WorldWideScience

Sample records for science findings issue

  1. Current issues in the design of academic health sciences libraries: findings from three recent facility projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Patricia P

    2003-07-01

    Planning a new health sciences library at the beginning of the twenty-first century is a tremendous challenge. Technology has radically changed the way libraries function in an academic environment and the services they provide. Some individuals question whether the library as place will continue to exist as information becomes increasingly available electronically. To understand how libraries resolve programming and building design issues, visits were made to three academic health sciences libraries that have had significant renovation or completed new construction. The information gathered will be valuable for planning a new library for the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center and may assist other health sciences librarians as they plan future library buildings.

  2. 75 FR 4566 - Findings of Misconduct in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Misconduct in Science... of HHS, issued a final notice of debarment based on the misconduct in science findings of the Office..., School of Nursing, TSU, committed misconduct in science and research misconduct in research supported by...

  3. 75 FR 24703 - Findings of Misconduct in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Misconduct in Science... of HHS, issued a final notice of debarment based on the misconduct in science findings of the Office... Retrovirology Pathogenesis Laboratory, UW, committed misconduct in science (scientific misconduct) in research...

  4. Ethical issues in communicating science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, J M; Bird, S J

    2000-10-01

    Most of the publicized work on scientific ethics concentrates on establishing professional norms and avoiding misconduct. The successful communication of science is the responsibility of all involved in the process. In one study, the increased incidence of autism and other social developmental disorders in males was investigated by examining individuals with Turner's syndrome (XO females). In the national newspaper this became "Genetic X-factor explains why boys will always be boys". The steps by which a study on developmental disorders, published in a highly prestigious journal, was transformed into an article in the science section which 'explained' the socially expected gender-based behavior of genetically normal children are fascinating and, unfortunately far too typical. The scientists wrote an excellent article that has just one sentence at the end that hesitantly suggests that the findings might, with further study, have some relevance to understanding normal behavior. The general interest article in the front of the journal gave a good account of the research, but suggested more strongly that there could be an in-built biological dimorphism in social cognition. This was misrepresented in the press as proof of gender differences that "undermines the trend towards sexual equality", and both illustrates cultural bias and provides fodder for feminist critiques of science. The study has been made to appear to be biased in favor of justifying the social structure of society, and yet it was the translation from the scientific study to national news that produced this transformation to biased genetic determinism. It is poor communication of the actual science, coupled with a lack of skepticism on the part of the public, that contributes to such a misapplication of science. Scientists should resist the urge to generalize their results to make them more compelling. The science community should not allow misconstructions of scientific facts to go unchallenged

  5. Finding science in students' talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jennifer

    2009-12-01

    What does it mean to understand science? This commentary extends Brown and Kloser's argument on the role of native language for science learning by exploring the meaning of understanding in school science and discusses the extent that science educators could tolerate adulterated forms of scientific knowledge. Taking the perspective of social semiotics, this commentary looks at the extent that school science can be represented with other discourse practices. It also offers an example to illustrate how everyday language can present potential hindrance to school science learning.

  6. Controversial Issues in the Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, David C.; Sadler, Troy D.; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2018-01-01

    As the partisan divide becomes more toxic to civil discourse, the role of science in that conversation also suffers from collateral damage, becoming suspect at best, and marginalized at worse, in terms of its contribution to resolving issues rooted in science having national and global significance. The authors suggest ameliorating that damage by…

  7. Gender: an issue for science?

    CERN Multimedia

    Marina Giampietro

    2014-01-01

    Last week, CERN was invited to participate in the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) regional review meeting on how to accelerate gender equality in the European region. Representatives from CERN joined the conversation and proposed concrete examples of what needs to happen to enable more active participation by women in science and in decision-making positions.   In September 1995, around 10,000 participants, 30,000 activists, and government representatives from 189 countries all over the world met in Beijing for the Fourth World Conference on Women. The outcome was the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. Almost 20 years later, this document is considered the most progressive declaration for the advancement of women’s rights. In March 2015, the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women will carry out a review and appraisal of the implementation of the declaration with a global summit at United Nations Headquarters, New York. In view of this meeting, ...

  8. Radioactivity and Nuclear Issues in Science Fiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.

    2008-01-01

    In this work are presented and reviewed science fiction narratives, films and comics that exploit radioactivity and nuclear issues. These topics to some science fiction authors serve as metaphor of evil and holocaust as well as nice instrument for elaborating various manipulations and conspiracy theories. In that context are of special interest science fiction works depicting apocalyptic post-nuclear worlds and societies, such works being closely connected with cyberpunk genre. However, other more technologically optimistic authors nuclear energy and research regarding nuclear technology and radioactivity consider as eligible and inevitable solution for world peace and prosperity Nowadays, public interest and global fears are shifted from radioactivity and nuclear issues to other catastrophic scenarios threatening future of the mankind, these for example being climate changes and global warming, asteroid impact, collapse of information infrastructure, nanotechnology, robotics and artificial intelligence etc. Consequently, these issues are as well increasingly reflected in contemporary science fiction stories.(author)

  9. Soil Science and Global Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Rattan

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable management of soil is integral to any rational approach to addressing global issues of the 21st century. A high quality soil is essential to: i) advancing food and nutritional security, ii) mitigating and adapting to climate change, iii) improving quality and renewability of water, iv) enriching biodiversity, v) producing biofuel feedstocks for reducing dependence on fossil fuel, and vi) providing cultural, aesthetical and recreational opportunities. Being the essence of all terrestrial life, soil functions and ecosystem services are essential to wellbeing of all species of plants and animals. Yet, soil resources are finite, unequally distributed geographically, and vulnerable to degradation by natural and anthropogenic perturbations. Nonetheless, soil has inherent resilience, and its ecosystem functions and services can be restored over time. However, soil resilience depends on several key soil properties including soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration and pool, plant-available water capacity (PWAC), nutrient reserves, effective rooting depth, texture and clay mineralogy, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC) etc. There is a close inter-dependence among these properties. For example, SOC concentration strongly affects, PWAC, nutrient reserve, activity and species diversity of soil flora and fauna, CEC etc. Thus, judicious management of SOC concentration to maintain it above the threshold level (~1.5-2%) in the root zone is critical to sustaining essential functions and ecosystem services. Yet, soils of some agroecosystems (e.g., those managed by resources-poor farmers and small landholders in the tropics and sub-tropics) are severely depleted of their SOC reserves. Consequently. Agronomic productivity and wellbeing of people dependent on degraded soils is jeopardized. The ecosystem C pool of the terrestrial biosphere has been mined by extractive practices, the nature demands recarbonization of its biosphere for maintenance of its functions and

  10. Science Education: Issues, Approaches and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shairose Irfan Jessani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s global education system, science education is much more than fact-based knowledge. Science education becomes meaningless and incomprehensible for learners, if the learners are unable to relate it with their lives. It is thus recommended that Pakistan, like many other countries worldwide should adopt Science Technology Society (STS approach for delivery of science education. The purpose of the STS approach lies in developing scientifically literate citizens who can make conscious decisions about the socio-scientific issues that impact their lives. The challenges in adopting this approach for Pakistan lie in four areas that will completely need to be revamped according to STS approach. These areas include: the examination system; science textbooks; science teacher education programs; and available resources and school facilities.

  11. In this issue | Tumwine | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I wish to welcome you to our second issue of Africa Health Sciences which is coming out just before Christmas, 2001. While this is a festive season we in the Africa region have not got much to celebrate. It is the first anniversary of Dr. Mathew Lukwiya s tragic death at the hands of Ebola haemorrhagic fever. News from ...

  12. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This is the twenty-ninth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It is a double issue covering two issues of the Soviet Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine Journal. Issue 29 contains abstracts of 60 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of three Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. A review of a book on environmental hygiene and a list of papers presented at a Soviet conference on space biology and medicine are also included. The materials in this issue were identified as relevant to 28 areas of space biology and medicine. The areas are: adaptation, aviation medicine, biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, digestive system, endocrinology, equipment and instrumentation, genetics, habitability and environment effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive system, space biology and medicine, and the economics of space flight.

  13. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    This is the thirteenth issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 39 papers recently published in Russian-language periodicals and bound collections, two papers delivered at an international life sciences symposium, and three new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. Also included is a review of a recent Soviet-French symposium on Space Cytology. Current Soviet Life Sciences titles available in English are cited. The materials included in this issue have been identified as relevant to 31 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology. These areas are: adaptation, biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cosmonaut training, cytology, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, gastrointestinal systems, genetics, habitability and environment effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, space biology, and space medicine.

  14. Science and Society - Problems, issues and dilemmas in science education

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Next in CERN's series of Science and Society speakers is Jonathan Osborne, Senior Lecturer in Science Education at King's College London. On Thursday 26 April, Dr Osborne will speak in the CERN main auditorium about current issues in science education in the light of an ever more science-based society. Jonathan Osborne, Senior Lecturer in Science Education at King's College London. Does science deserve a place at the curriculum high table of each student or is it just a gateway to a set of limited career options in science and technology? This question leads us to an important change in our ideas of what science education has been so far and what it must be. Basic knowledge of science and technology has traditionally been considered as just a starting point for those who wanted to build up a career in scientific research. But nowadays, the processes of science, the analysis of risks and benefits, and a knowledge of the social practices of science are necessary for every citizen. This new way of looking at s...

  15. Special journal issue highlights IDRC-supported findings on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-03-08

    Mar 8, 2018 ... Special journal issue highlights IDRC-supported findings on women's paid work ... An important aspect of women's economic empowerment is their participation in the labour ... Maternal health research concerns men too.

  16. Science Communication for the Public Understanding of Nuclear Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seongkyung [Myungji Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    Uncertainty, stigma, risk perception, and value judgment represent characteristics of nuclear issues in the public arena. Nuclear issue, in the public arena, is a kind of risk rather than technology that we are willing to use for good purpose. There are uncertainty, stigma, risk perception, and value judgment as characteristics of nuclear. The notion of the public, here is of active, sensitive, and sensible citizens, with power and influence. The public understands nuclear issues less through direct experience or education than through the filter of mass media. Trust has been a key issue on public understanding of nuclear issues. Trust belongs to human. The public understanding process includes perception, interpretation, and evaluation. Therefore, science communication is needed for public understanding. Unfortunately, science communication is rarely performed well, nowadays, There are three important actors-the public, experts, and media. Effective science communication means finding comprehensible ways of presenting opaque and complex nuclear issues. It makes new and strong demands on experts. In order to meet that requirement, experts should fulfill their duty about developing nuclear technology for good purpose, understand the public before expecting the public to understand nuclear issues, accept the unique culture of the media process, take the responsibility for any consequence which nuclear technologies give rise to, communicate with an access route based on sensibility and rationality, have a flexible angle in the science communication process, get creative leadership for the communication process with deliberation and disagreement, make efficient use of various science technologies for science communication. We should try to proceed with patience, because science communication makes for a more credible society.

  17. Science Communication for the Public Understanding of Nuclear Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seongkyung

    2006-01-01

    Uncertainty, stigma, risk perception, and value judgment represent characteristics of nuclear issues in the public arena. Nuclear issue, in the public arena, is a kind of risk rather than technology that we are willing to use for good purpose. There are uncertainty, stigma, risk perception, and value judgment as characteristics of nuclear. The notion of the public, here is of active, sensitive, and sensible citizens, with power and influence. The public understands nuclear issues less through direct experience or education than through the filter of mass media. Trust has been a key issue on public understanding of nuclear issues. Trust belongs to human. The public understanding process includes perception, interpretation, and evaluation. Therefore, science communication is needed for public understanding. Unfortunately, science communication is rarely performed well, nowadays, There are three important actors-the public, experts, and media. Effective science communication means finding comprehensible ways of presenting opaque and complex nuclear issues. It makes new and strong demands on experts. In order to meet that requirement, experts should fulfill their duty about developing nuclear technology for good purpose, understand the public before expecting the public to understand nuclear issues, accept the unique culture of the media process, take the responsibility for any consequence which nuclear technologies give rise to, communicate with an access route based on sensibility and rationality, have a flexible angle in the science communication process, get creative leadership for the communication process with deliberation and disagreement, make efficient use of various science technologies for science communication. We should try to proceed with patience, because science communication makes for a more credible society

  18. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This is the twenty-eighth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 60 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of 3 Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 20 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas include: adaptation, aviation medicine, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive system, and space medicine.

  19. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran; Teeter, Ronald; Radtke, Mike; Rowe, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    This is the fourteenth issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 32 papers recently published in Russian language periodicals and bound collections and of three new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. Also included is a review of a recent Soviet conference on Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine. Current Soviet life sciences titles available in English are cited. The materials included in this issue have been identified as relevant to the following areas of aerospace medicine and space biology: adaptation, biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, gastrointestinal systems, habitability and environment effects, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, and space biology and medicine.

  20. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor); Radtke, Mike (Editor); Radtke, Mike (Editor); Radtke, Mike (Editor); Radtke, Mike (Editor); Radtke, Mike (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    This is the eleventh issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 54 papers recently published in Russian language periodicals and bound collections and of four new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated. Additional features include the translation of a paper presented in Russian to the United Nations, a review of a book on space ecology, and report of a conference on evaluating human functional capacities and predicting health. Current Soviet Life Sciences titles available in English are cited. The materials included in this issue have been identified as relevant to 30 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology. These areas are: adaptation, aviation physiology, biological rhythms, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cosmonaut training, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, gastrointestinal systems, group dynamics, genetics, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, perception, personnel selection, psychology, and radiobiology.

  1. Contemporary issues in systems science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, M; Weijnen, M

    2015-01-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive overview of all important areas in systems science and engineering and poses the issues and challenges in these areas in order to deal with ever-increasingly complex systems and newly emergent applications. The topics range from discrete event systems, distributed intelligent systems, grey systems, and enterprise information systems to conflict resolution, robotics and intelligent sensing, smart grids, and system of systems approaches. Individual chapters are written by leading experts in the field.

  2. Research trends and issues in informal science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinthong, Tanwarat; Faikhamta, Chatree

    2018-01-01

    Research in informal science education (ISE) become more interesting area in science education for a few decades. The main purpose of this research is to analyse research articles in 30 issues of top three international journals in science education; Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Science Education, and the International Journal of Science Education. The research articles during 2007 and 2016 were reviewed and analysed according to the authors' nationality, informal science education's research topics, research paradigms, methods of data collection and data analysis. The research findings indicated that there were 201 published papers related to informal science education, successfully submitted by 469 authors from 27 different countries. In 2008, there was no article related to informal science education. Statistical analyses showed that authors from USA are the most dominant, followed by UK and Israel. The top three ISE's research topics most frequently investigated by the researchers were regarding students' informal learning, public understanding in science, and informal perspectives, policies and paradigms. It is also found that theoretical framework used in informal science education which is becoming more strongly rooted is in a mix of the sociocultural and constructivist paradigms, with a growing acceptance of qualitative research methods and analyses.

  3. Urban science education: examining current issues through a historical lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes urban science education studies published between 2000 and 2013 with a view to identifying current challenges faced by both teachers and students in urban classrooms. Additionally, this paper considers the historical events that have shaped the conditions, bureaucracies, and interactions of urban institutions. When the findings from these urban science education studies were consolidated with the historical overview provided, it was revealed that the basic design and regulatory policies of urban schools have not substantively changed since their establishment in the nineteenth century. Teachers in urban science classrooms continue to face issues of inequality, poverty, and social injustice as they struggle to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse student population. Furthermore, persistent concerns of conflicting Discourses, cultural dissonance, and oppression create formidable barriers to science learning. Despite the many modifications in structure and organization, urban students are still subjugated and marginalized in systems that emphasize control and order over high-quality science education.

  4. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, L. R. (Editor); Radtke, M. (Editor); Garshnek, V. (Editor); Rowe, J. E. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The second issue of the bimonthly digest of USSR Space Life Sciences is presented. Abstracts are included for 39 Soviet periodical articles in 16 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology and published in Russian during the first half of 1985. Selected articles are illustrated with figures from the original. Translated introductions and tables of contents for 14 Russian books on 11 topics related to NASA's life science concerns are presented. Areas covered are: adaptation, biospheric, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cybernetics and biomedical data processing, gastrointestinal system, group dynamics, habitability and environmental effects, health and medical treatment, hematology, immunology, life support systems, metabolism, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, psychology, radiobiology, and space biology. Two book reviews translated from Russian are included and lists of additional relevant titles available either in English or in Russian only are appended.

  5. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, L. R. (Editor); Radtke, M. (Editor); Garshnek, V. (Editor); Rowe, J. E. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    This is the third issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. Abstracts are included for 46 Soviet periodical articles in 20 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology and published in Russian during the second third of 1985. Selected articles are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. In addition, translated introductions and tables of contents for seven Russian books on six topics related to NASA's life science concerns are presented. Areas covered are adaptation, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, endocrinology, exobiology, gravitational biology, habitability and environmental effects, health and medical treatment, immunology, life support systems, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system; neurophysiology, nutrition, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, and space physiology. Two book reviews translated from the Russian are included and lists of additional relevant titles available in English with pertinent ordering information are given.

  6. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, L. R. (Editor); Radtke, M. (Editor); Garshnek, V. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor); Rowe, J. E. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The fourth issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Science Digest includes abstracts for 42 Soviet periodical articles in 20 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology and published in Russian during the last third of 1985. Selected articles are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. In addition, translated introductions and tables of contents for 17 Russian books on 12 topics related to NASA's life science concerns are presented. Areas covered are: adaptation, biological rhythms, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cytology, developmental biology, endocrinology, exobiology, habitability and environmental effects, health and medical treatment, hematology, histology, human performance, immunology, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, perception, personnel selection, psychology, and radiobiology. Two book reviews translated from the Russian are included and lists of additional relevant titles available in English with pertinent ordering information are given.

  7. How operational issues impact science peer review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacker, Brett S.; Golombek, Daniel; Macchetto, Duccio

    2006-06-01

    In some eyes, the Phase I proposal selection process is the most important activity handled by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI). Proposing for HST and other missions consists of requesting observing time and/or archival research funding. This step is called Phase I, where the scientific merit of a proposal is considered by a community based peer-review process. Accepted proposals then proceed thru Phase II, where the observations are specified in sufficient detail to enable scheduling on the telescope. Each cycle the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Telescope Allocation Committee (TAC) reviews proposals and awards observing time that is valued at $0.5B, when the total expenditures for HST over its lifetime are figured on an annual basis. This is in fact a very important endeavor that we continue to fine-tune and tweak. This process is open to the science community and we constantly receive comments and praise for this process. In this last year we have had to deal with the loss of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and move from 3-gyro operations to 2-gyro operations. This paper will outline how operational issues impact the HST science peer review process. We will discuss the process that was used to recover from the loss of the STIS instrument and how we dealt with the loss of 1/3 of the current science observations. We will also discuss the issues relating to 3-gyro vs. 2-gyro operations and how that changes impacted Proposers, our in-house processing and the TAC.

  8. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, L. R. (Editor); Radtke, M. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor); Rowe, J. E. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This is the sixth issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 54 papers recently published in Russian language periodicals and bound collections and of 10 new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. Additional features include a table of Soviet EVAs and information about English translations of Soviet materials available to readers. The topics covered in this issue have been identified as relevant to 26 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology. These areas are adaptation, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, exobiology, genetics, habitability and environment effects, health and medical treatment, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism., microbiology, morphology and cytology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive biology, and space medicine.

  9. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, L. R. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This is the seventh issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 29 papers recently published in Russian language periodicals and bound collections and of 8 new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. Additional features include two interviews with the Soviet Union's cosmonaut physicians and others knowledgable of the Soviet space program. The topics discussed at a Soviet conference on problems in space psychology are summarized. Information about English translations of Soviet materials available to readers is provided. The topics covered in this issue have been identified as relevant to 29 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology. These areas are adaptation, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, exobiology, genetics, habitability and environment effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, morphology and cytology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, and space medicine.

  10. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor); Donaldson, P. Lynn (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Garshnek, Victoria (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This is the 19th issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 47 papers published in Russian language periodicals or presented at conferences and of 5 new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. Reports on two conferences, one on adaptation to high altitudes, and one on space and ecology are presented. A book review of a recent work on high altitude physiology is also included. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 33 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas are: adaptation, biological rhythms, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cytology, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, biology, group dynamics, habitability and environmental effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, man-machine systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, and space biology and medicine.

  11. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Garshnek, Victoria (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This is the twenty-fifth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 42 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of 3 Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 26 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas include: adaptation, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, exobiology, gravitational biology, habitability and environmental effects, human performance, immunology, life support systems, man-machine systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive system, and space biology and medicine.

  12. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Siegel, Bette (Editor); Donaldson, P. Lynn (Editor); Leveton, Lauren B. (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This is the sixteenth issue of NASA's USSR Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 57 papers published in Russian language periodicals or presented at conferences and of 2 new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. An additional feature is the review of a book concerned with metabolic response to the stress of space flight. The abstracts included in this issue are relevant to 33 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas are: adaptation, biological rhythms, bionics, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, exobiology, gastrointestinal system, genetics, gravitational biology, habitability and environmental effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, man-machine systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive biology, and space biology.

  13. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, Issue 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor); Donaldson, P. Lynn (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Garshnek, Victoria (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This is the 18th issue of NASA's USSR Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 50 papers published in Russian language periodicals or presented at conferences and of 8 new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. A review of a recent Aviation Medicine Handbook is also included. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 37 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas are: adaptation, aviation medicine, biological rhythms, biospherics, body fluids, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cytology, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, exobiology, gastrointestinal system, genetics, gravitational biology, group dynamics, habitability and environmental effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, man-machine systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive biology, space biology and medicine, and space industrialization.

  14. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran; Donaldson, P. Lynn; Garshnek, Victoria; Rowe, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    This is the twenty-first issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 37 papers published in Russian language periodicals or books or presented at conferences and of a Soviet monograph on animal ontogeny in weightlessness. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. A book review of a work on adaptation to stress is also included. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 25 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas are: adaptation, biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cytology, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, exobiology, gravitational biology, habitability and environmental effects, hematology, human performance, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, operational medicine, perception, psychology, and reproductive system.

  15. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran; Radtke, Mike; Teeter, Ronald; Rowe, Joseph E.

    1987-01-01

    This is the ninth issue of NASA's USSR Space Lifes Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 46 papers recently published in Russian language periodicals and bound collections and of a new Soviet monograph. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. Additional features include reviews of a Russian book on biological rhythms and a description of the papers presented at a conference on space biology and medicine. A special feature describes two paradigms frequently cited in Soviet space life sciences literature. Information about English translations of Soviet materials available to readers is provided. The abstracts included in this issue have been identified as relevant to 28 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology. These areas are: adaptation, biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, gastrointestinal system, genetics, habitability and environment effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, morphology and cytology, musculoskeletal system, nutrition, neurophysiology, operational medicine, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, and space biology and medicine.

  16. T. rex and Godzilla: Finding Science in Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, G. F.; Chure, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Works of fiction act as a powerful vehicle for inculcating an intuitive understanding (or misunderstanding) of scientific concepts in the audience. They can communicate information about scientific phenomena or how science is done. These entertainments can contribute to scientific literacy of the public and provide valuable outreach opportunities, but scientific accuracy is rarely even a minor consideration in developing fictional stories. Science educators can still make use of popular fiction to promote science education and outreach. Varied approaches have focused on the physical science in classic space operas, but historical sciences can make use of public interest in fictional tales involving prehistoric creatures and settings. Dinosaurs like T. rex inspire awe and widespread popular appeal that can nurture an interest in fossils but also serves as a gateway to all the other sciences on which paleontology depends, and to the scientific endeavor itself. But the portrayal of dinosaurs has met with negative criticism of details that is not likely to be productive of further discussion and learning. Perhaps it is not so important that authors and film makers didn't get it right; that "correctness" of terms and reconstructions is less important than the opportunity to improve public understanding of how science works; to cultivate a habit of critical thinking and an analytical approach to interpreting the world. Dinosaurs and other long extinct creatures can provide examples of how we know what we know; what kind of evidence is available and how it can be interpreted; how creative framing of hypotheses allows imaginative conjectures to be constrained by observations. They can open informative discussions of how scientists work in gathering data and developing and testing hypotheses. For example, how do paleontologists find fossils? Monsters, unrealistic fantasy creatures like Godzilla, have great charismatic appeal, and can prompt discussions of the obstacles

  17. Addressing Issues for Land Change Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braimoh, Ademola; Huang, He Qing

    2009-09-01

    Workshop on Vulnerability and Resilience of Land Systems in Asia; Beijing, China, 15-17 June 2009; There is a growing international community of scholars who work within the interdisciplinary field of land change science, a scientific domain that seeks to understand the dynamics of the land system as a coupled human-environment system. A coupled human-environment system is one in which the social and biophysical subsystems are intertwined so that the system's condition and responses to external forcing are based on the synergy of the two subsystems. Research on land system vulnerability, defined as a function of exposure and sensitivity to natural and anthropogenic perturbations, such as climate variability and sudden changes in macroeconomic conditions and the ability to cope with the impacts of those perturbations, is a fundamental component of land change science. To address issues related to land system vulnerability, the Global Land Project (GLP; http://www.glp-beijing.org.cn/index.php and http://www.glp.hokudai.ac.jp) brought together an interdisciplinary group of researchers with backgrounds ranging from environmental to social sciences. Participants came from both developed and developing countries. The workshop sought to (1) improve knowledge of the causal processes that affect a system's vulnerability and capacity to cope with different perturbations and (2) identify factors that hinder the integration of vulnerability assessment into policies and decision making.

  18. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, Issue 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran; Radtke, Mike; Teeter, Ronald; Garshnek, Victoria; Rowe, Joseph E.

    1987-01-01

    The USSR Space Life Sciences Digest contains abstracts of 37 papers recently published in Russian language periodicals and bound collections and of five new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. Additional features include the translation of a book chapter concerning use of biological rhythms as a basis for cosmonaut selection, excerpts from the diary of a participant in a long-term isolation experiment, and a picture and description of the Mir space station. The abstracts included in this issue were identified as relevant to 25 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology. These areas are adaptation, biological rhythms, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, group dynamics, habitability and environmental effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, morphology and cytology, musculosketal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, personnel selection, psychology, and radiobiology.

  19. Identifying Crucial Issues in Climate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Motoyoshi; Greve, Ralf; Hara, Toshika; Watanabe, Yutaka W.; Ohmura, Atsumu; Ito, Akihiko; Kawamiya, Michio

    2009-01-01

    Drastic Change in the Earth System During Global Warming; Sapporo, Japan, 24 June 2008; The Nobel Peace Prize awarded to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and former U.S. vice president Al Gore indicates that global warming is recognized as a real phenomenon critical to human beings. However, humanity's knowledge concerning global warming is based on an uncertainty larger than 50% in the warming rate during the past century. Therefore, scientific clarification is needed to understand important mechanisms that potentially produce positive feedbacks in the Earth system-such mechanisms must be better understood before scientists can develop more reliable predictions. To plan for the future, a symposium was organized at Japan's Hokkaido University in association with the G8 Summit, where the most recent updates on the five urgent issues in climate science were discussed. These issues, considered to be crucial as severe impacts on human society continue to rise, included (1) causes and magnitude of sea level rise; (2) decay of glaciers and the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets; (3) disappearance of the summer Arctic sea ice; (4) carbon uptake or emission by the terrestrial ecosystem; and (5) marine ecosystem change resulting in carbon emissions.

  20. Operational Issues: What Science in Available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Neri, David F.

    1997-01-01

    Flight/duty/rest considerations involve two highly complex factors: the diverse demands of aviation operations and human physiology (especially sleep and circadian rhythms). Several core operational issues related to fatigue have been identified, such as minimum rest requirements, duty length, flight time considerations, crossing multiple time zones, and night flying. Operations also can involve on-call reserve status and callout, delays due to unforeseen circumstances (e.g., weather, mechanical), and on-demand flights. Over 40 years of scientific research is now available to apply to these complex issues of flight/duty/rest requirements. This research involves controlled 'laboratory studies, simulations, and data collected during regular flight operations. When flight/duty/rest requirements are determined they are typically based on a variety of considerations, such as operational demand, safety, economic, etc. Rarely has the available, state-of-the-art science been a consideration along with these other factors when determining flight/duty/rest requirements. While the complexity of the operational demand and human physiology precludes an absolute solution, there is an opportunity to take full advantage of the current scientific data. Incorporating these data in a rational operational manner into flight/duty/rest requirements can improve flight crew performance, alertness, and ultimately, aviation safety.

  1. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, L. R. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    This is the eighth issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 48 papers recently published in Russian language periodicals and bound collections and of 10 new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables. Additional features include reviews of two Russian books on radiobiology and a description of the latest meeting of an international working group on remote sensing of the Earth. Information about English translations of Soviet materials available to readers is provided. The topics covered in this issue have been identified as relevant to 33 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology. These areas are: adaptation, biological rhythms, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cosmonaut training, cytology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, exobiology, gastrointestinal system, genetics, group dynamics, habitability and environment effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, man-machine systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, personnel selection, psychology, reproductive biology, and space biology and medicine.

  2. State of Science: ergonomics and global issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Andrew; Waterson, Patrick; Todd, Andrew; Moray, Neville

    2018-02-01

    In his 1993 IEA keynote address, Neville Moray urged the ergonomics discipline to face up to the global problems facing humanity and consider how ergonomics might help find some of the solutions. In this State of Science article we critically evaluate what the ergonomics discipline has achieved in the last two and a half decades to help create a secure future for humanity. Moray's challenges for ergonomics included deriving a value structure that moves us beyond a Westernised view of worker-organisation-technology fit, taking a multidisciplinary approach which engages with other social and biological sciences, considering the gross cross-cultural factors that determine how different societies function, paying more attention to mindful consumption, and embracing the complexity of our interconnected world. This article takes a socio-historical approach by considering the factors that influence what has been achieved since Moray's keynote address. We conclude with our own set of predictions for the future and priorities for addressing the challenges that we are likely to face. Practitioner Summary: We critically reflect on what has been achieved by the ergonomics profession in addressing the global challenges raised by Moray's 1993 keynote address to the International Ergonomics Association. Apart from healthcare, the response has largely been weak and disorganised. We make suggestions for priority research and practice that is required to facilitate a sustainable future for humanity.

  3. Library and information science practice in Nigeria: trends and issues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Library and information science practice in Nigeria: trends and issues. ... library and information science practice whereby the advent of new technologies has had ... for the Nigerian library schools where future professionals are being trained.

  4. How to Find Out in: Food Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine Univ., Orono. Raymond H. Fogler Library.

    This library handbook is a guide for the student of food science. It lists some of the more useful materials and reference books basic to general research and gives their location in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. Materials are listed in six categories: (1) dictionaries and encyclopedias, (2) U.S. and international documents, (3)…

  5. Social science findings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Eric Toman; Melanie Stidham; Bruce. Shindler

    2015-01-01

    The rising number of acres burned annually and growing number of people living in or adjacent to fire-prone areas in the United States make wildfire management an increasingly complex and challenging problem. Given the prominence of social issues in shaping the current challenges and determining paths forward, it will be important to have an accurate understanding of...

  6. Ethical responsibilities in nursing: research findings and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, V R

    1991-01-01

    Discussions in the literature assert that nurses are becoming increasingly cognizant of their ethical responsibilities, but that they are often ill prepared to participate in ethical decision making. A review of selected research literature from 1970 to 1987 was undertaken to validate these assertions. A total of 12 studies related to ethical responsibilities was identified in the review; all studies were published between 1980 and 1987. The majority of studies were at the descriptive and exploratory levels and employed Kohlberg's cognitive theory of moral development as their conceptual framework. Significant findings related to educational level and ethical responsibilities were consistent across studies. Findings related to age and clinical experience were mixed; the effects of economic level, religion-religiosity, ethnicity, and other variables on ethical responsibilities were not significant. Issues raised in the light of the existing research include the use of Kohlberg's theory as a conceptual orientation in nursing groups and limited data on the reliability and validity of instruments used in measuring ethical constructs. Recommendations for future research on ethical responsibilities include the validation of Kohlberg's theory for nursing investigations, exploration of other frameworks for developing a multidimensional view of ethical responsibilities, and the use of qualitative research designs.

  7. Social and science issues in the local environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, L.; Robinson, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the Nevada Science Project (NSP) which is a teacher run program aimed at assisting teachers in Nevada in the task of developing; learning; and teaching science, technology, and society (STS) issues; vital to Nevada; the United States; and the global community. NSP promotes innovative science instruction, and develops curriculum units on topics inherent in science and technology in order to make science more relevant and interesting to all students. The Nevada Science Project wants to prepare teachers and students to understand important science concepts, to see science as a way of thinking, and science as a way of investigating. The NSP believes that science must be an integrated curriculum based on relevant and interesting STS issues that have everyday applications

  8. Planetary Science Technology Infusion Study: Findings and Recommendations Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David J.; Sandifer, Carl E., II; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Vento, Daniel M.; Zakrajsek, June F.

    2014-01-01

    The Planetary Science Division (PSD) within the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Science Mission Directorate (SMD) at NASA Headquarters sought to understand how to better realize a scientific return on spacecraft system technology investments currently being funded. In order to achieve this objective, a team at NASA Glenn Research Center was tasked with surveying the science and mission communities to collect their insight on technology infusion and additionally sought inputs from industry, universities, and other organizations involved with proposing for future PSD missions. This survey was undertaken by issuing a Request for Information (RFI) activity that requested input from the proposing community on present technology infusion efforts. The Technology Infusion Study was initiated in March 2013 with the release of the RFI request. The evaluation team compiled and assessed this input in order to provide PSD with recommendations on how to effectively infuse new spacecraft systems technologies that it develops into future competed missions enabling increased scientific discoveries, lower mission cost, or both. This team is comprised of personnel from the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program and the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Program staff.The RFI survey covered two aspects of technology infusion: 1) General Insight, including: their assessment of barriers to technology infusion as related to infusion approach; technology readiness; information and documentation products; communication; integration considerations; interaction with technology development areas; cost-capped mission areas; risk considerations; system level impacts and implementation; and mission pull. 2) Specific technologies from the most recent PSD Announcements of Opportunities (AOs): The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), aerocapture and aeroshell hardware technologies, the NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, and the

  9. Human Health Effects of Trichloroethylene: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinot, Jennifer; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Makris, Susan L.; Cooper, Glinda S.; Dzubow, Rebecca C.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Evans, Marina V.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Lipscomb, John C.; Barone, Stanley; Fox, John F.; Gwinn, Maureen R.; Schaum, John; Caldwell, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of trichloroethylene (TCE) in September 2011, which was the result of an effort spanning > 20 years. Objectives: We summarized the key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of TCE in the U.S. EPA’s toxicological review. Methods: In this assessment we synthesized and characterized thousands of epidemiologic, experimental animal, and mechanistic studies, and addressed several key scientific issues through modeling of TCE toxicokinetics, meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies, and analyses of mechanistic data. Discussion: Toxicokinetic modeling aided in characterizing the toxicological role of the complex metabolism and multiple metabolites of TCE. Meta-analyses of the epidemiologic data strongly supported the conclusions that TCE causes kidney cancer in humans and that TCE may also cause liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Mechanistic analyses support a key role for mutagenicity in TCE-induced kidney carcinogenicity. Recent evidence from studies in both humans and experimental animals point to the involvement of TCE exposure in autoimmune disease and hypersensitivity. Recent avian and in vitro mechanistic studies provided biological plausibility that TCE plays a role in developmental cardiac toxicity, the subject of substantial debate due to mixed results from epidemiologic and rodent studies. Conclusions: TCE is carcinogenic to humans by all routes of exposure and poses a potential human health hazard for noncancer toxicity to the central nervous system, kidney, liver, immune system, male reproductive system, and the developing embryo/fetus. PMID:23249866

  10. 75 FR 73084 - Findings of Misconduct in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Misconduct in Science..., former graduate student, Department of Chemistry, CU, engaged in misconduct in science in research funded by National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), National Institutes of Health (NIH), grant...

  11. Avoiding the Issue of Gender in Japanese Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantlebury, Kathryn; Baker, Dale; Sugi, Ayumi; Yoshida, Atsushi; Uysal, Sibel

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes how the patriarchal structure of Japanese society and its notions of women, femininity, and gendered stereotypes produced strong cultural barriers to increasing the participation of females in science education. Baseline data on attitudes toward science and the perceptions of gender issues in science education, academic major…

  12. Turkish preservice science teachers' socioscientific issues-based teaching practices in middle school science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genel, Abdulkadir; Sami Topçu, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite a growing body of research and curriculum reforms including socioscientific issues (SSI) across the world, how preservice science teachers (PST) or in-service science teachers can teach SSI in science classrooms needs further inquiry. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the abilities of PSTs to teach SSI in middle school science classrooms, and the research question that guided the present study is: How can we characterize Turkish PSTs' SSI-based teaching practices in middle school science classrooms (ages 11-14)? Sample: In order to address the research question of this study, we explored 10 Turkish PSTs' SSI-based teaching practices in middle school science classrooms. A purposeful sampling strategy was used, thus, PSTs were specifically chosen because they were ideal candidates to teach SSI and to integrate SSI into the science curricula since they were seniors in the science education program who had to take the field experience courses. Design and method: The participants' SSI teaching practices were characterized in light of qualitative research approach. SSI-based teaching practices were analyzed, and the transcripts of all videotape recordings were coded by two researchers. Results: The current data analysis describes Turkish PSTs' SSI-based teaching practices under five main categories: media, argumentation, SSI selection and presentation, risk analysis, and moral perspective. Most of PSTs did not use media resources in their lesson and none of them considered moral perspective in their teaching. While the risk analyses were very simple and superficial, the arguments developed in the classrooms generally remained at a simple level. PSTs did not think SSI as a central topic and discussed these issues in a very limited time and at the end of the class period. Conclusions: The findings of this study manifest the need of the reforms in science education programs. The present study provides evidence that moral, media

  13. Science teachers teaching socioscientific issues (SSI): Four case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunju

    Socioscientific issues (SSI) are a class of issues that represent the social, ethical, and moral aspects of science in society. The need for the inclusion of SSI into science curricula has been generally accepted, but relatively few science teachers have incorporated SSI into their courses. Most science teachers feel that their most important task by far is to teach the principles of science, and any substantive pedagogical changes represent a burden. However, there are some teachers who address SSI out of personal initiatives. This dissertation study investigates four high school science teachers who address SSI out of their own initiative and explores their deeper inspirations, values, philosophies, and personal ideals that lead them to teach SSI. The overall approach is based on essentialist methodology (Witz, Goodwin, Hart, & Thomas, 2001; Witz, 2006a) with its focus on "the participant as ally" and "essentialist portraiture." The primary data source is four to six in-depth interviews with individual teachers (about 40-90 minutes for each interview). The interviews are complemented by extensive classroom observations of individual teachers' teaching SSI and by document analysis (including teaching materials, rubrics, student group projects and journals, etc.). There are two major findings. First, the teachers' deeper values and ideals are a source of larger inspiration that plays a significant role in changing their teaching practice. This inspiration may involve higher aspects (e.g., deep concern for students' development, unselfishness, caring, etc.) and commitment. Their teaching represents an integration of their personal experiences, values, concerns, and worldviews, which forms a larger inspiration for teaching. Teaching SSI is a part of this larger process. Second, the current curriculum reforms (STS, SSI, and NOS) only suggest theoretical ideals and do not effectively touch teachers' deeper values and ideals. Basically, the teachers are doing what they

  14. Teaching controversial issues in the secondary school science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    1993-12-01

    A sample of fourteen secondary school biology teachers chosen from twelve schools were interviewed. The purpose was to determine their views on how controversial issues in science might be handled in the secondary school science classroom and whether the issues of surrogacy and human embryo experimentation were suitable controversial issues for discussion in schools. In general, teachers indicated that controversial issues deserve a more prominent place in the science curriculum because they have the potential to foster thinking, learning, and interest in science. The issues of surrogacy and human embryo experimentation were seen as appropriate contexts for learning, provided that teachers were well informed and sensitive to both the students and to the school environment.

  15. Persistent Issues in Library and Information Science Education in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemna, A. A.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues relating to library and information science education in Africa. Topics include a historical background; professional recognition; standards; student recruitment; physical facilities; relevance of the curricula; financial constraints; research degrees; continuing education; paraprofessional library staff training; employment…

  16. Socioscientific Issues and Multidisciplinarity in School Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Helen

    2014-05-01

    The inclusion of socioscientific issues (SSIs) in the science curriculum is a well-established trend internationally. Apart from claims about its innate value, one of the rationales for this approach is its potential for helping to counter declining interest and participation. SSIs involve the use of science and are of interest to society, also raising ethical and moral dilemmas. Introducing such problems presents a significant and usually cross-disciplinary challenge to curriculum developers and teachers. The aim of this paper is to examine how this challenge has been met when judged against contemporary views of the issues concerned. It first explores how SSIs have been interpreted in an important and innovative science course for students aged 14-16 in England, entitled Twenty First Century Science. This paper analyses the Twenty First Century Science textbooks, focusing in detail on two SSIs, reproductive genetic technology and climate change. For each of these issues, the key ideas present in the social science literature surrounding the problems are outlined. This review is then used as an analytical framework to examine how the issues are presented in the textbooks. It is argued in this paper that the perspectives the textbooks take on these issues largely do not include perspectives from social science disciplines. It goes on to suggest that the development of future SSI-based curricula needs to take account of these wider, often interdisciplinary, perspectives.

  17. In Defense of Societal Issues as Organizers for School Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Offers a defense of societal issues as organizers for school science programs in response to criticisms of this thesis discussed in SE 534 649. Indicates that there appears to be no evidence that using nontraditional topics as organizers will make science more subject to manipulation and perversion. (JN)

  18. Social Science Research Findings and Educational Policy Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven I. Miller

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to raise several distinctions regarding the presumed relationship of social science research findings to social policy making. The distinctions are made using Glymour's critique of the Bell Curve. An argument is made that (1 social science models and research findings are largely irrelevant to the actual concerns of policy makers and (2 what is relevant, but overlooked by Glymour, is how ideological factors mediate the process. The forms that ideological mediation may take are indicated.

  19. School resources and student achievment: worldwide findings and methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Meyer. M. Nascimento

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The issues raised in the Education Production Function literature since the US 1966 Coleman Report have fuelled high controversy on the role of school resources in relation to student performance. In several literature reviews and some self estimates, Erik Hanushek (1986, 1997, 2006 systematically affirms that these two factors are not associated one to another – neither in the US nor abroad. In recent cross-country analyses, Ludger Woessmann (2003; 2005a; 2005b links international differences in attainment to institutional differences across educational systems – not to resourcing levels. In the opposite direction, Stephen Heyneman and William Loxley (1982, 1983 tried to demonstrate in the 1980’s that, at least for low income countries, school factors seemed to outweigh family characteristics on the determination of students’ outcomes – although other authors show evidence that such a phenomenon may have existed only during a limited period of the 20th Century. In the 1990s, meta-analyses raised the argument that school resources were sufficiently significant to be regarded as pedagogically important. The turn of the Century witnessed a new movement: the recognition that endogenous determination of resource allocation is a substantial methodological issue. Therefore, efforts have been made to incorporate the decision-making processes that involve families, schools and policy-makers in economic models. This implies changes in research designs that may affect the direction of future policy advices patronised by international development and educational organisations.

  20. Behavior and Attitudes under Crisis Conditions: Selected Issues and Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    Behavior, and the Intervening Variables." The American Sociologist, 4, 29-34 (1969). Farace , Richard V., Kenneth L. Villard. and L. Edna Rogers, "Family...crisis couldn’t happen here. Farace , Villard and Rogers (1972:12-13) illustrate the point: Another situation which helps support the idea that "those...Effect! the Accident at Three Mile Island; ’Findings to Date,"’ U.S. Nuc Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC. (1980). Farace , Richard V., Edna L

  1. Neutronics issues and inertial fusion energy: a summary of findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latkowski, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    We have analyzed and compared five major inertial fusion energy (IFE) and two representative magnetic fusion energy (MFE) power plant designs for their environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) characteristics. Our work has focussed upon the neutronics of each of the designs and the resulting radiological hazard indices. The calculation of a consistent set of hazard indices allows comparisons to be made between the designs. Such comparisons enable identification of trends in fusion ES ampersand H characteristics and may be used to increase the likelihood of fusion achieving its full potential with respect to ES ampersand H characteristics. The present work summarizes our findings and conclusions. This work emphasizes the need for more research in low-activation materials and for the experimental measurement of radionuclide release fractions under accident conditions

  2. Turkish Preservice Science Teachers' Socioscientific Issues-Based Teaching Practices in Middle School Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genel, Abdulkadir; Topçu, Mustafa Sami

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite a growing body of research and curriculum reforms including socioscientific issues (SSI) across the world, how preservice science teachers (PST) or in-service science teachers can teach SSI in science classrooms needs further inquiry. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the abilities of PSTs to teach SSI in middle…

  3. Climate Change: Issues in the Science and Its Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Thomas Lovejoy , Mr. Stuart Eizenstat, and Ms. Stephanie Meeks. Hearing...I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A LY S E S IDA Document D-3904 Log: H 09-000863 July 2009 Climate Change: Issues in the Science and...challenges. I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A LY S E S IDA Document D-3904 Climate Change: Issues in the Science and Its Use

  4. Saudi Science Teachers' Views and Teaching Strategies of Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Aziz S.

    Scientific developments such as cloning and nuclear energy have generated many controversial issues pertain to many political, social, environmental, ethical and cultural values in different societies around the globe. These controversies delimited and encircled the potential of including and teaching some important aspects of science in schools and therefore caused less consideration to the influence of these issues on enhancing the scientific literacy of people in general. The purpose of this study was to investigate how Saudi science teachers in the city of Tabuk in Saudi Arabia view and teach SSI in Saudi Arabia. This study employed semi-structured interviews with Saudi science teachers. Methodologically, this study used a constructivist grounded theory as a method for analysis to generate in-depth descriptive data about Saudi science teachers' views and teaching strategies of socio-scientific issues. Some direct and indirect benefits pertain to teaching science, understanding the relationship between science, religion, and society and some other topics are discussed in this study.

  5. Digest of Russian Space Life Sciences, issue 33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This is the thirty-third issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 55 papers published in Russian journals. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to the following areas of space biology and medicine: biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, equipment and instrumentation, gastrointestinal system, genetics, hematology, human performance, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, psychology, radiobiology, and reproductive system.

  6. Family dynamics and housing: Conceptual issues and empirical findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Mulder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In this reflection I discuss my conceptual ideas and the latest empirical findings regarding the connections between leaving the parental home, marriage, parenthood, and separation on the one hand, and housing on the other. I also discuss the limitations of the research and directions for future research. CONCLUSIONS Parental housing of good quality keeps specific categories of potential nest-leavers in the parental home, but is also positively associated with the likelihood of young adults starting their housing careers as homeowners. The connections between housing and marriage and between housing and parenthood can be characterized using the concepts of housing space, quality, and safety or security - all three of which married couples and families need more than singles - and flexibility, which couples and families need less. These four needs are strongly subject to social norms. There is a strong tendency for married couples and prospective families to move into home ownership and higher quality homes. Separation tends to lead ex-partners with lower moving costs and fewer resources to move from the joint home, and tends to lead to a longer lasting decrease in housing quality, particularly for women. Future research could focus on the impact of housing on the transformation of dating partnerships into co-residential partnerships, the impact of housing quality and home ownership on the quality of partner relationships, partnership and housing histories rather than single events and short-term effects, unraveling the causal connections between family and housing, and incorporating the impact of the socio-spatial context in the research.

