Over the past two decades, NASA's efforts in the neurosciences have developed into a program of research directed at understanding the acute changes that occur in the neurovestibular and sensorimotor systems during short-duration space missions. However, the proposed extended-duration flights of up to 28 days on the Shuttle orbiter and 6 months on Space Station Freedom, a lunar outpost, and Mars missions of perhaps 1-3 years in space, make it imperative that NASA's Life Sciences Division begin to concentrate research in the neurosciences on the chronic effects of exposure to microgravity on the nervous system. Major areas of research will be directed at understanding (1) central processing, (2) motor systems, (3) cognitive/spatial orientation, and (4) sensory receptors. The purpose of the Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive area of neurosciences. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas of nervous system function. It contains a general plan that will be used by NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.
McLendon, Johathan C., Ed.
This guide is written for the social studies curriculum developer interested in developing a structured multidisciplinary program based on the concepts, methodology, and structure of social science disciplines and history. Seven 15-29 page chapters are included on each discipline: Anthropology and Psychology, by Charles R. Berryman; Economics, by…
The identity of computing has been fiercely debated throughout its short history. Why is it still so hard to define computing as an academic discipline? Is computing a scientific, mathematical, or engineering discipline? By describing the mathematical, engineering, and scientific traditions of computing, The Science of Computing: Shaping a Discipline presents a rich picture of computing from the viewpoints of the field's champions. The book helps readers understand the debates about computing as a discipline. It explains the context of computing's central debates and portrays a broad perspecti
Gilbert, Scott F.
Developmental biology (including embryology) is proposed as "the stem cell of biological disciplines.” Genetics, cell biology, oncology, immunology, evolutionary mechanisms, neurobiology, and systems biology each has its ancestry in developmental biology. Moreover, developmental biology continues to roll on, budding off more disciplines, while retaining its own identity. While its descendant disciplines differentiate into sciences with a restricted set of paradigms, examples, and techniques, ...
Intellectual curiosity has guided the career of Michel Poisson, for the benefit of the gaze and clinical special approach of nurses and quality of care. He is also a historian. He questions the profession with regard to its identity and its desire to construct a discipline in nursing sciences.
Gilbert, Scott F
Developmental biology (including embryology) is proposed as "the stem cell of biological disciplines." Genetics, cell biology, oncology, immunology, evolutionary mechanisms, neurobiology, and systems biology each has its ancestry in developmental biology. Moreover, developmental biology continues to roll on, budding off more disciplines, while retaining its own identity. While its descendant disciplines differentiate into sciences with a restricted set of paradigms, examples, and techniques, developmental biology remains vigorous, pluripotent, and relatively undifferentiated. In many disciplines, especially in evolutionary biology and oncology, the developmental perspective is being reasserted as an important research program.
F Jack Smith
Full Text Available I recall being a proud young academic about 1970; I had just received a research grant to build and study a scientific database, and I had joined CODATA. I was looking forward to the future in this new exciting discipline when the head of my department, an internationally known professor, advised me that data was “a low level activity” not suitable for an academic. I recall my dismay. What can we do to ensure that this does not happen again and that data science is universally recognized as a worthwhile academic activity? Incidentally, I did not take that advice, or I would not be writing this essay, but moved into computer science. I will use my experience to draw comparisons between the problems computer science had to become academically recognized and those faced by data science.
Rehnsfeldt, Arne; Arman, Maria; Lindström, Unni Å
Clinical caring science will be described from a theory of science perspective. The aim of this theoretical article to give a comprehensive overview of clinical caring science as a human science-based discipline grounded in a theory of science argumentation. Clinical caring science seeks idiographic or specific variations of the ontology, concepts and theories, formulated by caring science. The rationale is the insight that the research questions do not change when they are addressed in different contexts. The academic subject contains a concept order with ethos concepts, core and basic concepts and practice concepts that unites systematic caring science with clinical caring science. In accordance with a hermeneutic tradition, the idea of the caring act is based on the degree to which the theory base is hermeneutically appropriated by the caregiver. The better the ethos, essential concepts and theories are understood, the better the caring act can be understood. In order to understand the concept order related to clinical caring science, an example is given from an ongoing project in a disaster context. The concept order is an appropriate way of making sense of the essence of clinical caring science. The idea of the concept order is that concepts on all levels need to be united with each other. A research project in clinical caring science can start anywhere on the concept order, either in ethos, core concepts, basic concepts, practice concepts or in concrete clinical phenomena, as long as no parts are locked out of the concept order as an entity. If, for example, research on patient participation as a phenomenon is not related to core and basic concepts, there is a risqué that the research becomes meaningless. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Background: Computational exposure science represents a frontier of environmental science that is emerging and quickly evolving.Objectives: In this commentary, we define this burgeoning discipline, describe a framework for implementation, and review some key ongoing research elements that are advancing the science with respect to exposure to chemicals in consumer products.Discussion: The fundamental elements of computational exposure science include the development of reliable, computationally efficient predictive exposure models; the identification, acquisition, and application of data to support and evaluate these models; and generation of improved methods for extrapolating across chemicals. We describe our efforts in each of these areas and provide examples that demonstrate both progress and potential.Conclusions: Computational exposure science, linked with comparable efforts in toxicology, is ushering in a new era of risk assessment that greatly expands our ability to evaluate chemical safety and sustainability and to protect public health. The National Exposure Research Laboratory’s (NERL’s) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA’s mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD’s research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA’s strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source
Luciano, Joanne S; Cumming, Grant P; Wilkinson, Mark D; Kahana, Eva
The transformative power of the Internet on all aspects of daily life, including health care, has been widely recognized both in the scientific literature and in public discourse. Viewed through the various lenses of diverse academic disciplines, these transformations reveal opportunities realized, the promise of future advances, and even potential problems created by the penetration of the World Wide Web for both individuals and for society at large. Discussions about the clinical and health research implications of the widespread adoption of information technologies, including the Internet, have been subsumed under the disciplinary label of Medicine 2.0. More recently, however, multi-disciplinary research has emerged that is focused on the achievement and promise of the Web itself, as it relates to healthcare issues. In this paper, we explore and interrogate the contributions of the burgeoning field of Web Science in relation to health maintenance, health care, and health policy. From this, we introduce Health Web Science as a subdiscipline of Web Science, distinct from but overlapping with Medicine 2.0. This paper builds on the presentations and subsequent interdisciplinary dialogue that developed among Web-oriented investigators present at the 2012 Medicine 2.0 Conference in Boston, Massachusetts.
Seidl, R.; Barthel, R.
The integration of interdisciplinary scientific and societal knowledge plays an increasing role in sustainability science and more generally, in global change research. In the field of water resources, interdisciplinarity has long been recognized as crucial. Recently, new concepts and ideas about how to approach water resources management more holistically have been discussed. The emergence of concepts such as socio-hydrology indicates the growing relevance of connections between social and hydrological disciplines. In this paper, we determine how well social sciences are integrated with hydrological research by using two approaches. First, we conducted a questionnaire survey with a sample of hydrology researchers and professionals (N = 353) to explore current opinions and developments related to interdisciplinary collaboration between hydrologists and social scientists. Second, we analyzed the disciplinary composition of author teams and the reference lists of articles pertaining to the socio-hydrology concept. We conclude that interdisciplinarity in water resources research is on a promising track but may need to mature further in terms of its aims and methods of integration. We find that current literature pays little attention to the following questions: What kind of interdisciplinarity do different scholars want? What are social scientists' preferred roles and knowledge from a hydrology perspective?
Vanderstraeten, Raf; Vandermoere, Frederic
The scientific system is primarily differentiated into disciplines. While disciplines may be wide in scope and diverse in their research practices, they serve scientific communities that evaluate research and also grant recognition to what is published. The analysis of communication and publication practices within such a community hence allows us to shed light on the dynamics of this discipline. On the basis of an empirical analysis of Isis, we show how the process of discipline-building in history of science has led its practitioners to be socialized and sensitized in relatively strong intra-disciplinary terms--with minimal interdisciplinary openness.
Nunes, A. C., Jr.
This Technical Memorandum provides sample problems illustrating ways in which basic engineering science has been applied to the discipline of welding. Perhaps inferences may be drawn regarding optimal approaches to particular welding problems, as well as for the optimal education for welding engineers. Perhaps also some readers may be attracted to the science(s) of welding and may make worthwhile contributions to the discipline.
Adams Larsen, Margo; Tentis, Erin
A practical guide to working with parents on the discipline of their children is provided. Focus is specific to provide a practical tool of useful how-to information for the primary care provider who works with children and their families. This article focuses on basic principles and techniques that can be established within the office setting, so as to model for families, as well as to teach to families for use at home. This article also focuses on common applications to illustrate the use of these techniques. Finally, the art of consultation and referral is reviewed for situations that are assessed to be above and beyond the call of the primary practitioner.
Froehlich, K.; Rozanski, K.; Araguas Araguas, L.
The discipline 'isotope hydrology' is being reviewed from the perspective of the Isotope Hydrology Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna. The Section was created in the late fifties and is activities involved int the scientific progress of the discipline. The role of the IAEA in the development of isotope hydrology has always been of a dual nature: on one hand, the Section has been and still is heavily engaged in supporting and coordinating further development of isotope methodologies, on the other hand, it serves as an interface between the methodological development in research institutes and the applied work using proven techniques in field projects on water resources assessment and management. The paper provides a brief overview of applications of isotope-based methodologies in hydrology, with emphasis on new trends and challenges related to man's growing impact on the water cycle. This contribution is a tribute to the memory of the former Head of the Isotope Hydrology Section, Jean-Charles Fontes, to whom we owe so much. (authors)
Most recent studies of dual use research have focused on the life sciences, although some researchers have suggested that dual use research occurs across many disciplines. This research is an initial investigation into the prevalence of dual use research in other scientific disciplines by surveying senior editors of scientific journals, drawn from Journal Citation Reports. The survey was emailed to 7,500 journal editors with a response rate of 10.1 %. Approximately 4.8 % of life science editors reported they had to consider whether to publish dual use research and 38.9 % said they decided to not publish the research in question. In disciplines other than the life sciences, 7.2 % of editors from other science disciplines reported that they had to consider whether to publish dual use research, and 48.4 % declined to publish it. The survey investigated relationships between dual use and the journal's source of funding and place of publication, but no relationships were found. Further research is needed to better understand the occurrence of dual use research in other science disciplines.
It is on this basis that theology understands itself to be an objective science. ... courses in history, philology, ethics and philosophy, each with its own proper method. .... of theological study depends on its openness to current discussions in art, ...
Pham, Manh Cuong; Klamma, Ralf; Jarke, Matthias
In contrast to many other scientific disciplines, computer science considers conference publications. Conferences have the advantage of providing fast publication of papers and of bringing researchers together to present and discuss the paper with peers. Previous work on knowledge mapping focused on the map of all sciences or a particular domain based on ISI published JCR (Journal Citation Report). Although this data covers most of important journals, it lacks computer science conference and ...
Adopting a global perspective in the discipline consumer science. AC Erasmus, M Kok, A Retief. Abstract. 'n Oorwegend materialistiese waardestelsel en blootstelling aan die kragte van 'n ekonomiese markstelsel, het meegebring dat die moderne verbruiker 'n groot premie plaas op besittings en daarop ingestel is om ...
This paper examines the history of psychology in Germany. It directs attention to the salient role played by examination regulations in the development of psychology. To highlight this, the term "discipline" is employed not as a synonym of "science" but according to its original meaning, as denoting a social entity consisting of teachers, disciples, more or less canonised subject matters, examinations, and resulting changes of the social status of the examinee. In the early nineteenth century a succession of state rescripts and regulations introduced to university curricula an examination subject named psychology, thereby making psychology an obligatory subject of university lectures, and creating a discipline of psychology next to the science of psychology. The two were far from being identical. This situation, thus far neglected in historiography, profoundly influenced the further development of psychology in Germany.
Otero, Valerie K.; Meltzer, David E.
Although much has been said and written about the value of using the history of science in teaching science, relatively little is available to guide educators in the various science disciplines through the educational history of their own discipline. Through a discipline-specific approach to a course on the history of science education in the…
The relationship between physics and mathematics is reviewed upgrading the common in physics classes' perspective of mathematics as a toolkit for physics. The nature of the physics-mathematics relationship is considered along a certain historical path. The triadic hierarchical structure of discipline-culture helps to identify different ways in which mathematics is used in physics and to appreciate its contribution, to recognize the difference between mathematics and physics as disciplines in approaches, values, methods, and forms. We mentioned certain forms of mathematical knowledge important for physics but often missing in school curricula. The geometrical mode of codification of mathematical knowledge is compared with the analytical one in context of teaching school physics and mathematics; their complementarity is exemplified. Teaching may adopt the examples facilitating the claims of the study to reach science literacy and meaningful learning.
Lemberger, A P
Recent studies of higher education in America have raised concern over the lack of integrity and coherence, the absence of vigorous intellectual exchange, and the dominance of careerism in the undergraduate curriculum. Observations and recommendations emanating from studies of pharmaceutical education acknowledge the importance of problem-solving abilities but emphasize the inculcation of knowledge relevant to professional functions and the development of skill in contemporary practice. The current emphasis placed on training students for pharmacy practice found in the pharmacy curriculum causes the objective of achieving intellectual growth to be overshadowed. Balance must be restored. The pharmaceutical sciences, taught for their value as academic disciplines and for their integrity with other branches of science, could serve as the stimulus for intellectual growth of students. An academic baccalaureate program with a major in pharmaceutical sciences as the required base for professional education is proposed as a remedy.
Weldon, Stephen P
Classification of the history of science has a long history, and the essays in this Focus section explore that history and its consequences from several different angles. Two of the papers deal with how classifying schemes in bibliography have evolved. A third looks at the way archival organization has changed over the years. Finally, the last essay explores the intersection of human and machine classifying systems. All four contributions look closely at the ramifications of the digital revolution for the way we organize the knowledge of the discipline.
Brevik, E. C.; Hartemink, A. E.
Since people have cultivated the land they have generated and created knowledge about its soil. By the 4th century most civilizations around had various levels of soil knowledge and that includes irrigation, the use of terraces to control soil erosion, methods to maintain and improve soil fertility. The early soil knowledge was largely empirical and based on observations. Many famous scientists, for example, Francis Bacon, Robert Boyle, Charles Darwin, and Leonardo da Vinci worked on soil issues. Soil science became a true science in the 19th century with the development of genetic soil science, lead by the Russian Vasilii V. Dokuchaev. In the beginning soil science had strong ties to both geology and agriculture but in the 20th century, soil science is now being applied in residential development, the planning of highways, building foundations, septic systems, wildlife management, environmental management, and many other applications. The discipline is maturing and soil science plays a crucial role in many of the current issues that confront the world like climate change, water scarcity, biodiversity and environmental degradation.
Lecordier, Didier; Rémy-Largeau, Isabelle; Jovic, Ljiljana
The last four years have seen the development of supports toward research in nursing and other healthcare professionals' research, along with the fact that, nursing education has become part of university programs. Professional and scientific landscapes are changing and the opening perspectives let glimpse a growing professionalization of nurses' activities but also, raise the question of the nursing science construction in France. By considering interdisciplinary work, as an approach for complex situations of care, by specifying the purpose of the production of nursing scientific knowledge in order to meet the population needs of healthcare, by explaining the purpose of nursing research and theoretical elements that allow its construction, the following article offers an epistemological reflection on the evolution of the profession and on the construction of a nursing scientific discipline in France.
Many high school science departments are responding to changes in state standards with respect to both curricular content and instructional practices. In the typical American high school organization, the academic department head is ideally positioned to influence change in the instructional practices of teachers within the department. Even though science department heads are well situated to provide leadership during this period of transition, the literature has not addressed the question of how well science department heads believe they can provide instructional leadership for all of the teachers in their department, whether they are teaching within and outside of the head's own sub-discipline. Nor is it known how science department heads view the role of pedagogical content knowledge in teaching different science disciplines. Using an online survey comprised of 26 objective questions and one open response question, a 54-respondent sample of science department heads provided no strong consensus regarding their beliefs about the role of pedagogical content knowledge in science instruction. However, science department heads expressed a significant difference in their views about their capacity to provide instructional leadership for teachers sharing their science content area compared to teachers instructing other science content areas. Given wide-spread science education reform efforts introduced in response to the Next Generation Science Standards, these findings may serve to provide some direction for determining how to best support the work of science department heads as they strive to provide instructional leadership for the teachers in their departments.
Knowledge is the most precious ingredient facilitating aerospace engineering research and product development activities. Currently, the most common knowledge retention methods are paper-based documents, such as reports, books and journals. However, those media have innate weaknesses. For example, four generations of flying wing aircraft (Horten, Northrop XB-35/YB-49, Boeing BWB and many others) were mostly developed in isolation. The subsequent engineers were not aware of the previous developments, because these projects were documented such which prevented the next generation of engineers to benefit from the previous lessons learned. In this manner, inefficient knowledge retention methods have become a primary obstacle for knowledge transfer from the experienced to the next generation of engineers. In addition, the quality of knowledge itself is a vital criterion; thus, an accurate measure of the quality of 'knowledge' is required. Although qualitative knowledge evaluation criteria have been researched in other disciplines, such as the AAA criterion by Ernest Sosa stemming from the field of philosophy, a quantitative knowledge evaluation criterion needs to be developed which is capable to numerically determine the qualities of knowledge for aerospace engineering research and product development activities. To provide engineers with a high-quality knowledge management tool, the engineering science discipline Knowledge Engineering has been formalized to systematically address knowledge retention issues. This research undertaking formalizes Knowledge Engineering as follows: 1. Categorize knowledge according to its formats and representations for the first time, which serves as the foundation for the subsequent knowledge management function development. 2. Develop an efficiency evaluation criterion for knowledge management by analyzing the characteristics of both knowledge and the parties involved in the knowledge management processes. 3. Propose and develop an
Full Text Available At least four factors affect pupils’ understanding of the nature of science: teachers’ specialization in different science areas (physics, chemistry, and biology, gender issues, teaching experience in elementary school environments, and the perspectives of acquiring necessary knowledge. This study is the introduction part of a research project which will be initiated soon. Four elementary science teachers participated in the study. The results reveal that participants’ views of the aspects of nature of science are not solely diverged, based on their major disciplines, but there exist significant distinctions according to gender differences.
Peffer, Melanie; Renken, Maggie
Rather than pursue questions related to learning in biology from separate camps, recent calls highlight the necessity of interdisciplinary research agendas. Interdisciplinary collaborations allow for a complicated and expanded approach to questions about learning within specific science domains, such as biology. Despite its benefits, interdisciplinary work inevitably involves challenges. Some such challenges originate from differences in theoretical and methodological approaches across lines of work. Thus, aims at developing successful interdisciplinary research programs raise important considerations regarding methodologies for studying biology learning, strategies for approaching collaborations, and training of early-career scientists. Our goal here is to describe two fields important to understanding learning in biology, discipline-based education research and the learning sciences. We discuss differences between each discipline's approach to biology education research and the benefits and challenges associated with incorporating these perspectives in a single research program. We then propose strategies for building productive interdisciplinary collaboration. © 2016 M. Peffer and M. Renken. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Full Text Available To improve our health care services, promote balanced development of inter-regional and inter-disciplinary medical care skills, and effectively implement public hospital reform, the former Ministry of Health, State Chinese Medicine Administration Bureau and the Ministry of Finance allocated state funds in 2010 to support a National Clinical Key Specialty Construction Project. The project supports the acquisition of key equipment, personnel training and development of clinical diagnosis technology in order to develop high-quality medical resources and improve clinical services. Because of the important role nursing plays, clinical nursing and specialty care were also included in the project. The Chinese Nursing Association was commissioned to oversee this project, which awarded 211 million RMB to nursing disciplines in 86 hospitals representing all regions of China. This funding has supported the rapid development of nursing disciplines, the results of which are outlined and described in this review.
Full Text Available This study used bibliometric methods to analyze subject disciplines of knowledge originality and knowledge generality for Library and Information Science (LIS by using citing and cited documents from 1997 to 2006. We found that the major subject disciplines of knowledge originality and generality are still LIS, and computer science and LIS interact and influence each other closely. It is evident that number of subject disciplines of knowledge originality is higher than that of knowledge generality. The interdisciplinary characteristics of LIS are illustrated by variety areas of knowledge originality and knowledge generality. Because the number of received subject disciplines is higher than that of given subject disciplines, it suggests that LIS is an application-oriented research area. [Article content in Chinese
Full Text Available This article draws on the Supreme Court of British Columbia’s Reference re: Section 293 of the Criminal Code of Canada [the Polygamy Reference] as a concrete example of the benefits and limitations of intense judicial reliance on social science evidence in the adjudication of constitutional rights and freedoms at the trial level. By examining the evidence tendered, I suggest that the current adversarial model of adjudication is illsuited to combining the legal and the social scientific endeavours. The divergent values, methodologies and objectives of the legal and scientific enterprises severely limit the benefits that the former can yield, thus compromising the effectiveness and utility of the courts for social groups whose claims are heavily grounded in non-legal evidence. Further, I argue that the vast amounts of contradictory evidence typically tendered in rights challenges, as well as the complex and controversial nature of Charter questions and the inevitable need for judges to adjudicate values, risk resulting in undue deference to the legislator, hinder the delivery of justice and ultimately undermine the raison-d’être of Charter litigation. Cet article concerne le renvoi porté devant la Cour suprême de la Colombie-Britannique au sujet de l’article 293 du Code criminel [Polygamy Reference – renvoi sur la polygamie], qui constitue un exemple concret des avantages et inconvénients de l’utilisation intensive des éléments de preuve relevant des sciences sociales dans la détermination des droits et libertés constitutionnels en première instance. En examinant les éléments de preuve présentés, j’affirme dans cet article que le modèle actuel de règlement des litiges, qui repose sur l’approche accusatoire, se prête mal à la combinaison des démarches juridiques et de celles qui relèvent des sciences sociales. Les valeurs, méthodologies et objectifs divergents des démarches juridiques et scientifiques
Recent data on the participation of women in the scientific, technological, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) disciplines shows a landscape that is somewhat different from our expectations in the past. For example, women who earn bachelors' degrees in physics go on to earn PhDs, be hired to faculty positions, and achieve promotions at the same rate as their male counterparts. However, such gains do not foretell equal participation of women in physics since, although girls make up about half of high school physics classes, the fraction of bachelor's degrees earned by women has been flat at around 20% for about a decade. This remains true even with significantly increased awareness of the need to attract more women to STEM fields and despite various interventions to attract and retain talented women. This talk will present an overview of data on women's participation in STEM disciplines, provide possible explanations for the continued failure to attract women to some STEM fields, and give a brief description of some current interventions.
Although philosophy has been only a minor contributor to cognitive science to date, this paper describes two projects in naturalistic philosophy of mind and one in naturalistic philosophy of science that have been pursued during the past 30 years and that can make theoretical and methodological contributions to cognitive science. First, stances on the mind-body problem (identity theory, functionalism, and heuristic identity theory) are relevant to cognitive science as it negotiates its relation to neuroscience and cognitive neuroscience. Second, analyses of mental representations address both their vehicles and their contents; new approaches to characterizing how representations have content are particularly relevant to understanding the relation of cognitive agents to their environments. Third, the recently formulated accounts of mechanistic explanation in philosophy of science both provide perspective on the explanatory project of cognitive science and may offer normative guidance to cognitive science (e.g., by providing perspective on how multiple disciplinary perspectives can be integrated in understanding a given mechanism). Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Four identifiable disciplinary goals can be discerned from the development of political science as a discipline. These goals indicate that political science students will (1) attain knowledge about political systems (national and international); (2) gain an understanding of how politics works; (3) develop critical thinking skills; and, (4) learn…
Robottom, Ian; Norhaidah, Sharifah
This article reports on two research projects (one in Malaysia and one in Australia) that studied the experiences of Islamic background learners studying western science. Conceptually, this research program is conducted within a socially constructivist discourse and employs both quantitative and qualitative forms of data collection. The article…
Ellis, David; Allen, David; Wilson, Tom
Examines the relationship between information science and information-systems (IS) research through analysis of the subject literature of each field and by citation and co-citation analysis of highly cited researchers in each field. Subfields of user studies and information-retrieval research were selected to represent information-science…
Adúriz-Bravo, Agustín; Izquierdo-Aymerich, Mercè
In our research within didactics of science, we have been exploring contributions of the so called cognitive models from contemporary philosophy of science. We have used these philosophical frameworks on different levels. As an outcome, we have formulated a model of didactics of science according to which this discipline adapts and transforms theoretical contributions from different scholarly fields. In this paper, we concentrate on this description of didactics of science, which we have called the 3P-model (i.e., philosophy + psychology + pedagogy). This model of the internal functioning of the discipline may be useful to make innovations in science curriculum design and re-conceptualise the role of science teachers as professionals. We see didactics of science as a set of interrelated activities, performed by different individuals, and ranging from theoretical production to practice of science education at school. We find the concept of technoscience suitable to account for this diversity of goals. According to this concept, scientific disciplines are identified both with generation of knowledge and with active intervention on the world. Within current didactics of science, we recognise several kinds of research, having goals more or less directed to practical intervention in science education.
Full Text Available Cet article propose une réflexion sur les frontières épistémologiques et méthodologiques qui séparent trois disciplines universitaires. Portées par un discours propre à l’économie de leur discipline, la littérature et la science se pensent l’une l’autre comme « deux cultures » antinomiques. Or chaque discipline aborde son objet d’étude à partir d’un paradigme qui est culturellement déterminé. La concomitance de l’apparition des « théories du chaos » en science et du mouvement postmoderne en littérature dans les années 70 par exemple s’explique par leur appartenance à une même culture qui, à un moment donné, a opéré un changement de paradigme informant toutes les disciplines. La linguistique n’y a pas échappé ; pourtant le problème de ses frontières demeure. Nous mettrons en avant la transversalité de cette discipline, laquelle permet - entre autres - de rendre compte non seulement d’un style littéraire mais aussi de ce qu’on peut appeler la « rhétorique » ou la textualité de la science.This paper aims at considering the methodological and epistemological boundaries separating three academic disciplines. Underlain by a discourse that is proper to the economy of their discipline, literature and science regard each other as two opposite cultures. Yet each tackles its object of study through a culturally-determined paradigm. The simultaneous birth of chaos theory in science and postmodern aestheticism in literature in the 70s for instance can only be accounted for if we think of them as belonging to the same culture, which, at some point, brought about a change in paradigm that informed all disciplines. Linguistics underwent the same process. Yet the question of its boundaries remains. We will see to what extent linguistics can be seen as cross-disciplinary, in its study of the rhetoric of both literary and scientific textuality.
This article explores developments in author numbers in five disciplines of the Social Sciences from 1991 to 2014, Economics, Educational Sciences, Political Science, Psychology, and Sociology. The relationship between the mean number of authors per article (in every discipline's five top journals) and three factors, publication year, international collaboration (IC), and article content (theoretical, experimental, or large-scale comparative) are analyzed. The findings show that single-authorship is decreasing and multi-authorship is on the rise, publication year was found to be significantly correlated with the number of authors. In addition, IC is positively correlated with the number of authors, even when publication year is controlled for. The content type “theoretical articles” is negatively related to the number of authors, even when publication year is controlled for. (Author)
Thomas, Theda; Wallace, Joy; Allen, Pamela; Clark, Jennifer; Jones, Adrian; Lawrence, Jill; Cole, Bronwyn; Sheridan Burns, Lynette
The introduction of discipline standards in Australia has required a comprehensive rethinking of humanities and social science curricula from first year through to graduation. This paper proposes a model to facilitate academics' engagement with discipline standards and their implication for first-year curricula. The model supports…
This paper explores the attempt of social scientists associated with Unesco to create a system of knowledge production to provide the international perspective necessary for democratic governance of a world community. Social scientists constructed a federal system of international associations that institutionalized American disciplines on an international scale. An international perspective emerged through the process of interdisciplinary international research. I call this ideal of coordinating multiple subjectivities to produce objectivity the "view from everywhere." Influenced by social psychological "action-research," collaborative research was group therapy. The attempt to operationalize internationalists' rallying slogan, "unity in diversity," illuminated tensions inherent in the mobilization of science for social and political reform.
Vries, de M.J.; Poel, van de I.; Goldberg, D.E.
Literature suggests that in engineering sciences the possibilities to generalize knowledge are more limited than in natural sciences. This is related to the action-oriented nature of engineering sciences and to the role of values. I will discuss the contributions of abstraction and idealization to
Peffer, Melanie; Renken, Maggie
Rather than pursue questions related to learning in biology from separate camps, recent calls highlight the necessity of interdisciplinary research agendas. Interdisciplinary collaborations allow for a complicated and expanded approach to questions about learning within specific science domains, such as biology. Despite its benefits, interdisciplinary work inevitably involves challenges. Some such challenges originate from differences in theoretical and methodological approaches across lines of work. Thus, aims at developing successful interdisciplinary research programs raise important considerations regarding methodologies for studying biology learning, strategies for approaching collaborations, and training of early-career scientists. Our goal here is to describe two fields important to understanding learning in biology, discipline-based education research and the learning sciences. We discuss differences between each discipline’s approach to biology education research and the benefits and challenges associated with incorporating these perspectives in a single research program. We then propose strategies for building productive interdisciplinary collaboration. PMID:27881446
Dishauzi, Karen M.
Extensive research exists on female, African American, and Hispanic students pursuing Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) field disciplines. However, little research evaluates students with disabilities and career decision-making relating to STEM field disciplines. This study explored the career decision-making experiences and self-efficacy for students with disabilities. The purpose of this research study was to document experiences and perceptions of students with disabilities who pursue, and may consider pursuing, careers in the STEM field disciplines by exploring the career decision-making self-efficacy of students with disabilities. This study documented the level of influence that the students with disabilities had or may not have had encountered from parents, friends, advisors, counselors, and instructors as they managed their decision-making choice relating to their academic major/career in the STEM or non-STEM field disciplines. A total of 85 respondents of approximately 340 students with disabilities at one Midwestern public university completed a quantitatively designed survey instrument. The Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form by Betz and Hackett was the instrument used, and additional questions were included in the survey. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. Based upon the results, college students with disabilities are not currently being influenced by individuals and groups of individuals to pursue the STEM field disciplines. This is a cohort of individuals who can be marketed to increase enrollment in STEM programs at academic institutions. This research further found that gender differences at the institution under study did not affect the career decision-making self-efficacy scores. The men did not score any higher in confidence in career decision-making than the women. Disability type did not significantly affect the relationship between the Career Decision-Making Self
Robinson, Z. P.; Greenhough, B. J.
Climate change is a core topic within Earth Science-related courses. This vast topic covers a wide array of different aspects that could be covered, from past climatic change across a vast range of scales to environmental (and social and economic) impacts of future climatic change and strategies for reducing anthropogenic climate change. The Earth Science disciplines play a crucial role in our understanding of past, present and future climate change and the Earth system in addition to understanding leading to development of strategies and technological solutions to achieve sustainability. However, an increased knowledge of the occurrence and causes of past (natural) climate changes can lead to a lessened concern and sense of urgency and responsibility amongst students in relation to anthropogenic causes of climatic change. Two concepts integral to the teaching of climate change are those of scientific uncertainty and complexity, yet an emphasis on these concepts can lead to scepticism about future predictions and a further loss of sense of urgency. The requirement to understand the nature of scientific uncertainty and think and move between different scales in particular relating an increased knowledge of longer timescale climatic change to recent (industrialised) climate change, are clearly areas of troublesome knowledge that affect students' sense of responsibility towards their role in achieving a sustainable society. Study of the attitudes of university students in a UK HE institution on a range of Earth Science-related programmes highlights a range of different attitudes in the student body towards the subject of climate change. Students express varied amounts of ‘climate change saturation' resulting from both media and curriculum coverage, a range of views relating to the significance of humans to the global climate and a range of opinions about the relevance of environmental citizenship to their degree programme. Climate change is therefore a challenging
Borja Gonzalez-Albo; Maria Bordons; Pedro Gorria
Neutron scattering (NS) is a 'big science' discipline whose research spans over a wide spectrum of fields, from fundamental or basic science to technological applications. The objective of this paper is to track the evolution of Spanish research in NS from a bibliometric perspective and to place it in the international context. Scientific publications of Spanish authors included in the Web of Science (WoS 1970-2006) are analysed with respect to five relevant dimensions: volume of research output, impact, disciplinary diversity, structural field features and internationalisation. NS emerges as a highly internationalised fast-growing field whose research is firmly rooted in Physics, Chemistry and Engineering, but with applications in a wide range of fields. International collaboration links -present in around 70% of the documents- and national links have largely contributed to mould the existing structure of research in the area, which evolves around major neutron scattering facilities abroad. The construction of a new European neutron source (ESS) would contribute to the consolidation of the field within the EU, since it will strengthen research and improve current activity. (author)
Waker, Anthony; Waller, Edward; Lewis, Brent; Bennett, Leslie; Conroy, Thomas
Full text: One of the great technical challenges in the human and robotic exploration of space is the deleterious effect of radiation on humans and physical systems. The magnitude of this challenge is broadly understood in terms of the sources of radiation, however, a great deal remains to be done in the development of instrumentation, suitable for the space environment, which can provide real-time monitoring of the complex radiation fields encountered in space and a quantitative measure of potential biological risk. In order to meet these research requirements collaboration is needed between experimental nuclear instrumentation scientists, theoretical scientists working on numerical modeling techniques and radiation biologists. Under the auspices of the Canadian Space Agency such a collaborative body has been established as one of a number of Discipline Working Groups. Members of the Space Dosimetry and Radiation Science working group form a collaborative network across Canada including universities, government laboratories and the industrial sector. Three central activities form the core of the Space Dosimetry and Radiation Science DWG. An instrument sub-group is engaged in the development of instruments capable of gamma ray, energetic charged particle and neutron dosimetry including the ability to provide dosimetric information in real-time. A second sub-group is focused on computer modeling of space radiation fields in order to assess the performance of conceptual designs of detectors and dosimeters or the impact of radiation on cellular and sub-cellular biological targets and a third sub-group is engaged in the study of the biological effects of space radiation and the potential of biomarkers as a method of assessing radiation impact on humans. Many working group members are active in more than one sub-group facilitating communication throughout the whole network. A summary progress-report will be given of the activities of the Discipline Working Group and the
Breslyn, Wayne Gene
The present study investigated differences in the continuing development of National Board Certified Science Teachers' (NBCSTs) conceptions of inquiry across the disciplines of biology, chemistry, earth science, and physics. The central research question of the study was, "How does a NBCST's science discipline (biology, chemistry, earth science, or physics) influence their conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry-based teaching and learning?" A mixed methods approach was used that included an analysis of the National Board portfolio entry, Active Scientific Inquiry, for participants (n=48) achieving certification in the 2007 cohort. The portfolio entry provided detailed documentation of teachers' goals and enactment of an inquiry lesson taught in their classroom. Based on the results from portfolio analysis, participant interviews were conducted with science teachers (n=12) from the 2008 NBCST cohort who represented the science disciplines of biology, chemistry, earth science, and physics. The interviews provided a broader range of contexts to explore teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals of inquiry. Other factors studied were disciplinary differences in NBCSTs' views of the nature of science, the relation between their science content knowledge and use of inquiry, and changes in their conceptions of inquiry as result of the NB certification process. Findings, based on a situated cognitive framework, suggested that differences exist between biology, chemistry, and earth science teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry. Further, individuals teaching in more than one discipline often held different conceptions of inquiry depending on the discipline in which they were teaching. Implications for the research community include being aware of disciplinary differences in studies on inquiry and exercising caution in generalizing findings across disciplines. In addition, teachers who teach in more than one discipline can highlight the contextual
Nass, Andrea; van Gasselt, Stephan; Hargitai, Hendrik; Hare, Trent; Manaud, Nicolas; Karachevtseva, Irina; Kersten, Elke; Roatsch, Thomas; Wählisch, Marita; Kereszturi, Akos
Cartography is one of the most important communication channels between users of spatial information and laymen as well as the open public alike. This applies to all known real-world objects located either here on Earth or on any other object in our Solar System. In planetary sciences, however, the main use of cartography resides in a concept called planetary mapping with all its various attached meanings: it can be (1) systematic spacecraft observation from orbit, i.e. the retrieval of physical information, (2) the interpretation of discrete planetary surface units and their abstraction, or it can be (3) planetary cartography sensu strictu, i.e., the technical and artistic creation of map products. As the concept of planetary mapping covers a wide range of different information and knowledge levels, aims associated with the concept of mapping consequently range from a technical and engineering focus to a scientific distillation process. Among others, scientific centers focusing on planetary cartography are the United State Geological Survey (USGS, Flagstaff), the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK, Moscow), Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE, Hungary), and the German Aerospace Center (DLR, Berlin). The International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Commission Planetary Cartography within International Cartographic Association (ICA), the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), the WG IV/8 Planetary Mapping and Spatial Databases within International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) and a range of other institutions contribute on definition frameworks in planetary cartography. Classical cartography is nowadays often (mis-)understood as a tool mainly rather than a scientific discipline and an art of communication. Consequently, concepts of information systems, mapping tools and cartographic frameworks are used interchangeably, and cartographic workflows and visualization of spatial information in thematic maps have often been
Eddy, Sarah L.; Brownell, Sara E.
This focused collection explores inequalities in the experiences of women in physics. Yet, it is important for researchers to also be aware of and draw insights from common patterns in the experiences of women across science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. Here, we review studies on gender disparities across college…
The Reference Committee firmly shares the view that the state of the mathematical sciences and related quantitative disciplines in Australia has deteriorated to a dangerous level, and continues to deteriorate. Accordingly the author decided to structure this Report around a small number of recommendations, some long term and others to address…
Nizamska, M.; Roger, I.
Scientific disciplines, including radiochemistry, provide a technical foundation for the science of nuclear forensics. In addition, analytical chemistry, pathology and nuclear material measurements all contribute to the technical spectrum encompassing a nuclear forensic capability. Subject matter experts versed in the former production of nuclear material may contribute to improved understanding of process streams of interest to a nuclear forensic examination
Because professional development (PD) is about persuasion and influence, it makes sense to use an influence framework when trying to determine the reasons current university-level PD has been fairly ineffective in changing teacher practice to date. This research used the theory of reasoned action (TRA) to determine if university natural science professors' attitudes and beliefs toward the discipline of education (DE), a construct not recognized in the current literature, were positive or negative. The study also looked to discover some of the major influences on the participants' attitudes and beliefs toward DE. A method bricolage was used to analyze data from 10 participants in two separate phases in an attempt to establish a replicable Discourse Analysis methodology for analyzing attitudes and beliefs, and to investigate the major influences on the formation of these attitudes and beliefs. The findings indicate that in general the participants' had positive beliefs in and about DE with negative attitudes toward DE and that the majority of the participants' views of teaching were formed by a number of significant influences. However, the participants' attitudes and beliefs toward DE are complicated by several issues, the most prominent being that this cohort's ideas about DE are based upon their PD experiences, which were generally delivered by centers for teaching excellence (CTEs) or equivalent entities. This research needs to be extended to determine the generalizability of these findings, as well as to provide evidence-based research to support the re-thinking of how PD is delivered at the university level.
Ellsbury, Susan H.; And Others
A two-part text, "Science Resources: A Self-Paced Instructional Workbook," was designed to provide science students at Mississippi State University with: (1) instruction on basic library usage and reference tools common to most scientific disciplines; (2) materials adapted to specific disciplines; and (3) services available to them from the…
Most scientific disciplines, such as chemistry, biology and physics, are now about two centuries old. Using physics as a case study the present paper aims to account for this longevity. What kept the physics discipline together from the early nineteenth century onwards? Literature on the rise of physics suggests that the discipline was formed around energy, the ether, or other theoretical notions. Yet the twentieth-century revolutions in physics showed that the discipline could prosper without some of its most 'fundamental' concepts. Some scholars conclude that internal factors are therefore irrelevant and disciplinary identity and continuity are purely institutional. Drawing on the work of Thomas Kuhn, Peter Galison and Andrew Warwick, this paper defends a different point of view. Although there is no intellectual core of disciplines, the prolonged existence of disciplines cannot be explained without some degree of internal continuity. If there is a revolution of a theoretical level, there may still be continuity on the level of experimental practices (and vice versa). It is this flexibility that accounts for the fact that disciplines may adapt to different circumstances. In addition, an educational tradition is required to transmit knowledge from one generation to the next.
