of the Ecosystem Status Report (ESR) for the Northeast U.S. Continental Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem. Our goal with this use case is to enable not just the traceability but also the reproducibility of this biannual report, keeping track of all the processes behind the generation and validation of time-series and spatial data and information products. An end-to-end workflow with code versioning is developed so that indicators in the report may be traced back to the source datasets. 2) Realtime generation of web pages to be able to visualize one of the environmental indicators from the Ecosystem Advisory for the Northeast Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem web site. 3) Data and visualization integration for ocean climate forecasting. In this use case, we focus on a workflow to describe how to provide access to online data sources in the NetCDF format and other model data, and make use of multicore processing to generate video animation from time series of gridded data. For each use case we show how complete workflows