  7. Edge Localized Modes: resent experimental findings and related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, K.

    2007-01-01

    Edge Localized Mode (ELM) measurements in the tokamaks, including JT-60U, DIII-D, ASDEX-U and JET, are reviewed. An ELMy H-mode operation having Type-I ELMs is nominated as the reference inductive operational scenario for ITER (Q DT =10), which is normally observed for the best performing H-mode in many tokamaks,. However, the ELMs produce pulsed heat and particle fluxes that can lead to a rapid erosion of the divertor plate. It is estimated that the peak heat flux to the divertor would reduce the lifetime of the divertor to several hundred shots in ITER (e.g. an acceptable divertor lifetime could be realized only by an upper limit of ELM energy loss normalized by pedestal stored energy, ΔDW ELM /W ped ∼ 5-6%). Approaches to control the Type-I ELMs, such as '' Ergodization '' on DIII-D, '' Pace making by a shallow pellet injection '' on ASDEX-U, '' Vertical motion '' on TCV, have been successfully demonstrated in many tokamaks. On the other hand, finding alternative scenarios to Type-I ELMy H-mode operation are also a key area of research for current tokamaks. Specifically, '' Quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) '' on DIII-D, ASDEX-U and JT-60U, and '' Grassy ELMs '' on JT-60U demonstrated a high confinement (being comparable to that of Type-I ELMy H-mode plasmas at similar parameters) in the absence of large, ELM induced, transient heat/particle fluxes to the divertor targets. ELM dynamics measurements in the SOL at the midplane show large, rapid variations of the SOL parameters. Recent data from a fast resolved measurements, such as scanning probe, radial interferometer chord, BES and tangentially viewing fast-gated camera at the midplane, suggest a filamentary structure of the perturbation with fast radial propagation in later phases and parallel propagation of the ELM pulse at around the sound speed of pedestal ions. The results are qualitatively consistent with nonlinear ballooning theory, although a more quantitative physics understanding, including detailed

  8. Perspectives on learning through research on critical issues-based science center exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Erminia G.

    2004-07-01

    Recently, science centers have created issues-based exhibitions as a way of communicating socioscientific subject matter to the public. Research in the last decade has investigated how critical issues-based installations promote more robust views of science, while creating effective learning environments for teaching and learning about science. The focus of this paper is to explore research conducted over a 10-year period that informs our understanding of the nature of learning through these experiences. Two specific exhibitions - Mine Games and A Question of Truth - provide the context for discussing this research. Findings suggest that critical issues-based installations challenge visitors in different ways - intellectually and emotionally. They provide experiences beyond usual phenomenon-based exhibitions and carry the potential to enhance learning by personalizing subject matter, evoking emotion, stimulating dialogue and debate, and promoting reflexivity. Critical issues-based exhibitions serve as excellent environments in which to explore the nature of learning in these nonschool settings.

  9. Neuroscience and Brain Science Special Issue begins in the Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABDULLAH, Jafri Malin

    2014-01-01

    The Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences and the Orient Neuron Nexus have amalgated to publish a yearly special issue based on neuro- and brain sciences. This will hopefully improve the quality of peer-reviewed manuscripts in the field of fundamental, applied, and clinical neuroscience and brain science from Asian countries. One focus of the Universiti Sains Malaysia is to strengthen neuroscience and brain science, especially in the field of neuroinformatics. PMID:25941457

  10. Diversity in laboratory animal science: issues and initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alworth, Leanne; Ardayfio, Krystal L; Blickman, Andrew; Greenhill, Lisa; Hill, William; Sharp, Patrick; Talmage, Roberta; Plaut, Victoria C; Goren, Matt

    2010-03-01

    Since diversity in the workplace began receiving scholarly attention in the late 1980s, many corporations and institutions have invested in programs to address and manage diversity. We encourage laboratory animal science to address the challenges and to build on the strengths that personal diversity brings to our field and workplaces. Diversity is already becoming increasingly relevant in the workplace and the laboratory animal science field. By addressing issues related to diversity, laboratory animal science could benefit and potentially fulfill its goals more successfully. To date, diversity has received minimal attention from the field as a whole. However, many individuals, workplaces, and institutions in industry, academia, and the uniformed services that are intimately involved with the field of laboratory animal science are actively addressing issues concerning diversity. This article describes some of these programs and activities in industry and academia. Our intention is that this article will provide useful examples of inclusion-promoting activities and prompt further initiatives to address diversity awareness and inclusion in laboratory animal science.

  11. Promoting Issues-based STSE Perspectives in Science Teacher Education: Problems of Identity and Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Erminia G.; Bencze, Larry; Hewitt, Jim; Romkey, Lisa; Jivraj, Ashifa

    2008-09-01

    Although science, technology, society and environment (STSE) education has gained considerable force in the past few years, it has made fewer strides in practice. We suggest that science teacher identity plays a role in the adoption of STSE perspectives. Simply put, issues-based STSE education challenges traditional images of a science teacher and science instructional ideologies. In this paper, we briefly describe the development of a multimedia documentary depicting issues-based STSE education in a teacher’s class and its subsequent implementation with 64 secondary student-teachers at a large Canadian university. Specifically, we set out to explore: (1) science teacher candidates’ responses to a case of issues-based STSE teaching, and (2) how science teacher identity intersects with the adoption of STSE perspectives. Findings reveal that although teacher candidates expressed confidence and motivation regarding teaching STSE, they also indicated decreased likelihood to teach these perspectives in their early years of teaching. Particular tensions or problems of practice consistently emerged that helped explain this paradox including issues related to: control and autonomy; support and belonging; expertise and negotiating curriculum; politicization and action; and biases and ideological bents. We conclude our paper with a discussion regarding the lessons learned about STSE education, teacher identity and the role of multimedia case methods.

  12. Science Teachers Taking their First Steps toward Teaching Socioscientific Issues through Collaborative Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunju; Yang, Jung-eun

    2017-06-01

    This study presents two science teachers, Catherine and Jennifer, who took their first steps toward teaching socioscientific issues through collaborative action research. The teachers participated in the collaborative action research project because they wanted to address socioscientific issues but had limited experience in teaching them. The research questions included what kinds of challenges the teachers encountered when implementing socioscientific issues and to what extent they resolved the challenging issues as participating in collaborative action research. The primary data source consisted of audiotapes of regular group meetings containing information on the process of constructing and implementing lesson plans and reflecting on their teaching of socioscientific issues. We also collected classroom videotapes of the teachers' instruction and audiotapes of students' small group discussions and their worksheets. The findings indicated that when addressing socioscientific issues in the classes, the teachers encountered several challenging issues. We categorized them into four: (1) restructuring classroom dynamics and culture, (2) scaffolding students' engagement in socioscientific issues, (3) dealing with values, and (4) finding their niche in schools. However, this study showed that collaborative action research could be a framework for helping the teachers to overcome such challenges and have successful experiences of teaching socioscientific issues. These experiences became good motivation, to gradually develop their understanding of teaching socioscientific issues and instructional strategies for integrating the knowledge and skills that they had accumulated over the years.

  13. Finding "Science" in the Archives of the Spanish Monarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portuondo, Maria M

    2016-03-01

    This essay explores the history of several archives that house the early modern records of Spanish imperial science. The modern "archival turn" urges us to think critically about archives and to recognize in the history of these collections an embedded, often implicit, history that--unless properly recognized, acknowledged, and understood--can distort the histories we are trying to tell. This essay uses a curious episode in the history of science to illustrate how Spanish archives relate to each other and shape the collections they house. During the late eighteenth century a young navy officer, Martín Fernández de Navarrete, was dispatched to all the principal archives of the Spanish monarchy with a peculiar mission: he was to search for evidence that the Spanish in fact had a scientific tradition. This essay uses his mission to explain how the original purpose of an archive--the archive's telos--may persist as a strong and potentially deterministic force in the work of historians of science. In the case of the archives discussed, this telos was shaped by issues as wide ranging as defending a nation's reputation against claims of colonial neglect and as idiosyncratic as an archivist's selection criteria.

  14. Ethical issues across different fields of forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Praveen Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Many commentators have acknowledged the fact that the usual courtroom maxim to "tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth" is not so easy to apply in practicality. In any given situation, what does the whole truth include? In case, the whole truth includes all the possible alternatives for a given situation, what should a forensic expert witness do when an important question is not asked by the prosecutor? Does the obligation to tell the whole truth mean that all possible, all probable, all reasonably probable, all highly probable, or only the most probable alternatives must be given in response to a question? In this paper, an attempt has been made to review the various ethical issues in different fields of forensic science, forensic psychology, and forensic DNA databases. Some of the ethical issues are common to all fields whereas some are field specific. These ethical issues are mandatory for ensuring high levels of reliability and credibility of forensic scientists.

  15. Development of Socioscientific Issues-Based Teaching for Preservice Science Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Prasart Nuangchalerm

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: In the context of science education reform in Thailand, we need to prepare science teachers who can face science and social issues controversial; teachers can response the question socioscientific issues and let their students to meet the goal of science education. This study investigated the conception leading preservice science teachers approaching socioscientific issues-based teaching. The activities in classroom emphasized on peer discussion about science and social ref...

  16. Knowledge acquisition process as an issue in information sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Bosančić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of some problems of information science which are explicitly portrayed in literature. It covers the following issues: information explosion, information flood and data deluge, information retrieval and relevance of information, and finally, the problem of scientific communication. The purpose of this paper is to explain why knowledge acquisition, can be considered as an issue in information sciences. The existing theoretical foundation within the information sciences, i.e. the DIKW hierarchy and its key concepts - data, information, knowledge and wisdom, is recognized as a symbolic representation as well as the theoretical foundation of the knowledge acquisition process. Moreover, it seems that the relationship between the DIKW hierarchy and the knowledge acquisition process is essential for a stronger foundation of information sciences in the 'body' of the overall human knowledge. In addition, the history of both the human and machine knowledge acquisition has been considered, as well as a proposal that the DIKW hierarchy take place as a symbol of general knowledge acquisition process, which could equally relate to both human and machine knowledge acquisition. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to modify the existing concept of the DIKW hierarchy. The appropriate modification of the DIKW hierarchy (one of which is presented in this paper could result in a much more solid theoretical foundation of the knowledge acquisition process and information sciences as a whole. The theoretical assumptions on which the knowledge acquisition process may be established as a problem of information science are presented at the end of the paper. The knowledge acquisition process does not necessarily have to be the subject of epistemology. It may establish a stronger link between the concepts of data and knowledge; furthermore, it can be used in the context of scientific research, but on the more primitive level than conducting

  17. Careers and workforce issues in nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, S.A.; Osaisai, F.E.

    2010-01-01

    In order to realize Nigeria's aspiration to harness nuclear science and technology for socio-economic development of the society, the federal government of Nigeria charged the Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission (NAEC) with the responsibility of promotion and development of peaceful uses of nuclear energy in all its ramifications. In realization of this laudable objective, two University-based nuclear research centres at Ile-Ife (i.e. Centre for Energy Research and Development, CERD, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife) and Zaria (i.e. Centre for Energy Research and Training, CERT, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria) under the supervision of NAEC are already running R and D programmes in nuclear science and technology for over three decades. A third centre, also under the supervision of the Commission in Abuja namely the Nuclear Technology Centre (NTC) located within the Sheda Science and Technology Complex (SHESTCO) was established in 1991 and operates a Gamma Irradiation Faci lity (GIF). Furthermore, NAEC has instituted a number of programmes including a road map aimed at the introduction of nuclear option into the energy mix of the country with projected targets of 1000MWe and 4000MWe by 2017 and 2027 respectively. However, with the number of nuclear scientists, engineers and technicians required to run a 1000MWe power plant put at 1000, there is the need to grow human capital for the industry in Nigeria. In this presentation, exciting opportunities in nuclear science for young graduates are enumerated. The importance of nuclear science and technology education vis-a-vis national economy and security for improved living standard is discussed. Specific workforce issues and sample career choices in medical science, the environment and energy applications are highlighted. Progress made so far by NAEC in the area of human resources development and capacity building is presented.

  18. Contextual assessment in science education: Background, issues, and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Stephen

    2006-09-01

    Contemporary assessment practices in science education have undergone significant changes in recent decades. The basis for these changes and the resulting new assessment practices are the subject of this two-part paper. Part 1 considers the basis of assessment that, more than 25 years ago, was driven by the assumptions of decomposability and decontextualization of knowledge, resulting in a low-inference testing system, often described as traditional. This assessment model was replaced not on account of direct criticism, but rather on account of a larger revolution - the change from behavioral to cognitive psychology, developments in the philosophy of science, and the rise of constructivism. Most notably, the study of the active cognitive processes of the individual resulted in a major emphasis on context in learning and assessment. These changes gave rise to the development of various contextual assessment methodologies in science education, for example, concept mapping assessment, performance assessment, and portfolio assessment. In Part 2, the literature relating to the assessment methods identified in Part 1 is reviewed, revealing that there is not much research that supports their validity and reliability. However, encouraging new work on selected-response tests is forming the basis for reconsideration of past criticisms of this technique. Despite the major developments in contextual assessment methodologies in science education, two important questions remain unanswered, namely, whether grades can be considered as genuine numeric quantities and whether the individual student is the appropriate unit of assessment in public accountability. Given these issues and the requirement for science assessment to satisfy the goals of the individual, the classroom, and the society, tentative recommendations are put forward addressing these parallel needs in the assessment of science learning.

  19. Construction informatics - Issues in engineering, computer science and ontology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eir, Asger

    2004-01-01

    and conceptual modelling of civil engineering and design. Due to the interdisciplinary content, the first half of the study has been carried out at Department of Civil Engineering (BYG"DTU), The Technical University of Denmark; whereas the second half has been carried out at Informatics and Mathematical....... With origin in civil engineering and design issues, the study was directed towards computer science oriented theories in an attempt to introduce such theories in modelling and clarification of the domain. This strategy turned out to be a strength for the study and this thesis. However, it also discovered some...... problems in carrying out such a truly interdisciplinary Ph.D. study. Per Galle s and Dines Bjørner's common background in computer science has been essential for the success of this study. The original title of the Ph.D. project was Design and application of a civil engineering ontology. However, it became...

  20. Piaget's epistemic subject and science education: Epistemological vs. psychological issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, Richard F.

    1993-06-01

    Many individuals claim that Piaget's theory of cognitive development is empirically false or substantially disconfirmed by empirical research. Although there is substance to such a claim, any such conclusion must address three increasingly problematic issues about the possibility of providing an empirical test of Piaget's genetic epistemology: (1) the empirical underdetermination of theory by empirical evidence, (2) the empirical difficulty of testing competence-type explanations, and (3) the difficulty of empirically testing epistemic norms. This is especially true of a central epistemic construct in Piaget's theory — the epistemic subject. To illustrate how similar problems of empirical testability arise in the physical sciences, I briefly examine the case of Galileo and the correlative difficulty of empirically testing Galileo's laws. I then point out some important epistemological similarities between Galileo and Piaget together with correlative changes needed in science studies methodology. I conclude that many psychologists and science educators have failed to appreciate the difficulty of falsifying Piaget's theory because they have tacitly adopted a philosophy of science at odds with the paradigm-case of Galileo.

  1. Special issue on "Frontiers in Materials Science: Condensed matters"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Nam-Nhat; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Pham, Duc-Thang

    2018-03-01

    This special issue includes the editor-invited and selected papers from 3rd International Symposium on Frontiers in Materials Science (FMS2016), held in Hanoi, Vietnam, from the 28th to 30th of September 2016, which coincided with the 65th anniversary of the Faculty of Physics, Hanoi University of Education. The FMS2016 is a continuation of a series of meetings starting from 2010. A first event was a bilateral Vietnamese-German meeting in Hanoi, Vietnam, in 2010, and the second one was held in Frankfurt, Germany, in 2011. The idea at that time was to initiate interactions between scientists from both countries and to further develop the field of materials science in Southeast Asia. After these successful bilateral meetings, a next step was taken by advancing the format of the symposium into an international event. In 2013, the 1st International Symposium on Frontiers in Materials Science (FMS2013) was successfully organized in Hanoi, which followed 2nd symposium, FMS2015, in Tokyo, in 2015. The FMS2016 continues this idea of providing an international forum for physicists, material scientists and chemists for discussing their latest results and the recent developments in the important field of materials science.

  2. Technical findings related to Generic Issue 23: Reactor coolant pump seal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruger, C.J.; Luckas, W.J. Jr.

    1989-03-01

    Reactor coolant pumps contain mechanical seals to limit the leakage of pressurized coolant from the reactor coolant system to the containment. These seals have the potential to leak, and a few have degraded and even failed resulting in a small break loss of coolant accident (LOCA). As a result, ''Reactor Coolant Pump Seal Failure,'' Generic Issue 23 was established. This report summarizes the findings of a technical investigation generated as part of the program to resolve this issue. These technical findings address the various fact-finding issue tasks developed for the action plan associated with the generic issue, namely background information on seal failure, evaluation of seal cooling, and mechanical- and maintenance-induced failure mechanisms. 46 refs., 15 figs., 14 tabs

  3. Issues in Science Publishing. What's Hot and What's not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Science is in crisis: a crisis of trust, and a crisis of values. Yet, this is an opportune moment for scientists to examine the issues that underly science to discover how they may be of use, beyond their laboratory or field experience, to improve the research and publishing landscapes to create an environment that suits their needs more. Traditionally, the science publishing landscape had been controlled by the science, technology and medicine publishers, who have always taunted their peer review systems as being fail-safe. Yet, considerable moss has been gathered by the post-publication peer review (PPPR movement over the past few years, indicating that the voice of the average scientist now carries more weight, and more value, than ever before. Despite this, most scientists are unaware of their potential power of opinion. Especially when it comes to commenting on, and correcting, the already published literature. Commenting by name, or anonymously, is the new PPPR publishing reality. There needs to also be a concomitant movement away from artificial metrics, such as the impact factor, which serve only as ego-boosting parameters, and which distract the wider readership from the weaknesses of the traditional peer review system currently in place. Increasing cases of the abuse of peer review, such as the creation of fake identities, affiliations or e-mail addresses further highlights the need for scientists to be vigilant, without necessairly being vigilantes. The discovery, within a matter of years, that the literature is more corrupted than was previously thought, in some cases caused by clear cases of editorial cronyism, or abuse, has resulted in a need for scientists to exceed their functions as mere scientists to evolve into whistle-blowers. Some ethical guidelines are in place, such as those by COPE, yet what is being increasingly witnessed, is a discrepancy between preached values by select COPE member journals, and the literature that

  4. Let's Talk About Water: Film as a Resource to Engage Audiences Around Earth Science Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, E.; Hooper, R. P.; Lilienfeld, L.

    2017-12-01

    Connecting a diverse audience to science can be challenging. Scientists generally publish their findings in ways that are not easily accessible to audiences outside of the science community and translating findings for wider consumption requires a mindful balance of generalization and accuracy. In response to these communication challenges, the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) developed the Let's Talk About Water (LTAW) program as a formula for hosting successful events for Earth Science education. The program uses film as a bridge to open a discussion between scientists and the audience. In this setting, films are powerful educational tools because they use storytelling to engage audiences emotionally, which creates relatable, teachable moments. Originally designed to bring awareness to water issues, the formula can easily be applied to increase literacy on climate change and other critical Earth Science issues facing society. This presentation will discuss the LTAW event formula and the resources that CUAHSI has available to support event organizers in the development of their own LTAW events.

  5. KDD for science data analysis: Issues and examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayyad, U.; Haussler, D.; Stolorz, P.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of the massive data sets collected by scientific instruments demands automation as a prerequisite to analysis. There is an urgent need to create an intermediate level at which scientists can operate effectively; isolating them from the massive sizes and harnessing human analysis capabilities to focus on tasks in which machines do not even remotely approach humans-namely, creative data analysis, theory and hypothesis formation, and drawing insights into underlying phenomena. We give an overview of the main issues in the exploitation of scientific datasets, present five case studies where KDD tools play important and enabling roles, and conclude with future challenges for data mining and KDD techniques in science data analysis

  6. Enhancing nature of science understanding, reflective judgment, and argumentation through socioscientific issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Brendan E.

    There is a distinct divide between theory and practice in American science education. Research indicates that a constructivist philosophy, in which students construct their own knowledge, is conductive to learning, while in many cases teachers continue to present science in a more traditional manner. This study sought to explore possible relationships between a socioscientific issues based curriculum and three outcome variables: nature of science understanding, reflective judgment, and argumentation skill. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine both whole class differences as well as individual differences between the beginning and end of a semester of high school Biology I. Results indicated that the socioscientific issues based curriculum did not produce statistically significant changes over the course of one semester. However, the treatment group scored better on all three instruments than the comparison group. The small sample size may have contributed to the inability to find statistical significance in this study. The qualitative interviews did indicate that some students provided more sophisticated views on nature of science and reflective judgment, and were able to provide slightly more complex argumentation structures. Theoretical implications regarding the use of explicit use of socioscientific issues in the classroom are presented.

  7. Airway Science curriculum demonstration project : summary of initial evaluation findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    The performance, perceptions, and characteristics of Airway Science hires were compared with those of traditional hires. As of May 12, 1987. a total of 197 Airway Science candidates had been selected into FAA occupations. The demographic characterist...

  8. Containment-emergency-sump performance. Technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue A-43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This report summarizes key technical findings related to the Unresolved Safety Issue A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance, and provides recommendations for resolution of attendant safety issues. The key safety questions relate to: (a) effects of insulation debris on sump performance; (b) sump hydraulic performance as determined by design features, submergence, and plant induced effects, and (c) recirculation pump performance wherein air and/or particulate ingestion can occur. The technical findings presented in this report provide information relevant to the design and performance evaluation of the containment emergency sump

  9. Introduction: The 6th special issue of Mars Polar Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sori, Michael M.; Brown, Adrian J.

    2018-07-01

    Polar science at Mars has the ability to elucidate outstanding problems in the planet's history. The long-lived, kilometers-thick deposits at both poles hold a climate record that is still being steadily deciphered (e.g., Becerra et al., 2017), seasonal volatiles are important drivers of geomorphological change (e.g., Pilorget and Forget, 2015), and there is a growing recognition that water ice at lower latitudes is an important piece of the story in understanding polar processes (e.g., Bramson et al., 2015). Additionally, the icy volatiles trapped in the mid-latitudes will be an important resource for future human explorers (e.g., Viola et al., 2015). One task of this generation of Martian polar explorers is to understand the evolution of water as it cycles through the polar and mid-latitudes on geologic timescales in anticipation of its eventual utilization by the next generation of human and robotic explorers. To address these and other topics, the 6th International Mars Polar Science Conference was held in September 2016 in Reykjavik, Iceland (Smith et al., 2018). This special issue represents 16 papers presented at that conference.

  10. The effect of science-technology-society issue instruction on the attitudes of female middle school students toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullinnix, Debra Lynn

    An assessment of the science education programs of the last thirty years reveals traditional science courses are producing student who have negative attitudes toward science, do not compete successfully in international science and mathematics competitions, are not scientifically literate, and are not interested in pursuing higher-level science courses. When the number of intellectually-capable females that fall into this group is considered, the picture is very disturbing. Berryman (1983) and Kahle (1985) have suggested the importance of attitude both, in terms of achievement in science and intention to pursue high-level science courses. Studies of attitudes toward science reveal that the decline in attitudes during grades four through eight was much more dramatic for females than for males. There exists a need, therefore, to explore alternative methods of teaching science, particularly in the middle school, that would increase scientific literacy, improve attitudes toward science, and encourage participation in higher-level science courses of female students. Yager (1996) has suggested that science-technology-society (STS) issue instruction does make significant changes in students' attitudes toward science, stimulates growth in science process skills, and increases concept mastery. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect STS issue instruction had on the attitudes of female middle school students toward science in comparison to female middle school students who experience traditional science instruction. Another purpose was to examine the effect science-technology-society issue instruction had on the attitudes of female middle school students in comparison to male middle school students. The pretests and the posttests were analyzed to examine differences in ten domains: enjoyment of science class; usefulness of information learned in science class; usefulness of science skills; feelings about science class in general; attitudes about what took place

  11. Programme Implementation in Social and Emotional Learning: Basic Issues and Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlak, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the fundamental importance of achieving quality implementation when assessing the impact of social and emotional learning interventions. Recent findings in implementation science are reviewed that include a definition of implementation, its relation to programme outcomes, current research on the factors that affect…

  12. Finding Meaningful Roles for Scientists in science Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brenda

    Successful efforts to achieve reform in science education require the active and purposeful engagement of professional scientists. Working as partners with teachers, school administrators, science educators, parents, and other stakeholders, scientists can make important contributions to the improvement of science teaching and learning in pre-college classrooms. The world of a practicing university, corporate, or government scientist may seem far removed from that of students in an elementary classroom. However, the science knowledge and understanding of all future scientists and scientifically literate citizens begin with their introduction to scientific concepts and phenomena in childhood and the early grades. Science education is the responsibility of the entire scientific community and is not solely the responsibility of teachers and other professional educators. Scientists can serve many roles in science education reform including the following: (1) Science Content Resource, (2) Career Role Model, (3) Interpreter of Science (4) Validator for the Importance of Learning Science and Mathematics, (5) Champion of Real World Connections and Value of Science, (6) Experience and Access to Funding Sources, (7) Link for Community and Business Support, (8) Political Supporter. Special programs have been developed to assist scientists and engineers to be effective partners and advocates of science education reform. We will discuss the rationale, organization, and results of some of these partnership development programs.

  13. Plagiarism: Examination of Conceptual Issues and Evaluation of Research Findings on Using Detection Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Angelos; Theodosiadou, Dimitra; Pappos, Christos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyze and evaluate the research findings on using Plagiarism Detection Services (PDS) in universities. In order to do that, conceptual issues about plagiarism are examined and the complex nature of plagiarism is discussed. Subsequently, the pragmatic forms of student plagiarism are listed and PDS strategies on…

  14. Conceptual Metaphor and Embodied Cognition in Science Learning: Introduction to Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tamer G.; Jeppsson, Fredrik; Haglund, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of "International Journal of Science Education" is based on the theme "Conceptual Metaphor and Embodied Cognition in Science Learning." The idea for this issue grew out of a symposium organized on this topic at the conference of the European Science Education Research Association (ESERA) in September 2013.…

  15. Information Fusion Issues in the UK Environmental Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Earth is a complex, interacting system which cannot be neatly divided by discipline boundaries. To gain an holistic understanding of even a component of an Earth System requires researchers to draw information from multiple disciplines and integrate these to develop a broader understanding. But the barriers to achieving this are formidable. Research funders attempting to encourage the integration of information across disciplines need to take into account culture issues, the impact of intrusion of projects on existing information systems, ontologies and semantics, scale issues, heterogeneity and the uncertainties associated with combining information from diverse sources. Culture - There is a cultural dualism in the environmental sciences were information sharing is both rewarded and discouraged. Researchers who share information both gain new opportunities and risk reducing their chances of being first author in an high-impact journal. The culture of the environmental science community has to be managed to ensure that information fusion activities are encouraged. Intrusion - Existing information systems have an inertia of there own because of the intellectual and financial capital invested within them. Information fusion activities must recognise and seek to minimise the potential impact of their projects on existing systems. Low intrusion information fusions systems such as OGC web-service and the OpenMI Standard are to be preferred to whole-sale replacement of existing systems. Ontology and Semantics - Linking information across disciplines requires a clear understanding of the concepts deployed in the vocabulary used to describe them. Such work is a critical first step to creating routine information fusion. It is essential that national bodies, such as geological surveys organisations, document and publish their ontologies, semantics, etc. Scale - Environmental processes operate at scales ranging from microns to the scale of the Solar System and

  16. Implications of Socio-Cultural Research Findings for Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As such, school systems have been asked to provide challenging and stimulating science programmes that lead to scientific literacy for all. However, despite the heavy injection of scarce funds and resources to support various science education reform programmes, evaluation studies show disappointingly, that the level of ...

  17. Faculty Work-Family Issues: Finding the Balance at a Liberal Arts College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador Kane, Suzanne

    2008-03-01

    The demands and expectations on science faculty at liberal arts colleges are in many ways distinct from those at research universities. While these differences can work in favor of easing work-family conflicts, there are also unique problems that faculty can confront in a setting of smaller departments and undergraduate-only institutions. I will discuss how these issues play out for junior and senior faculty, with an emphasis on how concrete policy changes can make the workplace a more family-friendly and supportive environment for all faculty, as well as making liberal arts colleges more attractive options for those seeking physics faculty jobs.

  18. Argumentation in elementary science education: addressing methodological issues and conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ebru

    2017-11-01

    In this review essay I respond to issues raised in Mijung Kim and Wolff-Michael Roth's paper titled "Dialogical argumentation in elementary science classrooms", which presents a study dealing with dialogical argumentation in early elementary school classrooms. Since there is very limited research on lower primary school students' argumentation in school science, their paper makes a contribution to research on children's argumentation skills. In this response, I focus on two main issues to extend the discussion in Kim and Roth's paper: (a) methodological issues including conducting a quantitative study on children's argumentation levels and focusing on children's written argumentation in addition to their dialogical argumentation, and (b) investigating children's conceptual understanding along with their argumentation levels. Kim and Roth emphasize the difficulty in determining the level of children's argumentation through the Toulmin's Argument Pattern and lack of high level arguments by children due to their difficulties in writing texts. Regarding these methodological issues, I suggest designing quantitative research on coding children's argument levels because such research could potentially provide important findings on children's argumentation. Furthermore, I discuss alternative written products including posters, figures, or pictures generated by children in order to trace children's arguments, and finally articulating argumentation and conceptual understanding of children.

  19. Issues in Air Force Science and Technology Funding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, Donald C

    2006-01-01

    ... (to Air Force senior leadership) on The Shortfall of Science and Technology." This article bluntly pointed out that the Air Force had gone from first to last among the Armed Services in the amount it spends on science and technology...

  20. Scientific misconduct: also an issue in nursing science?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fierz, K.; Gennaro, S.; Dierickx, K.; Achterberg, T. van; Morin, K.H.; Geest, S. de

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Scientific misconduct (SMC) is an increasing concern in nursing science. This article discusses the prevalence of SMC, risk factors and correlates of scientific misconduct in nursing science, and highlights interventional approaches to foster good scientific conduct. METHODS: Using the

  1. "It's Still Science but Not Like Normal Science": Girls' Responses to the Teaching of Socio-Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Socio-scientific issues, which are often controversial, involve the use of science and are of interest to society, raising ethical and moral dilemmas. Examples of these issues could include genetic technology or air pollution. Following a curriculum reform in England in 2006, socioscientific issues now have a heightened presence in the 14-16…

  2. Finding the Hook: Computer Science Education in Elementary Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Zehra; Dooley, Caitlin McMunn; Welch, Meghan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how elementary teachers with little knowledge of computer science (CS) and project-based learning (PBL) experienced integrating CS through PBL as a part of a standards-based elementary curriculum in Grades 3-5. The researchers used qualitative constant comparison methods on field notes and reflections…

  3. Using complexity science and negotiation theory to resolve boundary-crossing water issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Shafiqul; Susskind, Lawrence

    2018-07-01

    Many water governance and management issues are complex. The complexity of these issues is related to crossing of multiple boundaries: political, social and jurisdictional, as well as physical, ecological and biogeochemical. Resolution of these issues usually requires interactions of many parties with conflicting values and interests operating across multiple boundaries and scales to make decisions. The interdependence and feedback among interacting variables, processes, actors and institutions are hard to model and difficult to forecast. Thus, decision-making related to complex water problems needs be contingent and adaptive. This paper draws on a number of ideas from complexity science and negotiation theory that may make it easier to cope with the complexities and difficulties of managing boundary crossing water disputes. It begins with the Water Diplomacy Framework that was developed and tested over the past several years. Then, it uses three key ideas from complexity science (interdependence and interconnectedness; uncertainty and feedback; emergence and adaptation) and three from negotiation theory (stakeholder identification and engagement; joint fact finding; and value creation through option generation) to show how application of these ideas can help enhance effectiveness of water management.

  4. Our findings, my method: Framing science in televised interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armon, Rony; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2017-11-01

    The public communication of science and technology largely depends on their framing in the news media, but scientists' role in this process has only been explored indirectly. This study focuses on storied accounts told by scientists when asked to present their research or provide expert advice in the course of a news interview. A total of 150 items from a current affairs talk show broadcast in the Israeli media were explored through a methodology combining narrative and conversation analysis. Using the concept of framing as originally proposed by Erving Goffman, we show that researchers use personal accounts as a way of reframing news stories introduced by the program hosts. Elements of method and rationale, which are usually considered technical and are shunned in journalistic reports, emerged as a crucial element in the accounts that experts themselves provided. The implications for framing research and science communication training are discussed.

  5. M.A. Streicher findings regarding high-level waste tank corrosion issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husa, E.I.

    1994-01-01

    Dr. Michael A. Streicher is a nationally recognized metallurgist and corrosion scientist. He has served on the Department of Energy, Headquarters Tank Structural Integrity panel as the primary corrosion technical expert since the panel's inception in October 1991. Attachments 3 through 13 are Dr. Streicher's correspondence and presentations to the panel between November 1991 and May 1994. This compilation addresses Dr. Streicher's findings on High-Level Waste tank corrosion issues such as: corrosion mechanisms in carbon steels; hydrogen generation from waste tank corrosion; stress corrosion cracking in carbon steel tanks; water line attack in Hanford's single-shell tanks; stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels; and materials selection for new Hanford waste tanks. These papers discuss both generic and specific corrosion issues associated with waste tanks and transfer systems at Hanford, Savannah River, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and West Valley Demonstration Project

  6. Issues around childhood disclosure of HIV status - findings from a qualitative study in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A; Detels, R; Javanbakht, M; Panda, S

    2016-07-01

    Informing the children living with HIV (CLH) about their disease (disclosure) is important from the perspective of disease treatment and overall psychosocial development. There are no published studies that qualitatively explored HIV disclosure-related issues among CLH in India. Our aim was to provide insights into the perceptions of informal caregivers of CLH regarding childhood disclosure. Children were defined as those aged maturity or was of marriageable age. Disclosure of HIV status to children is an emotional issue, both for the caregiver and the child. Like most low-or middle-income countries, no standardized, age-appropriate disclosure guidelines exist in India. Our findings advocate adoption of a multi-faceted approach, including increased availability of social and familial support, for childhood HIV disclosure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Exploiting multimedia in reproductive science education: research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senger, P L; Oki, A C; Trevisan, M S; McLean, D J

    2012-08-01

    Education in reproductive science is operating from an outdated paradigm of teaching and learning. Traditionally, reproductive education follows the pattern where students read a textbook, listen to instructor presentations, re-read the textbook and class notes and then complete a test. This paradigm is inefficient, costly and has not incorporated the potential that technology can offer with respect to increases in student learning. Further, teachers of reproductive science (and all of science for that matter) have little training in the use of documented methods of instructional design and cognitive psychology. Thus, most of us have learned to teach by repeating the approaches our mentors used (both good and bad). The technology now exists to explain complex topics using multimedia presentations in which digital animation and three-dimensional anatomical reconstructions greatly reduce time required for delivery while at the same time improving student understanding. With funding from the Small Business Innovation Research program through the U.S. Department of Education, we have developed and tested a multimedia approach to teaching complex concepts in reproductive physiology. The results of five separate experiments involving 1058 university students and 122 patients in an OB/GYN clinic indicate that students and patients learned as much or more in less time when viewing the multimedia presentations when compared to traditional teaching methodologies. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Challenges and Opportunities for Education about Dual Use Issues in the Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Challenges and Opportunities for Education About Dual Use Issues in the Life Sciences workshop was held to engage the life sciences community on the particular security issues related to research with dual use potential. More than 60 participants from almost 30 countries took part and included practicing life scientists, bioethics and…

  9. Japan's patent issues relating to life science therapeutic inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessensohn, John A

    2014-09-01

    Japan has made 'innovation in science and technology' as one of its central pillars to ensure high growth in its next stage of economic development and its life sciences market which hosts regenerative medicine was proclaimed to be 'the best market in the world right now.' Although life science therapeutic inventions are patentable subject matter under Japanese patent law, there are nuanced obviousness and enablement challenges under Japanese patent law that can be surmounted in view of some encouraging Japanese court developments in fostering a pro-patent applicant environment in the life sciences therapeutic patent field. Nevertheless, great care must be taken when drafting and prosecuting such patent applications in the world's second most important life sciences therapeutic market.

  10. Pre-service Science Teachers’ Self-efficacy Beliefs to Teach Socio-scientific Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Muğaloğlu, Ebru Z.; Küçük, Zerrin Doğança; Güven, Devrim

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine self-efficacy of pre-service science teachers to teach socio-scientific issues (SSI). Twenty-three senior pre-service science teachers participated in the study. Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI) was modified with an emphasis on SSI rather than scientific issues. The modified STEBI was applied to the participants before and after the intervention. As for the six-week intervention, three modules, which focused on understanding nature of SSI, teachin...

  11. Science Teachers' Use of Mass Media to Address Socio-Scientific and Sustainability Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Brown, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The currency, relevancy and changing nature of science makes it a natural topic of focus for mass media outlets. Science teachers and students can capitalize on this wealth of scientific information to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues; however, without a lens on how those media are created and how representations of science are…

  12. Thai Pre-Service Science Teachers' Struggles in Using Socio-Scientific Issues (SSIs) during Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitiporntapin, Sasithep; Yutakom, Naruemon; Sadler, Troy D.

    2016-01-01

    In educational reform, teaching through socio-scientific issues (SSIs) is considered the best way to promote scientific literacy for citizenship as the goal of science teaching. To bring SSIs into the science classroom, Thai pre-service science teachers (PSTs) are expected to understand the concept of SSI-based teaching and to use it effectively…

  13. Report of the APS Ad-Hoc Committee on LGBT Issues - Presentation of Findings and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Elena

    2016-03-01

    In 2014 the Executive Officer of the American Physical Society (APS), Kate Kirby, created an Ad-Hoc Committee on LGBT Issues (C-LGBT) charged with reporting on the obstacles to inclusion of LGBT physicists, a term which for the purpose of this report refers to persons who self-identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, questioning, intersex, or asexual, as well as other sexual and gender minorities. The full charge was as follows: ``The committee will advise the APS on the current status of LGBT issues in physics, provide recommendations for greater inclusion, and engage physicists in laying the foundation for a more inclusive physics community? More specifically, the committee will investigate LGBT representation in physics, assess the educational and professional climate in physics, recommend changes in policies and practices that impact LGBT physicists, and address other issues that affect inclusion.'' We will present the findings and recommendations of the C-LGBT final report, and a panel discussion will be held following the presentation to discuss the future of APS efforts toward LGBT inclusion in physics.

  14. Backyard Worlds: Finding Nearby Brown Dwarfs Through Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchner, Marc

    Recent discoveries of cool brown dwarfs in the solar neighborhood and microlensing surveys both point to an undiscovered population of brown dwarfs and rogue planets in the solar neighborhood. We propose to develop and sustain a novel website that enables a unique and powerful citizen-science based search for these and other high-proper-motion objects at 3.5 and 4.6 microns. Through this search, we have an opportunity to discover new ultracool Y dwarfs, crucial links between star formation and planet formation, and also the Sun's nearest neighbors-potentially a system closer than Proxima Centauri. NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mission (WISE) is nominally sensitive enough to detect a 250 K brown dwarf to > 6 pc and even a Jupiter analog to > 0.6 pc. However, high proper motion objects like these can easily be confused with variable stars, electronic noise, latent images, optical ghosts, cosmic ray hits, and so on in the WISE archive. Computer-based searches for high-proper motion objects falter in dense star fields, necessitating visual inspection all candidates. Our citizen science project, called "Backyard Worlds: Planet 9", remedies this problem by engaging volunteers to visually inspect WISE and NEOWISE images. Roughly 104,000 participants have already begun using a preliminary version of the site to examine time-resolved co-adds of unWISE-processed images, four epochs spanning 2010 to 2014. They have already performed more than 3.6 million classifications of these images since the site's launch on February 15, 2017. Besides seeking new brown dwarfs and nearby stars, this site is also the most sensitive all-sky WISE-based search for a planet orbiting the Sun beyond Pluto (sometimes called Planet Nine). Preliminary analysis data from the site has resulted in the discovery of 13 brown dwarf candidates including 6 T dwarfs. We obtained a spectrum of one of these candidates and published it in Astrophysical Journal Letters, with four citizen scientists

  15. Noise Pollution--An Overlooked Issue in the Science Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treagust, David F.; Kam, Goh Ah

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the need for including noise pollution in the science curriculum and describes 10 activities for improving students' awareness and understanding of and concern for noise and its effects. (Author/JN)

  16. Containment Emergency Sump Performance. Technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue A-43. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This report summarizes key technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance. Both BWRs and PWRs are considered in this report. Emergency core cooling systems require a clean, reliable water source to maintain long-term recirculation following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). PWRs rely on the containment emergency sump to provide such a water supply to residual heat removal pumps and containment spray pumps. BWRs rely on pump suction intakes in the suppression pool or wet well to provide water to residual heat removal and core spray systems. Thus, the technical findings in this report provide information on post-LOCA recirculation. These findings have been derived from extensive experimental studies, generic plant studies, and assessments of sumps used for long-term cooling. Results of hydraulic tests have shown that the potential for air ingestion is less severe than previously hypothesized. The effects of debris blockage on NPSH margin must be dealt with on a plant-specific basis. These findings have been used to develop revisions to Regulatory Guide 1.82 and Standard Review Plan Section 6.2.2 (NUREG-0800)

  17. A consideration on issues of the science education in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, Akito

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses the features of the science education of Japan based on the international data on the science achievement test scores of the school children. Furthermore, the paper introduces the world inquiry surveys on the scientific knowledge of ordinary adults, which is shown by the National Science Foundation, USA. The author will give what the science education of Japan should be in future. The 14 years-age middle school pupils of Japan had gotten the higher scores of science and mathematics achievement tests among the world, i.e. they had been between the first and the third positions in the three time tests from 1964 to 1995. The Japanese showed the extremely narrow distribution of the score. On the other hand, the Singapore and the USA showed the wide spread distributions. Another point of the Japanese pupils was weak capability to put their knowledge to practical use. They knew well that carbon dioxide came out from burning of carbon. However, few knew why carbon dioxide extinguished the fires. The NSF of USA had done the inquiry survey for the ordinary adults' knowledge on molecule, DNA, radiation, radioactivity and so on. In this case the Japanese were almost in the worst group. It is recommended that the education in the real life practice in the natural world should give more emphasis in the science education rather than studies on the papers in Japan. (Y. Tanaka)

  18. Conference proceedings on science communication addressing women's issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, A.P.

    2013-03-01

    One of the most dynamic campaigns of National Centre for Science Communicators (NCSC) is its intensive interaction with teaching community to inculcate excitement regarding science education and scientific method of knowledge transfer. The conference focused on the theme engaging women in science and science communication, challenges -education, gender differences etc., myths and misconceptions: women related issues, and health awareness in women. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  19. Science and technology planning in LDCs: major policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wionczek, M S

    1979-05-01

    Science in the less-developed countries (LDCs) should be underplanned rather than overplanned. Furthermore, the planning should be directed to the outer fringes of the scientific endeavor and to its infrastructure and not to the substance of scientific research itself. Planning of applied research and technological development in the LDC is another story. It cannot be done without entering into the substantive problems of applied research and technological development. Attempts to set the broad overall national targets for science and technology (S and T) expenditures -in terms of the proportion of the (GNP) or the per capita income- which do not consider the science and technology system's financial and human resources absorption capacity, are useless. 8 references.

  20. The issues and discussion of modern concrete science

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Wenke

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to two primary objectives. The first is to present the errors, inadaptability, and mistakes arising when the current theory on concrete is applied to explaining practical construction of concrete; the second is to put forward viewpoints in modern concrete science. Taking a number of engineering cases as examples, we experimentally studied and theoretically analyzed the errors, inadaptability, and mistakes when the current theory on concrete is applied to explaining practical construction of concrete. Moreover, we investigated the use of mixing ratios, aggregates, cement, high-performance concrete and fibers, as well as the frost resistance, cracking behavior, durability, dry shrinkage and autogenous healing to address and remedy the shortcomings in today’s concrete science, put forward new proposals, and make a number of innovative achievements in the field, particularly in modern theory on concrete science. The results and topics which will be of particular interest to engineers and...

  1. The issues and discussion of modern concrete science

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Wenke

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to two primary objectives. The first is to present the errors, inadaptability, and mistakes arising when the current theory on concrete is applied to explaining practical construction of concrete; the second is to put forward viewpoints in modern concrete science. Taking a number of engineering cases as examples, we experimentally studied and theoretically analyzed the errors, inadaptability, and mistakes when the current theory on concrete is applied to explaining practical construction of concrete. Moreover, we investigated the use of mixing ratios, aggregates, cement, high-performance concrete and fibers, as well as the frost resistance, cracking behavior, durability, dry shrinkage and autogenous healing to address and remedy the shortcomings in today’s concrete science, put forward new proposals, and make a number of innovative achievements in the field, particularly in modern theory on concrete science. The results and topics which will be of particular interest to engineers and re...

  2. Mapping the hinterland: Data issues in open science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Ann; Wilkinson, Clare; Bultitude, Karen; Winfield, Alan F. T.

    2016-01-01

    Open science is a practice in which the scientific process is shared completely and in real time. It offers the potential to support information flow, collaboration and dialogue among professional and non-professional participants. Using semi-structured interviews and case studies, this research investigated the relationship between open science and public engagement. This article concentrates on three particular areas of concern that emerged: first, how to effectively contextualise and narrate information to render it accessible, as opposed to simply available; second, concerns about data quantity and quality; and third, concerns about the skills required for effective contextualisation, mapping and interpretation of information. PMID:24769860

  3. Mapping the hinterland: Data issues in open science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Ann; Wilkinson, Clare; Bultitude, Karen; Winfield, Alan F T

    2016-01-01

    Open science is a practice in which the scientific process is shared completely and in real time. It offers the potential to support information flow, collaboration and dialogue among professional and non-professional participants. Using semi-structured interviews and case studies, this research investigated the relationship between open science and public engagement. This article concentrates on three particular areas of concern that emerged: first, how to effectively contextualise and narrate information to render it accessible, as opposed to simply available; second, concerns about data quantity and quality; and third, concerns about the skills required for effective contextualisation, mapping and interpretation of information. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Turkish Pre-Service Science Teachers' Views on Science-Technology-Society Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalvac, Bugrahan; Tekkaya, Ceren; Cakiroglu, Jale; Kahyaoglu, Elvan

    2007-01-01

    The international science education community recognises the role of pre-service science teachers' views about the interdependence of Science, Technology, and Society (STS) in achieving scientific literacy for all. To this end, pre-service science teachers' STS views signal the strengths and the weaknesses of science education reform movements.…

  5. The feasibility of educating trainee science teachers in issues of science and religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Michael

    2016-06-01

    This article reflects on Roussel De Carvalho's paper `Science initial teacher education and superdiversity: educating science teachers for a multi-religious and globalized science classroom'. It then offers suggestions for making some of the ambitious goals of the science-and-religion components of the science initial teacher education project more manageable.