Kell, Clare; Horlick-Jones, Tom
Physiotherapy in the UK defines itself as a "science-based healthcare profession". Physiotherapy students must undertake at least one thousand hours of learning in live practice settings. Adopting an analytic stance shaped by interaction analysis and workplace studies, and drawing on observational data of placement settings, this paper examines some features of the means by which physiotherapy education is practically accomplished. The paper introduces and utilises a novel notational system for capturing movement and touch in ethnographic fieldwork notes. Our analysis draws upon ideas from Lynch and Macbeth's (1998) study of elementary school science classes. We focus in particular on their notion of "disciplining witnesses" to illustrate how science is enacted -- and plays a privileged role -- within the everyday accomplishment of practice-based physiotherapy education. We show how patients are disciplined to provide information on cue and to act as props for therapeutic demonstrations, while students are disciplined to co-produce standard interpretations of the science of physiotherapy. We conclude the paper with a brief discussion of the ways in which these insights offer a new perspective for physiotherapy practitioners and educators in understanding the nature of interactions entailed in their professional practice, and the role of patients within those interactions.
Walker, R. J.; Beebe, R. F.
One of the basic problems the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) faces when dealing with preservation of scientific data is the variety of the data. This stems from the fact that NASA's involvement in the sciences spans a broad range of disciplines across the Science Mission Directorate: Astrophysics, Earth Sciences, Heliophysics and Planetary Science. As the ability of some missions to produce large data volumes has accelerated, the range of problems associated with providing adequate access to the data has demanded diverse approaches for data access. Although mission types, complexity and duration vary across the disciplines, the data can be characterized by four characteristics: velocity, veracity, volume, and variety. The rate of arrival of the data (velocity) must be addressed at the individual mission level, validation and documentation of the data (veracity), data volume and the wide variety of data products present huge challenges as the science disciplines strive to provide transparent access to their available data. Astrophysics, supports an integrated system of data archives based on frequencies covered (UV, visible, IR, etc.) or subject areas (extrasolar planets, extra galactic, etc.) and is accessed through the Astrophysics Data Center (https://science.nasa.gov/astrophysics/astrophysics-data-centers/). Earth Science supports the Earth Observing System (https://earthdata.nasa.gov/) that manages the earth science satellite data. The discipline supports 12 Distributed Active Archive Centers. Heliophysics provides the Space Physics Data Facility (https://spdf.gsfc.nasa.gov/) that supports the heliophysics community and Solar Data Analysis Center (https://umbra.nascom.nasa.gov/index.html) that allows access to the solar data. The Planetary Data System (https://pds.nasa.gov) is the main archive for planetary science data. It consists of science discipline nodes (Atmospheres, Geosciences, Cartography and Imaging Sciences, Planetary Plasma Interactions
Nelma Camêlo Araujo
Full Text Available The present article is part of a research conducted at universities of the south of Brazil that offers disciplines of Information Technology in Archival Sciences undergraduate courses. The research objective to identify through the educational project of these courses the subjects which have emphasis in the Information Technology, as well as to identify the teachers’ perception about the condition of these subjects in enabling the student for the challenges of the work market
Full Text Available The modern concept of the discipline of conservation saw its first discussions towards the end of the 19th century. Its greater notoriety, however, began after 1930 at the international conference in Rome, organized by the International Office of Museums of the League of Nations. Anglo-Saxon countries such as England and the United States, through their leading publishing activity, influenced the western world on the deontological and scientific development of the conservation discipline. The confusion that derived from the overlapping terms with different meanings in these two countries and Western Europe negatively influenced the development of the profession and the discipline in Portugal – which until then had had a similar historic development within the museum's staff. Herein are presented two tables on the evolution panorama of the conservation movement in some Western countries. The question of the lack of work positions in the Portuguese museum institutions is also discussed.
Full Text Available Comparing sociology with economics, psychology or history shows that borderlines between disciplines have become fluent and always newly oscillating. Economists, especially prominent positions awarded with Nobel prizes, are increasingly discussing items as motivation, rationality, norms or culture which belong to the domain of sociology. Sociology should acknowledge this kind of ‘imperialism’ and claim own competencies.
AFRL-AFOSR-CL-TR-2017-0007 Multimode bio-nano sensor Fernando Danilo Gonzalez-Nilo UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL ANDRES BELLO Final Report 05/23/2017...5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL ANDRES BELLO REPUBLICA 237 SANTIAGO...Ciencias Biologicas Universidad Andres Bello Avenida Republica 239, Santiago, Chile. Objective: The proposed cross-discipline experimental study aims to
Full Text Available problems, thereby bridging the gap between Management Science and Management Consulting. Instead of flogging the proponents of the Management Science domain for losing touch with reality through their “mathematical masturbation" (Ackoff ), Corbett...
Brekke, John S.
There are two purposes to this article. The first is to update the science of social work framework. The second is to use recent discussions on the nature of realist science and on social work science to propose a definition of social work as an integrative scientific discipline that complements its definition as a profession.
9 July 2012 - Academy of Sciences Malaysia (ASM), Chairman, Mathematical and Physical Sciences Discipline Group M. Yahaya FASc and his delegation visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Technology Department G. De Rijk.
9 July 2012 - Academy of Sciences Malaysia (ASM), Chairman, Mathematical and Physical Sciences Discipline Group M. Yahaya FASc and his delegation visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Technology Department G. De Rijk.
directly declared to him. Lastly, in ministry time of Dr. Farhadi in 2001 this major was initiated for the first time in Iran University of Medical Sciences. The present report was addressed to the education guideline of emergency medicine at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences besides evaluating the formation history of emergency medicine discipline in Iran.
Rafael A. Duarte Villa
Full Text Available Abstract Over the last 40 years, investigations have shown the discipline of International Relations to reproduce the American influence on its methods, paradigms, and institutional dynamics. This article explores the case for the Latin American community, based on the survey data from the Teaching, Research, and International Politics project (TRIP 2014 developed by the Institute for the Theory and Practice of International Relations of the College of William and Mary, Virginia (USA. TRIP evaluated International Relations communities in 32 countries around the world. The article aims to answer two main questions: (i is American influence still dominant over epistemological, methodological, paradigmatic, and institutional representative terms in Latin American International Relations communities, as has been considered in the past? (ii Is there in the region any contestation to this supposed influence? Primarily, the present article shows an affirmative answer for the first issue. Therefore, and most importantly, the data analysis shows upcoming local pressures rooted in American influence, especially on its epistemic and paradigmatic terms. The data strengthens the miscegenation tendency on its epistemological and paradigmatic aspects, which underlines a lack of consensus over the structure of American dominance over the discipline of International Relations in Latin America, especially if one observes the most numerous and structured group in the region: the Brazilian International Relations community.
Pickstone, John V
Historians of science, inasmuch as they are concerned with knowledges and practices rather than institutions, have tended of late to focus on case studies of common processes such as experiment and publication. In so doing, they tend to treat science as a single category, with various local instantiations. Or, alternatively, they relate cases to their specific local contexts. In neither approach do the cases or their contexts build easily into broader histories, reconstructing changing knowledge practices across time and space. This essay argues that by systematically deconstructing the practices of science and technology and medicine (STM) into common, recurrent elements, we can gain usefully "configurational" views, not just of particular cases and contexts but of synchronic variety and diachronic changes, both short term and long. To this end, we can begin with the customary actors' disciplines of early modern knowledge (natural philosophy, natural history, mixed mathematics, and experimental philosophy), which can be understood as elemental "ways of knowing and working," variously combined and disputed. I argue that these same working knowledges, together with a later mode-synthetic experimentation and systematic invention-may also serve for the analysis of STM from the late eighteenth century to the present. The old divisions continued explicitly and importantly after circa 1800, but they were also "built into" an array of new sciences. This historiographic analysis can help clarify a number of common problems: about the multiplicity of the sciences, the importance of various styles in science, and the relations between science and technology and medicine. It suggests new readings of major changes in STM, including the first and second scientific revolutions and the transformations of biomedicine from the later twentieth century. It offers ways of recasting both microhistories and macrohistories, so reducing the apparent distance between them. And it may thus
O'Mara, Ryan J; Hsu, Stephen I; Wilson, Daniel R
The goal of MD-PhD training programs is to produce physician-scientists with unique capacities to lead the future biomedical research workforce. The current dearth of physician-scientists with expertise outside conventional biomedical or clinical sciences raises the question of whether MD-PhD training programs should allow or even encourage scholars to pursue doctoral studies in disciplines that are deemed nontraditional, yet are intrinsically germane to major influences on health. This question is especially relevant because the central value and ultimate goal of the academic medicine community is to help attain the highest level of health and health equity for all people. Advances in medical science and practice, along with improvements in health care access and delivery, are steps toward health equity, but alone they will not come close to eliminating health inequalities. Addressing the complex health issues in our communities and society as a whole requires a biomedical research workforce with knowledge, practice, and research skills well beyond conventional biomedical or clinical sciences. To make real progress in advancing health equity, educational pathways must prepare physician-scientists to treat both micro and macro determinants of health. The authors argue that MD-PhD programs should allow and encourage their scholars to cross boundaries into less traditional disciplines such as epidemiology, statistics, anthropology, sociology, ethics, public policy, management, economics, education, social work, informatics, communications, and marketing. To fulfill current and coming health care needs, nontraditional MD-PhD students should be welcomed and supported as valuable members of our biomedical research workforce.
It is proposed to examine the argument that females cannot perform better in engineering and science fields because of their poor mathematical or logical reasoning. The major reason for the reduced number of females in the above fields in India is the socio-cultural aversion towards females choosing the field and restriction in providing higher education for them by their parents. The present study shows that the females who get the opportunity to study engineering and science perform equal to or better than their male counterparts. An analysis of CGPA (Cumulative Grade Point Average) of 2631 students who have completed their engineering or science programme in one of the top engineering colleges in India for five years shows that female academic performance is equal to or better than that of males. Mathematical, logical, verbal and mechanical reasoning are tested while calculating CGPA.
Maria Kikila; Ioannis Koutelekos
Child discipline is one of the most important elements of successful parenting. As discipline is defined the process that help children to learn appropriate behaviors and make good choices. Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the discipline methods. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, mainly in the pubmed data base which referred to the discipline methods. Results: In the literature it is ci...
Jackson, Deborah C.; Johnson, Elizabeth D.
The problem of students entering university lacking basic mathematical skills is a critical issue in the Australian higher-education sector and relevant globally. The Maths Skills programme at La Trobe University has been developed to address under preparation in the first-year science cohort in the absence of an institutional mathematics support…
Foutz, Tim; Navarro, Maria; Hill, Roger B.; Thompson, Sidney A.; Miller, Kathy; Riddleberger, Deborah
An outcome of a 1998 forum sponsored by the National Research Council was a recognition that topics related to food production and agriculture are excellent mechanisms for integrating science topics taught in the K-12 education system and for providing many avenues for inquiry based and project based learning. The engineering design process is…
Mathew Lee Stone
Full Text Available Objective – To quantify the value of librarianship and information science (LIS exports knowledge to other subject disciplines. Design – Bibliometric study. Setting – LIS departments in U.K. universities. Subjects – 232 LIS research articles published between 2001 and 2007. Methods – Data from the 2008 U.K. Research Assessment Exercise were checked to identify 405 research articles submitted by 10 selected university departments (out of a total of 21, which submitted research in the LIS category. The Web of Science database was then searched to see how many of these articles had been cited in other articles (n=232. If the citing article was published in a non-LIS journal it was considered a knowledge export. Journals were defined as non-LIS if they had not been assigned the subject category of Information Science & Library Science by the Journal of Citation Reports. The journal Impact Factors (IFs of citing journals were then normalized to measure the value of individual knowledge exports to their respective subject disciplines. This was done by comparing a citing journal’s IF with the median journal IF within that subject category. If the citing journal’s IF was above this median it was considered to be a valuable knowledge export. Main Results – The sample of LIS research articles produced a total of 1,061 knowledge exports in 444 unique non-LIS journals. These non-LIS journals covered 146 unique subject categories of which those related to computer science and chemistry/pharmacology cited LIS research with the greatest frequency. Just over three-quarters (n=798 of these citations were considered to be valuable knowledge exports. A sub-analysis showed that LIS articles published in non-LIS journals were significantly more valuable than the knowledge exports published in LIS journals. Conclusion – The validity of bibliometric studies can be improved by adopting the two methodological innovations presented in this study. The
Full Text Available A number of historical anthologies and monographs have been published recently that give priority to the social approach in the history of science of the educational sciences – using Stichweh’s concept of discipline – as discipline formation and discipline development. The study to date indicates that four phases in the academic discipline development of the educational sciences in Hungary can be distinguished. In the first phase we find the institutional formation of pedagogy, as it was then understood, as a disciplinary field. This development proceeded most rapidly in the last third of the nineteenth century. It took on two overlapping forms, following the general institutionalization of teacher education. On the one hand, broad-based theory formation regarding educational practice took place, reaching its peak in Herbartianism. On the other hand, university courses were introduced and academic chairs created, often closely tied to philosophy, that were dedicated to pedagogy and represented the academic foundations of the discipline. The second phase, which is the focus of the present contribution continued into the twentieth century. In this period an educational movement arose that centered on the empirical paradigms of research in the social sciences. But the various lines of the movement (reform pedagogy, experimental pedagogy, child study did not always succeed at becoming established at the universities. The third phase is the phase of lasting institutionalization of the educational sciences, which in most places began already in the first half of the twentieth century. Here the German «Geisteswissenschaft» played a role. After the 2nd World War was Hungary included in the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union and began the fourth phase of development of the educational sciences in Hungary. Educational science was most highly affected among social sciences by the political power shifts oft the Stalinism.
Nina O. Voskresenskaya
Full Text Available Comparative economics, a young interdisciplinary science, which proper formation belongs to the twentieth century only, has been recently attracting more attention of the scientific community. This quite predictable interest is based on the very subject of the comparative economics which is socioeconomic systems in the mankind history. Researchers want to know what factors make systems come into being, transform, achieve prosperity, stop to develop; they need to understand how systems are functioning and which of their institutions should be attributed to as being fundamental – difficult or not transformed at all, and which of them are not so stable and therefore can be easily changed. This knowledge is crucially needed to elaborate an appropriate economic policy in order to meet national interests and cope with possible crises. Attention to the science is also based on its methodological possibilities: comparative analysis can provide complete and compact socio-economic panorama of mankind evolution versus traditional historical studies. This possible-to-embrace picture of global human history viewed as a set of different economic systems might be a good ground to conclude which of them possesses such attractive features as capacity for development, flexibility, readiness for self-improvement, ability to achieve and maintain reasonable socio-economic balance under negative internal and external influence, openness to interaction with other peoples and states, i.e. what system can provide the best sufficient infrastructure for growth and development focusing on ensuring a high standard of living for the people. Comparative analysis allows to predict, to some extent, the further evolution of economic systems, and chose the most attractive one as a desirable benchmark for national development. Thus, comparative economics is both of academic and practical value for society. Professor R. M. Nureev in his fundamental work "Comparative Economics
Jackson, Catherine M
The institutional revolution has become a major landmark of late-nineteenth century science, marking the rapid construction of large, institutional laboratories which transformed scientific training and practice. Although it has served historians of physics well, the institutional revolution has proved much more contentious in the case of chemistry. I use published sources, mainly written by chemists and largely focused on laboratories built in German-speaking lands between about 1865 and 1900, to show that chemical laboratory design was inextricably linked to productive practice, large-scale pedagogy and disciplinary management. I argue that effective management of the novel risks inherent in teaching and doing organic synthesis was significant in driving and shaping the construction of late-nineteenth century institutional chemical laboratories, and that these laboratories were essential to the disciplinary development of chemistry. Seen in this way, the laboratory necessarily becomes part of the material culture of late-nineteenth century chemistry, and I show how this view leads not only to a revision of what is usually known as the laboratory revolution in chemistry but also to a new interpretation of the institutional revolution in physics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McCray, Wilmon Wil L., Jr.
The research was prompted by a need to conduct a study that assesses process improvement, quality management and analytical techniques taught to students in U.S. colleges and universities undergraduate and graduate systems engineering and the computing science discipline (e.g., software engineering, computer science, and information technology) degree programs during their academic training that can be applied to quantitatively manage processes for performance. Everyone involved in executing repeatable processes in the software and systems development lifecycle processes needs to become familiar with the concepts of quantitative management, statistical thinking, process improvement methods and how they relate to process-performance. Organizations are starting to embrace the de facto Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI RTM) Models as process improvement frameworks to improve business processes performance. High maturity process areas in the CMMI model imply the use of analytical, statistical, quantitative management techniques, and process performance modeling to identify and eliminate sources of variation, continually improve process-performance; reduce cost and predict future outcomes. The research study identifies and provides a detail discussion of the gap analysis findings of process improvement and quantitative analysis techniques taught in U.S. universities systems engineering and computing science degree programs, gaps that exist in the literature, and a comparison analysis which identifies the gaps that exist between the SEI's "healthy ingredients " of a process performance model and courses taught in U.S. universities degree program. The research also heightens awareness that academicians have conducted little research on applicable statistics and quantitative techniques that can be used to demonstrate high maturity as implied in the CMMI models. The research also includes a Monte Carlo simulation optimization
Lucking, Robert A.; Christmann, Edwin P.; Wighting, Mervyn J.
Although in some schools cell phones have to be turned off or perhaps kept in lockers to avoid misuse, the authors hope to demonstrate in this article how they can be used under supervision to assist learning. This ubiquitous device can be a powerful classroom tool. (Contains 2 figures.)
Full Text Available Background issues that occured in PUSPIPTEK (Research Center of Science and Technology was the declining of employee performance, low discipline in work such as not obeying the rules, and decreased absenteeism as coming late to the office. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of compensation on, the effect of training on work discipline, the effect of compensation on employee performance, the effect of training on employee performance, the effect of work discipline on employee performance, and the effect of compensation and training to the work discipline and its impact on employee performance PUSPIPTEK. This research was associative and the measurement scale applied likert scale. The method of analysis used was path analysis and the number of samples in this study was 116 respondents. Based on the result, this study concludes that the compensation and training toward the work discipline has a significant influence on the employees’ performance. The empirical findings indicate that in order to improve the employees’ performance in PUSPIPTEK need to pay attention on compensation, training, and work discipline.
Eddy, Sarah L.; Brownell, Sara E.
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This focused collection explores inequalities in the experiences of women in physics. Yet, it is important for researchers to also be aware of and draw insights from common patterns in the experiences of women across science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. Here, we review studies on gender disparities across college STEM on measures that have been correlated with retention. These include disparities in academic performance, engagement, self-efficacy, belonging, and identity. We argue that observable factors such as persistence, performance, and engagement can inform researchers about what populations are disadvantaged in a STEM classroom or program, but we need to measure underlying mechanisms to understand how these inequalities arise. We present a framework that helps connect larger sociocultural factors, including stereotypes and gendered socialization, to student affect and observable behaviors in STEM contexts. We highlight four mechanisms that demonstrate how sociocultural factors could impact women in STEM classrooms and majors. We end with a set of recommendations for how we can more holistically evaluate the experiences of women in STEM to help mitigate the underlying inequities instead of applying a quick fix.
Stacey, Glyn; Stephens, Neil
We describe the experience of conducting intensive social science research at the UK Stem Cell Bank from the viewpoint of both the person conducting the social science research and the Director of the Bank. We detail the initial misunderstandings and concerns held by both and the problems these caused. Then we describe how the relationship developed as the project progressed and shared benefits became apparent. Finally, while acknowledging potential areas of tension between the life and social sciences, we suggest further interaction between the disciplines would prove beneficial for both and speculate as to how this may be achieved. In the discussion we identify a set of learning points from our experience and definitions of social science terminology that may help to inform future engagements between life and social scientists.
Jia, Ren-bing; Fan, Xian-qun; Xu, Yan-ying; Dong, Er-dan
To analyze the role of National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) on the development of the discipline of Ophthalmology from 1986 to 2010. Data on the total number of projects and funding of NSFC allocated to Ophthalmology, as well as papers published, awards, personnel training, subject construction were collected, and the role of NSFC on other sources of funding was evaluated. From 1986 to 2010, NSFC supported a total of 593 scientific research projects of Ophthalmology, funding a total amount of 152.44 million Yuan, among which were 371 free application projects, 156 Young Scientist Funds, 9 Key Programs, 5 National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars, 3 Major international (regional) joint research programs, 1 Science Fund for Creative Research Group and 48 other projects. Over the past 25 years, the number of NSFC projects received by Ophthalmology has been an overall upward trend in the share in the Department of Life (Health) Sciences. Take the projects (186 of 292, 63.7%) as examples completed between 2002 and 2010, a total 262 papers were published in Science Citation Index (SCI) included journals and 442 papers were published in Chinese journals. Meanwhile, 8 Second prizes of National Science and Technology Progress Award and 1 State Technological Invention Award were received. As of 2010, the training of a total of more than 40 postdoctoral, more than 400 doctoral students and more than 600 graduate students have been completed. 5 national key disciplines and 1 national key laboratory have been built. Moreover, 2 "973" programs from Ministry of Science and Technology and 1 project of special fund in the public interest from Ministry of Public Health were obtained. 2 scholars were among the list of Yangtze Fund Scholars granted by Ministry of Education. Over the past 25 years, a full range of continuous funding from NSFC has led to fruitful results and a strong impetus to the progress of discipline of Ophthalmology.
Huang, Ming-Qing; Han, Li-Wei; Wu, Xiu-Hong; Bi, Ming-Gang; Shang, Hong-Cai; Liu, Yun-Fang; He, Wei-Ming; Li, Dan-Dan; Dong, Yan; Wang, Chang-En
The applications accepted and approved by general program, young scientist fund and fund for less developed region of national natural science funds in the discipline of Chinese materia medica, NSFC in 2012 have been introduced. The research contents of the funded projects in the popular research areas have been summarized and the problems in the applications have been analyzed to give a reference to the scientists in the field of Chinese materia medica.
de Souza, Alexandre; de Oliveira Neves, Jobert; Ferreira, Orlando Rodrigues; Lúcia Costa Amaral, Carmem; Delourdes Maciel, Maria; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Nascimento, Rômulo Pereira
Provided for the education curricula since 1960, the focus on Science, Technology and Society (STS) has been poorly implemented even until today. Set as a goal to be achieved at all levels of education by 2014, in Brazil it is necessary to undertake specific actions in pursuit of putting into practice what has been stalled over the years in Education. As a result of joint efforts of teachers and students of the Masters in Teaching Science and Mathematics at the Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul comes the challenge of providing a specific discipline dealing with the concepts of STS, offered as a optional special, initially for students of Pedagogy and later, due to the interest of some students, for the course of Administration and Human Resources of this institution. The survey of previous conceptions of students enrolled in the Special Discipline Elective Science, Technology and Society (CTS DOP) on the triad of STS showed a great ignorance on the same theme. The reports reveal conceptions of students who approach the linear model of development. As to the generated expectations in terms of discipline, there stand out the desires of expansion of knowledge for possible applications in personal and professional life. This research aims to evaluate the current course, while identifying ways to improve and strengthen the STS movement in education.
Hogue, Barbara A.
Research into women's underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines has become a topic of interest due to the increasing need for employees with technical expertise and a shortage of individuals to fill STEM jobs. The discrepancy in women's representation between STEM and other fields cannot adequately be explained by factors such as women's need to balance work and family (medicine and law are both extremely demanding careers), women's fear of competition (admissions into medical and law schools are highly competitive), or women's inability to excel in science (e.g., entry into medicine requires excellent achievement in the basic sciences). The purpose of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the role and/or impact a sense of belonging has inside and outside of STEM classrooms. Research questions focused on the role and/or impact of belonging contributes to students' self-efficacy beliefs as a STEM major. Bandura's self-efficacy theory serves as the theoretical framework. Data sources include close-ended surveys of 200 sophomore- and junior-level college students majoring in a STEM discipline. A quantitative exploratory approach allowed participants' responses to be analyzed using both correlation and multiple regression analyses to understand whether a student's sense of belonging is associated with his or her self-efficacy beliefs. Findings suggested that positive support systems impact students' self-efficacy and play a role in fostering students' motivation and decision to major in STEM disciplines. This study contributes to positive social change by providing empirical evidence faculty and administrators may use to promote university-based STEM support programs reflecting the impact belonging has on students' self-efficacy and potentially increasing the number of students majoring in STEM disciplines.
Kristensen, Peter Marcus
that the stocktaking genre — past and present — is conducive to seeing the past as more simple, coherent and ordered while the present is marked by fragmentation and cacophony. Neat summaries of the academic scene in one’s own time are quite rare. Few stocktakers ever identified one conversation/debate driving...... the discipline, not during the first, second, third or fourth debates — and those who did disagreed on what the main trenches and its warriors were. The article concludes by arguing that International Relations’ recurrent anxieties about its fragmentation beg questions, not about whether it is real this time...
Full Text Available Directions of forming of professional competence of the future teachers are construed during study of natural-science disciplines. It is revealed, that in individually - oriented training one of the most efficient forms of preparation training is. Training is considered as the scheduled process of refilling of skills, knowledge, checks of the relation, idea, conduct. It is indicated, that the procedure of training rests on capabilities, tendencies, interests, valuable orientations, subject experience. She ensures intellectual development which affects in educational reachings.
A science methods instructor intentionally encouraged cell phone use for class work to discover how cell phones can be used as research tools to enhance the content and engage the students. The anecdotal evidence suggested that students who used their smartphones as research tools experienced the science content and pedagogical information…
Osmar Henrique Moura da Silv
Full Text Available The incorporation of historical and philosophical elements in disciplines of natural sciences of the high school has been reaching defended in the specific literature and critics improved visions concerning the use of the History and Philosophy of the Science (HFC for didactic ends. In that sense, the discussions are important since ponder influences in the orientation of curricula of significant portion of the undergraduate teaching. Worrying about such discussions, this study put reflections about de historiographies controversies among Kuhn and Lakatos whose educational implications allow support to a tendency of the use of HFC as resources not to obtain completely authentic historical reconstructions, but to favor intentions of to develop and to project didactic solutions in that the pedagogy doesn't need to submit itself to the History.
Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aulls, Mark W.; Shore, Bruce M.
Sociocognitive theory [Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall; Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist, 44, 1175-1184. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.44.9.1175; Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 248-287. doi:10.1016/0749-5978(91)90022-L] accords high importance to the mechanisms of human agency and how they are exercised through self-efficacy. In this paper, we developed and validated the McGill Self-Efficacy For Inquiry Engagement (McSELFIE) instrument with undergraduate students in natural science disciplines. We defined inquiry engagement as carrying out the practices of science (POS) that are supported by students' personality characteristics (SPCs) and that result in achieving inquiry-learning outcomes (ILOs). Based on these theoretical perspectives, the McSELFIE is a 60-item, learner-focused survey that addresses three components that are theoretically important for engaging in scientific inquiry: (a) SPCs, (b) ILOs, and (c) POS. Evidence for construct and content validity were obtained by using experts' judgments and confirmatory factor analysis with a sample of 110 undergraduate students enrolled in science disciplines. Internal consistency of the factors and instrument was also examined. The McSELFIE instrument is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring science undergraduate students' self-efficacy for inquiry engagement. Matched pairs analyses were conducted among the instruments' factors. Students reported the highest self-efficacy for openness, applying knowledge, and carrying out investigations. Students reported the lowest self-efficacy for extraversion, understanding metacognitive knowledge, and planning investigations. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Full Text Available Science is a systemized from of knowledge which is a product of human creativity. The aim of this study is to try to explain the nature of the concept of science, and to evaluate librarianship and information science as a scientific discipline in accordance with the synthesis achieved; and invite colleagues to consider this issue. Bilim insan yaratıcılığıyla üretilen bilginin sistematiğe edilmiş şeklidir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, bilim kavramının içeriğini açımlamaya çalışmak; varılacak sentezlerle kütüphanecilik ve enformasyon biliminin bir "bilim disiplini" olarak değerlendirmesini sunmak ve meslektaşları konu üzerinde düşünmeye çağırmaktır.
This book presents the findings of a survey that analyzes a unique set of data in science and technolog and provides a clear and simple synthesis of heterogeneous databases on the gender gap in the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) setting, helping readers understand key trends and developments. The need for more women in innovative fields, particularly with regard to STEM-based innovations, has now been broadly recognized. The book provides insights into both the education and employment of women in STEM. It investigates how the gender gap has evolved among STEM graduates and professionals around the world, drawing on specific data from public and private databases. As such, the book provides readers an understanding of how the so-called ‘leaky pipeline’ operates, and of how more women than men drop out of STEM studies and jobs by geographical area.
Full Text Available Male-dominated work environments often possess masculine cultures that are unwelcoming to women. The present work investigated whether male-dominated academic environments were characterized by gender ideologies with negative implications for women. A survey of 2622 undergraduates across a variety of academic majors examined how gender imbalance within the major corresponded with students’ gender ideologies. We hypothesized that men in male-dominated domains might justify their dominance and prototypical status by adopting gender ideologies and stereotypes that denigrate women and treat men as the normative and superior group. Confirming this hypothesis, men in increasingly male-dominated academic majors were more likely to endorse Assimilationism—that women should adapt and conform to masculine work norms in order to succeed—and Segregationism—that men and women should pursue traditional social roles and careers. Moreover, they were less likely to endorse Gender Blindness—that attention to gender should be minimized. They were also more likely to agree with the gender-science stereotype that men do better in math and science than women. In contrast, gender imbalance in the major did not influence women’s gender ideologies, and women in increasingly male-dominated majors were significantly less likely to endorse the gender-science stereotype.
Bernstam, Elmer V.; Hersh, William R.; Johnson, Stephen B.; Chute, Christopher G.; Nguyen, Hien; Sim, Ida; Nahm, Meredith; Weiner, Mark; Miller, Perry; DiLaura, Robert P.; Overcash, Marc; Lehmann, Harold P.; Eichmann, David; Athey, Brian D.; Scheuermann, Richard H.; Anderson, Nick; Starren, Justin B.; Harris, Paul A.; Smith, Jack W.; Barbour, Ed; Silverstein, Jonathan C.; Krusch, David A.; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Becich, Michael J.
Clinical and translational research increasingly requires computation. Projects may involve multiple computationally-oriented groups including information technology (IT) professionals, computer scientists and biomedical informaticians. However, many biomedical researchers are not aware of the distinctions among these complementary groups, leading to confusion, delays and sub-optimal results. Although written from the perspective of clinical and translational science award (CTSA) programs within academic medical centers, the paper addresses issues that extend beyond clinical and translational research. The authors describe the complementary but distinct roles of operational IT, research IT, computer science and biomedical informatics using a clinical data warehouse as a running example. In general, IT professionals focus on technology. The authors distinguish between two types of IT groups within academic medical centers: central or administrative IT (supporting the administrative computing needs of large organizations) and research IT (supporting the computing needs of researchers). Computer scientists focus on general issues of computation such as designing faster computers or more efficient algorithms, rather than specific applications. In contrast, informaticians are concerned with data, information and knowledge. Biomedical informaticians draw on a variety of tools, including but not limited to computers, to solve information problems in health care and biomedicine. The paper concludes with recommendations regarding administrative structures that can help to maximize the benefit of computation to biomedical research within academic health centers. PMID:19550198
Suggests that the 20th century has been the century of the application of disciplines - philosophy, psychology, history, sociology, statistics, cognitive science, and computer science - to educational thought on an unprecedented scale. The same disciplines, in the service of the study of women by women, have led to a whole new complex of thought…
Gosak, Marko; Markovič, Rene; Dolenšek, Jurij; Rupnik, Marjan Slak; Marhl, Marko; Stožer, Andraž; Perc, Matjaž
We would like to thank all the experts for their insightful and very interesting comments that have been submitted in response to our review "Network science of biological systems at different scales" . We are delighted with the number of comments that have been written, and even more so with the positive opinions that these comments communicate to the wider audience [2-9]. Although methods of network science have long proven their value in relevantly addressing various challenges in the biological sciences, such interdisciplinary research often still struggles for funding and recognition at many academic levels.
Ellins, K. K.; Eriksson, S. C.; Samsel, F.; Lavier, L.
A new undergraduate, upper level geoscience course was developed and taught by faculty and staff of the UT Austin Jackson School of Geosciences, the Center for Agile Technology, and the Texas Advanced Computational Center. The course examined the role of the visual arts in placing the scientific process and knowledge in a broader context and introduced students to innovations in the visual arts that promote scientific investigation through collaboration between geoscientists and artists. The course addressed (1) the role of the visual arts in teaching geoscience concepts and promoting geoscience learning; (2) the application of innovative visualization and artistic techniques to large volumes of geoscience data to enhance scientific understanding and to move scientific investigation forward; and (3) the illustrative power of art to communicate geoscience to the public. In-class activities and discussions, computer lab instruction on the application of Paraview software, reading assignments, lectures, and group projects with presentations comprised the two-credit, semester-long "special topics" course, which was taken by geoscience, computer science, and engineering students. Assessment of student learning was carried out by the instructors and course evaluation was done by an external evaluator using rubrics, likert-scale surveys and focus goups. The course achieved its goals of students' learning the concepts and techniques of the visual arts. The final projects demonstrated this, along with the communication of geologic concepts using what they had learned in the course. The basic skill of sketching for learning and using best practices in visual communication were used extensively and, in most cases, very effectively. The use of an advanced visualization tool, Paraview, was received with mixed reviews because of the lack of time to really learn the tool and the fact that it is not a tool used routinely in geoscience. Those senior students with advanced computer
Discipline is a necessary ingredient for any successful school. Every teacher and school has a particular style and technique of discipline. This paper examines effective discipline strategies that help maintain school discipline. Classroom management, in school and out of school suspensions, alternative schooling, corporal punishment, and…
Science is a disciplined practice about knowing puzzling observations and unknown phenomena. Scientific knowledge of the product is applied to develop technological artifacts and solve complex problems in society. Scientific practices are undeniably relevant to our economy, civic activity, and personal lives, and thus public education should help children acquire scientific knowledge and recognize the values in relation to their own lives and civil society. Likewise, developing scientific thinking skills is valuable not only for becoming a scientist, but also for becoming a citizen who is able to critically evaluate everyday information, select and apply only the trustworthy, and make wise judgments in their personal and cultural goals as well as for obtaining jobs that require complex problem solving and creative working in the current knowledge-based economy and rapid-changing world. To develop students' scientific thinking, science instruction should focus not only on scientific knowledge and inquiry processes, but also on its epistemological aspects including the forms of causal explanations and methodological choices along with epistemic aims and values under the social circumstances in focal practices. In this perspective, disciplinary knowledge involves heterogeneous elements including material, cognitive, social, and cultural ones and the formation differs across practices. Without developing such discipline-specific knowledge, students cannot enough deeply engage in scientific "practices" and understand the true values of scientific enterprises. In this interest, this dissertation explores instructional approaches to make student engagement in scientific investigations more authentic or disciplinary. The present dissertation work is comprised of three research questions as stand-alone studies written for separate publication. All of the studies discuss different theoretical aspects related to disciplinary engagement in epidemiologic inquiry and student
[Applications and spproved projects of general program, young scientist fund and fund for less developed region of national natural science funds in discipline of Chinese materia medica, NSFC in 2011].
Han, Liwei; Wang, Yueyun; He, Wenbin; Zhang, Junjie; Bi, Minggang; Shang, Hongcai; Shang, Deyang; Wang, Chang'en
The applications accepted and approved by general program, young scientist fund and fund for less developed region of national natural science funds in the discipline of Chinese materia medica, NSFC in 2011 have been introduced. The character and problems in these applications have been analyzed to give a reference to the scientists in the field of Chinese material medica.
Full Text Available Detailed here is the creation and application of a replicable method bricolage that brings together Discourse Analysis, discourse analysis, and the theory of reasoned action to examine attitudes and beliefs of university science professors toward the discipline of education. This method used a two-phase method for analysis. The first phase looked for phrases that could be defined as either an attitude or a belief based on definitions taken from the social psychology and communication studies literature. The second phase interpreted the overall data to explore the influences on the formation of the attitudes and beliefs as well as to support or refute the findings from Phase 1. The need for a replicable Discourse Analysis method is apparent in the education literature, as is a solid definition of what constitutes an attitude or a belief. The method outlined here provides good definitions for attitudes and beliefs, a method for extracting both constructs from the data, and incorporates an internal crystallization process for looking at and comparing emergent themes from both phases of analysis.
Sullins, Ellen S.; Hernandez, Delia; Fuller, Carol; Shiro Tashiro, Jay
Research on factors that shape recruitment and retention in undergraduate science majors currently is highly fragmented and in need of an integrative research framework. Such a framework should incorporate analyses of the various levels of organization that characterize academic communities (i.e., the broad institutional level, the departmental level, and the student level), and should also provide ways to study the interactions occurring within and between these structural levels. We propose that academic communities are analogous to ecosystems, and that the research paradigms of modern community ecology can provide the necessary framework, as well as new and innovative approaches to a very complex area. This article also presents the results of a pilot study that demonstrates the promise of this approach at the student level. We administered a questionnaire based on expectancy-value theory to undergraduates enrolled in introductory biology courses. Itself an integrative approach, expectancy-value theory views achievement-related behavior as a joint function of the person's expectancy of success in the behavior and the subjective value placed on such success. Our results indicated: (a) significant gender differences in the underlying factor structures of expectations and values related to the discipline of biology, (b) expectancy-value factors significantly distinguished biology majors from nonmajors, and (c) expectancy-value factors significantly predicted students' intent to enroll in future biology courses. We explore the expectancy-value framework as an operationally integrative framework in our ecological model for studying academic communities, especially in the context of assessing the underrepresentation of women and minorities in the sciences. Future research directions as well as practical implications are also discussed.
This comprehensive book on Nanoclusters comprises sixteen authoritative chapters written by leading researchers in the field. It provides insight into topics that are currently at the cutting edge of cluster science, with the main focus on metal and metal compound systems that are of particular interest in materials science, and also on aspects related to biology and medicine. While there are numerous books on clusters, the focus on clusters as a bridge across disciplines sets this book apart from others. Delivers cutting edge coverage of cluster science Covers a broad range of topics in
Telep, Valya Goodwin, 1955-
This series of lessons was prepared for parents like you - parents who want to do a better job of disciplining their children. The lessons were especially written for parents of preschool children, ages two to six, but some of the discipline methods are appropriate for older children, too. This lesson focuses on a general overview of discipline.
Considering the importance of a diverse science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) research workforce for our country's future, it is troubling that many underrepresented racial minority (URM) students start graduate STEM programs, but do not finish. However, some institutional contexts better position students for degree completion than others. The purpose of this study was to uncover the academic and social experiences, power dynamics, and programmatic/institutional structures URM students face within their graduate STEM programs that hinder or support degree progression. Using a critical socialization framework applied in a cross-comparative qualitative study, I focused on how issues of race, ethnicity, and underrepresentation within the educational contexts shape students' experiences. Data was collected from focus group interviews involving 53 URM graduate students pursuing STEM disciplines across three institution types -- a Predominately White Institution, a Hispanic-Serving Institution, and a Historically Black University. Results demonstrate that when students' relationships with faculty advisors were characterized by benign neglect, students felt lost, wasted time and energy making avoidable mistakes, had less positive views of their experiences, and had more difficulty progressing through classes or research, which could cause them to delay time to degree completion or to leave with a master's degree. Conversely, faculty empowered students when they helped them navigate difficult processes/milestones with regular check-ins, but also allowed students room to make decisions and solve problems independently. Further, faculty set the tone for the overall interactional culture and helping behavior in the classroom and lab contexts; where faculty modeled collaboration and concern for students, peers were likely to do the same. International peers sometimes excluded domestic students both socially and academically, which had a negative affect on
Walsh, Kevin; Cowles, Milly
The act of disciplining children cannot be based upon merely "putting a stop" to negative actions by means of reactionary techniques of control. If educators begin to consider discipline as a major aspect of the educational aim of socialization of children, significant contributions toward their moral and social development will take place.…
Dwyer, Kevin P.
