WorldWideScience

Sample records for science content vocabulary

  1. Use of tactual materials on the achievement of content specific vocabulary and terminology acquisition within an intermediate level science curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Brian H.

    In this quasi-experimental study, the researcher investigated the effectiveness of three tactual strategies and one non-tactual strategy of content specific vocabulary acquisition. Flash cards, task cards, and learning wheels served as the tactual strategies, and vocabulary review sheets served as a non-tactual strategy. The sample (n=85) consisted of all middle school students in a small high performing middle school located in the northern suburbs of New York City. All of the vocabulary words and terms came from the New York State Intermediate Level Science Core Curriculum. Pre-tests and post-tests were used to collect the data. A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted on the gain scores from each of the treatments. Multiple paired sample t-tests were conducted to analyze the results. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine if there was a variance between the academic achievement levels of the students, gender, and grade level for each of the treatments. All of the treatments significantly improved the science achievement of the students, but significance was found between them. Significance was found between the achievement groups with the above average students attaining a higher mean on the pre-test and post-test for each treatment, whereas the below average students had the lowest mean on both assessments. The sixth grade students showed significant improvement over the seventh grade students while using the flash cards (p=.004) and learning wheel (p=.007). During the learning wheel treatment, the males scored significantly better (p=.021) than the females on the pre-test and post-test. During the worksheet treatment, significance (p=.034) was found between gender and achievement group. The below average male students had the greatest gain from the pre-test to the post-test, but the post-test mean was still the lowest of the groups. Limitations, implications for future research and current practice are discussed. Key words are: flash cards, task cards

  2. The Impact of Using Student-Dictated Oral Review Stories on Science Vocabulary, Content Knowledge, and Non-Fiction Writing Skills of First Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishoff, Sandra Wells

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if using an intervention called Student Dictated Oral Review Stories (SDORS) had an effect on science vocabulary usage and content knowledge for ninety-three students in six first grade classrooms and the subgroup of economically disadvantaged students in a mid-sized north Texas school district. The…

  3. Effects of nonfiction guided interactive read-alouds and think-alouds on fourth grader's depth of content area science vocabulary knowledge and comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Tania Tamara

    Effects of nonfiction guided interactive read-alouds and think-alouds as a supplement to basal science textbooks on three vocabulary measures, definitions, examples, and characteristics, and one multiple-choice comprehension measure were assessed for 127 fourth graders over three time periods: pretest, posttest, and a 2-week delayed posttest. Two of three fourth-grade elementary science teachers implemented a series of 12 content-enhanced guided interactive scripted lessons. Two of these teachers implemented two treatments each. The first condition employed basal science textbooks as the text for guided interactive read-alouds and think-alouds while the second treatment employed basal science textbooks in conjunction with nonfiction text sets as the texts for guided interactive read-alouds and think-alouds. The third teacher, guided by traditional lesson plans, provided students with silent independent reading instruction using basal science textbooks. Multivariate analyses of variance and analyses of variance tests showed that mean scores for both treatment groups significantly improved on definitions and characteristics measures at posttest and either stabilized or slightly declined at delayed posttest. The treatment-plus group lost considerably on the examples posttest measure. The treatment group improved mean scores on the examples posttest measure, outperforming the treatment-plus group and the control group. Alternately, the control group significantly improved on the delayed posttest examples measure. Additionally, the two groups implementing guided interactive read-alouds and think-alouds performed better than the independent reading group on multiple-choice comprehension measures at posttest and sustained those gains 2 weeks later on delayed posttests. Findings maintain the incremental nature of vocabulary acquisition and development research and emphasize the roles of listening and speaking as critical features for integrating vocabulary into long

  4. Students' Perceptions of Vocabulary Knowledge and Learning in a Middle School Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick L.; Concannon, James P.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated eighth-grade science students' (13-14-year-olds) perceptions of their vocabulary knowledge, learning, and content achievement. Data sources included pre- and posttest of students' perceptions of vocabulary knowledge, students' perceptions of vocabulary and reading strategies surveys, and a content achievement test.…

  5. Linking vocabulary to imagery: Improving science knowledge through multimedia design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Tracy R.

    This qualitative study looked at the vocabulary development of four urban sixth-grade students as they used laser disk and computer technologies to view images and then connect those images to textual definitions through multimedia design. Focusing on three science content areas (the water cycle, the rock cycle, and the web of life), students worked in pairs to create their own multimedia stacks that focused on the prescribed vocabulary. Using a combination of text, images, and audio, students demonstrated their understanding of content vocabulary words and how these words are interconnects within a science topic. Further, the study examined the impact that linking images to vocabulary and textual definitions has on helping students memorize definitions of the science content words. It was found that the use of imagery had a positive affect on the students' ability to identify textual definitions and vocabulary words, though it did not have a great impact on their later recall of word/definition connections. In addition, by designing their own multimedia artifacts, students were able to connect the vocabulary and images within a specific content area and explain their function within a broader science concept. The results of this study were inconclusive as to the impact this activity had on the students' ability to transfer their knowledge to correctly answering questions similar to the ones they see on their state proficiency exam.

  6. Integrating Curriculum through the Learning Cycle: Content-Based Reading and Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Brenda H.; Guillaume, Andrea M.

    2006-01-01

    The content areas provide rich contexts for developing vocabulary. This article presents some principles and a lesson model--the learning cycle--that can be used to develop vocabulary while building understanding in science. Because science instruction and the learning cycle model promote learning in real-world contexts, they provide students with…

  7. Components for Maintaining and Publishing Earth Science Vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S. J. D.; Yu, J.

    2014-12-01

    Shared vocabularies are an important aid to geoscience data interoperability. Many organizations maintain useful vocabularies, with Geologic Surveys having a particularly long history of vocabulary and lexicon development. However, the mode of publication is heterogeneous, ranging from PDFs and HTML web pages, spreadsheets and CSV, through various user-interfaces and APIs. Update and maintenance ranges from tightly-governed and externally opaque, through various community processes, all the way to crowd-sourcing ('folksonomies'). A general expectation, however, is for greater harmonization and vocabulary re-use. In order to be successful this requires (a) standardized content formalization and APIs (b) transparent content maintenance and versioning. We have been trialling a combination of software dealing with registration, search and linking. SKOS is designed for formalizing multi-lingual, hierarchical vocabularies, and has been widely adopted in earth and environmental sciences. SKOS is an RDF vocabulary, for which SPARQL is the standard low-level API. However, for interoperability between SKOS vocabulary sources, a SKOS-based API (i.e. based on the SKOS predicates prefLabel, broader, narrower, etc) is required. We have developed SISSvoc for this purpose, and used it to deploy a number of vocabularies on behalf of the IUGS, ICS, NERC, OGC, the Australian Government, and CSIRO projects. SISSvoc Search provides simple search UI on top of one or more SISSvoc sources. Content maintenance is composed of many elements, including content-formalization, definition-update, and mappings to related vocabularies. Typically there is a degree of expert judgement required. In order to provide confidence in users, two requirements are paramount: (i) once published, a URI that denotes a vocabulary item must remain dereferenceable; (ii) the history and status of the content denoted by a URI must be available. These requirements match the standard 'registration' paradigm which is

  8. Technologies and practices for maintaining and publishing earth science vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Simon; Yu, Jonathan; Williams, Megan; Giabardo, Fabrizio; Lowe, Dominic

    2015-04-01

    Environment Agency, and now adapted and enhanced for deployment by CSIRO and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. The LDR applies a standard content registration paradigm to RDF data, also including a delegation mode that enables a system to register (endorse) externally managed content. The locally managed RDF is exposed on a SPARQL endpoint. The registry implementation enables a flexible interaction pattern to support various specific content publication workflows, with the key feature of making the content externally accessible through a standard interface alongside its history, previous versions, and status. SPARQL is the standard low-level API for RDF including SKOS. On top of this we have developed SISSvoc, a SKOS-based RESTful API. This has been used it to deploy a number of vocabularies on behalf of the IUGS, ICS, NERC, OGC, the Australian Government, and CSIRO projects. Applications like SISSvoc Search provide a simple search UI on top of one or more SISSvoc sources. Together, these components provide a powerful and flexible system for providing earth science vocabularies for the community, consistent with semantic web and linked-data principles.

  9. Applying Cognitive Science Principles to Improve Retention of Science Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Rebecca; Ray, Jenna; Gooklasian, Paula

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether three student-centred strategies influenced retention of science vocabulary words among 7th grade students. Two of the strategies (drawing pictures and talking about the definition of the terms) were developed to involve the students in more constructive and interactive exercises when compared to the technique that was in…

  10. KEEFEKTIFAN METODE SCHOOLYARD INQUIRY TERHADAP PENINGKATAN PEMAHAMAN SCIENCE VOCABULARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. Pamelasari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tantangan yang harus dihadapi dalam mengajar Bahasa Inggris di pada mahasiswa selain jurusan Bahasa Inggris adalah tingkat pemahaman kosakata yang rendah. Hal tersebut berpengaruh pada pemahaman materi mereka, berdasarkan permasalahan tersebut metode schoolyard inquiry digagas untuk membantu meningkatkan pemahaman mereka dalam memahami science vocabulary sebagai metode alternative untuk membantu mereka belajar. Schoolyard inquiry adalah metode belajar kosakata secara mandiri di luar kelas. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa pemahaman science vocabulary mahasiswa Pendidikan IPA FMIPA Unnes mengingkat secara signifikan dan mencapai tingkat tinggi pada level pemahamannya. Melalui metode ini mahasiswa juga dapat mengintegrasikan pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris dengan metode saintifik. Mahasiswa juga memberikan respon positif terhadap metode schoolyard inquiry  ini. The challenge that should be faced of teaching English for non English department students is the low level of students’ vocabulary mastery. It affects their comprehension of material, therefore to help students to master the science vocabulary schoolyard inquiry method was proposed to be used as alternative method to improve students’ vocabulary mastery. Schoolyard inquiry is a method of independent learning that is conducted outside the class. The result showed that the students’ science vocabulary mastery improved significantly most of students reached high level of science vocabulary mastery. Through Schoolyard Inquiry method Students were be able to learn English by applying the scientific skill. The students also gave positive responses of learning vocabulary by using alternatif method of schoolyard inquiry.

  11. Creating Content Acquisition Podcasts (CAPs) for Vocabulary: The Intersection of Content, Pedagogy, and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Margaret P.; Evmenova, Anya S.; Kennedy, Michael J.; Duke, Jodi M.

    2016-01-01

    Mastering content vocabulary is critical to the success of students with high-incidence disabilities in the general education curriculum. General education classrooms often do not offer the opportunities necessary for these students to master important vocabulary. Teachers often look to technology to help. Several studies have indicated that…

  12. Semantic Web-based Vocabulary Broker for Open Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, B.; Neher, G.; Iyemori, T.; Murayama, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Koyama, Y.; King, T. A.; Galkin, I. A.; Fung, S. F.; Wharton, S.; Cecconi, B.

    2016-12-01

    Keyword vocabularies are used to tag and to identify data of science data repositories. Such vocabularies consist of controlled terms and the appropriate concepts, such as GCMD1 keywords or the ESPAS2 keyword ontology. The Semantic Web-based mash-up of domain-specific, cross- or even trans-domain vocabularies provides unique capabilities in the network of appropriate data resources. Based on a collaboration between GFZ3, the FHP4, the WDC for Geomagnetism5 and the NICT6 we developed the concept of a vocabulary broker for inter- and trans-disciplinary data detection and integration. Our prototype of the Semantic Web-based vocabulary broker uses OSF7 for the mash-up of geo and space research vocabularies, such as GCMD keywords, ESPAS keyword ontology and SPASE8 keyword vocabulary. The vocabulary broker starts the search with "free" keywords or terms of a specific vocabulary scheme. The vocabulary broker almost automatically connects the different science data repositories which are tagged by terms of the aforementioned vocabularies. Therefore the mash-up of the SKOS9 based vocabularies with appropriate metadata from different domains can be realized by addressing LOD10 resources or virtual SPARQL11 endpoints which maps relational structures into the RDF format12. In order to demonstrate such a mash-up approach in real life, we installed and use a D2RQ13 server for the integration of IUGONET14 data which are managed by a relational database. The OSF based vocabulary broker and the D2RQ platform are installed at virtual LINUX machines at the Kyoto University. The vocabulary broker meets the standard of a main component of the WDS15 knowledge network. The Web address of the vocabulary broker is http://wdcosf.kugi.kyoto-u.ac.jp 1 Global Change Master Directory2 Near earth space data infrastructure for e-science3 German Research Centre for Geosciences4 University of Applied Sciences Potsdam5 World Data Center for Geomagnetism Kyoto6 National Institute of Information and

  13. Improving Elementary School Students’ English Vocabulary Through Local Cultural Content Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Manurung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elementary students of a certain public school in Indonesia had difficulties in learning English. One of the crucial problems was learning English vocabulary. In an attempt to help the students learn and improve English vocabulary, the researchers decided to use CAR to teach English vocabulary with local cultural content materials. The aim of this study was to investigate how the teaching of English vocabulary with local cultural content materials contributed to the improvement of the students’ English vocabulary mastery. The topics covered in the materials were selected based on schemata theory. Vocabulary learning process was done through several activities provided in the materials: classroom and outside vocabulary learning. The results showed that the teaching of local cultural content materials have contributed to the improvement of the Elementary students’ vocabulary mastery. The schematic knowledge found in the familiar topics has aroused the students’ interest and motivation in learning English vocabulary. Students who were more familiar with the topics could respond to the vocabulary learning better than those who were not familiar with. The vocabulary mastery was more successful only if the students participated in both classroom and outside vocabulary learning process. Keywords: Vocabulary Mastery, Vocabulary Improvement, Local Cultural Content Materials, Vocabulary Learning, Schemata

  14. Improving Elementary School Students’ English Vocabulary Through Local Cultural Content Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Frans Manurung; Ignatius Harjanto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Elementary students of a certain public school in Indonesia had difficulties in learning English. One of the crucial problems was learning English vocabulary. In an attempt to help the students learn and improve English vocabulary, the researchers decided to use CAR to teach English vocabulary with local cultural content materials. The aim of this study was to investigate how the teaching of English vocabulary with local cultural content materials contributed to the improvement ...