  6. The Feasibility of Educating Trainee Science Teachers in Issues of Science and Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects on Roussel De Carvalho's paper "Science initial teacher education and superdiversity: educating science teachers for a multi-religious and globalized science classroom" (EJ1102211). It then offers suggestions for making some of the ambitious goals of the science-and-religion components of the science initial teacher…

  7. Main Science and Technology Indicators, Volume 2012, Issue 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2013

    2013-01-01

    This biannual publication provides a set of indicators that reflect the level and structure of the efforts undertaken by OECD member countries and seven non-member economies (Argentina, China, Romania, Russian Federation, Singapore, South Africa, Chinese Taipei) in the field of science and technology. These data include final or provisional…

  8. University Students' Opinions Concerning Science-Technology-Society Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolu, Gamze

    2016-01-01

    Determining what students think about science, technology, and society (STS) is of great importance. This also provides the basis for scientific literacy. As such, this study was conducted with a total of 102 senior students attending a university located in western Turkey. This study utilized the survey model as a research model and the…

  9. Going Global: Science Issues for the Junior High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronkhite, Louella; And Others

    This book contains a unit on science and global education that is designed to enable students to gain a practical understanding of the world they live in and the confidence to take appropriate action as responsible global citizens. This unit emphasizes cooperative learning that is experiential and participatory. Teachers and students are…

  10. Special Issues | Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | Journals ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Academy Public Lecture and INSA–Leopoldina Lecture by Prof. Jörg Hacker, President, German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina. 4 December, 2017, 4 PM Faculty Hall, Indian Institute. Associates – 2017. Posted on 30 August 2017. Click here to see the list · 83rd Annual Meeting. Posted on 01 December 2017.

  11. Urban Science Education: Examining Current Issues through a Historical Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes urban science education studies published between 2000 and 2013 with a view to identifying current challenges faced by both teachers and students in urban classrooms. Additionally, this paper considers the historical events that have shaped the conditions, bureaucracies, and interactions of urban institutions.…

  12. Measuring health lifestyles in a comparative analysis: theoretical issues and empirical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, T

    1991-01-01

    The concept of lifestyle bears great potential for research in medical sociology. Yet, weaknesses in current methods have restrained lifestyle research from realizing its full potentials. The present focus is on the links between theoretical conceptions and their empirical application. The paper divides into two parts. The first part provides a discussion of basic theoretical and methodological issues. In particular selected lines of thought from Max Weber are presented and their usefulness in providing a theoretical frame of reference for health lifestyle research is outlined. Next, a theory guided definition of the subject matter is introduced and basic problems in empirical applications of theoretical lifestyle concepts are discussed. In its second part the paper presents findings from comparative lifestyle analyses. Data from the U.S. and West Germany are utilized to explore issues of measurement equivalence and theoretical validity. Factor analyses indicate high conceptual equivalence for new measures of health lifestyle dimensions in both the U.S. and West Germany. Divisive cluster analyses detect three distinct lifestyle groups in both nations. Implications for future lifestyle research are discussed.

  13. Frontal alpha asymmetry as a pathway to behavioural withdrawal in depression: Research findings and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesulola, Emmanuel; Sharpley, Christopher F; Bitsika, Vicki; Agnew, Linda L; Wilson, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Depression has been described as a process of behavioural withdrawal from overwhelming aversive stressors, and which manifests itself in the diagnostic symptomatology for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The underlying neurobiological pathways to that behavioural withdrawal are suggested to include greater activation in the right vs the left frontal lobes, described as frontal EEG asymmetry. However, despite a previous meta-analysis that provided overall support for this EEG asymmetry hypothesis, inconsistencies and several methodological confounds exist. The current review examines the literature on this issue, identifies inconsistencies in findings and discusses several key research issues that require addressing for this field to move towards a defensible theoretical model of depression and EEG asymmetry. In particular, the position of EEG asymmetry in the brain, measurement of severity and symptoms profiles of depression, and the effects of gender are considered as potential avenues to more accurately define the specific nature of the depression-EEG asymmetry association. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Editorial safety science special issue road safety management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. & Hagezieker, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    The articles presented in this Special Issue on Road Safety Management represent an illustration of the growing interest in policy-related research in the area of road safety. The complex nature of this type of research combined with the observation that scientific journals pay limited attention to

  15. Using Issues-Based Science in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmes, Sara; Howarth, John

    2009-01-01

    Every day we are confronted with issues of varying degrees of complexity and importance. Which bags are better for the environment--paper, plastic, or neither? What precautions should be taken to reduce the spread of the H1N1 virus? Are there risks involved in eating genetically modified fruits and vegetables? What impact will the use of…

  16. Current issues in libraries, information science and related fields

    CERN Document Server

    Woodsworth, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This volume is unusual in that the theme is quite broad in scope yet focused on a specific topic; innovations and boundary-pushing studies in areas not usually found in library literature. It examines the periphery of the field surveyed in previous volumes. The chapters are grouped in two categories: professional issues and transforming services.

  17. Perspectives on Current Issues Is ``Anthropic Selection'' Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Ronald G.

    2007-01-01

    I argue that there are strong reasons for resisting as a principle of science the concept of “anthropic selection.” This concept asserts that the existence of “observers” in a universe can be used as a condition that selects physical laws and constants necessary for intelligent life from different laws or physical constants prevailing in a vast number of other universes, to thereby explain why the properties of our universe are conducive to intelligent life. My reasons for limiting “anthropic selection” to the realm of speculation rather than permitting it to creep into mainstream science include our inability to estimate the probabilities of emergence of “observers” in a universe, the lack of testability through direct observation of the assumed high variability of the constants of nature, the lack of a clear definition of an “observer,” and the arbitrariness in how and to what questions anthropic selection is applied.

  18. Science and Technology Policy: Issues for the 109th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Also involved are the Departments of Justice, Commerce, Energy, and Agriculture , the National Science Foundation, the Environmental Protection Agency... Agriculture (USDA) similar authority to develop a list of biological agents and toxins that may pose a severe threat to crops and livestock and to...advancement requires new embryonic stem cell lines. The Bush Administration established the President’s Council on Bioethics in November 2001 to consider

  19. Adverse analytical findings with clenbuterol among U-17 soccer players attributed to food contamination issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Lina; Geyer, Hans; Guddat, Sven; Dvorak, Jiri; Butch, Anthony; Sterk, Saskia S; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2013-05-01

    The illicit use of growth promoters in animal husbandry has frequently been reported in the past. Among the drugs misused to illegally increase the benefit of stock farming, clenbuterol has held a unique position due to the substance's composition, mechanism of action, metabolism, and disposition. Particularly clenbuterol's disposition in animals' edible tissues destined for food production can cause considerable issues on consumption by elite athletes registered in national and international doping control systems as demonstrated in this case-related study. Triggered by five adverse analytical findings with clenbuterol among the Mexican national soccer team in out-of-competition controls in May 2011, the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) initiated an inquest into a potential food contamination (and thus sports drug testing) problem in Mexico, the host country of the FIFA U-17 World Cup 2011. Besides 208 regular doping control samples, which were subjected to highly sensitive mass spectrometric test methods for anabolic agents, 47 meat samples were collected in team hotels during the period of the tournament and forwarded to Institute of Food Safety, RIKILT. In 14 out of 47 meat samples (30%), clenbuterol was detected at concentrations between 0.06 and 11 µg/kg. A total of 109 urine samples out of 208 doping control specimens (52%) yielded clenbuterol findings at concentrations ranging from 1-1556 pg/ml, and only 5 out of 24 teams provided urine samples that did not contain clenbuterol. At least one of these teams was on a strict 'no-meat' diet reportedly due to the known issue of clenbuterol contamination in Mexico. Eventually, owing to the extensive evidence indicating meat contamination as the most plausible reason for the extraordinary high prevalence of clenbuterol findings, none of the soccer players were sanctioned. However, elite athletes have to face severe consequences when testing positive for a prohibited anabolic agent and

  20. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center--providing comprehensive earth science for complex societal issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David G.; Wallace, Alan R.; Schneider, Jill L.

    2010-01-01

    Minerals in the environment and products manufactured from mineral materials are all around us and we use and come into contact with them every day. They impact our way of life and the health of all that lives. Minerals are critical to the Nation's economy and knowing where future mineral resources will come from is important for sustaining the Nation's economy and national security. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program (MRP) provides scientific information for objective resource assessments and unbiased research results on mineral resource potential, production and consumption statistics, as well as environmental consequences of mining. The MRP conducts this research to provide information needed for land planners and decisionmakers about where mineral commodities are known and suspected in the earth's crust and about the environmental consequences of extracting those commodities. As part of the MRP scientists of the Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center (WMERSC or 'Center' herein) coordinate the development of national, geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-resource databases and the migration of existing databases to standard models and formats that are available to both internal and external users. The unique expertise developed by Center scientists over many decades in response to mineral-resource-related issues is now in great demand to support applications such as public health research and remediation of environmental hazards that result from mining and mining-related activities. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center Results of WMERSC research provide timely and unbiased analyses of minerals and inorganic materials to (1) improve stewardship of public lands and resources; (2) support national and international economic and security policies; (3) sustain prosperity and improve our quality of life; and (4) protect and improve public health, safety, and environmental quality. The MRP

  1. Contextualization of Nature of Science within the Socioscientific Issues Framework: A Review of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karisan, Dilek; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the importance of contextualization of Nature of Science (NOS) within the Socioscientific Issues (SSI) framework, because of the importance to science education. The emphasis on advancing scientific literacy is contingent upon a robust understanding and appreciation of NOS, as well as the acquisition of…

  2. A Pedagogical Model for Ethical Inquiry into Socioscientific Issues in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Kathryn J.; Rennie, Leonie J.

    2013-01-01

    Internationally there is concern that many science teachers do not address socioscientific issues (SSI) in their classrooms, particularly those that are controversial. However with increasingly complex, science-based dilemmas being presented to society, such as cloning, genetic screening, alternative fuels, reproductive technologies and…

  3. Teaching with Socio-Scientific Issues in Physical Science: Teacher and Students' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talens, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Socio-scientific issues (SSI) are recommended by many science educators worldwide for learners to acquire first hand experience to apply what they learned in class. This investigated experiences of teacher-researcher and students in using SSI in Physical Science, Second Semester, School Year 2012-2013. Latest and controversial news articles on…

  4. Turkish Preservice Science Teachers' Informal Reasoning regarding Socioscientific Issues and the Factors Influencing Their Informal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Mustafa Sami; Yilmaz-Tuzun, Ozgul; Sadler, Troy D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to explore Turkish preservice science teachers' informal reasoning regarding socioscientific issues and the factors influencing their informal reasoning. The researchers engaged 39 preservice science teachers in informal reasoning interview and moral decision-making interview protocols. Of the seven socioscientific…

  5. Preservice Science Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs and Informal Reasoning Regarding Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Nilay; Yilmaz-Tuzun, Ozgul

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated preservice elementary science teachers' (PSTs) informal reasoning regarding socioscientific issues (SSI), their epistemological beliefs, and the relationship between informal reasoning and epistemological beliefs. From several SSIs, nuclear power usage was selected for this study. A total of 647 Turkish PSTs enrolled in three large universities in Turkey completed the open-ended questionnaire, which assessed the participants' informal reasoning about the target SSI, and Schommer's (1990) Epistemological Questionnaire. The participants' epistemological beliefs were assessed quantitatively and their informal reasoning was assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The findings revealed that PSTs preferred to generate evidence-based arguments rather than intuitive-based arguments; however, they failed to generate quality evidence and present different types of evidence to support their claims. Furthermore, among the reasoning quality indicators, PSTs mostly generated supportive argument construction. Regarding the use of reasoning modes, types of risk arguments and political-oriented arguments emerged as the new reasoning modes. The study demonstrated that the PSTs had different epistemological beliefs in terms of innate ability, omniscient authority, certain knowledge, and quick learning. Correlational analyses revealed that there was a strong negative correlation between the PSTs' certain knowledge and counterargument construction, and there were negative correlations between the PSTs' innate ability, certain knowledge, and quick learning dimensions of epistemological beliefs and their total argument construction. This study has implications for both science teacher education and the practice of science education. For example, PST teacher education programs should give sufficient importance to training teachers that are skillful and knowledgeable regarding SSIs. To achieve this, specific SSI-related courses should form part of science

  6. An Analysis of Global Problems Issues in Sixth and Seventh Grade Science Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Mary; Adams, Dennis

    The study examines the extent to which the global issues of population growth, world hunger, air quality and atmosphere, and water resources were treated in sixth and seventh grade science textbooks. Ten textbooks were examined by five raters to determine the amount of content presented by different textbooks on global issues, the number of pages…

  7. Developing Communities of Enquiry: Dealing with Social and Ethical Issues in Science at Key Stage 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Lynda; Humes, Gill; Clarke, Linda; Martin, Valerie McKelvey

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive technologies, drug discovery and exploration of the universe are areas of contemporary research that raise issues for individuals and society. Forward Thinking, Northern Ireland uses the development of communities of enquiry to promote discussion of these and other social and ethical issues in science with students aged 11-14 years.…

  8. Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology. Volume 9, Issue 5 (Ver. 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    This is a special issue published in version 1.0 of "Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology." Articles in this issue include: (1) [Theta] Scheme (Orthogonal Milstein Scheme), a Better Numerical Approximation for Multi-dimensional SDEs (Klaus Schmitz Abe); (2) Input Data Processing Techniques in Intrusion Detection…

  9. African Health Sciences Vol 9 Special Issue.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Background: Current strategies to overcome the global problem of antimicrobial resistance include research in finding new and innovative antimicrobials from plants. This study was carried out to determine the antibacterial activity of plant extracts of Olea africana stem-bark, Psidium guajava leaves, Vernonia ...

  10. Evaluation of systems interactions in nuclear power plants: Technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue A-17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, D.

    1989-05-01

    This report presents a summary of the activities related to Unresolved Safety Issue (USI)A-17, ''Systems Interactions in Nuclear Power Plants,'' and also includes the NRC staff's conclusions based on those activities. The staff's technical findings provide the framework for the final resolution of this unresolved safety issue. The final resolution will be published later as NUREG-1229. 52 refs., 4 tabs

  11. Impact of problem finding on the quality of authentic open inquiry science research projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labanca, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully completed and presented the results of their open inquiry research at the 2007 Connecticut Science Fair and the 2007 International Science and Engineering Fair. A multicase qualitative study was framed through the lenses of creativity, inquiry strategies, and situated cognition learning theory. Data were triangulated by methods (interviews, document analysis, surveys) and sources (students, teachers, mentors, fair directors, documents). The data demonstrated that the quality of student projects was directly impacted by the quality of their problem finding. Effective problem finding was a result of students using resources from previous, specialized experiences. They had a positive self-concept and a temperament for both the creative and logical perspectives of science research. Successful problem finding was derived from an idiosyncratic, nonlinear, and flexible use and understanding of inquiry. Finally, problem finding was influenced and assisted by the community of practicing scientists, with whom the students had an exceptional ability to communicate effectively. As a result, there appears to be a juxtaposition of creative and logical/analytical thought for open inquiry that may not be present in other forms of inquiry. Instructional strategies are suggested for teachers of science research students to improve the quality of problem finding for their students and their subsequent research projects.

  12. 78 FR 33843 - Request for Comments on Issues Related to Incidental Findings That Arise in the Clinical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... specific bioethical, legal, and social issues related to potential scientific and technological advances... related areas of science and technology. The Bioethics Commission is charged with identifying and... establishing ``no return'' policies, or stipulations in advance of clinical intervention, research, and/or...

  13. Spanish Secondary-School Science Teachers' Beliefs about Science-Technology-Society (STS) Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Alonso, Angel; Garcia-Carmona, Antonio; Manassero-Mas, Maria Antonia; Bennassar-Roig, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the beliefs about science-technology-society, and other Nature of Science (NOS) themes, of a large sample (613) of Spanish pre- and in-service secondary education teachers through their responses to 30 items of the Questionnaire of Opinions on Science, Technology and Society. The data were processed by means of a multiple…

  14. Cultural diversity teaching and issues of uncertainty: the findings of a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano James

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable ambiguity in the subjective dimensions that comprise much of the relational dynamic of the clinical encounter. Comfort with this ambiguity, and recognition of the potential uncertainty of particular domains of medicine (e.g. – cultural factors of illness expression, value bias in diagnoses, etc is an important facet of medical education. This paper begins by defining ambiguity and uncertainty as relevant to clinical practice. Studies have shown differing patterns of students' tolerance for ambiguity and uncertainty that appear to reflect extant attitudinal predispositions toward technology, objectivity, culture, value- and theory-ladeness, and the need for self-examination. This paper reports on those findings specifically related to the theme of uncertainty as relevant to teaching about cultural diversity. Its focus is to identify how and where the theme of certainty arose in the teaching and learning of cultural diversity, what were the attitudes toward this theme and topic, and how these attitudes and responses reflect and inform this area of medical pedagogy. Methods A semi-structured interview was undertaken with 61 stakeholders (including policymakers, diversity teachers, students and users. The data were analysed and themes identified. Results There were diverse views about what the term cultural diversity means and what should constitute the cultural diversity curriculum. There was a need to provide certainty in teaching cultural diversity with diversity teachers feeling under considerable pressure to provide information. Students discomfort with uncertainty was felt to drive cultural diversity teaching towards factual emphasis rather than reflection or taking a patient centred approach. Conclusion Students and faculty may feel that cultural diversity teaching is more about how to avoid professional, medico-legal pitfalls, rather than improving the patient experience or the patient

  15. Cultural diversity teaching and issues of uncertainty: the findings of a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Nisha; Giordano, James; France, Nicholas

    2007-04-26

    There is considerable ambiguity in the subjective dimensions that comprise much of the relational dynamic of the clinical encounter. Comfort with this ambiguity, and recognition of the potential uncertainty of particular domains of medicine (e.g.--cultural factors of illness expression, value bias in diagnoses, etc) is an important facet of medical education. This paper begins by defining ambiguity and uncertainty as relevant to clinical practice. Studies have shown differing patterns of students' tolerance for ambiguity and uncertainty that appear to reflect extant attitudinal predispositions toward technology, objectivity, culture, value- and theory-ladeness, and the need for self-examination. This paper reports on those findings specifically related to the theme of uncertainty as relevant to teaching about cultural diversity. Its focus is to identify how and where the theme of certainty arose in the teaching and learning of cultural diversity, what were the attitudes toward this theme and topic, and how these attitudes and responses reflect and inform this area of medical pedagogy. A semi-structured interview was undertaken with 61 stakeholders (including policymakers, diversity teachers, students and users). The data were analysed and themes identified. There were diverse views about what the term cultural diversity means and what should constitute the cultural diversity curriculum. There was a need to provide certainty in teaching cultural diversity with diversity teachers feeling under considerable pressure to provide information. Students discomfort with uncertainty was felt to drive cultural diversity teaching towards factual emphasis rather than reflection or taking a patient centred approach. Students and faculty may feel that cultural diversity teaching is more about how to avoid professional, medico-legal pitfalls, rather than improving the patient experience or the patient-physician relationship. There may be pressure to imbue cultural diversity issues

  16. Materials science issues of plasma source ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastasi, M.; Faehl, R.J.; Elmoursi, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Ion beam processing, including ion implantation and ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD), are established surface modification techniques which have been used successfully to synthesize materials for a wide variety of tribological applications. In spite of the flexibility and promise of the technique, ion beam processing has been considered too expensive for mass production applications. However, an emerging technology, Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII), has the potential of overcoming these limitations to become an economically viable tool for mass industrial applications. In PSII, targets are placed directly in a plasma and then pulsed-biased to produce a non-line-of-sight process for intricate target geometries without complicated fixturing. If the bias is a relatively high negative potential (20--100 kV) ion implantation will result. At lower voltages (50--1,200 V), deposition occurs. Potential applications for PSII are in low-value-added products such as tools used in manufacturing, orthopedic devices, and the production of wear coatings for hard disk media. This paper will focus on the technology and materials science associated with PSII

  17. Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubosarsky, Mia D.

    How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

  18. The Full Spectrum of Clinical Ethical Issues in Kidney Failure. Findings of a Systematic Qualitative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrass, Hannes; Strech, Daniel; Mertz, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    When treating patients with kidney failure, unavoidable ethical issues often arise. Current clinical practice guidelines some of them, but lack comprehensive information about the full range of relevant ethical issues in kidney failure. A systematic literature review of such ethical issues supports medical professionalism in nephrology, and offers a solid evidential base for efforts that aim to improve ethical conduct in health care. To identify the full spectrum of clinical ethical issues that can arise for patients with kidney failure in a systematic and transparent manner. A systematic review in Medline (publications in English or German between 2000 and 2014) and Google Books (with no restrictions) was conducted. Ethical issues were identified by qualitative text analysis and normative analysis. The literature review retrieved 106 references that together mentioned 27 ethical issues in clinical care of kidney failure. This set of ethical issues was structured into a matrix consisting of seven major categories and further first and second-order categories. The systematically-derived matrix helps raise awareness and understanding of the complexity of ethical issues in kidney failure. It can be used to identify ethical issues that should be addressed in specific training programs for clinicians, clinical practice guidelines, or other types of policies dealing with kidney failure.

  19. Evaluation of water-hammer experience in nuclear power plants. Technical findings relevant to Unresolved Safety Issue A-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, A.W.

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes key technical findings relevant to the Unresolved Safety Issue A-1, Water Hammer. These findings were derived from studies of reported water hammer occurrences and underlying causes and provide key insights into means to minimize or eliminate further water hammer occurrences. It should also be noted that this report does not represent a substitute for current rules and regulations

  20. Evaluation of water hammer occurrence in nuclear power plants: technical findings relevant to unresolved safety issue A-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report, which includes responses to public comments, summarizes key technical findings relevant to the Unresolved Safety Issue A-1, Water Hammer. These findings were derived from studies of reported water hammer occurrences and underlying causes and provide key insights into means to minimize or eliminate further water hammer occurrences. This report does not represent a substitute for current rules and regulations

  1. Updated science issues and observation plans of BepiColombo Mercury Magnetosphere Orbiter (MMO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, G.; Fujimoto, M.; Hayakawa, H.

    2017-12-01

    After the successful observation by the first Mercury orbiter MESSENGER ended in 2015, Mercury becomes one of the most curious planets to investigate. MESSENGER raised new science issues, such as the northward offset of planetary dipole magnetic filed, the highly dynamic magnetosphere, and the year-to-year constant exosphere. These outstanding discoveries still remain as open issues due to some limitations of instruments onboard MESSENGER and its extended elliptical orbit with apherm in southern hemisphere. The next Mercury exploration project BepiColombo will address these open issues. BepiColombo is an ESA-JAXA joint mission to Mercury with the aim to understand the process of planetary formation and evolution as well as to understand Mercury's extreme environment in the solar system. Two spacecraft, i.e. the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO), will be launched in October 2018 by an Ariane-5 launch vehicle and arrive at Mercury in December 2025. The mechanical test in a complete stack configuration has been performed in the ESA test center and successfully finished. MMO is mainly designed for plasma observations and is expected to extract essential elements of space plasma physics that become visible in the Hermean environment. MMO has large constraints on science operations, such as thermal issue and limited telemetry rate. Due to the thermal issue each science instrument cannot always be turned on. In addition, due to the low telemetry rate in average, only a part ( 20-30%) of science mission data with high resolution can be downlinked. Therefore, in order to maximize the scientific results and outcomes to be achieved by MMO, we are now working to optimize the science observation and downlink plans in detail. Here we present the updated science goals for MMO based on the latest MESSENGER results and the current observation plans how to approach these science issues.

  2. Science and Social Studies Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices about Teaching Controversial Issues: Certain Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Kuş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to investigate social studies and science teachers’ attitudes and classroom practices associated with controversial issues. The study is a qualitative research based on data collected through interviews and observation. Social studies and Science teachers participated in the current study which was conducted in Kirsehir, a city in the center of Turkey, during the 2012-2013 academic years. Data were collected through classroom observation and interviews with teachers. In this study, teachers' positioning during controversial issues are determined by Kelly's (1986 positioning classification: Exclusive Neutrality, Exclusive Partiality, Neutral Impartiality, and Committed Impartiality. According to results of the research, violence against women, education system, terrorism and nationalism are the leading issues among the controversial issues that both social studies and science teachers listed in Turkey. In relation to their area, social studies teachers stated that the issues such as Kemalism, democracy, military coups, and deep state, which are associated with recent history of Turkey, were among the important controversial issues. Science teachers on the other hand stated issues such as cancer and anti-toxic foods and global warming among the controversial issues in Turkey. Both social studies and science teachers stated that the most frequently encountered problem in discussions was lack of knowledge by students. Whereas social studies teachers stated that their priority goals were particularly to raise active citizens and to set up a democratic classroom environment, science teachers pointed to raising scientifically thinking students and increasing students’ knowledge as their priority goals. During in-class discussions teachers take some positions. The positions stated by the teachers and in-class observations of them conflict. Whereas the teachers stated that they prefer the 4th and 3rd positions, the in

  3. The intersection of behavioral genetics and political science: introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K

    2012-02-01

    The collection of papers in this special edition of Twin Research and Human Genetics represents a major land-mark at the intersection of behavioral genetics and political science. This issue is the fruit of 20 political scientists attending the Behavioral Genetics Association Methods Workshop in Boulder and a hands-on training practicum at the Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, and includes results from the first wave of political science twin surveys.

  4. The Gender Issues and the Nature of Science in the Teacher Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Heerdt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to understand and explain the teaching knowledge mobilized during a process of explicit-reflective formation of the Nature of Science, and the inherent gender relations in this dynamic. To achieve this goal it was elaborated a Didactic Unit entitled construction of scientific knowledge and gender visibility in Science. It took part in the training course 15 teachers in the areas of Humanities and Natural Sciences. This is a qualitative research. During the training process the participants’ speeches were video recorded and after transcribed and analyzed according to the thematic content analysis. Empirical data analysis allowed to show, through deductive inferences, different theoretical perspectives in coexisting traditional and linear discourse and those who perceive Science and Gender as a process of human construction, besides the lack of epistemological discussions and historical aspects of science involving gender issues. Another recurring discourse is the naturalization and the denial of the existence of gender issues in which the male-dominated lines are more articulated, which shows a resistance to feminist perspective. Thus, we reaffirm the need for teacher training explicit and reflective because gender issues are not self-evident, and the continuity of research to discuss these issues.

  5. Impact of STS Issue Oriented Instruction on Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Views and Perceptions of Science, Technology, and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirshokoohi, Aidin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of Science, Technology, Society (STS) issue oriented science methods course on pre-service teachers' views and perceptions toward STS issues and instruction as well as their levels of environmental literacy. The STS issue oriented curriculum was designed to help pre-service teachers improve…

  6. To naturalize or not to naturalize? An issue for cognitive science as well as anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenning, Keith

    2012-07-01

    Several of Beller, Bender, and Medin's (2012) issues are as relevant within cognitive science as between it and anthropology. Knowledge-rich human mental processes impose hermeneutic tasks, both on subjects and researchers. Psychology's current philosophy of science is ill suited to analyzing these: Its demand for ''stimulus control'' needs to give way to ''negotiation of mutual interpretation.'' Cognitive science has ways to address these issues, as does anthropology. An example from my own work is about how defeasible logics are mathematical models of some aspects of simple hermeneutic processes. They explain processing relative to databases of knowledge and belief-that is, content. A specific example is syllogistic reasoning, which raises issues of experimenters' interpretations of subjects' reasoning. Science, especially since the advent of understandings of computation, does not have to be reductive. How does this approach transfer onto anthropological topics? Recent cognitive science approaches to anthropological topics have taken a reductive stance in terms of modules. We end with some speculations about a different cognitive approach to, for example, religion. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. Using Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Practices to Address Scientific Misunderstandings Around Complex Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    The new NGSS provide an important opportunity for scientists to develop curriculum that links the practice of science to research-based data in order to improve understanding in areas of science that are both complex and confusing. Our curriculum focuses in particular on the fate and transport of anthropogenic radionuclides. Radioactivity, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic, is highly debated and largely misunderstood, and for large sections of the population is a source of scientific misunderstanding. Developed as part of the international GEOTRACES project which focuses on identifying ocean processes and quantifying fluxes that control the distributions of selected trace elements and isotopes in the ocean, and on establishing the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions, the curriculum topic fits nicely into the applied focus of NGSS with both environmental and topical relevance. Our curriculum design focuses on small group discussion driven by questions, yet unlike more traditional curriculum pieces these are not questions posed to the students, rather they are questions posed by the students to facilitate their deeper understanding. Our curriculum design challenges the traditional question/answer memorization approach to instruction as we strive to develop an educational approach that supports the practice of science as well as the NGSS Cross Cutting Concepts and the Science & Engineering Practices. Our goal is for students to develop a methodology they can employ when faced with a complex scientific issue. Through background readings and team discussions they identify what type of information is important for them to know and where to find a reliable source for that information. Framing their discovery around key questions such as "What type of radioactive decay are we dealing with?", "What is the potential half-life of the isotope?", and "What are the pathways of transport of radioactivity?" allows students to evaluate a

  8. Spanish Secondary-School Science Teachers' Beliefs About Science-Technology-Society (STS) Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Alonso, Ángel; García-Carmona, Antonio; Manassero-Mas, María Antonia; Bennàssar-Roig, Antoni

    2013-05-01

    This study analyzes the beliefs about science-technology-society, and other Nature of Science (NOS) themes, of a large sample (613) of Spanish pre- and in-service secondary education teachers through their responses to 30 items of the Questionnaire of Opinions on Science, Technology and Society. The data were processed by means of a multiple response model to generate the belief indices used as the bases for subsequent quantitative and qualitative analyses. Other studies have reported a negative profile of teachers' understanding in this area, but the diagnosis emerging from the present work is more complex. There was a mix of appropriate beliefs coexisting with others that are inappropriate on the topics analyzed. The overall assessment, however, is negative since clearly teachers need to have a better understanding of these questions. There were scant differences between the pre- and in-service teachers, and hence no decisive evidence that the practice of teaching contributes to improving the in-service teachers' understanding. These results suggest there is an urgent need to bring the initial and continuing education of science teachers up to date to improve their understanding of these topics of science curricula, and thus improve the teaching of science.

  9. Using online pedagogy to explore student experiences of Science-Technology-Society-Environment (STSE) issues in a secondary science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyavoo, Gabriel Roman

    With the proliferation of 21st century educational technologies, science teaching and learning with digitally acclimatized learners in secondary science education can be realized through an online Science-Technology-Society-Environment (STSE)-based issues approach. STSE-based programs can be interpreted as the exploration of socially-embedded initiatives in science (e.g., use of genetically modified foods) to promote the development of critical cognitive processes and to empower learners with responsible decision-making skills. This dissertation presents a case study examining the online environment of a grade 11 physics class in an all-girls' school, and the outcomes from those online discursive opportunities with STSE materials. The limited in-class discussion opportunities are often perceived as low-quality discussions in traditional classrooms because they originate from an inadequate introduction and facilitation of socially relevant issues in science programs. Hence, this research suggests that the science curriculum should be inclusive of STSE-based issue discussions. This study also examines the nature of students' online discourse and, their perceived benefits and challenges of learning about STSE-based issues through an online environment. Analysis of interviews, offline classroom events and online threaded discussion transcripts draws from the theoretical foundations of critical reflective thinking delineated in the Practical Inquiry (P.I.) Model. The PI model of Cognitive Presence is situated within the Community of Inquiry framework, encompassing two other core elements, Teacher Presence and Social Presence. In studying Cognitive Presence, the online STSE-based discourses were examined according to the four phases of the P.I. Model. The online discussions were measured at macro-levels to reveal patterns in student STSE-based discussions and content analysis of threaded discussions. These analyses indicated that 87% of the students participated in

  10. Key issues of public relations of Europe: findings from the European Communication Monitor 2007-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verčič, D.; Verhoeven, P.; Zerfass, A.

    2014-01-01

    European Communication Monitor is the largest longitudinal research project in public relations practice in the world. Data collected annually from 2007 to 2014 show that practitioners perceive five issues as the most important for their work: linking business strategy and communication, coping with

  11. Risk communication, geoethics and decision science issues in Japan's disaster management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, M.

    2014-12-01

    Issues in Japan's disaster management system were revealed by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, and by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station accident. Many important decisions were based on scientific data, but appear not to have sufficiently considered the uncertainties of the data and the societal aspects of the problems. The issues that arose show the need for scientists to appropriately deal with risk communication and geoethics and issues. This paper discusses necessity of education for risk communication, geoethics and decisions science in school before students become sicentific decision makers in future.

  12. Secondary School Students' Interests, Attitudes and Values Concerning School Science Related to Environmental Issues in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Byman, Reijo; Meisalo, Veijo

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between students' interests in environmental issues, attitudes to environmental responsibility and biocentric values in school science education. The factors were investigated within the framework of three moderators: gender, school and residential area of the school. The survey was carried out using the…

  13. A special issue of the Journal of Forestry - Wilderness science and its role in wilderness stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan F. Fox

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Forestry provides an overview of America’s National Wilderness Preservation System and highlights the important role that science serves in informing wilderness stewardship. The lead authors of the articles in this volume selected the Journal because it is highly respected and widely circulated among foresters and federal...

  14. Advancing Our Understanding of Cross-Cultural Issues in Consumer Science and Consumer Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herk, H.; Torelli, Carlos J.; van Herk, Hester; Torelli, Carlos J.

    2017-01-01

    Globalization has resulted in a more complex marketplace. Growing multi-culturalism of consumer markets and increased global competition are pushing marketing scholars to better understand cross-cultural issues in consumer science and consumer psychology. The chapters in this book cover the field to

  15. Raising Critical Issues in the Analysis of Gender and Science in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sonya N.; Siry, Christina A.

    2009-01-01

    Trevor Owens' paper provides a critique of the role of gender and authority in selected children's books that presented biographies of Albert Einstein and Marie Curie. In the context of discussing Trevor's (2009) article about children's literature, this forum explores issues related to the (a) representation and construction of gender, science,…

  16. Re-Examining Test Item Issues in the TIMSS Mathematics and Science Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun

    2011-01-01

    As the largest international study ever taken in history, the Trend in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) has been held as a benchmark to measure U.S. student performance in the global context. In-depth analyses of the TIMSS project are conducted in this study to examine key issues of the comparative investigation: (1) item flaws in mathematics…

  17. Experts' workshop on critical issues in the science of global climate change. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A summary is given of the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association's Workshop on 'Critical issues in the science of global climate change' held in 1994. The topics of the panel sessions were (1) modelling global climate change: capabilities and limitations; (2)the physics and chemistry of greenhouse gas concentrations; (3) other factors in predicting climate change; and (4) ecosystem response. (UK)

  18. Preservice Science Teachers' Efficacy Regarding a Socioscientific Issue: A Belief System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinç, Ahmet; Kartal, Tezcan; Eroglu, Baris; Demiral, Ümit; Afacan, Özlem; Polat, Dilber; Demirci Guler, Mutlu P.; Görgülü, Özkan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand the nature of teaching efficacy beliefs related to a socioscientific issue (SSI). We investigated Turkish preservice science teachers' teaching efficacy beliefs about genetically modified (GM) foods using a belief system approach. We assumed that preservice teachers' beliefs about GM foods (content…

  19. Action research in gender issues in science education: Towards an understanding of group work with science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhof-Young, Joyce Marion

    Action research is emerging as a promising means of promoting individual and societal change in the context of university programmes in teacher education. However, significant gaps exist in the literature regarding the use of action research groups for the education of science teachers. Therefore, an action research group, dealing with gender issues in science education, was established within the context of a graduate course in action research at OISE. For reasons outlined in the thesis, action research was deemed an especially appropriate means for addressing issues of gender. The group met 14 times from September 1992 until May 1993 and consisted of myself and five other science teachers from the Toronto area. Two of us were in the primary panel, two in the intermediate panel, and two in the tertiary panel. Five teachers were female. One was male. The experiences of the group form the basis of this study. A methodology of participant observation supported by interviews, classroom visits, journals, group feedback and participant portfolios provides a means of examining experiences from the perspective of the participants in the group. The case study investigates the nature of the support and learning opportunities that the action research group provided for science teachers engaged in curiculum and professional development in the realm of gender issues in science education, and details the development of individuals, the whole group and myself (as group worker, researcher and participant) over the life of the project. The action research group became a resource for science teachers by providing most participants with: A place to personalize learning and research; a place for systematic reflection and research; a forum for discussion; a source of personal/professional support; a source of friendship; and a place to break down isolation and build self-confidence. This study clarifies important relational and political issues that impinge on action research in

  20. Middle School Students' Use of Epistemological Resources while Reasoning about Science Performance Tasks and Media Reports of Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Brandy L. E.

    The goal of science education is to prepare students to make decisions about the complicated socioscientific issues that are an inescapable part of modern life, from personal medical decisions to evaluating a political candidate's environmental platform. We cannot expect adults to maintain a deep conceptual understanding of the current state of every branch of science that might prove relevant to their lives, so we must prepare them to rely on other knowledge to make these decisions. Epistemological beliefs about scientific knowledge--what it is, its purpose, how it is constructed--are one type of knowledge that could be brought to bear when evaluating scientific claims. Complicating this situation is the fact that most adults will get most of their information about these socioscientific issues from the news media. Journalists do not have the same goals or norms as scientists, and this media lens can distort scientific issues. This dissertation addresses the question of whether we can assess epistemological change in a way that gives us meaningful information about how people will apply their epistemological understanding of science when they make decisions in the real world. First, I designed a written assessment made up of performance tasks to assess middle school students' implicit epistemological beliefs, and looked at whether we can use such an assessment to see epistemological change over two years. I then gave the same students news articles about whether there is a link between vaccines and autism and looked at their reasoning about this issue and how the journalistic features of two different articles impacted their reasoning. Finally, I examined the external validity of the epistemology assessment by looking at whether it predicted anything about students' responses to the news articles. While I was able to find evidence of differences between eighth graders' and sixth graders' use of epistemological resources within the performance tasks, I found that

  1. The role of issue familiarity and social norms: findings on new college students’ alcohol use intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv N. Rimal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Scholars in a variety of disciplines are interested in understanding the conditions under which social norms affect human behavior. Following the distinction made between descriptive and injunctive norms by the focus theory of normative conduct, the theory of normative social behavior predicts that the influence of descriptive norms on behavior is moderated by injunctive norms, outcome expectations, and group identity. We extended the theory by testing the proposition that the influence of descriptive norms on behavior would be greater under conditions of greater issue familiarity, defined as the ease with which one can cognitively access the behavior or behavioral issue. Design and Methods. The model was tested in the domain of alcohol consumption intentions by conducting a survey among incoming students (n=719 to a large university in the United States. Data indicated that students in the sample were well representative of the university population. Results. The influence of descriptive norms on behavioral intentions was moderated by issue familiarity, as predicted. Familiarity was a facilitator of behavior: the influence of descriptive norms on behavioral intentions was greater under conditions of high, rather than low, familiarity. The overall model explained 53% of the variance in alcohol consumption intentions. Conclusions. Public health interventions promoting health behaviors need to take into account the extent to which the behaviors are familiar to the target audience. The influence of norms appears to be weaker when the behavior is unfamiliar or novel. Implications for theory and interventions for reducing alcohol consumption are discussed.

  2. Problems with traditional science publishing and finding a wider niche for post-publication peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Dobránszki, Judit

    2015-01-01

    Science affects multiple basic sectors of society. Therefore, the findings made in science impact what takes place at a commercial level. More specifically, errors in the literature, incorrect findings, fraudulent data, poorly written scientific reports, or studies that cannot be reproduced not only serve as a burden on tax-payers' money, but they also serve to diminish public trust in science and its findings. Therefore, there is every need to fortify the validity of data that exists in the science literature, not only to build trust among peers, and to sustain that trust, but to reestablish trust in the public and private academic sectors that are witnessing a veritable battle-ground in the world of science publishing, in some ways spurred by the rapid evolution of the open access (OA) movement. Even though many science journals, traditional and OA, claim to be peer reviewed, the truth is that different levels of peer review occur, and in some cases no, insufficient, or pseudo-peer review takes place. This ultimately leads to the erosion of quality and importance of science, allowing essentially anything to become published, provided that an outlet can be found. In some cases, predatory OA journals serve this purpose, allowing papers to be published, often without any peer review or quality control. In the light of an explosion of such cases in predatory OA publishing, and in severe inefficiencies and possible bias in the peer review of even respectable science journals, as evidenced by the increasing attention given to retractions, there is an urgent need to reform the way in which authors, editors, and publishers conduct the first line of quality control, the peer review. One way to address the problem is through post-publication peer review (PPPR), an efficient complement to traditional peer-review that allows for the continuous improvement and strengthening of the quality of science publishing. PPPR may also serve as a way to renew trust in scientific

  3. Statement Summarizing Research Findings on the Issue of the Relationship Between Food-Additive-Free Diets and Hyperkinesis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther

    The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…

  4. Turkish Preservice Science Teachers' Informal Reasoning Regarding Socioscientific Issues and the Factors Influencing Their Informal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçu, Mustafa Sami; Yılmaz-Tüzün, Özgül; Sadler, Troy D.

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to explore Turkish preservice science teachers' informal reasoning regarding socioscientific issues and the factors influencing their informal reasoning. The researchers engaged 39 preservice science teachers in informal reasoning interview and moral decision-making interview protocols. Of the seven socioscientific issues, three issues were related to gene therapy, another three were related to human cloning, and one was related to global warming. The data were analyzed using an interpretive qualitative research approach. The characteristic of informal reasoning was determined as multidimensional, and the patterns of informal reasoning emerged as rationalistic, emotive, and intuitive reasoning. The factors influencing informal reasoning were: personal experiences, social considerations, moral-ethical considerations, and technological concerns.

  5. Epistemological Issues Concerning Computer Simulations in Science and Their Implications for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greca, Ileana M.; Seoane, Eugenia; Arriassecq, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Computers and simulations represent an undeniable aspect of daily scientific life, the use of simulations being comparable to the introduction of the microscope and the telescope, in the development of knowledge. In science education, simulations have been proposed for over three decades as useful tools to improve the conceptual understanding of…

  6. Discourse in science communities: Issues of language, authority, and gender in a life sciences laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conefrey, Theresa Catherine

    Government-sponsored and private research initiatives continue to document the underrepresentation of women in the sciences. Despite policy initiatives, women's attrition rates each stage of their scientific careers remain higher than those of their male colleagues. In order to improve retention rates more information is needed about why many drop out or do not succeed as well as they could. While broad sociological studies and statistical surveys offer a valuable overview of institutional practices, in-depth qualitative analyses are needed to complement these large-scale studies. This present study goes behind statistical generalizations about the situation of women in science to explore the actual experience of scientific socialization and professionalization. Beginning with one reason often cited by women who have dropped out of science: "a bad lab experience," I explore through detailed observation in a naturalistic setting what this phrase might actually mean. Using ethnographic and discourse analytic methods, I present a detailed analysis of the discourse patterns in a life sciences laboratory group at a large research university. I show how language accomplishes the work of indexing and constituting social constraints, of maintaining or undermining the hierarchical power dynamics of the laboratory, of shaping members' presentation of self, and of modeling social and professional skills required to "do science." Despite the widespread conviction among scientists that "the mind has no sex," my study details how gender marks many routine interactions in the lab, including an emphasis on competition, a reinforcement of sex-role stereotypes, and a conversational style that is in several respects more compatible with men's than women's forms of talk.

  7. 76 FR 33763 - Findings of Misconduct in Science/Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ..., Ph.D., St. Jude Children's Research Hospital: Based on the findings of an investigation report by St... oversight review, ORI found that Philippe Bois, Ph.D., former postdoctoral fellow, Department of Biochemistry, St. Jude, engaged in misconduct in science and research misconduct in research funded by National...

  8. "Individualized Science" Field Test Findings and Recommendations, the Hooke Unit. Appendix A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loue, William E., III

    This informal report contains the findings and recommendations resulting from the field test of the Hooke Unit of the "Individualized Science" program. Data were collected from three schools. Because of an unusual number of weaknesses ranging from formal inconsistencies to manipulative deficiencies, it was concluded that the Hooke Unit is somewhat…

  9. The public and wildland fire management: social science findings for managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. McCaffrey

    2006-01-01

    Presents key social science findings from three National Fire Plan-sponsored research projects. Articles highlight information of likely interest to individuals working to decrease wildfire hazards on both private and public lands. Three general topic areas are addressed: (1) public views and acceptance of fuels management, (2) working with homeowners and communities,...

  10. Substance abuse issues among women in domestic violence programs: findings from North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sandra L; Moracco, Kathryn E; Chang, Judy C; Council, Carol L; Dulli, Lisa S

    2008-09-01

    This article discusses the results of a survey of North Carolina domestic violence programs that found that substance abuse problems are common among program clients, yet only half of the programs had policies concerning substance-abusing clients, and one fourth had memoranda of agreement with substance abuse treatment providers. Most programs with shelters asked clients about substance use; however, one third of the shelters would not admit women if they were noticeably under the influence of substances while seeking shelter residence, instead referring them to substance abuse programs. Approximately one tenth of the domestic violence programs did not have any staff or volunteers with training in substance abuse issues. Implications are discussed.

  11. Finding online health-related information: usability issues of health portals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurel Koybasi, Nergis A; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2012-01-01

    As Internet and computers become widespread, health portals offering online health-related information become more popular. The most important point for health portals is presenting reliable and valid information. Besides, portal needs to be usable to be able to serve information to users effectively. This study aims to determine usability issues emerging when health-related information is searched on a health portal. User-based usability tests are conducted and eye movement analyses are used in addition to traditional performance measures. Results revealed that users prefer systematic, simple and consistent designs offering interactive tools. Moreover, content and partitions needs to be shaped according to the medical knowledge of target users.

  12. The Role of Authentic Objects in Museums of the History of Science and Technology: Findings from a Visitor Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampp, Constanze; Schwan, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    One characteristic of science centers and science museums is that they communicate scientific findings by presenting real scientific objects. In particular, science museums focus on the historical context of scientific discoveries by displaying authentic objects, defined as original objects that once served a science-related, real-world purpose…

  13. Affirming the Connection: Comparative Findings on Communication Issues from Hospice Patients and Hematology Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Pam

    2004-01-01

    The following discussion presents comparative findings from hospice patients and hematology survivors on the topic of talking about dying to significant others within their network of family and friends. The insights have been gathered from an Australian research program that is exploring the notion of spirituality in relation to serious illness.…

  14. Information literacy in science writing: how students find, identify, and use scientific literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klucevsek, Kristin M.; Brungard, Allison B.

    2016-11-01

    For undergraduate students to achieve science literacy, they must first develop information literacy skils. These skills align with Information Literacy Standards and include determining appropriate databases, distinguishing among resource types, and citing resources ethically. To effectively improve information literacy and science literacy, we must identify how students interact with authentic scientific texts. In this case study, we addressed this aim by embedding a science librarian into a science writing course, where students wrote a literature review on a research topic of their choice. Library instruction was further integrated through the use of an online guide and outside assistance. To evaluate the evolution of information literacy in our students and provide evidence of student practices, we used task-scaffolded writing assessments, a reflection, and surveys. We found that students improved their ability and confidence in finding research articles using discipline-specific databases as well as their ability to distinguish primary from secondary research articles. We also identified ways students improperly used and cited resources in their writing assignments. While our results reveal a better understanding of how students find and approach scientific research articles, additional research is needed to develop effective strategies to improve long-term information literacy in the sciences.