This report discusses disciplining children with disabilities in schools, in the context of the legal requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Practical concepts are explained in terms of the school's responsibility to: (1) maintain a safe environment; (2) teach a code of discipline to all students; (3) use the…
Full Text Available This paper regards the ways archival discipline is treated in DDC. After a short introduction about the discipline in Italy, the essay focuses on the analysis of division 020 of DDC 23, with specific attention to section 025 and with punctual reference to section 651, concerning archival material. The aim of the paper is to point out archival discipline’s peculiarities and its differences from library science, as well as underlining the critical issues on how this discipline is handled in DDC.
... Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Adopted Children & Discipline Family Life ... are the reasons for these patterns of parental inaction? Some adoptive parents are afraid their youngster might stop loving ...
Robinson, Douglas N; Iglesias, Pablo A
Historically, much of biology was studied by physicists and mathematicians. With the advent of modern molecular biology, a wave of researchers became trained in a new scientific discipline filled with the language of genes, mutants, and the central dogma. These new molecular approaches have provided volumes of information on biomolecules and molecular pathways from the cellular to the organismal level. The challenge now is to determine how this seemingly endless list of components works together to promote the healthy function of complex living systems. This effort requires an interdisciplinary approach by investigators from both the biological and the physical sciences.
Hurlbut, J. Benjamin; Robert, Jason Scott
These are interesting days in the scientific, social, and political debates about human embryonic stem cell research. Pluripotent stem cells--cells that can, in principle, give rise to the body's full range of cell types--were previously derivable only from human embryos that were destroyed in the process. Now, a variety of somatic cell types can…
Found that neither the authoritative model nor the liberal (permissive) model offers parents an efficacious model of childrearing. Each polarized model contains an element of truth, but each demonizes the other. Argues that within a responsive and supportive parent-child relationship, prudent use of punishment is a necessary tool in discipline.…
Traditional academic disciplines are not best available tools for teaching about reality. The concept of human survival provides an overarching aim for a general education curriculum. Survival information includes knowledge about our physical environment; inherent human characteristics and capabilities; the ideas, beliefs, and values underlying…
Collins, Mildred; Dowell, Mary L.
Increasing numbers of parents do not accept a school's discipline policy and are refusing to permit their children to comply with disciplinary sanctions. According to the California Education Code, educators have the right to expect parents to accept disciplinary decisions made in compliance with required procedures. Parental defiance might worsen…
Dowey, Ana Lucrecia
The under participation of minority females in STEM fields has been a chronic problem in the United States, mainly when it is analyzed through the lens of their relative representation in the population. The results of the first or quantitative phase, of this two phase sequential, mixed method study, revealed academic achievement or performance in science accounted for most of the variance of mean scores for students' attitudes and interests in science as measured by the TOSRA Likert-scale survey, when compared to the degree of parent education and ethnicity/ racial background. Additionally, this study investigated possible sources of perceived self-efficacy in eighteen seventh grade Hispanic female students by conducting personal semi-structured interviews. The purpose of this study was to explore if middle school female student ethnic/racial backgrounds and academic performance influence their attitudes and interests toward science and to study the possible effects external (family, school, peers, and community) and internal factors may have for Hispanic student self-efficacy toward science. The results revealed that of the five ethnic/racial groups studied, Asian/Filipino female students expressed higher positive attitudes and interests toward science, than the rest of the student ethnic groups studied, followed by the Hispanic student group. The results indicated that students' perceived encouragement from their mothers, regardless of the mother's degree of education, as being the main source of these girls' perceived self-efficacy in science. However, the lack of perceived school-related, peer-related, and community-related support was evident. These results are encouraging because they demonstrate how verbal persuasion, in the form of encouragement and support, fosters perceived self-efficacy for minority female students.
Schwartz-Shea, Peregrine; Yanow, Dvora
We have been invited by Politics & Gender's editors to review the origins and current standing of the Data Access and Research Transparency (DA-RT) policy, an effort initiated by the eponymous American Political Science Association (APSA) Ad Hoc Committee and led primarily by Colin Elman,
Thompson, Andrew R.; O'Loughlin, Valerie D.
Bloom's taxonomy is a resource commonly used to assess the cognitive level associated with course assignments and examination questions. Although widely utilized in educational research, Bloom's taxonomy has received limited attention as an analytical tool in the anatomical sciences. Building on previous research, the Blooming Anatomy Tool (BAT)…
The international U&U seminar invites PhD work which addresses the discipline of urbanism, and encourages contributions that highlight its trans-disciplinary nature. Urbanism is grounded in various practices, discourses and realities with respect to the city. The seminar will focus on multiple approaches – from historic enquiry to project-led analysis – and cover a wide range of spaces and scales - from territories to neighborhoods, from landscapes to cityscapes. The seminar seeks contributio...
Khan, Muhammad M.
The research on stem cells is advancing knowledge about the development of an organism from a single cell and to how healthy cells replace damaged cells in adult organisms. Stem cell therapy is emerging rapidly nowadays as a technical tool for tissue repair and replacement. The purpose of this review to provide a framework of understanding for the challenges behind translating fundamental stem cell biology and its potential use into clinical therapies, also to give an overview on stem cell research to the scientists of Saudi Arabia in general. English language MEDLINE publications from 1980 through January 2007 for experimental, observational and clinical studies having relation with stem cells with different diseases were reviewed. Approximately 85 publications were reviewed based on the relevance, strength and quality of design and methods, 36 publications were selected for inclusion. Stem cells reside in a specific area of each tissue where they may remain undivided for several years until they are activated by disease or tissue injury. The embryonic stem cells are typically derived from four or five days old embryos and they are pluripotent. The adult tissues reported to contain stem cells brain, bone marrow, peripheral blood, blood vessels, skeletal muscle, skin and liver. The promise of stem cell therapies is an exciting one, but significant technical hurdles remain that will only be overcome through years of intensive research. (author)
Thomas, Scott R.
The "National Aeronautics Research and Development Policy" document, issued by the National Science and Technology Council in December 2006, stated that one (among several) of the guiding objectives of the federal aeronautics research and development endeavors shall be stable and long-term foundational research efforts. Nearly concurrently, the National Academies issued a more technically focused aeronautics blueprint, entitled: the "Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics - Foundations for the Future." Taken together these documents outline the principles of an aeronautics maturation plan. Thus, in response to these overarching inputs (and others), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) organized the Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP), a program within the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The FAP initiated foundational research and technology development tasks to enable the capability of future vehicles that operate across a broad range of Mach numbers, inclusive of the subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flight regimes. The FAP Hypersonics Project concentrates on two hypersonic missions: (1) Air-breathing Access to Space (AAS) and (2) the (Planetary Atmospheric) Entry, Decent, and Landing (EDL). The AAS mission focuses on Two-Stage-To-Orbit (TSTO) systems using air-breathing combined-cycle-engine propulsion; whereas, the EDL mission focuses on the challenges associated with delivering large payloads to (and from) Mars. So, the FAP Hypersonic Project investments are aligned to achieve mastery and intellectual stewardship of the core competencies in the hypersonic-flight regime, which ultimately will be required for practical systems with highly integrated aerodynamic/vehicle and propulsion/engine technologies. Within the FAP Hypersonics, the technology management is further divided into disciplines including one targeting Turbine-Based Combine-Cycle (TBCC) propulsion. Additionally, to obtain expertise and support from outside
Reeves, Todd D.; Marbach-Ad, Gili
Most discipline-based education researchers (DBERs) were formally trained in the methods of scientific disciplines such as biology, chemistry, and physics, rather than social science disciplines such as psychology and education. As a result, DBERs may have never taken specific courses in the social science research methodology--either quantitative…
Report on short course in educational methodology for university teachers in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) disciplines - a pilot study conducted at Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, India.
Munir, Ahmed R; Prem, Kumar D
There is a growing awareness among teachers in the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) disciplines that a formal training in educational methodology can improve their performance as teachers and student evaluators. The Training of Trainers programs conducted by Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, in the previous years have brought about a transformation among the teachers who attended those programs. Also the teachers were witness to a changing perception among students towards teachers who adapt innovative teaching/assessment strategies. This report illustrates an innovative training activity that was adapted to design a reference model that can be developed as an operational model for large-scale execution. Teachers who are under the affiliated CAM Institutions in Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, participated in a three-month 'Short Course in Educational Methodology'. This program was delivered on distance learning mode. The course was organised into four modules. Study material was provided for each of the module in the form of a study guide and related reference articles in electronic form. There were three contact programs - Induction and Introduction that also addressed overview of entire course and the subject matter of Module 1, and this was at the beginning of the course, first contact program to address the learner needs of Modules 2 and 3 and second contact program for the contents in Module 4. The participants were engaged during the entire course duration with interactive contact programs, self-study and application of concepts in their teaching/assessment practices, submission of assignments online, and microteaching presentation and peer review. The documentation and raw data generated during the course of training were used to generate an operational model for training of university teachers of health sciences faculty in general and teachers of CAM disciplines in particular. Establishing a model of
Balkwill, Frances; Chambers, Katie
Centre of the Cell is a unique biomedical science education centre, a widening participation and outreach project in London's East End. This article describes Centre of the Cell's first five years of operation, the evolution of the project in response to audience demand, and the impact of siting a major public engagement project within a research laboratory.
Users across academic disciplines utilize different information sources based on the resource's usefulness and relevance. This study's findings show that users from arts and sciences disciplines are much more likely to utilize university library website resources and printed materials than business users who heavily rely on commercial websites.…
Dolan, Erin L.; Elliott, Samantha L.; Henderson, Charles; Curran-Everett, Douglas; St. John, Kristen; Ortiz, Phillip A.
Discipline-based education research (DBER) is an emergent, interdisciplinary field of scholarship aimed at understanding and improving discipline-specific teaching and learning. The number of DBER faculty members in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) departments has grown rapidly in recent years. Because the interdisciplinary…
Full Text Available When we applied alternatives and working algorism to put into practice the knowledge in the different subjects during the instructive- learning process it is important the exclusion of all empirical level in the teaching contents. The Biological science in essence constitutes a subject in the specific basic formation aimed to the integration of the future professional in the physical Culture majoring which has an important influence on the rest of the subjects that are part of the curriculum .In the present work we can show the results of one of the tasks corresponding to the research project related to the didactic changes in the Biological sciences subject, derived from the difficulties found in the teaching process. The authors give an approximation of how to deal with the different components in the teaching leaning- process with concrete results on the base theoretical and empiric methods. They give a work alternative to establish basic concepts with the didactic of the Physical education and sport showing advance evidences in the didactic order giving a high level of work in this subject.
Howard, B J
As pediatricians we have an opportunity and a responsibility to guide parents in the structure of discipline they set up for their children. The major goals of this structure are to help children develop a sense of being both lovable and capable. To feel lovable a child needs an enduring responsive relationship that conveys positive regard. Attending to children promptly, giving individual time daily, acknowledging positive behaviors, and ignoring minor transgressions all help them feel valued. Active listening without judgment demonstrates acceptance of children's feelings. Talking to children without labels or generalizations but with specific feedback about their actions and with congruent emotional tone is respectful and promotes self-esteem. Children also deserve assistance with transitions, thanks, and apologies as appropriate. To feel (and become) capable, children need a consistent structure of routines, good models, respectful instruction, and progressive expectations so that they have an ongoing experience of success. To grow as individuals they need opportunities to make choices relevant to their interests and role-taking opportunities to gain perspective on social interaction. Praise and rewards motivate as well as instruct children, but they also need to experience consequences to their actions. Natural consequences are optimal but parents also need to design logical consequences that are graded, related, prompt, and reasonable for a child's misbehaviors. Consequences are most effective when given after only one request, exactly as clearly promised by the adult involved without interference by others. Time out is one of the most effective consequences for young children when used properly. Physical punishment has multiple negative effects on a child's development, especially if used noncontingently. Intrapersonal and family factors predispose parents to predictable problems in establishing healthy discipline. Pediatricians can play an important role in
Full Text Available Since the end of the 1960s, courses in economics have become established in French lycées for pupils aged approximately 16 to 18 as part of both the general and technological (services streams. There are no other specific programmes in economics at the other levels of the school system. In lower secondary schools (collèges, which cater for children aged between 11 and 15, economic phenomena are presented in a somewhat descriptive manner during history and geography lessons. These descriptions introduce children to an economic vocabulary that includes terms such as GDP, productivity, inflation, growth and development. However, the acquisition of this vocabulary does not lead on to the teaching of any real economic arguments, nor of economic concepts or theories in the strict sense. Economics as just defined in not taught in the vocational streams either. The aim of this article is to characterise the teaching of economics that is provided in the general streams of French upper secondary schools as part of a subject called Economic and Social Sciences (ESS. It is here that economics teaching is most heavily concentrated; furthermore, it is the only one of the two economics programmes in French lycées for which curriculum studies exist. The article will show that, despite the considerable changes it has undergone, this programme has retained the critical and socially aware approach that has been present since it was first established. It was by no means evident that such an approach, inspired originally by the work of historians of the Annales school, would be adopted, even less retained, since it goes against the grain of developments in economics at university level, both in French universities and internationally, during the two decades between 1980 and the year 2000 (LeVan Lemesle 1983; Le Merrer 1990. During this period, the economics taught in universities became less descriptive and more formalised and moved away from the other social
The National Center for the Study of Corporal Punishment and Alternatives in the Schools, established the Discipline Helpline to guide parents in handling specific discipline problems. To evaluate the telephone counseling service, 63 persons who had contacted the Helpline for assistance with specific discipline problems completed the Helpline…
Milton, Constance L
Healthcare disciplines, including nursing, are emerging sciences that contain discipline-specific theories that guide the activities of research, practice, and education. The term nursing science calls forth meaning that has long been accepted and referred to as the extant nursing theories undergirded with philosophy of science. Recent writings dispute the purposes and future usage of nursing theoretical frameworks in the science of nursing. The author of this article proposes new thinking about the importance of reverence and ethical implications for the future of formal inquiry in nursing science.
Optometry is a branch of science whose roots are in optics development as well as in physiology development. Among Polish scholars, whose names are firmly engraved in the history of optometry, two names should be mentioned first, they are Witelo (1237 - 1290) and Majer (1808 - 1899). Contemporary optometry began around the turn of the 19th and 20th century in the United States of America where some states erected legal regulations for those opticians who were performing refractions. Since 1993 optometry has been defined by the World Council of Optometry as a health care profession which is autonomous, educated and regulated (licensed/registered). Nevertheless, the question arises: Is optometry a separate part of science or is it only a set of practical procedures useful in vision care? In other words: does optometry have a system of definitions, laws and hypothesis with such logical interrelations that all less general statements may be derived from the most general? Even at this moment the system is not fully developed, yet we can say that optometry is a set of statements important and enough proved to be taught at the university level, being a category by itself and being sufficiently rich to be a subject for teaching as separate discipline.
De Juan, Joaquin; Pérez-Cañaveras, Rosa M.; Segovia, Yolanda; Girela, Jose Luis; Martínez-Ruiz, Noemi; Romero-Rameta, Alejandro; Gómez-Torres, Maria José; Vizcaya-Moreno, M. Flores
Cell biology is an academic discipline that organises and coordinates the learning of the structure, function and molecular composition of cells in some undergraduate biomedical programs. Besides course content and teaching methodologies, the laboratory environment is considered a key element in the teaching of and learning of cell biology. The…
Eduquer avec fermeté et bienveillance Véronique Genevay Jeudi 31 mai à 19h00 CERN Meyrin, Salle du Conseil 503-1-001 Venez vous familiariser avec la pensée et le positionnement développé dans la discipline positive. Une approche ni permissive, ni punitive, qui vise à enseigner aux enfants des compétences comme la confiance en soi, l’autonomie, le respect de soi-même et le respect mutuel, la responsabilité, la coopération… Inscrivez-vous : https://indico.cern.ch/e/disciplinepositive Pour plus d’informations : firstname.lastname@example.org ou (+41) 022 766 37 38
McCampbell, Kristen K; Wingert, Rebecca A
The kidney is widely regarded as an organ without regenerative abilities. However, in recent years this dogma has been challenged on the basis of observations of kidney recovery following acute injury, and the identification of renal populations that demonstrate stem cell characteristics in various species. It is currently speculated that the human kidney can regenerate in some contexts, but the mechanisms of renal regeneration remain poorly understood. Numerous controversies surround the potency, behaviour and origins of the cell types that are proposed to perform kidney regeneration. The present review explores the current understanding of renal stem cells and kidney regeneration events, and examines the future challenges in using these insights to create new clinical treatments for kidney disease.
Stein, Rüdiger; Kucera, Michal; Walter, Maren; de Vernal, Anne
Due to a complex set of feedback processes collectively known as "polar amplification", the Arctic realm is expected to experience a greater-than-average response to global climate forcing. The cascades of feedback processes that connect the Arctic cryosphere, ocean and atmosphere remain incompletely constrained by observations and theory and are difficult to simulate in climate models. Our capacity to predict the future of the region and assess the impacts of Arctic change processes on global and regional environments hinges on the availability of interdisciplinary experts with strong international experience and understanding of the science/society interface. This is the basis of the International Research Training Group "Processes and impacts of climate change in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Canadian Arctic - ArcTrain", which was initiated in 2013. ArcTrain aims to educate PhD students in an interdisciplinary environment that combines paleoclimatology, physical oceanography, remote sensing and glaciology with comprehensive Earth system modelling, including sea-ice and ice-sheet components. The qualification program for the PhD students includes joint supervision, mandatory research residences at partner institutions, field courses on land and on sea (Floating University), annual meetings and training workshops and a challenging structured training in expert skills and transferrable skills. Its aim is to enhance the career prospects and employability of the graduates in a challenging international job market across academic and applied sectors. ArcTrain is a collaborative project at the University of Bremen and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven. The German part of the project is designed to continue for nine years and educate three cohorts of twelve PhD students each. The Canadian partners comprise a consortium of eight universities led by the GEOTOP cluster at the Université du Québec à Montréal and including
Yock, Paul G; Brinton, Todd J; Zenios, Stefanos A
Recently, universities in the United States and abroad have developed dedicated educational programs in life science technology innovation. Here, we discuss the two major streams of educational theory and practice that have informed these programs: design thinking and entrepreneurship education. We make the case that the process of innovation for new medical technologies (medtech) is different from that for biopharmaceuticals and outline the challenges and opportunities associated with developing a discipline of medtech innovation.
Eliyawati, Sunarya, Yayan; Mudzakir, Ahmad
This research attempts to enhance students' science literacy in the aspects of students' science content, application context, process, and students' attitude using solar cell learning multimedia containing science and nano technology. The quasi-experimental method with pre-post test design was used to achieve these objectives. Seventy-two students of class XII at a high school were employed as research's subject. Thirty-six students were in control class and another thirty-six were in experiment class. Variance test (t-test) was performed on the average level of 95% to identify the differences of students' science literacy in both classes. As the result, there were significant different of learning outcomes between experiment class and control class. Almost half of students (41.67%) in experiment class are categorized as high. Therefore, the learning using solar cell learning multimedia can improve students' science literacy, especially in the students' science content, application context, and process aspects with n-gain(%) 59.19 (medium), 63.04 (medium), and 52.98 (medium). This study can be used to develop learning multimedia in other science context.
Cell phones are ubiquitous on campus, and the anytime anywhere nature of teenage communications means that students see no separation between life inside and outside of school, at least when it comes to activities such as texting. Allowing cell phones on campus will have students in possession of cell phones with sexually oriented messages,…
Zhang, Joy Yueyue
It is commonly perceived that the 'globalization of science' may result in a 'Westernization of science'. In this paper, however, I use the case of stem cell science in China to demonstrate that developing countries are sometimes able to effectively shape the norms of global/local scientific exchange. Based on interviews with 38 stem cell scientists in six Chinese cities in early 2008, this paper elucidates Chinese scientists' outlook towards cross-border collaborations and the effects that the internationalization of science has had on everyday laboratory operations. Findings suggest that although there still exists an asymmetry of scientific influence, and in many aspects China is still 'catching-up' to the West, there is also a changing nature of communication beyond borders. One key aspect of recent international scientific development is the growing necessity for local stakeholders to acquire a global mindset and to compare, reflect and accommodate diverse interests. This is what I define as the 'cosmopolitanization of science'. The study empirically examines the sociological and methodological implications of the cosmopolitanization process and further develops Ulrich Beck's cosmopolitan theory by delineating four main features of the 'cosmopolitanization of science': shared future benefits, passive ethicization, reflexive negotiation, and continuous performance.
Full Text Available The present study broadly attempts to analyze the role of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act in restoring fiscal balance in India. It analyses the need for fiscal rules and constraints in India. The study aims at finding out the major factor behind rising fiscal imbalance in India and to examine whether there is an electoral motive towards high fiscal deficit to GDP ratio or not. It also analyzes the effectiveness of various measures undertaken at the central and state level to inculcate fiscal discipline in the fiscal management. The study also makes an attempt to do a critical in depth reviews of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act and make an attempt at examining effectiveness and suitability of FRBM Act through a quantitative analysis. It also makes an attempt to suggest improvements in the fiscal monitoring mechanism in India. We employ Ordinary Least Square (OLS method to examine the impact of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act on fiscal deficit in India using the data for the period 1980-81 to 2008-09. The regression results indicates that FRBM Act does not have a significant effect on the Gross Fiscal Deficit (GFD to GDP ratio where as GDP (at factor cost growth rate has a significant negative effect on the GFD to GDP ratio.
Denzin, Norman K.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Giardina, Michael D.
Qualitative research exists in a time of global uncertainty. Around the world, governments are attempting to regulate scientific inquiry by defining what counts as "good" science. These regulatory activities raise fundamental, philosophical epistemological, political and pedagogical issues for scholarship and freedom of speech in the…
Piaget noted that "punishment renders the autonomy of conscience impossible". Yet in the Caribbean, most common folk believe that beating is an indispensable part of discipline. To understand the role that discipline or the connotations of that word play in the society, culture, economy and politics of Saint Lucia, it is indispensable to…
Constantz, J. E.
Streambeds are generally viewed as simply sediments beneath streams, sediments topping alluvial aquifers, or sediments housing aquatic life, rather than as distinct geographic features comparable to soils and surficial geologic formations within watersheds. Streambeds should be viewed as distinct elements within watersheds, e.g., as akin to soils. In this presentation, streambeds are described as central features in watersheds, cycling water between the surface and underlying portions of the watershed. Regarding their kinship to soils, soils are often described as surficial sediments largely created by atmospheric weathering of underlying geologic parent material, and similarly, streambeds should be described as submerged sediments largely created by streamflow modification of underlying geologic parent material. Thus, streambeds are clearly overdue for recognition as their own scientific discipline along side other well-recognized disciplines within watersheds; however, slowing progress in this direction, the point is often made that hyporheic zones should be considered comparable to streambeds, but this is as misguided as equating unsaturated zones to soils. Streambeds and soils are physical geographic features of relatively constant volume, while hyporheic and unsaturated zones are hydrologic features of varying volume. Expanded upon in this presentation, 'Streambed Science' is proposed for this discipline, which will require both a well-designed protocol to physically characterize streambeds as well as development of streambed taxonomy, for suitable recognition as an independent discipline within watersheds.
Hughes, John S.; Crichton, Daniel; Martinez, Santa; Law, Emily; Hardman, Sean
For diverse scientific disciplines to interoperate they must be able to exchange information based on a shared understanding. To capture this shared understanding, we have developed a knowledge representation framework using ontologies and ISO level archive and metadata registry reference models. This framework provides multi-level governance, evolves independent of implementation technologies, and promotes agile development, namely adaptive planning, evolutionary development, early delivery, continuous improvement, and rapid and flexible response to change. The knowledge representation framework is populated through knowledge acquisition from discipline experts. It is also extended to meet specific discipline requirements. The result is a formalized and rigorous knowledge base that addresses data representation, integrity, provenance, context, quantity, and their relationships within the community. The contents of the knowledge base is translated and written to files in appropriate formats to configure system software and services, provide user documentation, validate ingested data, and support data analytics. This presentation will provide an overview of the framework, present the Planetary Data System's PDS4 as a use case that has been adopted by the international planetary science community, describe how the framework is being applied to other disciplines, and share some important lessons learned.
The common theme of these research programs is that they investigate regulation of gene expression in cells, and ultimately gene expression is controlled by the macromolecular interactions between regulatory proteins and DNA. The NASA Critical Path Roadmap identifies Muscle Alterations and Atrophy and Radiation Effects as Very Serious Risks and Severe Risks, respectively, in long term space flights. The specific problem addressed by Dr. Young's research ("Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Muscle Cell Signaling") is that skeletal muscle loss in space cannot be prevented by vigorous exercise. Aerobic skeletal muscles (i.e., red muscles) undergo the most extensive atrophy during long-term space flight. Of the many different potential avenues for preventing muscle atrophy, Dr. Young has chosen to study the beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) pathway. The reason for this choice is that a family of compounds called betaAR agonists will preferentially cause an increase in muscle mass of aerobic muscles (i.e., red muscle) in animals, potentially providing a specific pharmacological solution to muscle loss in microgravity. In addition, muscle atrophy is a widespread medical problem in neuromuscular diseases, spinal cord injury, lack of exercise, aging, and any disease requiring prolonged bedridden status. Skeletal muscle cells in cell culture are utilized as a model system to study this problem. Dr. Richmond's research ("Radiation & Cancer Biology of Mammary Cells in Culture") is directed toward developing a laboratory model for use in risk assessment of cancer caused by space radiation. This research is unique because a human model will be developed utilizing human mammary cells that are highly susceptible to tumor development. This approach is preferential over using animal cells because of problems in comparing radiation-induced cancers between humans and animals.
Sri Ram, K.
After tracing the evolution of radiation physics teaching at the university level in U.S.A., the current status of teaching of radiation physics in Indian Universities is reviewed. It is noted that parts of radiation physics are taught in some Indian academic institutions. Only Madras University offers an M.Sc. programme in radiation physics. Its curriculum is critically examined and it is noted that more emphasis is required on practical and applied aspects of radiation physics. Closer interaction between academic and R and D institutions is required. (M.G.B.)
Howe, Richard D.
This document provides comparative salary trend data for full-time faculty at 307 public institutions and 490 private colleges and universities based on two surveys, one for the baseline year 1993-94 and the other for the trend year 1996-97. For each of the 27 disciplines, a summary includes a definition of the discipline; information on average…
Never before was anticipation more relevant to the life and activity of humankind than it is today. “It is no overstatement to suggest that humanity’s future will be shaped by its capacity to anticipate….” (Research Agenda for the 21st Century, National Science Foundation). The sciences and the humanities can no longer risk explaining away the complexity and interactivity that lie at the foundation of life and living. The perspective of the world that anticipation opens justifies the descriptor “the post-Cartesian Revolution.” If anticipation is a valid research domain, what practical relevance can we await? Indeed, anticipation is more than just the latest catch-word in marketing the apps developed by the digital technology industry. Due to spectacular advances in the study of the living, anticipation can claim a legitimate place in current investigations and applications in the sciences and the humanities. Biology, genetics, medicine, as well as politics and cognitive, behavioral, and social sci...
Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.
Blood cell labeling can be considered a science in as far as it is based on precise knowledge and can be readily reproduced. This benchmark criterion is applied to all current cell labeling modalities and their relative merits and deficiencies are discussed. Mechanisms are given where they are known as well as labeling yields, label stability, and cell functionality. The focus is on the methodology and its suitability to the clinical setting rather than on clinical applications per se. Clinical results are cited only as proof of efficacy of the various methods. The emphasis is on technetium as the cell label, although comparisons are made between technetium and indium, and all blood cells are covered. 52 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs
Organizing is such a common activity that we often do it without thinking much about it. In our daily lives we organize physical things--books on shelves, cutlery in kitchen drawers--and digital things--Web pages, MP3 files, scientific datasets. Millions of people create and browse Web sites, blog, tag, tweet, and upload and download content of all media types without thinking "I'm organizing now" or "I'm retrieving now." This book offers a framework for the theory and practice of organizing that integrates information organization (IO) and information retrieval (IR), bridging the disciplinary chasms between Library and Information Science and Computer Science, each of which views and teaches IO and IR as separate topics and in substantially different ways. It introduces the unifying concept of an Organizing System--an intentionally arranged collection of resources and the interactions they support--and then explains the key concepts and challenges in the design and deployment of Organizing Systems in many do...
Matthews, Michael R.
This article concentrates on the necessity for teachers in just one discipline area, namely, science, having philosophical competence and using it to inform their professional life--in their classroom teaching, assessing and institutional engagements--in other words, having a philosophy of science teaching. This group of questions and issues might…
Kastenberg, Zachary J; Odorico, Jon S
Despite many advances in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) technology the ethical dilemma involving the destruction of a human embryo is one factor that has limited the development of hESC based clinical therapies. Two recent reports describing the production of pluripotent stem cells following the in vitro reprogramming of human somatic cells with certain defined factors illustrate one potential method of bypassing the ethical debate surrounding hESCs (Yu J, Vodyanik MA, Smuga-Otto K, et al. Induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from human somatic cells. Science. 2007 Dec;318(5858):1917-1920; Takahashi K, Tanabe K, Ohnuki M, et al. Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors. Cell. 2007 Nov;131(5): 861-872.). Other alternative methods include nuclear transfer, altered nuclear transfer, and parthenogenesis; each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. This review discusses recent advances in these technologies with specific focus on the issues of embryo destruction, oocyte recovery, and the potential of each technology to produce large scale, patient specific cell transplantation therapies that would require little or no immunosuppression.
Full Text Available Long-term history of science: on the flexibility and fragility of scientific disciplinesMost scientific disciplines, such as chemistry, biology and physics, are now about two centuries old. Using physics as a case study the present paper aims to account for this longevity. What kept the physics discipline together from the early nineteenth century onwards? Literature on the rise of physics suggests that the discipline was formed around energy, the ether, or other theoretical notions. Yet the twentieth-century revolutions in physics showed that the discipline could prosper without some of its most 'fundamental' concepts. Some scholars conclude that internal factors are therefore irrelevant and disciplinary identity and continuity are purely institutional. Drawing on the work of Thomas Kuhn, Peter Galison and Andrew Warwick, this paper defends a different point of view. Although there is no intellectual core of disciplines, the prolonged existence of disciplines cannot be explained without some degree of internal continuity. If there is a revolution of a theoretical level, there may still be continuity on the level of experimental practices (and vice versa. It is this flexibility that accounts for the fact that disciplines may adapt to different circumstances. In addition, an educational tradition is required to transmit knowledge from one generation to the next.
Witoonchart, Chatree; Fangsa-ard, Thitiporn; Chaoaree, Supamit; Ketumarn, Panom; Kaewpornsawan, Titawee; Phatthrayuttawat, Sucheera
Problems of discipline are common among parents. These may be the results of the parents' pitfalls in disciplining their children. To find out common pitfalls of parents in disciplining their children. Parents of students with ages ranged between 60-72 months old in Bangkok-Noi district, Bangkok, were selected by random sampling. Total number of 1947 children ages between 60-72 months were recruited. Parents of these children were interviewed with a questionnaire designed to probe into problems in child rearing. There hindered and fifty questionnaires were used for data analyses. Parents had high concerns about problems in discipline their children and needed support from professional personnel. They had limited knowledge and possessed lots of wrong attitude towards discipline. Common pitfalls on the topics were problems in, 1) limit setting 2) rewarding and punishment 3) supervision on children watching TV and bedtime routines. Parents of children with ages 60-72 months old in Bangkok-Noi district, Bangkok, had several common pitfalls in disciplining their children, including attitude, knowledge and practice.
Full Text Available The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of "equal-opportunity" discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an "equal-opportunity" discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of "glass ceiling" as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position. However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index, which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues.
Addessi, Elsa; Borgi, Marta; Palagi, Elisabetta
The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of "equal-opportunity" discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an "equal-opportunity" discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of "glass ceiling" as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications) do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position). However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index), which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues.
Macy, James; Horvath, Tamas L
Comparative Medicine is typically defined as a discipline which relates and leverages the biological similarities and differences among animal species to better understand the mechanism of human and animal disease. It has also been defined as a field of study concentrating on similarities and differences between human and veterinary medicine and is increasingly associated with animal models of human disease, including the critical role veterinarians, animal resource centers, and Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees play in facilitating and ensuring humane and reproducible laboratory animal care and use. To this end, comparative medicine plays a pivotal role in reduction, refinement, and replacement in animals in biomedical research. On many levels, comparative medicine facilitates the translation of basic science knowledge into clinical applications; applying comparative medicine concepts throughout the translation process is critical for success. In addition to the supportive role of comparative medicine in the research enterprise, its role as a distinct and independent scientific discipline should not be lost. Although comparative medicine's research "niche" is not one particular discipline or disease process, rather, it is the investigative mindset that seeks to reveal common threads that weave different pathophysiologic processes into translatable approaches and outcomes using various models.
Del Sol, Antonio; Thiesen, Hans J; Imitola, Jaime; Carazo Salas, Rafael E
Achieving the promises of stem cell science to generate precise disease models and designer cell samples for personalized therapeutics will require harnessing pheno-genotypic cell-level data quantitatively and predictively in the lab and clinic. Those requirements could be met by developing a Big-Data-driven stem cell science strategy and community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Karie, Nickson M; Venter, Hein S
Ontologies are widely used in different disciplines as a technique for representing and reasoning about domain knowledge. However, despite the widespread ontology-related research activities and applications in different disciplines, the development of ontologies and ontology research activities is still wanting in digital forensics. This paper therefore presents the case for establishing an ontology for digital forensic disciplines. Such an ontology would enable better categorization of the digital forensic disciplines, as well as assist in the development of methodologies and specifications that can offer direction in different areas of digital forensics. This includes such areas as professional specialization, certifications, development of digital forensic tools, curricula, and educational materials. In addition, the ontology presented in this paper can be used, for example, to better organize the digital forensic domain knowledge and explicitly describe the discipline's semantics in a common way. Finally, this paper is meant to spark discussions and further research on an internationally agreed ontological distinction of the digital forensic disciplines. Digital forensic disciplines ontology is a novel approach toward organizing the digital forensic domain knowledge and constitutes the main contribution of this paper. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Full Text Available Basic biological disciplines as biochemistry, genetic and molecular biology have grown faster than any of other sciences. Moreover, those disciplines contribute to the understanding and treatment of an elevated number of illnesses. On the other hand, teachers cannot assure the graduating students that each particular discipline is essential. Furthermore, those disciplines are often studied separately without any interdisciplinary integration between them. The new curriculum proposed at Anhembi Morumbi University - a private institution placed at São Paulo city - incorporates learning blocks that have been designed to integrate basic biological disciplines and clinical contents from the beginning in order to provide the stimulation and motivation to guide the student through his learning. The educational trend has concentrated on the following steps: 1 Biochemistry, genetic, cellular and molecular biology teachers´ from that institution have elaborated a new discipline that was named Biologic Process. The aim of this new discipline was integrate basic biological sciences in a single content; 2 Selecting problems that could be discussed in the light of biochemistry, genetic and molecular contents; e.g. sickle cell anemia; 3 Developing an innovative instructional method that challenges students “learn to learn” different from problem-based learning , economically unavailable at any particular university, and 4 Assessments that measure knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs. We believe that the future pedagogical system in private health university will be a combination of “classical” presentation of contents combined with actively involved students in the educational process and instruction based on either hypothetical or real clinical cases in order to create the stimulus for the student continues to integrate basic and clinical investigation.
Campbell, J M
Nurses in community settings have an opportunity to provide instruction related to health and life-style needs. An important consideration is the parental role. A particularly controversial and opinion-laden aspect of parenting is disciplining children. Discipline provides children with the security of clearly enforced rules to help them learn self-control and social standards. Parenting classes are worthwhile for people who have little formal or informal preparation. A survey of middle-class elementary school district parents' and childrens' attitudes toward discipline was conducted to develop meaningful parenting classes. Parents' feelings about being a mother or father were surprisingly negative. A parent educational program was developed to cover child growth and development and disciplinary practices. Parent evaluations led to continuation and an expansion of this program to other schools within the area.
Geocognition and geoscience education research have experienced a dramatic increase in research productivity and graduate student training in the past decade. At this writing, over twelve U.S. graduate programs dedicated to geocognition and geoscience education research exist within geoscience departments, with numerous other programs housed within education. International research programs are experiencing similar increases in these research domains. This insurgence of graduate training opportunities is due in large part to several factors, including: An increased awareness of the importance of Earth Systems Science to public understanding of science, particularly in light of global concern about climate change; new funding opportunities for science education, cognitive science, and geoscience education research; and, engagement of a significant part of the geosciences and education communities in writing new standards for Earth Systems literacy. Existing research programs blend geoscience content knowledge with research expertise in education, cognitive science, psychology, sociology and related disciplines. Research projects reflect the diversity of interests in geoscience teaching and learning, from investigations of pedagogical impact and professional development to studies of fundamental geocognitive processes.
Full Text Available Museology is the science of museums. Most experts characterize it as an independent applied scientific discipline, which studies how museums develop and optimize their activities to meet the needs of society. The term "museology" was first mentioned in the work by P.L. Martin "Praxix der Naturgeschichte" published in 1869 in Germany. But the determination of the status of museology as a science was first given by J. G. Th. Von Graesse in the article "Museology as a Science" published in the magazine „Zeitschrift für Museologie und Antiquitätenkunde" in 1883. The author announced a new scientific discipline of museology and tried to highlight its research potential. Thus, museology as a science began in 1883. Since 1960s museology is introduced as a scientific discipline in many universities around the world; there were created first centers of museological research, published numerous papers on museums. However, so far, some experts deny the scientific character of museology considering it "a discipline that coordinates a specialized type of cultural activity". In his article, the author analyzes the path of museology in the process of its development as a scientific discipline, identifies the problems of its classification in the system of sciences, and highlights the contributions of some researchers (P. van Mensch, J. Neustupny, T. Šola, Z. Stransky, R. Florescu, etc. to the consolidation of its status of an independent science. In conclusion, the author believes that museology is an academic science, but a relatively young and developing.
Adams, Amy; Lomax, Geoffrey; Santarini, Anthony
Research suggests that the representation of scientific and medical issues in the traditional media such as newspapers, TV and radio is an important determinant of public opinion and related public policy outcomes, particularly with regard to attitudes toward stem cell research. With the emergence of social media, the discursive space around public policy issues has expanded to include a new demographic of media consumer who is directly involved in political action. However, little is known about the influence of social media on scientific public policy conversations. We analyzed Twitter posts on two topics relating to stem cell science and policy according to the originator and tone of the tweet, and whether the tweet was intended to be neutral or to further a stated policy position. This analysis provides a means for clarifying the role of social media in influencing public opinion of policy issues such as stem cell research and offers organizations a better understanding of how to more effectively apply social media to advancing their stem cell policy positions.
... Child and Adolescent Psychiatry website. Policy statement on corporal punishment. www.aacap.org/aacap/Policy_Statements/2012/Policy_Statement_on_Corporal_Punishment.aspx . Updated July 20, 2012. Accessed January 9, ...
Christiaans, H.H.C.M.; Almendra, R.A.
This paper has the aim to address Retail Design as a new research and education discipline that because of its multidisciplinarity asks for a holistic approach. Although retailing as commerce is timeless, Retail Design is one of the most challenging new fields of design, embracing both design
Holds that the practice of disciplining children is damaging to their physical, emotional, and social well-being. Describes the democratic and egalitarian parenting model put forth in "Effectiveness Training" as an alternative to adult power based control of children. (Author/GC)
S. Dominguez Martinez (Silvia); O.H. Swank (Otto); B. Visser (Bauke)
textabstractBoards of directors face the twin task of disciplining and screening executives. To perform these tasks directors do not have detailed information about executives' behaviour, and only infrequently have information about the success or failure of initiated strategies, reorganizations,
Terrell, Henry W.
To stem the tide of student misbehavior, teachers and administrators must present a united front. Cooperative discipline procedures can be effective when they are firm, fair, and offer the misbehaving student a personal option. Practical suggestions on disciplinary procedures are offered here. (Editor/RK)
Mergler, Mary Schmid; Vargas, Karla M.; Caldwell, Caroline
Schools across the country are changing how they discipline students by implementing research- and evidence-based disciplinary practices that have yielded positive results for schools and students. These disciplinary practices--known as Restorative Justice, Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports, and social and emotional learning--largely…
The paper examines Russian banks’ household deposit interest rates for the transition period of setting up the deposit insurance system. Monthly observations of Russian banks’ interest rates and balance sheets are used in a fixed effects panel data model. It is shown market discipline has been significantly diminished after switching to the deposit insurance.