  15. Effect of Content Schema, Vocabulary Knowledge, and Reading Comprehension on Translation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kafipour

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Schemata refer to all kinds of knowledge which are gained throughout the lifetime. Few studies tried to integrate schema theory and the next two crucial factors in translation and learning which are vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Thus, the present research aimed at delineating the potential effect of these three factors on translation performance of Iranian undergraduate students majoring in translator training. To this end, 172 Iranian undergraduate students majoring in translator training were selected based on two-step cluster sampling. To collect data, the participants answered a set of 6 open-ended questions to measure the students’ content schema along with a vocabulary size test, reading comprehension test, and translation task. To analyze data, Pearson correlation coefficient as well as stepwise multiple regressions was conducted through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17. Data analysis indicated that the independent variables significantly correlated with translation performance. In addition, multiple regressions analysis specified reading comprehension as the main contributing variable and content schema as the second in students’ translation performance. It also showed that vocabulary knowledge could not be a predicting factor in translation performance of the learners; the reason may refer to the inseparable component of their translation task that is dictionary. The results highlighted the role of content schema in translation performance of the learners.

  16. Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Japanese Life Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Andrea; Kobayashi, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates vocabulary learning strategy (VLS) preferences of lower and higher proficiency Japanese university science students studying English as a foreign language. The study was conducted over a 9-week period as the participants received supplemental explicit VLS instruction on six strategies. The 38 participants (14 males and 24…

  17. Factors Influencing Science Content Accuracy in Elementary Inquiry Science Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Barbara L.; Sullivan-Watts, Barbara; Shim, Minsuk K.; Young, Betty; Pockalny, Robert

    2013-06-01

    Elementary teachers face increasing demands to engage children in authentic science process and argument while simultaneously preparing them with knowledge of science facts, vocabulary, and concepts. This reform is particularly challenging due to concerns that elementary teachers lack adequate science background to teach science accurately. This study examined 81 in-classroom inquiry science lessons for preservice education majors and their cooperating teachers to determine the accuracy of the science content delivered in elementary classrooms. Our results showed that 74 % of experienced teachers and 50 % of student teachers presented science lessons with greater than 90 % accuracy. Eleven of the 81 lessons (9 preservice, 2 cooperating teachers) failed to deliver accurate science content to the class. Science content accuracy was highly correlated with the use of kit-based resources supported with professional development, a preference for teaching science, and grade level. There was no correlation between the accuracy of science content and some common measures of teacher content knowledge (i.e., number of college science courses, science grades, or scores on a general science content test). Our study concluded that when provided with high quality curricular materials and targeted professional development, elementary teachers learn needed science content and present it accurately to their students.

  18. Core Vocabulary: Its Morphological Content and Presence in Exemplar Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Goodwin, Amanda P.; Cervetti, Gina N.

    2018-01-01

    This study addresses the distribution of words in texts at different points of schooling. The first aim was to identify a core vocabulary that accounts for the majority of the words in texts through the lens of morphological families. Results showed that 2,451 morphological families, averaging 4.61 members, make up the core vocabulary of school…

  19. Vocabulary related to earth sciences through etymology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.

    to all aspects of earth sci- ences education for the benefit of students and educators. The author of the article is Nittala S. Sarma, Andhra University, Visak- hapatnam. In the article, Sarma has col- lected Greek, Latin, German and Celtic affixes... terms can be built solidly. My realization of the importance of etymology and the impressive effort put up by Sarma has prompted me to bring his recent publication to the attention of earth sciences students and teachers in the country...

  20. Content Area Vocabulary Videos in Multiple Contexts: A Pedagogical Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, C. Lorraine; Kapavik, Robin Robinson

    2015-01-01

    The authors challenged pre-service teachers to digitally define a social studies or mathematical vocabulary term in multiple contexts using a digital video camera. The researchers sought to answer the following questions: 1. How will creating a video for instruction affect pre-service teachers' attitudes about teaching with technology, if at all?…

  1. The Effects of Content-Enriched Shared Book Reading versus Vocabulary-Only Discussions on the Vocabulary Outcomes of Preschool Dual Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Saenz, Laura; Resendez, Nora; Kwok, Oiman; Zhu, Leina; Davis, Heather

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: This study compared the effects of content-based shared book-reading instruction versus an explicit vocabulary-only condition on the vocabulary development of preschool dual language learners (DLLs). Using shared book reading as the mode of instruction, we randomly assigned 48 bilingual preschool teachers and 281…

  2. Too Close for (Brain) Comfort: Improving Science Vocabulary Learning in the Middle Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Rebecca; Ray, Jenna; Goolkasian, Paula

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how researchers take a multidisciplinary approach to investigating how middle grades students learn science vocabulary. The authors investigated teaching strategies for increasing retention of science vocabulary with seventh graders and stumbled upon an interesting finding that was not even a target for their study, yet it…

  3. An Investigation of a Cross-Content Vocabulary Intervention in an Urban Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciosi-Rimbey, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    This case study was designed to investigate the implementation of a cross-content academic vocabulary intervention in an urban school. Two aspects of the intervention were the focus of interest: student learning and teacher sensemaking. Participants included four content-area teachers and their sixth-grade students. Each week, students received…

  4. Using Assistive Technology to Increase Vocabulary Acquisition and Engagement for Students with Learning Disabilities in the High School Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemrod, Tal

    There is a growing recognition of the importance and effectiveness of instruction in the STEM subjects, including science. The movement towards increased requirements and expectations in science presents a challenge to both students and teachers as many students with Learning Disabilities (LD) often particularly struggle in their science classes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of an assistive technology (AT) intervention targeting the acquisition of science vocabulary for adolescents with LD in a general education secondary biology classroom. Participants for this study included 3 secondary students with LD who were enrolled in a biology class. An alternating treatment design was used to compare the effects of a keyword mnemonic vocabulary intervention via index cards or iPod touch on student, vocabulary acquisition, academic engagement and disruptive behavior. All students' acquired the content vocabulary equally well during both conditions. When using the AT, students' engagement increased compared to baseline conditions. It was clear that the students had a strong interest in using AT to increase their grades and engagement, however the teachers had little access and training on using AT to support their students with disabilities.

  5. Captioned Instructional Video: Effects on Content Comprehension, Vocabulary Acquisition and Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    BavaHarji, Madhubala; Alavi, Zhinoos Kamal; Letchumanan, Krishnaveni

    2014-01-01

    This experimental design study examined the effects of viewing captioned instructional videos on EFL learners' content comprehension, vocabulary acquisition and language proficiency. It also examined the participants' perception of viewing the captioned instructional videos. The 92 EFL students in two classes, who were undertaking the "Tape…

  6. A Vocabulary Learning Tool for L2 Undergraduates Reading Science and Technology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chihcheng; Yang, Fang-Chuan Ou

    2013-05-01

    Students of English as a second language who major in science and technology use English-language textbooks to ensure that they can read English materials upon graduation. Research indicates that teachers spend little time helping these students on the linguistic complexity of such textbooks. Vocabulary, grammar, and article structure are elements of this complexity, but to many students, these elements can be akin to locked doors. This study presents MyVLS-Reader, which focuses on unlocking the first of these doors-vocabulary-while assisting in reading. With explicit vocabulary learning, students learn and memorize individual vocabulary, but the context is lost if the depth of learning discards context. In implicit vocabulary learning, students acquire vocabulary through repeated exposure to contexts, but repeated encounters with new words are required. Few e-learning systems combine both vocabulary-learning approaches. MyVLS-Reader achieves such synergy by (1) using a keyword setting to provide context-matched vocabulary explanation while reading and (2) embedding multiple learning choices, such as keyword setting, the review and memorization of explicit vocabulary, and the option to ask instructors. This study includes two rounds of evaluations: (1) an evaluation of the learning achievements of control and treatment groups and (2) a quantitative and qualitative investigation of perceptions regarding the use of MyVLS-Reader. The evaluation results indicate that the treatment group developed a better vocabulary than the control group in significantly less time. The use of MyVLS-Reader also slightly improved higher-order thinking skills. This result suggests that MyVLS-Reader can effective assist students in building their vocabulary while reading.

  7. A Quantitative Content Analysis of Leveled Vocabulary Embedded within Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    This content analysis examined levels of vocabulary within massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). A total of six MMORPGs were studied; three were pay-to-play (P2P), and three were free-to-play (F2P). Sixty hours of game play (10 hours per game) provided the researcher with 50,240 embedded vocabulary words. Each MMORPG was…

  8. Engaging in vocabulary learning in science: the promise of multimodal instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Dianna; Brock, Cynthia; Morrison, Jennifer D.

    2018-02-01

    To a science 'outsider', science language often appears unnecessarily technical and dense. However, scientific language is typically used with the goal of being concise and precise, which allows those who regularly participate in scientific discourse communities to learn from each other and build upon existing scientific knowledge. One essential component of science language is the academic vocabulary that characterises it. This mixed-methods study investigates middle school students' (N = 59) growth in academic vocabulary as it relates to their teacher's instructional practices that supported academic language development. Students made significant gains in their production of general academic words, t(57) = 2.32, p = .024 and of discipline-specific science words, t(57) = 3.01, p = .004 in science writing. Results from the qualitative strand of this inquiry contextualised the students' learning of academic vocabulary as it relates to their teacher's instructional practices and intentions as well as the students' perceptions of their learning environment. These qualitative findings reveal that both the students and their teacher articulated that the teacher's intentional use of resources supported students' academic vocabulary growth. Implications for research and instruction with science language are shared.

  9. Motivating Students to Learn Biology Vocabulary with Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boriana Marintcheva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Timely learning of specialized science vocabulary is critical for building a solid knowledge base in any scientific discipline. To motivate students to dedicate time and effort mastering biology vocabulary, I have designed a vocabulary exercise utilizing the popular web encyclopedia Wikipedia. The exercise creates an opportunity for students to connect the challenge of vocabulary learning to a prior positive experience of self-guided learning using a content source they are familiar and comfortable with.

  10. Augmented Reality for Teaching Science Vocabulary to Postsecondary Education Students with Intellectual Disabilities and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Don D.; Cihak, David F.; Wright, Rachel E.; Bell, Sherry Mee

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of an emerging technology called augmented reality to teach science vocabulary words to college students with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. One student with autism and three students with an intellectual disability participated in a multiple probe across behaviors (i.e.,…

  11. The Conceptual Complexity of Vocabulary in Elementary-Grades Core Science Program Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, W. Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Kung, Melody; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2017-01-01

    The researchers explored the conceptual complexity of vocabulary in contemporary elementary-grades core science program textbooks to address two research questions: (1) Can a progression of concepts' complexity level be described across grades? (2) Was there gradual developmental growth of the most complex concepts' networks of associated concepts…

  12. A Vocabulary Learning Tool for L2 Undergraduates Reading Science and Technology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chihcheng; Ou Yang, Fang-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Students of English as a second language who major in science and technology use English-language textbooks to ensure that they can read English materials upon graduation. Research indicates that teachers spend little time helping these students on the linguistic complexity of such textbooks. Vocabulary, grammar, and article structure are elements…

  13. A New Twist on Vocabulary Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Kelly J.; Dieker, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    An essential element of science instruction is content literacy. In order to improve literacy specific to science, vocabulary must be addressed. As Jitendra et al. (2004) pointed out, "because learning vocabulary during independent reading is very inefficient for students with reading difficulties, vocabulary and word learning skills must be…

  14. Science and Literacy: Incorporating Vocabulary, Reading Comprehension, Research Methods, and Writing into the Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieser, K.; Carlson, C.; Bering, E. A.; Slagle, E.

    2012-12-01

    Part of preparing the next generation of STEM researchers requires arming these students with the requisite literacy and research skills they will need. In a unique collaboration, the departments of Physics (ECE) and Psychology at the University of Houston have teamed up with NASA in a grant to develop a supplemental curriculum for elementary (G3-5) and middle school (G6-8) science teachers called Mars Rover. During this six week project, students work in teams to research the solar system, the planet Mars, design a research mission to Mars, and create a model Mars Rover to carry out this mission. Targeted Language Arts skills are embedded in each lesson so that students acquire the requisite academic vocabulary and research skills to enable them to successfully design their Mars Rover. Students learn academic and scientific vocabulary using scientifically based reading research. They receive direct instruction in research techniques, note-taking, summarizing, writing and other important language skills. The interdisciplinary collaboration empowers students as readers, writers and scientists. After the curriculum is completed, a culminating Mars Rover event is held at a local university, bringing students teams in contact with real-life scientists who critique their work, ask questions, and generate excite about STEM careers. Students have the opportunity to showcase their Mars Rover and to orally demonstrate their knowledge of Mars. Students discover the excitement of scientific research, STEM careers, important research and writing tools in a practical, real-life setting.

  15. The Effects of Self-Regulation on Science Vocabulary Acquisition of English Language Learners with Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woori; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    This multiple-probe study examined the effects of self-regulation on the acquisition of science vocabulary by four third-grade English language learners (ELLs) with learning difficulties. The students were provided only direct vocabulary instruction in a baseline phase, followed by intervention and maintenance phases into which self-regulation…

  16. Teaching Language and Content: Instructor Strategies in a Bilingual Science Class at a Chinese University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaoping; Smith, Sara W.

    2012-01-01

    The present research analyzes instructional strategies used to integrate the learning of content and English as a foreign language in a bilingual physics class at a university in Shanghai, China. It examines how the instructor handles meaning and form of new English science vocabulary in concept-focused physics lectures and the strategies he used…

  17. Using graphic organizers to enhance students' science vocabulary and comprehension of nonfiction science text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Edna

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of Frayer Model and the Hierarchical Organizer as a literacy strategy to improve ninth grade students' science vocabulary and comprehension of non-fictions text in Environmental Science course. The study implemented a sequential explanatory methodology design that included quantitative and qualitative instruments. The research sample consisted of one hundred and two (102) high school environmental science students entering the ninth grade for the first time. The two treatment groups each consisted of thirty-five (35) students, and the control group consisted of 32 students. Treatment group one used the Frayer Model; treatment group two used Hierarchical Organizer and the control group used the traditional teaching methods without the use of a graph organizer. The investigator taught both treatment groups and the control group to ensure reliability. The two treatment groups were taught using graphic organizers as the main lesson plan tool and the control group was taught using guided notes lecture with PowerPoint. A pretest and post-test were administered to each student. Student test scores were evaluated to determine whether knowledge gains differed between the treatment groups and the control group. It was found that the use of graphic organizer instruction was significantly better for student achievement when compared to the use of PowerPoint instruction and that there was much more interaction between student and teacher during the graphic organizer lessons. The delivery of the lesson by the use of graphic organizers seemed to promote more success than the use of the PowerPoint and lecture.