  15. Theory and Theorizing in Nursing Science: Commentary from the Nursing Research Special Issue Editorial Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairath, Nalini N; Peden-McAlpine, Cynthia J; Sullivan, Mary C; Vessey, Judith A; Henly, Susan J

    Articles from three landmark symposia on theory for nursing-published in Nursing Research in 1968-1969-served as a key underpinning for the development of nursing as an academic discipline. The current special issue on Theory and Theorizing in Nursing Science celebrates the 50th anniversary of publication of these seminal works in nursing theory. The purpose of this commentary is to consider the future of nursing theory development in light of articles published in the anniversary issue. The Editorial Team for the special issue identified core questions about continued nursing theory development, as related to the nursing metaparadigm, practice theory, big data, and doctoral education. Using a dialogue format, the editors discussed these core questions. The classic nursing metaparadigm (health, person, environment, nursing) was viewed as a continuing unifying element for the discipline but is in need of revision in today's scientific and practice climates. Practice theory and precision healthcare jointly arise from an emphasis on individualization. Big data and the methods of e-science are challenging the assumptions on which nursing theory development was originally based. Doctoral education for nursing scholarship requires changes to ensure that tomorrow's scholars are prepared to steward the discipline by advancing (not reifying) past approaches to nursing theory. Ongoing reexamination of theory is needed to clarify the domain of nursing, guide nursing science and practice, and direct and communicate the unique and essential contributions of nursing science to the broader health research effort and of nursing to healthcare.

  16. A Pedagogical Model for Ethical Inquiry into Socioscientific Issues In Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Kathryn J.; Rennie, Léonie J.

    2013-02-01

    Internationally there is concern that many science teachers do not address socioscientific issues (SSI) in their classrooms, particularly those that are controversial. However with increasingly complex, science-based dilemmas being presented to society, such as cloning, genetic screening, alternative fuels, reproductive technologies and vaccination, there is a growing call for students to be more scientifically literate and to be able to make informed decisions on issues related to these dilemmas. There have been shifts in science curricula internationally towards a focus on scientific literacy, but research indicates that many secondary science teachers lack the support and confidence to address SSI in their classrooms. This paper reports on a project that developed a pedagogical model that scaffolded teachers through a series of stages in exploring a controversial socioscientific issue with students and supported them in the use of pedagogical strategies and facilitated ways of ethical thinking. The study builds on existing frameworks of ethical thinking. It presents an argument that in today's increasingly pluralistic society, these traditional frameworks need to be extended to acknowledge other worldviews and identities. Pluralism is proposed as an additional framework of ethical thinking in the pedagogical model, from which multiple identities, including cultural, ethnic, religious and gender perspectives, can be explored.

  17. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J; Bellingham, Jim R; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H Charles J; Good, David A; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J; Guilliams, Tim T; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A; Lueshi, Leila M; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P; Watkinson, Andrew R; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K A; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security.

  18. Identifying the Science and Technology Dimensions of Emerging Public Policy Issues through Horizon Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J.; Bellingham, Jim R.; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C.; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D.; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A.; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Good, David A.; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J.; Guilliams, Tim T.; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C.; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A.; Lueshi, Leila M.; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J.; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A.; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P.; Watkinson, Andrew R.; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K. A.; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique [1]. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security. PMID:24879444

  19. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles Parker

    Full Text Available Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security.

  20. Finding food: Issues and challenges in using Geographic Information Systems to measure food access

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2010-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says...

  1. Scepticism and trust: two counterpoint essentials in science education for complex socio-scientific issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensham, Peter J.

    2014-09-01

    In this response to Tom G. K. Bryce and Stephen P. Day's (Cult Stud Sci Educ. doi: 10.1007/s11422-013-9500-0, 2013) original article, I share with them their interest in the teaching of climate change in school science, but I widen it to include other contemporary complex socio-scientific issues that also need to be discussed. I use an alternative view of the relationship between science, technology and society, supported by evidence from both science and society, to suggest science-informed citizens as a more realistic outcome image of school science than the authors' one of mini-scientists. The intellectual independence of students Bryce and Day assume, and intend for school science, is countered with an active intellectual dependence. It is only in relation to emerging and uncertain scientific contexts that students should be taught about scepticism, but they also need to learn when, and why to trust science as an antidote to the expressions of doubting it. Some suggestions for pedagogies that could lead to these new learnings are made. The very recent fifth report of the IPCC answers many of their concerns about climate change.

  2. A phenomenographic investigation into Information Literacy in nursing practice - preliminary findings and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Information Literacy is essential to 'evidence-based practice'; without the ability to locate evidence, evidence-based practice is rendered extremely difficult if not impossible. There is currently little evidence to show how Information Literacy is experienced by nurses or what its parameters are within evidence-based practice and therefore whether Information Literacy educational interventions are actually promoting the correct knowledge and skills. Using phenomenographic interviews the author will attempt to discover how nurses experience Information Literacy. Insights from the findings will be used to map out its parameters and to put forward a theoretical model for a course or module to develop it effectively. This article presents preliminary findings, including 7 draft categories of description of how Information Literacy is experienced in nursing. This pilot study indicates that the complete findings may be of significant potential value in the promotion and development of Information Literacy education in nursing. It is argued that such insights into how nurses actually experience the phenomenon of Information Literacy can be used to develop potentially more effective, research-based, educational interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On the Large-Scaling Issues of Cloud-based Applications for Earth Science Dat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, H.

    2016-12-01

    Next generation science data systems are needed to address the incoming flood of data from new missions such as NASA's SWOT and NISAR where its SAR data volumes and data throughput rates are order of magnitude larger than present day missions. Existing missions, such as OCO-2, may also require high turn-around time for processing different science scenarios where on-premise and even traditional HPC computing environments may not meet the high processing needs. Additionally, traditional means of procuring hardware on-premise are already limited due to facilities capacity constraints for these new missions. Experiences have shown that to embrace efficient cloud computing approaches for large-scale science data systems requires more than just moving existing code to cloud environments. At large cloud scales, we need to deal with scaling and cost issues. We present our experiences on deploying multiple instances of our hybrid-cloud computing science data system (HySDS) to support large-scale processing of Earth Science data products. We will explore optimization approaches to getting best performance out of hybrid-cloud computing as well as common issues that will arise when dealing with large-scale computing. Novel approaches were utilized to do processing on Amazon's spot market, which can potentially offer 75%-90% costs savings but with an unpredictable computing environment based on market forces.

  4. Education in Radioactive Waste Management: Issues of science, technology and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, E.O.

    1993-01-01

    Public acceptance of matters relating to radioactive waste management can properly be sought through education, but what are the particulars to be considered and what is the strategy for success? The issues of science, technology and society which must be addressed are explored here and seen to be inextricably related, so that none of them can gain adequate attention except it be presented in the context of the others. Such issues include the concept of acceptable levels of risk, which must become familiar and applied with no greater severity to the nuclear industry than to other aspects of life

  5. Radiant research prospects? A review of nuclear waste issues in social science research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin

    2007-05-01

    The present report has been put together on behalf of KASAM and constitutes a review of social science research and literature that been produced on the nuclear waste issue in Sweden, with focus on recent research. The aim with the investigation has been to map the scope of and the direction of the independent research about nuclear waste in Sweden, in relation to the research that has been initiated and financed by the stakeholders that are participating in the decision-making process in the nuclear waste issue. Another aim has been to point out areas that have not been taken into consideration

  6. Neuroimaging findings with MDMA/ecstasy: technical aspects, conceptual issues and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneman, Liesbeth; de Win, Maartje M L; van den Brink, Wim; Booij, Jan; den Heeten, Gerard J

    2006-03-01

    Users of ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; MDMA) may be at risk of developing MDMA-induced injury to the serotonin (5-HT) system. Previously, there were no methods available for directly evaluating the neurotoxic effects of MDMA in the living human brain. However, development of in vivoneuroimaging tools have begun to provide insights into the effects of ecstasy on the human brain. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission computed tomography (PET) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) studies which have evaluated ecstasy's neurotoxic potential will be reviewed and discussed in terms of technical aspects, conceptual issues and future prospects. Although PET and SPECT may be limited by several factors such as the low cortical uptake and the use of a non-optimal reference region (cerebellum) the few studies conducted so far provide suggestive evidence that people who heavily use ecstasy are at risk of developing subcortical, and probably also cortical reductions in serotonin transporter (SERT) densities, a marker of 5-HT neurotoxicity. There seem to be dose-dependent and transient reductions in SERT for which females may be more vulnerable than males. 1H-MRS appears to be a less sensitive technique for studying ecstasy's neurotoxic potential. Whether individuals with a relatively low ecstasy exposure also demonstrate loss of SERT needs to be determined. Because most studies have had a retrospective design, in which evidence is indirect and differs in the degree to which any causal links can be implied, longitudinal studies in human ecstasy users are needed to draw definite conclusions.

  7. Technical findings and regulatory analysis for Generic Safety Issue II.E.4.3, ''Containment Integrity Check''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, A.W.

    1988-04-01

    This report contains the technical findings and regulatory analysis for Generic Safety Issue II.E.4.3, ''Containment Integrity Check.'' An evaluation of the containment isolation history from 1965 to 1983 reveals that (except for a small number of events) containment integrity has been maintained and that the majority of reported events have been events related to exceeding Technical Specification limits (or 0.6 of the allowable leakage level). In addition, more recent risk analyses have shown that allowable leakage rates even if increased by a factor of 10 would not significantly increase risk. Potential methods of continuous monitoring are identified and evaluated. Therefore, these technical findings and risk evaluations support closure of Generic Safety Issue II.E.4.3

  8. Scepticism and Trust: Two Counterpoint Essentials in Science Education for Complex Socio-Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensham, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    In this response to Tom G. K. Bryce and Stephen P. Day's ("Cult Stud Sci Educ." doi:10.1007/s11422-013-9500-0, 2013) original article, I share with them their interest in the teaching of climate change in school science, but I widen it to include other contemporary complex socio-scientific issues that also need to be discussed. I…

  9. Debate on global warming as a socio-scientific issue: science teaching towards political literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Wildson Luiz Pereira

    2014-09-01

    The focus of this response to the original article by Tom G. H. Bryce and Stephen P. Day (Cult Stud Sci Educ. doi: 10.1007/s11422-012-9407-1, 2013) is the use of empirical data to illustrate and expand the understanding of key points of their argument. Initially, I seek to discuss possible answers to the three questions posed by the authors related to: (1) the concerns to be addressed and the scientific knowledge to be taken into account in the climate change debate, (2) the attention to be paid to perspectives taken by "alarmists" and "deniers," and (3) the approaches to be used to conduct controversial global warming debate. In this discussion, I seek to contribute to the debate proposed by the original paper, illustrating various points commented on by the authors and expanding to other possibilities, which highlight the importance of political issues in the debate. Therefore, I argue that socio-political issues must be taken into account when I aim for a scientific literacy that can enhance students' political education. Likewise, I extend the debate presented in the original article, emphasizing the attention that should be paid to these aspects and approaching science education from a critical perspective. Highlighting only the confirmation bias without considering political implications of the debate can induce a reductionist and empiricist view of science, detached from the political power that acts on scientific activity. In conclusion, I support the idea that for a critical science education, the discussion of political issues should be involved in any controversial debate, a view, which goes beyond the confirmation bias proposed by Bryce and Day for the global warming debate. These issues are indeed vital and science teachers should take them into account when preparing their lessons for the debate on climate change.

  10. Some issues raised by the National Academy of Sciences study for MC and A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, F.H.

    1988-01-01

    Six of several issues raised by the recent DOE commissioned National Academy of Science Study for MC and A are briefly discussed in part along with resulting recommendations for DOE consideration. The activities discussed are: 1. Evaluating System Performance; 2. Management of Inventory Differences; 3. Management of Shipper-Receiver Differences; 4. Managing the MC and A Data Base; 5. Management of Threat and Vulnerability; and 6. MSSA Content and Preparation

  11. What Can Be Learned From a Laboratory Model of Conceptual Change? Descriptive Findings and Methodological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Stellan; Cosejo, David G.

    2014-07-01

    The problem of how people process novel and unexpected information— deep learning (Ohlsson in Deep learning: how the mind overrides experience. Cambridge University Press, New York, 2011)—is central to several fields of research, including creativity, belief revision, and conceptual change. Researchers have not converged on a single theory for conceptual change, nor has any one theory been decisively falsified. One contributing reason is the difficulty of collecting informative data in this field. We propose that the commonly used methodologies of historical analysis, classroom interventions, and developmental studies, although indispensible, can be supplemented with studies of laboratory models of conceptual change. We introduce re- categorization, an experimental paradigm in which learners transition from one definition of a categorical concept to another, incompatible definition of the same concept, a simple form of conceptual change. We describe a re-categorization experiment, report some descriptive findings pertaining to the effects of category complexity, the temporal unfolding of learning, and the nature of the learner's final knowledge state. We end with a brief discussion of ways in which the re-categorization model can be improved.

  12. The Integration of HIV and AIDS as a Socio-Scientific Issue in the Life Sciences Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Eugenie; Mnguni, Lindelani

    2015-01-01

    The potential of science to transform lives has been highlighted by a number of scholars. This means that critical socio-scientific issues (SSIs) must be integrated into science curricula. Development of context-specific scientific knowledge and twenty-first-century learning skills in science education could be used to address SSIs such as…

  13. Learning Science Content through Socio-Scientific Issues-Based Instruction: A Multi-Level Assessment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Romine, William L.; Topçu, Mustafa Sami

    2016-01-01

    Science educators have presented numerous conceptual and theoretical arguments in favor of teaching science through the exploration of socio-scientific issues (SSI). However, the empirical knowledge base regarding the extent to which SSI-based instruction supports student learning of science content is limited both in terms of the number of…

  14. Using Social Media to Promote Pre-Service Science Teachers' Practices of Socio-Scientific Issue (SSI) - Based Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitiporntapin, Sasithep; Lankford, Deanna Marie

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses using social media to promote pre-service science teachers' practices of Socio-Scientific Issue (SSI) based teaching in a science classroom setting. We designed our research in two phases. The first phase examined pre-service science teachers' perceptions about using social media to promote their SSI-based teaching. The…

  15. Promoting Science-Policy Education on Global Environmental Issues: The Mercury Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selin, N. E.; Stokes, L. C.; Susskind, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    We present initial results from a project focusing on teaching science and engineering students about global environmental policy, funded by a NSF CAREER grant. Despite decades of growing global concern about issues such as ozone depletion, climate change, and toxic chemicals, linking science to policy is a continuing challenge, and few science students receive formal training for effective participation in global negotiations. The focus of the educational activity presented here is the development of a freely-available, interactive teaching tool in the form of a role-play simulation, called "The Mercury Game" (http://mit.edu/mercurygame). The simulation requires players to consider scientific information on an emerging global issue, mercury pollution, and collectively decide whether global policy action is appropriate and what the scope of such action might entail. Playing the game helps participants to explore the consequences of representing scientific uncertainty in various ways in a policy context. The game focuses on the credibility of various sources of technical information, strategies for representing risk and uncertainty, and the balance between scientific and political considerations. It also requires the players to grapple with political considerations, particularly the dynamic between the global "North" (the developed world) and the global "South" (the developing world) at the heart of most political conflicts. Simulation outcomes from running the simulation at two scientific conferences and as part of a graduate-level course on global environmental science and policy will be presented.

  16. Qualitative and mixed methods research in dissemination and implementation science: introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southam-Gerow, Michael A; Dorsey, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    This special issue provides examples of how qualitative and mixed methods research approaches can be used in dissemination and implementation science. In this introductory article, we provide a brief rationale for why and how qualitative and mixed methods approaches can be useful in moving the field forward. Specifically, we provide a brief primer on common qualitative methods, including a review of guidelines provided by the National Institutes of Health. Next, we introduce the six articles in the issue. The first of the articles by Palinkas represents a more thorough and authoritative discussion related to qualitative methods, using the other five articles in the issue (and other published works) as examples. The remaining five articles are empirical and/or descriptive articles of recently completed or ongoing qualitative or mixed methods studies related to dissemination and implementation of evidence-based practices for children and adolescents.

  17. Societal and ethical issues in human biomonitoring – a view from science studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human biomonitoring (HBM has rapidly gained importance. In some epidemiological studies, the measurement and use of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and disease have replaced traditional environmental indicators. While in HBM, ethical issues have mostly been addressed in terms of informed consent and confidentiality, this paper maps out a larger array of societal issues from an epistemological perspective, i.e. bringing into focus the conditions of how and what is known in environmental health science. Methods In order to analyse the effects of HBM and the shift towards biomarker research in the assessment of environmental pollution in a broader societal context, selected analytical frameworks of science studies are introduced. To develop the epistemological perspective, concepts from "biomedical platform sociology" and the notion of "epistemic cultures" and "thought styles" are applied to the research infrastructures of HBM. Further, concepts of "biocitizenship" and "civic epistemologies" are drawn upon as analytical tools to discuss the visions and promises of HBM as well as related ethical problematisations. Results In human biomonitoring, two different epistemological cultures meet; these are environmental science with for instance pollution surveys and toxicological assessments on the one hand, and analytical epidemiology investigating the association between exposure and disease in probabilistic risk estimation on the other hand. The surveillance of exposure and dose via biomarkers as envisioned in HBM is shifting the site of exposure monitoring to the human body. Establishing an HBM platform faces not only the need to consider individual decision autonomy as an ethics issue, but also larger epistemological and societal questions, such as the mode of evidence demanded in science, policy and regulation. Conclusion The shift of exposure monitoring towards the biosurveillance of human populations involves fundamental

  18. Pharmacy faculty workplace issues: findings from the 2009-2010 COD-COF Joint Task Force on Faculty Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desselle, Shane P; Peirce, Gretchen L; Crabtree, Brian L; Acosta, Daniel; Early, Johnnie L; Kishi, Donald T; Nobles-Knight, Dolores; Webster, Andrew A

    2011-05-10

    Many factors contribute to the vitality of an individual faculty member, a department, and an entire academic organization. Some of the relationships among these factors are well understood, but many questions remain unanswered. The Joint Task Force on Faculty Workforce examined the literature on faculty workforce issues, including the work of previous task forces charged by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP). We identified and focused on 4 unique but interrelated concepts: organizational culture/climate, role of the department chair, faculty recruitment and retention, and mentoring. Among all 4 resides the need to consider issues of intergenerational, intercultural, and gender dynamics. This paper reports the findings of the task force and proffers specific recommendations to AACP and to colleges and schools of pharmacy.

  19. 2008 Special NSREC Issue of the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science Comments by the Editors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwank, Jim; Buchner, Steve; Marshall, Paul; Duzellier, Sophie; Brown, Dennis; Poivey, Christian; Pease, Ron

    2008-12-01

    The December 2008 special issue of the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science contains selected papers from the 45th annual IEEE International Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference (NSREC) held in Tucson, Arizona, July 14 - 18, 2008. Over 115 papers presented at the 2008 NSREC were submitted for consideration for this year's special issue. Those papers that appear in this special issue were able to successfully complete the review process before the deadline for the December issue. A few additional papers may appear in subsequent issues of the TRANSACTIONS. This publication is the premier archival journal for research on space and nuclear radiation effects in materials, devices, circuits, and systems. This distinction is the direct result of the conscientious efforts of both the authors, who present and document their work, and the reviewers, who selflessly volunteer their time and talent to help review the manuscripts. Each paper in this journal has been reviewed by experts selected by the editors for their expertise and knowledge of the particular subject areas.

  20. Integrating Bioethics in Sciences’ curricula using values in science and socio-scientific issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sousa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The  The main objective of the present work is selection of ethical issues that should be addressed with first year undergraduate and K-12 students. Since K-12 Sciences’ curriculum, in Portugal, does not include bioethics content in any discipline explicitly, teachers need to make an effort to include it. Some online materials are available to use in high school classes and will be discussed. My proposal combines inquiry learning-teaching methods with the aim of promoting the discussion of bioethics issues in accordance to UNESCO Bioethics Core Curriculum already adopted by twenty universities throughout the world (Darwish 2015. Some of the issues that are addressed are: ecology and environment ethics, infectious diseases and vaccination, water for all, intellectual property, genomes and patents, biotechnological advances (genetic modified organisms and synthesis of genomes, future generations, climate hanges and natural resources, biomedical advances and human rights, authorship and contributions in scientific publications, and biobanks. In conclusion, this study may constitute an example to facilitate the implementation, by K-12 teachers, of active inquiry strategies, using features of science such as values and socio-scientific issues, and focused on the discussion of concrete ethical issues facing humanity. It also constitutes a proposal of integrating Bioethics in undergraduate sciences’ curricula.

  1. DiskDetective.org: Finding Homes for Exoplanets Through Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchner, Marc J.

    2016-01-01

    The Disk Detective project is scouring the data archive from the WISE all-sky survey to find new debris disks and protoplanetary disks-the dusty dens where exoplanets form and dwell. Volunteers on this citizen science website have already performed 1.6 million classifications, searching a catalog 8x the size of any published WISE survey. We follow up candidates using ground based telescopes in California, Arizona, Chile, Hawaii, and Argentina. We ultimately expect to increase the pool of known debris disks by approx. 400 and triple the solid angle in clusters of young stars examined with WISE, providing a unique new catalog of isolated disk stars, key planet-search targets, and candidate advanced extraterrestrial civilizations. Come to this talk to hear the news about our latest dusty discoveries and the trials and the ecstasy of launching a new citizen science project. Please bring your laptop or smartphone if you like!

  2. [Outlooks of Bogdan Suchodolski on the issue of popularizing the history of science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietz, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    History of Science and the participants of International Congress of the History of Science in 1965 and in 1968, and concerned the idea of introducing compulsory lectures on the history of science for prospective teachers and lecturers, and the ways of universalizing the discussed branch. The author is also presenting American conceptions of popularizing the history of science that were created by George Sarton, Derek J. de Solla Price and by Committee on University Education that was established in the 1970s. In the article one can find a specific reflection of Bogdan Suchodolski on popularizing the history of science through admitting its social role, making it the main element of educating 'the modern man' and teaching the branch in Poland. The author describes the above-mentioned stipulations in detail. At the same time, the last part of the paper reveals Polish thought in the field of disseminating the history of science in the inter-war period, so in times, when Bogdan Suchodolski was on the point of building his own idea. The author makes an attempt at showing to what extent Bogdan Suchodolski was inspired by one of the most famous Polish originators and precursors of a new branch 'science of science'--Florian Znaniecki. On this occasion the author draws definite conclusions concerning similarities and differences between the conception created by Bogdan Suchodolski, and the ideas that were put forward by his predecessor.

  3. 2012 Special NSREC Issue of the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science Comments by the Editors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwank, Jim; Brown, Dennis; Girard, Sylvain; Gouker, Pascale; Gerardin, Simone; Quinn, Heather; Barnaby, Hugh

    2012-12-01

    The December 2012 special issue of the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science contains selected papers from the 49th annual IEEE International Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference (NSREC) held July 16-20, 2012, in Miami, Florida USA. 95 papers presented at the 2012 NSREC were submitted for consideration for this year’s special issue. Those papers that appear in this special issue were able to successfully complete the review process before the deadline for the December issue. A few additional papers may appear in subsequent issues of the TRANSACTIONS. This publication is the premier archival journal for research on space and nuclear radiation effects in materials, devices, circuits, and systems. This distinction is the direct result of the conscientious efforts of both the authors, who present and document their work, and the reviewers, who selflessly volunteer their time and talent to help review the manuscripts. Each paper in this journal has been reviewed by experts selected by the editors for their expertise and knowledge of the particular subject areas. The peer review process for a typical technical journal generally takes six months to one year to complete. To publish this special issue of the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (in December), the review process, from initial submission to final form, must be completed in about 10 weeks. Because of the short schedule, both the authors and reviewers are required to respond very quickly. The reviewers listed on the following pages contributed vitally to this quick-turn review process.We would like to express our sincere appreciation to each of them for accepting this difficult, but critical role in the process. To provide consistent reviews of papers throughout the year, the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science relies on a year-round editorial board that manages reviews for submissions throughout the year to the TRANSACTIONS in the area of radiation effects. The review process is managed by a Senior

  4. News from the Library: Finding an article from Science published in 1880? As simple as clicking!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Library continues to expand its range of online resources. As of January 2011, the CERN community now has access to several important journal collections via JSTOR. JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a not-for-profit online system for archiving academic journals. It provides access to digitized back issues of several hundred well-known journals in various subject areas, dating back to 1665.   The highlight of this new resource is undoubtedly access to the complete archives of Science, starting with volume 1 in 1880; a resource long-awaited by our users. The complete collection of the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, as well as the Philosophical Transactions, starting in 1665, is also available via JSTOR. The collection of journal titles in mathematics is particularly rich, including The Proceedings and Transactions of the American Mathematical Society, where you can read, for instance, the article written by Norbert Wiener in 1917, "Certain Formal Invariances in Boo...

  5. Engineering science research issues in high power density transmission dynamics for aerospace applications. [rotorcraft geared rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajendra; Houser, Donald R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses analytical and experimental approaches that will be needed to understand dynamic, vibro-acoustic and design characteristics of high power density rotorcraft transmissions. Complexities associated with mathematical modeling of such systems will be discussed. An overview of research work planned during the next several years will be presented, with emphasis on engineering science issues such as gear contact mechanics, multi-mesh drive dynamics, parameter uncertainties, vibration transmission through bearings, and vibro-acoustic characteristics of geared rotor systems and housing-mount structures. A few examples of work in progress are cited.

  6. Reshaping clinical science: Introduction to the Special Issue on Psychophysiology and the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christopher J; Hajcak, Greg

    2016-03-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health's (NIMH) Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative seeks to establish new dimensional conceptions of mental health problems, through the investigation of clinically relevant "process" constructs that have neurobiological as well as psychological referents. This special issue provides a detailed overview of the RDoC framework by NIMH officials Michael Kozak and Bruce Cuthbert, and spotlights RDoC-oriented investigative efforts by leading psychophysiological research groups as examples of how clinical science might be reshaped through application of RDoC principles. Accompanying commentaries highlight key aspects of the work by each group, and discuss reported methods/findings in relation to promises and challenges of the RDoC initiative more broadly. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Hands across the divide: Finding spaces for student-centered pedagogy in the undergraduate science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spier-Dance, Lesley

    This study explored college science students' and instructors' experiences with student-generated and performed analogies. The objectives of the study were to determine whether the use of student-generated analogies could provide students with opportunities to develop robust understanding of difficult science concepts, and to examine students' and instructors' perspectives on the utilization of these analogies. To address my objectives, I carried out a case study at a university-college in British Columbia. I examined the use of analogies in undergraduate biology and chemistry courses. Working with three instructors, I explored the use of student-generated analogies in five courses. I carried out in-depth analyses for one biology case and one chemistry case. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, classroom observations, researcher journal logs and students' responses to assessment questions. My findings suggest that involvement in the analogy exercise was associated with gains in students' conceptual understanding. Lower-achieving students who participated in the analogy activity exhibited significant gains in understanding of the science concept, but were unable to transfer their knowledge to novel situations. Higher-achieving students who participated in the activity were better able to transfer their knowledge of the analogy-related science topic to novel situations. This research revealed that students exhibited improved understanding when their analogies clearly represented important features of the target science concept. Students actively involved in the analogy activity exhibited gains in conceptual understanding. They perceived that embodied performative aspects of the activity promoted engagement, which motivated their learning. Participation in the analogy activity led to enhanced social interaction and a heightened sense of community within the classroom. The combination of social and performative elements provided motivational learning

  8. Does science have the answer to most issues of food security?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Musolino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Today, the attention to food security has grown with the awareness of resources’ scarcity, earth excessive exploitation, population growth and climate change, all factors that are associated with an impelling food emergency. A plethora of theoretical perspectives adopted in analysing food security issue reflects in diverse normative approaches. Some focus on the rapport between population demand and food supply, seeking to reduce the former or increase the latter in order to achieve food security. Applying the technological progress of scientific research will have its positive outcomes: production will increase, keeping prices low; the limited resources will be used more efficiently, decreasing the consumption of water, energy and land; the environment will benefit from a more sustainable production. However, scientific solutions, such as population control, that do not restore individuals’ entitlement to food will be ineffective in preventing food insecurity. Therefore, food security it is not achievable by the sole means of science. A greater quantity of food does not guarantee a more equal distribution of resources. Increasing food production without altering its uneven distribution will only augment this inequality, making who has access to food more secure but not helping who is currently affected by the food insecurity issues. Science can play its role, but development towards the solutions to food insecurity must be led by politics.

  9. Argumentation, critical thinking, nature of science and socioscientific issues: a dialogue between two researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubian, Hagop A.; Khishfe, Rola

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast between two theoretical frameworks for addressing nature of science (NOS) and socioscientific issues (SSI) in school science. These frameworks are critical thinking (CT) and argumentation (AR). For the past years, the first and second authors of this paper have pursued research in this area using CT and AR as theoretical frameworks, respectively. Yacoubian argues that future citizens need to develop a critical mindset as they are guided to (1) practice making judgments on what views of NOS to acquire and (2) practice making decisions on SSI through applying their NOS understandings. Khishfe asserts that AR is an important component of decision making when dealing with SSI and the practice in AR in relation to controversial issues is needed for informed decision making. She argues that AR as a framework may assist in the development of more informed understandings of NOS. In this paper, the authors delve into a dialogue for (1) elucidating strengths and potential of each framework, (2) highlighting challenges that they face in their research using the frameworks in question, (3) exploring the extent to which the frameworks can overlap, and (4) proposing directions for future research.

  10. Introduction to the special issue on virtual reality environments in behavioral sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Wiederhold, Brenda K

    2002-09-01

    Virtual reality (VR) is usually described in biology and in medicine as a collection of technologies that allow people to interact efficiently with three-dimensional (3-D) computerized databases in real time using their natural senses. This definition lacks any reference to head-mounted displays (HMDs) and instrumented clothing such as gloves or suits. In fact, less than 10% of VR healthcare applications in medicine are actually using any immersive equipment. However, if we focus our attention on behavioral sciences, where immersion is used by more than 50% of the applications, VR is described as an advanced form of human- computer interface that allows the user to interact with and become immersed in a computer-generated environment. This difference outlines a different vision of VR shared by psychologists, psychotherapists, and neuropsychologists: VR provides a new human-computer interaction paradigm in which users are no longer simply external observers of images on a computer screen but are active participants within a computer-generated 3-D virtual world. This special issue investigates this vision, presenting some of the most interesting applications actually developed in the area. Moreover, it discusses the clinical principles, human factors, and technological issues associated with the use of VR in the behavioral sciences.

  11. Preservice Teachers' Reconciliation of an Epistemological Issue in an Integrated Mathematics/Science Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormas, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Preservice teachers in six sections (n = 87) of a sequenced, methodological and process-integrated elementary mathematics/science methods course were able to reconcile an issue centered on a similar area of epistemology. Preservice teachers participated in a science inquiry lesson on biological classification and a mathematics problem-solving…

  12. Measurement Model of Reasoning Skills among Science Students Based on Socio Scientific Issues (SSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHD AFIFI BAHURUDIN SETAMBAH

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The lack of reasoning skills has been recognized as one of the contributing factors to the declined achievement in the Trends in Mathematics and Science Studies (TIMSS and Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA assessments in Malaysia. The use of socio-scientific issues (SSI as a learning strategy offers the potential of improving the level of students' reasoning skills and consequently improves students’ achievement in science subjects. This study examined the development of a measurement model of reasoning skills among science students based on SSI using the analysis of moment structure (AMOS approach before going to second level to full structured equation modelling (SEM. A total of 450 respondents were selected using a stratified random sampling. Results showed a modified measurement model of reasoning skills consisting of the View Knowledge (VK was as a main construct. The items that measure the level of pre-reflection of students fulfilled the elements of unidimensionality, validity, and reliability. Although the level of student reasoning skills was still low but this development of measurement model could be identified and proposed teaching methods that could be adopted to improve students’ reasoning skills.

  13. Assessing Veterinary and Animal Science Students' Moral Judgment Development on Animal Ethics Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    Little has been done to assess veterinarians' moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues. Following development of the VetDIT, a new moral judgment measure for animal ethics issues, this study aimed to refine and further validate the VetDIT, and to identify effects of teaching interventions on moral judgment and changes in moral judgment over time. VetDIT-V1 was refined into VetDIT-V2, and V3 was developed as a post-intervention test to prevent repetition. To test these versions for comparability, veterinary and animal science students (n=271) were randomly assigned to complete different versions. The VetDIT discriminates between stages of moral judgment, condensed into three schemas: Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), and Universal Principles (UP). There were no differences in the scores for MN and UP between the versions, and we equated PI scores to account for differences between versions. Veterinary science students (n=130) who completed a three-hour small-group workshop on moral development theory and ethical decision making increased their use of UP in moral reasoning, whereas students (n=271) who received similar information in a 50-minute lecture did not. A longitudinal comparison of matched first- and third-year students (n=39) revealed no moral judgment development toward greater use of UP. The VetDIT is therefore useful for assessing moral judgment of animal and human ethics issues in veterinary and other animal-related professions. Intensive small-group workshops using moral development knowledge and skills, rather than lectures, are conducive to developing veterinary students' moral judgment.

  14. To What Extent Do Biology Textbooks Contribute to Scientific Literacy? Criteria for Analysing Science-Technology-Society-Environment Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Florbela M.; Scharfenberg, Franz-Josef; Bogner, Franz X.

    2015-01-01

    Our article proposes a set of six criteria for analysing science-technology-society-environment (STSE) issues in regular textbooks as to how they are expected to contribute to students' scientific literacy. We chose genetics and gene technology as fields prolific in STSE issues. We derived our criteria (including 26 sub-criteria) from a literature…

  15. Editors' Introduction to the Thematic Issue: Mad about Methods? Teaching Research Methods in Political Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaensen, Johan; Kerremans, Bart; Slootmaeckers, Koen

    2015-01-01

    The contributors to this special issue all seek to address the challenge of teaching research methods to political science students. This introduction aims to provide a concise framework for the various innovations presented throughout this issue, situating them in the wider literature. Particular emphasis is placed on the factors that distinguish…

  16. Perspektiven einer Rezeption neurowissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse in der Erziehungswissenschaft (Perspectives of an Integration of Neuro-Scientific Findings into Educational Science).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Nicole

    2002-01-01

    Sketches the status quo and possible starting points for the adoption of neuro-scientific findings by educational science. Describes the latest developments in U.S. research. Discusses the adoption of these points by German educational science. Outlines the possibilities and limits of an interdisciplinary discourse. (CAJ)

  17. Socio-scientific issues with CTS focus on training of science teachers: complementary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Oliveira Marins Azevedo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical work that seeks to highlight the possible reasons why the STS approach has not effectively be inserted in the educational process and point out alternative to its insertion. It thus explores the origin of the STS movement and discusses its focus on education, science teaching and teacher education. It is a study in a critical perspective, from a documentary research focused on scientific production published in books, theses, papers presented in conference proceedings and journals in the field of education. The readings allowed direct the discussions, assuming the interpretative analysis for the organization of the text. The study shows that teacher education, the problems presented in its theoretical and epistemological aspects and ethical, is the main obstacle to the insertion of the STS approach in the educational process. Alternatively, points to issues of social-scientific approach to STS approach in a complementary perspective, as the possibility of improvements in the aspects highlighted

  18. Issues in Learning About and Teaching Qualitative Research Methods and Methodology in the Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Breuer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available For many qualitative researchers in the social sciences, learning about and teaching qualitative research methods and methodology raises a number of questions. This topic was the focus of a symposium held during the Second Berlin Summer School for Qualitative Research Methods in July 2006. In this contribution, some of the issues discussed during the symposium are taken up and extended, and some basic dimensions underlying these issues are summarized. How qualitative research methods and methodology are taught is closely linked to the ways in which qualitative researchers in the social sciences conceptualize themselves and their discipline. In the following, we distinguish between a paradigmatic and a pragmatic view. From a pragmatic point of view, qualitative research methods are considered research strategies or techniques and can be taught in the sense of recipes with specific steps to be carried out. According to a paradigmatic point of view (strongly inspired by constructivism, qualitative research methods and methodology are conceptualized as a craft to be practiced together by a "master" and an "apprentice." Moreover, the teaching of qualitative research methods also depends heavily on the institutional standing of qualitative compared to quantitative research method. Based on these considerations, five basic dimensions of learning about and teaching qualitative research methods are suggested: ways of teaching (ranging from the presentation of textbook knowledge to cognitive apprenticeship and instructors' experience with these; institutional contexts, including their development and the teaching of qualitative research methods in other than university contexts; the "fit" between personality and method, including relevant personal skills and talents; and, as a special type of instructional context that increasingly has gained importance, distance learning and its implications for learning about and teaching qualitative research methods

  19. Expanding the basic science debate: the role of physics knowledge in interpreting clinical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldszmidt, Mark; Minda, John Paul; Devantier, Sarah L; Skye, Aimee L; Woods, Nicole N

    2012-10-01

    Current research suggests a role for biomedical knowledge in learning and retaining concepts related to medical diagnosis. However, learning may be influenced by other, non-biomedical knowledge. We explored this idea using an experimental design and examined the effects of causal knowledge on the learning, retention, and interpretation of medical information. Participants studied a handout about several respiratory disorders and how to interpret respiratory exam findings. The control group received the information in standard "textbook" format and the experimental group was presented with the same information as well as a causal explanation about how sound travels through lungs in both the normal and disease states. Comprehension and memory of the information was evaluated with a multiple-choice exam. Several questions that were not related to the causal knowledge served as control items. Questions related to the interpretation of physical exam findings served as the critical test items. The experimental group outperformed the control group on the critical test items, and our study shows that a causal explanation can improve a student's memory for interpreting clinical details. We suggest an expansion of which basic sciences are considered fundamental to medical education.

  20. Invited Commentary: Can Issues With Reproducibility in Science Be Blamed on Hypothesis Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Clarice R

    2017-09-15

    In the accompanying article (Am J Epidemiol. 2017;186(6):646-647), Dr. Timothy Lash makes a forceful case that the problems with reproducibility in science stem from our "culture" of null hypothesis significance testing. He notes that when attention is selectively given to statistically significant findings, the estimated effects will be systematically biased away from the null. Here I revisit the recent history of genetic epidemiology and argue for retaining statistical testing as an important part of the tool kit. Particularly when many factors are considered in an agnostic way, in what Lash calls "innovative" research, investigators need a selection strategy to identify which findings are most likely to be genuine, and hence worthy of further study. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Invited Commentary: Can Issues With Reproducibility in Science Be Blamed on Hypothesis Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Clarice R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In the accompanying article (Am J Epidemiol. 2017;186(6):646–647), Dr. Timothy Lash makes a forceful case that the problems with reproducibility in science stem from our “culture” of null hypothesis significance testing. He notes that when attention is selectively given to statistically significant findings, the estimated effects will be systematically biased away from the null. Here I revisit the recent history of genetic epidemiology and argue for retaining statistical testing as an important part of the tool kit. Particularly when many factors are considered in an agnostic way, in what Lash calls “innovative” research, investigators need a selection strategy to identify which findings are most likely to be genuine, and hence worthy of further study. PMID:28938713

  2. Some facts and issues related to livestock theft in Punjab province of Pakistan --findings of series of cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Tariq; Muhammad, Younus; Raza, Sanan; Nasir, Amar; Höreth-Böntgen, Detlef W

    2014-01-01

    Stock theft is an endemic crime particularly affecting deep rural areas of Pakistan. Analysis of a series of cases was conducted to describe features of herds and farmers who have been the victims of cattle and/buffalo theft in various villages of Punjab in Pakistan during the year 2012. A structured interview was administered to a sample of fifty three affected farmers. The following were the important findings: i) incidents of theft were more amongst small scale farmers, ii) the rate of repeat victimization was high, iii) stealing was the most common modus operandi, iv) the majority of animals were adult, having high sale values, v) more cases occurred during nights with crescent moon, vi) only a proportion of victims stated to have the incident reported to the police, vii) many farmers had a history of making compensation agreements with thieves, viii) foot tracking failed in the majority of the cases, ix) all the respondents were willing to invest in radio frequency identification devices and advocated revision of existing laws. The study has implications for policy makers and proposes a relationship between crime science and veterinary medicine.

  3. An STS Approach to Organizing a Secondary Science Methods Course: Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Pradeep M.

    The current agenda in science education calls for science instruction that enhances student understanding of the nature of scientific enterprise, enables students to critically analyze scientific information as well as apply it in real-life situations, and sets them on a path of lifelong learning in science. In order to prepare teachers who can…

  4. Controversy as a Blind Spot in Teaching Nature of Science: Why the Range of Different Positions Concerning Nature of Science Should Be an Issue in the Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, Mario; Hammann, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the argument is put forth that controversies about the scope and limits of science should be considered in Nature of Science (NOS) teaching. Reference disciplines for teaching NOS are disciplines, which reflect upon science, like philosophy of science, history of science, and sociology of science. The culture of these disciplines…

  5. Welcome to the Maiden Issue of International Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Shantaram

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Today marks the publication date of the inaugural issue of the International Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences (IJHRS. IJHRS is a publication of Global Network of Health Educators (GNHE, a not-for-profit initiative of Health educators worldwide in a mission to promote the health related awareness across the globe. We would like to take this opportunity to place on record my hearty thanks to all the members of GNHE and editorial board of IJHRS for their invaluable personal and scientific resources for guiding the journal from initial planning to the first steps it is taking now. Our aim is that IJHRS will be the paramount archive of knowledge in the areas of Health and Rehabilitation sciences. IJHRS is in open access format, in our view the only relevant such model in these times where information must be freely available to all. The traditional subscription-based model inherently denies free access to knowledge and seems contrary to the attribute of scientific thought. Our goal is to have a rapid peer review process, and we will make every effort to make an initial decision at the earliest. The peer review process will match scholarly reviewers with submitted manuscripts to produce high quality articles of interest and scientific caliber. The process is confidential so that criticisms and revisions are made in the fairest manner possible. The final decision on publication will be made by the editorial board. We will look for submissions of interesting and important scientific information that hopefully will have clinical application. High quality research of all types will be fostered and published with pride in the journal. IJHRS will be shortly indexed in Index Copernicus and other indexing authorities. We have the opportunity to improve the quality of life of so many people in developing countries and otherwise disadvantaged situations. The talent and determination of our readers is a resource with unlimited potential and we have

  6. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 18: Issues affecting social acceptability of fuels treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Esposito

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have tried to understand how information about forest management can influence a person's landscape preferences and aesthetic appreciation. These findings are relevant for fuels management projects, since these projects are often characterized by conflicts between aesthetic and ecological objectives. This fact sheet discusses different aspects and ways...

  7. Contemporary Issues in Group Learning in Undergraduate Science Classrooms: A Perspective from Student Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Linda C

    2018-06-01

    As the use of collaborative-learning methods such as group work in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics classes has grown, so has the research into factors impacting effectiveness, the kinds of learning engendered, and demographic differences in student response. Generalizing across the range of this research is complicated by the diversity of group-learning approaches used. In this overview, I discuss theories of how group-work formats support or hinder learning based on the ICAP (interactive, constructive, active, passive) framework of student engagement. I then use this model to analyze current issues in group learning, such as the nature of student discourse during group work, the role of group learning in making our classrooms inclusive, and how classroom spaces factor into group learning. I identify key gaps for further research and propose implications from this research for teaching practice. This analysis helps identify essential, effective, and efficient features of group learning, thus providing faculty with constructive guidelines to support their work and affirm their efforts.

  8. Finding Alignment: The Perceptions and Integration of the Next Generation Science Standards Practices by Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Janette; Nadelson, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Preparing elementary-level teachers to teach in alignment with the eight Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) practices could prove to be a daunting endeavor. However, the process may be catalyzed by leveraging elements of teacher science instruction that inherently attend to the practice standards. In this study, we investigated the science…

  9. Information Literacy in Science Writing: How Students Find, Identify, and Use Scientific Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klucevsek, Kristin M.; Brungard, Allison B.

    2016-01-01

    For undergraduate students to achieve science literacy, they must first develop information literacy skils. These skills align with Information Literacy Standards and include determining appropriate databases, distinguishing among resource types, and citing resources ethically. To effectively improve information literacy and science literacy, we…

  10. A rural virtual health sciences library project: research findings with implications for next generation library services*

    OpenAIRE

    Richwine, Margaret (Peggy); McGowan, Julie J.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The Shared Hospital Electronic Library of Southern Indiana (SHELSI) research project was designed to determine whether access to a virtual health sciences library and training in its use would support medical decision making in rural southern Indiana and achieve the same level of impact seen by targeted information services provided by health sciences librarians in urban hospitals.

  11. Risk communications in nuclear energy as science and technology. Arrangement and analysis of academic findings and practical cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    Problems in communication among the government, enterprise, experts and so on and the society and people, now confront us in several areas of science and technology. In order to be accepted by the society, each area of science and technology has experienced common processes such as beginnings, business, society introduction, problem renovation and maturity. Each area can be positioned based on the degree of maturity, which helps to find solutions of the problems. Arrangement and analysis of academic findings and practical cases on risk communications in nuclear energy are described. (T. Tanaka)

  12. EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1), that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the Scepticism and Doubt in Science and Science Education: The Complexity of Global Warming as a Socio-Scientific Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Tom G. K.; Day, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    This article looks critically at the complexity of the debate among climate scientists; the controversies in the science of global temperature measurement; and at the role played by "consensus." It highlights the conflicting perspectives figuring in the mass media concerned with climate change, arguing that science teachers should be…

  13. Report on identification of federal radiation issues: To the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    The Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC) was established on April 9, 1984 by the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) under the authority of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (FCCSET). It is chaired by OSTP. CIRRPC membership consists of those agencies having specific responsibilities or interest in radiation research and/or policy. CIRRPC has two elements: The Committee itself, consisting of subcabinet and senior policy level representatives, and a Science Panel, consisting of senior radiation scientists from the respective member agencies. The structure and membership of CIRRPC is shown in Figure 2. It was decided at the inception of CIRRPC to identify the radiation issues of concern to the Federal agencies, Congress, and professional societies faced with radiation policy or scientific issues. It was felt that a current list of national radiation issues should be assembled so that CIRRPC could concentrate on these issues and the dividends from CIRRPC's resources could be maximized at the earliest possible time. These issues are listed

  14. Social Issue Entertainment 2.0: How pop culture, behavioral science and impact evaluation can motivate social and environmental change (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shome, D.

    2010-12-01

    Mainstream entertainment’s influence on our cognition, emotions, and behavior is often profound. Mass media permeates both the public and private spheres of society, saturating communities with messages from a diverse range of sources. While advertisers regularly take advantage of the extensive reach and influence of the media, social scientists, policy makers, and nonprofits have seen little success in incorporating social and environmental messaging into entertainment. Harmony Institute’s goal is to harness the power of mainstream media to provide US audiences with entertainment that educates on social and environmental issues and increases both individual and community action. The entertainment the Institute helps to produce connects with viewers on both a cognitive and emotional level. The Institute uses innovative methods across disciplines in order to measure entertainment’s impact and influence. Since its founding two years ago, the Institute has worked on a wide range of projects that have helped to establish its methodology for measured impact that applies behavioral science theory and entertainment to social and environmental issues. Projects spanning media platforms and social/environmental issues have included a web serial drama incorporating issues of water conservation and ocean stewardship into the narrative and a fotonovela for Hispanic youth in Houston focused on local environmental issues. In summer 2010, the Harmony Institute released FTW! Net Neutrality For The Win: How Entertainment and the Science of Influence Can Save Your Internet, an issue-specific communications guide about open Internet access that explains how to craft a communications strategy that connects with audiences using behavioral science research findings. In 2010-2011, the Institute will focus on measuring the impact and influence that media can have on social and environmental issues. The Institute has developed a comprehensive media evaluation methodology that employs

  15. 78 FR 23255 - Findings of Misconduct in Science/Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... research misconduct in research funded by National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), National... peptide, and by falsely inserting a band in lane 3 to represent the [alpha]VBS peptide, in Figure 4B of...