Medicinal chemistry makes a vital contribution to small molecule drug discovery, and the quality of it contributes directly to research effectiveness as well as to downstream costs, speed and survival in development. In recent years, the discipline of medicinal chemistry has evolved and witnessed many noteworthy contributions that propose and offer potential improvements to medicinal chemistry practice; however, the impact of these ideas is limited by their acceptance and deployment into every-day activity and, as a result, the quality of medicinal chemistry remains variable. For the good of the industry and the medicinal chemistry discipline, there is a need to move from retrospective learning to prospective control of medicinal chemistry practice to improve cost effectiveness, probability of success and survival rates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thurber, Bart; Pope, Jack
The authors present two case studies in the use of computers in the classroom, one involving an introductory computer science class, the other an upper division literature class. After describing each case, the differences are discussed, showing that pedagogical models developed for one discipline may not transfer to another, and that the…
Carter, Candice C., Ed.
Peace education includes lessons about conflict sources, transformation and resolution. While featuring field-based examples in multiple disciplines, including political science, anthropology, communication, psychology, sociology, counseling, law and teacher training, this book presents real cases of conflict work. Explained are concepts…
The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of “equal-opportunity” discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an “equal-opportunity” discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of “glass ceiling” as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications) do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position). However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index), which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues. PMID:22272353
Real innovations in medicine and science are historic and singular; the stories behind each occurrence are precious. At Molecular Medicine we have established the Anthony Cerami Award in Translational Medicine to document and preserve these histories. The monographs recount the seminal events as told in the voice of the original investigators who provided the crucial early insight. These essays capture the essence of discovery, chronicling the birth of ideas that created new fields of research; and launched trajectories that persisted and ultimately influenced how disease is prevented, diagnosed, and treated. In this volume, the Cerami Award Monograph is by Paul Nurse, Director, The Francis Crick Institute in London, UK. A visionary in the field of cell biology, this is the story of Dr. Nurse's scientific journey.
Full Text Available This paper describes a corpus-based analysis of the distribution of the high-frequency collocates of abstract nouns in 320 research articles across eight disciplines: Chemistry, Computer Science, Materials Science, Neuroscience, Economics, Language and Linguistics, Management, and Psychology. Disciplinary variation was also examined – very little previous research seems to have investigated this. The corpus was analysed using WordSmith Tools. The 16 highest-frequency nouns across all eight disciplines were identified, followed by the highest-frequency collocates for each noun. Five disciplines showed over 50% variance from the overall results. Conclusions are that the differing patterns revealed are disciplinary norms and represent standard terminology within the disciplines arising from the topics discussed, research methods, and content of discussions. It is also concluded that the collocations are an important part of the meanings and functions of the nouns, and that this evidence of sharp discipline differences underlines the importance of discipline-specific collocation research.
The main topic of this undergraduate dissertation is the disciplining of children in the family. The theoretical part provides deliberations on contemporary upbringing, definitions of different upbringing styles and the presentation of effects of particular upbringing styles on the development of a child. If just a couple of decades ago the authoritarian or the repressive upbringing style with the focus on an obedient individual was predominant, experts today warn about the expansion of anoth...
Weinhold, A R
The Department of Plant Pathology at the University of California at Berkeley was destroyed as a consequence of a contentious reorganization. The circumstances that led to the reorganization provide some insight into the challenges facing the discipline of plant pathology. The underlying basis for plant pathology as a science is to address problems of plant disease. This requires a balance between disciplinary and problem-solving research and a continuum from achieving fundamental advances in knowledge to the development and implementation of problem-solving approaches. Changes in colleges and universities have placed extreme stress on this essential structure. The dilemma that must be addressed is how to reestablish the problem-solving continuum where it has been broken and strengthen it where it has been weakened. Plants are essential for life, and they will always be affected by disease. The understanding and management of these diseases is the responsibility and the challenge of plant pathology today and in the future.
圖書參考文獻對人文社會學科跨學科特性之影響： 以圖書資訊學為例 The influence of book references on characteristics of interdisciplinarity in the fields of humanities and social sciences: The case of the discipline of library and information science
Full Text Available 本研究以引文分析方式分析近30年(1982-2011間圖書資訊學期刊文獻之圖書參考文獻與期刊參考文獻之跨學科特性及趨勢。研究結果顯示，圖書與期刊二類參考文獻之跨學科程度均呈現成長趨勢，雖然二類參考文獻來自相同學科範圍，但期刊參考文獻來自圖書資訊學的比例明顯高於圖書資訊學圖書之比例，以及二類參考文獻之主要學科來源並不完全相同。基於圖書及期刊是圖書資訊學文獻之主要引用資料類型，且有不同之跨學科特性，建議圖書資訊學之跨學科研究，不能僅以期刊參考文獻為資料分析對象，必須將圖書納入分析範圍內。This study used citation analysis to analyze and compare the interdisciplinary characteristics and trends of book references and journal references of artilces published in journals of library and information science (LIS from 1982 to 2011. The results show that an increasing trend in degree of interdisciplinarity was identified based on book references and journal references, respectively. Although both book references and journal references represented across 30 disciplines, the propotion of LIS books is much higher than that of LIS journals. In addition, The main disciplines have a great contribution to book references are different from those to journal references. Because both books and journals are two types of sources cited most frequently for LIS researchers and interdisciplinary characteristics differ in book references and journal referebces. This study suggests that book references have to be included in sample data for studies of interdisciplinarity in humanities and social sciences using citation analysis.
Fuel cells are electrochemical devices which directly convert the chemical energy of fuels into electrical energy. They are featured of high energy conversion efficiency and minimized pollutant emission. Proton conducting electrolytes are primarily used as separator materials for low and intermed...... science point of view including novel proton conducting materials and non-precious metal catalysts. The discussion will be made with highlights of DTU´s recent research and of course addressing a diverse technical audience.......Fuel cells are electrochemical devices which directly convert the chemical energy of fuels into electrical energy. They are featured of high energy conversion efficiency and minimized pollutant emission. Proton conducting electrolytes are primarily used as separator materials for low...... followed by a review of the state-of-the-art in terms of performance, lifetime and cost. Technically faced challenges are then outlined on a system level and traced back to fundamental issues of the proton conducting mechanisms and materials. Perspectives and future research are sketched from a materials...
Cell culture techniques are indispensable in most if not all life science disciplines to date. Wherever cell culture models are lacking scientific development is hampered. Unfortunately this has been and still is the case in honey bee research because permanent honey bee cell lines have not yet been...
Tomaszewski, Robert; Poulin, Sonia; MacDonald, Karen I.
Open access (OA) journals promote the opportunity for peer-reviewed journal articles to be freely accessible. In recent years, the number of OA journals has exploded in all disciplines. Previous studies have identified print-based pedagogical discipline-specific journals outside the field of Library and Information Science (LIS) for librarians to…
Gomez, S R; Jianu, R; Ziemkiewicz, C; Guo, Hua; Laidlaw, D H
We present an ethnographic study of design differences in visual presentations between academic disciplines. Characterizing design conventions between users and data domains is an important step in developing hypotheses, tools, and design guidelines for information visualization. In this paper, disciplines are compared at a coarse scale between four groups of fields: social, natural, and formal sciences; and the humanities. Two commonplace presentation types were analyzed: electronic slideshows and whiteboard "chalk talks". We found design differences in slideshows using two methods - coding and comparing manually-selected features, like charts and diagrams, and an image-based analysis using PCA called eigenslides. In whiteboard talks with controlled topics, we observed design behaviors, including using representations and formalisms from a participant's own discipline, that suggest authors might benefit from novel assistive tools for designing presentations. Based on these findings, we discuss opportunities for visualization ethnography and human-centered authoring tools for visual information.
Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of law as an academic discipline, in two ways. First, the study of law within the university does not speak for itself: in contrast with classical Athens, where law was not at all considered to be a matter for specialists, or Norman England, where specialists with a vocational training came to deal with the ‘common law’, in continental Europe at the end of the 11th century the study of law developed into one of the core academic disciplines at the newly established universities, as a result of the revival of the Byzantine version of Roman law as the ius commune. Second, as an academic study, contrary to what is sometimes suggested, the methods available to its students are diverse. This paper shows that law can be studied with the help of methods comparable to the ones used in other academic disciplines, notably the natural sciences and the humanities.
Kadi, Barbara U; Ruhs, August; Löffler-Stastka, Henriette
According to Foucault, in medicine, the paradigm of discipline has outweighed the paradigm of sovereignty for over a hundred years now. It has become clear, however, that within the field of psychiatry, particularly in psychoanalytic and psychotherapeutic research, an interchangeable corpus of knowledge is not sufficient for the treatment of patients. Moreover, it is often the changing relationship between doctor and patient which seems to be crucial to the process and outcome of the treatment. Every treatment-relationship must be understood as a zone of transference. Psychoanalytic research on transference, its potential and pitfalls, therefore, has to be more integrated into the research of psychic disorders.
Trend in land degradation has been the most contended issue in the Sahel. Trends documented have not been consistent across authors and science disciplines, hence little agreement has been gained on the magnitude and direction of land degradation in the Sahel. Differentiated science outputs are related to methods and data used at various scales.
Mbow, C.; Brandt, M.; Fensholt, R.; Ouedraogo, I.; Tagesson, T.
Thematic gaps in land degradation trends in the SahelTrend in land degradation has been the most contended issue for arid and semi-arid regions. In the Sahel, depending to scale of analysis and methods and data used, the trend documented have not been consistent across authors and science disciplines. The assessment of land degradation and the quantification of its effects on land productivity have been assessed for many decades, but little agreement has been gained on the magnitude and direction in the Sahel. This lack of consistency amid science outputs can be related to many methodological underpinnings and data used for various scales of analysis. Assessing biophysical trends on the ground requires long-term ground-based data collection to evaluate and better understand the mechanisms behind land dynamics. The Sahel is seen as greening by many authors? Is that greening geographically consistent? These questions enquire the importance of scale analysis and related drivers. The questions addressed are not only factors explaining loss of tree cover but also regeneration of degraded land. The picture used is the heuristic cycle model to assess loss and damages vs gain and improvements of various land use practices. The presentation will address the following aspects - How much we know from satellite data after 40 years of remote sensing analysis over the Sahel? That section discuss agreement and divergences of evidences and differentiated interpretation of land degradation in the Sahel. - The biophysical factors that are relevant for tracking land degradation in the Sahel. Aspects such detangling human to climate factors and biophysical factors behind land dynamics will be presented - Introduce some specific cases of driver of land architecture transition under the combined influence of climate and human factor. - Based on the above we will conclude with some key recommendations on how to improve land degradation assessment in the Arid region of the Sahel.
Telep, Valya Goodwin, 1955-
This series of lessons was prepared for parents like you - parents who want to do a better job of disciplining their children. The lessons were especially written for parents of preschool children, ages two to six, but some of the discipline methods are appropriate for older children, too. This lesson focuses on the difference between discipline and punishment.
National Education Association, Washington, DC.
The articles in this booklet reflect a broad spectrum in their approach to discipline and the teaching process. Even though discipline is now called classroom control, these articles indicate that some educators question the desirability of precise prescription in the classroom. Running through the articles is a common thread: discipline is less…
Grusec, Joan E.; Danyliuk, Tanya; Kil, Hali; O'Neill, David
Effective discipline involves the use of negative consequences, including reasoning as well as modest levels of power assertion, to discourage unacceptable behavior. A brief history of changing views of discipline is presented and recent positions outlined. Successful discipline requires the imposition of clear and consistent rules, autonomy…
Dodson, John A; Matlock, Daniel D; Forman, Daniel E
Given changing demographics, patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease in developed countries are now older and more complex than even a decade ago. This trend is expected to continue into the foreseeable future; accordingly, cardiologists are encountering patients with a greater number of comorbid illnesses as well as "geriatric conditions," such as cognitive impairment and frailty, which complicate management and influence outcomes. Simultaneously, technological advances have widened the therapeutic options available for patients, including those with the most advanced CV disease. In the setting of these changes, geriatric cardiology has recently emerged as a discipline that aims to adapt principles from geriatric medicine to everyday cardiology practice. Accordingly, the tasks of a "geriatric cardiologist" may include both traditional evidence-based CV management plus comprehensive geriatric assessment, medication reduction, team-based coordination of care, and explicit incorporation of patient goals into management. Given that the field is still in its relative infancy, the training pathways and structure of clinical programs in geriatric cardiology are still being delineated. In this review, we highlight the rationale behind geriatric cardiology as a discipline, several current approaches by geriatric cardiology programs, and future directions for the field. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Guo, G H
Discipline construction is an important aspect of hospital modernization management and construction. The level of medical treatment, education, and scientific research could be assured and improved through discipline construction, which could speed up the talent training, promote science and technology innovation, and realize the sustainable development of hospital. At present, most of the hospital management models adopt the two ranks of the hospital and department. The manager of a department must grasp medical treatment, education, scientific research, and discipline construction steadily. The author talks about the discipline construction and development of burn from " five ideas" for the readers.
Andersson, M.; Tomuzia, K.; Löfström, Ch.; Appel, B.; Bano, L.; Keremidis, H.; Knutsson, R.; Leijon, M.; Ekströmer Lövgren, S.; Medici, D.; Menrath, A.; Rotterdam, van B.; Wisselink, H.J.; Barker, G.C.
Preparedness for bioterrorism is based on communication between people in organizations who are educated and trained in several disciplines, including law enforcement, health, and science. Various backgrounds, cultures, and vocabularies generate difficulties in understanding and interpretating terms
Tomás A. Mantecón Movellán
Full Text Available Historical thought has tended to explain social disciplining according to two main analytical perspectives: on one hand, German tradition about the so-called sozialdisziplinierung and, on the other hand, Foucault perspectives (focussed on disciplines practiced on the bodies-and/or-minds of people by the authorities. From these both viewpoints social disciplining was a dynamic ingredient of change, from traditional societies up to contemporary liberal societies; a machinery to provoke top-down changes (from above. On the bases of historical evidences, this research claims for a third viewpoint that stresses dynamics of social discipline and social disciplining from below; underlines the need of integrating this third perspective in the historical explanation of change in past societies throughout the analysis of social practices of everyday life; the values underneath them and, in the end, taking into account varieties of discipline and perspectives of social disciplining from below.
Full Text Available One of the manifestations of the global crisis of financial capitalism and the policies arising from it was the imposition of austerity measures, which not only resulted in privatization of the commons and general expropriation of the people, but also managed to introduce new mechanisms of discipline and punishment. Debt, being the fundament of relations in society, forced itself into the system of social security: new legislation, regulating welfare benefits, has now shifted to a method for the criminalization of poverty, deepening class differences and transforming social workers (and the system of social security as a whole into a moralizing, bureaucratic machine for disciplining the population. The new legislation also shows a lack of reflection on the changes that need to be made to the welfare state in order to create social services that meet the needs and desires of individuals. Instead of improvements that provide decent living conditions and a new system of social rights (to deal with the problems resulting from precarious working conditions, people are faced with depersonalization, humiliation and increased hate speech and other fascist practices. The effect of austerity measures on the social security system does not end with the devastation of service users’ lives and their communities, which are slowly becoming exhausted, individualized and devoid of solidarity. It also means a big step backwards for the core ethics and principles of social work. Social workers are increasingly alienated from their clients and the communities they live in. They function more in the service of the government and its policies rather than as advocates of people’s rights.
Tseitlin, Michael; Galili, Igal
The crisis in physics education necessitates searching for new relevant meanings of physics knowledge. This paper advocates regarding physics as the dialogue among discipline-cultures, rather than as a cluster of disciplines to be an appropriate subject of science education. In a discipline-culture one can distinguish elements of knowledge as belonging to either (1) central principles and paradigms - nucleus, (2) normal disciplinary area - body of knowledge or (3) rival knowledge of the subject - periphery. It appears that Physics cannot be represented as a simple dynamic wholeness, that is, cannot be arranged in a single tripartite (triadic) structure (this result presents a deconstruction), but incorporates several discipline-cultures. Bound together by family similarity, they maintain a conceptual discourse. Teaching physics as a culture is performed in polyphonic space of different worldviews; in other words, it is performed in a Kontrapunkt. Implications of the tripartite code are suggested with regard to representation of scientific revolutions, individual conceptual change, physics curricula and the typology of students learning science.
Shneider, Alexander M
In this article I propose the classification of the evolutionary stages that a scientific discipline evolves through and the type of scientists that are the most productive at each stage. I believe that each scientific discipline evolves sequentially through four stages. Scientists at stage one introduce new objects and phenomena as subject matter for a new scientific discipline. To do this they have to introduce a new language adequately describing the subject matter. At stage two, scientists develop a toolbox of methods and techniques for the new discipline. Owing to this advancement in methodology, the spectrum of objects and phenomena that fall into the realm of the new science are further understood at this stage. Most of the specific knowledge is generated at the third stage, at which the highest number of original research publications is generated. The majority of third-stage investigation is based on the initial application of new research methods to objects and/or phenomena. The purpose of the fourth stage is to maintain and pass on scientific knowledge generated during the first three stages. Groundbreaking new discoveries are not made at this stage. However, new ways to present scientific information are generated, and crucial revisions are often made of the role of the discipline within the constantly evolving scientific environment. The very nature of each stage determines the optimal psychological type and modus operandi of the scientist operating within it. Thus, it is not only the talent and devotion of scientists that determines whether they are capable of contributing substantially but, rather, whether they have the 'right type' of talent for the chosen scientific discipline at that time. Understanding the four different evolutionary stages of a scientific discipline might be instrumental for many scientists in optimizing their career path, in addition to being useful in assembling scientific teams, precluding conflicts and maximizing
Pierret, Chris; Friedrichsen, Patricia
The intersection of science and our society has led to legal and ethical issues in which we all play a part. To support development of scientific literacy, college science courses need to engage students in difficult dialogues around ethical issues. We describe a new course, Stem Cells and Society, in which students explore the basic biology of…
This thesis is divided in two parts, theoretical and empirical. Theoretical part explains in detail, different methods of disciplining children and ways in which disciplining effects different areas of child development. Furthermore, ways of setting rules and boundaries in a family environment are studied, and disciplinary approaches and ways of reacting towards misbehaving children are examined. Moreover, the theoretical part contains psychological theories about discipline, child behaviour ...
Élida Fredesvinda Cordero Peña
Full Text Available This article refers to the theoretical considerations in the process of assessing the impact of a program from the initial training requirements of a teacher's career Agricultural at the present time, so that once graduates are able to project themselves into matching their needs and possibilities. Our research has its practical exponent in the Agricultural Health discipline as science for the develop ment of knowledge, professional skills training and values, consistent with the protection of cultivated plants and domestic animals, in student’s career of Agricultural, at the University of Educational Sciences, in Pinar del Rio, Cuba.
Full Text Available Australian schools by and large are safe schools. Nonetheless discipline problems do exist – including bullying behaviour. For this kind of problem schools should have management policies in place. As traditional behaviour-management practices – including corporal punishment – are largely prohibited in Australian schools, contemporary practices centre on management through supportive school programmes, including appropriate curricula and school-support structures. This article supports the belief that measures such as the exclusion of misbehaving learners should be treated with caution. Measures such as this might not reflect accepted international principles and practices and should only be exercised in the most extreme circumstances. The article also supports the view that it is part of the school’s role to ensure that all learners are aware of the reality that while they have rights, they also have corresponding responsibilities. This awareness is more likely to be achieved in a supportive school culture where each learner is recognised as having unique qualities that can mature and grow in an appropriate learning environment.
Teachers' Roles, Students' Personalities, Inquiry Learning Outcomes, and Practices of Science and Engineering: The Development and Validation of the McGill Attainment Value for Inquiry Engagement Survey in STEM Disciplines
Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aulls, Mark W.; Shore, Bruce M.
Inquiry engagement is a newly defined construct that represents the participation in carrying out practices of science and engineering to achieve learning outcomes and is influenced by learners' personalities and teachers' roles. Expectancy value theory posits that attainment values are important components of task values that, in turn, directly…
Sun, Xiaoling; Kaur, Jasleen; Milojević, Staša; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo
The birth and decline of disciplines are critical to science and society. How do scientific disciplines emerge? No quantitative model to date allows us to validate competing theories on the different roles of endogenous processes, such as social collaborations, and exogenous events, such as scientific discoveries. Here we propose an agent-based model in which the evolution of disciplines is guided mainly by social interactions among agents representing scientists. Disciplines emerge from splitting and merging of social communities in a collaboration network. We find that this social model can account for a number of stylized facts about the relationships between disciplines, scholars, and publications. These results provide strong quantitative support for the key role of social interactions in shaping the dynamics of science. While several ``science of science'' theories exist, this is the first account for the emergence of disciplines that is validated on the basis of empirical data.
Hee, Tie Fatt
Judicial review of decisions on student discipline is limited in Malaysia. This arises because of the general presumption that in the enforcement of school discipline, educators are able to act in the best interest of the student to maintain a safe learning environment. This article examines the range of disciplinary measures in Malaysian schools…
Time spent on disciplining children in the classroom is time taken away from achieving the objectives of instruction. The classroom teacher needs to have appropriate guidelines to use in teaching as well as specific workable procedures which help students to achieve. This paper discusses various methods of classroom discipline. The paper first…
The US academy has been anti-democratic in philosophy and practice from its inception, seeking to discipline students as docile bodies cooperative with a white supremacist status quo. This Foucauldian analysis highlights how the academy's historical and ongoing enforcement of discipline and normalizing judgments made the outcome of the 2016 US…
Painter, Genevieve; Corsini, Raymond J.
Based originally on the work of the Austrian psychiatrist, Alfred Adler, work which was further developed by Rudolph Dreikurs, this book Dreikurs, this book offers solutions to specific child discipline problems. Part I focuses on effective discipline in the home. These topics are covered: fundamentals of practical parenting; problems of routine…
Baumann, Chris; Krskova, Hana
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of school discipline in achieving academic performance. The study aims to clarify the role of permissive "vis-à-vis" authoritative teaching styles with an overarching hypothesis that better discipline leads to better academic performance. The authors also probe whether uniformed…
Jones, Cheryl; Reichard, Carla; Mokhtari, Kouider
This study examines the extent to which community college students' learning style preferences vary as a function of discipline. Reports significant differences in students' learning style preferences across disciplines, but not by gender. Adds that student learning style preferences varied by academic performance as measured by gender. Discusses…
Pressman, Robert; Weinstein, Susan
To assist administrators in understanding procedural due process rights in student discipline, this manual draws together hundreds of citations and case summaries of federal and state court decisions and provides detailed commentary as well. Chapter 1 outlines the general principles of procedural due process rights in student discipline, such as…
Luo, Jingyuan; Matthews, Kirstin R. W.
Science and engineering research has becoming an increasingly international phenomenon. Traditional bibliometric studies have not captured the evolution of collaborative partnerships between countries, particularly in emerging technologies such as stem cell science, in which an immense amount of investment has been made in the past decade. Analyzing over 2,800 articles from the top journals that include stem cell research in their publications, this study demonstrates the globalization of stem cell science. From 2000 to 2010, international collaborations increased from 20.9% to 36% of all stem cell publications analyzed. The United States remains the most prolific and the most dominant country in the field in terms of publications in high impact journals. But Asian countries, particularly China are steadily gaining ground. Exhibiting the largest relative growth, the percent of Chinese-authored stem cell papers grew more than ten-fold, while the percent of Chinese-authored international papers increased over seven times from 2000 to 2010. And while the percent of total stem cell publications exhibited modest growth for European countries, the percent of international publications increased more substantially, particularly in the United Kingdom. Overall, the data indicated that traditional networks of collaboration extant in 2000 still predominate in stem cell science. Although more nations are becoming involved in international collaborations and undertaking stem cell research, many of these efforts, with the exception of those in certain Asian countries, have yet to translate into publications in high impact journals. PMID:24069210
Science. The journal has a new and more modern layout, published online only, and the editorial. Board was increased to include more disciplines pertaining to marine sciences. While important chal- lenges still lie ahead, we are steadily advancing our standard to increase visibility and dissemination throughout the global ...
Meine, Curt; Soulé, Michael; Noss, Reed E
Conservation biology emerged in the mid-1980s, drawing on established disciplines and integrating them in pursuit of a coherent goal: the protection and perpetuation of the Earth's biological diversity. Opportunistic in its borrowing and application of knowledge, conservation biology had its roots within the established biological sciences and resource management disciplines but has continually incorporated insights from the empirical experience of resource managers, from the social sciences and humanities, and from diverse cultural sources. The Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) has represented the field's core constituency, while expanding that constituency in keeping with the field's integrative spirit. Conservation Biology has served as SCB's flagship publication, promoting research, dialog, debate, and application of the field's essential concepts. Over the last 20 years the field, SCB, and the journal have evolved to meet changing conservation needs, to explore gaps in our knowledge base, to incorporate new information from related fields, to build professional capacity, and to provide expanded opportunities for international participation. In turn, the field, SCB, and journal have prompted change in related fields, organizations, and publications. In its dedication to advancing the scientific foundations of biodiversity conservation and placing that science at the service of society in a world whose variety, wildness, and beauty we care for conservation biology represents both a continuation and radical reconfiguration of the traditional relationship between science and conservation.
Batzel, Jerry Joseph; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Kappel, Franz; Schneditz, Daniel; Kenner, Thomas; Goswami, Nandu
The goal of this report is to discuss educational approaches for bridging the different perspectives of the physiological and mathematical disciplines. These approaches can enhance the learning experience for physiology, medical, and mathematics students and simultaneously act to stimulate mathematical/physiological/clinical interdisciplinary research. While physiology education incorporates mathematics, via equations and formulas, it does not typically provide a foundation for interdisciplinary research linking mathematics and physiology. Here, we provide insights and ideas derived from interdisciplinary seminars involving mathematicians and physiologists that have been conducted over the last decade. The approaches described here can be used as templates for giving physiology and medical students insights into how sophisticated tools from mathematics can be applied and how the disciplines of mathematics and physiology can be integrated in research, thereby fostering a foundation for interdisciplinary collaboration. These templates are equally applicable to linking mathematical methods with other life and health sciences in the educational process.
Tessier, Jack T.
College faculty have myriad choices of resources for their students when designing courses. The rising prices of textbooks and the availability of cell phones with internet access open the question of using cell phones in the classroom. In this study, I compared student learning in an ecology course between a semester in which a textbook was used…
Hu, Z.; Fu, H.; Guoqiang, L.; Xianwen, W.; Delong, T.
China has achieved remarkable growth in science and technology production. But different academic disciplines vary greatly in size and performance. In this paper, the performance of each China’s academic discipline was measured by counting its scientific outputs in national and international literature databases: CNKI and WOS. The results show that China’s preferential research areas in national journals (CNKI) is different from those in international journals (WOS). On time dimension, some research areas (i.e. Environmental Science and Engineering) are getting hotter and others (i.e. Computer Science) go the opposite way. (Author)
Kellert, Stephen H
What happens to scientific knowledge when researchers outside the natural sciences bring elements of the latest trend across disciplinary boundaries for their own purposes? Researchers in fields from anthropology to family therapy and traffic planning employ the concepts, methods, and results of chaos theory to harness the disciplinary prestige of the natural sciences, to motivate methodological change or conceptual reorganization within their home discipline, and to justify public policies and aesthetic judgments.Using the recent explosion in the use (and abuse) of chaos theory, Borrowed Knowledge and the Challenge of Learning across Disciplines examines the relationship between science and other disciplines as well as the place of scientific knowledge within our broader culture. Stephen H. Kellert's detailed investigation of the myriad uses of chaos theory reveals serious problems that can arise in the interchange between science and other knowledge-making pursuits, as well as opportunities for constructive...
Full Text Available Islamic economics is currently moving from a mere discourse on economics in Islamic perspective towards becoming a distinct science of Islamic economics. There is a systematic effort from Islamic economic scientific community to develop a discipline of Islamic economics marked by a complete body of knowledge, clear subject matter, methodology/methodologies to appraise theories and continuous growth and accumulation of knowledge. This could be done if the scientific community put strong effort in explicating all the necessary foundations of science and achieve consensus on certain important aspect of discipline. In this paper we attempt to historically survey the development of Islamic economics towards becoming a distinct discipline, evaluate the current practices a adopted by the Islamic economics’ scientific community in settling up problems, and outlining forward agenda in order to achieve this discipline status.
Service, R F
After decades of incremental advances, a spurt of findings suggests that fuel cells that run on good old fossil fuels are almost ready for prime time. Although conventional ceramic cells, known as solid oxide fuel cells, require expensive heat-resistant materials, a new generation of SOFCs, including one featured on page 2031, converts hydrocarbons directly into electricity at lower temperatures. And a recent demonstration of a system of standard SOFCs large enough to light up more than 200 homes showed that it is the most efficient large-scale electrical generator ever designed.
Elsner, James B.; Burch, R. King; Jagger, Thomas H.
While the recent disasters in the world's financial markets demonstrate that finance theory remains far from perfected, science also faces steep challenges in the quest to predict and manage the effects of natural disasters. Worldwide, as many as half a million people have died in disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and tropical cyclones since the turn of the 21st century [Wirtz, 2008]. Further, natural disasters can lead to extreme financial losses, and independent financial collapses can be exacerbated by natural disasters. In financial cost, 2008 was the second most expensive year on record for such catastrophes and for financial market declines. These extreme events in the natural and financial realms push the issue of risk management to the fore, expose the deficiencies of existing knowledge and practice, and suggest that progress requires further research and training at the graduate level.
This article examines the emergence and consolidation of bioethics as a discipline from a sociological perspective. This reconstruction helps us to understand on the one hand what is meant by bioethics and what its practices and areas of inquiry are, and on the other to identify various concepts and expert opinions about what the field of study for bioethics should be, opinions which lead in practice to different applications of the discipline in health sciences. This becomes relevant for epistemological discussions about the discipline and for consolidating a sociology of bioethics in the context of Ibero-America.
Robert J. Sternberg; Karin Sternberg; Rebel J. E. Todhunter
Teaching- and teaching-evaluation skills are critically important to professional success in psychology and related disciplines. We explored the possibility of measuring reasoning-about-teaching skills as a supplementary measure for admissions in psychology and related behavioral-sciences disciplines. We tested 103 students for their reasoning about teaching and their reasoning about research, as well as for their cognitive- (abstract reasoning) and educational skills. We found that women per...
Kohn, Kathryn P.; Underwood, Sonia M.; Cooper, Melanie M.
While many university students take science courses in multiple disciplines, little is known about how they perceive common concepts from different disciplinary perspectives. Structure-property and structure-function relationships have long been considered important explanatory concepts in the disciplines of chemistry and biology, respectively.…
Full Text Available Background Progestin has been used for symptomatic treatment of adenomyosis, although its effect on the immune system has not been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of macrophage and natural killer (NK cell infiltration in tissues obtained from women with adenomyosis who did or did not receive oral progestin dienogest. Materials and Methods In this randomized controlled clinical trial study, 24 patients with adenomyosis who re- quired hysterectomy were enrolled. Twelve patients received dienogest 28-35 days before surgery, and the other 12 patients were not treated with any hormones. The endometrial and myometrial tissue samples were immediately collected after hysterectomy, and immunohistochemistry for a macrophage marker (CD68 and a NK cells marker (CD57 was performed. Results The number of CD57 cells was significantly increased in endometrial glands of the treated group compared to the untreated group (P=0.005 but not in stroma in the endometrium of the treated patients (P=0.416. The differ- ence in the number of CD68 cells was not statistically significant between treated and untreated groups in the endo- metrial glands (P=0.055 or stromal tissues (P=0.506. Conclusion Administration of oral progestin dienogest to patients with adenomyosis increased the number of uterine infiltrating NK cells in glandular structure of eutopic endometrium. The differential effects of progestin on NK cells depended on the site of immune cell infiltration. The effects of oral progestin on uterine NK cells in adenomyosis have the potentials to be beneficial to pregnancies occurring following discontinuation of treatment in terms of embryo im- plantation and fetal protection (Registration number: TCTR20150921001.
Kötter, Mario; Hammann, Marcus
In this article, the argument is put forth that controversies about the scope and limits of science should be considered in Nature of Science (NOS) teaching. Reference disciplines for teaching NOS are disciplines, which reflect upon science, like philosophy of science, history of science, and sociology of science. The culture of these disciplines…
Graham, Angie Geertsen
Many factors influence preschool children's expectations for parental discipline. Parent characteristics such as personality, values, social class, and disciplinary methods can affect the expectations children have for parental discipline. Children's ability to understand and interpret parental messages can also influence how they will respond. All of these factors need to be taken into consideration in order for effective communication between parents and children to occur. In this study,...
Banks, J Burton
Although childhood discipline is an important issue for parents, this topic is seldom emphasized by family physicians during well-child examinations. Behavior problems are relatively common but frequently under-recognized by physicians. Opportunities to counsel parents about safe, effective methods of discipline are therefore missed. Discipline should be instructive and age-appropriate and should include positive reinforcement for good behavior. Punishment is only one aspect of discipline and, in order to be effective, it must be prompt, consistent, and fair. Time-out is frequently used to correct younger children, but because it is often enforced improperly, it loses its effectiveness. Corporal punishment is a controversial but common form of discipline that is less effective than some other types of punishment. Its use is linked to child and spouse abuse, as well as to future substance use, violent crime, poor self-esteem, and depression. Despite the possible negative effects of corporal punishment, it is still widely accepted in our society. Since discipline plays an important role in the social and emotional development of children, physicians should be trained to discuss this issue with parents during routine well-child examinations.
The paper addresses the integration of ethics into professional education related to the disciplines responsible for the conception and creation of the artificial (artefactual or technology). The ontological-epistemological paradigm of those disciplines is understood within the frame of the sciences of the artificial as established by Herbert Simon (1969). According to that paradigm, those sciences include disciplines not only related to the production of artefacts (technology), such as engineering, architecture, industrial design, etc, but also disciplines related to devised courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones, like medicine, law, education, etc. They are centered on intentional action and at their core is the activity of design, which is their common foundation and attitude, or their common culture. The science of design becomes the broader foundational discipline for any professions engaged in the intentional transformation of the world. The main distinction between design disciplines and scientific ones rests on the object-project dichotomy. Indeed, contrary to Science that sees the world as an object to be observed, Design sees the world as a project and acts upon the world through projects, which are grounded in intentions, ends, and values. Design disciplines are meant to transform the world, or part of it, and are teleological. Being so, they are embodied in an act that is ethical and their ontology-epistemology must be addressed also through practical reason to resituate all professional disciplines according to their involved nature. The paper introduces theoretical, methodological, and ethical elements to establish a model that integrates ethics into the education of the professional disciplines, design-based disciplines, responsible for the creation of the artificial, artefactual or technological, world. The model is articulated around the notions of ethical engagement and responsibility through the act of design
Yuan, Weiping; Sipp, Douglas; Wang, Zack Z; Deng, Hongkui; Pei, Duanqing; Zhou, Qi; Cheng, Tao
China's output in fundamental stem cell research has increased markedly in recent years. Vigorous public investment and infrastructure development have enabled major productivity gains, but challenges in regulation, governance, and the management of clinical expectations must be addressed to ensure scientific quality and sustainable growth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Antonio Sérgio Ramalho
Full Text Available Community genetics is a new discipline which aims to provide genetic services to the community as a whole. As a science, community genetics encompasses all research needed to develop and evaluate its application. There is no question that the development of community genetics is necessary in Brazil. The implementation of such programs in our country, especially for hemoglobinopathies, has been recommended by the World Health Organization and other international organizations. Apart from the need for and appeal of community genetics programs, some aspects require serious review. This article discusses various cultural, social, psychological, and economic factors that can make genetic screening an invasion of individual privacy
Ramalho Antonio Sérgio
Full Text Available Community genetics is a new discipline which aims to provide genetic services to the community as a whole. As a science, community genetics encompasses all research needed to develop and evaluate its application. There is no question that the development of community genetics is necessary in Brazil. The implementation of such programs in our country, especially for hemoglobinopathies, has been recommended by the World Health Organization and other international organizations. Apart from the need for and appeal of community genetics programs, some aspects require serious review. This article discusses various cultural, social, psychological, and economic factors that can make genetic screening an invasion of individual privacy
Xiao Han T Zeng
Full Text Available Collaboration plays an increasingly important role in promoting research productivity and impact. What remains unclear is whether female and male researchers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM disciplines differ in their collaboration propensity. Here, we report on an empirical analysis of the complete publication records of 3,980 faculty members in six STEM disciplines at select U.S. research universities. We find that female faculty have significantly fewer distinct co-authors over their careers than males, but that this difference can be fully accounted for by females' lower publication rate and shorter career lengths. Next, we find that female scientists have a lower probability of repeating previous co-authors than males, an intriguing result because prior research shows that teams involving new collaborations produce work with higher impact. Finally, we find evidence for gender segregation in some sub-disciplines in molecular biology, in particular in genomics where we find female faculty to be clearly under-represented.
Turkel, Marian; Fawcett, Jacqueline; Chinn, Peggy L; Eustace, Rosemary; Hansell, Phyllis Shanley; Smith, Marlaine C; Watson, Jean; Zahourek, Rothlyn
In this essay, several nurse scholars who are particularly concerned about the contemporary state of nursing science present their specific concerns (dark clouds) about the advancement of our discipline and the ways in which the concerns have been addressed (bright lights). This essay is the first of two essays that were catalyzed by Barrett's paper, "Again, What Is Nursing Science?" The second essay will be published in the next issue Nursing Science Quarterly.
Bruckner, M. Z.; O'Connell, K.; McDaris, J. R.; Kirk, K. B.; Larsen, K.; Kent, M.; Manduca, C. A.; Egger, A. E.; Blockstein, D.; Mogk, D. W.; Taber, J.
Establishing relevance and effective communication are key mechanisms for building student and community engagement in a topic and can be used to promote the importance of working across disciplines to solve problems. Sustainability, including the impacts of and responses to climate change, is an inherently interdisciplinary issue and can be infused across courses and curricula in a variety of ways. Key topics such as climate change, hazards, and food, water, and energy production and sustainability are relevant to a wide audience and can be used to build student engagement. Using real-world examples, service learning, and focusing on the local environment may further boost engagement by establishing relevance between sustainability issues and students' lives. Communication plays a key role in the exchange of information across disciplines and allows for a more holistic approach to tackling the complex climate and sustainability issues our society faces. It has the power to bridge gaps, break down disciplinary silos, and build connections among diverse audiences with a wide range of expertise, including scientists, policy-makers, stakeholders, and the general public. It also aids in planning and preparation for, response to, and mitigation of issues related to sustainability, including the impacts of climate change, to lessen the detrimental effects of unavoidable events such as sea level rise and extreme weather events. Several workshops from the InTeGrate and On the Cutting Edge projects brought together educators and practitioners from a range of disciplines including geoscience, engineering, social science, and more to encourage communication and collaboration across disciplines. They supported networking, community-building, and sharing of best practices for preparing our students for a sustainable future, both in and out of the workplace, and across disciplines. Interdisciplinary teams are also working together to author curricular materials that highlight
Choi, Ji Sun; Mahadik, Bhushan P.; Harley, Brendan A. C.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) play a crucial role in the generation of the body’s blood and immune cells. This process takes place primarily in the bone marrow in specialized ‘niche’ microenvironments, which provide signals responsible for maintaining a balance between HSC quiescence, self-renewal, and lineage specification required for life-long hematopoiesis. While our understanding of these signaling mechanisms continues to improve, our ability to engineer them in vitro for the expansion of clinically relevant HSC populations is still lacking. In this review, we focus on development of biomaterials-based culture platforms for in vitro study of interactions between HSCs and their local microenvironment. The tools and techniques used for both examining HSC-niche interactions as well as applying these findings towards controlled HSC expansion or directed differentiation in 2D and 3D platforms are discussed. These novel techniques hold the potential to push the existing boundaries of HSC cultures towards high-throughput, real-time, and single-cell level biomimetic approaches that enable a more nuanced understanding of HSC regulation and function. Their application in conjunction with innovative biomaterial platforms can pave the way for engineering artificial bone marrow niches for clinical applications as well as elucidating the pathology of blood-related cancers and disorders. PMID:26356030
Howe, Eric M.