  18. The Effectiveness of Adjunct Class on The Mastery of Vocabulary And Course Content of Students of Accounting Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrisius Istiarto Djiwandono

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports a classroom action research that aimed to determine the impact of a Content and Language Integrated Learning on the mastery of vocabulary and of course contents of a group of students in the Accounting Department of Universitas Ma Chung. It also intended to identify their opinions about the effectiveness of such approach. To achieve these objectives, a Time Series Design was used in a Classroom Action Research framework to introduce an adjunct class to the accounting class. The baseline data in the form of their vocabulary mastery and knowledge of the course contents were gained before the adjunct session was given. Then, the adjunct sessions were given for a period of two months. A few tests were administered to measure their progress in the mastery of vocabulary and course contents. A comparison was then drawn between the scores of the baseline data and the subsequent measures. In general, although they gained better mastery of new words, they failed to utilize them to increase their mastery of the course contents. Further exploration into the interview data reveals that most of them did not feel any significant assistance in mastering the course contents, although many of them admitted the benefit of mastering new vocabulary. There are some possible causes of the results. First, the limited duration of the adjunct sessions was felt to hinder the effectiveness. Second, the explanation in the adjunct sessions were not matched quite well with the focus during the main content course. On the basis of the results, the recommended points are the matching between the emphasis of both classes, and the lengthening of the duration of the adjunct sessions.

  19. Vocabulary Learning on Learner-Created Content by Using Web 2.0 Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Omer

    2015-01-01

    The present research examined the use of Web 2.0 tools to improve students' vocabulary knowledge at the School of Foreign Languages, Gaziantep University. Current studies in literature mostly deal with descriptions of students' attitudes towards the reasons for the use of web-based platforms. However, integrating usual classroom environment with…

  20. Content Matters: Building Vocabulary and Conceptual Understanding in the Subject Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Scott

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on traditional vocabulary instruction that has often had pernicious side effects: drill and kill that turned kids off to reading and word study. This trend can be reversed through careful attention to the needs and predilections of students as well as conspicuous consideration of the ramifications of time-cost. Here, the…

  1. Elementary Students' Acquisition of Academic Vocabulary Through Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelmass, Rachel

    This study examines how STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) inquiry-based learning through a hands-on engineering design can be beneficial in helping students acquire academic vocabulary. This research took place in a second grade dual- language classroom in a public, suburban elementary school. English language learners, students who speak Spanish at home, and native English speakers were evaluated in this study. Each day, students were presented with a general academic vocabulary focus word during an engineering design challenge. Vocabulary pre-tests and post-tests as well as observation field notes were used to evaluate the student's growth in reading and defining the focus academic vocabulary words. A quiz and KSB (knowledge and skill builder) packet were used to evaluate students' knowledge of science and math content and engineering design. The results of this study indicate that engineering design is an effective means for teaching academic vocabulary to students with varying levels of English proficiency.

  2. Valid and Reliable Science Content Assessments for Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretter, Thomas R.; Brown, Sherri L.; Bush, William S.; Saderholm, Jon C.; Holmes, Vicki-Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Science teachers' content knowledge is an important influence on student learning, highlighting an ongoing need for programs, and assessments of those programs, designed to support teacher learning of science. Valid and reliable assessments of teacher science knowledge are needed for direct measurement of this crucial variable. This paper…

  3. Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by EAP Learners: The Case of the Students of Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghi, Eshrat Bazarmaj; Pasand, Parastou Gholami

    2013-01-01

    The significance of using language learning strategies in general and vocabulary learning strategies in particular is quite clear to both language learners and language specialists. Being familiar with and making use of a range of different vocabulary learning strategies is a great aid for EAP learners in dealing with unknown words. The present…

  4. The effect of the video game Quizlet on the acquisition of science vocabulary for children with learning disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Deborah Ann

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the learning video game Quizlet on students with learning disabilities in the science classroom. Specifically this study investigated (a) student academic performance, (b) student on-task behavior, and (c) student satisfaction using the learning video game. Student academic performance was measured in terms of vocabulary acquisition, and student engagement was measured in relation to on-task behaviors. Seven middle school students, three female and four male participated in the study. A single subject design with ABABAB phases and maintenance data collection was utilized. Results show that all students increased their grades in science vocabulary and increased on-task behaviors. A follow-up student satisfaction survey determined that the intervention was acceptable to all students. Additional studies to assess the effects of Quizlet are recommended.

  5. The Effect of the Video Game Quizlet on the Acquisiton of Science Vocabulary for Children With Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Kelsey Claire

    The purposes of this study were (a) to determine if using the video learning game Quizlet in a middle school resource classroom increases science vocabulary acquisition of students with learning disabilities, (b) to determine if using the video learning game Quizlet in a middle school resource classroom increases the student engagement/on-task behavior of students with learning disabilities, and (c) to evaluate student comfort and satisfaction in using the video learning game Quizlet in a middle school resource classroom. Six middle school students, three female and three male participated in the study. A single subject design with ABAB phases was utilized over eight weeks. Results show that all students increased their science vocabulary acquisition and increased their on-task behaviors. A follow-up student satisfaction survey determined that the intervention was acceptable to all students. Further research to assess the effects of Quizlet is recommended.

  6. EST Vocabulary Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia D.S. Bell

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at contributing to the investigation on the instruction of EST (English for Science and Technology vocabulary, in terms of receptive use of the language. It evaluates the effectiveness of two teaching approaches to the acquisition of vocabulary. The first approach consisted of teaching vocabulary through the use of dictionaries, where the words were merely translated into the learners’ L1 or defined in the target language thus promoting superficial level of word processing. The second approach employed activities promoting deep level of word processing. Data were analysed quantitatively. Results indicated that the two approaches seem to have some equipotentiality, as far as EST vocabulary is concerned.

  7. Swimming in New Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Kerri; Buck, Gayle

    2017-01-01

    This article describes an informal program in one school where grade K-1 students learn a variety of new science vocabulary words relating to animal characteristics. The students are introduced to a new group of animals and their characteristics through storytelling, games, discussion, and crafts (see Table 1, p. 34). The new vocabulary words are…

  8. Elementary student teachers' science content representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembal-Saul, Carla; Krajcik, Joseph; Blumenfeld, Phyllis

    2002-08-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the ways in which three prospective teachers who had early opportunities to teach science would approach representing science content within the context of their student teaching experiences. The study is framed in the literature on pedagogical content knowledge and learning to teach. A situated perspective on cognition is applied to better understand the influence of context and the role of the cooperating teacher. The three participants were enrolled in an experimental teacher preparation program designed to enhance the teaching of science at the elementary level. Qualitative case study design guided the collection, organization, and analysis of data. Multiple forms of data associated with student teachers' content representations were collected, including audiotaped planning and reflection interviews, written lesson plans and reflections, and videotaped teaching experiences. Broad analysis categories were developed and refined around the subconstructs of content representation (i.e., knowledge of instructional strategies that promote learning and knowledge of students and their requirements for meaningful science learning). Findings suggest that when prospective teachers are provided with opportunities to apply and reflect substantively on their developing considerations for supporting children's science learning, they are able to maintain a subject matter emphasis. However, in the absence of such opportunities, student teachers abandon their subject matter emphasis, even when they have had extensive background and experiences addressing subject-specific considerations for teaching and learning.

  9. Vocabularies in the VO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A. J. G.; Gray, N.; Ounis, I.

    2009-09-01

    There are multiple vocabularies and thesauri within astronomy, of which the best known are the 1993 IAU Thesaurus and the keyword list maintained by A&A, ApJ and MNRAS. The IVOA has agreed on a standard for publishing vocabularies, based on the W3C skos standard, to allow greater automated interaction with them, in particular on the Web. This allows links with the Semantic Web and looks forward to richer applications using the technologies of that domain. Vocabulary-aware applications can benefit from improvements in both precision and recall when searching for bibliographic or science data, and lightweight intelligent filtering for services such as VOEvent streams. In this paper we present two applications, the Vocabulary Explorer and its companion the Mapping Editor, which have been developed to support the use of vocabularies in the Virtual Observatory. These combine Semantic Web and Information Retrieval technologies to illustrate the way in which formal vocabularies might be used in a practical application, provide an online service which will allow astronomers to explore and relate existing vocabularies, and provide a service which translates free text user queries into vocabulary terms.

  10. Effects of random study checks and guided notes study cards on middle school special education students' notetaking accuracy and science vocabulary quiz scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles L.

    Federal legislation mandates that all students with disabilities have meaningful access to the general education curriculum and that students with and without disabilities be held equally accountable to the same academic standards (IDEIA, 2004; NCLB, 2001). Many students with disabilities, however, perform poorly in academic content courses, especially at the middle and secondary school levels. Previous research has reported increased notetaking accuracy and quiz scores over lecture content when students completed guided notes compared to taking their own notes. This study evaluated the effects of a pre-quiz review procedure and specially formatted guided notes on middle school special education students' learning of science vocabulary. This study compared the effects of three experimental conditions. (a) Own Notes (ON), (b) Own Notes+Random Study Checks (ON+RSC), and (c) Guided Notes Study Cards+Random Study Checks (GNSC+RSC) on each student's accuracy of notes, next-day quiz scores, and review quiz scores. Each session, the teacher presented 12 science vocabulary terms and definitions during a lecture and students took notes. The students were given 5 minutes to study their notes at the end of each session and were reminded to study their notes at home and in study hall period. In the ON condition students took notes on a sheet of paper with numbered lines from 1 to 12. Just before each next-day quiz in the ON+RSC condition students used write-on response cards to answer two teacher-posed questions over randomly selected vocabulary terms from the previous day's lecture. If the answer on a randomly selected student's response card was correct, that student earned a lottery ticket for inexpensive prizes and a quiz bonus point for herself and each classmate. In the GNSC+RSC condition students took notes on specially formatted guided notes that after the lecture they cut into a set of flashcards that could used for study. The students' mean notetaking accuracy was 75

  11. German Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Virginia M.

    This article discusses in general terms derivational aspects of English vocabulary. Citing examples of Anglo-Saxon origin, the author provides a glimpse into the nature of the interrelatedness of English, German, and French vocabulary. (RL)

  12. The Effects of a Web-Based Vocabulary Development Tool on Student Reading Comprehension of Science Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Thompson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The complexities of reading comprehension have received increasing recognition in recent years. In this realm, the power of vocabulary in predicting cognitive challenges in phonological, orthographic, and semantic processes is well documented. In this study, we present a web-based vocabulary development tool that has a series of interactive displays, including a list of the 50 most frequent words in a particular text, Google image and video results for any combination of those words, definitions, and synonyms for particular words from the text, and a list of sentences from the text in which particular words appear. Additionally, we report the results of an experiment that was performed working collaboratively with middle school science teachers from a large urban district in the United States. While this experiment did not show a significant positive effect of this tool on reading comprehension in science, we did find that girls seem to score worse on a reading comprehension assessment after using our web-based tool. This result could reflect prior research that suggests that some girls tend to have a negative attitude towards technology due to gender stereotypes that give girls the impression that they are not as good as boys in working with computers.

  13. Effects of classwide peer tutoring on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of science vocabulary words for seventh grade students with learning disabilities and/or low achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobel, Michele Mcmahon

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of classwide peer tutoring (CWPT) on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of science vocabulary words and definitions. Participants were 14 seventh grade students at-risk for failure in a general education science course; 3 students had learning disabilities and 2 had a communication disorder. CWPT was conducted daily for 20 minutes during the last period of the school day. Procedures for CWPT were consistent with the Ohio State University CWPT model. Students were engaged in dyadic, reciprocal tutoring. Tutors presented word cards to tutees to identify the word and definition. Tutors praised correct responses and used a correction procedure for incorrect responses. After practicing their vocabulary words, students completed a daily testing procedure and recorded and plotted data. Many of the study's findings are consistent with previous studies using CWPT to teach word identification. Results of this study indicate a functional relationship between CWPT and acquisition of science vocabulary. All students were able to acquire words and definitions. Results for maintenance and generalization varied. When acquisition criterion was changed, maintenance and generalization scores increased for some students, while other students remained consistently high. All students reported that they enjoyed CWPT, and all but student stated it helped them learn science vocabulary.

  14. Trends of Science Education Research: An Automatic Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Chang, Chun-Yen; Tseng, Yuen-Hsien

    2010-01-01

    This study used scientometric methods to conduct an automatic content analysis on the development trends of science education research from the published articles in the four journals of "International Journal of Science Education, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Research in Science Education, and Science Education" from 1990 to 2007. The…

  15. Capturing the complexity: Content, type, and amount of instruction and quality of the classroom learning environment synergistically predict third graders' vocabulary and reading comprehension outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Spencer, Mercedes; Day, Stephanie L; Giuliani, Sarah; Ingebrand, Sarah W; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J

    2014-08-01

    We examined classrooms as complex systems that affect students' literacy learning through interacting effects of content and amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction along with the global quality of the classroom-learning environment. We observed 27 third grade classrooms serving 315 target students using two different observation systems. The first assessed instruction at a more micro-level; specifically, the amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction defined by the type of instruction, role of the teacher, and content. The second assessed the quality of the classroom-learning environment at a more macro level focusing on classroom organization, teacher responsiveness, and support for vocabulary and language. Results revealed that both global quality of the classroom learning environment and time individual students spent in specific types of literacy instruction covering specific content interacted to predict students' comprehension and vocabulary gains whereas neither system alone did. These findings support a dynamic systems model of how individual children learn in the context of classroom literacy instruction and the classroom-learning environment, which can help to improve observations systems, advance research, elevate teacher evaluation and professional development, and enhance student achievement.