  16. Supply Issues for Science Academics in Australia: Now and in the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Daniel; Smith, T. Fred

    2010-01-01

    Australia, like the rest of the developed world, is in the midst of dealing with notable issues related to the age structure of its academic workforce. These issues are widespread and have been articulated in the Australian context most comprehensively by Hugo (2008). This paper investigates issues with demographic change and other key factors…

  17. Social Science Research Related to Wildfire Management: An Overview of Recent Findings and Future Research Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. McCaffrey; Eric Toman; Melanie Stidham; Bruce. Shindler

    2012-01-01

    As with other aspects of natural-resource management, the approach to managing wildland fires has evolved over time as scientific understanding has advanced and the broader context surrounding management decisions has changed. Prior to 2000 the primary focus of most fire research was on the physical and ecological aspects of fire; social science research was limited to...

  18. Findings from an Independent Evaluation of the AMNH's Online Seminars on Science Course: "The Solar System"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inverness Research, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Inverness Research studied the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) Seminars on Science program for eight years, from its inception in 1998 to 2006. In 2009, Inverness Research conducted additional studies of the AMNH's new online course, The Solar System. This paper presents teacher survey ratings for The Solar System, along with profiles of…

  19. A rural virtual health sciences library project: research findings with implications for next generation library services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richwine, M P; McGowan, J J

    2001-01-01

    The Shared Hospital Electronic Library of Southern Indiana (SHELSI) research project was designed to determine whether access to a virtual health sciences library and training in its use would support medical decision making in rural southern Indiana and achieve the same level of impact seen by targeted information services provided by health sciences librarians in urban hospitals. Based on the results of a needs assessment, a virtual medical library was created; various levels of training were provided. Virtual library users were asked to complete a Likert-type survey, which included questions on intent of use and impact of use. At the conclusion of the project period, structured interviews were conducted. Impact of the virtual health sciences library showed a strong correlation with the impact of information provided by health sciences librarians. Both interventions resulted in avoidance of adverse health events. Data collected from the structured interviews confirmed the perceived value of the virtual library. While librarians continue to hold a strong position in supporting information access for health care providers, their roles in the information age must begin to move away from providing information toward selecting and organizing knowledge resources and instruction in their use.

  1. A rural virtual health sciences library project: research findings with implications for next generation library services*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richwine, Margaret (Peggy); McGowan, Julie J.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The Shared Hospital Electronic Library of Southern Indiana (SHELSI) research project was designed to determine whether access to a virtual health sciences library and training in its use would support medical decision making in rural southern Indiana and achieve the same level of impact seen by targeted information services provided by health sciences librarians in urban hospitals. Methods: Based on the results of a needs assessment, a virtual medical library was created; various levels of training were provided. Virtual library users were asked to complete a Likert-type survey, which included questions on intent of use and impact of use. At the conclusion of the project period, structured interviews were conducted. Results: Impact of the virtual health sciences library showed a strong correlation with the impact of information provided by health sciences librarians. Both interventions resulted in avoidance of adverse health events. Data collected from the structured interviews confirmed the perceived value of the virtual library. Conclusion: While librarians continue to hold a strong position in supporting information access for health care providers, their roles in the information age must begin to move away from providing information toward selecting and organizing knowledge resources and instruction in their use. PMID:11209799

  2. Turkish Mathematics and Science Teachers' Technology Use in Their Classroom Instruction: Findings from TIMSS 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Yasemin; Balgalmis, Esra

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe Turkish mathematics and science teachers' use of computer in their classroom instruction by utilizing TIMSS 2011 data. Analyses results revealed that teachers most frequently used computers for preparation purpose and least frequently used computers for administration. There was no difference in teachers'…

  3. Memoirs of law, sciences and technologies - Law and climate thematic issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre-Schaub, M.; Jouzel, J.; Boisson de Chazournes, L.; Sadeleer, N. de; Denis, B.; Godard, O.; Le Prestre, P.; Maljean-Dubois, S.; Wemaere, M.; Rousseaux, S.; Louchard, O.

    2009-01-01

    standards elaboration devoted to mitigate the difficulties generated by the global warming in various domains, like the building industry, the transports or the energy sectors. This book is organized in two parts. Part one deals with climate as a scientific question between science and governance: the inter-disciplinary nature in the center of the problem, the law and the universality of the fight against climatic change, the precaution principle and the fight against climatic change, the economy of climatic change, the civil society and the international climate policy. The second part treats of the globalization of the climate issue: regional climate geopolitics and international cooperation, the post-Kyoto perspectives of the international legal framework of fight against climatic change, the legal architecture of a future international agreement of fight against climatic change, the climate governance between old notions and new stakes, the legal stakes of the implementation of emissions trading markets, the emissions trading system in the European Communities, and the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' experience feedback. (J.S.)

  4. A Framework for Guiding Future Citizens to Think Critically about Nature of Science and Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubian, Hagop A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I introduce a framework for guiding future citizens to think critically about nature of science (NOS) and "with" NOS as they engage in socioscientific decision making. The framework, referred to as the critical thinking--nature of science (CT-NOS) framework, explicates and targets both NOS as a learning objective and NOS…

  5. Editorial introduction. Special Issue for the European Academy of Forensic Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier; Meuwly, D.

    2013-01-01

    On behalf of the Editorial Board, I would like to welcome you to this special edition of Forensic Science International. It commemorates the conference of the European Academy of Forensic Science held in The Hague from August 20th to 24th 2012 and reflects the diversity and the scientific level

  6. Issues in Informal Education: Event-Based Science Communication Involving Planetaria and the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Gallagher, D. L.; Whitt, A.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For the last several years the Science Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center has carried out a diverse program of Internet-based science communication. The program includes extended stories about NASA science, a curriculum resource for teachers tied to national education standards, on-line activities for students, and webcasts of real-time events. The focus of sharing real-time science related events has been to involve and excite students and the public about science. Events have involved meteor showers, solar eclipses, natural very low frequency radio emissions, and amateur balloon flights. In some cases broadcasts accommodate active feedback and questions from Internet participants. Panel participation will be used to communicate the problems and lessons learned from these activities over the last three years.

  7. Dynamical networks: Finding, measuring, and tracking neural population activity using network science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Humphries

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Systems neuroscience is in a headlong rush to record from as many neurons at the same time as possible. As the brain computes and codes using neuron populations, it is hoped these data will uncover the fundamentals of neural computation. But with hundreds, thousands, or more simultaneously recorded neurons come the inescapable problems of visualizing, describing, and quantifying their interactions. Here I argue that network science provides a set of scalable, analytical tools that already solve these problems. By treating neurons as nodes and their interactions as links, a single network can visualize and describe an arbitrarily large recording. I show that with this description we can quantify the effects of manipulating a neural circuit, track changes in population dynamics over time, and quantitatively define theoretical concepts of neural populations such as cell assemblies. Using network science as a core part of analyzing population recordings will thus provide both qualitative and quantitative advances to our understanding of neural computation.

  8. For a reasoned development of experimental methods in information and communication sciences Some epistemological findings of methodological pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier COURBET

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available If multidisciplinarity is necessary, first, for studying the widest possible set of communication phenomena (organizational, in groups, interpersonal, media, computer-mediated communication... and, secondly, for grasping the complexity of the different moments of the same phenomenon of communication (production, content, reception, circulation ..., methodological pluralism is also important. However, French research in communication sciences leaves in the shade a number of phenomena and moments of communication that could be better understood thanks to the experimental method. We will underline that the epistemological issues related to rational use of the experimental method in communication sciences are not negligible: it allows the study of objects that cannot be investigated with other methods and offers the opportunity to build knowledge by the refutation of hypotheses and theoretical propositions. We will clarify some epistemological misunderstandings concerning this method. First, it is actually a method of studying complex systems and communication processes. Secondly, its use is not incompatible with constructivism.

  9. Plastics in the Ocean: Engaging Students in Core Competencies Through Issues-Based Activities in the Science Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson-Kolmes, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    Plastic pollution in the ocean is a critical issue. The high profile of this issue in the popular media makes it an opportune vehicle for promoting deeper understanding of the topic while also advancing student learning in the core competency areas identified in the NSF's Vision and Change document: integration of the process of science, quantitative reasoning, modeling and simulation, and an understanding of the relationship between science and society. This is a challenging task in an introductory non-majors class where the students may have very limited math skills and no prior science background. In this case activities are described that ask students to use an understanding of density to make predictions and test them as they consider the fate of different kinds of plastics in the marine environment. A comparison of the results from different sampling regimes introduces students to the difficulties of carrying out scientific investigations in the complex marine environment as well as building quantitative literacy skills. Activities that call on students to make connections between global issues of plastic pollution and personal actions include extraction of microplastic from personal care products, inventories of local plastic-recycling options and estimations of contributions to the waste stream on an individual level. This combination of hands-on-activities in an accessible context serves to help students appreciate the immediacy of the threat of plastic pollution and calls them to reflect on possible solutions.

  10. Scepticism and doubt in science and science education: the complexity of global warming as a socio-scientific issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Tom G. K.; Day, Stephen P.

    2014-09-01

    This article looks critically at the complexity of the debate among climate scientists; the controversies in the science of global temperature measurement; and at the role played by consensus. It highlights the conflicting perspectives figuring in the mass media concerned with climate change, arguing that science teachers should be familiar with them, particularly given the sharply contested views likely to be brought into classroom discussion and the importance of developing intellectual scepticism and robust scientific literacy in students. We distinguish between rational scepticism and the pejorative meaning of the expression associated with attitudinal opposition to global warming—similar to the way in which Bauer (2006) contrasts micro- scepticism and macro- scepticism in reasoning generally. And we look closely and critically at the approaches which teachers might adopt in practice to teach about global warming at this difficult time.

  11. Using a Family Science Day Event to Engage Youth in Climate Change Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, C.; Brevik, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    Each fall, Dickinson State University organizes four Family Science Day events for elementary-aged children to increase their engagement in the sciences. Offered on Saturday afternoons, each event focuses on a different science-related theme. Families can attend these events free of charge, and the kids participate in a large variety of hands-on activities which center around the event's theme. This year, the November event focused on climate change and the roles soil plays in the climate system. The timing of this topic was carefully chosen. 2015 has been declared the International Year of Soil by the United Nations, and the Soil Science Society of America theme for the month of November was Soils and Climate. This public outreach event was an amazing opportunity to help the youth in our community learn about climate change and soil in a fun, interactive environment. The activities also helped the children learn how science is a process of discovery that allows them to better understand the world they live in. In addition to the hands-on activities, a planetarium show focusing on climate change was also offered during the event. The fully immersive, 360-degree show allowed the kids and their parents to personally observe phenomena that are otherwise difficult to visualize. All of the activities at the Family Science Day event were staffed by university students, and this proved to be a very valuable experience for them as well. Some of the students who helped are majoring in a science field, and for them, the experience taught public communication. They learned to break complicated concepts down into simpler terms that young kids can understand. Education majors who participated practiced communicating science concepts to children, and students in other majors who helped with this event gained experiences that reinforced various concepts they had learned in their general education science courses.

  12. Issues in Informal Education: Event-Based Science Communication Involving Planetaria and the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M.; Gallagher, D. L.; Whitt, A.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    For the past four years the Science Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center has carried out a diverse program of science communication through the web resources on the Internet. The program includes extended stories about NAS.4 science, a curriculum resource for teachers tied to national education standards, on-line activities for students, and webcasts of real-time events. Events have involved meteor showers, solar eclipses, natural very low frequency radio emissions, and amateur balloon flights. In some cases broadcasts accommodate active feedback and questions from Internet participants. We give here, examples of events, problems, and lessons learned from these activities.

  13. Informed consent for exome sequencing research in families with genetic disease: the emerging issue of incidental findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, Amanda L; Bollinger, Juli; Raraigh, Karen S; Tichnell, Crystal; Murray, Brittney; Blout, Carrie Lynn; Telegrafi, Aida Bytyci; James, Cynthia A

    2014-11-01

    Genomic sequencing technology is increasingly used in genetic research. Studies of informed consent for exome and genome sequencing (ES/GS) research have largely involved hypothetical scenarios or healthy individuals enrolling in population-based studies. Studies have yet to explore the consent experiences of adults with inherited disease. We conducted a qualitative interview study of 15 adults recently enrolled in a large-scale ES/GS study (11 affected adults, four parents of affected children). Our study had two goals: (1) to explore three theoretical barriers to consent for ES/GS research (interpretive/technical complexity, possibility of incidental findings, and risks of loss of privacy); and (2) to explore how interviewees experienced the consent process. Interviewees could articulate study goals and processes, describe incidental findings, discuss risks of privacy loss, and reflect on their consent experience. Few expected the study would identify the genetic cause of their condition. All elected to receive incidental findings. Interviewees acknowledged paying little attention to potential implications of incidental findings in light of more pressing goals of supporting research regarding their own medical conditions. Interviewees suggested that experience living with a genetic condition prepared them to adjust to incidental findings. Interviewees also expressed little concern about loss of confidentiality of study data. Some experienced the consent process as very long. None desired reconsent prior to return of study results. Families with inherited disease likely would benefit from a consent process in which study risks and benefits were discussed in the context of prior experiences with genetic research and genetic disease. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Theme issue ;State-of-the-art in photogrammetry, remote sensing and spatial information science;

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heipke, Christian; Madden, Marguerite; Li, Zhilin; Dowman, Ian

    2016-05-01

    Over the past few years, photogrammetry, remote sensing and spatial information science have witnessed great changes in virtually every stage of information from imagery. Indeed, we have seen, for example, a sharply increased interest in unmanned aerial vehicles,

  15. Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuenzi, Jeffrey J; Matthews, Christine M; Mangan, Bonnie F

    2006-01-01

    There is growing concern that the United States is not preparing a sufficient number of students, teachers, and practitioners in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM...

  16. A Report to the President: Analytic Perspectives on the Science and Technology Issues Facing the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Initiatives CAROLINE WAGNER Research Planning and OSTP Coordination LISA SHELDONE Research Administration and Financial Management DAVID ADAMSON...Communications LISA NEUFELD Contract Administration and Financial Management REVIEWS FROM S&T POLICY INSTITUTE PROJECT SPONSORS “The Science & Technology Policy...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Science and Technology Policy Instituite , RAND, 1200 South Hayes St

  17. Controversy as a Blind Spot in Teaching Nature of Science. Why the Range of Different Positions Concerning Nature of Science Should Be an Issue in the Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, Mario; Hammann, Marcus

    2017-07-01

    In this article, the argument is put forth that controversies about the scope and limits of science should be considered in Nature of Science (NOS) teaching. Reference disciplines for teaching NOS are disciplines, which reflect upon science, like philosophy of science, history of science, and sociology of science. The culture of these disciplines is characterized by controversy rather than unified textbook knowledge. There is common agreement among educators of the arts and humanities that controversies in the reference disciplines should be represented in education. To teach NOS means to adopt a reflexive perspective on science. Therefore, we suggest that controversies within and between the reference disciplines are relevant for NOS teaching and not only the NOS but about NOS should be taught, too. We address the objections that teaching about NOS is irrelevant for real life and too demanding for students. First, we argue that science-reflexive meta-discourses are relevant for students as future citizens because the discourses occur publicly in the context of sociopolitical disputes. Second, we argue that it is in fact necessary to reduce the complexity of the above-mentioned discourses and that this is indeed possible, as it has been done with other reflexive elements in science education. In analogy to the German construct Bewertungskompetenz (which means the competency to make informed ethical decisions in scientific contexts), we suggest epistemic competency as a goal for NOS teaching. In order to do so, science-reflexive controversies must be simplified and attitudes toward science must be considered. Discourse on the scientific status of potential pseudoscience may serve as an authentic and relevant context for teaching the controversial nature of reflexion on science.

  18. New Sphragistic Finds from the Environs of Byzantine Cherson (to the iIssue of the Correspondence Addressees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A. Alekseenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest to the sigillographic artifacts found over the large areas adjacent to the chief administrative and economic centers of medieval Crimea currently allows to expand greatly the geographical map of the molybdoboulloi finds in this region. The topography of the finds in the areas surrounding Cherson had recently expanded significantly as well. Seals originating apparently from the settlements adjacent immediately to the ancient city, as well as from the places very remote from it became known. New finds of Byzantine seals (for instance, the seals of kommerkiarios Theodore, the end of the 6th century, of patrikios and genikos logothetes Petronas, the first half of the 9th century, of anthypatos, patrikios, imperial protospatharios and genikos logothetes Elissios, the second half of the 10th century, of (protospatharios and strategos of Cefalonia, of imperial protospatharios ™pr toà Crusotriklßnou and strategos of Cherson Theodore, the 10th – 11th centuries, as well as of protospatharios and strategos Joseph, with a sufficiently accurate localization of their origin provide new information about this sigillographic artifacts themselves, as well as clarify the geography of the Byzantine presence in the southwestern Taurica, particularly showing places yet poorly highlighted by other types of sources.

  19. Engaging Youth in Climate Change Issues with Family Science Day Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Corinne E.; Brevik, Eric C.; Steffan, Joshua J.

    2016-04-01

    Dickinson State University organizes four Family Science Day events each fall during the months of September, October, November, and December. Activities are geared toward elementary-aged children to increase student engagement in the sciences. Offered on Saturday afternoons, each event focuses on a different science-related theme. Families can attend these events free of charge, and the kids participate in a large variety of hands-on activities that center around the event's theme. This year, the November event focused on climate change, including an emphasis on the roles soil plays in the climate system. The timing of this topic was carefully chosen. 2015 has been declared the International Year of Soil by the United Nations, and the Soil Science Society of America theme for the month of November was Soils and Climate. This public outreach event was an amazing opportunity to help the youth in our community learn about climate change in a fun, interactive environment. Climate changes in the past, present, and future were emphasized. Activities including the Farming Game, painting with soils, taking Jello "cores", creating a cloud in a jar, and making a glacier in a bag helped children learn how science is a process of discovery that allows them to better understand the world they live in. In addition to the hands-on activities, a planetarium show focused on climate change was also offered during the event, surrounding the kids and their parents in a fully immersive, 360-degree show that allowed them to personally observe phenomena that are otherwise difficult to visualize. All of the activities at the Family Science Day event were staffed by university students, and this proved to be a very valuable experience for them as well. Some of the students who helped are majoring in a science field, and for them, the experience taught public communication. They learned to break complicated concepts down into simpler terms that young kids could understand. Education

  20. Evidence from the field: Findings on issues related to planning, implementing and evaluating gender-based programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Shelly; Randolph, Suzanne; Stokes, Shereitte; Winston, Stefanie

    2015-08-01

    An Initiative of the United States Department of Health and Human Services' Office on Women's Health (OWH), Coalition for a Healthier Community (CHC), supports ten grantees across the U.S. in the implementation of gender-based health interventions targeting women and girls. A national evaluation is assessing whether gender-focused public health systems approaches are sustainable and cost effective in addressing health disparities in women and girls. To inform the evaluation, a systematic examination was conducted of literature in both the public and private sector designed to track, assess, understand, and improve women's health, public health systems approaches, and the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of gender-based programs. A two-person team assured the quality of the results following the review of abstracts and full-text articles. Of 123 articles meeting eligibility criteria (See inclusion criteria described in Section 2.2 below), only 18 met inclusion criteria specific to a focus on a systems approach, cost-effectiveness and/or sustainability. Studies assessing systems approaches suggested their effectiveness in changing perceptions and increasing knowledge within a community; increasing involvement of local decision-makers and other community leaders in women's health issues; and increasing community capacity to address women and girls' health. Further evaluation of the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of gender-based approaches is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Where to find nutritional science journals on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C M

    1997-08-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) is a burgeoning information resource that can be utilized for current awareness and assistance in manuscript preparation and submission. The ever changing and expanding nature of the WWW allows it to provide up to the minute information, but this inherent changeability often makes information access difficult. To assist nutrition scientists in locating useful information about nutritional science journals on the WWW, this article critically reviews and describes the WWW sites for seventeen highly ranked nutrition and dietetics journals. Included in each annotation are the site's title, web address or Universal Resource Locator (URL), journal ranking and site authorship. Also listed is whether or not the site makes available the guidelines for authors, tables of contents, abstracts, online ordering, as well as information about the editorial board. This critical survey illustrates that the information on the web, regardless of its authority, is not of equal quality.

  2. Developing Character and Values for Global Citizens: Analysis of pre-service science teachers' moral reasoning on socioscientific issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunju; Chang, Hyunsook; Choi, Kyunghee; Kim, Sung-Won; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2012-04-01

    Character and values are the essential driving forces that serve as general guides or points of reference for individuals to support decision-making and to act responsibly about global socioscientific issues (SSIs). Based on this assumption, we investigated to what extent pre-service science teachers (PSTs) of South Korea possess character and values as global citizens; these values include ecological worldview, socioscientific accountability, and social and moral compassion. Eighteen PSTs participated in the SSI programs focusing on developing character and values through dialogical and reflective processes. SSIs were centered on the use of nuclear power generation, climate change, and embryonic stem cell research. The results indicated that PSTs showed three key elements of character and values, but failed to apply consistent moral principles on the issues and demonstrated limited global perspectives. While they tended to approach the issues with emotion and sympathy, they nonetheless failed to perceive themselves as major moral agents who are able to actively resolve large-scale societal issues. This study also suggests that the SSI programs can facilitate socioscientific reasoning to include abilities such as recognition of the complexity of SSIs, examine issues from multiple perspectives, and exhibit skepticism about information.

  3. The science of searching--how to find the evidence quickly and efficiently.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wallace, J

    2012-04-01

    One of the most common findings from health research is the failure to routinely translate research evidence into daily practice. Studies simply can\\'t guarantee the use of their findings. There is just too much research to keep track of and so a large gap develops between what is known and what is done. Evidence that should change practice is often ignored for years. The literature is constantly changing and when an answer to a clinical question is sought, it often comes from an out-of-date textbook. Remaining knowledgeable of current, relevant research is difficult. Consequently, the development of skills in searching electronic databases is vital for the up-to-date clinician.

  4. Women and Science: Issues and Resources [and] Women and Information Technology: A Selective Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searing, Susan, Comp.; Shult, Linda, Comp.

    Two bibliographies list over 120 books, journal articles, reference materials, statistical sources, organizations, and media relevant to women's roles in science and in information technology. The first bibliography emphasizes books, most of which were published in the late 1970's and the 1980's, that present a feminist critique of scientific…

  5. “Which Child Left Behind”: Historical Issues Regarding Equity in Science Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joy Cumming

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of learning plays a dominant role in formal education in the forms of determining features of curriculum that are emphasized, pedagogic methods that teachers use with their students, and parents’ and employers’ understanding of how well students have performed. A common perception is that fair assessment applies the same mode of assessment and content focus for all students—the approach of assessments in international comparative studies of science achievement. This article examines research evidence demonstrating that the act of assessment is not neutral—different forms of assessment advantage or disadvantage groups of students on the basis of family backgrounds, gender, race, or disability. Assessment that implicitly or explicitly captures the social capital of the child serves to consolidate, not address, educational equity. The article provides an overview of ways that science curriculum focus and assessment can introduce bias in the identification of student achievement. It examines the effect of changes to curriculum and assessment approaches in science, and relationships between assessment of science and the cultural context of the student. Recommendations are provided for science–assessment research to address bias for different groups of students.

  6. Literacy and Arts-Integrated Science Lessons Engage Urban Elementary Students in Exploring Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, P.; Elser, C. F.; Klein, J. L.; Rule, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    This descriptive case study examined student attitudes, writing skills and content knowledge of urban fourth and fifth graders (6 males, 9 female) during a six-week literacy, thinking skill, and art-integrated environmental science unit. Pre- and post-test questions were used to address knowledge of environmental problems and student environmental…

  7. Gender Issues in Education for Science and Technology: Current Situation and Prospects for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Sandra; Oatley, Keith

    1993-01-01

    Prevailing explanations for the underrepresentation of females in mathematics, science, and technology in school and the workplace are reviewed, and disadvantageous features of higher education and the workplace are discussed. Educational innovation in the area of gender equity is considered, and questions are raised for further research. (SLD)

  8. Science, Practitioners and Faith Communities: using TEK and Faith Knowledge to address climate issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, K.

    2017-12-01

    Worldview, Lifeway and Science - Communities that are tied to the land or water for their livelihood, and for whom subsistence guides their cultural lifeway, have knowledges that inform their interactions with the environment. These frameworks, sometimes called Traditional Ecological Knowledges (TEK), are based on generations of observations made and shared within lived life-environmental systems, and are tied to practitioners' broader worldviews. Subsistence communities, including Native American tribes, are well aware of the crises caused by climate change impacts. These communities are working on ways to integrate knowledge from their ancient ways with current observations and methods from Western science to implement appropriate adaptation and resilience measures. In the delta region of south Louisiana, the communities hold worldviews that blend TEK, climate science and faith-derived concepts. It is not incongruent for the communities to intertwine conversations from complex and diverse sources, including the academy, to inform their adaptation measures and their imagined solutions. Drawing on over twenty years of work with local communities, science organizations and faith institutions of the lower bayou region of Louisiana, the presenter will address the complexity of traditional communities' work with diverse sources of knowledge to guide local decision-making and to assist outside partners to more effectively address challenges associated with climate change.

  9. Conceptual issues of research methodology for the behavioural, life and social sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellenbergh, G.J.; Adèr, H.J.; Baird, D.; Berger, M.P.F.; Cornell, J.E.; Hagenaars, J.A.P.; Molenaar, P.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Research methodology (RM) must be clearly separated from substantive fields, such as medicine, psychology, education, sociology and economics, and, on the other side, from the philosophy of science and statistics. RM starts from substantive research problems and uses statistical knowledge, but it

  10. Facts or friction: the evolving role of science in phytosanitary issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Allen

    2008-01-01

    With the expansion of global trade, problems with invasive alien pests have also grown. In order to reduce the international movement of plant pests and protect valuable plant resources, national plant protection regulations and international standards continue to be developed. Science is critical to the development of effective national and international plant...

  11. Finding the way forward for forensic science in the US-A commentary on the PCAST report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evett, I W; Berger, C E H; Buckleton, J S; Champod, C; Jackson, G

    2017-09-01

    A recent report by the US President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), (2016) has made a number of recommendations for the future development of forensic science. Whereas we all agree that there is much need for change, we find that the PCAST report recommendations are founded on serious misunderstandings. We explain the traditional forensic paradigms of match and identification and the more recent foundation of the logical approach to evidence evaluation. This forms the groundwork for exposing many sources of confusion in the PCAST report. We explain how the notion of treating the scientist as a black box and the assignment of evidential weight through error rates is overly restrictive and misconceived. Our own view sees inferential logic, the development of calibrated knowledge and understanding of scientists as the core of the advance of the profession. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Does print size matter for reading? A review of findings from vision science and typography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Gordon E; Bigelow, Charles A

    2011-08-09

    The size and shape of printed symbols determine the legibility of text. In this paper, we focus on print size because of its crucial role in understanding reading performance and its significance in the history and contemporary practice of typography. We present evidence supporting the hypothesis that the distribution of print sizes in historical and contemporary publications falls within the psychophysically defined range of fluent print size--the range over which text can be read at maximum speed. The fluent range extends over a factor of 10 in angular print size (x-height) from approximately 0.2° to 2°. Assuming a standard reading distance of 40 cm (16 inches), the corresponding physical x-heights are 1.4 mm (4 points) and 14 mm (40 points). We provide new data on the distributions of print sizes in published books and newspapers and in typefounders' specimens, and consider factors influencing these distributions. We discuss theoretical concepts from vision science concerning visual size coding that help inform our understanding of historical and modern typographical practices. While economic, social, technological, and artistic factors influence type design and selection, we conclude that properties of human visual processing play a dominant role in constraining the distribution of print sizes in common use.

  13. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-15

    Jan 15, 2018 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Scienc. ISSN 1112-9867 ... (0.9623, 0.3857) and (0.9975, ity, temperature, CO, UVB and. 10 concentration. In by using ANN or Fit model. Research Article. Special Issue .... The EM algorithm is a simple computational implementation to find the posterior mode. Fig.

  14. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 4, commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document serves as a manual for a workshop on commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues. Areas covered include: An overview of the glass industry; Furnace design and construction practices; Melting furnace operation; Energy input methods and controls; Air legislation and regulations; Soda lime emission mechanisms; and, Post furnace emission controls. Supporting papers are also included

  15. Moral Schemas and Tacit Judgement or How the Defining Issues Test Is Supported by Cognitive Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez, Darcia; Bock, Tonia

    2002-01-01

    Discusses three core moral judgement ideas: (1) modern schema theory, (2) automatic decision-making frequency, and (3) implicit processes as the default mode of human information processing. Compares the Defining Issues Test (measures the beginnings of moral judgement) and the Lawrence Kohlberg Moral Judgement Interview (measures the highest level…

  16. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 4, commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document serves as a manual for a workshop on commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues. Areas covered include: An overview of the glass industry; Furnace design and construction practices; Melting furnace operation; Energy input methods and controls; Air legislation and regulations; Soda lime emission mechanisms; and, Post furnace emission controls. Supporting papers are also included.

  17. Enhancing Students' Communication Skills in the Science Classroom through Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yoonsook; Yoo, Jungsook; Kim, Sung-Won; Lee, Hyunju; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2016-01-01

    Communication skills are one of the most important competencies for 21st century global citizens. Our guiding presupposition was that socioscientific issues (SSIs) could be used as an effective pedagogical tool for promoting students' communication skills by increasing peer interactions, stimulating students' reasoning, and in constructing shared…

  18. Phase-change materials for non-volatile memory devices: from technological challenges to materials science issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noé, Pierre; Vallée, Christophe; Hippert, Françoise; Fillot, Frédéric; Raty, Jean-Yves

    2018-01-01

    Chalcogenide phase-change materials (PCMs), such as Ge-Sb-Te alloys, have shown outstanding properties, which has led to their successful use for a long time in optical memories (DVDs) and, recently, in non-volatile resistive memories. The latter, known as PCM memories or phase-change random access memories (PCRAMs), are the most promising candidates among emerging non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies to replace the current FLASH memories at CMOS technology nodes under 28 nm. Chalcogenide PCMs exhibit fast and reversible phase transformations between crystalline and amorphous states with very different transport and optical properties leading to a unique set of features for PCRAMs, such as fast programming, good cyclability, high scalability, multi-level storage capability, and good data retention. Nevertheless, PCM memory technology has to overcome several challenges to definitively invade the NVM market. In this review paper, we examine the main technological challenges that PCM memory technology must face and we illustrate how new memory architecture, innovative deposition methods, and PCM composition optimization can contribute to further improvements of this technology. In particular, we examine how to lower the programming currents and increase data retention. Scaling down PCM memories for large-scale integration means the incorporation of the PCM into more and more confined structures and raises materials science issues in order to understand interface and size effects on crystallization. Other materials science issues are related to the stability and ageing of the amorphous state of PCMs. The stability of the amorphous phase, which determines data retention in memory devices, can be increased by doping the PCM. Ageing of the amorphous phase leads to a large increase of the resistivity with time (resistance drift), which has up to now hindered the development of ultra-high multi-level storage devices. A review of the current understanding of all these

  19. Exploring Ivorian perspectives on the effectiveness of the current Ivorian science curriculum in addressing issues related to HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ado, Gustave Firmin

    School-based HIV/AIDS science education has the potential to impact students when integrated into the science curriculum. However, this mixed method study shows that school-based HIV/AIDS science education is often not infused into career subjects such as science education but integrated into civics education and taught by teachers who lack the skills, knowledge, and the training in the delivery of effective school HIV/AIDS education. Since science is where biological events take place, it is suggested that HIV/AIDS science merits being taught in the science education classroom. This study took place in nine public middle schools within two school districts in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, one major urban city in the southern region. The study utilized triangulation of multiple data sources---both qualitative and quantitative. To substantiate the claims made in this study, a range of qualitative methods such as field notes and individual interviews with 39 teachers, 63 sixth grade students, 8 school administrators, and 20 community elders were used. For the quantitative portion 140 teachers and 3510 sixth grade students were surveyed. The findings from the study prioritize science education that includes HIV/AIDS science education for all, with emphasis on HIV/AIDS prevention in Ivory Coast. The factors that influence the implementation of HIV/AIDS curricula within the Ivorian sixth grade classrooms are discussed. Interview and survey data from students, teachers, school administrators, and community elders indicate that in the Ivorian school setting, "gerontocratic" cultural influences, religious beliefs, personal cultural beliefs, and time spent toward the discourse on HIV/AIDS have led to HIV/AIDS education that is often insufficient to change either misconceptions about HIV/AIDS or risky practices. It was also found that approaches to teaching HIV/AIDS does not connect with youth cultures. By reframing and integrating current HIV/AIDS curricula into the science

  20. Library leadership as an issue in Norwegian Library and Information Science education

    OpenAIRE

    Landøy, Ane

    2016-01-01

    In this review of library leadership education given by the two main library schools in Norway, the Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences (HiOA) and University of Tromsø (UiT), the focus is on the perspective from the library school: Is library leadership something special, or is it similar to other kinds of leadership of public organisations. To what extent is it possible to infer something about the perspective from the course descriptions and the required reading lists?

  1. Geoethics and decision science issues in Japan's disaster management system: case study in the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Megumi

    2015-04-01

    The March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake and its tsunami killed 18,508 people, including the missing (National Police Agency report as of April 2014) and raise the Level 7 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station in Japan. The problems revealed can be viewed as due to a combination of risk-management, risk-communication, and geoethics issues. Japan's preparations for earthquakes and tsunamis are based on the magnitude of the anticipated earthquake for each region. The government organization coordinating the estimation of anticipated earthquakes is the "Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion" (HERP), which is under the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). Japan's disaster mitigation system is depicted schematically as consisting of three layers: seismology, civil engineering, and disaster mitigation planning. This research explains students in geoscience should study geoethics as part of their education related Tohoku earthquake and the Level 7 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. Only when they become practicing professionals, they will be faced with real geoethical dilemmas. A crisis such as the 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident, will force many geoscientists to suddenly confront previously unanticipated geoethics and risk-communication issues. One hopes that previous training will help them to make appropriate decisions under stress. We name it "decision science".

  2. Fostering implementation of health services research findings into practice: a consolidated framework for advancing implementation science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Jeffery A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many interventions found to be effective in health services research studies fail to translate into meaningful patient care outcomes across multiple contexts. Health services researchers recognize the need to evaluate not only summative outcomes but also formative outcomes to assess the extent to which implementation is effective in a specific setting, prolongs sustainability, and promotes dissemination into other settings. Many implementation theories have been published to help promote effective implementation. However, they overlap considerably in the constructs included in individual theories, and a comparison of theories reveals that each is missing important constructs included in other theories. In addition, terminology and definitions are not consistent across theories. We describe the Consolidated Framework For Implementation Research (CFIR that offers an overarching typology to promote implementation theory development and verification about what works where and why across multiple contexts. Methods We used a snowball sampling approach to identify published theories that were evaluated to identify constructs based on strength of conceptual or empirical support for influence on implementation, consistency in definitions, alignment with our own findings, and potential for measurement. We combined constructs across published theories that had different labels but were redundant or overlapping in definition, and we parsed apart constructs that conflated underlying concepts. Results The CFIR is composed of five major domains: intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, characteristics of the individuals involved, and the process of implementation. Eight constructs were identified related to the intervention (e.g., evidence strength and quality, four constructs were identified related to outer setting (e.g., patient needs and resources, 12 constructs were identified related to inner setting (e.g., culture

  3. Evaluation of Station Blackout accidents at nuclear power plants. Technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue A-44. Draft report for comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranowsky, P.W.

    1985-05-01

    ''Station Blackout,'' which is the complete loss of alternating current (ac) electrical power in a nuclear power plant, has been designated as Unresolved Safety Issue A-44. Because many safety systems required for reactor core decay heat removal and containment heat removal depend on ac power, the consequences of a station blackout could be severe. This report documents the findings of technical studies performed as part of the program to resolve this issue. The important factors analyzed include: the frequency of loss of offsite power; the probability that emergency or onsite ac power supplies would be unavailable; the capability and reliability of decay heat removal systems independent of ac power; and the likelihood that offsite power would be restored before systems that cannot operate for extended periods without ac power fail, thus resulting in core damage. This report also addresses effects of different designs, locations, and operational features on the estimated frequency of core damage resulting from station blackout events

  4. Just Roll with It? Rolling Volumes vs. Discrete Issues in Open Access Library and Information Science Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Cirasella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Articles in open access (OA journals can be published on a rolling basis, as they become ready, or in complete, discrete issues. This study examines the prevalence of and reasons for rolling volumes vs. discrete issues among scholarly OA library and information science (LIS journals based in the United States. METHODS A survey was distributed to journal editors, asking them about their publication model and their reasons for and satisfaction with that model. RESULTS Of the 21 responding journals, 12 publish in discrete issues, eight publish in rolling volumes, and one publishes in rolling volumes with an occasional special issue. Almost all editors, regardless of model, cited ease of workflow as a justification for their chosen publication model, suggesting that there is no single best workflow for all journals. However, while all rolling-volume editors reported being satisfied with their model, satisfaction was less universal among discrete-issue editors. DISCUSSION The unexpectedly high number of rolling-volume journals suggests that LIS journal editors are making forward-looking choices about publication models even though the topic has not been much addressed in the library literature. Further research is warranted; possibilities include expanding the study’s geographic scope, broadening the study to other disciplines, and investigating publication model trends across the entire scholarly OA universe. CONCLUSION Both because satisfaction is high among editors of rolling-volume journals and because readers and authors appreciate quick publication times, the rolling-volume model will likely become even more prevalent in coming years.

  5. Special issue on enabling open and interoperable access to Planetary Science and Heliophysics databases and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The large amount of data generated by modern space missions calls for a change of organization of data distribution and access procedures. Although long term archives exist for telescopic and space-borne observations, high-level functions need to be developed on top of these repositories to make Planetary Science and Heliophysics data more accessible and to favor interoperability. Results of simulations and reference laboratory data also need to be integrated to support and interpret the observations. Interoperable software and interfaces have recently been developed in many scientific domains. The Virtual Observatory (VO) interoperable standards developed for Astronomy by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) can be adapted to Planetary Sciences, as demonstrated by the VESPA (Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access) team within the Europlanet-H2020-RI project. Other communities have developed their own standards: GIS (Geographic Information System) for Earth and planetary surfaces tools, SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) for space plasma, PDS4 (NASA Planetary Data System, version 4) and IPDA (International Planetary Data Alliance) for planetary mission archives, etc, and an effort to make them interoperable altogether is starting, including automated workflows to process related data from different sources.

  6. 12th International Photovoltaic Science and Engineering Conference PVSEC-12. Special issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, C.M.; Smestad, G.; Chopra, K.L.; Roos, A.; Takakura, H. (eds.)

    2002-10-01

    The conference was attended by a broad cross-section of academic and industrial delegates. 345 papers were presented in total with the regional distribution being understandably dominated by Southeast Asian contributors. In this issue 69 papers are presented. The breakdown of all the papers by topic shows the general crystallising of research in the direction of thin film Si cells. Some 80+ papers were contributed on thin film Si, with the next largest topic being completed modules and power distribution systems. The other topics generally had about 30 contributions, these included H-VI, HIN/space applications, national programs, and fundamentals.

  7. Integrating Bioethics in Sciences’ curricula using values in science and socio-scientific issues

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, C.

    2017-01-01

    [EN] The The main objective of the present work is selection of ethical issues that should be addressed with first year undergraduate and K-12 students.Since K-12 Sciences’ curriculum, in Portugal, does not include bioethics content in any discipline explicitly, teachers need to make an effort to include it. Some online materials are available to use in high school classes and will be discussed.My proposal combines inquiry learning-teaching methods with the aim of promoting the discussion of ...

  8. Does Joint Fact-finding work for Water-energy-food Nexus Issues? A Role of Scientific Evidence in Policy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, K.

    2014-12-01

    A quite famous phrase in risk management "How safe is enough safe?" implies there exists a framing gap among experts, the general public and stakeholders. Scientific evidence that experts provide usually contains uncertainty, while the public tends to have the other type of qualitative local knowledge. As there is no zero-risk society, we have to build consensus on acceptable level of risk and trade-offs of risks based on expert knowledge and local knowledge. Therefore having a dialogue among them in the early stage of the policy process such as problem definition and agenda setting is essential to cultivate trust and to integrate their knowledge. To this end, we especially pay attention to Joint Fact-finding (JFF). The tentative definition of JFF is that a promising strategy for experts, decision makers, and key public rights-holders and stakeholders from opposing sides of an issue to work together to resolve or narrow factual disputes over public policy issues. JFF process usually begins with identifying stakeholders and holding interviews with them to determine their interests. We call this step stakeholder analysis. Then we define the scope of the study including the required scientific evidence and the preliminary list of experts. After that, stakeholders jointly select experts to participate in the study, then they work together on what they would like to clear about scientific evidence. They finally get the common understanding and findings through these collaboration. We applied the stakeholder analysis to the issue of groundwater in Obama City and the issues of hot spring water and geothermal power in Beppu City in Japan. We drew conclusions from these case studies to some extent but at the same time we found that the analysis method has a limitation in applying it to multiple nexus issues because the method based on stakeholders' cognition. For example, in Obama case, we identified a lack of cooperation among stakeholders that especially agricultural

  9. The Relationship of Science Knowledge, Attitude and Decision Making on Socio-Scientific Issues: The Case Study of Students' Debates on a Nuclear Power Plant in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jho, Hunkoog; Yoon, Hye-Gyoung; Kim, Mijung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of students' understanding of science knowledge, attitude and decision making on socio-scientific issues (SSI), especially on the issues of nuclear energy in Korea. SSI-focused instructions were developed to encourage students to understand and reflect on knowledge, attitude and…

  10. 23 science societies issue joint call for more federal research dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    In an unprecedented demonstration of unity, the leaders of 23 American scientific societies and umbrella organizations gathered on March 4 in Washington, D.C., to press the U.S. federal government for increased funding for scientific research and to make an investment in the nation's future. In a “Joint Statement on Scientific Research” addressed to President Bill Clinton and the Congress, the presidents of learned societies representing more than one million scientists, mathematicians, and engineers asked the government “to renew the nation's historical commitment to scientific research and education,” and to reverse the decline of federal investment in science and engineering. The American Geophysical Union was one of the signatories of the statement.

  11. Summary of the Geocarto International Special Issue on "NASA Earth Science Satellite Data for Applications to Public Health" to be Published in Early 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2013-01-01

    At the 2011 Applied Science Public Health review held in Santa Fe, NM, it was announced that Dr. Dale Quattrochi from the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, John Haynes, Program Manager for the Applied Sciences Public Health program at NASA Headquarters, and Sue Estes, Deputy Program Manager for the NASA Applied Sciences Public Health Program located at the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) at the National Space Science and Technology Center (NSSTC) in Huntsville, AL, would edit a special issue of the journal Geocarto International on "NASA Earth Science Satellite Data for Applications to Public Health". This issue would be focused on compiling research papers that use NASA Earth Science satellite data for applications to public health. NASA's Public Health Program concentrates on advancing the realization of societal and economic benefits from NASA Earth Science in the areas of infectious disease, emergency preparedness and response, and environmental health (e.g., air quality). This application area as a focus of the NASA Applied Sciences program, has engaged public health institutions and officials with research scientists in exploring new applications of Earth Science satellite data as an integral part of public health decision- and policy-making at the local, state and federal levels. Of interest to this special issue are papers submitted on are topics such as epidemiologic surveillance in the areas of infectious disease, environmental health, and emergency response and preparedness, national and international activities to improve skills, share data and applications, and broaden the range of users who apply Earth Science satellite data in public health decisions, or related focus areas.. This special issue has now been completed and will be published n early 2014. This talk will present an overview of the papers that will be published in this special Geocarto International issue.

  12. Engaging Elementary School Pre-service Teachers in Modeling a Socioscientific Issue as a Way to Help Them Appreciate the Social Aspects of Science

    OpenAIRE

    Evagorou, Maria; Puig Mauriz, Blanca

    2017-01-01

    Socioscientific issues are ill-structured problems that involve moral, ethical, and financial aspects, and lack clear-cut solutions. Teaching socioscientific issues necessarily puts a demand on teachers to draw on knowledge stemming from other domains, and to also appreciate, and present to the students the societal aspects of science. For new teachers, and those who have not tried integrating complex social issues into their instruction, SSI-based teaching may seem too great a hurdle to over...

  13. ICRP publication 60 how much science, how much judgement? reflections on a few different issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinhold, C.

    1998-01-01

    An important objective of the Commission is the provision of scientifically based recommendations that merit wide spread acceptance. In today's shrinking world, radiation protection is enhanced by '...consistency of aims and standards across a wide range of countries' (p234). This highly desirable international consistency requires the development of precise values for the primary and secondary recommendations such as the dose limits, the tissue weighting factors and the radiation weighting factors. The purpose of this paper is to examine these recommendations of the Commission in light of the rather widespread is understanding of these issues. The particular topics then are the nominal probability coefficients for stochastic effects, the dose limits, the radiation weighting factors and the tissue weighting factors particularly as they relate to the annual limits on intake

  14. Climate Change and Arctic Issues in the Marine and Environmental Science Curriculum at the U.S. Coast Guard Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlietstra, L.; McConnell, M. C.; Bergondo, D. L.; Mrakovcich, K. L.; Futch, V.; Stutzman, B. S.; Fleischmann, C. M.

    2016-02-01

    As global climate change becomes more evident, demand will likely increase for experts with a detailed understanding of the scientific basis of climate change, the ocean's role in the earth-atmosphere system, and forecasted impacts, especially in Arctic regions where effects may be most pronounced. As a result, programs in marine and environmental sciences are uniquely poised to prepare graduates for the formidable challenges posed by changing climates. Here we present research evaluating the prevalence and themes of courses focusing on anthropogenic climate change in 125 Marine Science and Environmental Science undergraduate programs at 86 institutions in the United States. These results, in addition to the increasing role of the Coast Guard in the Arctic, led to the development of two new courses in the curriculum. Climate Change Science, a one-credit seminar, includes several student-centered activities supporting key learning objectives. Polar Oceanography, a three-credit course, incorporates a major outreach component to Coast Guard units and members of the scientific community. Given the importance of climate change in Arctic regions in particular, we also propose six essential "Arctic Literacy Principles" around which courses or individual lesson plans may be organized. We show how these principles are incorporated into an additional new three-credit course, Model Arctic Council, which prepares students to participate in a week-long simulation exercise of Arctic Council meetings, held in Fairbanks, Alaska. Students examine the history and mission of the Arctic Council and explore some of the issues on which the council has deliberated. Special attention is paid to priorities of the current U.S. chairmanship of the Arctic Council which include climate change impacts on, and stewardship of, the Arctic Ocean.

  15. The issues that class teachers encounter during application of science and technology teaching curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ugras

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the challenges class teachers face in the curriculum implementation and whether these challenges differ in relation to teachers’ gender, level of education, department they graduated from and teaching experience. For this purpose; a questionnaire was developed by the researcher. Items of the questionnaire were selected from the related literature and validated by a group of expert in the field. A pilot study was conducted to assess the clarity of the questionnaire items. The internal reliability of the final version of questionnaire was calculated by using Cronbach’s Alpha Formula and found be high (α=0.85. The participants of this research included 342 class teachers who were teaching 4th and 5th class in 57 different elementary schools in 2010-2011 academic years in Bingol and Diayrbakir cities. The results of the survey were considered by using SPSS packet program. In the analyzing of data obtained from this study, frequency, arithmetic average, t-test and variance analysis were used. From the obtained data, it was determined that the 4th and 5th class teachers encounter different problems in science and technology teaching program, especially in performance homework, sourcing and lesson time topics.