This paper examines how using a series of lessons developed from the history of research on sickle cell anemia affects preservice teacher conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The importance of a pedagogy that has students do science through an integral use of the history of science is effective at enriching students' NOS views is presented.…
Data-intensive science has the potential to transform scientific research and quickly translate scientific progress into complete solutions, policies, and economic success. But this collaborative science is still lacking the effective access and exchange of knowledge among scientists, researchers, and policy makers across a range of disciplines. Bringing together leaders from multiple scientific disciplines, Data-Intensive Science shows how a comprehensive integration of various techniques and technological advances can effectively harness the vast amount of data being generated and significan
Kramer, IJsbrand M.; Dahmani, Hassen-Reda; Delouche, Pamina; Bidabe, Marissa; Schneeberger, Patricia
The large number of experimentally determined molecular structures has led to the development of a new semiotic system in the life sciences, with increasing use of accurate molecular representations. To determine how this change impacts students' learning, we incorporated image tests into our introductory cell biology course. Groups of students…
Rodenbough, Philip P.; Vanti, William B.; Chan, Siu-Wai
Introductory materials science and engineering courses universally include the study of crystal structure and unit cells, which are by their nature highly visual 3D concepts. Traditionally, such topics are explored with 2D drawings or perhaps a limited set of difficult-to-construct 3D models. The rise of 3D printing, coupled with the wealth of…
Full Text Available Disciplines and studies. Innovation in the humanitiesThe classic humanities disciplines took shape in the nineteenth century in a complex, contingency- driven process in which factors such as the introduction of a ‘scientific principle’ and the securing of the humanities’ position in the universities played an important role. This process resulted in flexible disciplines that lacked rigidity. For example, there was no ambitious theorising, no development of systematic methodologies and no academic monopoly. This, in turn, made renewal in the humanities a straightforward possibility, particularly when social and cultural changes called for such renewal. The liveliness that characterises teaching and research in the humanities today testifies to this. The renewed demand for cross-disciplinary approaches has led to a number of branches of study (from holocaust and genocide studies to museum studies which explicitly present themselves as contemporary, focus on a concrete social theme, and often recall a time before the humanities disciplines had emerged in the way that they are organised and function. Anyone wishing to bring stability and continuity to this uneasy pattern of development must take account the factors that reinforced the classic disciplines back then. Among other things, a sustainable policy involves monitoring the quality of the new programmes, relaxed dealings with existing institutional structures and the provision of the necessary seed capital in the field of research.
J. de Klerk
Full Text Available Despite the fact that the Constitution of South Africa uses language that could be described as “value-language”, our country is experiencing an intense moral crisis. There is an urgent need to establish ways of finding answers to the value crisis in South Africa. Morality has been and is part of education. In this article the relationship between values, education and discipline is addressed from a Biblically-based (in this case, reformational perspective. The teacher as secondary educator plays an important role in the establishment of values among learners. The Department of Education has made clear its intention to establish values in schools in its Manifesto on Values, Education and Democracy. The values emphasised in this document concur with the ideals of nation-building in the new democratic South Africa. Unfortunately, the absence of discipline and self-discipline among learners and educators implies that these ideals cannot be realised. The main cause of discipline problems can possibly be ascribed to the absence of a value system rooted in a specific life and worldview, for without such a perspective the management of discipline problems can only be symptomatic.
All legitimate scientific disciplines are characterized by: (1) the clear definition of subjects of the study and its corresponding clear-cut name, (2) some accepted postulates, (3) set of research methods, (4) methods of quality control and processing of the obtained information, and (5) specific terminology and definitions. The inaccuracies and uncertainties in medical elementology as a new scientific discipline are discussed and some corresponding statements are made. Another and no less important problem of medical elementology is the critical unsatisfactory reproducibility of data. The complex arrangements required for the harmonization of data acquired for studies in medical elementology are offered. Main strategic aims and tactical tasks of the new scientific discipline are outlined. (author)
Nataliya N. Datsun
Full Text Available Method of systematic literature analysis for 2012-2017 about motivation of the learners in IT disciplines was applied. The growth trend in the number of publications about the motivation of students and the learners of IT disciplines, as well as the coverage by research in all regions of the world were established. 32 publications were selected from scientometric databases. The most active researches were identified among the IT bachelors, and according to the dimension "training level" - among novices. Seven psychological approaches to motivation were identified. Self-Determination Theory (SDT is the most common among them. In studies based on SDT, types of learning motivation were differentiated depending on the level of education students of IT disciplines. Nine pedagogical approaches of motivation were identified. Project-based learning were applied in most cases. It can be recommended for the formation of professional competencies.
to influence education, both regulating and shaping behaviour and morality. The book provides insight into different educational contexts and concerns across a child’s educational lifespan; early childhood education, inclusive education, special education, educational leadership, social media, university......This book offers critical explorations of how the psy-disciplines, Michel Foucault’s collective term for psychiatry, psychology and psycho-analysis, play out in contemporary educational spaces. With a strong focus on Foucault’s theories, it critically investigates how the psy-disciplines continue......, and beyond to enable reflection and critique of the implications of psy-based knowledge and practice. With chapters by a mixture of established and emerging international scholars in the field this is an interdisciplinary and authoritative study into the role of the psy-disciplines in the education system...
In January 2014, a letter and original research article were published in Nature describing a process whereby somatic mouse cells could be converted into stem cells by subjecting them to stress. These "stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency" (STAP) cells were shown to be capable of contributing to all cell types of a developing embryo, and extra-embryonic tissues. The lead author of the publications, Haruko Obokata, became an overnight celebrity in Japan, where she was dubbed the new face of Japanese science. However, in the weeks that followed publication of the research, issues arose. Other laboratories and researchers (including authors on the original papers) found that they were unable to replicate Obokata et al.'s work. Closer scrutiny of the papers by the scientific community also suggested that there was manipulation of images that had been published, and Obokata was accused of misconduct. Those who should have been supervising her work (also her co-authors on the publications) were also heavily criticised. The STAP cell saga of 2014 is used as an example to highlight the importance of trust and replication in twenty-first century biological science. The role of trust in the scientific community is highlighted, and the effects on interactions between science and the public examined. Similarly, this essay aims to highlight the importance of replication, and how this is understood by researchers, the media, and the public. The expected behaviour of scientists in the twenty-first century is now more closely scrutinised.
This is a descriptive study investigating the perception of children about discipline through metaphors developed by them. A total of 445 students participated in the research and the data was collected with the "Discipline Metaphors Survey (DMS)" developed by the researchers. At the end of the study, 143 metaphors, 94 positive and 49…
Sadeh, Willy Z.; Criswell, Marvin E.
Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding the Civil Engineering know-how and practice to the development and maintenance of infrastructure on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University under a recently established NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option at both undergraduate and graduate levels are presented. The role of Space Civil Engineering in the Space Program is discussed.
Bjørnestad, Jone; Kandal, Øyvind; Anderssen, Norman
The aim was to understand experiences of male competitive bodybuilders from a non-pathologizing perspective. Six male Norwegian competitive bodybuilders were interviewed. The interviews were analysed using a meaning condensation procedure resulting in five themes: being proud of capacity for discipline, seeing a perfectionist attitude as a necessary evil, experiencing recognition within the bodybuilding community, being stigmatized outside the bodybuilding community and going on stage to display a capacity for willpower and discipline. We suggest that bodybuilders may be stigmatized for breaking social norms: by their distinctive appearance, by the way they handle suspected drug use and by challenging gender norms. © The Author(s) 2013.
Due to the cost and operational constraints, as well as technical implementation limitations, it is desirous to perform relevant space physiology investigations first in terrestrial 'space analogs'. This is particularly true for initial investigations, which may then provide appropriate focus for subsequent flight investigations, or for mechanistic investigations that simply cannot be performed during spaceflight. Appropriate analog choice is extremely important. There are a wide variety of terrestrial space analogs, each relevant to a particular physiological discipline (or disciplines) and each with a particular fidelity (or lack thereof) to spaceflight, and each with unique operational constraints. The HRP Immunology Discipline is tasked with managing the HRP Risk concerning clinical risk for Astronaut crews related to spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation. Such dysregulation has been documented to occur during spaceflight, and found to persist for the duration of a 6-month ISS mission. Studies continue to characterize the onorbit phenomenon, but it generally consists of diminished immunocyte function, dysregulated cytokine profiles, and persistent herpesvirus reactivation. Causes are thought to synergistically include microgravity, psychological or physiological stress, radiation, and/or circadian misalignment. An appropriate terrestrial analog for immune dysregulation would replicate as many of these influences as possible. Such analogs may include clinostat or bioreactor cell culture (microgravity), hindlimb suspension (stress, fluid shifts, hypokinesis), or human deployment to remote or extreme environments (isolation, stress, circadian). Also, the laboratory setting may be used as an analog, or to augment analogs, such as sleep deprivation/misalignment or human centrifugation to replicate gravitational stress. As an appropriate example of a NASA Disciplines use of Terrestrial space analogs, this talk will discuss spaceflight associated immune
Full Text Available The gap between school knowledge and academic knowledge has long been acknowledged. The division of the curriculum into separate academic subjects has sometimes been blamed for this problem. On this reading it would make sense to re-model the curriculum so that teaching is multidisciplinary. However, efforts to achieve this ideal have a poor record in England. In this paper we suggest that the answer to the problem is more likely to lie in the way that the curriculum is built from a careful analysis of the actual outcomes of learning. We briefly outline three projects that are based on this supposition, describing the theoretical underpinnings and the main features of the projects.
Custin, Richard E.; Demas, John C.; Lampe, Marc; Custin, Colette L.
Undergraduate business law courses typically utilize traditional textbooks organized by topic. Individual chapters, address the usual topics including contracts, torts, the court system and ethics. An innovative approach to facilitating a business law course involves segregating sections of the course into common business disciplines. Rather than…
Baud, F J; Houzé, P; Villa, A; Borron, S W; Carli, P
Regarding the different disciplines that encompass the pharmacology and the toxicology, none is specifically dedicated to the description and analysis of the time-course of relevant toxic effects both in experimental and clinical studies. The lack of a discipline devoted to this major field in toxicology results in misconception and even in errors by clinicians. Review of the basic different disciplines that encompass pharmacology toxicology and comparing with the description of the time-course of effects in conditions in which toxicological analysis was not performed or with limited analytical evidence. Review of the literature clearly shows how misleading is the current extrapolation of toxicokinetic data to the description of the time-course of toxic effects. A new discipline entitled toxicodynetics should be developed aiming at a more systematic description of the time-course of effects in acute human and experimental poisonings. Toxicodynetics might help emergency physicians in risk assessment when facing a poisoning and contribute to a better assessment of quality control of data collected by poison control centres. Toxicodynetics would also allow a quantitative approach to the clinical effects resulting from drug-drug interaction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Kolbe, Sherry L.
The 1997 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act amendments offered a welcome shield for disabled students who found themselves unfairly disciplined within their school placements. Highlights the disagreements that continue over the bill's interpretation, and the fight by advocates for the disabled to limit unreasonable suspensions and…
ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.
This ERIC Digest suggests methods and language that can be used in handling difficult, but common, situations involving young children. The digest explains 12 methods of disciplining children that promote children's self-worth. These methods are: (1) showing children that the reasons for their actions are understood; (2) stating reasons; (3)…
This work examines the borderlines of philosophy in relation to the central concern of other disciplines. As a preliminary step towards our examination, we attempt to uncover the specific nature of philosophy on the basis of its subject matter. We argue that while philosophy asks 'second order' questions about the totality of ...
punishment and, secondly, their perceptions of their disciplinary techniques since ... research on teachers' (un)changing perceptions with regard to the practice of corporal punishment for classroom discipline in order to achieve the vision of quality ...... teaching and classroom management with the aim of enhancing teacher ...
Higher education research is a multidisciplinary field, engaging researchers from across the academy who make use of a wide range of methodological approaches. This article examines the relation between discipline and methodology in higher education research, analysing a database of 567 articles published in 15 leading higher education journals…
The nature of school discipline problems has changed over the past few decades. In the 1950s, teachers thought that fighting, stealing, and disrespect toward authority were the most serious forms of student misbehavior. Violent assaults on teachers and pupils, gang warfare, burglary, extortion, and destruction of school property are included among…
Morrison, Brenda E.; Vaandering, Dorothy
In the ongoing effort of designing school contexts in support of proactive discipline, a range of practices and theoretical frameworks have been advanced, from behaviorist approaches to social and emotional learning. This article describes the theory and practice of restorative justice with the aim of defining this distinctive paradigm, in…
Expulsion is commonly schools' last resort to maintain discipline and keep schools safe. But increasingly, educators are turning to "restorative justice"--an alternative method from the field of criminology--with promising results. According to Randall Comfort, assistant upper-school director, Mounds Park Academy, St. Paul, Minnesota, using this…
, and beyond to enable reflection and critique of the implications of psy-based knowledge and practice. With chapters by a mixture of established and emerging international scholars in the field this is an interdisciplinary and authoritative study into the role of the psy-disciplines in the education system...
Through a qualitative research methodology of semi-structured inter- views, data ... punishment for classroom discipline in order to achieve the vision of quality education. ... committed to ending corporal punishment of children. Being hit ... are relevant to policymakers and other stakeholders who should take cognisance of.
Hartwig, Eric P.; Ruesch, Gary M.
Despite the significant amount of attention given to student description, a serious controversy remains regarding the procedures that constitute effective discipline. This book is designed to meet the need for systematic investigation of the parameters of appropriate disciplinary practices for all students. It helps administrators formulate,…
Yenchko, Anne; DeBeal, Marshall Kirk
The Effective Classroom Management and Discipline Strategies Graduate Program for Educators is organized around a series of core modules designed for use in inservice teacher education. The basic skills learned in these series of modules are communication (feedback, nonverbal, listening, self disclosure, problem solving, and conflict resolution),…
The Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences is the official journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria. The journal welcomes original research articles, short communications and reviews on all aspects of veterinary sciences and related disciplines.
One of the greatest challenges facing parents is disciplining children. Discipline is not controlling or imposing a parent's will upon children. It is a positive way of helping and guiding children to achieve self-discipline. Discipline tips for parents are included. (MT)
Blumenfeld-Jones, Donald S.
Considers traditional classroom discipline systems as patriarchal moral systems focused on hyperindividuality and dependent upon rules, consequences, and principles focused through authoritarian structures. Critiques the Assertive Discipline, Control Theory, and Discipline with Dignity discipline systems, and proposes an alternative model for…
Presents a science activity that integrates the disciplines of anatomy, physiology, genetics, and forensics in which students act as detectives unraveling evidence at a murder crime scene. This project is designed to enhance student interest by providing immediate application of these disciplines. (DKM)
Bredenoord, Annelien L; Mostert, Menno; Isasi, Rosario; Knoppers, Bartha M
Data and sample sharing constitute a scientific and ethical imperative but need to be conducted in a responsible manner in order to protect individual interests as well as maintain public trust. In 2014, the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH) adopted a common Framework for Responsible Sharing of Genomic and Health-Related Data. The GA4GH Framework is applicable to data sharing in the stem cell field, however, interpretation is required so as to provide guidance for this specific context. In this paper, the International Stem Cell Forum Ethics Working Party discusses those principles that are specific to translational stem cell science, including engagement, data quality and safety, privacy, security and confidentiality, risk-benefit analysis and sustainability.
Embryonic stem cells have been well recognized as cells having a versatile potential to differentiate into all types of cells in the body including germ cells. There are many research studies focusing on the differentiation processes and protocols to derive various types of somatic cells from embryonic stem cells. However, germ cells have unique differentiation process and developmental pathway compared with somatic cells. Consequently, they will require different differentiation protocols and special culture techniques. More understanding and established in vitro systems for gametogenesis will greatly contribute to further progression of knowledge and technology in germ cell biology, reproductive biology and reproductive medicine. Moreover if oocytes can be efficiently produced in vitro, this will play an important role on progression in nuclear transfer and nuclear reprogramming technology. The present article will provide concise review on past important discoveries, current ongoing studies and future views of this challenging research area. An ethical perspective has also been proposed to give comprehensive summary and viewpoint for future clinical application.
Smocovitis, Vassiliki Betty
This paper serves as an introduction to a special collection of papers exploring the centrifugal and centripetal forces in the process of disciplining and popularizing the science of evolution in the period preceding and after the modern synthesis of evolution. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Micari, Marina; Pazos, Pilar; Streitwieser, Bernhard; Light, Gregory
Small-group learning in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines has been widely studied, and it is clear that this method offers many benefits to students. Less attention has been paid to the ways in which small learning groups differ from one another, and how these differences may affect student learning and…
Spanier, Bonnie B.; Rosser, Sue V.; Muzio, Joseph N.; Tucker, Edward B.
This collection of four essays examines the ways in which biology, as a discipline, reflects ongoing scholarship on gender, race, ethnicity, social class, and sexual orientation. In "Natural Sciences: Molecular Biology," Bonnie B. Spanier examines common ideological distortions in biology, including superimposing stereotypical gender attributes…
Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841) is considered the founding father of the science of education. In this article, I will try to show that Herbart sees the promotion of political "Bildung" as the task of discipline, instruction, and moral guidance, and that his work presents important components of a theory of political…
Jetton, Tamara L., Ed.; Shanahan, Cynthia, Ed.
From leading authorities in both adolescent literacy and content-area teaching, this book addresses the particular challenges of literacy learning in each of the major academic disciplines. Chapters focus on how to help students successfully engage with texts and ideas in English/literature, science, math, history, and arts classrooms. The book…
Lechuga, Vicente M.
The scarcity of underrepresented faculty members in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines is an issue of great concern to education researchers and scholars alike. Despite their low representation, many minority faculty are able to remain motivated, even when facing barriers due to their ethnicity. I present…
McCoy, Dorian L.; Luedke, Courtney L.; Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle
For this multisite qualitative case study, framed in Bourdieu's social reproduction theory, we examined mentoring experiences among Students of Color majoring in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines at both a predominantly White institution and a historically Black institution. Findings revealed that faculty served…
Amsel, Eric; Ashley, Aaron; Baird, Todd; Johnston, Adam
Two studies explored conceptual change in undergraduate psychology students' acceptance of the scientific foundations of the discipline. In Study 1, Introductory Psychology students completed the Psychology as Science questionnaire (PAS) at the beginning and end of the semester and did so from their own (Self Condition) and their instructors'…
Citations to Conference Papers Indicate They Are Declining in Importance across All Discipline Areas. A Review of: Lisée, Cynthia, Vincent Larivière and Eric Archambault. ‚Conference Proceedings as a Source of Scientific Information: A Bibliometric Analysis.‛ Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.11 (2008: 1776-84.
citations in NSE (excluding engineering was below 3%, and for SSH it was below 1.5%. The share of proceedings citations varies across different fields within NSE and SSH. Engineering fields and computer science range from around 5% (general engineering to 19.6% (computers in the share of proceedings citations, with only five of the 109 NSE fields having 10% or more as a share of proceedings citations. SSH has only one field (ergonomics, 7.6% with a share of proceedings citations over 5%. Transport studies has a share of proceedings just under 5%, followed by the field information science & library science with proceedings citations at 3.3%. In relation to the ageing characteristics of proceedings citations overall, the findings show a median age of 4.0 years compared with 6.1 years for citations to literature in general. The difference between the age of NSE cited proceedings and NSE cited literature in general had decreased during the period specified. In 1980, the median age of NSE cited proceedings was 6.3 years compared with 9.3 years for NSE citations to literature in general. In 2005, the median ages were 8.4 years and 10.1 years, respectively. The median age of SSH cited proceedings in 2005 was 10.3 years, compared with 14.2 years for all SSH cited literature. Cited literature in general is older for SSH (14.2 years than NSE (10.1 years, but the age difference between proceedings cited in the two discipline areas is almost half this. A number of fields in NSE (such as physics, chemistry, and engineering indicate a greater difference between the age of cited proceedings and literature in general, while for others (such as biology and biomedical research the ageing characteristics are similar. In SSH, the difference between age of cited proceedings and literature in general is greater. Fine arts and psychology proceedings citations are 43% younger than citations to literature in general; literature cited proceedings are 42% younger, and social sciences 31% younger
Labriola, Nicholas R; Azagury, Aharon; Gutierrez, Robert; Mathiowitz, Edith; Darling, Eric M
Stem and non-stem cell behavior is heavily influenced by the surrounding microenvironment, which includes other cells, matrix, and potentially biomaterials. Researchers have been successful in developing scaffolds and encapsulation techniques to provide stem cells with mechanical, topographical, and chemical cues to selectively direct them toward a desired differentiation pathway. However, most of these systems fail to present truly physiological replications of the in vivo microenvironments that stem cells are typically exposed to in tissues. Thus, cell mimicking microparticles (CMMPs) have been developed to more accurately recapitulate the properties of surrounding cells while still offering ways to tailor what stimuli are presented. This nascent field holds the promise of reducing, or even eliminating, the need for live cells in select, regenerative medicine therapies, and diagnostic applications. Recent, CMMP-based studies show great promise for the technology, yet only reproduce a small subset of cellular characteristics from among those possible: size, morphology, topography, mechanical properties, surface molecules, and tailored chemical release to name the most prominent. This Review summarizes the strengths, weaknesses, and ideal applications of micro/nanoparticle fabrication and customization methods relevant to cell mimicking and provides an outlook on the future of this technology. Moving forward, researchers should seek to combine multiple techniques to yield CMMPs that replicate as many cellular characteristics as possible, with an emphasis on those that most strongly influence the desired therapeutic effects. The level of flexibility in customizing CMMP properties allows them to substitute for cells in a variety of regenerative medicine, drug delivery, and diagnostic systems. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2018;7:232-240. © 2018 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.
Give us the tools: science and technology for development. Ottawa, ...... altered technical rela- tionships among the factors used in the process of production, and the en- .... to ourselves only the rights of audit and periodic substantive review." If a ...... and destroying scarce water reserves, recreational areas and a generally.
Xu, Chong-feng; Duan, Zi-yuan
A biorepository of human samples is essential to support the research of life science. Lymphoblastoid B cell line (LCL), which is easy to be prepared and can reproduce indefinitely, is a convenient form of sample preservation. LCLs are established from human B cells transformed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Chinese National Immortalized Cell Bank has preserved human LCLs from different ethnic groups in China. As there are many studies on the nature of LCLs and public available resources with genome-wide data for LCLs, they have been widely applied in genetics, immunology, pharmacogenetics/genomics, regenerative medicine, cancer pathogenesis and immunotherapy, screening and generation of fully human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and study on EBV pathogenesis. Here, we review the characteristics of LCLs and their contributions to scientific research, and introduce preserved samples in Chinese National Immortalized Cell Bank to the scientific community. We hope this bank can support more areas in the scientific research.
Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Ramalho-Santos, João
We live in an era of an important turning point in the relationship between ethics (or, more accurately, bioethics) and science, notably due to both public interest and the gradual tightening of the gap in time between scientific discoveries and ethical reflection. The current bioethics debates of emerging situations (pluripotent stem cells, gene therapy, nanotechnology) have undoubtedly contributed to this change. Today, science happens and bioethics reflects on the possibilities, considers the risks, and advances proposals, which, without being scientific, can also imprint a mark on the path of scientific development. In this article, through the narrative of stem cell research, we will try to illustrate how bringing a bioethical viewpoint to the scientific debate can become a healthy exercise in both ethics and science, especially as narratives shift, as was the case in this field due to the introduction of induced pluripotent stem cells, the advent of which is not easily dissociated from the controversies related to embryo research. We should perhaps welcome this trend as promising for the future relationship between ethics and scientific research, providing a stimulus (and not a block) to the ever-evolving scientific discourse.
Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious
Key Features* Deals comprehensively with the basic science of electrochemistry* Treats electrochemistry as a discipline in its own right and not as a branch of physical or analytical chemistry* Provides a thorough and quantitative description of electrochemical fundamentals
An integrated science curriculum assists pupils to retain learnings better than to separate academic disciplines. Too frequently, science teachers teach each academic discipline as separate entities. However, there is much correlating of science with language, for example which might well be implemented in teaching and learning situations. Thus,…
Fraley, Lawrence E.; Vargas, Ernest A.
The study of behavior differs fundamentally from the study of the psyche and logically cannot share the same discipline. However, while disciplines might be defined through technical exercises, they function through exercises of political power. The evolution of a discipline, though based on field and laboratory data interpreted within a specific paradigm and justified publicity by its utility to solve personal and social problems, follows a course of development in the political arenas of the academies and the professions. We happen to have a discipline, roughly connoted by the label “behavior analysis,” without an academic home (the present ones haphazardly tolerate our activities), without a professional organization (the present one lobbies only “for behavior analysis”), and without a true professional name (the present one implies an approach not a discipline). No scientific community lasts long without a supporting professional infrastructure. In explicitly asserting ourselves as a discipline, we confront a number of difficult issues such as continuing to work in departments antithetical to behaviorism and a number of problems such as what we call ourselves to identify our professional and scientific concerns. (For example, we need a term descriptive of our science in its broad sense. That term is not psychology. Too many people persist in maintaining its commitment to cognitivism. On whatever term we agree, “behavior” should constitute its stem, for our efforts focus there, not in the putative underlying psyche or its current cognitive update.) The focus of our concerns and the solutions of our problems rest on one issue: Will our discipline prosper most as a branch of psychology or as an independent discipline? Slowly, but surely, our actions demonstrate that the latter is the preferred option, but these actions, though fortuitous, occur almost by accident. By specifically programming to achieve an independent professional status we increase the
Winkler, Jennifer L; Walsh, Michele E; de Blois, Madeleine; Maré, Jeannette; Carvajal, Scott C
This formative evaluation develops a novel conceptual model for a discipline approach fostering intrinsic motivation and positive relationships in schools. We used concept mapping to elicit and integrate perspectives on kind discipline from teachers, administrators, and other school staff. Three core themes describing kind discipline emerged from 11 identified clusters: (1) proactively developing a positive school climate, (2) responding to conflict with empathy, accountability, and skill, and (3) supporting staff skills in understanding and sharing expectations. We mapped the identified components of kind discipline onto a social ecological model and found that kind discipline encompasses all levels of that model including the individual, relational, environmental/structural, and even community levels. This contrasts with the dominant individual-behavioral discipline approaches that focus on fewer levels and may not lead to sustained student and staff motivation. The findings illustrate the importance of setting and communicating clear expectations and the need for them to be collaboratively developed. Products of the analysis and synthesis reported here are operationalized materials for teachers grounded in a "be kind" culture code for classrooms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper aims to emphasize the fact that in the context of information society, regulations and laws governing information and data as well as information systems activities, must be prevalent. In this regard, we believe that at least on the educational and academic level the discipline of information law must be developed in accordance with the new challenges and threats to security, synchronized with the transformed paradigm of national and international security.
This paper examines whether a problem based approach to students’ learning may support interdisciplinary education at university level, where students are required to engage with the complexities inherent in constructing knowledge across disciplinary boundaries. These complexities include students...... engaging with multiple and conflicting epistemologies, identification and contextualisation of problems involving several disciplines in their solution etc. A practical example found in the case of newly developed BSc and MSc programs in Techno-Anthropology is provided.The paper includes some examples...
Cabrera, Matías Daniel
Mención Internacional en el título de doctor This Dissertation presents three studies on market discipline, implicit guarantees, sovereign risk and bank regulation. Chapter one analyzes whether larger banks are deemed as Too Big to Save by analyzing their stock returns' reaction to a set of announcements regarding governments' bailout capacity. In order to assess if there has been a risk transfer from banks to sovereigns (due to implicit guarantees), chapter two analyzes the...
Hamideh Aghahosseini; Ali Ramazani; Pegah Azimzadeh Asiabi; Farideh Gouranlou; Fahimeh Hosseini; Aram Rezaei; Bong-Ki Min; Sang Woo Joo
Nanotechnology has opened up new opportunities for the design of nanoscale electronic devices suitable for developing high-performance biofuel cells. Glucose-based biofuel cells as green energy sources can be a powerful tool in the service of small-scale power source technology as it provides a latent potential to supply power for various implantable medical electronic devices. By using physiologically produced glucose as a fuel, the living battery can recharge for continuous production of el...
Taufik I. Aliev
Full Text Available The paper deals with queueing disciplines for demands of general type in queueing systems with multivendor load. A priority matrix is proposed to be used for the purpose of mathematical description of such disciplines, which represents the priority type (preemptive priority, not preemptive priority or no priority between any two demands classes. Having an intuitive and simple way of priority assignment, such description gives mathematical dependencies of system operation characteristics on its parameters. Requirements for priority matrix construction are formulated and the notion of canonical priority matrix is given. It is shown that not every matrix, constructed in accordance with such requirements, is correct. The notion of incorrect priority matrix is illustrated by an example, and it is shown that such matrixes do not ensure any unambiguousness and determinacy in design of algorithm, which realizes corresponding queueing discipline. Rules governing construction of correct matrixes are given for canonical priority matrixes. Residence time for demands of different classes in system, which is the sum of waiting time and service time, is considered as one of the most important characteristics. By introducing extra event method Laplace transforms for these characteristics are obtained, and mathematical dependencies are derived on their basis for calculation of two first moments for corresponding characteristics of demands queueing
Full Text Available Nanotechnology has opened up new opportunities for the design of nanoscale electronic devices suitable for developing high-performance biofuel cells. Glucose-based biofuel cells as green energy sources can be a powerful tool in the service of small-scale power source technology as it provides a latent potential to supply power for various implantable medical electronic devices. By using physiologically produced glucose as a fuel, the living battery can recharge for continuous production of electricity. This review article presents how nanoscience, engineering and medicine are combined to assist in the development of renewable glucose-based biofuel cell systems. Here, we review recent advances and applications in both abiotic and enzymatic glucose biofuel cells with emphasis on their “implantable” and “implanted” types. Also the challenges facing the design and application of glucose-based biofuel cells to convert them to promising replacement candidates for non-rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are discussed. Nanotechnology could make glucose-based biofuel cells cheaper, lighter and more efficient and hence it can be a part of the solutions to these challenges.
Full Text Available Recent developments in computational power have been applied to Shakespearean studies in such a way as to demonstrate that unprecedented collation and insight into authorial work will occur. This will generate a renewed emphasis on authorial intention and reviewing the canon, two traditions which have been reduced to mere concepts by the regnant schools of reader-response criticism and pure aesthetics. A glance at Stanley Fish's new Milton book and the state of G. M. Hopkins' criticism confirms that the academy is still committed to predominantly deconstruction and discipline segregation for English study. The author uses several various issues arising and several poetical meter studies to sketch a possible means of re-uniting pure English studies and empirical sciences like linguistics in fruitful dialogue.
The distinction between key ideas in teaching a high school science and key ideas in the corresponding discipline of science has been largely ignored in scholarly discourse about what science teachers should teach and about what they should know. This article clarifies this distinction through exploring how and why key ideas in teaching high school physics differ from key ideas in the discipline of physics. Its theoretical underpinnings include Dewey's (1902/1990) distinction between the psychological and the logical and Harré's (1986) epistemology of science. It analyzes how and why the key ideas in teaching color, the speed of light, and light interference at the high school level differ from the key ideas at the disciplinary level. The thesis is that key ideas in teaching high school physics can differ from key ideas in the discipline in some significant ways, and that the differences manifest Dewey's distinction. As a result, the article challenges the assumption of equating key ideas in teaching a high school science with key ideas in the corresponding discipline of science, and the assumption that having a college degree in science is sufficient to teach high school science. Furthermore, the article expands the concept of pedagogical content knowledge by arguing that key ideas in teaching high school physics constitute an essential component.
Stephen H. Edwards
Full Text Available When choosing how best to employ educational technologies for on-line learning, there is much to be gained by examining the experience of educators in other disciplines. This paper presents four brief case studies in the disciplines of computer science and social work. Lessons learned by comparing these diverse experiences are discussed, including creating a community of learners, supporting asynchronous student communication, using synchronous on-line meetings, and providing social support. In addition, the experiences presented indicate that stereotypes of student capabilities and expectations may often be inaccurate, and revising one's views may be helpful in achieving better results in on-line education.
Petersen, Alexander M.; Wang, Fengzhong; Stanley, H. Eugene
Publication statistics are ubiquitous in the ratings of scientific achievement, with citation counts and paper tallies factoring into an individual’s consideration for postdoctoral positions, junior faculty, and tenure. Citation statistics are designed to quantify individual career achievement, both at the level of a single publication, and over an individual’s entire career. While some academic careers are defined by a few significant papers (possibly out of many), other academic careers are defined by the cumulative contribution made by the author’s publications to the body of science. Several metrics have been formulated to quantify an individual’s publication career, yet none of these metrics account for the collaboration group size, and the time dependence of citation counts. In this paper we normalize publication metrics in order to achieve a universal framework for analyzing and comparing scientific achievement across both time and discipline. We study the publication careers of individual authors over the 50-year period 1958-2008 within six high-impact journals: CELL, the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), Nature, the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS), Physical Review Letters (PRL), and Science. Using the normalized metrics (i) “citation shares” to quantify scientific success, and (ii) “paper shares” to quantify scientific productivity, we compare the career achievement of individual authors within each journal, where each journal represents a local arena for competition. We uncover quantifiable statistical regularity in the probability density function of scientific achievement in all journals analyzed, which suggests that a fundamental driving force underlying scientific achievement is the competitive nature of scientific advancement.
Sible, Jill C.; Wilhelm, Dayna E.; Lederman, Muriel
Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, including cell biology, are characterized by the "leaky pipeline" syndrome in which, over time, women leave the discipline. The pipeline itself and the pond into which it empties may not be neutral. Explicating invisible norms, attitudes, and practices by integrating social…
Full Text Available Students of science traditionally make 3x5 flash cards to assist learning nomenclature, structures, and reactions. Advances in educational technology have enabled flashcards viewed on computers, offering an endless array of drilling and feedback opportunities for students. The current generation of students is less inclined to use computers, but they use their cell phones 24 hours a day. This report outlines these trends and an even more recent educational technology initiative, that of using cell phone flash cards to help students learn biology and chemistry nomenclature, structures, and reactions. Students responded positively to cell phone flash cards in a pilot study and a more detailed study is planned for the coming year.
There are Discipline-Based Differences in Authors’ Perceptions Towards Open Access Publishing. A Review of: Coonin, B., & Younce, L. M. (2010. Publishing in open access education journals: The authors’ perspectives. Behavioral & Social Sciences Librarian, 29, 118-132. doi:10.1080/01639261003742181
searches for publishing opportunities (40.4%, and professional societies (29.3% for raising their awareness of OA. Moreover, based on voluntary general comments left at end of the survey, researchers observed that some authors viewed the terms open access and electronic “synonymously” and thought of OA publishing only as a “format change” (p.125.Conclusion – The study revealed some discipline-based differences in authors’ attitudes toward scholarly publishing and the concept of OA. The majority of authors publishing in education viewed author fees, a common OA publishing practice in life and medical sciences as undesirable. On the other hand, citation impact, a major determinant for life and medical sciences publishing, was only a minor factor for authors in education. These findings provide useful insights for future research on discipline-based publication differences.The findings also indicated peer review is the primary determinant for authors publishing in education. Moreover, while the majority of authors surveyed considered both print and e-journal format to be equally acceptable, almost one third viewed OA journals as less prestigious than subscription-based publications. Some authors also seemed to confuse the concept between OA and electronic publishing. These findings could generate fresh discussion points between academic librarians and faculty members regarding OA publishing.
Han, Chanshuai; Chaineau, Mathilde; Chen, Carol X-Q; Beitel, Lenore K; Durcan, Thomas M
Neurodegenerative diseases are a challenge for drug discovery, as the biological mechanisms are complex and poorly understood, with a paucity of models that faithfully recapitulate these disorders. Recent advances in stem cell technology have provided a paradigm shift, providing researchers with tools to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patient cells. With the potential to generate any human cell type, we can now generate human neurons and develop "first-of-their-kind" disease-relevant assays for small molecule screening. Now that the tools are in place, it is imperative that we accelerate discoveries from the bench to the clinic. Using traditional closed-door research systems raises barriers to discovery, by restricting access to cells, data and other research findings. Thus, a new strategy is required, and the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) and its partners are piloting an "Open Science" model. One signature initiative will be that the MNI biorepository will curate and disseminate patient samples in a more accessible manner through open transfer agreements. This feeds into the MNI open drug discovery platform, focused on developing industry-standard assays with iPSC-derived neurons. All cell lines, reagents and assay findings developed in this open fashion will be made available to academia and industry. By removing the obstacles many universities and companies face in distributing patient samples and assay results, our goal is to accelerate translational medical research and the development of new therapies for devastating neurodegenerative disorders.
Yosipof, Abraham; Nahum, Oren E; Anderson, Assaf Y; Barad, Hannah-Noa; Zaban, Arie; Senderowitz, Hanoch
Growth in energy demands, coupled with the need for clean energy, are likely to make solar cells an important part of future energy resources. In particular, cells entirely made of metal oxides (MOs) have the potential to provide clean and affordable energy if their power conversion efficiencies are improved. Such improvements require the development of new MOs which could benefit from combining combinatorial material sciences for producing solar cells libraries with data mining tools to direct synthesis efforts. In this work we developed a data mining workflow and applied it to the analysis of two recently reported solar cell libraries based on Titanium and Copper oxides. Our results demonstrate that QSAR models with good prediction statistics for multiple solar cells properties could be developed and that these models highlight important factors affecting these properties in accord with experimental findings. The resulting models are therefore suitable for designing better solar cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Boot, A.W.A.; Schmeits, A.
This paper analyzes the optimal conglomeration of bank activities. Weshow that the effectiveness of market discipline forstand-alone activities (divisions) is of crucial importance for thepotential benefits of conglomeration. We find thateffective market discipline reduces the potential benefits
Ruggirello, Rachel M; Balcerzak, Phyllis; May, Victoria L; Blankenship, Robert E
The process of photosynthesis is central to science curriculum at all levels. This article describes an inquiry-based laboratory investigation developed to explore the impact of light quality on photosynthesis and to connect this process to current research on harvesting solar energy, including bioenergy, artificial photosynthesis, and solar cells. This laboratory was used with high-school science teachers who then took this experience back to their classrooms. During this exercise, teachers used an economical spectroradiometer to measure the solar spectrum and relate this to photosynthetic light absorption by determining the quality of light beneath trees. Following this investigation, teachers learned about the plant-inspired dye-sensitized solar cells and constructed one. To connect their light quality investigation to the efficiency of photosynthesis and solar cells, teachers then collected data at locations with varying quality and intensity of light. In sum, this investigation provides a crucial connection between photosynthesis and cutting edge research on solar energy technologies. Our learning experience provides a new instructional model for understanding a little investigated aspect of photosynthesis and connects to authentic scientific research. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Professor Helen Xanthaki (Academic Director of the Sir William Dale Centre for Legislative Studies at IALS explains how legislative drafting has been transformed from a skill often associated with government lawyers to a new sub-discipline of law and subject for legal research and scholarship. Her paper describes the creation of a dynamic process with new doctrines, new questions, new answers in the field. Some have been there for a while, others are being introduced or are being borrowed and applied by other disciplines of law and other social sciences. So, is there a new discipline? And what is its place in the study of law? And what is its main philosophy? And what are its main elements?
Kátia Virgínia Galvão Gomes
Full Text Available Biochemistry is a science that study the chemistry of life. It can give support to teaching basics acquirements that several courses,for example, the health and exact need to complete formation. This discipline approach topics common that is comtemplate in Physical Education, Nursing, Physiotherapy, Odontology, Biology and Chemistry to show the relation with courses above through application of contents to understand specific thems. The purpouse of this research was, through bibliography review, to emphasize, the importance of discipline to this courses, to understand its like basic discipline in the same courses, making evidence how the biochemistry can contribute to professional formation this students. The review show to interdiscipline of biochemistry, allowing the change of informations among several areas.