  16. Capturing the complexity: Content, type, and amount of instruction and quality of the classroom learning environment synergistically predict third graders’ vocabulary and reading comprehension outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Spencer, Mercedes; Day, Stephanie L.; Giuliani, Sarah; Ingebrand, Sarah W.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined classrooms as complex systems that affect students’ literacy learning through interacting effects of content and amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction along with the global quality of the classroom-learning environment. We observed 27 third grade classrooms serving 315 target students using two different observation systems. The first assessed instruction at a more micro-level; specifically, the amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction defined by the type of instruction, role of the teacher, and content. The second assessed the quality of the classroom-learning environment at a more macro level focusing on classroom organization, teacher responsiveness, and support for vocabulary and language. Results revealed that both global quality of the classroom learning environment and time individual students spent in specific types of literacy instruction covering specific content interacted to predict students’ comprehension and vocabulary gains whereas neither system alone did. These findings support a dynamic systems model of how individual children learn in the context of classroom literacy instruction and the classroom-learning environment, which can help to improve observations systems, advance research, elevate teacher evaluation and professional development, and enhance student achievement. PMID:25400293

  17. Interaction between Science Teaching Orientation and Pedagogical Content Knowledge Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdögen, Betül

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to delve into the complexities of how preservice science teachers' science teaching orientations, viewed as an interrelated set of beliefs, interact with the other components of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). Eight preservice science teachers participated in the study. Qualitative data were collected in the…

  18. Comfort and Content: Considerations for Informal Science Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Gary M.; Lederman, Norman G.; Lederman, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    This study looked at a life science course that was offered at and taught by education staff of a large informal science institution (ISI) located in the Midwest. The curriculum, materials, and agendas for the course were developed by education staff and complemented a permanent life science exhibition. The researcher developed a content test…

  19. Marrying Content and Process in Computer Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendler, A.; Spannagel, C.; Klaudt, D.

    2011-01-01

    Constructivist approaches to computer science education emphasize that as well as knowledge, thinking skills and processes are involved in active knowledge construction. K-12 computer science curricula must not be based on fashions and trends, but on contents and processes that are observable in various domains of computer science, that can be…

  20. Preschoolers' Recall of Science Content From Educational Videos Presented With and Without Songs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Rachel L.

    This experimental investigation evaluated the impact of educational songs on a child's ability to recall scientific content from an educational television program. Preschoolers' comprehension of the educational content was examined by measuring children's ability to recall the featured science content (the function of a pulley and its parts) and their use of the precise scientific terms presented in the episode. A total of 91 preschoolers were included (3-5 years old). Clusters of children were randomly assigned to a control group or one of three video groups: (a) Dialogue Only, which did not include a song; (b) Dialogue Plus Lyrics, which included a song; or (c) Lyrics Only, which consisted of a song, played twice. Results from interviews suggested that children from all video groups (lyrics and/or dialogue) were able to explain the form and function of a pulley better than the control group. The data suggested that children from the Lyrics Only group understood the science content because of the visual imagery, not through the information provided in the lyrics. In terms of precise vocabulary terms, significantly more children in the Dialogue Only group recalled at least one precise term from the program compared to the Lyrics Only group. Looking at the interview as a whole, the children's responses suggested different levels of scientific understanding. Children would require additional teacher-led instruction to deepen their scientific understanding and to clarify any misconceptions. This paper discusses implications of these findings for teachers using multi-media tools in the science classroom and producers creating new educational programming for television and other platforms.

  1. History of Science Content Analysis of Chinese Science Textbooks from the Perspective of Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yongjun; Wan, Yanlan

    2017-01-01

    Based on previous international studies, a content analysis scheme has been designed and used from the perspective of culture to study the history of science (HOS) in science textbooks. Nineteen sets of Chinese science textbooks have been analyzed. It has been found that there are noticeable changes in the quantity, content, layout, presentation,…

  2. Computer Multimedia Assisted English Vocabulary Teaching Courseware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Yue

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available English vocabulary is often regarded as the most boring link in English learning. However, English vocabulary is the basis of all aspects of English learning. Therefore, enriching the process of English vocabulary learning and stimulating the interest of English vocabulary learning are the keys to the reform of English vocabulary teaching. The computer multimedia is developing and popularizing rapidly with the rapid development of informationization and networking, which plays its role in more and more fields. The application of multimedia technology in the field of teaching is no longer strange. This paper mainly studied the design of computer multimedia assisted English vocabulary teaching courseware. First of all, this paper gave an overview of computer multimedia technology from the aspects of concept, characteristics, development and application situation, which cited and analyzed the cognitive learning theory and memory law. Under the guidance of scientific laws and in combination with the requirement analysis and pattern construction of English vocabulary teaching, this paper realized the module design, style design and database design of English vocabulary courseware. Finally, the content of English vocabulary teaching courseware was demonstrated, and its application effect was verified through the combination of subjective evaluation and objective evaluation. This article has an important guiding significance for stimulating students’ interest in English vocabulary learning and enhancing the quality of vocabulary teaching.

  3. Content Based Image Matching for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, M. C.; Meyer, C.

    2006-12-01

    Planetary missions generate large volumes of data. With the MER rovers still functioning on Mars, PDS contains over 7200 released images from the Microscopic Imagers alone. These data products are only searchable by keys such as the Sol, spacecraft clock, or rover motion counter index, with little connection to the semantic content of the images. We have developed a method for matching images based on the visual textures in images. For every image in a database, a series of filters compute the image response to localized frequencies and orientations. Filter responses are turned into a low dimensional descriptor vector, generating a 37 dimensional fingerprint. For images such as the MER MI, this represents a compression ratio of 99.9965% (the fingerprint is approximately 0.0035% the size of the original image). At query time, fingerprints are quickly matched to find images with similar appearance. Image databases containing several thousand images are preprocessed offline in a matter of hours. Image matches from the database are found in a matter of seconds. We have demonstrated this image matching technique using three sources of data. The first database consists of 7200 images from the MER Microscopic Imager. The second database consists of 3500 images from the Narrow Angle Mars Orbital Camera (MOC-NA), which were cropped into 1024×1024 sub-images for consistency. The third database consists of 7500 scanned archival photos from the Apollo Metric Camera. Example query results from all three data sources are shown. We have also carried out user tests to evaluate matching performance by hand labeling results. User tests verify approximately 20% false positive rate for the top 14 results for MOC NA and MER MI data. This means typically 10 to 12 results out of 14 match the query image sufficiently. This represents a powerful search tool for databases of thousands of images where the a priori match probability for an image might be less than 1%. Qualitatively, correct

  4. Science Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Integrated Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi Putra, M. J.; Widodo, A.; Sopandi, W.

    2017-09-01

    The integrated approach refers to the stages of pupils’ psychological development. Unfortunately, the competences which are designed into the curriculum is not appropriate with the child development. This Manuscript presents PCK (pedagogical content knowledge) of teachers who teach science content utilizing an integrated approach. The data has been collected by using CoRe, PaP-eR, and interviews from six elementary teachers who teach science. The paper informs that high and stable teacher PCKs have an impact on how teachers present integrated teaching. Because it is influenced by the selection of important content that must be submitted to the students, the depth of the content, the reasons for choosing the teaching procedures and some other things. So for teachers to be able to integrate teaching, they should have a balanced PCK.

  5. Assessing the Genetics Content in the Next Generation Science Standards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine S Lontok

    Full Text Available Science standards have a long history in the United States and currently form the backbone of efforts to improve primary and secondary education in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM. Although there has been much political controversy over the influence of standards on teacher autonomy and student performance, little light has been shed on how well standards cover science content. We assessed the coverage of genetics content in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS using a consensus list of American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG core concepts. We also compared the NGSS against state science standards. Our goals were to assess the potential of the new standards to support genetic literacy and to determine if they improve the coverage of genetics concepts relative to state standards. We found that expert reviewers cannot identify ASHG core concepts within the new standards with high reliability, suggesting that the scope of content addressed by the standards may be inconsistently interpreted. Given results that indicate that the disciplinary core ideas (DCIs included in the NGSS documents produced by Achieve, Inc. clarify the content covered by the standards statements themselves, we recommend that the NGSS standards statements always be viewed alongside their supporting disciplinary core ideas. In addition, gaps exist in the coverage of essential genetics concepts, most worryingly concepts dealing with patterns of inheritance, both Mendelian and complex. Finally, state standards vary widely in their coverage of genetics concepts when compared with the NGSS. On average, however, the NGSS support genetic literacy better than extant state standards.

  6. Assessing the Genetics Content in the Next Generation Science Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lontok, Katherine S; Zhang, Hubert; Dougherty, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Science standards have a long history in the United States and currently form the backbone of efforts to improve primary and secondary education in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Although there has been much political controversy over the influence of standards on teacher autonomy and student performance, little light has been shed on how well standards cover science content. We assessed the coverage of genetics content in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) using a consensus list of American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) core concepts. We also compared the NGSS against state science standards. Our goals were to assess the potential of the new standards to support genetic literacy and to determine if they improve the coverage of genetics concepts relative to state standards. We found that expert reviewers cannot identify ASHG core concepts within the new standards with high reliability, suggesting that the scope of content addressed by the standards may be inconsistently interpreted. Given results that indicate that the disciplinary core ideas (DCIs) included in the NGSS documents produced by Achieve, Inc. clarify the content covered by the standards statements themselves, we recommend that the NGSS standards statements always be viewed alongside their supporting disciplinary core ideas. In addition, gaps exist in the coverage of essential genetics concepts, most worryingly concepts dealing with patterns of inheritance, both Mendelian and complex. Finally, state standards vary widely in their coverage of genetics concepts when compared with the NGSS. On average, however, the NGSS support genetic literacy better than extant state standards.

  7. Trends of Science Education Research: An Automatic Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Chang, Chun-Yen; Tseng, Yuen-Hsien

    2010-08-01

    This study used scientometric methods to conduct an automatic content analysis on the development trends of science education research from the published articles in the four journals of International Journal of Science Education, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Research in Science Education, and Science Education from 1990 to 2007. The multi-stage clustering technique was employed to investigate with what topics, to what development trends, and from whose contribution that the journal publications constructed as a science education research field. This study found that the research topic of Conceptual Change & Concept Mapping was the most studied topic, although the number of publications has slightly declined in the 2000's. The studies in the themes of Professional Development, Nature of Science and Socio-Scientific Issues, and Conceptual Chang and Analogy were found to be gaining attention over the years. This study also found that, embedded in the most cited references, the supporting disciplines and theories of science education research are constructivist learning, cognitive psychology, pedagogy, and philosophy of science.

  8. Earth Systems Science in an Integrated Science Content and Methods Course for Elementary Education Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J. A.; Allen, D. E.; Donham, R. S.; Fifield, S. J.; Shipman, H. L.; Ford, D. J.; Dagher, Z. R.

    2004-12-01

    With funding from the National Science Foundation, we have designed an integrated science content and methods course for sophomore-level elementary teacher education (ETE) majors. This course, the Science Semester, is a 15-credit sequence that consists of three science content courses (Earth, Life, and Physical Science) and a science teaching methods course. The goal of this integrated science and education methods curriculum is to foster holistic understandings of science and pedagogy that future elementary teachers need to effectively use inquiry-based approaches in teaching science in their classrooms. During the Science Semester, traditional subject matter boundaries are crossed to stress shared themes that teachers must understand to teach standards-based elementary science. Exemplary approaches that support both learning science and learning how to teach science are used. In the science courses, students work collaboratively on multidisciplinary problem-based learning (PBL) activities that place science concepts in authentic contexts and build learning skills. In the methods course, students critically explore the theory and practice of elementary science teaching, drawing on their shared experiences of inquiry learning in the science courses. An earth system science approach is ideally adapted for the integrated, inquiry-based learning that takes place during the Science Semester. The PBL investigations that are the hallmark of the Science Semester provide the backdrop through which fundamental earth system interactions can be studied. For example in the PBL investigation that focuses on energy, the carbon cycle is examined as it relates to fossil fuels. In another PBL investigation centered on kids, cancer, and the environment, the hydrologic cycle with emphasis on surface runoff and ground water contamination is studied. In a PBL investigation that has students learning about the Delaware Bay ecosystem through the story of the horseshoe crab and the biome

  9. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Science Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Science Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Sadler, Troy D.

    2016-10-01

    Self-efficacy beliefs that relate to teachers' motivation and performance have been an important area of concern for preservice teacher education. Research suggests high-quality science coursework has the potential to shape preservice teachers' science self-efficacy beliefs. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between science self-efficacy beliefs and science content knowledge. The purpose of this mixed methods study is to investigate changes in preservice teachers' science self-efficacy beliefs and science content knowledge and the relationship between the two variables as they co-evolve in a specialized science content course. Results from pre- and post-course administrations of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument-B (Bleicher, 2004) and a physical science concept test along with semi-structured interviews, classroom observations and artifacts served as data sources for the study. The 18 participants belonged to three groups representing low, medium and high initial levels of self-efficacy beliefs. A repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance design was used to test the significance of differences between the pre- and post-surveys across time. Results indicated statistically significant gains in participants' science self-efficacy beliefs and science conceptual understandings. Additionally, a positive moderate relationship between gains in science conceptual understandings and gains in personal science teaching efficacy beliefs was found. Qualitative analysis of the participants' responses indicated positive shifts in their science teacher self-image and they credited their experiences in the course as sources of new levels of confidence to teach science. The study includes implications for preservice teacher education programs, science teacher education, and research.

  10. Examining the Nexus of Science Communication and Science Education: A Content Analysis of Genetics News Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicole A.

    2015-01-01

    Access to science information via communications in the media is rapidly becoming a central means for the public to gain knowledge about scientific advancements. However, little is known about what content knowledge is essential for understanding issues presented in news media. Very few empirical studies attempt to bridge science communication and…

  11. Preparing Science Teachers: Strong Emphasis on Science Content Course Work in a Master's Program in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajhar, Edward A.; Blackwell, E.; Quesada, D.

    2010-05-01

    In South Florida, science teacher preparation is often weak as a shortage of science teachers often prompts administrators to assign teachers to science classes just to cover the classroom needs. This results is poor preparation of students for college science course work, which, in turn, causes the next generation of science teachers to be even weaker than the first. This cycle must be broken in order to prepare better students in the sciences. At St. Thomas University in Miami Gardens, Florida, our School of Science has teamed with our Institute for Education to create a program to alleviate this problem: A Master of Science in Education with a Concentration in Earth/Space Science. The Master's program consists of 36 total credits. Half the curriculum consists of traditional educational foundation and instructional leadership courses while the other half is focused on Earth and Space Science content courses. The content area of 18 credits also provides a separate certificate program. Although traditional high school science education places a heavy emphasis on Earth Science, this program expands that emphasis to include the broader context of astronomy, astrophysics, astrobiology, planetary science, and the practice and philosophy of science. From this contextual basis the teacher is better prepared to educate and motivate middle and high school students in all areas of the physical sciences. Because hands-on experience is especially valuable to educators, our program uses materials and equipment including small optical telescopes (Galileoscopes), several 8-in and 14-in Celestron and Meade reflectors, and a Small Radio Telescope installed on site. (Partial funding provided by the US Department of Education through Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program grant P120A050062.)