  16. Models, validation, and applied geochemistry: Issues in science, communication, and philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk Nordstrom, D.

    2012-01-01

    Models have become so fashionable that many scientists and engineers cannot imagine working without them. The predominant use of computer codes to execute model calculations has blurred the distinction between code and model. The recent controversy regarding model validation has brought into question what we mean by a ‘model’ and by ‘validation.’ It has become apparent that the usual meaning of validation may be common in engineering practice and seems useful in legal practice but it is contrary to scientific practice and brings into question our understanding of science and how it can best be applied to such problems as hazardous waste characterization, remediation, and aqueous geochemistry in general. This review summarizes arguments against using the phrase model validation and examines efforts to validate models for high-level radioactive waste management and for permitting and monitoring open-pit mines. Part of the controversy comes from a misunderstanding of ‘prediction’ and the need to distinguish logical from temporal prediction. Another problem stems from the difference in the engineering approach contrasted with the scientific approach. The reductionist influence on the way we approach environmental investigations also limits our ability to model the interconnected nature of reality. Guidelines are proposed to improve our perceptions and proper utilization of models. Use of the word ‘validation’ is strongly discouraged when discussing model reliability.

  17. Longitudinal study of a cooperation-driven, socio-scientific issue intervention on promoting students' critical thinking and self-regulation in learning science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsin-Hui; Chen, Hsiang-Ting; Lin, Huann-shyang; Huang, Yu-Ning; Hong, Zuway-R.

    2017-10-01

    This longitudinal study explored the effects of a Cooperation-driven Socioscientific Issue (CDSSI) intervention on junior high school students' perceptions of critical thinking (CT) and self-regulation (SR) in Taiwan. Forty-nine grade 7 students were randomly selected as an experimental group (EG) to attend a 3-semester 72-hour intervention; while another 49 grade 7 students from the same school were randomly selected as the comparison group (CG). All participants completed a 4-wave student questionnaire to assess their perceptions of CT and SR. In addition, 8 target students from the EG with the lowest scores on either CT or SR were purposefully recruited for weekly observation. These target students and their teachers were interviewed one month after the intervention in each semester. Analyses of covariance and paired-wise t-tests revealed that the EG students' perceptions of CT and SR in learning science were improved during the study and were significantly better than their counterparts' at the end of the study. Systematic interview and classroom observation results were consistent with the quantitative findings. This study adds empirical evidence and provides insights into how CDSSI can be integrated into planning and implementing effective pedagogical strategies aimed at increasing students' perceptions of CT and SR in learning science.

  18. Engaging actively with issues in the responsible conduct of science: lessons from international efforts are relevant for undergraduate education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, John D; Connell, Nancy D; Dirks, Clarissa; El-Faham, Mohamed; Hay, Alastair; Heitman, Elizabeth; Stith, James H; Bond, Enriqueta C; Colwell, Rita R; Anestidou, Lida; Husbands, Jo L; Labov, Jay B

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies are demonstrating that engaging undergraduate students in original research can improve their achievement in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields and increase the likelihood that some of them will decide to pursue careers in these disciplines. Associated with this increased prominence of research in the undergraduate curriculum are greater expectations from funders, colleges, and universities that faculty mentors will help those students, along with their graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, develop an understanding and sense of personal and collective obligation for responsible conduct of science (RCS). This Feature describes an ongoing National Research Council (NRC) project and a recent report about educating faculty members in culturally diverse settings (Middle East/North Africa and Asia) to employ active-learning strategies to engage their students and colleagues deeply in issues related to RCS. The NRC report describes the first phase of this project, which took place in Aqaba and Amman, Jordan, in September 2012 and April 2013, respectively. Here we highlight the findings from that report and our subsequent experience with a similar interactive institute in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Our work provides insights and perspectives for faculty members in the United States as they engage undergraduate and graduate students, as well as postdoctoral fellows, to help them better understand the intricacies of and connections among various components of RCS. Further, our experiences can provide insights for those who may wish to establish "train-the-trainer" programs at their home institutions.

  19. The implementation of integrated science teaching materials based socio-scientific issues to improve students scientific literacy for environmental pollution theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenni, Rita; Hernani, Widodo, Ari

    2017-05-01

    The study aims to determine the increasing of students' science literacy skills on content aspects and competency of science by using Integrated Science teaching materials based Socio-scientific Issues (SSI) for environmental pollution theme. The method used in the study is quasi-experiment with nonequivalent pretest and posttest control group design. The students of experimental class used teaching materials based SSI, whereas the students of control class were still using the usual textbooks. The result of this study showed a significant difference between the value of N-gain of experimental class and control class, whichalso occurred in every indicator of content aspects and competency of science. This result indicates that using of Integrated Science teaching materials based SSI can improve content aspect and competency of science and can be used as teaching materials alternative in teaching of Integrated Science.

  20. Was Feyerabend a Popperian? Methodological issues in the History of the Philosophy of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collodel, Matteo

    2016-06-01

    For more than three decades, there has been significant debate about the relation between Feyerabend and Popper. The discussion has been nurtured and complicated by the rift that opened up between the two and by the later Feyerabend's controversial portrayal of his earlier self. The first part of the paper provides an overview of the accounts of the relation that have been proposed over the years, disentangles the problems they deal with, and analyses the evidence supporting their conclusions as well as the methodological approaches used to process that evidence. Rather than advancing a further speculative account of the relation based on Feyerabend's philosophical work or autobiographical recollections, the second part of the paper strives to clarify the problems at issue by making use of a wider range of evidence. It outlines a historical reconstruction of the social context within which Feyerabend's intellectual trajectory developed, putting a special emphasis on the interplay between the perceived intellectual identity of Feyerabend, Feyerabend's own intellectual self-concept, and the peculiar features of the evolving Popperian research group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Finding out about filling-in: a guide to perceptual completion for visual science and the philosophy of perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, L; Thompson, E; Noë, A

    1998-12-01

    In visual science the term filling-in is used in different ways, which often leads to confusion. This target article presents a taxonomy of perceptual completion phenomena to organize and clarify theoretical and empirical discussion. Examples of boundary completion (illusory contours) and featural completion (color, brightness, motion, texture, and depth) are examined, and single-cell studies relevant to filling-in are reviewed and assessed. Filling-in issues must be understood in relation to theoretical issues about neural-perceptual isomorphism and linking propositions. Six main conclusions are drawn: (1) visual filling-in comprises a multitude of different perceptual completion phenomena; (2) certain forms of visual completion seem to involve spatially propagating neural activity (neural filling-in) and so, contrary to Dennett's (1991; 1992) recent discussion of filling-in, cannot be described as results of the brain's "ignoring an absence" or "jumping to a conclusion"; (3) in certain cases perceptual completion seems to have measurable effects that depend on neural signals representing a presence rather than ignoring an absence; (4) neural filling-in does not imply either "analytic isomorphism" or "Cartesian materialism," and thus the notion of the bridge locus--a particular neural stage that forms the immediate substrate of perceptual experience--is problematic and should be abandoned; (5) to reject the representational conception of vision in favor of an "enactive" or "animate" conception reduces the importance of filling-in as a theoretical category in the explanation of vision; and (6) the evaluation of perceptual content should not be determined by "subpersonal" considerations about internal processing, but rather by considerations about the task of vision at the level of the animal or person interacting with the world.

  2. Electronics and telecommunications in Poland, issues and perspectives: Part II. Science, research, development, higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modelski, Józef; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2010-09-01

    important role of ET is combined with the existence in the society of an adequate infrastructure which recreates the full development cycle of high technology embracing: people, institutions, finances and logistics, in this also science, higher education, education, continuous training, dissemination and outreach, professional social environment, legal basis, political support and lobbying, innovation structures, applications, industry and economy. The digest of chosen development tendencies in ET was made here from the academic perspective, in a wider scale and on this background the national one, trying to situate this branch in the society, determine its changing role to build a new technical infrastructure of a society based on knowledge, a role of builder of many practical gadgets facilitating life, a role of a big future integrator of today's single bricks into certain more useful unity. This digest does not have a character of a systematic analysis of ET. It is a kind of an arbitrary utterance of the authors inside their field of competence. The aim of this paper is to take an active part in the discussion of the academic community in this country on the development strategy of ET, choice of priorities for cyclically rebuilding economy, in competitive environments. The review paper was initiated by the Committee of Electronics and Telecommunications of Polish Academy of Sciences and was published in Polish as introductory chapter of a dedicated expertise, printed in a book format. This version makes the included opinions available for a wider community.

  3. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics branch--interdisciplinary research for addressing complex natural resource issues across landscapes and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wilson, Juliette T.

    2013-01-01

    The Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center offers an interdisciplinary team of talented and creative scientists with expertise in biology, botany, ecology, geology, biogeochemistry, physical sciences, geographic information systems, and remote-sensing, for tackling complex questions about natural resources. As demand for natural resources increases, the issues facing natural resource managers, planners, policy makers, industry, and private landowners are increasing in spatial and temporal scope, often involving entire regions, multiple jurisdictions, and long timeframes. Needs for addressing these issues include (1) a better understanding of biotic and abiotic ecosystem components and their complex interactions; (2) the ability to easily monitor, assess, and visualize the spatially complex movements of animals, plants, water, and elements across highly variable landscapes; and (3) the techniques for accurately predicting both immediate and long-term responses of system components to natural and human-caused change. The overall objectives of our research are to provide the knowledge, tools, and techniques needed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, state agencies, and other stakeholders in their endeavors to meet the demand for natural resources while conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecosystem Dynamics scientists use field and laboratory research, data assimilation, and ecological modeling to understand ecosystem patterns, trends, and mechanistic processes. This information is used to predict the outcomes of changes imposed on species, habitats, landscapes, and climate across spatiotemporal scales. The products we develop include conceptual models to illustrate system structure and processes; regional baseline and integrated assessments; predictive spatial and mathematical models; literature syntheses; and frameworks or protocols for improved ecosystem monitoring, adaptive management, and program evaluation. The descriptions

  4. The attitudes of science policy, environmental, and utility leaders on U.S. Energy issues and fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. D.

    1988-03-01

    This paper examines the awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and policy preferences of a national sampling of leaders from the science policy, environmental, and utility fields, and of congressional science staff members. Several conclusions emerge: First, a substantial segment of those polled already have some familiarity with the full range of issues about current energy policy. More specifically, there is also a substantial portion of the leaders who believe they have an understanding of the fusion process and who hold the expectation that fusion-based energy technology will be the primary source of electrical power fifty years from now. In this regard, then, we may conclude that there already exists a foundation or basis upon which policy leaders may build an expanded and improved understanding of general energy issues, and of the fusion process and related technologies. Second, the policy attitudes and orientations of the leaders appear to be positive. Utility leaders show a great deal of enthusiasm for the future prospects of fusion-based energy technologies, as do most science policy leaders. There is discernibly less enthusiasm among environmental leaders and the congressional science staff about long term prospects for fusion-based systems, but even among these groups there is still substantial support. Among all of the groups, there is a recognition that fossil fuel resources are finite and that it is imperative to plan now for the time when those resources will be gone or severely limited. In broad terms, there is already a forward looking perspective in regard to energy policy. Third, following a pattern similar to that found in regard to biotechnology, science policy and environmental organization leaders appear to rely heavily on printed media and to focus their trust and confidence on a small number of distinguished publications. We observe a two-step information process. In the first step, leaders use science magazines, news magazines, newspapers, and

  5. Finding a Way out of a Corner: Reply to Comments on “Climate Science in a Postmodern World”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verosub, Kenneth L.

    2011-04-01

    It was never my intention to claim that postmodernism was the explanation for the climate change debate. Rather, I was trying to provide a somewhat different perspective on this controversial topic in hopes of broadening the discussion and lowering the volume. I am well aware of the scenario that Hapke lays out; in fact, one could describe similar scenarios for other issues where science intersects with public policy and where people hold strong opinions, such as evolution and creationism, the development of new energy resources, and the safety of genetically modified organisms. The key statement in Hapke's comment is that “similar messages are being heard daily by millions of people, and…[apparently] many believe them.” What we as scientists have not done but need to do is gain a better understanding of why so many people believe these messages. Only then will we be able to figure out an effective response to them. My observation about the pervasiveness of postmodernism in modern society was meant to be a small contribution toward gaining that understanding.

  6. The Science and Issues of Human DNA Polymoprhisms: A Training Workshop for High School Biology Teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David. A Micklos

    2006-10-30

    This project achieved its goal of implementing a nationwide training program to introduce high school biology teachers to the key uses and societal implications of human DNA polymorphisms. The 2.5-day workshop introduced high school biology faculty to a laboratory-based unit on human DNA polymorphisms – which provides a uniquely personal perspective on the science and Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. As proposed, 12 workshops were conducted at venues across the United States. The workshops were attended by 256 high school faculty, exceeding proposed attendance of 240 by 7%. Each workshop mixed theoretical, laboratory, and computer work with practical and ethical implications. Program participants learned simplified lab techniques for amplifying three types of chromosomal polymorphisms: an Alu insertion (PV92), a VNTR (pMCT118/D1S80), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mitochondrial control region. These polymorphisms illustrate the use of DNA variations in disease diagnosis, forensic biology, and identity testing - and provide a starting point for discussing the uses and potential abuses of genetic technology. Participants also learned how to use their Alu and mitochondrial data as an entrée to human population genetics and evolution. Our work to simplify lab techniques for amplifying human DNA polymorphisms in educational settings culminated with the release in 1998 of three Advanced Technology (AT) PCR kits by Carolina Biological Supply Company, the nation’s oldest educational science supplier. The kits use a simple 30-minute method to isolate template DNA from hair sheaths or buccal cells and streamlined PCR chemistry based on Pharmacia Ready-To-Go Beads, which incorporate Taq polymerase, deoxynucleotide triphosphates, and buffer in a freeze-dried pellet. These kits have greatly simplified teacher implementation of human PCR labs, and their use is growing at a rapid pace. Sales of human polymorphism

  7. The Science and Issues of Human DNA Polymorphisms: A Training Workshop for High School Biology Teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micklos, David A.

    2006-10-30

    This project achieved its goal of implementing a nationwide training program to introduce high school biology teachers to the key uses and societal implications of human DNA polymorphisms. The 2.5-day workshop introduced high school biology faculty to a laboratory-based unit on human DNA polymorphisms â which provides a uniquely personal perspective on the science and Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. As proposed, 12 workshops were conducted at venues across the United States. The workshops were attended by 256 high school faculty, exceeding proposed attendance of 240 by 7%. Each workshop mixed theoretical, laboratory, and computer work with practical and ethical implications. Program participants learned simplified lab techniques for amplifying three types of chromosomal polymorphisms: an Alu insertion (PV92), a VNTR (pMCT118/D1S80), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mitochondrial control region. These polymorphisms illustrate the use of DNA variations in disease diagnosis, forensic biology, and identity testing - and provide a starting point for discussing the uses and potential abuses of genetic technology. Participants also learned how to use their Alu and mitochondrial data as an entrée to human population genetics and evolution. Our work to simplify lab techniques for amplifying human DNA polymorphisms in educational settings culminated with the release in 1998 of three Advanced Technology (AT) PCR kits by Carolina Biological Supply Company, the nationâÂÂs oldest educational science supplier. The kits use a simple 30-minute method to isolate template DNA from hair sheaths or buccal cells and streamlined PCR chemistry based on Pharmacia Ready-To-Go Beads, which incorporate Taq polymerase, deoxynucleotide triphosphates, and buffer in a freeze-dried pellet. These kits have greatly simplified teacher implementation of human PCR labs, and their use is growing at a rapid pace. Sales of human

  8. Erratum to JEMS (Journal of ETA Maritime Science, Volume 4, Issue 2 (2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    .

    2016-09-01

    ., Zhang F., Huang Y., Zhao C. (2014. Determination of TDC in a hydraulic free-piston engine by a novel approach. Applied Thermal Engineering, 70:524-530. [12] Pipitone E., Beccari A. (2010. Determination of TDC in internal combustion engines by a newly developed thermodynamic approach. Applied Thermal Engineering, 30:1914-1926. [13] Pipitone E., Beccari A., Beccari S. (2007. The Experimental Validation of a New Thermodynamic Method for TDC Determination. SAE Paper:2007-24-0052. [14] Miao R., Li J., Shi L., Deng K. (2013. Study of Top Dead Center Measurement and Correction Method in a Diesel Engine, Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 6(6:1101-1105. [15] ISO 3046-1:2002 (2008. Reciprocating internal combustion engines-Performance, Part 1: Declarations of power, fuel and lubricating oil consumptions, and test methods - Additional requirements for engines for general use. The editorial board of JEMS apologizes for any inconvenience that may result from this oversight.

  9. The attitudes of science policy, environmental, and utility leaders on US energy issues and fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    One example of basic and applied research at LLNL that has produced major, highly visible scientific and engineering advances has been the research related to controlled fusion energy. Continuing experimentation at LLNL and elsewhere is likely to demonstrate that fusion is a viable, inexhaustible alternative source of energy. Having conducted major fusion energy experiments for over 30 years at LLNL, it scientists and engineers recognized the enormous challenges that lay ahead in this important endeavor. To be successful, it was clear that collaborative efforts with universities, private industry, and other national laboratories would need to be greatly expanded. Along with invention and scientific discovery would come the challenge of transferring the myriad of new technologies from the laboratories to the private sector for commercialization of the fusion energy process and the application of related technologies to yet unimagined new industries and products. Therefore, using fusion energy research as the focus, the Laboratory's Technology Transfer Initiatives Program contracted with the Public Opinion Laboratory to conduct a survey designed to promote a better understanding of effective technology transfer. As one of the recognized authorities on scientific surveys, Dr. Jon Miller of the POL worked with Laboratory scientists to understand the objectives of the survey. He then formulated the questions, designed the survey, and derived his survey sample from a qualified list developed at the POL, which has formed the basis for other survey panels. This report, prepared by Dr. Miller, describes the basis and methodology of this survey process and then presents the survey findings and some conclusions. 12 refs., 28 tabs

  10. Performance measurement in healthcare: part II--state of the science findings by stage of the performance measurement process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Carol E; Simpson, Elizabeth; Casebeer, Ann L; Birdsell, Judith M; Hayden, Katharine A; Lewis, Steven

    2006-07-01

    This paper summarizes findings of a comprehensive, systematic review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature on performance measurement according to each stage of the performance measurement process--conceptualization, selection and development, data collection, and reporting and use. It also outlines implications for practice. Six hundred sixty-four articles about organizational performance measurement from the health and business literature were reviewed after systematic searches of the literature, multi-rater relevancy ratings, citation checks and expert author nominations. Key themes were extracted and summarized from the most highly rated papers for each performance measurement stage. Despite a virtually universal consensus on the potential benefits of performance measurement, little evidence currently exists to guide practice in healthcare. Issues in conceptualizing systems include strategic alignment and scope. There are debates on the criteria for selecting measures and on the types and quality of measures. Implementation of data collection and analysis systems is complex and costly, and challenges persist in reporting results, preventing unintended effects and putting findings for improvement into action. There is a need for further development and refinement of performance measures and measurement systems, with a particular focus on strategies to ensure that performance measurement leads to healthcare improvement.

  11. Finding people who will tell you their thoughts on genomics-recruitment strategies for social sciences research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, A; Bragin, E; Parker, M

    2014-10-01

    This paper offers a description of how social media, traditional media and direct invitation were used as tools for the recruitment of 6,944 research participants for a social sciences study on genomics. The remit was to gather the views of various stakeholders towards sharing incidental findings from whole genome studies. This involved recruiting members of the public, genetic health professionals, genomic researchers and non-genetic health professionals. A novel survey was designed that contained ten integrated films; this was made available online and open for completion by anyone worldwide. The recruitment methods are described together with the convenience and snowballing sampling framework. The most successful strategy involved the utilisation of social media; Facebook, Blogging, Twitter, LinkedIn and Google Ads led to the ascertainment of over 75 % of the final sample. We conclude that the strategies used were successful in recruiting in eclectic mix of appropriate participants. Design of the survey and results from the study are presented separately.

  12. But science is international! Finding time and space to encourage intercultural learning in a content-driven physiology unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherington, Sarah J

    2014-06-01

    Internationalization of the curriculum is central to the strategic direction of many modern universities and has widespread benefits for student learning. However, these clear aspirations for internationalization of the curriculum have not been widely translated into more internationalized course content and teaching methods in the classroom, particularly in scientific disciplines. This study addressed one major challenge to promoting intercultural competence among undergraduate science students: finding time to scaffold such learning within the context of content-heavy, time-poor units. Small changes to enhance global and intercultural awareness were incorporated into existing assessments and teaching activities within a second-year biomedical physiology unit. Interventions were designed to start a conversation about global and intercultural perspectives on physiology, to embed the development of global awareness into the assessment and to promote cultural exchanges through peer interactions. In student surveys, 40% of domestic and 60% of international student respondents articulated specific learning about interactions in cross-cultural groups resulting from unit activities. Many students also identified specific examples of how cultural beliefs would impact on the place of biomedical physiology within the global community. In addition, staff observed more widespread benefits for student engagement and learning. It is concluded that a significant development of intercultural awareness and a more global perspective on scientific understanding can be supported among undergraduates with relatively modest, easy to implement adaptations to course content.

  13. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems for Mars Exploration: Issues and Concerns for Planetary Protection and the Protection of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Lange, Kevin; Anderson, Molly; Vonau, Walter

    2016-07-01

    Planetary protection represents an additional set of requirements that generally have not been considered by developers of technologies for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). Forward contamination concerns will affect release of gases and discharge of liquids and solids, including what may be left behind after planetary vehicles are abandoned upon return to Earth. A crew of four using a state of the art ECLSS could generate as much as 4.3 metric tons of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes and trash during a 500-day surface stay. These may present issues and concerns for both planetary protection and planetary science. Certainly, further closure of ECLSS systems will be of benefit by greater reuse of consumable products and reduced generation of waste products. It can be presumed that planetary protection will affect technology development by constraining how technologies can operate: limiting or prohibiting certain kinds of operations or processes (e.g. venting); necessitating that other kinds of operations be performed (e.g. sterilization; filtration of vent lines); prohibiting what can be brought on a mission (e.g. extremophiles); creating needs for new capabilities/ technologies (e.g. containment). Although any planned venting could include filtration to eliminate micro-organisms from inadvertently exiting the spacecraft, it may be impossible to eliminate or filter habitat structural leakage. Filtration will add pressure drops impacting size of lines and ducts, affect fan size and energy requirements, and add consumable mass. Technologies that may be employed to remove biomarkers and microbial contamination from liquid and solid wastes prior to storage or release may include mineralization technologies such as incineration, super critical wet oxidation and pyrolysis. These technologies, however, come with significant penalties for mass, power and consumables. This paper will estimate the nature and amounts of materials generated during Mars

  14. How Partners are Producing Science and Addressing Issues of Scale for Springs Management in the Desert Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G.; Springer, A. E.; Misztal, L.; Grabau, M.

    2017-12-01

    Climate changes in the arid Southwest are expected to further stress critical water sources, such as springs, in the near future. Springs are abundant features in the Southwest, providing habitat for listed species and water for wildlife, agricultural, cities, recreation, and the base flow for many rivers. But springs occupy a small fraction of the land area and, as a result, they have not been significantly studied or mapped. Managers recognize that effective stewardship of these critical resources requires a landscape-scale understanding of distribution, ecological integrity, and risks; access to comprehensive inventory, assessment and restoration protocols; and local implementation. They need easy access to information at varying scales to respond to stressors like climate change. The Desert Landscape Conservation Cooperative, Sky Island Alliance, and Springs Stewardship Institute worked with scientists, resource managers, and conservationists to develop and increase access to data by involving them in the entire research process through field surveys, workshops, trainings, and development of products needed to solve critical management challenges. We built on and connected existing efforts underway in the Southwest, including developing: 1) Springs Inventory Protocol, 2) an online geospatial database, 3) methodologies for climate-savvy monitoring and 4) a springs restoration handbook. We also worked with partners to evaluate the condition and risk of springs' resources at the local scale to create products used in site-specific management planning. Our results indicate that coproduction resulted in more understanding of common issues, more focus on solving management challenges, and increased use of the science and protocols produced. Information developed through this project assists managers in understanding how their springs contribute at local and landscape scales. New information developed through this project is being used in support of planning and

  15. Exploring Ivorian Perspectives on the Effectiveness of the Current Ivorian Science Curriculum in Addressing Issues Related to HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ado, Gustave Firmin

    2014-01-01

    School-based HIV/AIDS science education has the potential to impact students when integrated into the science curriculum. However, this mixed method study shows that school-based HIV/AIDS science education is often not infused into career subjects such as science education but integrated into civics education and taught by teachers who lack the…

  16. Assessment of MRI issues at 3-Tesla for metallic surgical implants: findings applied to 61 additional skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Amreeta; Shellock, Frank G

    2012-01-09

    Metallic skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips should be tested at 3-Tesla to characterize MRI issues in order to ensure patient safety. Therefore, metallic surgical implants were assessed at 3-Tesla for magnetic field interactions, MRI-related heating, and artifacts. A skin closure staple (Visistat Skin Stapler, staple, Polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, coated 316L/316LVM stainless steel; Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC) and a vessel ligation clip (Hemoclip Traditional, stainless steel; Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC) that represented the largest metallic sizes made from materials with the highest magnetic susceptibilities (i.e., based on material information) among 61 other surgical implants (52 metallic implants, 9 nonmetallic implants) underwent evaluation for magnetic field interactions, MRI-related heating, and artifacts using standardized techniques. MRI-related heating was assessed by placing each implant in a gelled-saline-filled phantom with MRI performed using a transmit/receive RF body coil at an MR system reported, whole body averaged SAR of 2.9-W/kg for 15-min. Artifacts were characterized using T1-weighted, SE and GRE pulse sequences. Each surgical implant showed minor magnetic field interactions (20- and 27-degrees, which is acceptable from a safety consideration). Heating was not substantial (highest temperature change, ≤ 1.6°C). Artifacts may create issues if the area of interest is in the same area or close to the respective surgical implant. The results demonstrated that it would be acceptable for patients with these metallic surgical implants to undergo MRI at 3-Tesla or less. Because of the materials and dimensions of the surgical implants that underwent testing, these findings pertain to 61 additional similar implants.

  17. Assessment of MRI issues at 3-Tesla for metallic surgical implants: findings applied to 61 additional skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Amreeta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Metallic skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips should be tested at 3-Tesla to characterize MRI issues in order to ensure patient safety. Therefore, metallic surgical implants were assessed at 3-Tesla for magnetic field interactions, MRI-related heating, and artifacts. Methods A skin closure staple (Visistat Skin Stapler, staple, Polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, coated 316L/316LVM stainless steel; Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC and a vessel ligation clip (Hemoclip Traditional, stainless steel; Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC that represented the largest metallic sizes made from materials with the highest magnetic susceptibilities (i.e., based on material information among 61 other surgical implants (52 metallic implants, 9 nonmetallic implants underwent evaluation for magnetic field interactions, MRI-related heating, and artifacts using standardized techniques. MRI-related heating was assessed by placing each implant in a gelled-saline-filled phantom with MRI performed using a transmit/receive RF body coil at an MR system reported, whole body averaged SAR of 2.9-W/kg for 15-min. Artifacts were characterized using T1-weighted, SE and GRE pulse sequences. Results Each surgical implant showed minor magnetic field interactions (20- and 27-degrees, which is acceptable from a safety consideration. Heating was not substantial (highest temperature change, ≤ 1.6°C. Artifacts may create issues if the area of interest is in the same area or close to the respective surgical implant. Conclusions The results demonstrated that it would be acceptable for patients with these metallic surgical implants to undergo MRI at 3-Tesla or less. Because of the materials and dimensions of the surgical implants that underwent testing, these findings pertain to 61 additional similar implants.

  18. Assessment of MRI issues at 3-Tesla for metallic surgical implants: findings applied to 61 additional skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Metallic skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips should be tested at 3-Tesla to characterize MRI issues in order to ensure patient safety. Therefore, metallic surgical implants were assessed at 3-Tesla for magnetic field interactions, MRI-related heating, and artifacts. Methods A skin closure staple (Visistat Skin Stapler, staple, Polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, coated 316L/316LVM stainless steel; Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC) and a vessel ligation clip (Hemoclip Traditional, stainless steel; Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC) that represented the largest metallic sizes made from materials with the highest magnetic susceptibilities (i.e., based on material information) among 61 other surgical implants (52 metallic implants, 9 nonmetallic implants) underwent evaluation for magnetic field interactions, MRI-related heating, and artifacts using standardized techniques. MRI-related heating was assessed by placing each implant in a gelled-saline-filled phantom with MRI performed using a transmit/receive RF body coil at an MR system reported, whole body averaged SAR of 2.9-W/kg for 15-min. Artifacts were characterized using T1-weighted, SE and GRE pulse sequences. Results Each surgical implant showed minor magnetic field interactions (20- and 27-degrees, which is acceptable from a safety consideration). Heating was not substantial (highest temperature change, ≤ 1.6°C). Artifacts may create issues if the area of interest is in the same area or close to the respective surgical implant. Conclusions The results demonstrated that it would be acceptable for patients with these metallic surgical implants to undergo MRI at 3-Tesla or less. Because of the materials and dimensions of the surgical implants that underwent testing, these findings pertain to 61 additional similar implants. PMID:22230200

  19. Science Smiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Science Smiles. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 4 April 1996 pp 4-4 Science Smiles. Chief Editor's column / Science Smiles · R K Laxman · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 3-3 Science Smiles.

  20. Students' understandings of nature of science and their arguments in the context of four socio-scientific issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khishfe, Rola; Alshaya, Fahad S.; BouJaoude, Saouma; Mansour, Nasser; Alrudiyan, Khalid I.

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine students understandings about nature of science (NOS) and their arguments in context of controversial socio-scientific issue (SSI). A total of 74 11th graders in six schools in Saudi Arabia participated in the study. The instrument used was a questionnaire consisting of four scenarios addressing SSI about global warming, genetically modified food, acid rain, and human cloning. The scenarios were followed by questions relating to argumentation and NOS. Quantitative and qualitative measures were employed to analyze the data related to participants understandings of three NOS aspects (subjective, tentative, and empirical) and their arguments components (argument, counterargument, and rebuttal). Results showed no significant correlations between argument components and the NOS aspects. On the other hand, qualitative data showed that participants who generated well-developed arguments across the four SSI also exhibited more informed understandings of the NOS aspects, especially for female participants. Further, the chi-square analyses did not show significant differences in participants arguments and NOS understandings across the four scenarios. Again, the qualitative data from questionnaires showed differences in participants responses to the different scenarios. The results were interpreted along contextual factors, emotional factors, and cultural factors. Implications for the teaching of NOS and arguments were discussed.

  1. Challenging the One-Way Paradigm for More Effective Science Communication: A Critical Review of Two Public Campaigns Addressing Contentious Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntee, Marie; Mortimer, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This article examines two large-scale public communication campaigns to explore the appropriateness and effectiveness of using one-way communication in contentious environmental issues. The findings show while one-way communication can be successfully employed in contentious issues, it is not appropriate for all contexts and may contribute to…

  2. The Effects of Classroom Instructional Strategies on Science Achievement of Elementary-School Students in Japan: Findings from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, J. Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). TIMSS has provided a comprehensive assessment of educational contexts and mathematics and science achievement (National Research Council, 1999). The initial TIMSS assessment was conducted in 1995 (TIMSS 1995) and several studies have examined factors related to…

  3. Finding Relevance, Competence, and Enjoyment: The Development of Domain Identification and Interest in First-Year Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Chloe

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how first-year college students perceive their development of domain identification with, and interest in, their prospective science major during their initial year of college. Four themes emerged from the coding and analysis of interviews with eight first-year science students: Self-Definition…

  4. Attitudes toward Science among Grades 3 through 12 Arab Students in Qatar: Findings from a Cross-Sectional National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Ziad; Summers, Ryan; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Wang, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed students' attitudes toward science in Qatar. A cross-sectional, nationwide probability sample representing all students enrolled in grades 3 through 12 in the various types of schools in Qatar completed the "Arabic Speaking Students' Attitudes toward Science Survey" (ASSASS). The validity and reliability of the…

  5. Development, Implementation, and Outcomes of an Equitable Computer Science After-School Program: Findings from Middle-School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouza, Chrystalla; Marzocchi, Alison; Pan, Yi-Cheng; Pollock, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Current policy efforts that seek to improve learning in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) emphasize the importance of helping all students acquire concepts and tools from computer science that help them analyze and develop solutions to everyday problems. These goals have been generally described in the literature under the…

  6. Philosophical Issues in Educational Research: Is There Room for Truth in the Soft Sciences? Research Seminar and Workshop Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D. C.

    Many in the research community no longer believe that a naturalistic social science is possible. A social science based on the model of the physical sciences seems unattainable. Relativistic views are becoming common; it is often said that what is true depends on what different theoretical frameworks will be confronted by different realities. A…

  7. Behavioral and Social Sciences at the National Institutes of Health: adoption of research findings in health research and practice as a scientific priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, William T

    2017-06-01

    The National Institutes of Health's Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) recently released its Strategic Plan for 2017 to 2021. This plan highlights three scientific priorities: (1) improve the synergy of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences research, (2) enhance and promote the research infrastructure, methods, and measures needed to support a more cumulative and integrated approach to behavioral and social sciences research, and (3) facilitate the adoption of behavioral and social sciences research findings in health research and in practice. This commentary focuses on the challenges and opportunities to facilitate the adoption of research findings in health research and in practice. In addition to the ongoing NIH support for dissemination and implementation (D&I) research, we must address transformative challenges and opportunities such as better disseminating and implementing D&I research, merging research and practice, adopting more rigorous and diverse methods and measures for both D&I and clinical trials research, evaluating technological-based delivery of interventions, and transitioning from minimally adaptable intervention packages to planned adaptations rooted in behavior change principles. Beyond translation into practice and policy, the OBSSR Strategic Plan also highlights the need for translation of behavioral and social science findings into the broader biomedical research enterprise.

  8. Mainstream Issues of Education and Public Awareness of Space Activities and Sciences among universities and Scientific Institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balbir

    This paper is an effort to study and analyze several constraints and issues of space technology and education that organizations other than governmental organizations face in awareness program. In recent years, advancements in technologies have made it possible for Volunteer and Technical Communities, non-government organizations, private agencies and academic research institutions to provide increasing support to space education management and emphasis on response efforts. Important cornerstones of this effort and support are the possibility to access and take advantage of satellite imagery as well as the use of other space-based technologies such as telecommunications satellites and global navigation satellite systems included in main curriculum plus the implementation of programs for use of high class sophisticated technologies used by industries to the students and researchers of non-space faring nations. The authors recognize the importance of such new methodologies for education and public Awareness. This paper demonstrates many hurdles universities and scientific institutions face including lack of access in terms of financial and technical resources for better support. A new model for coordinated private sector partnership in response to space sciences and education has been discussed. In depth analysis and techniques need to connect these pioneering communities with the space industry as well as the space governmental agencies, with special emphasis on financial constraints. The paper mandates its role to promote the use of space-based information; its established networks bringing together national institutions responsible for these space based activities, as well as other end users, and space solution experts; and its technical foundation, particularly in the area of information technologies. To help building a tighter cooperation and further understanding among all these communities, paper delivers an intensive report and solutions for future

  9. Adults' decision-making about the electronic waste issue: The role of the nature of science conceptualizations and moral concerns in socio-scientific decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuqing

    Socio-scientific issues have become increasingly important in Science-Technology-Society (STS) education as a means to make science learning more relevant to students' lives. This study used the e-waste issue as a context to investigate two aspects of socio-scientific decision-making: (1) the relationship between the nature of science (NOS) conceptualizations and decision-making; and (2) moral concerns involved in the process of decision-making. This study contributes to the field of socio-scientific issue research and STS education in the following ways. First, it is the first study that performed meta-analysis to seek the relationship between the NOS understanding and decision-making. This study concludes that valuable NOS conceptualizations that are highly related to the socio-scientific issue under investigation, rather than general NOS understanding, exert statistically significant influences on decision-making. Second, this study empirically examined the Multiple Responses Model (MRM), which enables the transfer of qualitative NOS responses into quantitative data, and hence, inferential statistics. The current study justifies the significance of unidimensionality to the application of the MRM. It addresses the limitations associated with the MRM and provides implications for future use of the MRM in other contexts. Finally, the study explores the role of moral concerns in socio-scientific decision-making. Eight participants engaged in interviews that were designed to elicit their reactions and feelings regarding the issue of exporting e-waste to poor countries. Qualitative analyses demonstrated that moral considerations were significant influences on decision-making. In addition, participants' action responses revealed that they were motivated to take action to help the environment. The study has implications for socio-scientific issue studies in other contexts and for teacher education programs that use socio-scientific issues to advance teachers' reasoning

  10. Building Nationally-Focussed, Globally Federated, High Performance Earth Science Platforms to Solve Next Generation Social and Economic Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyborn, Lesley; Evans, Ben; Foster, Clinton; Pugh, Timothy; Uhlherr, Alfred

    2015-04-01

    Digital geoscience data and information are integral to informing decisions on the social, economic and environmental management of natural resources. Traditionally, such decisions were focused on regional or national viewpoints only, but it is increasingly being recognised that global perspectives are required to meet new challenges such as predicting impacts of climate change; sustainably exploiting scarce water, mineral and energy resources; and protecting our communities through better prediction of the behaviour of natural hazards. In recent years, technical advances in scientific instruments have resulted in a surge in data volumes, with data now being collected at unprecedented rates and at ever increasing resolutions. The size of many earth science data sets now exceed the computational capacity of many government and academic organisations to locally store and dynamically access the data sets; to internally process and analyse them to high resolutions; and then to deliver them online to clients, partners and stakeholders. Fortunately, at the same time, computational capacities have commensurately increased (both cloud and HPC): these can now provide the capability to effectively access the ever-growing data assets within realistic time frames. However, to achieve this, data and computing need to be co-located: bandwidth limits the capacity to move the large data sets; the data transfers are too slow; and latencies to access them are too high. These scenarios are driving the move towards more centralised High Performance (HP) Infrastructures. The rapidly increasing scale of data, the growing complexity of software and hardware environments, combined with the energy costs of running such infrastructures is creating a compelling economic argument for just having one or two major national (or continental) HP facilities that can be federated internationally to enable earth and environmental issues to be tackled at global scales. But at the same time, if

  11. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Bagnold Dunes Campaign, Phase I: Overview and introduction to the special issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Nathan T.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.

    2018-01-01

    The Bagnold dunes in Gale Crater, Mars, are the first active aeolian dune field explored in situ on another planet. The Curiosity rover visited the Bagnold dune field to understand modern winds, aeolian processes, rates, and structures; to determine dune material composition, provenance, and the extent and type of compositional sorting; and to collect knowledge that informs the interpretation of past aeolian processes that are preserved in the Martian sedimentary rock record. The Curiosity rover conducted a coordinated campaign of activities lasting 4 months, interspersed with other rover activities, and employing all of the rover's science instruments and several engineering capabilities. Described in 13 manuscripts and summarized here, the major findings of the Bagnold Dunes Campaign, Phase I, include the following: the characterization of and explanation for a distinctive, meter-scale size of sinuous aeolian bedform formed in the high kinetic viscosity regime of Mars' thin atmosphere; articulation and evaluation of a grain splash model that successfully explains the occurrence of saltation even at wind speeds below the fluid threshold; determination of the dune sands' basaltic mineralogy and crystal chemistry in comparison with other soils and sedimentary rocks; and characterization of chemically distinctive volatile reservoirs in sand-sized versus dust-sized fractions of Mars soil, including two volatile-bearing types of amorphous phases.

  12. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Research for Energy Management. Part 1; Overview of Energy Issues and an Assessment of the Potential for Application of NASA Earth Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, E.; Engel-Cox, J.

    2005-01-01

    Effective management of energy resources is critical for the U.S. economy, the environment, and, more broadly, for sustainable development and alleviating poverty worldwide. The scope of energy management is broad, ranging from energy production and end use to emissions monitoring and mitigation and long-term planning. Given the extensive NASA Earth science research on energy and related weather and climate-related parameters, and rapidly advancing energy technologies and applications, there is great potential for increased application of NASA Earth science research to selected energy management issues and decision support tools. The NASA Energy Management Program Element is already involved in a number of projects applying NASA Earth science research to energy management issues, with a focus on solar and wind renewable energy and developing interests in energy modeling, short-term load forecasting, energy efficient building design, and biomass production.

  13. Memoirs of law, sciences and technologies - Law and climate thematic issue; Cahiers droit, sciences et technologies - Dossier thematique droit et climat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre-Schaub, M. [CNRS, IDHE ENS-Cachan (France); Jouzel, J. [IPSL-LSCE, CEA-CNRS, UVSQ, CE Saclay 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Boisson de Chazournes, L. [Faculte de droit, Geneve Univ. (Switzerland); Sadeleer, N. de; Denis, B. [Saint-Louis Univ., Brussels (Belgium); Godard, O. [CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, Dep. Humanites et Sciences Sociales (France); Le Prestre, P. [Laval univ. (Canada); Maljean-Dubois, S. [CNRS, CERIC, Paul Cezanne Univ., Aix-en-Provence (France); Wemaere, M. [IDDRI, Dep. Climat et Energie (France); Rousseaux, S. [CNRS, Droit et Changement Social, Association Climaterre (France); Louchard, O. [Reseau Action Climat (France)

    2009-07-01

    extraordinary process of standards elaboration devoted to mitigate the difficulties generated by the global warming in various domains, like the building industry, the transports or the energy sectors. This book is organized in two parts. Part one deals with climate as a scientific question between science and governance: the inter-disciplinary nature in the center of the problem, the law and the universality of the fight against climatic change, the precaution principle and the fight against climatic change, the economy of climatic change, the civil society and the international climate policy. The second part treats of the globalization of the climate issue: regional climate geopolitics and international cooperation, the post-Kyoto perspectives of the international legal framework of fight against climatic change, the legal architecture of a future international agreement of fight against climatic change, the climate governance between old notions and new stakes, the legal stakes of the implementation of emissions trading markets, the emissions trading system in the European Communities, and the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' experience feedback. (J.S.)

  14. [Volcanoes: A Compilation of Four Articles Appearing in Issues of "Instructor,""Science and Children," and "Science Teacher" Magazines in September 1980 and March 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mateo County Office of Education, Redwood City, CA. SMERC Information Center.

    This compilation of four journal articles (Instructor, September 1980; Science and Children, September 1980; and Science Teacher, September 1980 and March 1981) focuses on volcanoes, particularly Mount St. Helens in Oregon. The first article, "The Earth is Alive!" describes the eruptions of Mount St. Helens, provides basic information on…

  15. Clinical Ethics in Gabon: The Spectrum of Clinical Ethical Issues Based on Findings from In-Depth Interviews at Three Public Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Daniel; Marckmann, Georg; Ndzie Atangana, Etienne; Strech, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Unlike issues in biomedical research ethics, ethical challenges arising in daily clinical care in Sub-Saharan African countries have not yet been studied in a systematic manner. However this has to be seen as a distinct entity as we argue in this paper. Our aim was to give an overview of the spectrum of clinical ethical issues and to understand what influences clinical ethics in the Sub-Saharan country of Gabon. In-depth interviews with 18 health care professionals were conducted at three hospital sites in Gabon. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach (open and axial coding), giving a qualitative spectrum of categories for clinical ethical issues. Validity was checked at a meeting with study participants and other health care experts in Gabon after analysis of the data. Twelve main categories (with 28 further-specified subcategories) for clinical ethical issues were identified and grouped under three core categories: A) micro level: "confidentiality and information", "interpersonal, relational and behavioral issues", "psychological strain of individuals", and "scarce resources"; B) meso level: "structural issues of medical institutions", "issues with private clinics", "challenges connected to the family", and "issues of education, training and competence"; and C) macro level: "influence of society, culture, religion and superstition", "applicability of western medicine", "structural issues on the political level", and "legal issues". Interviewees reported a broad spectrum of clinical ethical issues that go beyond challenges related to scarce financial and human resources. Specific socio-cultural, historical and educational backgrounds also played an important role. In fact these influences are central to an understanding of clinical ethics in the studied local context. Further research in the region is necessary to put our study into perspective. As many participants reported a lack of awareness of ethical issues amongst other health

  16. Radiant research prospects? A review of nuclear waste issues in social science research; Straalande forskningsutsikter? En oeversikt om kaernavfallsfraagor inom samhaellsvetenskaplig forskning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin [Umeaa universitet, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2007-05-15

    The present report has been put together on behalf of KASAM and constitutes a review of social science research and literature that been produced on the nuclear waste issue in Sweden, with focus on recent research. The aim with the investigation has been to map the scope of and the direction of the independent research about nuclear waste in Sweden, in relation to the research that has been initiated and financed by the stakeholders that are participating in the decision-making process in the nuclear waste issue. Another aim has been to point out areas that have not been taken into consideration.

  17. Into the Curriculum. Art: Whistler's Mother; Reading/Language Arts: Finding My Voice; Science: Where on My Tongue? Taste; Social Studies/Science: Volcanoes; Social Studies: Pompeii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed-Mundell, Charlie

    2001-01-01

    Provides five fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in art, reading, language arts, science, and social studies. Describes library media skills, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, procedures, evaluation, and follow-up for each activity. (LRW)

  18. The Climate Change Crisis as an International Civil Rights Issue: Forging an Alliance Between Science, Activism, and Progressive Social Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, B. J.; Driver, S.

    2011-12-01

    If our scientific community wants to make real progress on the climate change and environmental crisis we must be willing to side with and fight for the oppressed. The national and international communities most ready to act - those hit hardest by the real impact of climate change in their day-to-day lives - need the political leadership of and a living, organic connection with scientists who are prepared to tell the truth and act on the truth of our science. A new generation of scientist-activist leaders and this strategic and mutually beneficial alliance with the oppressed will be necessary to wage an international, intransigent fight to enact and implement the social, political, and economic policies needed to mitigate the damage already done and prevent future environmental and human catastrophe. In the statement BAMN distributed to last year's Fall AGU conference we said, "there will be no shortage of mass struggle in the next period of history." This spring we saw the absolutely awe-inspiring social upheavals in North Africa and the Middle East in the form of waves of mass demonstrations in country after country. Many of those struggles, with demands for real democracy, for jobs and economic opportunities, for improved living conditions, continue to this day. In virtually every instance, these popular and progressive social movements have been led by youth: middle school, high school and college students. In the US and Europe we have seen the spread of student-led struggle around the defense of K-12 public education and on college campuses in defense of various programs, opportunities, and the character of the educational experience. The most dynamic force in these struggles has been the Latina/o, black, other underrepresented minority and immigrant youth who refuse to accept permanent second-class citizenship and a future devoid of hope and opportunity. We will discuss our experience as a youth-led civil rights organization presenting the issues of climate

  19. Scientists' views of the philosophy of science

    OpenAIRE

    Riesch, H.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies in public understanding of science emphasise that learning how to do science also involves learning about the philosophical issues surrounding the nature of science. This thesis aims to find out how scientists themselves talk and write about these philosophical topics, and how these topics get used in scientific thought. It contrasts scientists' opinions on these issues with how they are portrayed in popular science, and also contrasts them with how philosophers themselves have j...

  20. A call for self-reflection as professors engage the issues of science education reform: An ethnographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licona, Miguel M.