This paper constitutes a case-study of the "science show" model of public engagement employed by a company of science communicators focused on the popularization of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subject disciplines with learner constituencies. It examines the potential of the science show to foster the interest…
Dick E.H. de Boer
Full Text Available At the Meeting Point of Historical DisciplinesThis contribution introduces the way in which the interaction between history and archaeology is examined, taking the case of the identification of a tomb and remains of Count William II of Holland, King of the Holy Roman Empire (†1256, in the former abbey church of Middelburg. It stresses the necessity of strict source criticism, which should be self-evident, but is at risk of receiving less attention. This is even truer when one of the disciplines is used as an auxiliary argument to support the other instead of a balanced approach. Wishful interpretation in such a case is a clear risk. The contribution gives some examples, before sketching the advance made thanks to the reapprochement of history and archaeology, and the consequent need for a registration system of archaeological data that can facilitate multi-disciplinary analysis. It ends with an introduction to the different stands in the dossier.Deze bijdrage biedt een inleiding op de wijze waarop de interactie tussen geschiedenis en archeologie wordt bekeken aan de hand van een casus betreffende het graf en de overblijfselen van de in 1256 gesneuvelde graaf Willem II van Holland, koning van het Heilige Roomse Rijk, in de voormalige abdijkerk van Middelburg. Hij benadrukt de noodzaak van een nauwgezette bronnenkritiek. Hoewel deze als vanzelfsprekend moet worden beschouwd, is er een zeker risico van verminderde zorgvuldigheid. Dit speelt vooral wanneer één van de disciplines wordt gebruikt als een hulp-argument, dat de uitkomsten van de andere moet ondersteunen, in plaats van een benadering waarbij beide disciplines in evenwicht zijn. Bij een onbalans is het risico van interpreteren in het licht van de gewenste uitkomst duidelijk aanwezig. De bijdrage geeft hiervan enkele voorbeelden, alvorens de vooruitgang te schetsen die is geboekt juist dankzij de toenadering tussen geschiedenis en archeologie, en aan te geven dat er behoefte is aan een
I confirm the finding that the propensity to start a new firm rises sharply among those in the top five percentiles of personal wealth. This pattern is more pronounced for entrants in less capital intensive sectors. Prior to entry, founders in this group earn about 6% less compared to those who ......, these findings suggest that the spike in entry at the top end of the wealth distribution is driven by low-ability individuals who can afford to start (and sometimes continue running) weaker firms because they do not face the discipline of external finance....
McKinnon, Merryn; Vos, Judith
Science communication and science education have the same overarching aim--to engage their audiences in science--and both disciplines face similar challenges in achieving this aim. Knowing how to effectively engage their "audiences" is fundamental to the success of both. Both disciplines have well-developed research fields identifying…
The subject English can be used as a discipline or as a medium. This paper describes the form of English as a discipline and questions the way it is used in environmental education. A call is made to involve in environmental education those who understand the form of English as a discipline in particular and of the arts in ...
Grigoryev O. V.
the article deals with the problem of changing the approaches to military discipline. Analyzed and its inextricable link with the military law, the role and place of discipline in strengthening statehood and the suppression of the destructive manifestations. The analysis of the modern understanding of military discipline in passing of military service in the Russian Federation.
Firmin, Michael W.; Castle, Sally L.
In this literature review concerning early childhood discipline we particularly highlight American children's discipline with respect to historical perspectives, generational theories, gender issues, parental styles, methods of discipline, and corporal punishment. We also address corporal punishment's history, the debate among experts, beliefs and…
Stalker, Katie Cotter
Reducing disproportionality in school discipline is a grand challenge for school social work. Although the causes of disproportionality in exclusionary school discipline are interrelated and complex, one solution is to introduce alternatives to suspensions and expulsions that discipline students while keeping them engaged in school. The teen court…
The introduction of computer science technology in the life science domain has resulted in a new life science discipline called bioinformatics. Bioinformaticians are biologists who know how to apply computer science technology to perform computer based experiments, also known as in-silico or dry lab
Donahoe, John W
Behavior analysis and neuroscience are disciplines in their own right but are united in that both are subfields of a common overarching field-biology. What most fundamentally unites these disciplines is a shared commitment to selectionism, the Darwinian mode of explanation. In selectionism, the order and complexity observed in nature are seen as the cumulative products of selection processes acting over time on a population of variants-favoring some and disfavoring others-with the affected variants contributing to the population on which future selections operate. In the case of behavior analysis, the central selection process is selection by reinforcement; in neuroscience it is natural selection. The two selection processes are inter-related in that selection by reinforcement is itself the product of natural selection. The present paper illustrates the complementary nature of behavior analysis and neuroscience through considering their joint contributions to three central problem areas: reinforcement-including conditioned reinforcement, stimulus control-including equivalence classes, and memory-including reminding and remembering. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Eijck, van M.W.
Science education reform must anticipate the scientific literacy required by the next generation of citizens. Particularly, this counts for rapidly emerging and evolving scientific disciplines such as genomics. Taking this discipline as a case, such anticipation is becoming increasingly problematic
Revankar, Shripad T
""This book covers all essential themes of fuel cells ranging from fundamentals to applications. It includes key advanced topics important for understanding correctly the underlying multi-science phenomena of fuel cell processes. The book does not only cope with traditional fuel cells but also discusses the future concepts of fuel cells. The book is rich on examples and solutions important for applying the theory into practical use.""-Peter Lund, Aalto University, Helsinki""A good introduction to the range of disciplines needed to design, build and test fuel cells.""-Nigel Brandon, Imperial Co
Duarte, M S; Bueno, R; Silva, W; Campos, C F; Gionbelli, M P; Guimarães, S E F; Silva, F F; Lopes, P S; Hausman, G J; Dodson, M V
An increasing body of evidences has demonstrated the ability of the mature adipocyte to dedifferentiate into a population of proliferative-competent cells known as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. As early as the 1970s, in vitro studies showed that DFAT cells may be obtained by ceiling culture, which takes advantage of the buoyancy property of lipid-filled cells. It was documented that DFAT cells may acquire a phenotype similar to mesenchymal stem cells and yet may differentiate into multiple cell lineages, such as skeletal and smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes. Additionally, recent studies showed the ability of isolated mature adipocytes to dedifferentiate in vivo and the capacity of the progeny cells to redifferentiate into mature adipocytes, contributing to the increase of body fatness. These findings shed light on the potential for use of DFAT cells, not only for clinical purposes but also within the animal science field, because increasing intramuscular fat without excessive increase in other fat depots is a challenge in livestock production. Knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the dedifferentiation and redifferentiation of DFAT cells will allow the development of strategies for their use for clinical and animal science purposes. In this review, we highlight several aspects of DFAT cells, their potential for clinical purposes, and their contribution to adipose tissue mass in livestock.
Cheng, Allen A; Lu, Timothy K
Over the past decade, synthetic biology has emerged as an engineering discipline for biological systems. Compared with other substrates, biology poses a unique set of engineering challenges resulting from an incomplete understanding of natural biological systems and tools for manipulating them. To address these challenges, synthetic biology is advancing from developing proof-of-concept designs to focusing on core platforms for rational and high-throughput biological engineering. These platforms span the entire biological design cycle, including DNA construction, parts libraries, computational design tools, and interfaces for manipulating and probing synthetic circuits. The development of these enabling technologies requires an engineering mindset to be applied to biology, with an emphasis on generalizable techniques in addition to application-specific designs. This review aims to discuss the progress and challenges in synthetic biology and to illustrate areas where synthetic biology may impact biomedical engineering and human health.
Eduquer avec fermeté et bienveillance Véronique Genevay Jeudi 31 mai à 19h00 CERN Meyrin, Salle du Conseil 503-1-001 Venez vous familiariser avec la pensée et le positionnement développé dans la discipline positive. Une approche ni permissive, ni punitive, qui vise à enseigner aux enfants des compétences comme la confiance en soi, l’autonomie, le respect de soi-même et le respect mutuel, la responsabilité, la coopération… Inscrivez-vous : https://indico.cern.ch/e/disciplinepositive Pour plus d’informations : email@example.com ou (+41) 022 766 37 38
Bardram, Jakob Eyvind
computing technology can be designed to meet these challenges. The objective of this paper is to discuss ‘pervasive healthcare’ as a research field and tries to establish how novel and distinct it is, compared to related work within biomedical engineering, medical informatics, and ubiquitous computing....... Methods: The paper presents the research questions, approach, technologies, and methods of pervasive healthcare and discusses these in comparison to those of other related scientific disciplines. Results: A set of central research themes are presented; monitoring and body sensor networks; pervasive......-aware technologies for hospitals. Both projects approach the healthcare challenges in a new way, apply a new type of research method, and come up with new kinds of technological solutions. ‘Clinical proof-of-concept’ is recommended as a new method for pervasive healthcare research; the method helps design and test...
Abdelnour-Nocera, José; Clemmensen, Torkil; Guimaraes, Tatiane G.
, we studied the performance of HCI students in design, technology and business faculties in universities in UK, India, Namibia, Mexico and China who participated in a common set of design and evaluation tasks. We obtained participants’ cognitive style profiles based on Allinson and Hayes scale......Human-computer interaction (HCI) is increasingly becoming a subject taught in universities around the world. However, little is known of the interactions of the HCI curriculum with students in different types of institutions and disciplines internationally. In order to explore these interactions...... in order to gain further insights into their learning styles and explore any relation between these and performance. We found participants’ cognitive style preferences to be predominantly in the adaptive range, i.e. with combined analytical and intuitive traits, compared to normative data for software...
Gonzalo Ariel Millán
Full Text Available Martial arts can be defined as history in motion. Few sport activities of international fame represent a complex symbolic and practical repertory of ethic morality and aesthetic sensuality so distinctive of a nation as the Korean martial disciplines do, especially taekwondo and gumdo. Similar to other combat sports the martial arts gym (dojang is the place where values are produced and reproduced and where the appropriation of skills, cognition and recognition – degrees, certificates, and so on – that legitimates the social and bodily devotion of an individual to a martial art takes place. This article aims to transmit the emotions generated in a neophyte by the practice of a martial art and the social and kinaesthetic strains that result from this action in modern Korean society. It also explores some of the historical factors linked to its development and rapid expansion, in barely half a century.
Full Text Available The Confined Areas Medicine is a new discipline devoted to a specific branch of the components of emergency services. In it convey the characteristics typical of behavioral intervention in hostile area peculiar of the National Fire Corps and the National Speleological and Alpine Corps. While not considering the natural events that cause the collapse of housing the Italian case reported in the last fifty years about two hundred structural collapses that are charged over a thousand deaths (source: ISTAT 2006. Analysis of the documents accessible to the public today we can say without fear of denials, that 25% of these deaths are due to relief late or ineffective treatment on the spot. In fact, the NFPA (National Fire Protection Association claims that 10% of victims trapped under the rubble can be saved with a location and an early recovery, which can significantly increase this percentage with the health care stabilization directly at the place of discovery.
Salary-Trend Studies of Faculty of the Years 1988-89 and 1991-92 in the Following Academic Disciplines/Major Fields: Accounting; Agribusiness and Agriproduction; Anthropology; Area and Ethnic Studies; Business Administration and Management; Business and Management; Business Economics; Chemistry; Communication Technologies; Communications; Computer and Information Sciences; Dramatic Arts; Drawing; Education; and Engineering.
Howe, Richard D.; And Others
This volume provides comparative data for faculty salaries in public and private colleges, based on an annual survey of over 600 colleges and universities. Data cover the following disciplines: Accounting, Agribusiness and Agriproduction, Anthropology, Area and Ethnic Studies, Business Administration and Management, Business and Management,…
Salary-Trend Studies of Faculty for the Years 1985-86 and 1988-89 in the Following Disciplines/Major Fields: Accounting; Agricultural Production; Anthropology; Architecture and Environmental Design; Area and Ethnic Studies; Audiology and Speech Pathology; Business Administration and Management; Business and Management; Business Economics; Chemistry; Communication Technologies; Communications; Computer and Information Sciences; Curriculum and Instruction; and Dramatic Arts.
Howe, Richard D.; And Others
This volume provides comparative data for faculty salaries in public and private colleges, based on an annual survey of over 700 colleges and universities. Data cover the following 15 disciplines: accounting, agribusiness and agricultural production, anthropology, architecture and environmental design, area and ethnic studies, audiology and speech…
The main contribution of radioisotopes to the development of a new discipline, cell population kinetics, was shown. The aim of this science is to establish, for each tissue of the organism, the life span of its component cells and the mechanisms governing its growth, its differentiation and its homeostasis with respect to outside attacks. Labelling techniques have been used to follow the cells during these various processes. The case of non-dividing cells was considered first, taking as example, the red blood cells of which the lifetime was studied, after which the case of proliferating cells was examined using 14 C- or tritium-labelled thymidine. The methods used to measure the cell cycle parameters were described: labelled-mitosis curve method, double-labelling and continuous labelling methods, proliferation coefficient measurement. Cell kinetics were shown to allow an interpretation of radiobiological data. Finally the practical value of cell kinetics research was shown [fr
Sharpe, Kimberly; Di Pietro, Nina; Illes, Judy
Stem cell research has generated considerable attention for its potential to remediate many disorders of the central nervous system including neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and cerebral palsy (CP) that place a high burden on individual children, families and society. Here we characterized messaging about the use of stem cells for ASD and CP in news media articles and concurrent dissemination of discoveries through conventional science discourse. We searched LexisNexis and Canadian Newsstand for news articles from the US, UK, Canada and Australia in the period between 2000 and 2014, and PubMed for peer reviewed articles for the same 10 years. Using in-depth content analysis methods, we found less cautionary messaging about stem cells for ASD and CP in the resulting sample of 73 media articles than in the sample of 87 science papers, and a privileging of benefits over risk. News media also present stem cells as ready for clinical application to treat these neurodevelopmental disorders, even while the science literature calls for further research. Investigative news reports that explicitly quote researchers, however, provide the most accurate information to actual science news. The hope, hype, and promise of stem cell interventions for neurodevelopmental disorders, combined with the extreme vulnerability of these children and their families, creates a perfect storm in which journalists and stem cell scientists must commit to a continued, if not even more robust, partnership to promote balanced and accurate messaging.
Finley, Fred N.; Nam, Younkeyong; Oughton, John
Earth Systems Science (ESS) is emerging rapidly as a discipline and is being used to replace the older earth science education that has been taught as unrelated disciplines--geology, meteorology, astronomy, and oceanography. ESS is complex and is based on the idea that the earth can be understood as a set of interacting natural and social systems.…
Kátia Virgínia Galvão Gomes; Murilo Rangel
Biochemistry is a science that study the chemistry of life. It can give support to teaching basics acquirements that several courses,for example, the health and exact need to complete formation. This discipline approach topics common that is comtemplate in Physical Education, Nursing, Physiotherapy, Odontology, Biology and Chemistry to show the relation with courses above through application of contents to understand specific thems. The purpouse of this research was, through bibliography revi...
African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences. ... Studies in Mathematics and Sciences (AJESMS) is an international publication that ... in the fields of mathematics education, science education and related disciplines.
In recent years, "math and science" has been the mantra for many educators and business leaders who warn of an urgent need to encourage the pursuit of these and other technological disciplines or risk losing ground in the global economy. Simply emphasizing the need for "math and science" expertise does not, however, encourage…
Full Text Available Virtual Cell is a game design solution to a specific scientific and educational problem; expressly, how to make advanced, university level plant biology instruction on molecular and anatomical levels an exciting, efficient learning experience. The advanced technologies of 3D modeling and animation, computer programming and game design are united and tempered with strong, scientific guidance for accuracy and art direction for a powerful visual and audio simulation. The additional strength of intense gaming as a powerful tool aiding memory, logic and problem solving has recently become well recognized. Virtual Cell will provide a unique gaming experience, while transparently teaching scientifically accurate facts and concepts about, in this case, a soybean plant's inner workings and dependant mechanisms on multiple scales and levels of complexity. Virtual Cell (from now on referred to as VC in the future may prove to be a reference for other scientific/education endeavors as scientists battle for a more prominent mind share among average citizens. This paper will discuss the difficulties of developing VC, its structure, intended game and educational goals along with additional benefits to both the sciences and gaming industry.
Brazelton, William J.; Sullivan, Woodruff T., III
Astrobiology's goal of promoting interdisciplinary research is an attempt to reverse a trend that began two centuries ago with the formation of the first specialized scientific disciplines. We have examined this era of discipline formation in order to make a comparison with the situation today in astrobiology. Will astrobiology remain interdisciplinary or is it becoming yet another specialty? As a case study, we have investigated effects on the scientific literature when a specialized community is formed by analyzing the citations within papers published during 1802-1856 in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (Phil. Trans.), the most important ‘generalist’ journal of its day, and Transactions of the Geological Society of London (Trans. Geol. Soc.), the first important disciplinary journal in the sciences. We find that these two journals rarely cited each other, and papers published in Trans. Geol. Soc. cited fewer interdisciplinary sources than did geology papers in Phil. Trans. After geology had become established as a successful specialized discipline, geologists returned to publishing papers in Phil. Trans., but they wrote in the new, highly specialized style developed in Trans. Geol. Soc. They had succeeded in not only creating a new scientific discipline, but also a new way of doing science with its own modes of research and communication. A similar citation analysis was applied to papers published over the period 2001-2008 in the contemporary journals Astrobiology and the International Journal of Astrobiology to test the hypothesis that astrobiologists are in the early stages of creating their own specialized community. Although still too early to reliably detect any but the largest trends, there is no evidence yet that astrobiologists are drifting into their own isolated discipline. Instead, to date they appear to remain interdisciplinary.
V. Ya. Gelman
Full Text Available Introduction.In programs of training of students of medical specialties, Mathematics is a subject of basic education, i.e. non-core discipline. However, studying Mathematics is extremely important for future physicians, as recently there has been an impetuous development of mathematization in the field of health care. Today, a set of the new medical devices, the equipment and high technologies are being developed based on the mathematical modeling, analysis and forecasting. Mathematical methods are widely applied to diagnostics, development of life-support systems and the description of various biological processes both at the molecular level, and at the level of a whole organism, its systems, bodies and tissues. The solution of many medical tasks in the field of taxonomy, genetics, and organization of medical service is impossible without knowledge of mathematics. Unfortunately, along with the evident importance of mathematical preparation for a medical profession, its need is poorly realized not only by junior students, but even by some teachers of specialized departments of medical schools.The aim of the publication is to discuss the problems that arise in the teaching of mathematical disciplines to students at a medical school and to suggest possible solutions to these problems.Methodology and research methods. The study is based on the use of modeling of the educational process. The methods of analysis, generalization and the method of expert assessments were applied in the course of the research.Results and scientific novelty. The aspects of mathematical preparation at the university are considered on the basis of the application of the multiplicative model of training quality. It is shown that the main students’ learning difficulties in Mathematics are connected with the following factors: the initial level of mathematical preparation of students and their motivation; outdated methods of Mathematics teaching and academic content
Elhayboubi, Samira Nawal
We examine how teachers approach stem cell research (SCR) as a controversial religio-scientific issue, and how theologians derive rulings in SCR. We also examine the contradictions teachers have regarding religio-scientific aspect of SCR. Two observations were the igniters of this study, increasing public involvement in political decision-making and changing demographics among voters. Two samples were gathered, a teachers' group and a theologians' group. The teachers' group consisted of 43 graduate-level Science education teachers and teachers-in-training from the University of Texas at Dallas and Stanford University. The theologian's group consisted of theologians from 3 denominations, Buddhism, Christianity and Islam. Data was obtained using Likert-surveys, open-ended questions and interviews. Results show that majority of the teachers' group are open to discussing SCR but fear retaliation.
Bunnell, J.E.; Finkelman, R.B.; Centeno, J.A.; Selinus, O. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)
Medical Geology, the study of the impacts of geologic materials and processes on animal and human health, is a dynamic emerging discipline bringing together the geoscience, biomedical, and public health communities to solve a wide range of environmental health problems. Among the Medical Geology described in this review are examples of both deficiency and toxicity of trace element exposure. Goiter is a widespread and potentially serious health problem caused by deficiency of iodine. In many locations the deficiency is attributable to low concentrations of iodine in the bedrock. Similarly, deficiency of selenium in the soil has been cited as the principal cause of juvenile cardiomyopathy and muscular abnormalities. Overexposure to arsenic is one of the most widespread Medical Geology problems affecting more than one hundred million people in Bangladesh, India, China, Europe, Africa and North and South America. The arsenic exposure is primarily due to naturally high levels in groundwater but combustion of mineralized coal has also caused arsenic poisoning. Dental and skeletal fluorosis also impacts the health of millions of people around the world and, like arsenic, is due to naturally high concentrations in drinking water and, to a lesser extent, coal combustion. Other Medical Geology issues described include geophagia, the deliberate ingestion of soil, exposure to radon, and ingestion of high concentrations of organic compounds in drinking water. Geoscience and biomedical/public health researchers are teaming to help mitigate these health problems as well as various non-traditional issues for geoscientists such as vector-borne diseases.
... knowledge Rainer Bromme 73 Dialogue between theory and practice in mathematics education Heinz Steinbring 89 On the application of science to teaching and teacher education Thomas J. Cooney 103 3. INTERACTION IN THE CLASSROOM Introduction Rudolf Sträßer 117 Theoretical and empirical approaches to classroom interaction Maria G. Bartolini Bussi 121 Theo...
The popularity of robots in educational activities increased the last 10-15 years. Engineering education all over the world includes courses and projects involving design, use and programming of robots in a variety of programs at technical colleges and universities. At the same time there is a gr......The popularity of robots in educational activities increased the last 10-15 years. Engineering education all over the world includes courses and projects involving design, use and programming of robots in a variety of programs at technical colleges and universities. At the same time...... there is a growing interest to work with robots. Robotic skills are also highly requested in industrial companies. At the Technical University of Denmark, DTU Diplom, we have several projects involving building and programing robots in our bachelor programs in Electronics, Computer Science, IT and Mechanical...... Engineering. This presentation deals with our experience in robotic activities in different programs in order to enhance understanding of mathematics, physics and different technical disciplines in the named programs. We also observed the increased motivation for learning theory when we combine traditional...
Schäfer, D; Moog, F P
300 years ago, the lawyer Theodosius Schöpffer coined the notion gerontology. On this occasion, this paper offers terms and corresponding concepts of gerontology which arose in the western tradition: 1. From the Graeco-Roman antiquity until 1750, gerocomy (the care for the elderly) was defined as a branch of medicine, but in practice almost did not exist. Basically, it provided instructions for a way of life in conformity with the physiological circumstances of elderly people. Its implementation was left to the patient. Furthermore, in the early modern times medical treatises dealt more frequently with diseases of the elderly and their therapy. The gerokomia succeeded in evolving a specific technical literature. Yet it failed to get institutionalized. 2. At the beginning of the 20th century, Ignaz Nascher interpreted geriatrics as a counterpart to pediatrics and opposed it to a clinical-pathological consideration of old age before 1900. He aimed at the exploration and treatment of old age as an autonomous physiological entity. Under the influence of the demographic transformation the institutionalization of geriatrics as a interdisciplinary branch within medicine could be realized relatively soon. 3. Around 1930, we experience the recreation of the notion gerontology, initially restricted to medical gerontology. However, with the integration of the non-medical sciences of old age the spectrum and the objectives changed. Today gerontology signifies on a international level a generic term or independent scientific discipline beside medicine. This evolution corresponds with the intentions pursued 300 years ago.
Minow, J. I.; Nicholas, A. C.; Parker, L. N.; Xapsos, M.; Walker, P. W.; Stauffer, C.
The Space Environment Technical Discipline Team (TDT) is a technical organization led by NASA's Technical Fellow for Space Environments that supports NASA's Office of the Chief Engineer through the NASA Engineering and Safety Center. The Space Environments TDT conducts independent technical assessments related to the space environment and space weather impacts on spacecraft for NASA programs and provides technical expertise to NASA management and programs where required. This presentation will highlight the status of applied space weather activities within the Space Environment TDT that support development of operational space weather applications and a better understanding of the impacts of space weather on space systems. We will first discuss a tool that has been developed for evaluating space weather launch constraints that are used to protect launch vehicles from hazardous space weather. We then describe an effort to better characterize three-dimensional radiation transport for CubeSat spacecraft and processing of micro-dosimeter data from the International Space Station which the team plans to make available to the space science community. Finally, we will conclude with a quick description of an effort to maintain access to the real-time solar wind data provided by the Advanced Composition Explorer satellite at the Sun-Earth L1 point.
Full Text Available Epistemic adverbs, like other markers of epistemic modality, are concerned with the speaker’s assessment of the truth value of the proposition. In other words, they indicate that the speaker considers certain situations as possible, impossible, probable, certain, or uncertain. At the same time, they signal the author’s presence in the text, and invite the reader to make his/her own conclusions and interpretations. The use of modal markers has been demonstrated to differ across academic disciplines, but the specific differences concerning the use of epistemic adverbs have not been studied systematically. This paper investigates the use of epistemic adverbs in research articles representing six disciplines belonging to three different branches of science: the humanities (linguistics and literary studies, the social sciences (law and sociology, and the natural sciences (physics and medicine, with the aim of establishing discipline-specific tendencies in their use. The study is based on a corpus of 160 research articles compiled by the author. It begins with an attempt at delimiting the category of epistemic adverbs in English. After that, a list of the most frequent epistemic adverbs in the subcorpora of all the disciplines is established and discussed. The study demonstrates that frequent use of epistemic adverbs is largely a property of research articles in the humanities and social sciences. Medical and physics research articles use them significantly less often. The most frequent epistemic adverbs in the research articles under analysis include indeed, perhaps, clearly, certainly, of course, arguably, possibly, and reportedly. Some adverbs appear to be associated with specific disciplines, e.g., clearly (physics, linguistics, sociology, medicine, indeed (linguistics, literary studies, sociology, possibly, reportedly (medicine, arguably (law. The association of individual adverbs with specific disciplines may serve as an important clue to
Joshua A. Drew
Full Text Available Conservation biology and environmental anthropology are disciplines that are both concerned with the identification and preservation of diversity, in one case biological and in the other cultural. Both conservation biology and the study of traditional ecoloigcal knowledge function at the nexus of the social and natural worlds, yet historically there have been major impediments to integrating the two. Here we identify linguistic, cultural, and epistemological barriers between the two disciplines. We argue that the two disciplines are uniquely positioned to inform each other and to provide critical insights and new perspectives on the way these sciences are practiced. We conclude by synthesizing common themes found in conservation success stories, and by making several suggestions on integration. These include cross-disciplinary publication, expanding memberships in professional societies and conducting multidisciplinary research based on similar interests in ecological process, taxonomy, or geography. Finally, we argue that extinction threats, be they biological or cultural/linguistic are imminent, and that by bringing these disciplines together we may be able to forge synergistic conservation programs capable of protecting the vivid splendor of life on Earth.
Aitlhadj, Layla; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R
Stem cell research is a major focus of regenerative medicine, which amalgamates diverse disciplines ranging from developmental cell biology to chemical and genetic therapy. Although embryonic stem cells have provided the foundation of stem cell therapy, they offer an in vitro study system that might not provide the best insight into mechanisms and behaviour of cells within living organisms. Caenorhabditis elegans is a well defined model organism with highly conserved cell development and signalling processes that specify cell fate. Its genetic amenability coupled with its chemical screening applicability make the nematode well suited as an in vivo system in which regenerative therapy and stem cell processes can be explored. Here, we describe some of the major advances in stem cell research from the worm's perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the development of management information systems field by evaluating the theses conducted at universities in Turkey in the departments of management information systems and science of management information systems. First, this study aims to determine the distribution of the theses in terms of years, subjects and the research methods used. Another purpose of this study was to determine which of the related disciplines of management information systems are used most in the theses. In addition, as a result of the study, the compatibility degree between the theses written and the courses taught in the graduate programs of management information systems were determined. In this research, content analysis method is used. Through this method, each of the theses was evaluated with a 10-question ‘thesis evaluation question set' constructed towards the purpose of the study. Through this evaluation, the current situation of the field was determined. It was observed that the number of doctoral theses associated with the field was less. Using the combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques most in the theses denoted that the interdisciplinary approaches were adopted in the theses associated with management information systems. It was observed that the literature analysis and survey techniques were the most studied research methods in the theses. Besides, statistical techniques were used highly in the theses. As a result of this study, it was concluded that out of the associated disciplines of management information systems, management science, computer science and statistics disciplines were more associated with the investigated theses. When the study results were evaluated as a whole, it was seen that significant progress was made in the discipline of management information systems compared to the early 2000s.
Metzger, N.; Fulton, K.R.
This final report summarizes activities conducted for the National Academy of Sciences' Annual Symposium on Frontiers of Science with support from the US Department of Energy for the period July 1, 1993 through May 31, 1998. During the report period, five Frontiers of Science symposia were held at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering. For each Symposium, an organizing committee appointed by the NAS President selected and planned the eight sessions for the Symposium and identified general participants for invitation by the NAS President. These Symposia accomplished their goal of bringing together outstanding younger (age 45 or less) scientists to hear presentations in disciplines outside their own and to discuss exciting advances and opportunities in their fields in a format that encourages, and allows adequate time for, informal one-on-one discussions among participants. Of the 458 younger scientists who participated, over a quarter (124) were women. Participant lists for all symposia (1993--1997) are attached. The scientific participants were leaders in basic research from academic, industrial, and federal laboratories in such disciplines as astronomy, astrophysics, atmospheric science, biochemistry, cell biology, chemistry, computer science, earth sciences, engineering, genetics, material sciences, mathematics, microbiology, neuroscience, physics, and physiology. For each symposia, the 24 speakers and discussants on the program were urged to focus their presentations on current cutting-edge research in their field for a scientifically sophisticated but non-specialist audience, and to provide a sense of the experimental data--what is actually measured and seen in the various fields. They were also asked to address questions such as: What are the major research problems and unique tools in their field? What are the current limitations on advances as well as the frontiers? Speakers were asked to provide a
Crop science is a highly integrative science using the disciplines of conventional plant breeding, transgenic crop improvement, plant physiology, and cropping system sciences to develop improved varieties of agronomic, turf, and forage crops to produce feed, food, fuel, and fiber for our world's gro...
Uluslararası İlişkiler Disiplininin Oluşumu: İdealizm / Realizm Tartışması ve Disiplinin Özerkliği = Formation of International Relations Discipline: Idealism / Realism Debate and Autonomy of the Discipline
Full Text Available International Relations discipline has a short history in comparison to other disciplines in social sciences. Even if it is widely accepted that modern international relations had begun with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, this kind of relations had been examined within law, history and political science for a long time. Today there is a great consensus that autonomy of the discipline, which began to appear as a separate field only after the First World War, has established. In this article, formative stage of disciplinary and theoretical autonomy of the discipline will be examined in conjunction with idealism/realism debate of the first period; without questioning the validity of assumptions of in this debate it will be tried to clarify how it prepared a framework for the autonomy of the discipline.
Full Text Available -user dungeon games (MUDs) with a science and mathematical twist were deployed using Mxit (a popular instant messaging system in South Africa) on cell phones to encourage teenagers to learn more about math and science to practice math and science skills...
Hardy, Precious; Aruguete, Mara
Retention is a major problem in most colleges and universities. High dropout rates, especially in the STEM disciplines (science, technology, engineering and mathematics), have proved intractable despite the offering of supplemental instruction. A broad model of support systems that includes psychological factors is needed to address retention in…
Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.; Smith, Leigh K.
The aim of this self-study was to critically consider the authors' individual thinking and practices as they worked toward a shared understanding of connecting science and literacy during instruction. As teacher educators from different disciplines, this work required them to carefully and recurrently examine their individual understandings of the…
There has been some debate and research that suggests the arts are well-suited to be combined with science, technology, engineering, and math disciplines making the STEM acronym STEAM. STEM education is an educational and political priority in the United States and is valued as a means of strengthening national security and ensuring global…
Christenson, Nina; Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu; Zeidler, Dana L.
In the present STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics)-driven society, socioscientific issues (SSI) have become a focus globally and SSI research has grown into an important area of study in science education. Since students attending the social and science programs have a different focus in their studies and research has shown that students attending a science program are less familiar with argumentation practice, we make a comparison of the supporting reasons social science and science majors use in arguing different SSI with the goal to provide important information for pedagogical decisions about curriculum and instruction. As an analytical framework, a model termed SEE-SEP covering three aspects (of knowledge, value, and experiences) and six subject areas (of sociology/culture, economy, environment/ecology, science, ethics/morality, and policy) was adopted to analyze students' justifications. A total of 208 upper secondary students (105 social science majors and 103 science majors) from Sweden were invited to justify and expound their arguments on four SSI including global warming, genetically modified organisms (GMO), nuclear power, and consumer consumption. The results showed that the social science majors generated more justifications than the science majors, the aspect of value was used most in students' argumentation regardless of students' discipline background, and justifications from the subject area of science were most often presented in nuclear power and GMO issues. We conclude by arguing that engaging teachers from different subjects to cooperate when teaching argumentation on SSI could be of great value and provide students from both social science and science programs the best possible conditions in which to develop argumentation skills.
Life Sciences Research at LBL has both a long history and a new visibility. The physics technologies pioneered in the days of Ernest O. Lawrence found almost immediate application in the medical research conducted by Ernest's brother, John Lawrence. And the tradition of nuclear medicine continues today, largely uninterrupted for more than 50 years. Until recently, though, life sciences research has been a secondary force at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). Today, a true multi-program laboratory has emerged, in which the life sciences participate as a full partner. The LBL Human Genome Center is a contribution to the growing international effort to map the human genome. Its achievements represent LBL divisions, including Engineering, Materials and Chemical Sciences, and Information and Computing Sciences, along with Cell and Molecular Biology and Chemical Biodynamics. The Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center will comprise not only beamlines and experimental end stations, but also supporting laboratories and office space for scientists from across the US. This effort reflects a confluence of scientific disciplines --- this time represented by individuals from the life sciences divisions and by engineers and physicists associated with the Advanced Light Source project. And finally, this report itself, the first summarizing the efforts of all four life sciences divisions, suggests a new spirit of cooperation. 30 figs.
Life Sciences Research at LBL has both a long history and a new visibility. The physics technologies pioneered in the days of Ernest O. Lawrence found almost immediate application in the medical research conducted by Ernest's brother, John Lawrence. And the tradition of nuclear medicine continues today, largely uninterrupted for more than 50 years. Until recently, though, life sciences research has been a secondary force at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). Today, a true multi-program laboratory has emerged, in which the life sciences participate as a full partner. The LBL Human Genome Center is a contribution to the growing international effort to map the human genome. Its achievements represent LBL divisions, including Engineering, Materials and Chemical Sciences, and Information and Computing Sciences, along with Cell and Molecular Biology and Chemical Biodynamics. The Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center will comprise not only beamlines and experimental end stations, but also supporting laboratories and office space for scientists from across the US. This effort reflects a confluence of scientific disciplines --- this time represented by individuals from the life sciences divisions and by engineers and physicists associated with the Advanced Light Source project. And finally, this report itself, the first summarizing the efforts of all four life sciences divisions, suggests a new spirit of cooperation. 30 figs
Zhu, Yangyong; Xiong, Yun
Currently, a huge amount of data is being rapidly generated in cyberspace. Datanature (all data in cyberspace) is forming due to a data explosion. Exploring the patterns and rules in datanature is necessary but difficult. A new discipline called Data Science is coming. It provides a type of novel research method (a data-intensive method) for natural and social sciences and goes beyond computer science in researching data. This paper presents the challenges presented by data and discusses what...
Parenti, Melissa A.
Becoming more disciplined about teaching disciplinary literacy in our classrooms can be a challenge. Encouraging student production of the academic language and the demands and styles of thinking associated with each discipline requires an additional push that was often overlooked in content area instruction of the past. As this new journey in…
de Waal, Elda
Educators, learners and parents/caregivers should be held accountable for instilling learner discipline through clear guidelines and limitations to achieve security at public schools. Two previously identified education challenges are sustaining well-disciplined education systems and ensuring that educators are attentive to legal parameters in…
Murphy, Louise H.; Murphy, Sam
The study determined the correlation among education students' perceptions of their own childhood discipline and their adult attitudes toward teaching and toward children. Data analysis indicated that those students who perceived their own childhood discipline as rigid and punitive tended to hold highly negative attitudes toward children, but did…
Kirby, Edward A.; Kirby, Sandra H.
Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often discipline problems, but their disruptive behavior is usually not willful or intentional. After describing the educational history of one person with ADHD, the article makes suggestions for disciplining children with ADHD in the classroom. (SM)
Gaffney, Kathleen F; Barndt-Maglio, Bonnie; Myers, Sue; Kollar, Shelley J
To examine the relationships among four maternal variables: 1) prenatal report of discipline expectant mothers received when they were children, 2) prenatal intentions for disciplining one's own child, 3) report of intended child discipline strategies when infant is 8 months old, and 4) observed maternal role sufficiency behaviors. Replication and extension study; 3-wave prospective longitudinal design. The procedure consisted of prenatal clinic interviews in which women (N = 185) reported how their mothers handled specific child behaviors and how they intended to handle the same behaviors with their children. During a home visit when their babies were 8 months old, the mothers (n = 126) were again asked how they intended to handle these behaviors, and observations were made of maternal role sufficiency behaviors. Correlation and regression analyses were performed with data generated from an adaptation of the Ways of Handling Irritating Behavior scale, the NCAST Teaching Scale, and the HOME scale. A significant relationship was found between mothers' prenatal reports of discipline received as a child and prenatal reports of intentions for disciplining their own children. For mothers of infants, reported intentions for future child discipline strategies were predicted by their prenatal reports. Mothers with clinically at-risk scores on the NCAST Teaching Scale and HOME scale reported more intended harsh child discipline strategies than those not at-risk. Assessment for harsh, nonnurturing child discipline strategies during prenatal and well-baby health maintenance checks may assist in uncovering "red flags" for early intervention to reduce the risk of later child abuse and neglect.
The study aimed to establish females and males primary teachers' understanding of classroom discipline, the strategies that they apply in dealing with misbehaviour and their knowledge and awareness of discipline models. The study applied a mixed method approach, the dominant less dominant format. Both females and ...
Krskova, Hana; Baumann, Chris
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to combine seemingly unrelated factors to explain global competitiveness. The study argues that school discipline and education investment affect competitiveness with the association being mediated by educational performance. Crucially, diachronic effects of discipline on performance are tested to demonstrate…
Losen, Daniel J.; Keith, Michael A., II; Hodson, Cheri L.; Martinez, Tia E.
This report, along with the companion spreadsheet, provides the first comprehensive description ever compiled of charter school discipline. In 2011-12, every one of the nation's 95,000 public schools was required to report its school discipline data, including charter schools. This analysis, which includes more than 5,250 charter schools, focuses…
Argenti, Paul A.
Finds that, of the disciplines under discussion in this special issue, corporate communication is the newest, least understood, and the only one specifically related to a functional area within organizations. Defines corporate communication as a discipline. Examines how it relates to other subdisciplines under consideration (management…
Ruszkiewicz, John J.
The forebears of writing "in" and "across" the disciplines are such historical figures as Aristotle and Cicero. They believed that rhetoric contained within itself all other disciplines. Renaissance rhetoricians also insisted upon assigning a moral cross-disciplinary dimension to rhetoric while at the same time the intellectual…
Anderson, Dayle; Moeed, Azra
Current curriculum demands require primary teachers to teach about the Nature of Science; yet, few primary teachers have had opportunity to learn about science as a discipline. Prior schooling and vicarious experiences of science may shape their beliefs about science and, as a result, their science teaching. This qualitative study describes the…
Abraham, Tara H
Much scholarship in the history of cybernetics has focused on the far-reaching cultural dimensions of the movement. What has garnered less attention are efforts by cyberneticians such as Warren McCulloch and Norbert Wiener to transform scientific practice in an array of disciplines in the biomedical sciences, and the complex ways these efforts were received by members of traditional disciplines. In a quest for scientific unity that had a decidedly imperialistic flavour, cyberneticians sought to apply practices common in the exact sciences-mainly theoretical modeling-to problems in disciplines that were traditionally defined by highly empirical practices, such as neurophysiology and neuroanatomy. Their efforts were met with mixed, often critical responses. This paper attempts to make sense of such dynamics by exploring the notion of a scientific style and its usefulness in accounting for the contrasts in scientific practice in brain research and in cybernetics during the 1940s. Focusing on two key institutional contexts of brain research and the role of the Rockefeller and Macy Foundations in directing brain research and cybernetics, the paper argues that the conflicts between these fields were not simply about experiment vs. theory but turned more closely on the questions that defined each area and the language used to elaborate answers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tuhkala, Ari; Nielsen, Nick; Wagner, Marie-Louise
, surveys, and a theme discussion with experienced teachers from the 13 schools. The main takeaways are: First, the teachers did not perceive Technology Comprehension as a distinguished discipline, which calls for more research on how Making is scaled into a national discipline. Second, Technology......We account for the first research results from a government initiated experiment that scales Making to a national discipline. The Ministry of Education, in Denmark, has introduced Technology Comprehension as a new discipline for lower secondary education. Technology Comprehension is first...... Comprehension opens up for interdisciplinary and engaging learning activities, but teachers need scaffolding and support to actualise these opportunities. Third, Technology Comprehension challenges teachers’ existing competencies in relation to the discipline and students’ prerequisites and needs. Teachers need...