  12. Vocabulary Constraint on Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sutarsyah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study was carried out in the English Education Department of State University of Malang. The aim of the study was to identify and describe the vocabulary in the reading text and to seek if the text is useful for reading skill development. A descriptive qualitative design was applied to obtain the data. For this purpose, some available computer programs were used to find the description of vocabulary in the texts. It was found that the 20 texts containing 7,945 words are dominated by low frequency words which account for 16.97% of the words in the texts. The high frequency words occurring in the texts were dominated by function words. In the case of word levels, it was found that the texts have very limited number of words from GSL (General Service List of English Words (West, 1953. The proportion of the first 1,000 words of GSL only accounts for 44.6%. The data also show that the texts contain too large proportion of words which are not in the three levels (the first 2,000 and UWL. These words account for 26.44% of the running words in the texts.  It is believed that the constraints are due to the selection of the texts which are made of a series of short-unrelated texts. This kind of text is subject to the accumulation of low frequency words especially those of content words and limited of words from GSL. It could also defeat the development of students' reading skills and vocabulary enrichment.

  13. Content analysis of science material in junior school-based inquiry and science process skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patonah, S.; Nuvitalia, D.; Saptaningrum, E.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to obtain the characteristic map of science material content in Junior School which can be optimized using inquiry learning model to tone the science process skill. The research method used in the form of qualitative research on SMP science curriculum document in Indonesia. Documents are reviewed on the basis of the basic competencies of each level as well as their potential to trace the skills of the science process using inquiry learning models. The review was conducted by the research team. The results obtained, science process skills in grade 7 have the potential to be trained using the model of inquiry learning by 74%, 8th grade by 83%, and grade 9 by 75%. For the dominant process skills in each chapter and each level is the observing skill. Follow-up research is used to develop instructional inquiry tools to trace the skills of the science process.

  14. Self-Directed Learning to Improve Science Content Knowledge for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Garderen, Delinda; Hanuscin, Deborah; Thomas, Cathy Newman; Stormont, Melissa; Lee, Eun J.

    2017-01-01

    Students with disabilities often struggle in science and underperform in this important content area when compared to their typical peers. Unfortunately, many special educators have had little preparation to develop science content knowledge or skills in methods for teaching science. Despite their lack of content knowledge, special educators are…

  15. The transformation of science and mathematics content knowledge into teaching content by university faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Natalie P.

    This study developed a survey from the existing literature in an attempt to illuminate the processes, tools, insights, and events that allow university science and mathematics content experts (Ph.D.'s) unpack their expertise in order to teach develop and teach undergraduate students. A pilot study was conducted at an urban university in order to refine the survey. The study consisted of 72 science or mathematics Ph.D. faculty members that teach at a research-based urban university. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 21 volunteer faculty to further explore their methods and tools for developing and implementing teaching within their discipline. Statistical analysis of the data revealed: faculty that taught while obtaining their Ph.D. were less confident in their ability to teach successful and faculty that received training in teaching believed that students have difficult to change misconceptions and do not commit enough time to their course. Student centered textbooks ranked the highest among tools used to gain teaching strategies followed by grading of exams and assignments for gaining insights into student knowledge and difficulties. Science and mathematics education literature and university provided education session ranked the lowest in rating scale for providing strategies for teaching. The open-ended survey questions were sub-divided and analyzed by the number of years of experience to identify the development of teaching knowledge over time and revealed that teaching became more interactive, less lecture based, and more engaging. As faculty matured and gained experience they became more aware of student misconceptions and difficulties often changing their teaching to eliminate such issues. As confidence levels increase their teaching included more technology-based tools, became more interactive, incorporated problem based activities, and became more flexible. This change occurred when and if faculty members altered their thinking about their

  16. Online Independent Vocabulary Learning Experience of Hong Kong University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Tang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to the limited vocabulary size of its undergraduates, an independent vocabulary learning platform, VLearn was designed and launched in a university in Hong Kong. As an elearning environment that supports self-directed vocabulary learning of Chinese learners, the primary aim of VLearn is to equip users with appropriate knowledge and skills for vocabulary expansion. This paper introduces the contents of VLearn, and the theoretical underpinnings of its design. It also reports on the vocabulary learning experience of its users during an eight week evaluation study. Suggestions are made on how independent vocabulary building at higher education, as well as comprehensive vocabulary instruction at early years could be supported by means of technology.

  17. The Effect of Physical Activity on Science Competence and Attitude towards Science Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkenborg, Ann Maria

    This study examines the effect of physical activity on science instruction. To combat the implications of physical inactivity, schools need to be willing to consider all possible opportunities for students to engage in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Integrating physical activity with traditional classroom content is one instructional method to consider. Researchers have typically focused on integration with English/language arts (ELA) and mathematics. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of physical activity on science competence and attitude towards science. Fifty-three third grade children participated in this investigation; one group received science instruction with a physical activity intervention while the other group received traditional science instruction. Participants in both groups completed a modified version of What I Really Think of Science attitude scale (Pell & Jarvis, 2001) and a physical science test of competence prior to and following the intervention. Children were videotaped during science instruction and their movement coded to measure the proportion of time spent in MVPA. Results revealed that children in the intervention group demonstrated greater MVPA during the instructional period. A moderate to large effect size (partial eta squared = .091) was seen in the intervention group science competence post-test indicating greater understanding of force, motion, work, and simple machines concepts than that of the control group who were less physically active. There was no statistically significant attitude difference between the intervention and control groups post-test, (F(1,51) = .375, p = .543). These results provide evidence that integration can effectively present physical science content and have a positive impact on the number of minutes of health-enhancing physical activity in a school day.

  18. Teaching the content and context of science: The effect of using historical narratives to teach the nature of science and science content in an undergraduate introductory geology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, David Winston

    This study reports the use of historically accurate narratives (short stories) to simultaneously teach geology content and the nature of science in an introductory, undergraduate geology course. The stories describe key events involved in the development of geologists' ideas about continental drift/plate tectonics and deep time/the age of the Earth. The design of the stories provides a highly contextualized setting which is designed to promote NOS and geology understanding by explicitly attending students to fundamental concepts and requiring students to reflect on the short story content. Evidence is reported to support the conclusion that students using these short stories constructed a better understanding of (1) the variety of processes involved in the construction of scientific knowledge, (2) the subjective nature of data that allows it to be interpreted differently by different scientists, and (3) the roles that culture and society play in determining the way in which scientific work is conducted and scientific ideas are constructed, while maintaining equal levels of understanding of geology content when compared to students who did not use the short stories. In some cases, students' preconceptions about objectivity in science, the degree to which scientific ideas can be considered as "proven" or "true," and the role of discovery in science appear to have adversely affected their ability to interpret the short story content in the ways intended. In addition, students' misconceptions about differences in how oceanic and continental plates were formed and geologists' use of relative and absolute dating techniques, especially the appropriate uses of radio-isotopic dating, are described. This study has implications for science instructors as they make efforts to efficiently use class time and curriculum resources to teach about the both the content and context of science and for geology instructors as they consider students' misconceptions about plate tectonics

  19. Collaboration Model for ESL and Content Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broer, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This study will examine strategies that ESL teachers and content teachers can use to help middle school ESL students acquire science vocabulary and meta-cognitive strategies for writing skills in non-fiction text forms. Two appendixes are included. (Contains 3 figures and 2 footnotes.)

  20. Early vocabulary development in children with bilateral cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välimaa, Taina; Kunnari, Sari; Laukkanen-Nevala, Päivi; Lonka, Eila

    2018-01-01

    Children with unilateral cochlear implants (CIs) may have delayed vocabulary development for an extended period after implantation. Bilateral cochlear implantation is reported to be associated with improved sound localization and enhanced speech perception in noise. This study proposed that bilateral implantation might also promote early vocabulary development. Knowledge regarding vocabulary growth and composition in children with bilateral CIs and factors associated with it may lead to improvements in the content of early speech and language intervention and family counselling. To analyse the growth of early vocabulary and its composition during the first year after CI activation and to investigate factors associated with vocabulary growth. The participants were 20 children with bilateral CIs (12 boys; eight girls; mean age at CI activation = 12.9 months). Vocabulary size was assessed with the Finnish version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) Infant Form and compared with normative data. Vocabulary composition was analysed in relation to vocabulary size. Growth curve modelling was implemented using a linear mixed model to analyse the effects of the following variables on early vocabulary growth: time, gender, maternal education, residual hearing with hearing aids, age at first hearing aid fitting and age at CI activation. Despite clear vocabulary growth over time, children with bilateral CIs lagged behind their age norms in receptive vocabulary during the first 12 months after CI activation. In expressive vocabulary, 35% of the children were able to catch up with their age norms, but 55% of the children lagged behind them. In receptive and expressive vocabularies of 1-20 words, analysis of different semantic categories indicated that social terms constituted the highest proportion. Nouns constituted the highest proportion in vocabularies of 101-400 words. The proportion of verbs remained below 20% and the proportion of function words and

  1. Teaching vocabulary using collocations versus using definitions in EFL classes

    OpenAIRE

    Altınok, Şerife İper

    2000-01-01

    Ankara : Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent Univ., 2000. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2000. Includes bibliographical references leaves 40-43 Teaching words in collocations is a comparatively new technique and it is accepted as an effective one in vocabulary teaching. The purpose of this study was to find out whether teaching vocabulary would result in better learning and remembering vocabulary items. This study investigated the differences betw...

  2. The impact of a curriculum course on pre-service primary teachers' science content knowledge and attitudes towards teaching science

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Clíona; Smith, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Many primary school teachers have insufficient content and pedagogical knowledge of science. This lack of knowledge can often lead to a lack of confidence and competence in teaching science. This article explores the impact of a year-long science methodology (curriculum science) course on second year Bachelor of Education (BEd) students' conceptual and pedagogical knowledge of science and on their attitudes towards teaching science in the primary classroom. A questionnaire, containing closed ...

  3. Notes on an Environmental Pollution Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Science Information Exchange.

    This vocabulary covering the field of environmental pollution was compiled by the staff of the Science Information Exchange, Smithsonian Institution. The view of the approach is to include an outline-classification all physical, life, and social science aspects of environmental pollution, trying to achieve a balance in the representation of each…

  4. The Impact of a Curriculum Course on Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Science Content Knowledge and Attitudes towards Teaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cliona; Smith, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Many primary school teachers have insufficient content and pedagogical knowledge of science. This lack of knowledge can often lead to a lack of confidence and competence in teaching science. This article explores the impact of a year-long science methodology (curriculum science) course on second year Bachelor of Education (BEd) students'…

  5. Science as Content, Science as Context: Working in the Science Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildy, Helen; Wallace, John

    2004-01-01

    In this study we explored how the science department shaped the relationship between a science department head, Mr Greg, and a teacher, Ms Horton, as they grappled with their expectations of, and responsibilities for, teaching and leadership in the daily life in the department. We found that, from their life histories and their positions in the…

  6. Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Feed Vocabulary was developed to consolidate all the major OPP Commodity Vocabularies into one standardized vocabulary. The EPA-preferred term is the only term that can be used in setting tolerances.

  7. A study of students' beliefs about vocabulary knowledge and acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Michelle Andersen

    Using the vocabulary of a discipline is important for students, especially in the sciences (Gee, 2003). Therefore, the extant literature has emphasized the need for more research on vocabulary knowledge and acquisition (Simpson, et al., 2004). This study investigated whether or not community college students' beliefs about vocabulary knowledge and acquisition changed as a result of a one-semester enrollment in a vocabulary-rich biology course. The rationale for the study, a review of the existing research underlying the study, the methodology of the study, and the results and conclusions of the study will be discussed.

  8. A Novel Multiple Choice Question Generation Strategy: Alternative Uses for Controlled Vocabulary Thesauri in Biomedical-Sciences Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopetegui, Marcelo A; Lara, Barbara A; Yen, Po-Yin; Çatalyürek, Ümit V; Payne, Philip R O

    2015-01-01

    Multiple choice questions play an important role in training and evaluating biomedical science students. However, the resource intensive nature of question generation limits their open availability, reducing their contribution to evaluation purposes mainly. Although applied-knowledge questions require a complex formulation process, the creation of concrete-knowledge questions (i.e., definitions, associations) could be assisted by the use of informatics methods. We envisioned a novel and simple algorithm that exploits validated knowledge repositories and generates concrete-knowledge questions by leveraging concepts' relationships. In this manuscript we present the development and validation of a prototype which successfully produced meaningful concrete-knowledge questions, opening new applications for existing knowledge repositories, potentially benefiting students of all biomedical sciences disciplines.

  9. Information Content in Radio Waves: Student Investigations in Radio Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, K.; Scaduto, T.

    2013-12-01

    We describe an inquiry-based instructional unit on information content in radio waves, created in the summer of 2013 as part of a MIT Haystack Observatory (Westford, MA) NSF Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) program. This topic is current and highly relevant, addressing science and technical aspects from radio astronomy, geodesy, and atmospheric research areas as well as Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Projects and activities range from simple classroom demonstrations and group investigations, to long term research projects incorporating data acquisition from both student-built instrumentation as well as online databases. Each of the core lessons is applied to one of the primary research centers at Haystack through an inquiry project that builds on previously developed units through the MIT Haystack RET program. In radio astronomy, students investigate the application of a simple and inexpensive software defined radio chip (RTL-SDR) for use in systems implementing a small and very small radio telescope (SRT and VSRT). Both of these systems allow students to explore fundamental principles of radio waves and interferometry as applied to radio astronomy. In ionospheric research, students track solar storms from the initial coronal mass ejection (using Solar Dynamics Observatory images) to the resulting variability in total electron density concentrations using data from the community standard Madrigal distributed database system maintained by MIT Haystack. Finally, students get to explore very long-baseline interferometry as it is used in geodetic studies by measuring crustal plate displacements over time. Alignment to NextGen standards is provided for each lesson and activity with emphasis on HS-PS4 'Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer'.