    Science becomes distorted and undemocratic when it is categorized into disciplines that, in turn, perpetuate borders creating conditions of inequality for the general population. Science education reform represents a starting point from which to approach notions of exclusion and inaccessibility. Students not intending to major in science often encounter environments as well as professors that serve to limit their potential and thereby exclude them from greater exposure and participation in the sciences. This qualitative study considers professional practices of professors who hold key positions for the success of science teaching and learning. Through classroom observation, in-depth interviewing and a survey questionnaire, this study sheds fight on the process of science education reform. Participants included six university professors who taught a reformed science course developed under the guidance of a National Science Foundation initiative known as the Collaborative for Excellence in Teacher Preparation. The purpose of this study is to understand the nature of faculty beliefs concerning teaching and learning science for students not intending to major in science, most of whom are elementary education majors. In this study, professors' espoused belief systems were elicited while their mental models that drive behavior were observed in the classroom setting. Incongruencies between theories in practice and theories in use were uncovered and explored. Major implications for who can and cannot learn science within the context of a system that currently serves to pre-select who will succeed are uncovered as a result of this study. The constant comparative method developed by Glaser and Strauss was used to analyze the words of each individual participant as she/he worked to consider the incongruencies in her/his theory and practice (as cited in Maykut & Morehouse, 1994). Self-reflection is identified as key in the process of praxis that will aid professors in their

  1. Intelligence Secrecy and Transparency: Finding the Proper Balance from the War of Independence to the War on Terror (Strategic Insights, Volume 6, Issue 3, May 2007)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doorey, Timothy J

    2007-01-01

    The issues of the U.S. intelligence community's (IC) accountability, transparency, and effectiveness have taken on increased importance following a number of recent failures and an increasingly ominous global security environment...

  2. Finding Citations to Social Work Literature: The Relative Benefits of Using "Web of Science," "Scopus," or "Google Scholar"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Elaine M. Lasda

    2012-01-01

    Past studies of citation coverage of "Web of Science," "Scopus," and "Google Scholar" do not demonstrate a consistent pattern that can be applied to the interdisciplinary mix of resources used in social work research. To determine the utility of these tools to social work researchers, an analysis of citing references to well-known social work…

  3. More than Just Playing Outside: A Self-Study on Finding My Identity as an Environmental Educator in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatzke, Jenna M.; Buck, Gayle A.; Akerson, Valarie L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the identity conflicts I was experiencing as an environmental educator entering a doctoral program in science education. My inquiry used self-study methodology with a variety of data sources, including sixteen weeks of personal journal entries, audio-recordings of four critical friend meetings, and…

  4. Extended prospect theory : Findings on choice behaviour from economics and the behavioural sciences and their relevance for travel behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kaa, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    In Transport Sciences different implementations of Utility Theory are commonly used for the description and prediction of human choice behaviour. Almost 30 years ago Kahneman and Tversky proposed an alternative behavioural-economic model of choice behaviour called Prospect Theory. In contrast to

  5. The Role of Teacher Morale and Motivation on Students' Science and Math Achievement: Findings from Singapore, Japan, Finland and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazaoglu, Ilkay; Aztekin, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Teacher motivation is one of the factors that affect the realization of the teaching objectives, motivation and academic achievement of student. This study aimed to answer to the question "How is the relation between the students' academic (sciences and mathematics) achievement and teachers' morale/motivation in Singapore, Japan, Finland and…

  6. "Finding the Joy in the Unknown": Implementation of STEAM Teaching Practices in Middle School Science and Math Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cassie F.; Herro, Dani

    2016-01-01

    In response to a desire to strengthen the economy, educational settings are emphasizing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) curriculum and programs. Yet, because of the narrow approach to STEM, educational leaders continue to call for a more balanced approach to teaching and learning, which includes the arts, design, and…

  7. The Potential Impact of Social Science Research on Legal Issues Surrounding Single-Sex Classrooms and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, Suzanne Elizabeth; McCall, Stephanie D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines the role social science has played in litigation involving public single-sex educational programs. It also explores a body of social science research related to gender and education that we believe could assist the courts and school leaders in better examining the possibilities and the limitations of single-sex…

  8. Collaboration in Science and Technology. An Inter-American Perspective. Issues in International Education Report No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. N.

    Political events in Latin America in recent years have caused universities to re-examine their goals and external relationships, especially in terms of science and technology. The reexamination has led to a renewed stress on basic science education and an explosive growth of graduate education. In view of these structural changes, almost every…

  9. Science in Science Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allday, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Offers some suggestions as to how science fiction, especially television science fiction programs such as "Star Trek" and "Star Wars", can be drawn into physics lessons to illuminate some interesting issues. (Author/KHR)

  10. Clinical Ethics in Gabon: The Spectrum of Clinical Ethical Issues Based on Findings from In-Depth Interviews at Three Public Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Daniel; Marckmann, Georg; Ndzie Atangana, Etienne; Strech, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Unlike issues in biomedical research ethics, ethical challenges arising in daily clinical care in Sub-Saharan African countries have not yet been studied in a systematic manner. However this has to be seen as a distinct entity as we argue in this paper. Our aim was to give an overview of the spectrum of clinical ethical issues and to understand what influences clinical ethics in the Sub-Saharan country of Gabon. Materials and Methods In-depth interviews with 18 health care professionals were conducted at three hospital sites in Gabon. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach (open and axial coding), giving a qualitative spectrum of categories for clinical ethical issues. Validity was checked at a meeting with study participants and other health care experts in Gabon after analysis of the data. Results Twelve main categories (with 28 further-specified subcategories) for clinical ethical issues were identified and grouped under three core categories: A) micro level: “confidentiality and information”, “interpersonal, relational and behavioral issues”, “psychological strain of individuals”, and “scarce resources”; B) meso level: “structural issues of medical institutions”, “issues with private clinics”, “challenges connected to the family”, and “issues of education, training and competence”; and C) macro level: “influence of society, culture, religion and superstition”, “applicability of western medicine”, “structural issues on the political level”, and “legal issues”. Discussion Interviewees reported a broad spectrum of clinical ethical issues that go beyond challenges related to scarce financial and human resources. Specific socio-cultural, historical and educational backgrounds also played an important role. In fact these influences are central to an understanding of clinical ethics in the studied local context. Further research in the region is necessary to put our study into

  11. From Science Reserves to Sustainable Multiple Uses beyond Earth orbit: Evaluating Issues on the Path towards Balanced Environmental Management on Planetary Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret

    Over the past five decades, our understanding of space beyond Earth orbit has been shaped by a succession of mainly robotic missions whose technologies have enabled scientists to answer diverse science questions about celestial bodies across the solar system. For all that time, exploration has been guided by planetary protection policies and principles promulgated by COSPAR and based on provisions in Article IX of the Outer Space Treaty of 1967. Over time, implementation of the various COSPAR planetary protection policies have sought to avoid harmful forward and backward contamination in order to ensure the integrity of science findings, guide activities on different celestial bodies, and appropriately protect Earth whenever extraterrestrial materials have been returned. The recent increased interest in extending both human missions and commercial activities beyond Earth orbit have prompted discussions in various quarters about the need for updating policies and guidelines to ensure responsible, balanced space exploration and use by all parties, regardless whether activities are undertaken by governmental or non-governmental entities. Already, numerous researchers and workgroups have suggested a range of different ways to manage activities on celestial environments (e.g, wilderness parks, exclusion zones, special regions, claims, national research bases, environmental impact assessments, etc.). While the suggestions are useful in thinking about how to manage future space activities, they are not based on any systematically applied or commonly accepted criteria (scientific or otherwise). In addition, they are borrowed from terrestrial approaches for environmental protection, which may or may not have direct applications to space environments. As noted in a recent COSPAR-PEX workshop (GWU 2012), there are no clear definitions of issues such as harmful contamination, the environment to be protected, or what are considered reasonable activity or impacts for particular

  12. Research Opportunities in Corrosion Science for Long-Term Prediction of Materials Performance: A Report of the DOE Workshop on ''Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payer, Joe H.; Scully, John R.

    2003-01-01

    The report summarizes the findings of a U.S. Department of Energy workshop on ''Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository''. The workshop was held on July 29-30, 2003 in Bethesda, MD, and was co-sponsored by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The workshop focus was corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of materials performance in hostile environments, with special focus on relevance to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The culmination of the workshop is this report that identifies both generic and Yucca Mountain Project-specific research opportunities in basic and applied topic areas. The research opportunities would be realized well after the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's initial construction-authorization licensing process. At the workshop, twenty-three invited scientists deliberated on basic and applied science opportunities in corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of damage accumulation by corrosive processes that affect materials performance.

  13. Research Opportunities in Corrosion Science for Long-Term Prediction of Materials Performance: A Report of the DOE Workshop on “Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository”.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payer, Joe H. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Scully, John R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2003-07-29

    The report summarizes the findings of a U.S. Department of Energy workshop on “Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository”. The workshop was held on July 29-30, 2003 in Bethesda, MD, and was co-sponsored by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The workshop focus was corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of materials performance in hostile environments, with special focus on relevance to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The culmination of the workshop is this report that identifies both generic and Yucca Mountain Project-specific research opportunities in basic and applied topic areas. The research opportunities would be realized well after the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s initial construction-authorization licensing process. At the workshop, twenty-three invited scientists deliberated on basic and applied science opportunities in corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of damage accumulation by corrosive processes that affect materials performance.

  14. THE SCIENCE, THE LOOK AND MOVE-YOURSELF: a soccer phenomenology - or how the cap finds talents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gonçalves Bitencourt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, supported by an ethnography in the Cashew Training Center, Clube Atlético Paranaense, reflects on the way in which the CAP selects its future athletes. Describing the different ways to recruit players, I discuss the limits of science to detect the "talents". I conclude that it is the phenomenological relationship between the eye and moving oneself - the scout with the player - that becoming a football player is held.

  15. "Finding the Joy in the Unknown": Implementation of STEAM Teaching Practices in Middle School Science and Math Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cassie F.; Herro, Dani

    2016-06-01

    In response to a desire to strengthen the economy, educational settings are emphasizing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) curriculum and programs. Yet, because of the narrow approach to STEM, educational leaders continue to call for a more balanced approach to teaching and learning, which includes the arts, design, and humanities. This desire created space for science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics (STEAM) education, a transdisciplinary approach that focuses on problem-solving. STEAM-based curricula and STEAM-themed schools are appearing all over the globe. This growing national and global attention to STEAM provides an opportunity for teacher education to explore the ways in which teachers implement STEAM practices, examining the successes and challenges, and how teachers are beginning to make sense of this innovative teaching practice. The purpose of this paper is to examine the implementation of STEAM teaching practices in science and math middle school classrooms, in hopes to provide research-based evidence on this emerging topic to guide teacher educators.

  16. The worst enemy of science: clarifying polemics issues on Paul Feyerabend’s Epistemology in teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Damasio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many of the objections to Feyerabend's epistemology arise from misinterpretations of ideas by this author. Terms and expressions as epistemological anarchism, irrationality, control of science and anything goes can give the false impression that the author's arguments are chaotic and unsustainable. This paper discusses these concepts, opposing the misconceptions about them. In initial and continuing teacher education, this reflection can be useful both for the deconstruction of certain misleading images about the nature of science and for the upbringing of critical citizens acquaintated to the concepts of modern philosophy of science.

  17. Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics at AGU - Strategies and Actions to Impact Sexual Harassment in Science and other Work Climate Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhaden, Michael; Davidson, Eric; McEntee, Christine; Williams, Billy

    2017-04-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU), a scientific society of 62,000 members worldwide, has established a set of scientific integrity and professional ethics guidelines for the actions of its members, for the governance of the union in its internal activities, and for the operations and participation in its publications and scientific meetings. More recently AGU has undertaken strategies and actions to help address the issue of harassment in the sciences and other work climate issues. This presentation will provide an overview of the role of scientific societies in helping to address these important issues, as well as specific strategies and actions underway at AGU and other societies. Progress to date and remaining challenges of this effort will be discussed, including AGU's work to provide additional program strength in this area.

  18. Editorial: The FQS-Issue "Doing Biographical Research". Four Years of Publishing FQS as an Example for Social Science Open Access Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Mruck

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In FQS 4(3—"Doing Biographical Research"—social scientists discuss from different disciplinary and national stances the interview with Hülya, a Turkish migrant living and working in Germany. In addition to contributions linked directly to the issue topic, eight single contributions, nine review essays and review notes and two conference reports are published, coming from researchers from eight nations and seven academic disciplines. Approximately 450 articles have been published since the first FQS issue was accessible on-line in January 2000. In addition to the contributions to the new issue "Doing Biographical Research," the current state of FQS is briefly reviewed. FQS is also discussed as an example for social science open access journals, being part of the open access initiatives which aim to make scientific information accessible worldwide free of cost. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0303176

  19. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volumes & Issues. Volume 130. Issue 1. Jan 2018; Issue 2. Feb 2018; Issue 3. Mar 2018; Issue 4. Apr 2018. Volume 129. Issue 1. Jan 2017; Issue 2. Feb 2017; Issue 3. Mar 2017; Issue 4. Apr 2017; Issue 5. May 2017; Issue 6. Jun 2017; Issue 7

  20. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Kleter, G.A.; Brennan, M.; Coles, D.G.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Houdebine, L.M.; Mora, C.; Millar, K.; Salter, B.

    2013-01-01

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing

  1. Transforming Science Data for GIS: How to Find and Use NASA Earth Observation Data Without Being a Rocket Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, Ross; Peters, Byron; Berrick, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    NASAs Earth Observing System Data Information System (EOSDIS) manages Earth Observation satellites and the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), where the data is stored and processed. The challenge is that Earth Observation data is complicated. There is plenty of data available, however, the science teams have had a top-down approach: define what it is you are trying to study -select a set of satellite(s) and sensor(s), and drill down for the data.Our alternative is to take a bottom-up approach using eight environmental fields of interest as defined by the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) called Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs): Disaster Resilience (DR) Public Health Surveillance (PHS) Energy and Mineral Resource Management (EMRM) Water Resources Management (WRM) Infrastructure and Transport Management (ITM) Sustainable Urban Development (SUD) Food Security and Sustainable Agriculture (FSSA) Biodiversity and Ecosystems Sustainability (BES).

  2. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Journal of Earth System Science. Volumes & Issues. Volume 127. Issue 1. Feb 2018; Issue 2. Mar 2018; Issue 3. Apr 2018. Volume 126. Issue 1. Feb 2017; Issue 2. Mar 2017; Issue 3. Apr 2017; Issue 4. Jun 2017; Issue 5. Jul 2017; Issue 6. Aug 2017; Issue 7. Oct 2017 ...

  3. Developing Low-Cost Solutions to Improve Public Policy: The Work of MDRC's Center for Applied Behavioral Science. Issue Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    MDRC, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Many social policy and education programs start from the assumption that people act in their best interest. But behavioral science shows that people often weigh intuition over reason, make inconsistent choices, and put off big decisions. The individuals and families who need services and the staff who provide them are no exception. From city…

  4. Exploring the Profile of Teachers of Secondary Science: What Are the Emerging Issues for Future Workforce Planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzon, Debra; Westwell, Martin; Elliott, Katrina

    2010-01-01

    Australia requires a flexible and scientifically literate population if we are to maintain and possibly raise our competitive edge for innovation in an ever-changing global economy (DEST, 2006). Central to achieving this outcome is a workforce of competent teachers of Science with the pedagogical expertise, subject knowledge and enthusiasm…

  5. Historical Development and Key Issues of Data Management Plan Requirements for National Science Foundation Grants: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Judith E.

    2017-01-01

    Sharing scientific research data has become increasingly important for knowledge advancement in today's networked, digital world. This article describes the evolution of access to United States government information in relation to scientific research funded by federal grants. It analyzes the data sharing policy of the National Science Foundation,…

  6. Final Report for the ZERT Project: Basic Science of Retention Issues, Risk Assessment & Measurement, Monitoring and Verification for Geologic Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spangler, Lee; Cunningham, Alfred; Lageson, David; Melick, Jesse; Gardner, Mike; Dobeck, Laura; Repasky, Kevin; Shaw, Joseph; Bajura, Richard; McGrail, B Peter; Oldenburg, Curtis M; Wagoner, Jeff; Pawar, Rajesh

    2011-03-31

    ZERT has made major contributions to five main areas of sequestration science: improvement of computational tools; measurement and monitoring techniques to verify storage and track migration of CO{sub 2}; development of a comprehensive performance and risk assessment framework; fundamental geophysical, geochemical and hydrological investigations of CO{sub 2} storage; and investigate innovative, bio-based mitigation strategies.

  7. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 04: Three critical topics to cover when talking about hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    The amount of science applicable to the management of wildfire hazards is increasing daily. In addition, the attitudes of landowners and policymakers about fire and fuels management are changing. This fact sheet discusses three critical keys to communicating about wildfire hazards.

  8. Creating creationists: The influence of 'issues framing' on our understanding of public perceptions of clash narratives between evolutionary science and belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsdon-Baker, Fern

    2015-05-01

    Clash narratives relating to evolutionary science and personal belief are a recurrent theme in media or public space discourse. However, a 2009 British Council poll undertaken in 10 countries worldwide shows that the perception of a necessary clash between evolutionary worldviews and belief in a God is a minority viewpoint. How then does the popular conception that there is an ongoing conflict between evolution and belief in God arise? One contributing factor is the framing and categorization of creationism and evolutionism within large-scale surveys for use within media campaigns. This article examines the issue framing within four polls conducted in the United Kingdom and internationally between 2008 and 2013. It argues that by ignoring the complexity and range of perspectives individuals hold, or by framing evolutionary science as atheistic, we are potentially creating 'creationists' - including 'Islamic creationists' - both figuratively and literally. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. [From Science to Law: Findings of Reha XI Project on Ascertaining the Need for Rehabilitation in Medical Service Assessments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalwitzki, T; Huter, K; Runte, R; Breuninger, K; Janatzek, S; Gronemeyer, S; Gansweid, B; Rothgang, H

    2017-03-01

    Introduction: In the broad-based consortium project "Reha XI - Identifying rehabilitative requirements in medical service assessments: evaluation and implementation", a comprehensive analysis of the corresponding procedures was carried out by the medical services of the German Health Insurance Funds (MDK). On the basis of this analysis, a Good Practice Standard (GPS) for assessments was drawn up and scientifically evaluated. This article discusses the findings and applicability of the GPS as the basis for a nationwide standardized procedure in Germany as required by the Second Act to Strengthen Long-Term Care (PSG II) under Vol. XI Para. 18 (6) of the German Social Welfare Code. Method: The consortium project comprised four project phases: 1. Qualitative and quantitative situation analysis of the procedures for ascertaining rehabilitative needs in care assessments carried out by the MDK; 2. Development of a Good Practice Standard (GPS) in a structured, consensus-based procedure; 3. Scientific evaluation of the validity, reliability and practicability of the assessment procedure according to the GPS in the MDK's operational practice; 4. Survey of long-term care insurance funds with respect to the appropriateness of the rehabilitation recommendations drawn up by care assessors in line with the GPS for providing a qualified recommendation for the applicant. The evaluation carried out in the third project phase was subject to methodological limitations that may have given rise to distortions in the findings. Findings: On the basis of the situation analysis, 7 major thematic areas were identified in which improvements were implemented by applying the GPS. For the evaluation of the GPS, a total of 3 247 applicants were assessed in line with the GPS; in 6.3% of the applicants, an indication for medical rehabilitation was determined. The GPS procedure showed a high degree of reliability and practicability, but the values for the validity of the assessment procedure were

  10. The ClearEarth Project: Preliminary Findings from Experiments in Applying the CLEARTK NLP Pipeline and Annotation Tools Developed for Biomedicine to the Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, R.; Thessen, A.; Jenkins, C. J.; Palmer, M.; Myers, S.; Ramdeen, S.

    2016-12-01

    The ability to quickly find, easily use and effortlessly integrate data from a variety of sources is a grand challenge in Earth sciences, one around which entire research programs have been built. A myriad of approaches to tackling components of this challenge have been demonstrated, often with some success. Yet finding, assessing, accessing, using and integrating data remains a major challenge for many researchers. A technology that has shown promise in nearly every aspect of the challenge is semantics. Semantics has been shown to improve data discovery, facilitate assessment of a data set, and through adoption of the W3C's Linked Data Platform to have improved data integration and use at least for data amenable to that paradigm. Yet the creation of semantic resources has been slow. Why? Amongst a plethora of other reasons, it is because semantic expertise is rare in the Earth and Space sciences; the creation of semantic resources for even a single discipline is labor intensive and requires agreement within the discipline; best practices, methods and tools for supporting the creation and maintenance of the resources generated are in flux; and the human and financial capital needed are rarely available in the Earth sciences. However, other fields, such as biomedicine, have made considerable progress in these areas. The NSF-funded ClearEarth project is adapting the methods and tools from these communities for the Earth sciences in the expectation that doing so will enhance progress and the rate at which the needed semantic resources are created. We discuss progress and results to date, lessons learned from this adaptation process, and describe our upcoming efforts to extend this knowledge to the next generation of Earth and data scientists.

  11. Co-producing resilient solutions to climate change: Bridging the gap between science and decision-making around nexus issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, C.

    2016-12-01

    The nexus represents a multi-dimensional means of scientific enquiry encapsulating the complex and non-linear interactions between water, energy, food, environment with the climate, and wider implications for society. These resources are fundamental for human life but are negatively affected by climate change. Methods of analysis, which are currently used, were not built to represent complex systems and are insufficiently equipped to understand positive and negative externalities generated by interactions among different stakeholders involved in the nexus. In addition misalignment between the science that scientists produce and the evidence decision-makers need leads to a range of complexities within the science-policy interface. Adopting a bottom-up, participative approach, the results of five themed workshops organized in the UK (focusing on: shocks and hazards, infrastructure, local economy, governance and governments, finance and insurance) featuring 80 stakeholders from academia, government and industry allow us to map perceptions of opportunities and challenges of better informing decision making on climate change when there is a strong disconnect between the evidence scientists provide and the actions decision makers take. The research identified key areas where gaps could be bridged between science and action and explores how a knowledge co-production approach can help identify opportunities for building a more effective and legitimate policy agenda to face climate risks. Concerns, barriers and opportunities to better inform decision making centred on four themes: communication and collaboration, decision making processes, social and cultural dimensions, and the nature of responses to nexus shocks. In so doing, this analysis provides an assessment of good practice on climate decision-making and highlights opportunities for improvement to bridge gaps in the science-policy interface

  12. DISCUSS THE ISSUES CONCERNING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AS PART OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Shaban MOHAMMADI

    2015-01-01

    Dominate the thoughts of positivism in America (Zimmerman, 1979; Watts & Zimmerman, 1979, 1986) and the development of case studies based on management accounting investigators throughout Europe (Panozzo, 1997; Drury & Tayles, 1994, 2005), evidence of improvements in accounting. During this process, management accounting in the economic concepts related to its development and the social sciences as well from sociology, psychology and organizational studies. Furthermore, this improvement may b...

  13. Interactive activities to stimulate debate and critical thinking about issues related to Earth sciences and sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Magagna

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During the International Year of Planet Earth (2007-2009, the Department of Earth Sciences of Turin University and a local Museum of Natural History promoted a project entitled, Understanding how the Earth works: from local situations to global processes. In this context, two geothematic exhibitions on the Cape Verde Archipelago were designed and staged in local museums. The exhibition called Getting to know a volcano in order to live with it was the subject of action research that involved the design of interactive activities and the analysis of data collected during guided tours conducted with students of different ages. This study allowed the demonstration of the effectiveness of teaching strategies in which relevant Earth sciences topics are proposed, like risk and sustainable development, thus stimulating debate among the students. This approach enhances the cultural experience of individuals by sharing it with other people. The aim was to widen their awareness of the cultural value of the territory, and to stimulate a new critical way of thinking about the Earth sciences. These didactic tools were further developed when they were proposed and pursued by experienced museum guides and teachers, who were able to involve not only institutions (museums and schools in the knowledge construction process, but also families, relatives and the local community.

  14. Ludvig, Zsuzsa (ed.) Eurasian challenges : partnerships with Russia and other issues of the post-Soviet area. East European Studies, No. 4, Budabest Institute of World Economics and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2013, 163pp. / Csab

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Weiner, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Ludvig, Zsuzsa (ed.) Eurasian challenges : partnerships with Russia and other issues of the post-Soviet area. Budabest Institute of World Economics and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2013

  15. A great pioneer of clinical science remembered: introduction to the special issue in honor of Paul E. Meehl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Waller, Niels G

    2005-10-01

    In this special issue, the seminal contributions to clinical psychology of Paul E. Meehl, who passed away in 2003, are commemorated. The nine articles comprising this special issue chronicle Meehl's remarkable intellectual biography and examine his influence on diverse domains of psychology, including the clinical versus actuarial prediction debate, the cognitive activity of the clinician, personality assessment and trait theory, the etiology of schizophrenia, the shortcomings of statistical significance testing, and the use of metascientific methods to evaluate competing models of human nature. These articles illustrate not only Meehl's legendary brilliance but also his pivotal role in forcing clinical psychologists to think more clearly and incisively about their subject matter. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Science teaching in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Brendan E.; Dopico, Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    Reading the interesting article Discerning selective traditions in science education by Per Sund , which is published in this issue of CSSE, allows us to open the discussion on procedures for teaching science today. Clearly there is overlap between the teaching of science and other areas of knowledge. However, we must constantly develop new methods to teach and differentiate between science education and teaching science in response to the changing needs of our students, and we must analyze what role teachers and teacher educators play in both. We must continually examine the methods and concepts involved in developing pedagogical content knowledge in science teachers. Otherwise, the possibility that these routines, based on subjective traditions, prevent emerging processes of educational innovation. Modern science is an enormous field of knowledge in its own right, which is made more expansive when examined within the context of its place in society. We propose the need to design educative interactions around situations that involve science and society. Science education must provide students with all four dimensions of the cognitive process: factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and metacognitive knowledge. We can observe in classrooms at all levels of education that students understand the concepts better when they have the opportunity to apply the scientific knowledge in a personally relevant way. When students find value in practical exercises and they are provided opportunities to reinterpret their experiences, greater learning gains are achieved. In this sense, a key aspect of educational innovation is the change in teaching methodology. We need new tools to respond to new problems. A shift in teacher education is needed to realize the rewards of situating science questions in a societal context and opening classroom doors to active methodologies in science education to promote meaningful learning through meaningful teaching.

  17. Toward sustainable pearl-oyster culture, in a changing environment: Recent findings and issues from the POLYPERL project (2012-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; Le Moullac, Gilles

    2016-12-01

    The pearl industry, using the black-lip oyster, Pinctada margaritifera, is a central economic issue for French Polynesia. Initially developed in the early 1990s, after a brief'golden age', the pearl industry faced a decade of decline. As described in Gueguen et al., several research programs were therefore conducted to better analyze the functioning of this industry and to attempt to identifyissuesrelated to the improving the quality of the pearls as well as the functioning of lagoons. To complete this knowledge, during a 4 year period, the POLYPERL project, funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR), was a federative initiative that focused, simultaneously and for the first time, on socio-ecological and economic aspects of the pearl industry. The originality of the POLYPERL project consists of successfully implementing an integrated and multidisciplinary research-action approach in close association with both pearl farmers and the Polynesian authority in charge of management of the pearl industry (Direction des Ressources Marines et Minières de Polynésie, DRMM).

  18. Control of Chaos: New Perspectives in Experimental and Theoretical Science. International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos in Applied Sciences and Engineering. Theme Issue. Part 1. Volume 8, Number 8, August 1998

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arecchi, F

    1998-01-01

    .... In every field of the applied sciences (astronomy, atmospheric sciences, biology, chemistry, economics, geophysics, life and medical sciences, physics, social sciences, zoology, etc.) and engTheenng...

  19. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences. Volumes & Issues. Volume 128. Issue 1. Mar 2018; Issue 2. Apr 2018. Volume 127. Issue 1. Feb 2017; Issue 2. Apr 2017; Issue 3. Jun 2017; Issue 4. Sep 2017; Issue 5. Nov 2017. Volume 126. Issue 1. Feb 2016; Issue 2

  20. Needs Analysis: Strategic Issue on the Teaching of English for Specific Purposes for the Study of Sciences and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Algadrie

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of science and technology scholars and professionals now need to acquire a higher form of literacy to be able to participate in groups of similar fields or groups of works. The need for English as one of the International language, an established language, has increased because English has access to world knowledge particularly in the field of science and technology, computer utilization, international trade and commerce. However, the need can vary in terms of the study fields, selection of skills, selection of language functions, and the language learners. Effective strategies can only be applied through a thorough analysis of the learners' needs, which will refer to the whole range of language resources for material selection. Since it is clear that ESP course is directly concerned with the purposes of which the learners need English, ESP course should be learner-centered. In this paper the writer would like to give the results of needs analysis (wants and strategies: Shaw, 1982, Allwright and Allwright, 1997 done among the learners (students and lecturers of engineering studies from various departments of Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya (ITS who are learning English at ITS Language Center to fulfill the market demand for job employment of their career and further studies.

  1. Fertility outcome and information on fertility issues in individuals with different forms of disorders of sex development: findings from the dsd-LIFE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Claahsen-van der Grinten, Hedi; Reisch, Nicole; Bouvattier, Claire; Thyen, Ute; Cohen Kettenis, Peggy; Roehle, Robert; Köhler, Birgit; Nordenström, Anna

    2017-11-01

    To investigate fertility outcome in individuals with different forms of disorders of sex development (DSD), if assisted reproductive technology (ART) was used, and the patients' satisfaction with the information they had received. A cross-sectional multicenter study, dsd-LIFE. Not applicable. A total of 1,040 patients aged ≥16 years with different DSD diagnoses participated. A web-based questionnaire was filled out by all participants. The participants could chose to take part in somatic investigations including ultrasonography. Information on partner, number of children, ART, adoption and step-children, general health, presence of gonads and uterus, current education and economic situation, received information on fertility issues, and satisfaction with the information, was collected. In the total cohort, mean age 32 years, 33% lived with a partner, but only 14% reported having at least one child including 7% with ART, 4% adopted. Only 3.5% of the total cohort had been able to reproduce without ART, most frequently women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and only 0.7% of participants with other diagnoses. Of the participants, 72% had received information on fertility, but 17% were not satisfied with the information. Fertility outcome is significantly reduced in all types of DSD; however, fertility potential should be assessed individually. The satisfaction with how fertility problems have been discussed can be improved. The care of patients with DSD is complex, should be individualized, and new treatment possibilities incorporated. A close collaboration in multidisciplinary teams is therefore essential to improve the situation for individuals with DSD. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Value of Surprising Findings for Research on Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong

    2004-01-01

    In the work of Armstrong (Journal of Business Research, 2002), I examined empirical research on the scientific process and related these to marketing science. The findings of some studies were surprising. In this reply, I address surprising findings and other issues raised by commentators.

  3. Roadmapping - A Tool for Resolving Science and Technology Issues Related to Processing, Packaging, and Shipping Nuclear Materials and Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luke, Dale Elden; Dixon, Brent Wayne; Murphy, James Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Roadmapping is an effective methodology to identify and link technology development and deployment efforts to a program's or project's needs and requirements. Roadmapping focuses on needed technical support to the baselines (and to alternatives to the baselines) where the probability of success is low (high uncertainty) and the consequences of failure are relatively high (high programmatic risk, higher cost, longer schedule, or higher ES and H risk). The roadmap identifies where emphasis is needed, i.e., areas where investments are large, the return on investment is high, or the timing is crucial. The development of a roadmap typically involves problem definition (current state versus the desired state) and major steps (functions) needed to reach the desired state. For Nuclear Materials (NM), the functions could include processing, packaging, storage, shipping, and/or final disposition of the material. Each function is examined to determine what technical development would be needed to make the function perform as desired. This requires a good understanding of the current state of technology and technology development and validation activities to ensure the viability of each step. In NM disposition projects, timing is crucial. Technology must be deployed within the project window to be of value. Roadmaps set the stage to keep the technology development and deployment focused on project milestones and ensure that the technologies are sufficiently mature when needed to mitigate project risk and meet project commitments. A recent roadmapping activity involved a 'cross-program' effort, which included NM programs, to address an area of significant concern to the Department of Energy (DOE) related to gas generation issues, particularly hydrogen. The roadmap that was developed defined major gas generation issues within the DOE complex and research that has been and is being conducted to address gas generation concerns. The roadmap also provided the basis for sharing

  4. The Attachment and Clinical Issues Questionnaire: a new methodology for science and practice in criminology and forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Marc A; Fugett, April; Lounder, Lindsay

    2014-10-01

    Most modern theories suggest that interpersonal relationships are of central importance in the development of criminal behavior. We tested the parent attachment scales of a new research and clinical measure, the Attachment and Clinical Issues Questionnaire (ACIQ). It is a 29-scale battery assessing attachments to mother, father, partner, and peers, which also includes several related clinical scales. Sixty-one (18-20 years of age) male offenders from a maximum security detention center and 131 contrasts completed the ACIQ. ANOVA demonstrated that mother and father attachments displayed different patterns. The attachment scales also predicted the numbers of crimes within the population of juvenile offenders. Thus, the parent attachment scales of the ACIQ showed promise as an instrument to test dynamic systems approaches to developmental models of criminal behavior. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Integrating science and business models of sustainability for environmentally-challenging industries such as secondary lead smelters: a systematic review and analysis of findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genaidy, A M; Sequeira, R; Tolaymat, T; Kohler, J; Wallace, S; Rinder, M

    2010-09-01

    , there are major disconnects between the science/mathematical and management/business models in terms of aims and goals. Therefore, there is an urgent need to integrate science and business models of sustainability for the industrial enterprises at large and environmentally-challenging industrial sectors in particular. In this paper, we offered examples of practices and concepts which can be used in charting a path towards sustainable development for secondary lead smelters particularly that the waste generated is much greater outside the industrial enterprise than inside. An environmentally-challenging industry such as secondary lead smelters requires a fresh look to chart a path towards sustainable development (i.e., survivability and purposive needs) for all stakeholders (i.e., industrial enterprise, individual stakeholders, and social/ecological systems). Such a path should deal with issues beyond pollution prevention, product stewardship and clean technologies. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of, and relation to, science in today's societies, as well as the issue of confidence in researchers/institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The author addressed the role of, and relation to, science in today's societies, as well the issue of confidence in researchers/institutions. The author underscored that social trust and partnership is developed through dialogue of scientists and technical experts with the full range of stakeholders, including policy makers and implementers. Effective dialogue, based on reciprocal learning and capacity building, will further the understanding of the tensions and different viewpoints and values, and reveal areas of uncertainty. This type of dialogue responds to a social demand to reappraise publicly and reflexively. This important process cannot unfold if research is cloistered and kept separate. It is essential to mobilize knowledge, share it, and allow the process for social evaluation of science. Radioactive waste management is a socially-constructed problem; an acceptable response cannot therefore be separated from the public concerned. Expert evaluations that support regulatory processes are insufficient for strong decision-making where there are issues of high risk and uncertainty. Science must be considered in broader social context. The public is more suspicious of expert processes' of risk assessment that are non-transparent. Stakeholder confidence requires building relationships of different components of society. Building stakeholder confidence is about hopes to be shared, and must consider relationships between the actors. Research must be sensitive to the social relationships of the problem and respond to areas of public interest. Trust in process is key. The foundation for a successful dialogue is agreement of the initial hypothesis is that there is a need to address the issue in question. Real dialogue also demands that participants are respectful of others' views and principles. This requires willingness to work on the future together on common problems. There must be a capacity to listen to others, and assimilate different views. This

  7. The case for establishing a board of review for resolving environmental issues: The science court in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesy, John P; Solomon, Keith R; Kacew, Sam; Mackay, Donald; Stobo, Gerald; Kennedy, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Technology and scientific advancements are accelerating changes in society at a pace that is challenging the abilities of government regulatory agencies and legal courts to understand the benefits and costs of these changes to humans, wildlife, and their environments. The social, economic, and political facets of concern, such as the potential effects of chemicals, complicate the preparation of regulatory standards and practices intended to safeguard the public. Court judges and attorneys and, in some cases, lay juries are tasked with interpreting the data and implications underlying these new advancements, often without the technical background necessary to understand complex subjects and subsequently make informed decisions. Here, we describe the scientific-quasi-judicial process adopted in Canada under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, which could serve as a model for resolving conflicts between regulatory agencies and the regulated community. An example and process and lessons learned from the first Board of Review, which was for decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5; CAS# 541-02-06), are provided. Notable among these lessons are: 1) the need to apply state-of-the-science insights into the regulatory process, 2) to encourage agencies to continuously review and update their assessment processes, criteria, and models, and 3) provide these processes in guidance documents that are transparent and available to all stakeholders and generally foster closer cooperation between regulators, the academic community, industry, and nongovernment organizations (NGOs). Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:572-579. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  8. Investigating the domestication of convergent mobile media and mobile internet by children and teens: preliminary issues and empirical findings on opportunities and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Scifo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper, starting with some preliminary considerations about the new mobile media ecology, in which today's children live, and with some data about the diffusion of mobile internet and smartphones among children, aims to focus on three main points. I first ponder the new opportunities and new risks arising for children from the diffusion of such technologies, and the related usage practices, looking at some preliminary empirical findings, coming from qualitative researches I conducted with some of my colleagues from OssCom (Giovanna Mascheroni and Maria Francesca Murru, about the domestication of smartphones, mobile social networking and location-based practices in the Italian youth context. Then, I explore the new challenges in parental mediation, starting from qualitative evidence gathered from Italian parents. I finish illustrating the contribution of the new European project Net Children Go Mobile towards filling the current knowledge gap regarding European children’s mobile internet and convergent mobile media use, risks and online safety. Investigación de la domesticación de la convergencia de los medios móviles e internet móvil por parte de niños y adolescentes: cuestiones previas y hallazgos empíricos sobre las oportunidades y riesgos Resumen A partir de algunas consideraciones preliminares sobre la nueva ecología de los medios móviles, en los que los niños de hoy viven, y con algunos datos sobre la difusión de Internet móvil y los teléfonos inteligentes, este documento tiene como objetivo centrarse en tres puntos principales. El primero, reflexionar sobre las nuevas oportunidades y nuevos riesgos para los niños con este tipo de tecnologías, y las prácticas de uso relacionados, mirando a algunos hallazgos empíricos preliminares, procedentes de investigaciones cualitativas que llevé a cabo con algunos de mis colegas de OssCom (Giovanna Mascheroni y Maria Francesca Murru, acerca de la domesticación de los tel

  9. Consecutive collection of new finding and knowledge on science and technology to be reflected to seismic safety assessment for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsumi, Hideaki; Iijima, Toru

    2013-05-01

    JNES had been collecting and analyzing new finding and knowledge on science and technology to be reflected to seismic safety assessment for nuclear facilities, which was updated so as to develop a system to organize and disseminate such information in response to Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA)'s policy on new safety regulations requesting enhanced protective measures against extreme natural hazards. The tasks were as follows; (1) collection of new finding and knowledge from seismic safety research of JNES, (2) constructing database of seismic safety research from documents published by committees and including the Great East Japan Earthquake and (3) dissemination of information related to seismic research. As for JFY 2012 activities, collecting and analyzing new finding and knowledge were on three areas such as active fault, seismic source/ground motion and tsunami. 4 theme related with the Great East Japan Earthquake, 7 items not related with the Great East Japan Earthquake and one item on external event were collected and analyzed whether incorporating in seismic safety research important for regulation to increase seismic safety of nuclear facilities, with no such theme confirmed. (T. Tanaka)

  10. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    Give us the tools: science and technology for development. Ottawa, ...... altered technical rela- tionships among the factors used in the process of production, and the en- .... to ourselves only the rights of audit and periodic substantive review." If a ...... and destroying scarce water reserves, recreational areas and a generally.

  11. Identifying Demographic and Academic Issues that Influence the Passing or Failing of the Physiology Course in the Medicine Study Program of UCIMED (University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Vanegas-Pissa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available (This paper, product of a research project, analyzes some academic and demographic issues that might influence students passing or failing Physiology in the Licentiate Study Program in Medicine and Surgery at UCIMED (University of Medical Sciences between 2008 and 2011. This was a retrospective cohort study. We analyzed the grades obtained by the students who were taking Physiology for the first, second or third time during the research period, the semesters in which the grades were obtained, who passed or failed the course, their sociodemographic characteristics, and other courses passed or failed previously with their corresponding grades. For the data analysis, we used the Stata 13 software (Data Analysis and Statistical Software with a logistic regression model to determine the variables, which explain the passing or failing of the Physiology course. The results showed that the variables with a greater effect on the probability of p

  12. Science-based decision-making on complex issues: Marcellus shale gas hydrofracking and New York City water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Complex scientific and non-scientific considerations are central to the pending decisions about “hydrofracking” or high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) to exploit unconventional natural gas resources worldwide. While incipient plans are being made internationally for major shale reservoirs, production and technology are most advanced in the United States, particularly in Texas and Pennsylvania, with a pending decision in New York State whether to proceed. In contrast to the narrow scientific and technical debate to date, focused on either greenhouse gas emissions or water resources, toxicology and land use in the watersheds that supply drinking water to New York City (NYC), I review the scientific and technical aspects in combination with global climate change and other critical issues in energy tradeoffs, economics and political regulation to evaluate the major liabilities and benefits. Although potential benefits of Marcellus natural gas exploitation are large for transition to a clean energy economy, at present the regulatory framework in New York State is inadequate to prevent potentially irreversible threats to the local environment and New York City water supply. Major investments in state and federal regulatory enforcement will be required to avoid these environmental consequences, and a ban on drilling within the NYC water supply watersheds is appropriate, even if more highly regulated Marcellus gas production is eventually permitted elsewhere in New York State. - Highlights: • Analyses of hydrofracking for natural gas production worldwide are too focused. • Energy benefits are great but so are environmental/public health liabilities. • Current dependence on even more damaging coal-fired power can be reduced. • Protecting watersheds for NYC and other municipality water supply is paramount. • Strengthening of regulation is needed for reducing potential adverse impacts

  13. Science-based decision-making on complex issues: Marcellus shale gas hydrofracking and New York City water supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, Timothy T., E-mail: Timothy.Eaton@qc.cuny.edu

    2013-09-01

    Complex scientific and non-scientific considerations are central to the pending decisions about “hydrofracking” or high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) to exploit unconventional natural gas resources worldwide. While incipient plans are being made internationally for major shale reservoirs, production and technology are most advanced in the United States, particularly in Texas and Pennsylvania, with a pending decision in New York State whether to proceed. In contrast to the narrow scientific and technical debate to date, focused on either greenhouse gas emissions or water resources, toxicology and land use in the watersheds that supply drinking water to New York City (NYC), I review the scientific and technical aspects in combination with global climate change and other critical issues in energy tradeoffs, economics and political regulation to evaluate the major liabilities and benefits. Although potential benefits of Marcellus natural gas exploitation are large for transition to a clean energy economy, at present the regulatory framework in New York State is inadequate to prevent potentially irreversible threats to the local environment and New York City water supply. Major investments in state and federal regulatory enforcement will be required to avoid these environmental consequences, and a ban on drilling within the NYC water supply watersheds is appropriate, even if more highly regulated Marcellus gas production is eventually permitted elsewhere in New York State. - Highlights: • Analyses of hydrofracking for natural gas production worldwide are too focused. • Energy benefits are great but so are environmental/public health liabilities. • Current dependence on even more damaging coal-fired power can be reduced. • Protecting watersheds for NYC and other municipality water supply is paramount. • Strengthening of regulation is needed for reducing potential adverse impacts.

  14. Big Data, IPRs & Competition Law in the Pharma & Life Sciences- future issues in a rapidly evolving field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    the merger on the condition that the merged firm would make copies of its database available for purchase by existing and new potential competitors. The previous decision of the European Court of Justice in the IMS Health case has already set out that there are limitations to the extent IPRs can be used...... is an area that is very much in flux. There remains no consensus on the application of antitrust law to Big Data much less as to how it applies. Disagreement aside there is a growing number of decisions, which highlight the use of antitrust rules to Big Data cases. Historically the European and the U...... to pharmaceutical laboratories using Euris software while selling to laboratories using Cegedim’s own and other competing CRM management software. Following the decision from the French Authority finding that the refusal was unjustified it is clear that refusal to sell may in certain circumstances give rise...

  15. ENVIROSUITE: USING STATE-OF-THE-ART SYNCHROTRON TECHNIQUES TO UNDERSTAND ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION SCIENCE ISSUES AT THE MOLECULAR LEVEL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FITTS,J.P.; KALB,P.D.; FRANCIS,A.J.; FUHRMANN,M.; DODGE,C.J.; GILLOW,J.B.

    2004-03-01

    Although DOE's Environmental Management program has made steady progress in cleaning up environmental legacies throughout the DOE complex, there are still significant remediation issues that remain to be solved. For example, DOE faces difficult challenges related to potential mobilization of radionuclides (e.g., actinides) and other hazardous contaminants in soils, removal and final treatment of high-level waste and residuals from leaking tanks, and the long-term stewardship of remediated sites and engineered disposal facilities, to name just a few. In some cases, new technologies and technology applications will be required based on current engineering expertise. In others, however, basic scientific research is needed to understand the mechanisms of how contaminants behave under specific conditions and how they interact with the environment, from which new engineering solutions can emerge. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Stony Brook University, scientists have teamed to use state-of-the-art synchrotron techniques to help understand the basic interactions of contaminants in the environment. Much of this work is conducted at the BNL National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), which is a user facility that provides high energy X-ray and ultraviolet photon beams to facilitate the examination of contaminants and materials at the molecular level. These studies allow us to determine how chemical speciation and structure control important parameters such as solubility, which in turn drive critical performance characteristics such as leaching. In one study for example, we are examining the effects of microbial activity on actinide contaminants under conditions anticipated at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. One possible outcome of this research is the identification of specific microbes that can trap uranium or other contaminants within the intracellular structure and help mitigate mobility. In another study, we are exploring the interaction of contaminants

  16. ENVIROSUITE: USING STATE-OF-THE-ART SYNCHROTRON TECHNIQUES TO UNDERSTAND ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION SCIENCE ISSUES AT THE MOLECULAR LEVEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FITTS, J.P.; KALB, P.D.; FRANCIS, A.J.; FUHRMANN, M.; DODGE, C.J.; GILLOW, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Although DOE's Environmental Management program has made steady progress in cleaning up environmental legacies throughout the DOE complex, there are still significant remediation issues that remain to be solved. For example, DOE faces difficult challenges related to potential mobilization of radionuclides (e.g., actinides) and other hazardous contaminants in soils, removal and final treatment of high-level waste and residuals from leaking tanks, and the long-term stewardship of remediated sites and engineered disposal facilities, to name just a few. In some cases, new technologies and technology applications will be required based on current engineering expertise. In others, however, basic scientific research is needed to understand the mechanisms of how contaminants behave under specific conditions and how they interact with the environment, from which new engineering solutions can emerge. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Stony Brook University, scientists have teamed to use state-of-the-art synchrotron techniques to help understand the basic interactions of contaminants in the environment. Much of this work is conducted at the BNL National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), which is a user facility that provides high energy X-ray and ultraviolet photon beams to facilitate the examination of contaminants and materials at the molecular level. These studies allow us to determine how chemical speciation and structure control important parameters such as solubility, which in turn drive critical performance characteristics such as leaching. In one study for example, we are examining the effects of microbial activity on actinide contaminants under conditions anticipated at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. One possible outcome of this research is the identification of specific microbes that can trap uranium or other contaminants within the intracellular structure and help mitigate mobility. In another study, we are exploring the interaction of contaminants with

  17. Anticipate and communicate: Ethical management of incidental and secondary findings in the clinical, research, and direct-to-consumer contexts (December 2013 report of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Christine

    2014-09-15

    Genomic population research increases the possibility of finding genetic coding anomalies that are not the primary object of research but may have significance for the current and future medical care of research participants and progeny. The December 2013 Report of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (Anticipate and Communicate: Ethical Management of Incidental and Secondary Findings in the Clinical, Research, and Direct-to-Consumer Contexts (http://bioethics.gov/sites/default/files/FINALAnticipateCommunicate_PCSBI_0.pdf)) recommends that a researcher anticipate these findings and make a plan that addresses which findings will be communicated to research participants and how. Following these recommendations will be disruptive for both investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) until the research community reaches consensus, or a mechanism for evolving consensus, on which results should be returned to research participants. A protocol-by-protocol approach, though laborious, makes sense for both investigators and IRBs as the research community thinks through the implications of genomic research. Epidemiologists will note that discussion of the return of results and the plan for communicating findings should be included in both the participant consent agreement and the research protocol submitted to the IRB. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ... consist of special issues on major events or important thematic issues. ... of sources, including plant and animal by- products.