Wright, S. J.; Fosmire, M.; Jeffryes, J.; Stowell Bracke, M.; Westra, B.
What data stewardship skills are needed by future scientists to fulfill their professional responsibilities and take advantage of opportunities in e-science? How can academic librarians contribute their expertise in information organization, dissemination and preservation to better serve modern science? With support from the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), four research libraries have formed a partnership to address these questions. The aims of the partnership are to identify the data stewardship skills, including data management and curation, needed by graduate students at the research discipline level, to identify trends that extend across the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines, and to collaborate with faculty to develop and implement "data information literacy" (DIL) curricula to address those needs. Over the course of the first year, the authors have been working closely with faculty in hydrology, civil engineering, ecology/environmental science, and natural resources. At the outset, we performed structured interviews with faculty and graduate students using a modified version of the Data Curation Profiles Toolkit (http://datacurationprofiles.org) to gather detailed information about the practices, limitations, needs, and opportunities for improving data management and curation practices in each group. Project teams also conducted discipline-based literature reviews and environmental scans of the available resources pertaining to data management and curation issues to identify how (or if) these topics are currently addressed by the discipline. The results were used to develop and implement specific instructional interventions attuned to the needs of each research group. We will share the results of our interviews and information-gathering, summarizing similarities and differences in the data stewardship needs expressed by the graduate students and faculty from different STEM disciplines. We will also discuss
Biological events occurring in cells directly hit by radiation appear in bystander cells nearby not hit directly, which is called the bystander effect. This review describes the events and mechanisms of biological bystander effect yielded by the low-dose radiation including the microbeam. Bystander effects, particularly by charged particle beams, have been studied by two representative approaches by α-ray from plutonium (stochastic irradiation) and by particle microbeams (targeted irradiation), where a bystander effect like chromosome aberrations is shown to occur by communication between irradiated and non-irradiated cells through gap junction. Bystander effects that do not require the cell contact also occur in the irradiated cell-conditioned medium (ICCM), where, not only the short-life radicals like reactive oxygen species and NO, but also more long-life factors participate. Authors have shown the presence of such bystander-inducing factors in ICCM, producing the aberrations even 48 hr after irradiation of either low or high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. Bystander effects can be important from the aspect of risk assessments of radiation in the terrestrial/spatial environment involving aircraft as well as in cancer therapy by low-dose heavy particle beams. (T.I)
Davidov, Maayan; Grusec, Joan E.; Wolfe, Janis L.
Fifty-nine 6- to 9-year-old children evaluated three discipline strategies (reasoning, verbal power assertion, acknowledgment of feelings), and mothers were asked to predict their children's evaluations. Maternal knowledge scores were derived. Mothers were less accurate at predicting their children's perceptions of discipline when the misdeed in…
Jia, C Y
Discipline construction is the core element of department development, including discipline structure setting, scale, equipment, medical workers structure, clinical feature and advantage, talent training, teaching level, scientific research level, management system, and cultural construction of department. As leader and engine of discipline construction, directors' ability is an important factor for discipline construction. Clinical characteristic is the basis of discipline construction; innovation actuation is the essence of discipline construction; talents training is the guarantee of discipline construction; scientific research is the wing of discipline construction; cultural construction is the hot spring of discipline construction. Discipline construction is the theme of the development of burn surgery.
Full Text Available Abstract For the past two decades, there has been much confusion about molecular gastronomy. This confusion has arisen because people ignore that the word gastronomy does not mean cuisine, it means knowledge about food. Similar to ‘molecular biology’, molecular gastronomy is a scientific discipline that looks for the mechanisms of phenomena occurring during dish preparation and consumption. As with any other scientific discipline, it can have many applications. One of the first was ‘molecular cuisine’ but since 1994, ‘note by note cuisine’ has also been promoted. The latter involves preparing dishes using pure compounds, or more practically mixture of compounds obtained by fractioning plant or animal tissues, instead of using these tissues themselves. Note by note cuisine raises issues in various fields: science, technology, nutrition, physiology, toxicology and politics.
Rokni, Ladan; Park, Sam-Hun
Medical tourism suffers from the lack of a consensus regarding the involved categories. This study aimed to address this gap from the academic disciplines and publications perspective. Totally 1954 citations were identified through a formula of keyword search of SCOPUS. In order to classify the various subject areas, we followed the international standard classification of education (ISCED) developed by UNESCO. Moreover, the trends of publications were identified based on their popularity between 2000 and 2017. The category with the most interests on publication about medical tourism was 'health and welfare', followed by 'social science'. Even though various disciplines were involved in the medical tourism, it seems that a downward trend has been experienced since 2015. The identified key trends of medical tourism publications will benefit researchers exploring the categories of medical tourism or health travel. The results contribute to advance the state of knowledge from the academic perspective.
Robert J. Sternberg
Full Text Available Teaching- and teaching-evaluation skills are critically important to professional success in psychology and related disciplines. We explored the possibility of measuring reasoning-about-teaching skills as a supplementary measure for admissions in psychology and related behavioral-sciences disciplines. We tested 103 students for their reasoning about teaching and their reasoning about research, as well as for their cognitive- (abstract reasoning and educational skills. We found that women performed better than men on our reasoning-about-teaching measure, and that factorially, our reasoning-about-teaching measure clustered with our reasoning-about-research measures but not with our measures of abstract cognitive reasoning and educational skills.
This landmark textbook takes a whole subject approach to Information Science as a discipline. Introduced by leading international scholars and offering a global perspective on the discipline, this is designed to be the standard text for students worldwide. The authors' expert narrative guides you through each of the essential building blocks of information science offering a concise introduction and expertly chosen further reading and resources.Critical topics covered include:foundations: concepts, theories and historical perspectivesorganising and retrieving Information information behaviour,
Balatsoukas, Panos; O'Brien, Ann; Morris, Anne
Introduction: This paper reports on the findings of a study investigating the potential effects of discipline (sciences and engineering versus humanities and social sciences) on the application of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers learning object metadata elements for the description of learning objects in the Jorum learning…
Less than a decade ago, school district technology-use policies essentially focused on school computer labs and the prohibition of cell phones on campus. Today, as schools integrate technology into classroom instruction and school operations, districts are moving quickly to implement policies to encourage digital citizenship throughout the school…
Kramer, Ijsbrand M; Dahmani, Hassen-Reda; Delouche, Pamina; Bidabe, Marissa; Schneeberger, Patricia
The large number of experimentally determined molecular structures has led to the development of a new semiotic system in the life sciences, with increasing use of accurate molecular representations. To determine how this change impacts students' learning, we incorporated image tests into our introductory cell biology course. Groups of students used a single text dealing with signal transduction, which was supplemented with images made in one of three iconographic styles. Typically, we employed realistic renderings, using computer-generated Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures; realistic-schematic renderings, using shapes inspired by PDB structures; or schematic renderings, using simple geometric shapes to represent cellular components. The control group received a list of keywords. When students were asked to draw and describe the process in their own style and to reply to multiple-choice questions, the three iconographic approaches equally improved the overall outcome of the tests (relative to keywords). Students found the three approaches equally useful but, when asked to select a preferred style, they largely favored a realistic-schematic style. When students were asked to annotate "raw" realistic images, both keywords and schematic representations failed to prepare them for this task. We conclude that supplementary images facilitate the comprehension process and despite their visual clutter, realistic representations do not hinder learning in an introductory course.
Isacoff, Jonathan B.
This article argues for a political science discipline and teaching framework predicated empirically on the study of "real-world problems" and normatively on promoting civic engagement among political science students. I argue for a rethinking of political science and political science education in view of the pragmatist thought of John…
Full Text Available Computer Science (CS) enrolments at higher education institutions across the globe remain low in comparison to other disciplines. The low interest in CS is often attributed to students’ misconceptions about the discipline, such as CS being construed...
Kim, Eunjung; Hong, Seunghye
Nurses not only need to be familiar with professional guidelines of discipline and but also need to be aware of variances in styles of acceptable discipline across cultural groups. The goal of this study was to explore cultural influences in relation to (1) first-generation Korean-American parents' perceptions of common discipline strategies in the United States, and (2) discipline strategies commonly used among first-generation Korean-American parents. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze interview data from seven first-generation Korean-American parents. Derived themes indicated that parents considered spanking/hitting and less hugging/kissing as Korean style, and time-out, use of sticker charts, hugging/kissing, removing/adding privileges, and giving chores as American style. Recent immigrant parents were not familiar with common positive discipline strategies in the United States. As they adapted to mainstream society, they discontinued what they perceived to be negative aspects of Korean style and adopted positive aspects of American style. They were sensitive to children's views on discipline, and they experienced communication difficulties with children. These findings indicated that Korean-American parents' perceptions of discipline strategies were shaped by living in two cultures and were different from western viewpoints.
Hecker, Tobias; Goessmann, Katharina; Nkuba, Mabula; Hermenau, Katharin
Violent forms of discipline in schools continue to be widespread across the globe despite their damaging effects. Since little is known about factors influencing the extent of violence applied by teachers, this study aimed to investigate the influence of teachers' stress, work satisfaction, and personal characteristics on their disciplining style. Using structural equation modeling, associations between violent discipline, burnout symptoms, and job perceptions (pressure and difficulties in class) reported by 222 teachers from 11 secondary schools in Tanzania in 2015 were analyzed. Results indicated a direct association between perceived stress and emotional violent discipline (β=.18, pjob perceptions and both forms of violent disciplining. The model showed good model fit (χ 2 [44, n=222]=67.47 (p=.013), CFI=.94, TLI=.91, IFI=.94, RMSEA=.049 [90%-CI=.02-.07, PCLOSE=.50], SRMR=.06). Our findings suggest that teachers' personal perceptions of their work as well as their stress burden play a role in their disciplining styles. Our findings underline the importance of integrating topics, such as stress and coping as well as positive, nonviolent discipline measures into the regular teacher's training and in addition to develop and evaluate school-based preventative interventions for teachers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Advertising is a field of human activity whose components are studied by numerous disciplines. There is a risk, then, to see the theoretical interest for this field crumble; in order to acquire a general view of it, we need – above researches conducted with the support of conceptual apparatuses of disciplines as sociology, mythology, psychology, ethology, visual communication, etc. – unifying points of view, offered by formal disciplines as rhetoric, semiotics, etc. The study of specific advertising messages will help us catch a glimpse of both proportions and stakes of the matter; leading the interdisciplinar approach, rhetoric can hope to “tame” the complexity of the advertising discourse.
W.B. Maia; B.S. dos Santos; J.M. Martins; B.C. Araujo; A.A. Pimenta Filho; T.G. Araújo; M.C. Martins; C.R.F.C. Mota; A.L. Castro- Neto; V.L.M. Lima,
Virtual reality is an innovating manner of comprehending and acting on how the world is and, also, considered a new way of intellectual exercise. This work took place in a biochemistry masters discipline (Advanced Formation in ScientificEducation) and had as its observation context the forum (on-line tool) viability, intending the construction of hypertexts (active collaborative writing ) by the 15 registered students in the discipline in 2008. The discipline was available on the web, in ...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to understand Principal’s Leadership in Improving Teacher Discipline and it is investigated under the focus: (1 factors needed by principals to influence teacher discipline effectively, (2 techniques are used by headmaster to improve teacher discipline, (3 the process of teacher motivation in improving the discipline, (4 the reward and punishment systems applied by the principal to improving teacher discipline, and (5 the process of monitoring the implementation of teacher discipline. This research used a qualitative approach with a case-study design. Data collection techniques which were applied are: (1 in-depth interview, (2 ob-servation, and (3 documentation. The results of this study are presented as followings. (1 Factors needed by principal to influence teacher discipline effectively are: a education background, b work experience, c a positive model, d awareness of the role and responsibility as a school leader, e professional character. (2 Techniques used by headmaster to apply teacher discipline are: a reminding, b discussion, c meeting, d evaluation, e communication f the letter, and g the reward and punish-ment. (3 The process of teacher motivation in improving the discipline are: a good involvement and communication, b training programs, c accepting suggestions/discussion, d the outbound activity, e getting involved with all school activities, f celebrating all special holiday, both national and religious holidays, g staff promotion, and i the bonus salary. (4 the reward and punishment sys-tems applied by the principal to improvee teacher discipline are: a appraisals, b a prize and a cer-tificate of appreciation, c bonus salary, d discussion about the problem, warning letters, and dismissing letter, and e salary suspension and salary decreases. (5 The process of monitoring the implementation of teacher discipline are: a management system/organizing structure, and b direct and indirect
approaches to e.g. understand and involve users, clients and citizens. Several other disciplines currently also approach and embrace anthropological methods, and new sub-disciplines such as design anthropology, architectural anthropology, business anthropology and techno-anthropology have emerged...... these cross-disciplinary and applied settings, and how it may contribute to anthropology in general. Based on research and teaching in the field of architectural anthropology, the paper discuss the potentials and pitfalls of mixing approaches from the two disciplines using examples of architects’ approaches...
Ekaterina V. Koldunova
Full Text Available Dynamic development of international processes at the regional level, various trajectories of regionalization in Europe, Asia, Latin America and other parts of the world created a complex and multidimensional picture of the contemporary international relations. However Social Sciences and IR retained a distinct eurocentrism. This eurocentrism only partly meant that students of IR did not take into account non-European or non-Western realities. Thus, a German Scholar J. Vullers from German Institute of Global and Area Studies analyzing in 2014 three leading International Relations journals (International Organization, World Politics, European Journal of International Relations diagnosed a serious geographic imbalance in the international studies, which meant a very limited number of articles based on the nonWestern empirical data.Even with such geographic imbalance in IR studies more important for preserving eurocentrism there was the absence of non-Western IR theories or IR theories originating from non-Western political context. The collective monograph edited by Barry Buzan and Amitav Acharya focused exactly on this problem. The title of the book was provocatively asking why there is no non-Western IR theory. Thus, the book in question provoked a lively academic debate on the topic. Russia was not covered in this book. Therefore, this very fact gives one some reasons to reflect on how Russian research in the field may face a double challenge of a changing international environment and an inappropriate level of its intellectual assessment. Against this background this article analyzes World Regional Studies, a research framework and discipline, which is rapidly developing in Russia and may to some extent contribute to a more correct understanding of the international processes.
Allen, Will; Ogilvie, Shaun; Blackie, Helen; Smith, Des; Sam, Shona; Doherty, James; McKenzie, Don; Ataria, James; Shapiro, Lee; MacKay, Jamie; Murphy, Elaine; Jacobson, Chris; Eason, Charles
The success of research in integrated environmental and natural resource management relies on the participation and involvement of different disciplines and stakeholders. This can be difficult to achieve in practice because many initiatives fail to address the underlying social processes required for successful engagement and social learning. We used an action research approach to support a research-based group with a range of disciplinary and stakeholder expertise to critically reflect on their engagement practice and identify lessons around how to collaborate more effectively. This approach is provided here as a guide that can be used to support reflective research practice for engagement in other integration-based initiatives. This paper is set in the context of an integrated wildlife management research case study in New Zealand. We illustrate how multi-, inter- and trans-disciplinary approaches can provide a framework for considering the different conversations that need to occur in an integrated research program. We then outline rubrics that list the criteria required in inter- and trans-disciplinary collaborations, along with examples of effective engagement processes that directly support integration through such efforts. Finally, we discuss the implications of these experiences for other researchers and managers seeking to improve engagement and collaboration in integrated science, management and policy initiatives. Our experiences reaffirm the need for those involved in integrative initiatives to attend to the processes of engagement in both formal and informal settings, to provide opportunities for critical reflective practice, and to look for measures of success that acknowledge the importance of effective social process.
Ruff, Chloe; Jones, Brett D.
In this qualitative study, we examined how two professors (a physicist and biochemist) of first year college students perceived their students' development of identification in biochemistry or physics and how they actively supported this development. The professors described students who entered college with different levels of domain…
van der Ploeg, Martine; Baartman, Jantiene; Robinson, David
concepts of biophysical landscape interactions are needed to evaluate soil water availability in relation to the stability of natural vegetation, especially in the perspective of soil threats, population growth, climate change, and global water scarcity. An integrated concept can only be established by bridging the gap between several disciplines, but needs to be appealing to those disciplines at the same time. As evidence suggests interdisciplinary work is more challenging to get funded . The key aspect of the connectivity concept is that it can create pathways for feedbacks which are so often missing in soil and water models. Connectivity could thus play an important role in bridging disciplines and scales.  Schwilch G, Bernet L. Fleskens L, Giannakis E, Leventon J, Marañón T, Mills J, Short C, Stolte J, van Delden H, Verzandvoort S. 2016. Operationalizing ecosystem services for the mitigation of soil threats: A proposed framework. Ecological Indicators 67: 586-597,doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.03.016  Pelletier JD, DeLong SB, Orem CA, Becerra P, Compton K, Gressett K, Lyons-Baral J, McGuire LA, Molaro JL, Spinler JCCF. 2012. How do vegetation bands form in dry lands? Insights from numerical modeling and field studies in southern Nevada, USA. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface 117: F04026,doi:10.1029/2012JF002465  Liu J, Dietz T, Carpenter SR, Alberti M, Folke C, Moran E, ..., Ostrom E. 2007. Complexity of coupled human and natural systems. Science 317.5844: 1513-1516,doi:10.1126/science.1144004  Cook BJ, Hauer FR. 2007. Effects of hydrologic connectivity on water chemistry, soils, and vegetation structure and function in an intermontane depressional wetland landscape. Wetlands 27.3: 719-738,doi:10.1672/0277-5212(2007)27  Roth K. 2008. Scaling of water flow through porous media and soils. European journal of soil science, 59(1), 125-130, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2389.2007.00986.x  Bromham, L, Dinnage R, Hua X. 2016. Interdisciplinary research
Jørgen Podemann Sørensen
Full Text Available The history of Religions is in need of subdisciplines. Those that it has are mostly derived from other academic disciplines such as psychology, sociology, or, to mention a more recent invention, aesthetics. Interdisciplinary studies are in many ways a characteristic, inherent feature of the humanities, and certainly not to be resented or mistrusted. It is, however, worth noticing that the History of Religions has only one discipline entirely of its own: a comparative, cross-cultural, religio-specific discipline sometimes called the phenomenology of religion. The study of ritual is more than just the study of a very broad. It is with a view to the further exploration of the way meaning and form are put to work in ritual, and the way ritual determines and conditions the form of representations, that ritualistics can be suggested as a new discipline.
Grantham, Marvin L.; Harris, Clifton S., Jr.
The Marcus School staff feels that the best approach to discipline is a preventive one--the provision of a variety of educational and environmental alternatives that will interest, challenge, and motivate the pupil. (Author)
Law, Marc T; Hansen, Zeynep K
This article investigates the relationship between the characteristics of medical licensing boards and the frequency with which boards discipline physicians. Specifically, we take advantage of variation in the structure of medical licensing boards between 1993 and 2003 to determine the effect of organizational and budgetary independence, public oversight, and resource constraints on rates of physician discipline. We find that larger licensing boards, boards with more staff, and boards that are organizationally independent from state government discipline doctors more frequently. Public oversight and political control over board budgets do not appear to influence the extent to which medical licensing boards discipline doctors. These findings are broadly consistent with theories of regulatory behavior that emphasize the importance of bureaucratic autonomy for effective regulatory enforcement.
Thompson, John C., III
Jerome Bruner's theory that the structure of the discipline should be the starting point for reorganizing school curricula is reviewed and recent commentaries, representing supporting and opposing viewpoints, are summarized. (MP)
Discipline, dilemmas, decisions and data distribution in the planning and ... Emphasis is placed on the value of a heterogeneous article structure and a ... Keywords: access structure, data distribution, frame structure, fre-quency of use, ...
This article explores the emergence of a 'regime of hope' in the context of oncology care, practice and research. More specifically, my focus is the emergence, since the 1970s or so, of hope scales and indexes used to metricise the emotional states of cancer patients. These usually take the form of psychometric tests designed and deployed in order to subject affective life to calculative and rational scrutiny. This article locates this within the tensions of a 'turn' towards the emotions in critical social science literature. Scholarship has, for instance, been anxious not to deny the embodied reality of affectivity and the emotions. But it has been equally important to recognise the extent to which emotions are discursively ordered and structured as objects and effects of power. This article charts the emergence of hope scales historically alongside wider historical forces in the metrification of life and health and more specifically the emotions. It locates hope scales in a post-war climate of individual resilience and perseverant enterprise and the significance of hope as a naturalised vitalistic attribute of biopolitical life. © The Author(s) 2014.
Tsai, Hui-Chen; Chang, Chun-Fang; Chen, Bi-Chang; Cheng, Ji-Yen; Chu, Chih-Wei; Han, Hsieh-Cheng; Hatanaka, Koji; Hsieh, Tung-Han; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Lin, Jung-Hsin; Tung, Yi-Chung; Wei, Pei-Kuen; Yang, Fu-Liang; Tsai, Din Ping
Development of imaging, sensing, and characterization of cells at Research Center for Applied Sciences (RCAS) of Academia Sinica in Taiwan is progressing rapidly. The research on advanced lattice light sheet microscopy for temporal visualization of cells in three dimensions at sub-cellular resolution shows novel imaging results. Label-free observation on filopodial dynamics provides a convenient assay on cancer cell motility. The newly-developed software enables us to track the movement of two types of particles through different channels and reconstruct the co-localized tracks. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for detecting urinary microRNA for diagnosis of acute kidney injury demonstrates excellent sensitivity. A fully automated and integrated portable reader was constructed as a home-based surveillance system for post-operation hepatocellular carcinoma. New microfluidic cell culture devices for fast and accurate characterizations prove various diagnosis capabilities.
Rega, Maria Luisa; Telaretti, Fabia; Alvaro, Rosaria; Kangasniemi, Mari
Nursing as clinical practice, management and research are based on nursing philosophy and theory. Thus, the philosophical and theoretical content is required to be incorporated in academic education in order to enable nurses' skills for reflection, analysis, and thinking about the profession. The aim of this review was to describe what is known of the philosophical and theoretical content of the nursing discipline within academic education. A critical interpretive synthesis (CIS). Electronic searches were performed across four databases, CINAHL, Scopus, Medline, and Web of Science, for papers published in English from 1980 to 2016. The selection of original articles was based on stages, and inclusion and exclusion criteria were used. Quality of the selected papers were evaluated by method sensitive appraisal criteria. The five phases of CIS were used to combine the selected data. The searches resulted 9148 titles, whereas 13 were selected. Nurses need philosophical and theoretical education in order to be aware of human health and explain the complexity of the human experience of illness. The philosophy of science, the philosophy of care, and theory development were highlighted as the key contents in nursing academic education as these subjects are central to the discipline that ensures that nurses acquire advanced skills. A model was developed that linked disciplinary issues the progression nursing science through the influence of advanced skills. Based on the findings in this study the philosophical and theoretical content of nursing discipline crates a basis for the academic education and enables a professional and exclusive vision for nurses. It provides an overall understanding of people's lives and support nurses to achieve deeper awareness of the meaning of illness and health in a person lifespan what is needed on the evidence-based decision making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jiranyakul, Komain; Opiela, Timothy
This paper tests the effect of systemic risk on deposit market discipline by interacting proxies for systemic risk with bank-specific default-risk variables. Discipline is measured by estimating a supply of deposit funds function at Thai banks from 1992 to 1997. The results show that supply decreases as bank-specific risk increases. Also, the sensitivity of funds to changes in bank-specific risk increases as systemic risk rises. Additionally, depositors decrease their sensitivity to deposit r...
This article traces the historical decisions, concepts and key professional collaborations that laid the foundations for the formation of American psychiatric epidemiology during the 20th century, up to the discipline's institutional consolidation, circa 1980, when the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) was published. Thomas Kuhn's 'disciplinary matrix' is mobilized as a framework that allows the institutional and intellectual construction of a discipline to be analysed as separate but intertwined components, without assuming that the two evolve in tandem. The identification of the strengths as well as the frailties and internal divisions of the discipline as it developed reveals a paradoxical situation: a time lag between psychiatric epidemiology's institutionalization and public recognition, on the one hand; and the weak coherence of its intellectual components, on the other hand. We briefly trace the origins of split among the discipline's aetiological models of mental disorders and suggest that the lack of coherence among them has prevented psychiatric epidemiology from achieving the status of a normal scientific discipline, in the Kuhnian sense. Without a more explicit attention to the intellectual rationale of the discipline, psychiatric epidemiology will continue to maintain a strong institutional dimension and weak intellectual matrix. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
Blogs, Facebook, Twitter, and other social media have proven themselves powerful vectors for science denial. Left unchecked, these attacks on foundational sciences like evolution and climate change undermine public confidence in science and spawn attacks on science-based policy and science education. Scientists can blunt such attacks by being vigorous advocates for their own research and their discipline's core findings, by seeking wide and unexpected audiences for discussions of their science, and by understanding and addressing the social, political, and cultural roots of science denial.
Rusijono; Khotimah, K.
The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of implementing the assessment model based on character building to improve discipline and student’s achievement. Assessment model based on character building includes three components, which are the behaviour of students, the efforts, and student’s achievement. This assessment model based on the character building is implemented in science philosophy and educational assessment courses, in Graduate Program of Educational Technology Department, Educational Faculty, Universitas Negeri Surabaya. This research used control group pre-test and post-test design. Data collection method used in this research were observation and test. The observation was used to collect the data about the disciplines of the student in the instructional process, while the test was used to collect the data about student’s achievement. Moreover, the study applied t-test to the analysis of data. The result of this research showed that assessment model based on character building improved discipline and student’s achievement.
Developmental engineering: a new paradigm for the design and manufacturing of cell-based products. Part II: from genes to networks: tissue engineering from the viewpoint of systems biology and network science.
Lenas, Petros; Moos, Malcolm; Luyten, Frank P
The field of tissue engineering is moving toward a new concept of "in vitro biomimetics of in vivo tissue development." In Part I of this series, we proposed a theoretical framework integrating the concepts of developmental biology with those of process design to provide the rules for the design of biomimetic processes. We named this methodology "developmental engineering" to emphasize that it is not the tissue but the process of in vitro tissue development that has to be engineered. To formulate the process design rules in a rigorous way that will allow a computational design, we should refer to mathematical methods to model the biological process taking place in vitro. Tissue functions cannot be attributed to individual molecules but rather to complex interactions between the numerous components of a cell and interactions between cells in a tissue that form a network. For tissue engineering to advance to the level of a technologically driven discipline amenable to well-established principles of process engineering, a scientifically rigorous formulation is needed of the general design rules so that the behavior of networks of genes, proteins, or cells that govern the unfolding of developmental processes could be related to the design parameters. Now that sufficient experimental data exist to construct plausible mathematical models of many biological control circuits, explicit hypotheses can be evaluated using computational approaches to facilitate process design. Recent progress in systems biology has shown that the empirical concepts of developmental biology that we used in Part I to extract the rules of biomimetic process design can be expressed in rigorous mathematical terms. This allows the accurate characterization of manufacturing processes in tissue engineering as well as the properties of the artificial tissues themselves. In addition, network science has recently shown that the behavior of biological networks strongly depends on their topology and has
Borne, K. D.
The discipline of data science is merging with multiple science disciplines to form new X-informatics research disciplines. They are almost too numerous to name, but they include geoinformatics, bioinformatics, cheminformatics, biodiversity informatics, ecoinformatics, materials informatics, and the emerging discipline of astroinformatics. Within any X-informatics discipline, the information granules are unique to that discipline -- e.g., gene sequences in bio, the sky object in astro, and the spatial object in geo (such as points, lines, and polygons in the vector model, and pixels in the raster model). Nevertheless the goals are similar: transparent data re-use across subdisciplines and within education settings, information and data integration and fusion, personalization of user interactions with the data collection, semantic search and retrieval, and knowledge discovery. The implementation of an X-informatics framework enables these semantic e-science research goals. We describe the concepts, challenges, and new developments associated with the new discipline of astroinformatics, and how geoinformatics provides valuable lessons learned and a model for practical semantic science within a traditional science discipline through the accretion of data science methodologies (such as formal metadata creation, data models, data mining, information retrieval, knowledge engineering, provenance, taxonomies, and ontologies). The emerging concept of data-as-a-service (DaaS) builds upon the concept of smart data (or data DNA) for intelligent data management, automated workflows, and intelligent processing. Smart data, defined through X-informatics, enables several practical semantic science use cases, including self-discovery, data intelligence, automatic recommendations, relevance analysis, dimension reduction, feature selection, constraint-based mining, interdisciplinary data re-use, knowledge-sharing, data use in education, and more. We describe these concepts within the
Crichton, D. J.; Braverman, A. J.; Cinquini, L.; Turmon, M.; Lee, H.; Law, E.
Data collections across remote sensing and ground-based instruments in astronomy, Earth science, and planetary science are outpacing scientists' ability to analyze them. Furthermore, the distribution, structure, and heterogeneity of the measurements themselves pose challenges that limit the scalability of data analysis using traditional approaches. Methods for developing science data processing pipelines, distribution of scientific datasets, and performing analysis will require innovative approaches that integrate cyber-infrastructure, algorithms, and data into more systematic approaches that can more efficiently compute and reduce data, particularly distributed data. This requires the integration of computer science, machine learning, statistics and domain expertise to identify scalable architectures for data analysis. The size of data returned from Earth Science observing satellites and the magnitude of data from climate model output, is predicted to grow into the tens of petabytes challenging current data analysis paradigms. This same kind of growth is present in astronomy and planetary science data. One of the major challenges in data science and related disciplines defining new approaches to scaling systems and analysis in order to increase scientific productivity and yield. Specific needs include: 1) identification of optimized system architectures for analyzing massive, distributed data sets; 2) algorithms for systematic analysis of massive data sets in distributed environments; and 3) the development of software infrastructures that are capable of performing massive, distributed data analysis across a comprehensive data science framework. NASA/JPL has begun an initiative in data science to address these challenges. Our goal is to evaluate how scientific productivity can be improved through optimized architectural topologies that identify how to deploy and manage the access, distribution, computation, and reduction of massive, distributed data, while
Full Text Available Stem cells hold promise for treating a wide variety of diseases, including degenerative disorders of the eye. The eye is an ideal organ for stem cell therapy because of its relative immunological privilege, surgical accessibility, and its being a self-contained system. The eye also has many potential target diseases amenable to stem cell-based treatment, such as corneal limbal stem cell deficiency, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD, and retinitis pigmentosa (RP. Among them, AMD and glaucoma are the two most common diseases, affecting over 200 million people worldwide. Recent results on the clinical trial of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs in treating dry AMD and Stargardt’s disease in the US, Japan, England, and China have generated great excitement and hope. This marks the beginning of the ocular stem cell therapy era. The recent Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center Ocular Stem Cell Symposium discussed the potential applications of various stem cell types in stem cell-based therapies, drug discoveries and tissue engineering for treating ocular diseases.
Aduriz-Bravo, Agustin; Izquierdo, Merce; Galagovsky, Lydia
Presents a theoretical classification of relationships between the philosophy of science and didactics of science, based on the metadiscursive nature which philosophy and didactics share. Describes five different relationships between the two disciplines: material, instrumental, explanatory, rhetorical, and metatheoretical. (Author/MM)
Palinkas, Lawrence A.; He, Amy S.; Choy-Brown, Mimi; Hertel, Amy Locklear
Recent efforts to identify and promote a distinct science for the discipline of social work have led to an ongoing debate regarding the nature and function of such a science. Central to this debate is a lack of consensus as to how to operationalize a social work science. Drawing from the field of implementation science and its application in…
Early in 1984, NASA asked the Space Science Board to undertake a study to determine the principal scientific issues that the disciplines of space science would face during the period from about 1995 to 2015...
Thomas, Jan; Muchatuta, Michelle; Wood, Leigh
This article investigates enrolment trends in mathematical sciences in Australian universities. Data has been difficult to extract and the coding for mathematical disciplines has made investigation challenging. We show that the number of mathematics major undergraduates in Australia is steadily declining though the number studying…
Bunderson, C. Victor
The need for training and retraining is a central element in current discussions about the economy of the United States. This paper is designed to introduce training practitioners to some new concepts about how measurement science can provide a new framework for assessing progress and can add new discipline to the development, implementation, and…
The Journal for Juridical Science is an accredited national professional journal which publishes original research articles in law in Afrikaans and English. Multi and interdisciplinary contributions which bridge the gap between legal scholarship and other pertinent academic disciplines, are welcomed. The Journal for Juridical ...
Animal welfare science is a relatively new scientific discipline. Originally heavily focused on animal behavior, it has emerged into a truly multi- and inter-disciplinary science, encompassing such sciences as behavior, physiology, pathology, immunology, endocrinology and neuroscience, and influence...
Stock, Wolfgang G
Dealing with information is one of the vital skills in thetwenty-first century. It takes a fair degree of information savvy to create, represent and supply information as well as to search for and retrieve relevant knowledge. This Handbook is a basic work of information science, providing a comprehensive overview of the current state of information retrieval and knowledge representation. It addresses readers from all professions and scientific disciplines, but particularly scholars, practitioners and students of Information Science, Library Science, Computer Science, Information Management, an
Milinčić, Miroljub; Souliotis, Lily; Mihajlović, Ljiljana; Požar, Tea
Geography is one of the oldest academic disciplines with a strong holistic approach in conceptualizing the interaction between nature and society, i.e. animate and inanimate parts of the environment. Over time, geography has been increasing and improving its conceptual and terminological abilities for studying and understanding complex relationships among environmental systems. For this reason, geography has advanced from a well-known science about nature and society into a relevant science a...
This lab activity uses inquiry to help students define heat. It is generic in that it can be used to introduce a plethora of science content across middle and high school grade levels and across science disciplines that include biology, Earth and space science, and physical science. Even though heat is a universal science phenomenon that is…
With new technologies developing so fast, it is difficult for students and teachers alike to keep up to date. Add into the mix skewed media reporting, some creative science fiction films and the unregulated world of the internet, and it becomes increasingly hard to separate fact from fiction. As Australia's largest funding body for stem cell…
Parents use different ways of disciplining the children in the family. The purpose of the research is to study ways, attitudes and intergenerational relations between disciplining the children in the family. One hundred and three parents appraised their ways of children disciplining, their attitudes towards the ways of disciplining, the context of experiencing, modes of implementing discipline and ways of disciplining of their mother and father when they were 10 years old. More than half of t...
Irene, Eugene A.
A thorough introduction to fundamental principles and applications From its beginnings in metallurgy and ceramics, materials science now encompasses such high- tech fields as microelectronics, polymers, biomaterials, and nanotechnology. Electronic Materials Science presents the fundamentals of the subject in a detailed fashion for a multidisciplinary audience. Offering a higher-level treatment than an undergraduate textbook provides, this text benefits students and practitioners not only in electronics and optical materials science, but also in additional cutting-edge fields like polymers and biomaterials. Readers with a basic understanding of physical chemistry or physics will appreciate the text's sophisticated presentation of today's materials science. Instructive derivations of important formulae, usually omitted in an introductory text, are included here. This feature offers a useful glimpse into the foundations of how the discipline understands such topics as defects, phase equilibria, and mechanical properties. Additionally, concepts such as reciprocal space, electron energy band theory, and thermodynamics enter the discussion earlier and in a more robust fashion than in other texts. Electronic Materials Science also features: An orientation towards industry and academia drawn from the author's experience in both arenas Information on applications in semiconductors, optoelectronics, photocells, and nanoelectronics Problem sets and important references throughout Flexibility for various pedagogical needs Treating the subject with more depth than any other introductory text, Electronic Materials Science prepares graduate and upper-level undergraduate students for advanced topics in the discipline and gives scientists in associated disciplines a clear review of the field and its leading technologies.
Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Hanson, Lars G.; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge
This contribution describes and evaluates an experimental combination of a spiral and discipline-oriented curriculum implemented in the bachelor’s and master’s program in Medicine and Technology. The implementation in the master’s program is in the form of a study line in Medical Imaging and Radi......This contribution describes and evaluates an experimental combination of a spiral and discipline-oriented curriculum implemented in the bachelor’s and master’s program in Medicine and Technology. The implementation in the master’s program is in the form of a study line in Medical Imaging...... and Radiation Physics containing three disciplines: Imaging modalities, Radiation therapy and Image processing. The two imaging courses in the bachelor’s program and the first imaging course in the master’s program follow a spiral curriculum in which most disciplines are encountered in all courses......, but in a gradually more advanced manner. The remaining courses in the master’s program follow a discipline-oriented curriculum. From a practical point of view, the spiral course portfolio works well in an undergraduate environment, where the courses involved are to be taken by all students and in the order planned...
Ribitsch, I.; Burk, J.; Delling, U.; Geißler, C.; Gittel, C.; Jülke, H.; Brehm, W.
Stem cells play an important role in veterinary medicine in different ways. Currently several stem cell therapies for animal patients are being developed and some, like the treatment of equine tendinopathies with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have already successfully entered the market. Moreover, animal models are widely used to study the properties and potential of stem cells for possible future applications in human medicine. Therefore, in the young and emerging field of stem cell research, human and veterinary medicine are intrinsically tied to one another. Many of the pioneering innovations in the field of stem cell research are achieved by cooperating teams of human and veterinary medical scientists.
Salter, Brian; Salter, Charlotte
Scientific progress in the life sciences is dependent on the governance of tensions between the economic potential of the innovation and the cultural response from society. Ownership of the scientific innovation through patenting is a necessary part of the realization of its economic value yet, in the case of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) science, ownership of the human body and human life may offend fundamental cultural values. In the case of transnational patenting governance by the European Patent Office (EPO) and the European Union (EU), cross-national cultural conflict in the field of hESC science has produced a political demand for a form of governance that can incorporate ethical as well as economic judgements in its decision making. This paper explores how bioethics has responded to this opportunity to establish itself as a form of expert authority for the negotiation and resolution of the cultural conflict. In so doing, it shows how the political struggle that has accompanied this bid for new governance territory has been influenced both by the political tensions between the EPO and EU systems of patenting governance and the resistance of competing experts in law and science to a bioethical presence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tipton, Charles M
departments were changing their titles to reflect a stronger science orientation, many established laboratories and offered degree programs devoted to Applied Physiology. We concluded that Applied Physiology has been an important contributor to the discipline of physiology while becoming an integral component of APS. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
Sawyer, D. M.; Reich, L. I.; Nikhinson, S.
This paper analyzes the similarity and differences among several examples of an emerging generation of Scientific Data Formats that are based on XML technologies. Some of the factors evaluated include the goals of these efforts, the data models, and XML technologies used, and the maturity of currently available software. This paper then investigates the practicality of developing a single set of structural data objects and basic scientific concepts, such as units, that could be used across discipline boundaries and extended by disciplines and missions to create Scientific Data Formats for their communities. This analysis is partly based on an effort sponsored by the ESDIS office at GSFC to compare the Earth Science Markup Language (ESML) and the eXtensible Data Format( XDF), two members of this new generation of XML based Data Description Languages that have been developed by NASA funded efforts in recent years. This paper adds FITSML and potentially CDFML to the list of XML based Scientific Data Formats discussed. This paper draws heavily a Formats Evolution Process Committee (http://ssdoo.gsfc.nasa.gov/nost/fep/) draft white paper primarily developed by Lou Reich, Mike Folk and Don Sawyer to assist the Space Science community in understanding Scientific Data Formats. One of primary conclusions of that paper is that a scientific data format object model should be examined along two basic axes. The first is the complexity of the computer/mathematical data types supported and the second is the level of scientific domain specialization incorporated. This paper also discusses several of the issues that affect the decision on whether to implement a discipline or project specific Scientific Data Format as a formal extension of a general purpose Scientific Data Format or to implement the APIs independently.