  10. Gaps in Science Content Knowledge Encountered during Teaching Practice: A Study of Early-Career Middle-School Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, Brian Edward

    2013-01-01

    Subject-specific content knowledge is crucial for effective science teaching, yet many teachers are entering the field not fully equipped with all the science content knowledge they need to effectively teach the subject. Learning from practice is one approach to bridging the gap between what practicing teachers know and what they need to know.…

  11. Using E-Books to Acquire Foundational Academic Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Matthew L.; Spies, Tracy G.; Morgan, Joseph J.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary students identified as English language learners or with learning disabilities present diverse vocabulary and academic challenges related to their exceptional language needs. Limited academic vocabulary may hinder students in accessing academic content and serve as a barrier to achievement. The literature has documented the use of…

  12. Motivate Students to Engage in Word Study Using Vocabulary Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jenny C.; Narkon, Drue E.

    2011-01-01

    Vocabulary instruction across the content areas aids reading comprehension, making it time well spent in the classroom. Although students with learning disabilities (LD) need many practice opportunities to learn new words, engaging them in vocabulary instruction may prove challenging. Due to their past difficulties in acquiring reading skills,…

  13. Effects of Hierarchy Vocabulary Exercises on English Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Ying; Hsu, Wei Shu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of hierarchy vocabulary exercises and copying vocabulary exercises on EFL students' vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension. Two specific factors were probed: (a) vocabulary gains and retention from different exercises; (b) reading comprehension performance through different…

  14. History of science content analysis of Chinese science textbooks from the perspective of acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yongjun; Wan, Yanlan

    2017-08-01

    Based on previous international studies, a content analysis scheme has been designed and used from the perspective of culture to study the history of science (HOS) in science textbooks. Nineteen sets of Chinese science textbooks have been analyzed. It has been found that there are noticeable changes in the quantity, content, layout, presentation, and writing intention of the HOS sections in textbooks from different time periods. What's more, the textbooks aim at presenting the scientific culture and aim to help students understand it better. However, the cultural associations of the HOS in textbooks is insufficient and significant differences exist among textbooks of different subjects. In order to explore the reasons why the presentation of HOS in various subjects is different, we made a specific comparison of curriculum standards of two subjects with great differences and interviewed the editors-in-chief of two textbooks. Results show that one of the most important reasons for the different writings of the HOS in textbooks is that different subject curriculum standards attach greater importance to the HOS. In addition, the attention to the HOS by editors-in-chief, the tradition of studying the HOS within the history of the discipline, and the reference textbooks in compiling textbooks are all important influence factors. Some suggestions for future textbooks compilation are given at the end.

  15. The Vocabulary Scores of Company Presidents. Technical Report 1984-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard M.; Supanich, Gary P.

    In June 1983, 456 presidents from among 5,000 of the largest companies in the United States took a vocabulary test designed by the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation, with the purpose of reexaming the contention that a large and exact vocabulary is an attribute characterizing executives. This Executive Vocabulary Test consisted of 50…

  16. Effects of a Science Content Course on Elementary Preservice Teachers' Self-Efficacy of Teaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Daniel J.; Morphew, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The preparation of elementary teachers to successfully teach science in their classrooms is a central issue in science education. The teacher preparation program at a large Midwestern university was modified to include a new science content course aimed at this need. A pre-/postassessment research model involved participants (N = 154) completing a…

  17. Integrating Science and Technology: Using Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge as a Framework to Study the Practices of Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Rose M.; Dawson, Kara; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined how teachers involved in a yearlong technology integration initiative planned to enact technological, pedagogical, and content practices in science lessons. These science teachers, engaged in an initiative to integrate educational technology in inquiry-based science lessons, provided a total of 525 lesson plans for this…

  18. Promoting Creative Thinking and Expression of Science Concepts among Elementary Teacher Candidates through Science Content Movie Creation and Showcasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechter, Richard P.; Guy, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the phases of design and use of video editing technology as a medium for creatively expressing science content knowledge in an elementary science methods course. Teacher candidates communicated their understanding of standards-based core science concepts through the creation of original digital movies. The movies were assigned…

  19. RMOS Contents - RMOS | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available search(/contents-en/) != -1 || url.search(/index-e.html/) != -1 ) { document.getElementById(lang).innerHTML=.../) != -1 ) { url = url.replace(-e.html,.html); document.getElementById(lang).innerHTML=[ Japanese |...en/,/jp/); document.getElementById(lang).innerHTML=[ Japanese | English ]; } else if ( url.search(//contents...//) != -1 ) { url = url.replace(/contents/,/contents-en/); document.getElementById(lang).innerHTML=[ Japanes...e(/contents-en/,/contents/); document.getElementById(lang).innerHTML=[ Japanese | English ]; } else if( url.

  20. Vocabulary Control for Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, F. W.

    This book deals with properties of vocabularies for indexing and searching document collections; the construction, organization, display, and maintenance of these vocabularies; and the vocabulary as a factor affecting the performance of retrieval systems. Most of the text is concerned with vocabularies for post-coordinate retrieval systems, with…

  1. Linking open vocabularies

    CERN Document Server

    Greifender, Elke; Seadle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Linked Data (LD), Linked Open Data (LOD) and generating a web of data, present the new knowledge sharing frontier. In a philosophical context, LD is an evolving environment that reflects humankinds' desire to understand the world by drawing on the latest technologies and capabilities of the time. LD, while seemingly a new phenomenon did not emerge overnight; rather it represents the natural progression by which knowledge structures are developed, used, and shared. Linked Open Vocabularies is a significant trajectory of LD. Linked Open Vocabularies targets vocabularies that have traditionally b

  2. Learning from Rookie Mistakes: Critical Incidents in Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teaching Science to Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cite, Suleyman; Lee, Eun; Menon, Deepika; Hanuscin, Deborah L.

    2017-01-01

    While there is a growing literature focused on doctoral preparation for teaching about science teaching, rarely have recommendations extended to preparation for teaching science content to teachers. We three doctoral students employ self-study as a research methodology to investigate our developing pedagogical content knowledge for teaching…

  3. Impact of Secondary Students' Content Knowledge on Their Communication Skills in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulgemeyer, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    The "expert blind spot" (EBS) hypothesis implies that even some experts with a high content knowledge might have problems in science communication because they are using the structure of the content rather than their addressee's prerequisites as an orientation. But is that also true for students? Explaining science to peers is a crucial…

  4. Student and Teacher Perceptions of a Mobile-Based Biology Vocabulary Study Tool for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Maria B.

    English language learners studying biology face a dual challenge of mastering both content and language. Teaching ELLs how to engage in scientific discourse using appropriate language to ask, answer, explain, and make predictions about science requires a foundational knowledge of content-specific vocabulary. This study used qualitative interviews with intermediate-level ELLs at an American high school to learn how a supplemental iPod-based vocabulary review tool influenced their perceptions of learning biology vocabulary outside of classroom hours. Interviews with their biology teacher were also used to complement student testimony from the point of view of an educational professional with ELL teaching experience. Past studies in the area of mobile learning have primarily employed questionnaires to gather feedback from participants. This research study adds greater participant voice to the body of literature that encompasses mobile language learning, second language acquisition, and science education by presenting nuanced opinions from both students and teachers. This dissertation concludes with a discussion on the influence that this study could have on further research in the fields of mobile learning, academic vocabulary, and student learning behaviors.

  5. Gender Stereotypes in Science Education Resources: A Visual Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoven, Anne H; Russo, Pedro; Land-Zandstra, Anne M; Saxena, Aayush; Rodenburg, Frans J

    2016-01-01

    More men are studying and working in science fields than women. This could be an effect of the prevalence of gender stereotypes (e.g., science is for men, not for women). Aside from the media and people's social lives, such stereotypes can also occur in education. Ways in which stereotypes are visible in education include the use of gender-biased visuals, language, teaching methods, and teachers' attitudes. The goal of this study was to determine whether science education resources for primary school contained gender-biased visuals. Specifically, the total number of men and women depicted, and the profession and activity of each person in the visuals were noted. The analysis showed that there were more men than women depicted with a science profession and that more women than men were depicted as teachers. This study shows that there is a stereotypical representation of men and women in online science education resources, highlighting the changes needed to create a balanced representation of men and women. Even if the stereotypical representation of men and women in science is a true reflection of the gender distribution in science, we should aim for a more balanced representation. Such a balance is an essential first step towards showing children that both men and women can do science, which will contribute to more gender-balanced science and technology fields.

  6. Tagging vs. Controlled Vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Petras, Vivien

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of social tagging has sparked a great deal of debate on whether tags could replace or improve upon professional metadata as descriptors of books and other information objects. In this paper we present a large-scale empirical comparison of the contributions of individual information...... that tags and controlled vocabulary terms do not actually outperform each other consistently, but seem to provide complementary contributions: some information needs are best addressed using controlled vocabulary terms whereas other are best addressed using tags....

  7. Influence of Native Language Vocabulary and Topic Knowledge on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning in Health Care Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Foresee Drumhiller

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Adults attending short, language for specific purpose courses may have expertise not utilized in general foreign language courses. The present study investigates two factors that may influence the acquisition of medical Spanish vocabulary in such persons: native English vocabulary size and topic knowledge. Forty-four health care workers attended 12 hr of medical Spanish instruction. Prior to instruction, the Nelson–Denny Vocabulary Test, a Medical Spanish vocabulary test, and an English Medical Terminology Test (an indicator of topic knowledge were administered. The Medical Spanish Vocabulary Test was readministered at posttest. Individually, both English medical terminology knowledge and English vocabulary size were significant predictors of medical Spanish vocabulary acquisition, but English medical terminology knowledge explained most of the variance in medical Spanish vocabulary acquisition. The results are discussed in terms of the impact of expert memory organization on the ability to learn new labels in a second language. A curricular shift toward content-centered vocabulary in language for specific purpose courses may be advantageous for some groups of foreign language learners.

  8. Developing pre-service science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge by using training program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomkan, Watinee; Suwannoi, Paisan

    2018-01-01

    A training program was developed for enhancing pre-service science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). The pre-service science teachers are able to: understand science curriculum, knowledge of assessment in science, knowledge of students' understanding of science, instructional strategies and orientations towards science teaching, which is conceptualized as PCK [5]. This study examined the preservice science teachers' understandings and their practices which include five pre-service science teachers' PCK. In this study, the participants demonstrated their PCK through the process of the training program by writing content representations (CoRes), preparing the lesson plans, micro-teaching, and actual teaching respectively. All pre-service science teachers' performs were collected by classroom observations. Then, they were interviewed. The results showed that the pre-service science teachers progressively developed knowledge components of PCK. Micro-teaching is the key activities for developing PCK. However, they had some difficulties in their classroom teaching. They required of sufficient ability to design appropriate instructional strategies and assessment activities for teaching. Blending content and pedagogy is also a matter of great concern. The implication of this study was that science educators can enhance pre-service science teachers' PCK by fostering their better understandings of the instructional strategies, assessment activities and blending between content and pedagogy in their classroom.

  9. Doing the Project and Learning the Content: Designing Project-Based Science Curricula for Meaningful Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Project-based science curricula can improve students' usable or meaningful understanding of the science content underlying a project. However, such curricula designed around "performances" wherein students design or make something do not always do this. We researched ways to design performance project-based science curricula (pPBSc) to better…

  10. Gender Stereotypes in Science Education Resources : A Visual Content Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoven, A.H.; Rodrigues, Dos Santos Russo P.M.; Land, A.M.; Saxena, A.; Rodenburg, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    More men are studying and working in science fields than women. This could be an effect of the prevalence of gender stereotypes (e.g., science is for men, not for women). Aside from the media and people’s social lives, such stereotypes can also occur in education. Ways in which stereotypes are

  11. Preschoolers' Recall of Science Content from Educational Videos Presented with and without Songs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Rachel L.

    2013-01-01

    This experimental investigation evaluated the impact of educational songs on a child's ability to recall scientific content from an educational television program. Preschoolers' comprehension of the educational content was examined by measuring children's ability to recall the featured science content (the function of a pulley and…

  12. Pre-Service Science Teachers in Xinjiang "Scientific Inquiry" - Pedagogical Content Knowledge Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yufeng; Xiong, Jianwen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific inquiry is one of the science curriculum content, "Scientific inquiry" - Pedagogical Content Knowledge is the face of scientific inquiry and teachers - of course pedagogical content knowledge and scientific inquiry a teaching practice with more direct expertise. Pre-service teacher training phase of acquisition of knowledge is…

  13. Making Sense of Principal Leadership in Content Areas: The Case of Secondary Math and Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, Chad R.; Acker-Hocevar, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We drew upon sense making and leadership content knowledge to explore how high school administrators' understanding of content areas informed their leadership. We used math and science to illustrate our interpretations, noting that other content areas may pose different challenges. We found that principals' limited understanding of these content…

  14. A content-oriented model for science exhibit engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Recently, science museums have begun to review their educational purposes and redesign their pedagogies. At the most basic level, this entails accounting for the performance of individual exhibits, and indeed, in some cases, research indicates shortcomings in exhibit design: While often successful......: as a means to operationalize the link between exhibit features and visitor activities; and as a template to transform scientists’ practices in the research context into visitors’ activities in the exhibit context. The resulting model of science exhibit engineering is presented and exemplified, and its...... implications for science exhibit design are discussed at three levels: the design product, the design process, and the design methodology....

  15. The Poetry of Dandelions: Merging Content-Area Literacy and Science Content Knowledge in a Fourth-Grade Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Lauren; Peel, Anne; Watson, Heather

    2014-01-01

    As teachers begin to implement the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), they are challenged to focus on informational texts across the disciplines and engage children in critical thinking about complex scientific ideas. In this article, we present an integrated science-language arts lesson that explores…

  16. Using an Online Vocabulary Memorization Tool versus Traditional Vocabulary Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Bakla

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to reveal what Memrise, an online vocabulary study tool, can offer to upper-intermediate EFL learners compared to traditional vocabulary exercises in L2 vocabulary learning. Two groups of upper-intermediate learners (N=80 were randomly assigned to the experimental group and the control group and were given the Vocabulary Knowledge Scale, VKS for short, as the pre-test and post-test. The participants in both groups were exposed to the target vocabulary items in the same reading text. While those in the experimental group created list of target vocabulary items collaboratively in Memrise and then studied the sets individually, the learners in the control group did traditional vocabulary exercises. The results of the post-tests indicated that there was a significant difference between the control group and the experimental group in favor of the experimental group. The researchers discuss possible pedagogical implications of this significant finding for EFL vocabulary instruction.