  19. Legal issues in radon affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of experts and the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise

  20. Legal issues in radon affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massuelle, M.H. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    1999-12-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of expertsand the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise.

  1. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... 1Faculty of Sports Science and Coaching, Universiti Pendidikan ... face obesity issues because of several factors such as changes in diet intake, lifestyle, physical ...... and its implications for policy and intervention strategies.

  2. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Search. Search. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences. Title. Author. Keywords. Fulltext. Submit. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences. Current Issue : Vol. 128, Issue 2. Current Issue Volume 128 | Issue 2. April 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues ...

  3. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative ... 1. Faculty of Engineering, Civil Engineering Department, Urmia Branch, ..... Table 4. Sections of the main components of 16 stories building ..... International Journal of Engineering Science and Innovative ... Issue 1, January 2013.

  4. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-05

    Jun 5, 2016 ... because Amir al- Mu'minin's(peace be upon him) name is related to human perfection and. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. ISSN 1112-9867. Available online at http://www.jfas.info. Research Article. Special Issue. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative ...

  5. Political Psychology in Russia: Current Issues in International Studies (Interview with Nikolay Kosolapov, Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Andreevna Chmyreva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interview with Professor N. Kosolapov is devoted to the most urgent and complex problems of modern international relations and world politics, reveals the current state of political psychology in Russia and abroad, as well as the evolution of the science. As estimated by N. Kosolapov, the viability of political-psychological projects in Russia has fallen sharply compared to 1990's. They are not fully used in the development of political strategies, as well as in the process of operational decision making and its realization. In the interview are marked the obstacles to the emergence of theoretical and applied research in Russia, as well as key milestones for future development of political psychology. It also touches upon the most important questions of psychology of leadership within the framework of modern Russian and international practice, the political process as a whole, shows the differences in the approaches of European and Russian scientific schools in the analysis of political leadership. The author’s vision of key issues of contemporary international relations is of particular interest: we are witnessing the fact that American global leadership is experiencing an acute crisis, which contributes to the escalation of inter-state conflicts. However, the positive effect of the international crisis for our country is that it led the elites to reconsider their own ideological guidance with respect to Russia's role in world politics and forced to fight for the «new position».

  6. Editorial: Special issue on education

    OpenAIRE

    Masal Ercan; Önder İsmail; Çalışkan Hüseyin; Beşoluk Şenol; Demirhan Eda

    2017-01-01

    This special issue consists of selected proceedings presented in ERPA International Congresses on Education 2017 which was held in Budapest / Hungary, 18-21 May 2017. Studies are related to educational sciences, science and mathematics education, social sciences education, health and sports science education, music and fine arts education, computer education and instructional technology, language education and management of education. There are eighty valuable studies in this special issue. I...

  7. Editorial: Special issue on education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masal Ercan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue consists of selected proceedings presented in ERPA International Congresses on Education 2017 which was held in Budapest / Hungary, 18-21 May 2017. Studies are related to educational sciences, science and mathematics education, social sciences education, health and sports science education, music and fine arts education, computer education and instructional technology, language education and management of education. There are eighty valuable studies in this special issue. In sum the results of studies will contribute to the field.

  8. Message for the First Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Advances in Climate Change Research is a journal published by National Climate Centre of China Meteorological Administration.So far,it is the only comprehensive English journal in China,which focuses on climate change studies and covers both natural and social sciences related to climate change.This issue mainly presents the latest academic views and findings in climate change research both in China and overseas,and additionally it provides information about major activities regarding climate change both at home and abroad.

  9. Science, Society and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. S.; Teich, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    Apart from the journals they produce, scientific societies play an important role in communicating scientific findings and norms to the broader society. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) includes among its goals to promote and defend the integrity of science and its use; provide a voice for science on societal issues; promote the responsible use of science in public policy; and increase public engagement with science and technology. AAAS websites and programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/wwc/book.htm) and ScienceCareers.org (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org), provide tools for scientists to become more directly engaged in effectively communicating their findings and involved in the policy process. Education programs work to build the next generation of scientists and a science-literate public. To bridge the current communication gap between scientists, the public and policymakers, AAAS, like other scientific societies, maintains policy and outreach programs with limited budgets and staff. AAAS works to engage policymakers and provide scientific underpinning to key issues through congressional briefings, meetings, policy briefs, and media outreach. AAAS responds to challenges to accepted scientific findings and processes through op-eds, letters to government officials, resolutions, and Board statements. Some of these initiatives occur on a local level in partnership with local civic leaders, whose endorsement makes them more powerful. On a national scale, they assure that the voice of science is included in the debate. The changing media landscape presents opportunities and challenges for future AAAS endeavors.

  10. Engagement in Science Lessons and Achievement Test Scores of Eighth-Grade Students in Korea: Findings from the TIMSS 2011 Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, J. Daniel; Telese, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific literacy and student engagement in science are important components of the school curriculum in Korea. In addition, several studies from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) assessments have identified factors associated with the learning outcomes of students in Korea. The purpose of this study was to…

  11. Augmented Reality in Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Brandt, Harald; Swensen, Hakon

    Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. However, most extant studies in this field have focused on the technology itself. The poster presents findings from the first stage of the AR-sci project addressing the issue of applying AR for educational purposes. Benefits and chall......Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. However, most extant studies in this field have focused on the technology itself. The poster presents findings from the first stage of the AR-sci project addressing the issue of applying AR for educational purposes. Benefits...... and challenges related to AR enhancing student learning in science in lower secondary school were identified by expert science teachers, ICT designers and science education researchers from four countries in a Delphi survey. Findings were condensed in a framework to categorize educational AR designs....

  12. Science Teaching in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Brendan E.; Dopico, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Reading the interesting article "Discerning selective traditions in science education" by Per Sund, which is published in this issue of "CSSE," allows us to open the discussion on procedures for teaching science today. Clearly there is overlap between the teaching of science and other areas of knowledge. However, we must…

  13. Barriers and opportunities for enhancing patient recruitment and retention in clinical research: findings from an interview study in an NHS academic health science centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mary; Caffrey, Louise; McKevitt, Christopher

    2015-03-12

    In the UK, the recruitment of patients into clinical research is a national health research and development policy priority. There has been limited investigation of how national level factors operate as barriers or facilitators to recruitment work, particularly from the perspective of staff undertaking patient recruitment work. The aim of this study is to identify and examine staff views of the key organisational barriers and facilitators to patient recruitment work in one clinical research group located in an NHS Academic Health Science Centre. A qualitative study utilizing in-depth, one-to-one semi-structured interviews with 11 purposively selected staff with particular responsibilities to recruit and retain patients as clinical research subjects. Thematic analysis classified interview data by recurring themes, concepts, and emergent categories for the purposes of establishing explanatory accounts. The findings highlight four key factors that staff perceived to be most significant for the successful recruitment and retention of patients in research and identify how staff located these factors within patients, studies, the research centre, the trust, and beyond the trust. Firstly, competition for research participants at an organisational and national level was perceived to undermine recruitment success. Secondly, the tension between clinical and clinical research workloads was seen to interrupt patient recruitment into studies, despite national funding arrangements to manage excess treatment costs. Thirdly, staff perceived an imbalance between personal patient burden and benefit. Ethical committee regulation, designed to protect patients, was perceived by some staff to detract from clarification and systematisation of incentivisation strategies. Finally, the structure and relationships within clinical research teams, in particular the low tacit status of recruitment skills, was seen as influential. The results of this case-study, conducted in an exemplary NHS

  14. Interfacial and Surface Science | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science group within the Material Science Center. He oversees research studies of surfaces and interfaces Interfacial and Surface Science Interfacial and Surface Science Image of irregular-outlined, light address a broad range of fundamental and applied issues in surface and interfacial science that are

  15. ``I Didn't Realize that Science Could Be So Useful'': Integrating Service Learning and Student Research on Water-Quality Issues within an Undergraduate Geoscience Curriculum (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, P. D.; Urquhart, J.

    2010-12-01

    The title quote, from a senior geoscience major, illustrates one of the important aspects of service learning. The associated authentic research experiences benefit not only learning of geoscience concepts, but also students’ perceptions of the role of science in society. For the past two years, a wide-ranging study of water-quality dynamics in the Androscoggin Lake watershed of Maine has engaged (1) introductory students and non-science majors in spring-semester courses, (2) upper-level geoscience majors in fall-semester courses, and (3) seniors undertaking independent summer research. The overall focus of the research is to understand nutrient loading to Androscoggin Lake, which receives back-flooded water from the industrialized Androscoggin River, as well as from agricultural lands in the connecting Dead River valley. Stakeholders include the local lake association, the state DEP, pulp-mill and wastewater-plant operators, and local farmers. A key element in the project is the role adopted by the student researchers vis-à-vis policy options. Following the taxonomy of Pielke (2007, The Honest Broker: Cambridge University Press), students doing service learning may serve as issue advocates, seeking to provide scientific support for the policy positions of community partners. In contrast, we have adopted explicitly the position of honest brokers who seek to understand and communicate the workings of this complex system without advocating specific policy solutions. This approach has facilitated buy-in from a larger range of stakeholders, and encouraged students to address choices in the roles and responsibilities of scientists in policy decisions—a valuable perspective for future scientists and non-scientists alike. In service-learning courses, groups of 3 to 5 students engage in a variety of sub-projects, such as lake-bottom sediment studies, nutrient sampling in streams and lakes, developing rating curves for streamflow, and calculating phosphorus fluxes

  16. Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, G. J.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Kiehl, J. T.; Schmidt, C.

    2010-12-01

    We are in an era of rapidly changing communication media, which is driving a major evolution in the modes of communicating science. In the past, a mainstay of scientific communication in popular media was through science “translators”; science journalists and presenters. These have now nearly disappeared and are being replaced by widespread dissemination through, e.g., the internet, blogs, YouTube and journalists who often have little scientific background and sharp deadlines. Thus, scientists are required to assume increasing responsibility for translating their scientific findings and calibrating their communications to non-technical audiences, a task for which they are often ill prepared, especially when it comes to controversial societal issues such as tobacco, evolution, and most recently climate change (Oreskes and Conway 2010). Such issues have been politicized and hi-jacked by ideological belief systems to such an extent that constructive dialogue is often impossible. Many scientists are excellent communicators, to their peers. But this requires careful attention to detail and logical explanation, open acknowledgement of uncertainties, and dispassionate delivery. These qualities become liabilities when communicating to a non-scientific audience where entertainment, attention grabbing, 15 second sound bites, and self assuredness reign (e.g. Olson 2009). Here we report on a program initiated by NCAR and UCAR to develop new approaches to science communication and to equip present and future scientists with the requisite skills. If we start from a sound scientific finding with general scientific consensus, such as the warming of the planet by greenhouse gases, then the primary emphasis moves from the “science” to the “art” of communication. The art cannot have free reign, however, as there remains a strong requirement for objectivity, honesty, consistency, and above all a resistance to advocating particular policy positions. Targeting audience

  17. Staff Report to the Senior Department Official on Recognition Compliance Issues. Recommendation Page: National Accrediting Commission Of Cosmetology Arts and Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The National Accrediting Commission of Cosmetology Arts and Sciences (NACCAS) is a national accreditor whose scope of recognition is for the accreditation throughout the United States of postsecondary schools and departments of cosmetology arts and sciences and massage therapy. The agency accredits approximately 1,300 institutions offering…

  18. Rhetoric of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. Allen

    1991-01-01

    Places rhetoric of science in context with sociology, psychology, history, and philosophy of science. Generates a typology of concerns for rhetoric of science. Characterizes the central issues of the field. (RS)

  19. Social representations of science and gender in Science teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Heerdt

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Social Representations (SR of teachers regarding the Nature of Science (NoS, gender issues in society, Science and in the teaching context. The theoretical approach is Moscovici’s SR associated to NoS discussions, Science feminist theories and Teaching of Science. A number of twenty-two teachers were part of this research. Data were collected through the filmic record. The lexical analysis was performed using the Alceste software. Four classes were formed: NoS, Gender and women in Science, Gender and teaching context, and Gender and society. In the areas of the teachers’ education, it was not possible to find significant differences in SR. Through empirical data, the distinct argumentation of men and women is noticed. The SR of men, naturalized, discriminatory and of gender issue denial in society and Science, is more forceful than of women. It is necessary, in the initial and continued education, the problematization of gender issues in Science.

  20. Nanoethics and the breaching of boundaries: a heuristic for going from encouragement to a fuller integration of ethical, legal and social issues and science : commentary on: "Adding to the mix: integrating ELSI into a National Nanoscale Science and Technology Center".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, Julio R

    2011-12-01

    The intersection of ELSI and science forms a complicated nexus yet their integration is an important goal both for society and for the successful advancement of science. In what follows, I present a heuristic that makes boundary identification and crossing an important tool in the discovery of potential areas of ethical, legal, and social concern in science. A dynamic and iterative application of the heuristic can lead towards a fuller integration and appreciation of the concerns of ELSI and of science from both sides of the divide.

  1. Special Issue to publish

    OpenAIRE

    Kllogjeri, Pellumb

    2015-01-01

    SciencePG has offered an email poster to help collect papers for our Special Issue and I have uploaded it for you. Please visit http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/specialissue/149002  to see our Special Issue announcement. Now, you can do the followings to personally contribute and promote our Special Issue:1. Submit your paper related to the topics of interest 2. Upload it to your personal websites.3. Upload it to the public websites of some universities and academic institutions...

  2. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-22

    Mar 22, 2018 ... rameter of computation time and convergence rate. The two scheme have shown ... matrix and its inversion repeatedly for every iteration. This issue causes long ..... Some New Findings on Gauss-Seidel. Technique for Load ...

  3. A Special Issue: Geomathematics in practice: Case studies from earth- and environmental sciences – Proceedings of the Croatian-Hungarian Geomathematical Congress, Hungary 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatvani István Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to introduce the current problems of geomathematics along with giving on overview on the papers published in the special issue covering the Croatian-Hungarian Geomathematical Congress of 2015 in Hungary.

  4. Science Fiction in Education: Case Studies from Classroom Implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrasidas, Charalambos; Avraamidou, Lucy; Theodoridou, Katerina; Themistokleous, Sotiris; Panaou, Petros

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript reports on findings from the implementation of the EU project "Science Fiction in Education" (Sci-Fi-Ed). The project provides teachers with tools, training, and guidance that will assist them in enhancing their teaching, making science more attractive to students, connecting it with real-life issues such as the…

  5. Educating Tomorrow's Science Teachers: STEM ACT Conference Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternheim, Morton M.; Feldman, Allan; Berger, Joseph B.; Zhao, Yijie

    2008-01-01

    This document reports on the findings of an NSF-funded conference (STEM ACT) on the alternative certification of science teachers. The conference explored the issues that have arisen in science education as a result of the proliferation of alternative certification programs in the United States, and to identify the research that needs to be done…

  6. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Bhalchandra W Gore. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 22 Issue 7 July 2017 pp 705-714 Classroom. On Finding the Shortest Distance of a Point From a Line: Which Method Do You Prefer? Bhalchandra W Gore · More Details ...

  7. Individuals with greater science literacy and education have more polarized beliefs on controversial science topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Although Americans generally hold science in high regard and respect its findings, for some contested issues, such as the existence of anthropogenic climate change, public opinion is polarized along religious and political lines. We ask whether individuals with more general education and greater science knowledge, measured in terms of science education and science literacy, display more (or less) polarized beliefs on several such issues. We report secondary analyses of a nationally representative dataset (the General Social Survey), examining the predictors of beliefs regarding six potentially controversial issues. We find that beliefs are correlated with both political and religious identity for stem cell research, the Big Bang, and human evolution, and with political identity alone on climate change. Individuals with greater education, science education, and science literacy display more polarized beliefs on these issues. We find little evidence of political or religious polarization regarding nanotechnology and genetically modified foods. On all six topics, people who trust the scientific enterprise more are also more likely to accept its findings. We discuss the causal mechanisms that might underlie the correlation between education and identity-based polarization. PMID:28827344

  8. Individuals with greater science literacy and education have more polarized beliefs on controversial science topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Caitlin; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2017-09-05

    Although Americans generally hold science in high regard and respect its findings, for some contested issues, such as the existence of anthropogenic climate change, public opinion is polarized along religious and political lines. We ask whether individuals with more general education and greater science knowledge, measured in terms of science education and science literacy, display more (or less) polarized beliefs on several such issues. We report secondary analyses of a nationally representative dataset (the General Social Survey), examining the predictors of beliefs regarding six potentially controversial issues. We find that beliefs are correlated with both political and religious identity for stem cell research, the Big Bang, and human evolution, and with political identity alone on climate change. Individuals with greater education, science education, and science literacy display more polarized beliefs on these issues. We find little evidence of political or religious polarization regarding nanotechnology and genetically modified foods. On all six topics, people who trust the scientific enterprise more are also more likely to accept its findings. We discuss the causal mechanisms that might underlie the correlation between education and identity-based polarization.

  9. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-02-01

    Feb 1, 2018 ... the Russian philosophical and sociological thought. The thoughts of the Russian scientist ... Research Article. Special Issue. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. Libraries Resource Directory. We are ...

  10. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... Research Article. Special Issue. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. ... innovation is defined as: accepting ideas or behaviors in the organization that are novel and unfamiliar. Innovation can be in form ...

  11. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. ISSN 1112-9867. Available online at http://www.jfas.info. Research Article. Special Issue .... of use. Three critical success factors of e-learning (instructor characteristics, student characteristics .... Total of 95 questionnaires were used for further data analysis.

  12. Going Local to Find Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury Going Local to Find Help Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... phone numbers, maps and directions, such as To Find Out More: Visit www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/ ...

  13. Incorporating Earth Science into Other High School Science Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, C. L. B.; Holzer, M.; Colson, M.; Courtier, A. M. B.; Jacobs, B. E.

    2016-12-01

    As states begin to review their standards, some adopt or adapt the NGSS and others write their own, many basing these on the Framework for K-12 Science Education. Both the NGSS and the Frameworks have an increased emphasis on Earth Science but many high school teachers are being asked to teach these standards in traditional Biology, Chemistry and Physics courses. At the Earth Educators Rendezvous, teachers, scientists, and science education researchers worked together to find the interconnections between the sciences using the NGSS and identified ways to reference the role of Earth Sciences in the other sciences during lectures, activities and laboratory assignments. Weaving Earth and Space sciences into the other curricular areas, the teams developed relevant problems for students to solve by focusing on using current issues, media stories, and community issues. These and other lessons and units of study will be presented along with other resources used by teachers to ensure students are gaining exposure and a deeper understanding of Earth and Space Science concepts.

  14. Enhancing Teacher and Student Engagement and Understanding of Marine Science Through Classroom Citizen Science Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodale, T. A.

    2016-02-01

    Overview This paper presentation shares findings from a granted funded project that sought to expand teacher content knowledge and pedagogy within the fields of marine science and coastal resource management through the implementation of classroom citizen science projects. A secondary goal was to increase middle and high school student interest and participation in marine science and natural resources research. Background A local science & engineering fair has seen a rapid decline in secondary student participants in the past four years. Research has demonstrated that when students are a part of a system of knowledge production (citizen science) they become much more aware, involved and conscious of scientific concepts compared to traditional school laboratory and nature of science activities. This project's primary objectives were to: (a) enhance teacher content expertise in marine science, (b) enrich teacher professional learning, (c) support citizen science classroom projects and inspire student activism and marine science engagement. Methods Project goals were addressed through classroom and meaningful outdoor educational experiences that put content knowledge into field based practices. Teachers learned to apply thier expanded content knowlege through classroom citizen science projects that focus on marine resource conservation issues such as fisheries management, water quality, turtle nesting and biodiversity of coastal ecosystems. These projects would eventually become potential topics of citizen science research topics for their students to pursue. Upon completion of their professional development, participants were urged to establish student Marine Science clubs with the goal of mentoring student submissions into the local science fair. Supplemental awards were possible for the students of project participants. Findings Based on project measures participants significantly increased their knowledge and awareness of presented material marine science and

  15. Molecular science for drug development and biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wei-Zhu; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2014-11-04

    With the avalanche of biological sequences generated in the postgenomic age, molecular science is facing an unprecedented challenge, i.e., how to timely utilize the huge amount of data to benefit human beings. Stimulated by such a challenge, a rapid development has taken place in molecular science, particularly in the areas associated with drug development and biomedicine, both experimental and theoretical. The current thematic issue was launched with the focus on the topic of "Molecular Science for Drug Development and Biomedicine", in hopes to further stimulate more useful techniques and findings from various approaches of molecular science for drug development and biomedicine.[...].

  16. "Because if we talk about health issues first, it is easier to talk about human trafficking"; findings from a mixed methods study on health needs and service provision among migrant and trafficked fishermen in the Mekong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Nicola S; Tadee, Reena; Tharawan, Kanokwan; Rongrongmuang, Wansiri; Dickson, Brett; Suos, Soksreymom; Kiss, Ligia; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2018-05-09

    Human trafficking in the fishing industry or "sea slavery" in the Greater Mekong Subregion is reported to involve some of the most extreme forms of exploitation and abuse. A largely unregulated sector, commercial fishing boats operate in international waters far from shore and outside of national jurisdiction, where workers are commonly subjected to life-threatening risks. Yet, research on the health needs of trafficked fishermen is sparse. This paper describes abuses, occupational hazards, physical and mental health and post-trafficking well-being among a systematic consecutive sample of 275 trafficked fishermen using post-trafficking services in Thailand and Cambodia. These findings are complemented by qualitative interview data collected with 20 key informants working with fishermen or on issues related to their welfare in Thailand. Men and boys trafficked for fishing (aged 12-55) were mainly from Cambodia (n = 217) and Myanmar (n = 55). Common physical health problems included dizzy spells (30.2%), exhaustion (29.5%), headaches (28.4%) and memory problems (24.0%). Nearly one-third (29.1%) reported pain in three or more areas of their body and one-quarter (26.9%) reported being in "poor" health. Physical health symptoms were strongly associated with: severe violence; injuries; engagement in long-haul fishing; immigration detention or symptoms of mental health disorders. Survivors were exposed to multiple work hazards and were perceived as disposable when disabled by illness or injuries. Employers struggled to apply internationally recommended Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) practices in Thailand. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) encountered challenges when trying to obtain healthcare for uninsured fishermen. Challenges included fee payment, service provision in native languages and officials siding with employers in disputes over treatment costs and accident compensation. Survivors' post-trafficking concerns included: money problems (75

  17. Identifying Relevant Anti-Science Perceptions to Improve Science-Based Communication: The Negative Perceptions of Science Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Morgan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Science communicators and scholars have struggled to understand what appears to be increasingly frequent endorsement of a wide range of anti-science beliefs and a corresponding reduction of trust in science. A common explanation for this issue is a lack of science literacy/knowledge among the general public (Funk et al. 2015. However, other possible explanations have been advanced, including conflict with alternative belief systems and other contextual factors, and even cultural factors (Gauchat 2008; Kahan 2015 that are not necessarily due to knowledge deficits. One of the challenges is that there are limited tools available to measure a range of possible underlying negative perceptions of science that could provide a more nuanced framework within which to improve communication around important scientific topics. This project describes two studies detailing the development and validation of the Negative Perceptions of Science Scale (NPSS, a multi-dimensional instrument that taps into several distinct sets of negative science perceptions: Science as Corrupt, Science as Complex, Science as Heretical, and Science as Limited. Evidence for the reliability and validity of the NPSS is described. The sub-dimensions of the NPSS are associated with a range of specific anti-science beliefs across a broad set of topic areas above and beyond that explained by demographics (including education, sex, age, and income, political, and religious ideology. Implications for these findings for improving science communication and science-related message tailoring are discussed.

  18. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... history of smoking and exposure to radiation or chemicals, physical examination findings and laboratory findings ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... (58%) were male and 103 (42%) were female. Then .... Table 2: Frequency of AML patients in 1990-95 in terms of sex and place of residence:.

  19. Managing the space sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In April 1994 the National Research Council received a request from NASA that the NRC's Space Studies Board provide guidance on questions relating to the management of NASA's programs in the space sciences. The issues raised in the request closely reflect questions posed in the agency's fiscal year 1994 Senate appropriations report. These questions included the following: Should all the NASA space science programs be gathered into a 'National Institute for Space Science'? What other organizational changes might be made to improve the coordination and oversight of NASA space science programs? What processes should be used for establishing interdisciplinary science priorities based on scientific merit and other criteria, while ensuring opportunities for newer fields and disciplines to emerge? And what steps could be taken to improve utilization of advanced technologies in future space scienc missions? This report details the findings of the Committee on the Future of Space Science (FOSS) and its three task groups: the Task Group on Alternative Organizations, Task Group on Research Prioritization, and the Task Group on Technology.

  20. Academic Research Equipment in the Physical and Computer Sciences and Engineering. An Analysis of Findings from Phase I of the National Science Foundation's National Survey of Academic Research Instruments and Instrumentation Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf, Kenneth; White, Kristine

    This report presents information from phase I of a survey designed to develop quantitative indicators of the current national stock, cost/investment, condition, obsolescence, utilization, and need for major research instruments in academic settings. Data for phase I (which focused on the physical and computer sciences and engineering) were…

  1. In This Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Composing the Curriculum For your summer reading pleasure this month's issue provides a wide range of subjects and activities. Our lead article is a tribute to a chemist-composer, Lejaren A. Hiller, Jr., as well as an examination of the interesting relationship between chemistry (and science) and music. Like Hiller, Wamser and Wamser (page 601) love both chemistry and music, and this comes through loud and clear in their historical perspective on Hiller's work. Much of the rest of the issue impinges on the chemistry curriculum in one form or another. Rettich, Bailey, Frank, and Frick (page 638) describe an integrated first- and second-year curriculum being developed at Illinois Wesleyan University that includes all subdisciplines of chemistry. They describe ways to teach topics such as acids and bases so that the perspectives of (for example) organic and inorganic chemistry are integrated and contemporaneous. Those contemplating a popular reform, group work or cooperative learning, will be interested in Birk and Kurtz's program (page 615) for training teaching assistants using cooperative learning. Surely TAs who have participated in cooperative groups to develop their own techniques for handling discussion and lab sessions will be able to use group learning to better advantage. Several years ago the ACS Division of Chemical Education set up a Task Force on the General Chemistry Curriculum. With support from the National Science Foundation and others, the task force has been quite active. In addition to the summative reports published here (pages 617-636) on four areas in which general chemistry teaching can be improved, they have contributed many Forum columns in earlier issues of the Journal and have published much of their work in New Directions for General Chemistry: A Resource for Curricular Change; Baird W. Lloyd, ed. Our current approach to teaching electron configurations of the atoms is largely based on quantum theory Because of the mathematics required

  2. Setting up crowd science projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheliga, Kaja; Friesike, Sascha; Puschmann, Cornelius; Fecher, Benedikt

    2016-11-29

    Crowd science is scientific research that is conducted with the participation of volunteers who are not professional scientists. Thanks to the Internet and online platforms, project initiators can draw on a potentially large number of volunteers. This crowd can be involved to support data-rich or labour-intensive projects that would otherwise be unfeasible. So far, research on crowd science has mainly focused on analysing individual crowd science projects. In our research, we focus on the perspective of project initiators and explore how crowd science projects are set up. Based on multiple case study research, we discuss the objectives of crowd science projects and the strategies of their initiators for accessing volunteers. We also categorise the tasks allocated to volunteers and reflect on the issue of quality assurance as well as feedback mechanisms. With this article, we contribute to a better understanding of how crowd science projects are set up and how volunteers can contribute to science. We suggest that our findings are of practical relevance for initiators of crowd science projects, for science communication as well as for informed science policy making. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. A new analysis of Mars "Special Regions": findings of the second MEPAG Special Regions Science Analysis Group (SR-SAG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, John D; Beaty, David W; Jones, Melissa A; Bakermans, Corien; Barlow, Nadine G; Boston, Penelope J; Chevrier, Vincent F; Clark, Benton C; de Vera, Jean-Pierre P; Gough, Raina V; Hallsworth, John E; Head, James W; Hipkin, Victoria J; Kieft, Thomas L; McEwen, Alfred S; Mellon, Michael T; Mikucki, Jill A; Nicholson, Wayne L; Omelon, Christopher R; Peterson, Ronald; Roden, Eric E; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara; Tanaka, Kenneth L; Viola, Donna; Wray, James J

    2014-11-01

    A committee of the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) has reviewed and updated the description of Special Regions on Mars as places where terrestrial organisms might replicate (per the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy). This review and update was conducted by an international team (SR-SAG2) drawn from both the biological science and Mars exploration communities, focused on understanding when and where Special Regions could occur. The study applied recently available data about martian environments and about terrestrial organisms, building on a previous analysis of Mars Special Regions (2006) undertaken by a similar team. Since then, a new body of highly relevant information has been generated from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (launched in 2005) and Phoenix (2007) and data from Mars Express and the twin Mars Exploration Rovers (all 2003). Results have also been gleaned from the Mars Science Laboratory (launched in 2011). In addition to Mars data, there is a considerable body of new data regarding the known environmental limits to life on Earth-including the potential for terrestrial microbial life to survive and replicate under martian environmental conditions. The SR-SAG2 analysis has included an examination of new Mars models relevant to natural environmental variation in water activity and temperature; a review and reconsideration of the current parameters used to define Special Regions; and updated maps and descriptions of the martian environments recommended for treatment as "Uncertain" or "Special" as natural features or those potentially formed by the influence of future landed spacecraft. Significant changes in our knowledge of the capabilities of terrestrial organisms and the existence of possibly habitable martian environments have led to a new appreciation of where Mars Special Regions may be identified and protected. The SR-SAG also considered the impact of Special Regions on potential future human missions to Mars, both as locations of

  4. NST Quarterly. July 1996 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in in-vitro mutagenesis of ornamental plants, soil erosion studies and animal feed production from agricultural waste

  5. NST Quarterly - January 1998 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in proposal of national networking for biotechnology culture collection centre (NNBCCC)

  6. NST Quarterly. October 1996 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in latex vulcanization (first RVNRL-based rubber gloves produced in Malaysia), tank floor scanning system (TAFLOSS), incineration and radiotherapeutic agent

  7. NST Quarterly - April 1998 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in ionizing radiation as an alternative method for sanitization of herbs and spices

  8. Mediating equity in shared water between community and industry: The effects of an after school program that addresses adolescents' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of water science and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Mary Chandler

    This critical ethnography deconstructs how one participant researcher came to understand young adults' changing knowledge about water science and environmental issues in an after school program in Colombia. The program intended to empower self-identified young community leaders by teaching participants to engage community members in discourse related to how environmental factors impact one's level of health and quality of life. The data presented in this study illustrate how student participants responded to long-term teacher engagement and to particular curricular components that included hands-on science teaching and social justice coaching. I assessed how student interest in and knowledge of local water ecology and sanitation infrastructure changed throughout the program. Students' responses to the use of technology and digital media were also included in the analysis. The data demonstrates a dramatic change in student's attitudes and perceptions related to their environment and how they feel about their ability to make positive changes in their community.

  9. Neogene Amazonia: Introduction to the special issue Journal of South American Earth Sciences, New contributions on Neogene geography and depositional environments in Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Vonhof, H.B.

    2006-01-01

    The paleontological data presented in this special issue provide a new insight into species migration and radiation in Amazonia during the Miocene. At the time, Amazonia was characterized by a very extensive, long-lived, semi-isolated, freshwater wetland ecosystem that was supplied with water and

  10. Civic-Political Engagement: Developmental Science Comes of Age. Commentary on the Thematic Issue "The Development of Civic Engagement: Results from Longitudinal Studies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youniss, James

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the author states that a major step in bringing developmental studies into correspondence with other disciplines that give civic and political engagement central importance has taken place. The projects reported in this issue represent an important historical development within the discipline of developmental studies. Seen is a…

  11. Family Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... es Autismo? Family Issues Home / Living with Autism / Family Issues Stress Siblings A child’s autism diagnosis affects every member of the family in different ways. Parents/caregivers must now place their ... may put stress on their marriage, other children, work, finances, and ...

  12. Global Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, J.L.

    2001-10-15

    Global Issues is an introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. This new edition of this text has been fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. Fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. An introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. Covers a range of perspectives on a variety of societies, developed and developing. Extensively illustrated with diagrams and photographs, contains guides to further reading, media, and internet resources, and includes suggestions for discussion and studying the material. (author)

  13. Science education and everyday action

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Wendy Renee Sherman

    2001-07-01

    This dissertation addresses three related tasks and issues in the larger field of science education. The first is to review of the several uses of "everydayness" at play in the science education literature, and in the education and social science literatures more generally. Four broad iterations of everydayness were found in science education, and these were traced and analyzed to develop their similarities, and contradictions. It was concluded that despite tendencies in science education research to suppose a fundamental demarcation either between professional science and everyday life, or between schools and everyday life, all social affairs, including professional science and activity in schools, are continuous with everyday life, and consist fundamentally in everyday, ordinary mundane actions which are ordered and organized by the participants to those social activities and occasions. The second task for this dissertation was to conduct a naturalistic, descriptive study of undergraduate-level physics laboratory activities from the analytic perspective of ethnomethodology. The study findings are presented as closely-detailed analysis of the students' methods of following their instructions and 'fitting' their observed results to a known scientific concept or principle during the enactment of their classroom laboratory activities. Based on the descriptions of students' practical work in following instructions and 'fitting'. The characterization of school science labs as an "experiment-demonstration hybrid" is developed. The third task of this dissertation was to synthesize the literature review and field study findings in order to clarify what science educators could productively mean by "everydayness", and to suggest what understandings of science education the study of everyday action recommends. It is argued that the significance of the 'experiment-demo hybrid' characterization must be seen in terms of an alternate program for science education research, which

  14. The Prototype Plume Busters Software: A New Tool for Exploring Issues Related to Environmental Policy in Undergraduate-level Earth and Environmental Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, P. A.

    2006-12-01

    Students seldom have an opportunity to explore the issues related to the environmental impact of contamination on water resources. With NSF support we have developed the prototype Plume Busters, in which students take on the role of an environmental consultant. The software consists of an interactive, Java application and accompanying HTML linked pages. Following a pipeline spill, the environmental consultant is hired by the pipeline owner to locate the resulting plume created by the spill and remediate the contaminated aquifer at minimum monetary and time cost. The contamination must be removed from the aquifer before it reaches the river and eventually a downstream public water supply. The application simulates movement of a plume from a pipeline break through a shallow alluvial aquifer towards the river upstream from a municipal water supply intake. To locate the plume, the student places observation wells on a gridded map of the study area and the simulation returns the contaminant concentrations at those locations on the appropriate sample dates. Once the plume is located, the student is able to site pumping and injection wells on the map for aquifer remediation using a simple pump-and-treat technique. The simulation then computes the movement of particles to the pumping wells and returns the cumulative mass removed by the production remediation well. Plume Busters also provides teachers with a means to initiate student exploration of a wide range of environmental issues, including (1) source-water assessment and ground-water and wellhead protection zones, (2) the impact of human activities and technology on the hydrosphere and the biosphere, (3) the role of technology in the resolution of environmental issues (4) legal, social, political, and economic implications of environmental issues, and (5) risk assessment resulting from human activities.

  15. Boundary issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    What is our point of no return? Caesar proclaimed 'the die is cast' while crossing the Rubicon, but rarely does modern society find so visible a threshold in our continued degradation of ecosystems and the services they provide. Humans have always used their surroundings to make a living— sometimes successfully, sometimes not (Diamond 2005)—and we intuitively know that there are boundaries to our exploitation. But defining these boundaries has been a challenge since Malthus first prophesied that nature would limit the human population (Malthus 1798). In 2009, Rockström and colleagues tried to quantify what the 6.8 billion (and counting) of us could continue to get away with, and what we couldn't (Rockström et al 2009). In selecting ten 'planetary boundaries', the authors contend that a sustainable human enterprise requires treating a number of environmental thresholds as points of no return. They suggest we breach these Rubicons at our own peril, and that we've already crossed three: biodiversity loss, atmospheric CO2, and disruption of the global nitrogen (N) cycle. As they clearly hoped, the very act of setting targets has provoked scientific inquiry about their accuracy, and about the value of hard targets in the first place (Schlesinger 2009). Such debate is a good thing. Despite recent emphasis on the science of human-ecosystem interactions, understanding of our planetary boundaries is still in its infancy, and controversy can speed scientific progress (Engelhardt and Caplan 1987). A few weeks ago in this journal, Carpenter and Bennett (2011) took aim at one of the more controversial boundaries in the Rockström analysis: that for human alteration of the global phosphorus (P) cycle. Rockström's group chose riverine P export as the key indicator, suggesting that humans should not exceed a value that could trigger widespread marine anoxic events—and asserting that we have not yet crossed this threshold. There are defensible reasons for a marine

  16. NST Quarterly. January 1996 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in nuclear medicine, healthcare products sterilization, industrial irradiation dosimetry and heavy metals determination in food. The Malaysian standard for food irradiation was discussed in this issue

  17. Finding Sliesthorp?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobat, Andres S.

    2016-01-01

    In 2003, a hitherto unknown Viking age settlement was discovered at Füsing in Northern Germany close to Hedeby/Schleswig, the largest of the early Scandinavian towns. Finds and building features suggest a high status residence and a seat of some chiefly elite that flourished from around 700 to th...... and the transformation of socio‐political structures in Northern Europe as it transitioned from prehistory into the middle Ages....

  18. Science and Technology of Ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 2. Science and Technology of Ceramics - Advanced Ceramics: Structural Ceramics and Glasses. Sheela K Ramasesha. Series Article Volume 5 Issue 2 February 2000 pp 4-11 ...

  19. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | News

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 9. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Advances in Chemical Sciences and Sustainable Development. Information and Announcements Volume 19 Issue 9 September 2014 pp 876-876 ...

  20. IMPLEMETATION OF MODEL SAVI (SOMATIC, AUDIOTORY, VISUALIZATION, INTELLECTUAL TO INCREASE CRITICAL THINKING ABILITY IN CLASS IV OF SOCIAL SCIENCE LEARNING ON SOCIAL ISSUES IN THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadang Iskandar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is motivated by the lack of critical thinking skills of fourth grade students of SDN Tanjung III, Subang district. On the basis of the need for repairs done either by applying the model of SAVI (Somatic, Auditory, Visualization, Intellectual. So the purpose of this study was to determine the increase critical thinking skills of students in Social Science before and after applying the model SAVI, the performance of teachers in applying the model SAVI, activities and students' response to the model SAVI. The method used in this research is the CAR (Classroom Action Research. Subject of research that fourth grade students of SDN Tanjung III by the number of students as many as 23 people. The instrument used was LKS (Student Worksheet, observation sheet of students and teachers as well as student questionnaire responses. From these results, it can be concluded that by applying the model in study SAVI social science with social problems in the local environment can enhance students' critical thinking skills. The result can be seen from the percentage of the overall level of mastery learning increased from 52.2% in the first cycle, 78.3% in the second cycle and 100% in the third cycle. The average grade class of students increased from 44.3 prasiklus of data with less criteria, up to the third cycle, which reached 91.3 with the criteria very well. With the improvement of students' critical thinking skills that are calculated based on the n-gain of 0.53 with the criteria of being in the first cycle, and 0.65 with the criteria of being on the second cycle, and 0.81 with the high criteria of the third cycle. The results of observations also showed that the ability of teachers and students' activity in applying the model of SAVI increased. Based on questionnaire responses, 100% of students showed interest in learning social science model with SAVI. Therefore, it is suggested that teachers use models SAVI  to enhance the critical thinking

  1. Hunger and Development [Issue Packet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Freedom from Hunger Foundation, Washington, DC.

    A variety of informational materials is compiled in this issue packet concentrating on hunger and development. They have been assembled to understand the issues associated with the facts of world hunger and to try to invent new forms of action and thought necessary to find the possibilities hidden in the hunger issue. Items include: (1) a fact and…

  2. Journal of Aquatic Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Aquatic Sciences publishes articles on problems and issues in Aquatic Sciences from all ... The journal accepts for publication manuscripts of very high international standard containing reports of original scientific research.

  3. Using Online Databases in Corporate Issues Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Steven R.

    1995-01-01

    Finds that corporate public relations practitioners felt they were able, using online database and information services, to intercept issues earlier in the "issue cycle" and thus enable their organizations to develop more "proactionary" or "catalytic" issues management repose strategies. (SR)

  4. ADA members weigh in on critical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Karen; Ruesch, Jon D; Mikkelsen, Matthew C; Wagner, Karen Schaid

    2003-01-01

    Science, new technology, patient care, dental reimbursement and government regulations all affect today's dental practitioners. To find out more about how such challenges may affect current private practitioners, the American Dental Association conducted the 2000 Membership Needs and Opinions Survey. A questionnaire was sent to 6,310 ADA members in January 2000 with follow-up mailings in February, March and April 2000. Data collection was completed in July 2000. The survey included questions on critical professional issues, and on perceptions of the ADA and ADA priorities. A total of 3,558 completed surveys were received for an adjusted response rate of 59.5 percent. Members rated the identified issues' level of importance to them. The top three issues included "maintaining my ability to recommend the treatment option I feel is most appropriate for my patients," "receiving fair reimbursement for the dental services I provide," and "protecting myself, my staff and my patients from communicable diseases." New dentists found other items to be more significant to them compared with members overall. Although ADA members as a whole had similar views on critical issues facing dentistry and ADA priorities, there were significant differences regarding some issues. New dentists were far more concerned about securing funds for their practice and paying off debt than were all ADA members. Minority dentists expressed greater levels of concern about certain issues than did all ADA members. When planning and implementing ADA activities, the Association should continue to take into account members' relative rankings of professional issues and note issues of special interest to selected membership subgroups.

  5. Main findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Licensing regimes vary from country to country. When the license regime involves several regulators and several licenses, this may lead to complex situations. Identifying a leading organisation in charge of overall coordination including preparation of the licensing decision is a useful practice. Also, if a stepwise licensing process is implemented, it is important to fix in legislation decisions and/or time points and to identify the relevant actors. There is considerable experience in civil and mining engineering that can be applied when constructing a deep geological disposal facility. Specific challenges are, however, the minimization of disturbances to the host rock and the understanding of its long-term behavior. Construction activities may affect the geo-hydraulic and geochemical properties of the various system components which are important safety features of the repository system. Clearly defined technical specifications and an effective quality management plan are important in ensuring successful repository implementation which is consistent with safety requirements. Monitoring plan should also be defined in advance. The regulatory organization should prepare itself to the licensing review before construction by allocating sufficient resources. It should increase its competence, e.g., by interacting early with the implementer and through its own R and D. This will allow the regulator to define appropriate technical conditions associated to the construction license and to elaborate a relevant inspection plan of the construction work. After construction, obtaining the operational license is the most important and crucial step. Main challenges include (a) establishing sufficient confidence so that the methods for closing the individual disposal units comply with the safety objectives and (b) addressing the issue of ageing of materials during a 50-100 years operational period. This latter challenge is amplified when reversibility/retrievability is required

  6. Virtual colonoscopy: issues in implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelson, R.; Ramsay, D.; Edwards, J.; Forbes, G.

    2005-01-01

    The following issues and requirements related to the implementation of a CT colonography (CTC) service are important: (i) policies are needed regarding the indications for CTC. Concomitant with this is the need for education of potential referrers and patients. Expectations of the procedure, particularly by general practitioners, may be unrealistic and indications for referral may otherwise be inappropriate. At present there is not general acceptance of CTC for screening asymptomatic persons; (ii) a flexible approach to CT protocols is useful, dependant on the indication for and clinical context of referral, the age and body habitus of the patient; (iii) attention to the issues related to the special skills required by the reporting radiologist. While there is a temptation to regard CTC interpretation as an extension of skills used in interpreting other cross-sectional images, there is a need to realise that there are skills required specific to CTC and there should be adequate provision for training; (iv) matters related to reporting, such as reporting format, and lesions that will be reported/not reported; and (v) informed consent from the patient. Information should be provided with regard to the limitations of CTC, the implications of a positive finding and radiation dosage. Copyright (2005) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  7. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences. Current Issue : Vol. 128, Issue 1. Current Issue Volume 128 | Issue 1. March 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  8. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Earth System Science. Current Issue : Vol. 127, Issue 2. Current Issue Volume 127 | Issue 2. March 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  9. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Earth System Science. Current Issue : Vol. 127, Issue 3 · Current Issue Volume 127 | Issue 3. April 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  10. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Chemical Sciences. Current Issue : Vol. 130, Issue 3 · Current Issue Volume 130 | Issue 3. March 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  11. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Chemical Sciences. Current Issue : Vol. 130, Issue 4. Current Issue Volume 130 | Issue 4. April 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  12. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences. Current Issue : Vol. 128, Issue 2. Current Issue Volume 128 | Issue 2. April 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  13. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences. Current Issue : Vol. 128, Issue 1 · Current Issue Volume 128 | Issue 1. March 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  14. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Chemical Sciences. Current Issue : Vol. 130, Issue 4 · Current Issue Volume 130 | Issue 4. April 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  15. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a ... In satisfying our investigation, a number of statistical analyses were conducted ... through thinking and interacting with people from different culture in ... The bivariate frequency distribution is used in the findings and .... multivariate method.

  16. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons ... An optimization model is a mathematical decision-making tool that aims to find the values of decision ..... Journal of Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics, 2016, 1:1-5 ... California: Thomson Learning, 2004.

  17. Workforce Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996

    This document consists of four papers presented during a symposium on work force issues moderated by Jan DeJong at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Rethinking the Ties that Bind: An Exploratory Study of Employee Development in Utilities in Canada and the United States" (Michael Aherne, David…

  18. Sanskrit Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Barbara Stoler, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    This issue of "Mahfil" is devoted to Sanskrit literature and contains a note on Sanskrit pronunciation and selections of Sanskrit literature. It also contains articles analyzing and discussing various aspects of the literature, including "Sanskrit Rhetoric and Poetic,""The Creative Role of the Goddess Vac in the…

  19. Bond Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Rachel H.

    2000-01-01

    Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…

  20. Report explores Congress' science policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard

    Scientists interested in understanding how Congress develops science policy would find it useful to read a recent report by the Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government. “Science, Technology and Congress: Analysis and Advice from the Congressional Support Agencies” contains revealing insights about the often hard-pressed system that Congress uses to analyze science and technology issues.“Congress is on the front line of many battles over the directions of science and technology,” says the 70-page report. “The quality of congressional decisions on these issues often depends on the quality and usefulness of information and analysis made available to Congress.” The report describes the overwhelming amount of information received by members of Congress, few of whom have “substantial training or experience” in science and technology. Making this information understandable and useful is the role of the Office of Technology Assessment, the Congressional Research Service, the General Accounting Office, and the Congressional Budget Office.