, PCR and RT-PCR. A variety of teaching methods like lectures by eminent ... knowledge to boost their confidence in handling modern instruments used in the discipline of life sciences and modern biotechnology. Skills gained during this ...
Full Text Available Introduction: The nurse according to the Supreme Chamber of Nurses and Midwives is a person able to recognize the health condition of an individual or group and can create a care plan and realize it. The nurse should be primarily autonomous in making decisions about nursing care and organizing nursing care. Each competent nurse can make a proper assessment of a given situation, makes decisions efficiently and is able to quickly select the right methods of conduct. The awareness that science is always the foundation of practice is extremely important. This is how the profession of a nurse was shaped over the years. These scientific achievements greatly influence the increase of the professional nurse's prestige. Objective: The aim of the work is to gain knowledge about the perception of nursing, as a scientific discipline and nurses, by students of the nursing field. Material and methods: The study covered 100 people who are students of nursing, finishing the three-year education period. The selection of respondents was random. The study group consisted of 100% women aged 20-35, living in urban areas (51% and rural (49%. The research method used in the work is a diagnostic survey. The research tool used is a self-help questionnaire. Results: Nursing understood 16% of respondents as a profession, 3% considered them as a scientific discipline, 1% as a learning system. The vast majority of respondents (92% stated that nursing is both theoretical and practical science. The nurses' forms of activity, which contribute to the development of nursing, 73% of them reported upgrading professional qualifications, 7% writing scientific papers, 2% participation in scientific research, 1% participation in the preparation of apprentices to the profession and 1% activity in organizations unions. The most important features that should be possessed by a good nurse include: diligence and accuracy of performed procedures (25%, possessing rich knowledge in the field
Engel, Andreas; Miles, Mervyn
The atomic force microscope (AFM) and related scanning probe microscopes have become resourceful tools to study cells, supramolecular assemblies and single biomolecules, because they allow investigations of such structures in native environments. Quantitative information has been gathered about the surface structure of membrane proteins to lateral and vertical resolutions of 0.5 nm and 0.1 nm, respectively, about the forces that keep protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid assemblies together as well as single proteins in their native conformation, and about the nanomechanical properties of cells in health and disease. Such progress has been achieved mainly because of constant development of AFM instrumentation and sample preparation methods. This special issue of Nanotechnology presents papers from leading laboratories in the field of nanobiology, covering a wide range of topics in the form of original and novel scientific contributions. It addresses achievements in instrumentation, sample preparation, automation and in biological applications. These papers document the creativity and persistence of researchers pursuing the goal to unravel the structure and dynamics of cells, supramolecuar structures and single biomolecules at work. Improved cantilever sensors, novel optical probes, and quantitative data on supports for electrochemical experiments open new avenues for characterizing biological nanomachines down to the single molecule. Comparative measurements of healthy and metastatic cells promise new methods for early detection of tumors, and possible assessments of drug efficacy. High-speed AFMs document possibilities to monitor crystal growth and to observe large structures at video rate. A wealth of information on amyloid-type fibers as well as on membrane proteins has been gathered by single molecule force spectroscopy—a technology now being automated for large-scale data collection. With the progress of basic research and a strong industry supporting
de Chadarevian, Soraya
Monod gained stature as an experimentalist and theorist as well as a discipline builder. The essay reviews the intimate connection of the intellectual and institutional projects in his career. A brief comparison with the development of the new science of molecular biology across the English Channel highlights the commonalities and specificities of the disciplinary projects in France and Britain and the role that individuals like Monod played in their formation. The article argues that there was not a single path that led to the rise of molecular biology. Rather individual initiatives and historical contingencies very much shaped local outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Science is a systemized from of knowledge which is a product of human creativity. The aim of this study is to try to explain the nature of the concept of science, and to evaluate librarianship and information science as a scientific discipline in accordance with the synthesis achieved; and invite colleagues to consider this issue.
Wilson, Zakiya S.; Holmes, Lakenya; Degravelles, Karin; Sylvain, Monica R.; Batiste, Lisa; Johnson, Misty; McGuire, Saundra Y.; Pang, Su Seng; Warner, Isiah M.
In the United States, less than half of the students who enter into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) undergraduate curricula as freshmen will actually graduate with a STEM degree. There is even greater disparity in the national STEM graduation rates of students from underrepresented groups with approximately three-fourths of minority students leaving STEM disciplines at the undergraduate level. A host of programs have been designed and implemented to model best practices in retaining students in STEM disciplines. The Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) Professors Program at Louisiana State University, under leadership of HHMI Professor Isiah M. Warner, represents one of these programs and reports on a mentoring model that addresses the key factors that impact STEM student attrition at the undergraduate level. By integrating mentoring and strategic academic interventions into a structured research program, an innovative model has been developed to guide STEM undergraduate majors in adopting the metacognitive strategies that allow them to excel in their programs of study, as they learn to appreciate and understand science more completely. Comparisons of the persistence of participants and nonparticipants in STEM curricular, at the host university and with other national universities and colleges, show the impact of the model's salient features on improving STEM retention through graduation for all students, particularly those from underrepresented groups.
Brijnath, Bianca; Manderson, Lenore
In India, care work for people in late-stage dementia is primarily conducted in the home. Using source material from urban India and drawing on Foucauldian theory, we illustrate the significance of three power/knowledge scripts in this context: social and cultural notions of acceptable, public bodies; medicalized forms of care; and the cultural contexts of the individual caregivers. The caregiver is the embodiment of these discourses and is charged with the task of mapping discipline onto inherently undisciplinable bodies. A tension exists between the caregiver's struggle to contain the unruliness of the person with dementia and, simultaneously, to act as a broker between the world of the care-recipient and the social world. We conclude that although the caregiver is the starting point for the exercise of discipline, the three power/knowledge scripts that inform care work are as much about surveying, routinizing and mobilizing caregivers' bodies as they are about disciplining the bodies of people with dementia.
Eiser, C; Eiser, J R; Town, C; Tripp, J H
Parents of 37 children with asthma (aged between three and five years) and of 37 healthy controls were interviewed about their involvement in everyday care, discipline practices, perceptions of their child and situations which were particularly stressful. There was little correlation between mothers' and fathers' preferences for different discipline practices. There was, however, greater agreement in their perceptions. Parents of children with asthma did not differ from those of healthy controls in discipline practices. However, children with asthma were perceived to be generally less healthy. Parents of those with asthma also reported a greater number of everyday situations to be stressful. These data do not support traditional assumptions that parents of children with asthma are more permissive or overindulgent. At least in this preschool sample, there was only limited indication of adverse effects of chronic disease on parenting practices.
Elda de Waal
Full Text Available Educators, learners and parents/caregivers should be held accountable for instilling learner discipline through clear guidelines and limitations to achieve security at public schools. Two previously identified education challenges are sustaining well-disciplined education systems and ensuring that educators are attentive to legal parameters in making decisions and dealing with discipline. This article adds a third challenge: convincing educators, learners and parents/caregivers of their accountability concerning creating/maintaining safe learning environments. Five subordinate legislation documents relevant to legal accountability are scrutinized, as well as relevant case law. The article follows a documentary comparative perspective using a secondary analysis method: appraising legal guidelines and asking questions to draw conclusions and make pragmatic action-oriented suggestions.
Strombach, T; Strang, S; Park, S Q; Kenning, P
Over the last couple of decades, a body of theories has emerged that explains when and why people are motivated to act. Multiple disciplines have investigated the origins and consequences of motivated behavior, and have done so largely in parallel. Only recently have different disciplines, like psychology and economics, begun to consolidate their knowledge, attempting to integrate findings. The following chapter presents and discusses the most prominent approaches to motivation in the disciplines of biology, psychology, and economics. Particularly, we describe the specific role of incentives, both monetary and alternative, in various motivational theories. Though monetary incentives are pivotal in traditional economic theory, biological and psychological theories ascribe less significance to monetary incentives and suggest alternative drivers for motivation. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Warhuus, Jan P.; Blenker, Per
of courses and curricula. At the core of this framework is a taxonomy for discipline-specific entrepreneurship education content and learning goals—different educations have varying inherent strengths and weakness vis-à-vis entrepreneurship, and thus have different pathways and barriers to develop......Entrepreneurship education (E-Ed) is maturing—from debate about whether or not it can be done, to how it should be done (Katz, 2003; Kuratko, 2005); from business schools teaching start-ups through a business plan format, toward converging upon a broader attitudechanging framework (Mwasalwiba, 2010......, and the need for a tailored, discipline-specific approach to E-Ed is becoming rapidly apparent. As a first step toward differentiating E-Ed across disciplines, we propose the establishment of an E-Ed framework that can guide and align stakeholders, program designers, and educators in the construction...
Kutner, Jean S; Westfall, John M; Morrison, Elizabeth H; Beach, Mary Catherine; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Rosenblatt, Roger A
To meet its population's health needs, the United States must have a coherent system to train and support primary care physicians. This goal can be achieved only though genuine collaboration between academic generalist disciplines. Academic general pediatrics, general internal medicine, and family medicine may be hampering this effort and their own futures by lack of collaboration. This essay addresses the necessity of collaboration among generalist physicians in research, medical education, clinical care, and advocacy. Academic generalists should collaborate by (1) making a clear decision to collaborate, (2) proactively discussing the flow of money, (3) rewarding collaboration, (4) initiating regular generalist meetings, (5) refusing to tolerate denigration of other generalist disciplines, (6) facilitating strategic planning for collaboration among generalist disciplines, and (7) learning from previous collaborative successes and failures. Collaboration among academic generalists will enhance opportunities for trainees, primary care research, and advocacy; conserve resources; and improve patient care.
Kenyon, Jeremy; Sprague, Nancy R.
Our research examined the use of supplementary materials in six environmental science disciplines: atmospheric sciences, biology, fisheries, forestry, geology, and plant sciences. Ten key journals were selected from each of these disciplines and the number of supplementary materials, such as data files or videos, in each issue was noted over a…
Full Text Available Purpose: All European companies are faced with the lack of payment discipline, which often affects even their survival. One of the key reasons for the lack of payment discipline is poor business ethics, which is primarily introduced with the subject of ethical climate in the literature. For this reason, we wanted to determine whether a company's ethical climate influences its payment discipline.Design/methodology/approach: In the research, we used Arnaud's measurement instrument (2010 that helped us to identify six dimensions of ethical climate. The data about a company’s ethical climate were later compared with the data about its payment discipline, calculated using the Dun & Bradstreet rating agency methodology. We included in the sample 273 Slovenian companies, which represented 9.1% of all companies invited to take part in the survey (2978 Slovenian enterprises with 10 or more employees.Findings: We established that (among the six dimensions of the ethical climate the dimension “moral sensitivity – the lack of norms of empathetic concern” had statistically significant influence on the average delay of payment, and the more significant for the company the lack of norms of empathetic concern was, the longer the delay of the payment to suppliers would be. Our conclusion is that the appropriate forms of the incorporation of training and education on ethical subjects into business studies may increase the payment discipline of companies.Originality/value: The present study represents an important contribution to understanding the causes of payment defaults. The study also includes non-financial antecedents of payment discipline, which represents a new, important contribution of the research.
Salamon, T.; Mesko, M.
Purpose: All European companies are faced with the lack of payment discipline, which often affects even their survival. One of the key reasons for the lack of payment discipline is poor business ethics, which is primarily introduced with the subject of ethical climate in the literature. For this reason, we wanted to determine whether a company’s ethical climate influences its payment discipline. Design/methodology/approach: In the research, we used Arnaud’s measurement instrument (2010) that helped us to identify six dimensions of ethical climate. The data about a company’s ethical climate were later compared with the data about its payment discipline, calculated using the Dun & Bradstreet rating agency methodology. We included in the sample 273 Slovenian companies, which represented 9.1% of all companies invited to take part in the survey (2978 Slovenian enterprises with 10 or more employees). Findings: We established that (among the six dimensions of the ethical climate) the dimension “moral sensitivity – the lack of norms of empathetic concern” had statistically significant influence on the average delay of payment, and the more significant for the company the lack of norms of empathetic concern was, the longer the delay of the payment to suppliers would be. Our conclusion is that the appropriate forms of the incorporation of training and education on ethical subjects into business studies may increase the payment discipline of companies. Originality/value: The present study represents an important contribution to understanding the causes of payment defaults. The study also includes non-financial antecedents of payment discipline, which represents a new, important contribution of the research. (Author)
Full Text Available The article is devoted to interdisciplinary communication in the process of preparation of the future programmers and implementation of the basic principles of these relations in the study of disciplines of professional and practical training and math courses. The article deals with the role of interdisciplinary connections, as well as their function and significance for the formation of cognitive activity, independence and positive learning motivation. The focus is on methodological aspects of realization of interdisciplinary communications at studying basic disciplines of training future programmers and disciplines of mathematical cycle. In particular, the issues of realization of interdisciplinary communications during the study such disciplines as "Computer graphics, computational geometry," "Basics of algorithms and programming", "Programming Technologies" and the course "Analytical geometry and linear algebra", which included in to normative part of the training of programmers. This article describes the theoretical aspects of the implementation of interdisciplinary connections in the study of these disciplines, as well as examples of practical tasks with which these relationships can be implemented most effectively during training
The Materials Science Program is structured so that NASA s headquarters is responsible for the program content and selection, through the Enterprise Scientist, and MSFC provides for implementation of ground and flight programs with a Discipline Scientist and Discipline Manager. The Discipline Working Group of eminent scientists from outside of NASA acts in an advisory capacity and writes the Discipline Document from which the NRA content is derived. The program is reviewed approximately every three years by groups such as the Committee on Microgravity Research, the National Materials Advisory Board, and the OBPR Maximization and Prioritization (ReMaP) Task Force. The flight program has had as many as twenty-six principal investigators (PIs) in flight or flight definition stage, with the numbers of PIs in the future dependent on the results of the ReMaP Task Force and internal reviews. Each project has a NASA-appointed Project Scientist, considered a half-time job, who assists the PI in understanding and preparing for internal reviews such as the Science Concept Review and Requirements Definition Review. The Project Scientist also insures that the PI gets the maximum science support from MSFC, represents the PI to the MSFC community, and collaborates with the Project Manager to insure the project is well-supported and remains vital. Currently available flight equipment includes the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) and Microgravity Science Glovebox. Ground based projects fall into one or more of several categories. Intellectual Underpinning of Flight Program projects include theoretical studies backed by modeling and computer simulations; bring to maturity new research, often by young researchers, and may include preliminary short duration low gravity experiments in the KC-135 aircraft or drop tube; enable characterization of data sets from previous flights; and provide thermophysical property determinations to aid PIs. Radiation Shielding and preliminary In
Robinson, Lyn; Karamuftuoglu, Murat
Introduction: This paper considers the nature of information science as a discipline and profession. Method: It is based on conceptual analysis of the information science literature, and consideration of philosophical perspectives, particularly those of Kuhn and Peirce. Results: It is argued that information science may be understood as a field of…
Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Harrison, Lisa
In this review article, we examined the prevalence and characteristics of 294 mixed-methods studies in the discipline of nursing. Creswell and Plano Clark's typology was most frequently used along with concurrent timing. Bivariate statistics was most often the highest level of statistics reported in the results. As for qualitative data analysis, content analysis was most frequently used. The majority of nurse researchers did not specifically address the purpose, paradigm, typology, priority, timing, interaction, or integration of their mixed-methods studies. Strategies are suggested for improving the design, conduct, and reporting of mixed-methods studies in the discipline of nursing.
Full Text Available The study attempts to elaborate critically the construction of accounting discipline that is based on Islamic values, especially in the aspects of ontology and epistemology. The analysis of the study begins with discussing a debate of modernism and postmodernism. Under this discussion, it is argued that modern knowledge (for example, accounting which is constructed based on modern methodology has philosophical weaknesses and is now attacked by postmodernism. The discussion of post modernism leads us to Islamic perspective of knowledge that is the future orientation of how Shari'ate (Islamic accounting discipline should be constructed.
Møller, Marie Østergaard; Stone, Deborah
This article explores how caseworkers are re-constructing disability in the Danish welfare system and disciplining themselves and clients according to the active labour policy paradigm. Combining Foucault’s ideas about discipline with Maynard-Moody and Musheno’s method of interpreting street...... administer social welfare and sick leave benefits based on disability as the primary eligibility criterion. We selected stories told by caseworkers that exemplify archetypes of good and bad citizens, good and bad clients, and good and bad caseworkers. Through interpretative analysis, we elucidate how...
Amos, Peter J; Cagavi Bozkulak, Esra; Qyang, Yibing
Research in cell biology and the development of translational technologies are driven by competition, public expectations, and regulatory oversight, putting these fields at a critical juncture. Success in these fields is quickly becoming dependent on the ability of researchers to identify and isolate specific cell populations from heterogeneous mixtures accurately and efficiently. Many methods for cell purification have been developed, and each has advantages and disadvantages that must be considered in light of the intended application. Current cell separation strategies make use of surface proteins, genetic expression, and physics to isolate specific cells by phenotypic traits. Cell purification is also dependent on the cellular reagents available for use and the intended application, as these factors may preclude certain mechanisms used in the processes of labeling and sorting cells. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Stolten, Detlef; Emonts, Bernd (eds.) [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (DE). Inst. fuer Energieforschung (IEF), Brennstoffzellen (IEF-3)
The first volume is divided in four parts and 22 chapters. It is structured as follows: PART I: Technology. Chapter 1: Technical Advancement of Fuel-Cell Research and Development (Dr. Bernd Emonts, Ludger Blum, Thomas Grube, Werner Lehnert, Juergen Mergel, Martin Mueller and Ralf Peters); 2: Single-Chamber Fuel Cells (Teko W. Napporn and Melanie Kuhn); 3: Technology and Applications of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (Barbara Bosio, Elisabetta Arato and Paolo Greppi); 4: Alkaline Fuel Cells (Erich Guelzow); 5: Micro Fuel Cells (Ulf Groos and Dietmar Gerteisen); 6: Principles and Technology of Microbial Fuel Cells (Jan B. A. Arends, Joachim Desloover, Sebastia Puig and Willy Verstraete); 7: Micro-Reactors for Fuel Processing (Gunther Kolb); 8: Regenerative Fuel Cells (Martin Mueller). PART II: Materials and Production Processes. Chapter 9: Advances in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development between 1995 and 2010 at Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Germany (Vincent Haanappel); 10: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode Fabrication by Infiltration (Evren Gunen); 11: Sealing Technology for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (K. Scott Weil); 12: Phosphoric Acid, an Electrolyte for Fuel Cells - Temperature and Composition Dependence of Vapor Pressure and Proton Conductivity (Carsten Korte); 13: Materials and Coatings for Metallic Bipolar Plates in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (Heli Wang and John A. Turner); 14: Nanostructured Materials for Fuel Cells (John F. Elter); 15: Catalysis in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells - An Overview (Sabine Schimpf and Michael Bron). PART III: Analytics and Diagnostics. Chapter 16: Impedance Spectroscopy for High-Temperature Fuel Cells (Ellen Ivers-Tiffee, Andre Leonide, Helge Schichlein, Volker Sonn and Andre Weber); 17: Post-Test Characterization of Solid Oxide Fuel-Cell Stacks (Norbert H. Menzler and Peter Batfalsky); 18: In Situ Imaging at Large-Scale Facilities (Christian Toetzke, Ingo Manke and Werner Lehnert); 19: Analytics of Physical Properties of Low
Day, L. (ed.)
This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)
This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs
Stolten, Detlef; Emonts, Bernd (eds.) [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (DE). Inst. fuer Energieforschung (IEF), Brennstoffzellen (IEF-3)
The second volume is divided in four parts and 19 chapters. It is structured as follows: PART V: Modeling and Simulation. Chapter 23: Messages from Analytical Modeling of Fuel Cells (Andrei Kulikovsky); 24: Stochastic Modeling of Fuel-Cell Components (Ralf Thiedmann, Gerd Gaiselmann, Werner Lehnert and Volker Schmidt); 25: Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation Using Supercomputer Calculation Capacity (Ralf Peters and Florian Scharf); 26 Modeling Solid Oxide Fuel Cells from the Macroscale to the Nanoscale (Emily M. Ryan and Mohammad A. Khaleel); 27: Numerical Modeling of the Thermomechanically Induced Stress in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (Murat Peksen); 28: Modeling of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (Peter Heidebrecht, Silvia Piewek and Kai Sundmacher); Chapter 29: High-Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel-Cell Modeling (Uwe Reimer); Chapter 30: Modeling of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel-Cell Components (Yun Wang and Ken S. Chen); 31: Modeling of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells and Stacks (Yun Wang and Ken S. Chen). PART VI: Balance of Plant Design and Components. Chapter 32: Principles of Systems Engineering (Ludger Blum, Ralf Peters and Remzi Can Samsun); 33: System Technology for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (Nguyen Q. Minh); 34: Desulfurization for Fuel-Cell Systems (Joachim Pasel and Ralf Peters); 35: Design Criteria and Components for Fuel Cell Powertrains (Lutz Eckstein and Bruno Gnoerich); 36: Hybridization for Fuel Cells (Joerg Wilhelm). PART VII: Systems Verification and Market Introduction. Chapter 37: Off-Grid Power Supply and Premium Power Generation (Kerry-Ann Adamson); 38: Demonstration Projects and Market Introduction (Kristin Deason). PART VIII: Knowledge Distribution and Public Awareness. Chapter 39: A Sustainable Framework for International Collaboration: the IEA HIA and Its Strategic Plan for 2009-2015 (Mary-Rose de Valladares); 40: Overview of Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Organizations and Initiatives Worldwide (Bernd Emonts) 41: Contributions for
Full Text Available Objective – To test whether routinely-generated library usage data could be linked with information about students to understand patterns of library use among students from different disciplines at the University of Huddersfield. This information is important for librarians seeking to demonstrate the value of the library, and to ensure that they are providing services which meet user needs. The study seeks to join two strands of library user research which until now have been kept rather separate – an interest in disciplinary differences in usage, and a methodology which involves large-scale routinely-generated data. Methods – The study uses anonymized data about individual students derived from two sources: routinely-generated data on various dimensions of physical and electronic library resource usage, and information from the student registry on the course studied by each student. Courses were aggregated at a subject and then disciplinary level. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney tests were used to identify statistically significant differences between the high-level disciplinary groups, and within each disciplinary group at the subject level. Results – The study identifies a number of statistically significant differences on various dimensions of usage between both high-level disciplinary groupings and lower subject-level groupings. In some cases, differences are not the same as those observed in earlier studies, reflecting distinctive usage patterns and differences in the way that disciplines or subjects are defined and organised. While music students at Huddersfield are heavy library users within the arts subject-level grouping arts students use library resources less than those in social science disciplines, contradicting findings from studies at other institutions, Computing and engineering students were relatively similar, although computing students were more likely to download PDFs, and engineering students were more likely to
Maienschein, Jane; Laubichler, Manfred; Loettgers, Andrea
History of science has developed into a methodologically diverse discipline, adding greatly to our understanding of the interplay between science, society, and culture. Along the way, one original impetus for the then newly emerging discipline--what George Sarton called the perspective "from the point of view of the scientist"--dropped out of fashion. This essay shows, by means of several examples, that reclaiming this interaction between science and history of science yields interesting perspectives and new insights for both science and history of science. The authors consequently suggest that historians of science also adopt this perspective as part of their methodological repertoire.
Knorr Cetina, K.
Laboratories have advantages One of these is that a laboratory science does not have to put up with its objects of investigation as they occur in nature. First, it does not need to accommodate a natural object where it is, anchored in a natural environment; laboratory sciences bring objects inside and manipulate them on their own terms in the lab. Second, a laboratory science need not accommodate an event when it happens; it can dispense with natural cycles of occurrence and make events happen frequently enough for continuous study. Third, a laboratory science does not have to put up with an object as it is; it can substitute transformed and partial versions. Dissociating natural objects from their environment and re-configuring them in the lab is not simple, but it has epistemic advantages when it can be accomplished. For example, the objects of interest tend to become miniaturized (cell cultures rather than whole plants, image measurements rather than cosmological objects), they tend to become continually available in laboratories world-wide for inquiry, and planetary and stellar time scales are replaced by the time scales of the social order. Laboratories also impose conditions, for example sharp boundaries between the internal and the external world. Most laboratories in the natural sciences have procedures (and walls) to fend off unwanted transgressions of objects from the natural and human environment which they see as potential contaminants. A wild-type mouse in a molecular biology lab is not, for example, an animal caught in the wild. It is a special mouse strain inbred over many generations in breeding labs to serve as a control in relevant experiments. Animals that live in the wild (or in the buildings where labs are located) are strictly prohibited from entering a lab facility as potential disease carriers and pollutants. Laboratories, then, are not only specialized places, they are places that set up barriers against the environment and attempt to raise
This article outlines the history of library and information science (LIS), from its roots in library science, information science and documentation. It considers various conceptions or “paradigms” in the field and discusses the topical content of LIS as well as the relationships between LIS and other disciplines. The main argument of the article is that answers to all such questions concerning LIS are related to conceptions of LIS. It is argued that an updated version of social epistemology ...
Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI remains one of the most physically, psychologically and socially debilitating conditions worldwide. While rehabilitation measures may help limit disability to some extent, there is no effective primary treatment yet available. The efficacy of stem cells as a primary therapeutic option in spinal cord injury is currently an area under much scrutiny and debate. Several laboratory and some primary clinical studies into the use of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells or embryonic stem cell-derived oligodentrocyte precursor cells have shown some promising results in terms of remyelination and regeneration of damaged spinal nerve tracts. More recently,laboratory and early clinical experiments into the use of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells, a type of glial cell derived from olfactory bulb and mucosa have provided some phenomenal preliminary evidence as to their neuroregenerative and neural bridging capacity. This report compares and evaluates some current research into selected forms of embryonic and mesenchymal stem cell therapy as well as olfactory ensheathing cell therapy in SCI, and also highlights some legal and ethical issues surrounding their use. While early results shows promise, more rigorous large scaleclinical trials are needed to shed light on the safety, efficacy and long term viability of stem cell and cellular transplant techniques in SCI.
Liberatore, P.M.; Boillot, M. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique de Nancy, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Bonnet, C.; Didieerjean, S.; Lapicque, F.; Deseure, J.; Lottin, O.; Maillet, D.; Oseen-Senda, J. [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee, 54 - Vandoeuvre Les Nancy (France); Alexandre, A. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques, ENSMA, 86 Poitiers (France); Topin, F.; Occelli, R.; Daurelle, J.V. [IUSTI / Polytech' Marseille, Institut universitaire des Systemes Thermiques Industriels Ecole, 13 - Marseille (France); Pauchet, J.; Feidt, M. [CEA Grenoble, Groupement pour la recherche sur les echangeurs thermiques (Greth), 38 (France); Voarino, C. [CEA Centre d' Etudes du Ripault, 37 - Tours (France); Morel, B.; Laurentin, J.; Bultel, Y.; Lefebvre-Joud, F. [CEA Grenoble, LEPMI, 38 (France); Auvity, B.; Lasbet, Y.; Castelain, C.; Peerohossaini, H. [Ecole Centrale de Nantes, Laboratoire de Thermocinetique de Nantes (LTN), 44 - Nantes (France)
In this work are gathered the transparencies of the lectures presented at the conference 'heat science and transport phenomena in fuel cells'. The different lectures have dealt with 1)the gas distribution in the bipolar plates of a fuel cell: experimental studies and computerized simulations 2)two-phase heat distributors in the PEMFC 3)a numerical study of the flow properties of the backing layers on the transfers in a PEMFC 4)modelling of the heat and mass transfers in a PEMFC 5)two-phase cooling of the PEMFC with pentane 6)stationary thermodynamic model of the SOFC in the GECOPAC system 7)modelling of the internal reforming at the anode of the SOFC 8)towards a new thermal design of the PEMFC bipolar plates. (O.M.)
This study proposes to expand the scope of oral communication across the curriculum research by exploring oral genres in a dietetics curriculum from the perspective of the dietetics faculty. The goals of this qualitative study, couched within the communication in the disciplines framework, are to identify the oral genres integral to the study and…
Cappello, Marva; Lafferty, Karen E.
Teachers can capitalize on the overwhelmingly visual nature of contemporary society for learning and teaching through integrating photography in their classroom instruction. In offering an alternative pathway for acquiring and expressing knowledge, photography has the potential to strengthen instruction across disciplines by drawing on multiple…
Such courses include laxity in home control and parental supervision, school, teacher and societal factors as well as government influence. The paper recommended among others such strategies as enculturation, acculturation as well as acquisition of a certain number of generic skills for dealing with discipline and ethical ...
Full Text Available Economics as a discipline is currently in disarray. In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, academic experts, students, commentators, practitioners and politicians all questioned the status of academic economics and many called for a ‘new economic thinking’. Nearly a decade later, however, there is little evidence of a transformation in research and teaching. The present study first clarifies what is meant by a transformation of economics as a discipline, since this remains an ill-defined term and may be interpreted in very different ways. It then establishes the conditions of a successful transformation of the discipline in terms of intra-disciplinary and extra-disciplinary factors. The paper argues that economics as a discipline cannot be expected to trigger this transformation by itself (i.e. via self-regulation, since the ‘market for economic ideas’ is prone to market failure. In addition, the influence of external factors and actors on the market may serve to distort the congruence between the individual researcher’s utility and societal welfare. External incentives are therefore required to establish constitutional guardrails that ensure fair competition between ideas.
Streva, Michael A.
Historically, the chosen method of discipline in United States schools has gone from corporal punishment to an emphasis on suspension. Recently, as principals have become less certain about the extent of their authority to suspend students, many inschool programs have been developed as alternatives to suspension. Among the advantages of such…
Larzelere, Robert E.; Schneider, William N.; Larson, David B.; Pike, Patricia L.
Compares the effectiveness of maternal punishment (time out, spanking), reasoning, and a combination of the two. Results based on mothers' (N=40) structured diaries of toddler fighting and disobedience indicate that mild punishment, combined with reasoning, is an effective discipline response to toddler misbehavior in terms of recurrence of…
I shall draw from the philosophy of Ubuntu and the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault. I shall tease out how the elderly perceive wife battering as love, discipline and punishment. Data used in this paper shall be drawn from structured interviews and focus groups that were conducted in 2015 under the auspices of ...
Chernega, Jennifer Nargang; Osgood, Aurea K.
This commentary describes a two-week domestic travel study course for undergraduate sociology students designed to introduce students to the practice of social research and to the larger discipline of sociology. We arranged activities, presentations, and experiences in Chicago and Washington, DC. In this article, we outline the relevant parts of…
Dyment, Janet E.; Potter, Tom G.
Outdoor education is often undervalued. As such, we believe there is merit in critiquing the field and focusing more attention on its value and importance. This paper seeks to offer a critical exploration of "if" and "how" outdoor education is a discipline. The paper begins with a brief overview of the literature that seeks to…
Martin, Peter; McCullagh, John
The Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (ACHPER) includes Outdoor Education (OE) as a component of Physical Education (PE). Yet Outdoor Education is clearly thought of by many as a discrete discipline separate from Physical Education. Outdoor Education has a body of knowledge that differs from that of Physical…
Clarke, Charlotte L; Reed, Jan; Wainwright, David; McClelland, Siobhan; Swallow, Veronica; Harden, Jane; Walton, Graham; Walsh, Anna
In response to calls to improve the efficacy of health care services, there is an increasing focus on the processes of achieving a continuous improvement of services and practices. One specific response is that of the NHS Modernization Agency and National Health Service University in relation to the Discipline of Improvement in Health and Social Care. This paper draws on a study that explored the underpinning knowledge base of the Discipline of Improvement and focuses on describing the framework that was developed. The two-dimensional framework is composed of five primary categories, which cross-link to 11 competencies. The study concludes that the Discipline of Improvement draws together a group of ideas that together cohere to form a distinctive model to aid the improvement of health care. While some of these ideas are well-established, the way in which the Discipline of Improvement makes connections between them offers something new to our understanding of change in the complex world of health care provision, and to nursing management.
Capaldi, Deborah M.; Pears, Katherine C.; Kerr, David C. R.; Owen, Lee D.
Recent studies have found significant but relatively modest associations in parenting across generations, suggesting additional influences on parenting beyond experiences in the family of origin. The present prospective, cross-generational study of at-risk men (Oregon Youth Study) focuses on fathers' negative discipline practices with their 2- to…
Queues are virtually unavoidable phenomenon in Nigerian banking system. While banks stride to meet customers services' satisfaction, customers who do not go immediately into service must wait in line (if any). The queuing discipline in banks has been first-come-first-served (FCFS). What happen to the waiting time ...
Departing from a socio-constructivist perspective, the main purpose of the research on which this article reports was to indicate the effectiveness of both discipline-specific and generic approaches in teaching academic writing to undergraduate university students. A quasi-experimental design was followed, comparing the ...
Maurer, Trent W.; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini; Sturges, Diana
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations of undergraduate students enrolled in human anatomy and physiology, physics, and nutrition courses were explored with course discipline-specific adapted versions of the Academic Motivation Scale. Information on students' study habits and efforts, and final course grades were also collected. Results revealed the…
Hausman, Jerome J.
Notes that during times of stress and perceived imbalance there is a tendency to "get hold of things" and return to a state of stability and lower levels of ambiguity. Reviews the thinking behind the discipline-based art education movement and identifies alternative perspectives. (JDH)
understand the form of English as a discipline in particular and of the arts in general. uEnvironmental ... THE ARTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION. In South Africa there is an .... should give the child the skills to make sound qualitative ...
Diana Baumrind's typology of parenting is based on a two-factor model of "control" and "warmth". Her recommended discipline style, labeled "authoritative parenting", was constructed by taking high scores on these two factors. A problem with authoritative parenting is that it does not allow for flexible and differentiated responses to discipline…
Joubert, Rika; de Waal, Elda; Rossouw, JP
Complying with the founding values (human dignity, equality and freedom) of the South African Constitution is one of the most important challenges of creating and maintaining a safe, disciplined environment where effective teaching and learning can take place. All school principals, educators and school governing bodies--bearing in mind the…
Passman, Richard H.; Tomlin, Angela M.
Research has not investigated ways in which grandparents indirectly influence grandchildren through interactions with the parents. This study was conducted to investigate factors affecting mothers' willingness to accept suggestions from their own mothers about disciplining their child. The study also examined whether mothers' disciplinary actions…
Ogletree, Earl J.; Rodriquez, Margarita
Surveys the attitudes of Mexican parents toward school discipline of primary-level children in terms of the following questions: 1) will parents accept the use of corporal punishment in schools?, 2) what form of disciplinary measure will they accept or recommend?, 3) if parents accept corporal punishment, who will be the school disciplinarian, and…
Managing classroom behaviour remains a challenge for teachers, especially in large classes as in most Nigerian schools. Because teachers have different personalities, their approach to classroom discipline varies, requiring identification of contributory factors. The study's purpose was to examine disciplinary methods ...
LeClair, Debbie Thorne; Clark, Robert; Ferrell, Linda; Joseph, Gilbert; Leclair, Daniel
Examines international ethics issues and perspectives from the vantage points of five disciplines in business education: economics, management, finance, accounting, and marketing. Finds an underlying theme of management awareness, accountability, and control of ethical decision-making. Suggests some ethics-related curriculum projects. (DB)
Reyes, Augustina H.
Fifty years after "Brown v Board of Education" inequalities in public education are evident in the disproportionate numbers of Black and Latino students who are held back, often do not graduate from high school, or are removed from school by unforgiving zero tolerance discipline policies. The National Center for Educational Statistics…
This research examined self-archiving practices by four disciplines in seven institutional repositories. By checking each individual item for its metadata and deposition status, the research found that a disciplinary culture is not obviously presented. Rather, self-archiving is regulated by a liaison system and a mandate policy.
This study examines the research productivity of Hong Kong academics. Specifically, it explores the individual and institutional factors that contribute to their productivity while also comparing determinants across academic disciplines. We have conducted OLS regression analysis using the international survey data from "The Changing Academics…
Oude Luttikhuis, Ellen; de Lange, Jos; Lutters, Diederick; ten Klooster, Roland
Today's product development is fragmented across various disciplines all with their own fields of expertise. Maintaining overview in consequences and implications of decisions is difficult, since many stakeholders are involved. To optimise the product development, many methods are developed based on
Golub, Judith S.; And Others
This study describes discipline practices, attitudes, beliefs, and other characteristics that may differentiate parents of children in day care from those parents who care for their children at home. Adult-child ratio, staff continuity, and staff training were used as quality-of-care indices. A total of 89 families with target children between 18…
Research within the Disciplines is designed to help reference librarians - and students studying to become librarians - gain that deeper understanding of disciplinary differences that allows them to comfortably solve information needs rather than merely responding to questions, and practical knowledge about how to work with researchers in a library setting.
de Jong, A.
In this study we investigate the role of leverage in disciplining overinvestment problems.We measure the relationships between leverage, Tobin s q and corporate governance characteristics for Dutch listed firms.Besides, our empirical analysis tests for determinants of leverage from tax and
Fung, Heidi; Li, Jin; Lam, Chi Kwan
Parental disciplining of their misbehaving children continues to draw much research attention. Baumrind's typology of parenting styles has been frequently used to classify Chinese parenting as more authoritarian. Although influential, research tends predominantly to focus on abstract characterization. Yet, parenting is a practice informed by…
Mullet, Judy Hostetler
As commonly understood, school discipline seeks to stop misbehavior, teach prosocial behavior, and motivate healthier decision making in the misbehaving student. In practice, the means to these ends often take a punitive path that fosters a self-protective posture, a sense of powerlessness, and a negative attitude that can contribute to an ongoing…
Solovcova Irina A.
Full Text Available The paper considers an application of analogy in the initial-teacher training as a tool of approaching pedagogical disciplines. The author proposes a classification of pedagogical analogies which provides choices of the most efficient model for a specific didactic situation. The article clarifies the model of the theoretical approach to pedagogical disciplines through active use of analogy, which contributes to a higher efficiency in a teacher and student interaction. The model consists of three stages: training (the stage of acquiring analogy model, the analytical stage (acquisition of pedagogical concepts, phenomena and systems through the application of analogy, and the stage of self-realization (the application of analogy method in students’ scientific-research activities considering external and internal didactic conditions which transform analogy from a teaching method into a tool for the acquisition of pedagogical disciplines. The author demonstrates that the application of analogy has a positive effect not only on the acquisition of pedagogical knowledge (especially methodic and the development of heuristic skills in students, but also on motivation for the study of pedagogical disciplines (cognitive aspect and professional pedagogical activity (formation of an individual-pedagogical attitude. .
Olatunji, Samuel Olusola; Aghimien, Douglas Omoregie; Oke, Ayodeji Emmanuel; Olushola, Emmanuel
Academic performance of students in Nigerian institutions has been of much concern to all and sundry hence the need to assess the factors affecting performance of undergraduate students in construction related discipline in Nigeria. A survey design was employed with questionnaires administered on students in the department of Quantity Surveying,…
Engineering and teaching are among the most lopsided disciplines in academe's gender split. In 2010, women received 80 percent of the undergraduate degrees awarded in education, the U.S. Education Department reports. And they earned 77 percent of the master's and 67 percent of the doctoral degrees in that field. In engineering, by contrast, women…
Johnson, Eric P., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
After serving 18 years as Editor-in-Chief of Environmental Impact Assessment Review, the author observes that the period 1997–2014, the discipline of EIA: splintered, exploded and saw the rise of the developing-world authors. Publishing has also changed, with shifts from quantity to quality, the rise of open access, and an ever-increasing shortage of reviewers.
Carey, Michael R.
Asks whether Machiavelli or St. Benedict of Nursia provides the better model for school administration and student discipline. Finds Benedict's teachings, which stress love, prudence, and the avoidance of extremes, better suited to the traditions and spirituality of Catholic education. (DMM)
In this discussion of Fritz Redl's model of ego dysfunction in disturbed children, tasks the mature ego must accomplish are described, such as frustration tolerance, temptation resistance, realism about rules and routines, and exposure to competitive challenges. The model's educational applications involve assessment of discipline problems,…