  17. Investigation of Technological Pedagogy Content Knowledge of Pre-Service Science and Technology Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Bayram AKARSU; Esra GÜVEN

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) of 3rd and 4th year prospective science teachers, enrollment at the faculty of education, with respect to the technological knowledge (TK), pedagogical knowledge (PK), content knowledge (CK), technological pedagogical knowledge (TPC), pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and information in the technological content (TPC). These knowledge types are intersection of the sub-dimensions to determine whe...

  18. A content analysis of physical science textbooks with regard to the nature of science and ethnic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kristine M.

    The goal of science education is the preparation of scientifically literate students (Abd-El-Khalick & Lederman, 2000, & American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 1990). In order to instruct students in the nature of science with its history, development, methods and applications, science teachers use textbooks as the primary organizer for the curriculum (Chippetta, Ganesh, Lee, & Phillips, 2006). Science textbooks are the dominant instructional tool that exerts great influence on instructional content and its delivery (Wang, 1998). Science and science literacy requires acquiring knowledge about the natural world and understanding its application in society, or, in other words, the nature of science. An understanding of the nature of science is an important part of science literacy (Abd-El-Khalik & Lederman, 2000, & AAAS, 1990). The nature of science has four basic themes or dimensions: science as a body of knowledge, science as a way of thinking, science as a way of investigating, and science with its interaction with technology and society (Chippetta & Koballa, 2006). Textbooks must relay and incorporate these themes to promote science literacy. The results from this content analysis provide further insights into science textbooks and their content with regard to the inclusion of the nature of science and ethnic diversity. Science textbooks usually downplay human influences (Clough & Olson, 2004) whether as part of the nature of science with its historical development or its interaction with societies of diverse cultures. Minority students are underperforming in science and science is divided on ethnic, linguistic, and gender identity (Brown, 2005). Greater representations of diversity in curriculum materials enable minority students to identify with science (Nines, 2000). Textbooks, with their influence on curriculum and presentation, must include links for science and students of diverse cultures. What is the balance of the four aspects of the

  19. Using Vocabulary Notebooks for Vocabulary Acquisition and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiner, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is recognized as an essential element for second language acquisition and reading comprehension. One known way to encourage and support vocabulary development amongst second language learners is keeping a vocabulary notebook. The primary purpose of the present study was to document two aspects of student teachers' own…

  20. Cartography and Geographic Information Science in Current Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cartography and Geographic Information Science (CaGIS journal was published as The American Cartographer from 1974 to 1989, after that as Cartography and Geographic Information System, and since then has been published with its current name. It is published by the Cartography and Geographic Information Society, a member of the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping.

  1. How Augmented Reality Enables Conceptual Understanding of Challenging Science Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Susan; Anderson, Emma; Lin, Joyce; Elinich, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Research on learning about science has revealed that students often hold robust misconceptions about a number of scientific ideas. Digital simulation and dynamic visualization tools have helped to ameliorate these learning challenges by providing scaffolding to understand various aspects of the phenomenon. In this study we hypothesize that…

  2. "If I write like a scientist, then soy un cientifico": Differentiated Writing Supports and the Effects on Fourth-Grade English Proficient Students' and English Language Learners' Science Content Knowledge and Explanatory Writing About Magnetism and Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichon, Kathryn A.

    The purpose of this pre-post quasi-experimental dissertation was to investigate the effects of differentiated writing supports on English Proficient Students' (EPSs) and English Language Learners' (ELLs) science content knowledge and explanatory writing about magnetism and electricity. Eighty-seven fourth-grade students (EPSs = 35; ELLs = 52) were randomly assigned to two groups based on two differentiated writing: guided questions ( n = 43) or targeted writing frames (n = 44). In the guided questions condition, students completed four question sets after a science investigation, and in the targeted writing frames condition, students completed the same four question sets, but with explicit support for vocabulary, transitions, and relational language in the form of if-then statements. Over the course of the four week intervention, students completed a total of nine writing tasks, and were pretested and posttested on six variables: magnetism and electricity content knowledge test, explanatory writing task, total number of words written, total number of sentences written, number of if-then statements, and number of content-based vocabulary words. Results indicate that EPSs and ELLs in both writing conditions improved significantly from pretest to posttest on six content and explanatory writing variables, with statistically significant gain scores occurring for the magnetism and electricity content knowledge test in which the targeted writing frames condition had a larger rate of gain. ANCOVA results indicated that in comparing writing conditions, a statistically significant difference was found for magnetism and electricity content knowledge posttests, when controlling for pretests. No statistically significant effects for language classification on the six variables were found when controlling for pretest scores. Interaction effects between writing condition and language classification were statistically significantly different for the interaction effect found on if

  3. THE VOCABULARY TEACHING AND VOCABULARY LEARNING: PERCEPTION, STRATEGIES, AND INFLUENCES ON STUDENTS' VOCABULARY MASTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Nur Asyiah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary plays pivotal role in foreign language learning. However, vocabulary teaching and vocabulary learning in TEFL seems to be neglected. The study was aimed to investigate how vocabulary teaching and learning are perceived by teacher and students, strategies to teach and learn the vocabulary, and also influences of students’ vocabulary learning strategy on their vocabulary mastery. Accordingly, a mix method design was employed to one English teacher and 30 junior high school students to reveal the issues being investigated. The findings showed that both teacher and students have positive response on vocabulary teaching and learning. Concerning strategies, it was found that teacher mostly employed Fully-contextual strategy, meanwhile Determination and Metacognitive strategy were found as the most favored VLS chosen by students. The study also confirmed that there is a significant relationship between students’ vocabulary learning strategy and their vocabulary mastery (r-value Discovery = .023 and r-value Consolidating = .000, p<.05. It is recommended for EFL teachers to give a bigger portion to vocabulary in the EFL teaching and to teach vocabulary using the combination of fully-contextual and de-contextual strategy. It is also suggested to introduce students to various kinds of vocabulary learning strategies.  

  4. Analysis of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) ability of science teachers in planning and reflecting on environmental pollution content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwianingsih, W.; Mardiyah, A.

    2018-05-01

    Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) is a blend of content knowledge and pedagogy knowledge, which can illustrate the ability of teachers to design and to teach a content by accessing what they knows about the material, students, curriculum and how best to teach the content. Description of PCK ability of science teachers can be accessed through an analysis of their ability to plan and reflect on learning. This study aims to provide an overview of teachers’ PCK skills on environmental pollution materials through use of Content Representation (CoRe) and Pedagogical and Professional-experience Repertoires (PaP-eRs). Descriptive method used in this study with six of science teachers on 7th class from three different schools as subject. The results show that teachers’ PCK skills in planning through CoRe and reflecting through PaP-eRs are in fairly good category. The teacher’s ability in implementing environmental pollution learning materials is in good category. However, there is still a discrepancy between planning through CoRe and the implementation of classroom learning. The teacher’s PCK is influenced by teaching experience and educational background.

  5. Do Subject Matter Knowledge, and Pedagogical Content Knowledge Constitute the Ideal Gas Law of Science Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Norman G.; Gess-Newsome, Julie

    1992-01-01

    Describes Pedagogical Content Knowledge and focuses on the empirical research directly concerned with the relationship between science teachers' subject matter knowledge or structures and actual classroom practice. Concludes there is little evidence that a relationship exists. (PR)

  6. Capturing and portraying science student teachers' pedagogical content knowledge through CoRe construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongnoppakun, Warangkana; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is an essential kind of knowledge that teacher have for teaching particular content to particular students for enhance students' understanding, therefore, teachers with adequate PCK can give content to their students in an understandable way rather than transfer subject matter knowledge to learner. This study explored science student teachers' PCK for teaching science using Content representation base methodology. Research participants were 68 4th year science student teachers from department of General Science, faculty of Education, Phuket Rajabhat University. PCK conceptualization for teaching science by Magnusson et al. (1999) was applied as a theoretical framework in this study. In this study, Content representation (CoRe) by Loughran et al. (2004) was employed as research methodology in the lesson preparation process. In addition, CoRe consisted of eight questions (CoRe prompts) that designed to elicit and portray teacher's PCK for teaching science. Data were collected from science student teachers' CoRes design for teaching a given topic and student grade. Science student teachers asked to create CoRes design for teaching in topic `Motion in one direction' for 7th grade student and further class discussion. Science student teachers mostly created a same group of science concepts according to subunits of school science textbook rather than planned and arranged content to support students' understanding. Furthermore, they described about the effect of student's prior knowledge and learning difficulties such as students' knowledge of Scalar and Vector quantity; and calculating skill. These responses portrayed science student teacher's knowledge of students' understanding of science and their content knowledge. However, they still have inadequate knowledge of instructional strategies and activities for enhance student learning. In summary, CoRes design can represented holistic overviews of science student teachers' PCK related

  7. Embedded Simultaneous Prompting Procedure to Teach STEM Content to High School Students with Moderate Disabilities in an Inclusive Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Sara; Collins, Belva C.; Knight, Victoria; Spriggs, Amy D.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of an embedded simultaneous prompting procedure to teach STEM (science, technology, engineering, math) content to three secondary students with moderate intellectual disabilities in an inclusive general education classroom were evaluated in the current study. Students learned discrete (i.e., geometric figures, science vocabulary, or use of…

  8. Analysis of the effect of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrosse, Peggy

    . The vocabulary knowledge was examined by means of multiple-choice pre- and post-tests which were administered to all student participants. The choices included a scientific synonym, an everyday synonym, and a synonym based on a common misconception related to the term. Student understanding of the chemistry content was examined using chemistry content understanding pre- and post-tests comprised of four probes based on the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996) and linked to common student misconceptions which were administered to all student participants. Vocabulary knowledge effect scores were compared between the TG and CG using a t-test. Only a slight gain in vocabulary knowledge mean effect scores was found in the TG compared to the CG; however, it was not statistically significant. Chemistry content understanding effect scores were compared between the TG and CG using Chi-square analysis. The results of the chemistry content understanding effect scores in the TG compared to the CG showed that the student participants in the CG did significantly better. Chemistry content understanding effect scores and vocabulary knowledge effect scores were compared using a t-test. Chapter V provides explanations for the results which do not corroborate those found by other researchers. The researcher contends that the use of the Frayer model for specific terms in content across the curriculum is worth further study.

  9. Content Is King: Databases Preserve the Collective Information of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, John R

    2018-04-01

    Databases store sequence information experimentally gathered to create resources that further science. In the last 20 years databases have become critical components of fields like proteomics where they provide the basis for large-scale and high-throughput proteomic informatics. Amos Bairoch, winner of the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities Frederick Sanger Award, has created some of the important databases proteomic research depends upon for accurate interpretation of data.

  10. Effect of the science teaching advancement through modeling physical science professional development workshop on teachers' attitudes, beliefs and content knowledge and students' content knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Laura

    The Science Teaching Advancement through Modeling Physical Science (STAMPS) professional development workshop was evaluated for effectiveness in improving teachers' and students' content knowledge. Previous research has shown modeling to be an effective method of instruction for improving student and teacher content knowledge, evidenced by assessment scores. Data includes teacher scores on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI; Hestenes, Wells, & Swackhamer, 1992) and the Chemistry Concept Inventory (CCI; Jenkins, Birk, Bauer, Krause, & Pavelich, 2004), as well as student scores on a physics and chemistry assessment. Quantitative data is supported by teacher responses to a post workshop survey and classroom observations. Evaluation of the data shows that the STAMPS professional development workshop was successful in improving both student and teacher content knowledge. Conclusions and suggestions for future study are also included.

  11. contents.htm | nov102005 | currsci | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; currsci; nov102005; contents.htm. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year meeting of the Academy will be ...

  12. contents.htm | currsci | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; currsci; contents.htm. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year meeting of the Academy will be held from ...

  13. Promoting pedagogical content knowledge development for early career secondary teachers in science and technology using content representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John; Eames, Chris; Hume, Anne; Lockley, John

    2012-11-01

    Background: This research addressed the key area of early career teacher education and aimed to explore the use of a 'content representation' (CoRe) as a mediational tool to develop early career secondary teacher pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). This study was situated in the subject areas of science and technology, where sound teacher knowledge is particularly important to student engagement. Purpose: The study was designed to examine whether such a tool (a CoRe), co-designed by an early career secondary teacher with expert content and pedagogy specialists, can enhance the PCK of early career teachers. The research questions were: How can experts in content and pedagogy work together with early career teachers to develop one science topic CoRe and one technology topic CoRe to support the development of PCK for early career secondary teachers? How does the use of a collaboratively designed CoRe affect the planning of an early career secondary teacher in science or technology? How has engagement in the development and use of an expert-informed CoRe developed an early career teacher's PCK? Sample: The research design incorporated a unique partnership between two expert classroom teachers, two content experts, four early career teachers, and four researchers experienced in science and technology education. Design: This study employed an interpretivist-based methodology and an action research approach within a four-case study design. Data were gathered using qualitative research methods focused on semi-structured interviews, observations and document analysis. Results: The study indicated that CoRes, developed through this collaborative process, helped the early career teachers focus on the big picture of the topic, emphasize particularly relevant areas of content and consider alternative ways of planning for their teaching. Conclusions: This paper presents an analysis of the process of CoRe development by the teacher-expert partnerships and the effect that had on

  14. Sources of Science Teaching Self-Efficacy for Preservice Elementary Teachers in Science Content Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Sadler, Troy D.

    2018-01-01

    Self-efficacy beliefs play a major role in determining teachers' science teaching practices and have been a topic of great interest in the area of preservice science teacher education. This qualitative study investigated factors that influenced preservice elementary teachers' science teaching self-efficacy beliefs in a physical science content…

  15. Learning on the Trail: A Content Analysis of a University Arboretum's Exemplary Interpretive Science Signage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandersee, James H.; Clary, Renee M.

    2007-01-01

    This is an in-depth content analysis of an exemplary outdoor science signage system. The authors offer useful criteria for assessing the quality of the "opportunity to learn" within science signage systems in informal educational sites. This research may be helpful in the design or improvement of trailside interpretive signage systems.

  16. Examining science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge in the context of a professional development program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wongsopawiro, Dirk Soenario

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation reports on the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of science teachers during a professional development program. This research intended to help us understand why and how teachers make their classroom decisions as they teach science. The main questions in this study were: What is

  17. Investigating Coherence among Turkish Elementary Science Teachers' Teaching Belief Systems, Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcivan, Eralp; Cobern, William W.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated comprehensive science teaching belief systems and their relation to science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and teaching practices. Rokeach's (1968) belief system was used as a framework for representing the hierarchy among in-service teachers' teaching beliefs. This study employed a multiple case study design with…

  18. Brain Based Learning in Science Education in Turkey: Descriptive Content and Meta Analysis of Dissertations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, M. Diyaddin

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at performing content analysis and meta-analysis on dissertations related to brain-based learning in science education to find out the general trend and tendency of brain-based learning in science education and find out the effect of such studies on achievement and attitude of learners with the ultimate aim of raising awareness…

  19. The Effect of Scaffolded Strategies on Content Learning in a Designed Science Cyberlearning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Cynthia Lee

    2013-01-01

    Scientific inscriptions--graphs, diagrams, and data--and argumentation are integral to generating and communicating scientific understanding. Scientific inscriptions and argumentation are also important to learning science. However, previous research has indicated that learners struggle to understand and learn science content represented in…

  20. The use of quasi-experiments in the social sciences : A content analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aussems, M.E.; Boomsma, A.; Snijders, T.A.B.

    This article examines the use of various research designs in the social sciences as well as the choices that are made when a quasi-experimental design is used. A content analysis was carried out on articles published in 18 social science journals with various impact factors. The presence of

  1. A Mixed Methods Content Analysis of the Research Literature in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Asta B.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, more and more researchers in science education have been turning to the practice of combining qualitative and quantitative methods in the same study. This approach of using mixed methods creates possibilities to study the various issues that science educators encounter in more depth. In this content analysis, I evaluated 18…

  2. Examining the Teaching of Science, and Technology and Engineering Content and Practices: An Instrument Modification Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Wells, John G.; Parkes, Kelly A.

    2017-01-01

    A modified Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) (Piburn & Sawada, 2000) instrument was used to separately examine eight technology and engineering (T&E) educators' teaching of science, and T&E content and practices, as called for by the "Standards for Technological Literacy: Content for the Study of Technology"…

  3. Vocabulary by Gamification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Tara L.; Grabner-Hagen, Melissa M.

    2018-01-01

    Gamification uses game elements such as quests, challenges, levels, and rewards to motivate and engage students in the classroom. Given the engagement that students feel during gameplay, it is sensible to include elements of game design to motivate students and create a space for comprehensive vocabulary instruction. Designing a gamified…

  4. Teaching Vocabulary in Colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoinska, Anna

    1998-01-01

    Describes one teacher's use of color to make classroom instruction more interesting. Techniques included using colored paper for handouts, conducting an experiment to see whether the use of colors could enhance students' memory power, and using colored flashcards to teach vocabulary. (Author/VWL)

  5. Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching Science to Improve Student Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Robert L.

    The majority of Grade 5 students demonstrate limited science knowledge on state assessments. This trend has been documented since 2010 with no evidence of improvement. Because state accountability formulas include proficiency scores and carry sanctions against districts that fail to meet proficiency thresholds, improved student performance in science is an important issue to school districts. The purpose of this study was to explore elementary teachers' perceptions about their students' science knowledge, the strategies used to teach science, the barriers affecting science teaching, and the self-efficacy beliefs teachers maintain for teaching science. This study, guided by Vygotsky's social constructivist theory and Bandura's concept of self-efficacy, was a bounded instrumental case study in which 15 participants, required to be teaching K-5 elementary science in the county, were interviewed. An analytic technique was used to review the qualitative interview data through open coding, clustering, and analytical coding resulting in identified categorical themes that addressed the research questions. Key findings reflect students' limited content knowledge in earth and physical science. Teachers identified barriers including limited science instructional time, poor curricular resources, few professional learning opportunities, concern about new state standards, and a lack of teaching confidence. To improve student content knowledge, teachers identified the need for professional development. The project is a professional development series provided by a regional education service agency for K-5 teachers to experience science and engineering 3-dimensional learning. Area students will demonstrate deeper science content knowledge and benefit from improved science instructional practice and learning opportunities to become science problem solvers and innovative contributors to society.

  6. The Language of Mathematics: The Importance of Teaching and Learning Mathematical Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccomini, Paul J.; Smith, Gregory W.; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Fries, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary understanding is a major contributor to overall comprehension in many content areas, including mathematics. Effective methods for teaching vocabulary in all content areas are diverse and long standing. Teaching and learning the language of mathematics is vital for the development of mathematical proficiency. Students' mathematical…

  7. Mapping science communication scholarship in China: Content analysis on breadth, depth and agenda of published research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Linjia; Huang, Biaowen; Wu, Guosheng

    2015-11-01

    This study attempted to illuminate the cause and relation between government, scholars, disciplines, and societal aspects, presenting data from a content analysis of published research with the key word "science communication" (Symbol: see text) in the title or in the key words, including academic papers published in journals and dissertations from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database. Of these, 572 articles were coded using categories that identified science topics, theory, authorship, and methods used in each study to examine the breadth and depth that Science Communication has achieved since its inception in China. This study explored the dominance of History and Philosophy of Science scholars rather than Communication scholars. We also explored how science communication research began from theories and concepts instead of science report analysis and the difficulties of the shift from public understanding of science to public engagement in China. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Rethinking the Elementary Science Methods Course: A Case for Content, Pedagogy, and Informal Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Indicates the importance of preparing prospective teachers who will be elementary science teachers with different methods. Presents the theoretical and practical rationale for developing a constructivist-based elementary science methods course. Discusses the impact student knowledge and understanding of science and student attitudes has on…

  9. Teaching science content in nursing programs in Australia: a cross-sectional survey of academics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, Melanie; Ralph, Nicholas; Cant, Robyn; Hillman, Elspeth; Chun Tie, Ylona

    2015-01-01

    Professional nursing practice is informed by biological, social and behavioural sciences. In undergraduate pre-registration nursing programs, biological sciences typically include anatomy, physiology, microbiology, chemistry, physics and pharmacology. The current gap in the literature results in a lack of information about the content and depth of biological sciences being taught in nursing curricula. The aim of this study was to establish what priority is given to the teaching of science topics in these programs in order to inform an understanding of the relative importance placed on this subject area in contemporary nursing education. This study employed a cross-sectional survey method. This paper reports on the first phase of a larger project examining science content in nursing programs. An existing questionnaire was modified and delivered online for completion by academics who teach science to nurses in these programs. This paper reports on the relative priority given by respondents to the teaching of 177 topics contained in the questionnaire. Of the relatively small population of academics who teach science to nursing students, thirty (n = 30) completed the survey. Findings indicate strong support for the teaching of science in these programs, with particular priority given to the basic concepts of bioscience and gross system anatomy. Of concern, most science subject areas outside of these domains were ranked as being of moderate or low priority. While the small sample size limited the conclusions able to be drawn from this study, the findings supported previous studies that indicated inadequacies in the teaching of science content in nursing curricula. Nevertheless, these findings have raised questions about the current philosophy that underpins nursing education in Australia and whether existing practices are clearly focused on preparing students for the demands of contemporary nursing practice. Academics responsible for the design and implementation of

  10. Invitations to Life's Diversity. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about diversity and classification of living things which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in…

  11. The pace of vocabulary growth helps predict later vocabulary skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words—some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (SES, parent input, child gesture) of vocabulary growth between 14 and 46 months (n=62), and then uses growth estimates to predict children's vocabulary at 54 months. Velocity and acceleration in vocabulary development at 30 months predicted later vocabulary, particularly for children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Understanding the pace of early vocabulary growth thus improves our ability to predict school readiness, and may help identify children at risk for starting behind. PMID:22235920

  12. The effect of vocabulary notebooks on vocabulary acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Bozkurt, Neval

    2007-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2007. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2007. Includes bibliographical references leaves 82-87 This study investigated the effectiveness of vocabulary notebooks on vocabulary acquisition, and the attitudes of teachers and learners towards keeping vocabulary notebooks. The study was conducted with the participation of 60 pre-intermediate level students, divided into one treatment ...

  13. Effects of 3D Printing Project-based Learning on Preservice Elementary Teachers' Science Attitudes, Science Content Knowledge, and Anxiety About Teaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Elena; Wisdom, Sonya

    2018-05-01

    3D printing technology is a powerful educational tool that can promote integrative STEM education by connecting engineering, technology, and applications of science concepts. Yet, research on the integration of 3D printing technology in formal educational contexts is extremely limited. This study engaged preservice elementary teachers (N = 42) in a 3D Printing Science Project that modeled a science experiment in the elementary classroom on why things float or sink using 3D printed boats. The goal was to explore how collaborative 3D printing inquiry-based learning experiences affected preservice teachers' science teaching self-efficacy beliefs, anxiety toward teaching science, interest in science, perceived competence in K-3 technology and engineering science standards, and science content knowledge. The 3D printing project intervention significantly decreased participants' science teaching anxiety and improved their science teaching efficacy, science interest, and perceived competence in K-3 technological and engineering design science standards. Moreover, an analysis of students' project reflections and boat designs provided an insight into their collaborative 3D modeling design experiences. The study makes a contribution to the scarce body of knowledge on how teacher preparation programs can utilize 3D printing technology as a means of preparing prospective teachers to implement the recently adopted engineering and technology standards in K-12 science education.

  14. Teaching Basic Science Content via Real-World Applications: A College-Level Summer Course in Veterinary Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul; Miller, Allison; Carson, Brian; Hermanson, John

    2018-01-01

    Learning and retaining science content may be increased by applying the basic science material to real-world situations. Discussing cases with students during lectures and having them participate in laboratory exercises where they apply the science content to practical situations increases students' interest and enthusiasm. A summer course in…

  15. Learning the 'grammar of science': The influence of a physical science content course on teachers' understanding of the nature of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuscin, Deborah L.

    This research examined the development of practicing K--8 teachers' views of the nature of science (NOS) within a physical science content course. Reforms in science education have called for the teaching of science as inquiry. In order to achieve the vision of the reforms, teachers must understand science, both a body of knowledge and as a process, but also the very nature of science itself-or the values and assumptions inherent in the construction of scientific knowledge. NOS has been deemed a critical component of scientific literacy, with implications for making informed decisions about scientific claims. Research has indicated that despite the emphasis of reforms, teachers generally do not possess accurate views of NOS. Recent work in science education has led to the recommendation that efforts undertaken within teacher education programs to improve teachers' understanding of NOS can be enhanced through relevant coursework in other academic areas, including the sciences. The purpose of this dissertation was to provide an empirical basis for this recommendation, by examining the development of teachers' views of NOS within a physical science content course. To this end, the researcher employed qualitative methodology including participant observation, interview, document analysis, and questionnaire to assess teacher participants' views of the nature of science and the impact of their experience in the content course on these views. As a result of this research, implications for both the course design and science teacher education have been described. In addition, various aspects of the community of practice that characterizes the classroom that inhibit the development of understandings about the nature of science are identified. It is argued that instruction in NOS should be approached from the perspective that builds bridges between the communities of practice of learners and of scientists.

  16. Content and Design Features of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' Home Pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnaughy, Rozalynd P; Wilson, Steven P

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this content analysis was to identify commonly used content and design features of academic health sciences library home pages. After developing a checklist, data were collected from 135 academic health sciences library home pages. The core components of these library home pages included a contact phone number, a contact email address, an Ask-a-Librarian feature, the physical address listed, a feedback/suggestions link, subject guides, a discovery tool or database-specific search box, multimedia, social media, a site search option, a responsive web design, and a copyright year or update date.

  17. Student Opinions on Mobile Augmented Reality Application and Developed Content in Science Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damla Karagozlu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important branches of science, natural science studies have never lost their currency. The purpose of this study is to examine the development process of Augmented Reality contents which were developed using a design-based research method with the purpose of using it in teaching of natural science topics and to look into student evaluations. In the study which employed design-based research model, developed contents were applied, analysed and re-designed with students constantly. The study group of the research consisted of forty 7th grade students at a private college in 2016-2017 fall semester. Augmented reality contents developed for science teaching were evaluated by teachers and students as effective. According to the teacher and student opinions, it was concluded that augmented reality contents of science teaching developed during design-based research process was nice, easily applicable and useful. It can be said that while developing educative materials for students, applying design-based research model and paying attention to material design principles secures the effectiveness of the developed material.

  18. The Ways to Promote Pre-service Science Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Inquiry in Learning Management in Science Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriphan Satthaphon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This classroom action research aimed to study the ways to promote pre-service science teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge for inquiry (PCK for inquiry. The participants were 37 students who enrolled in Learning Management in Science course in academic year 2014. Multiple data sources including students’ lesson plans, reflective journals, teacher’s logs, and worksheets were collected. The inductive approach was used to analyze data. The findings revealed the ways to promote pre-service science teachers’ PCK for inquiry consisted of being teacher’s explicit role model ; providing students to reflect their practices that link between their knowledge and understandings ; reflection from video case ; collaboration between students and teacher in learning activities planning, and allowing students to practice in actual situation could be better influence students not only reflect their understandings but also design, and teach science through inquiry.

  19. Profiling vocabulary acquisition in Irish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Ciara; Fletcher, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Investigations into early vocabulary development, including the timing of the acquisition of nouns, verbs and closed-class words, have produced conflicting results, both within and across languages. Studying vocabulary development in Irish can contribute to this area, as it has potentially informative features such as a VSO word order, and semantically rich prepositions. This study used a parent report adapted for Irish, to measure vocabulary development longitudinally for children aged between 1,04 and 3,04. The findings indicated that the children learned closed-class words at relatively smaller vocabulary sizes compared to children acquiring other languages, and had a strong preference for nouns.

  20. NASA SMD STEM Activation: Enabling NASA Science Experts and Content into the Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Hashima; Erickson, Kristen

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) restructured its efforts to enhance learning in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) content areas through a cooperative agreement notice issued in 2015. This effort resulted in the competitive selection of 27 organizations to implement a strategic approach that leverages SMD’s unique assets. Three of these are exclusively directed towards Astrophysics. These unique assets include SMD’s science and engineering content and Science Discipline Subject Matter Experts. Awardees began their work during 2016 and span all areas of Earth and space science and the audiences NASA SMD intends to reach. The goal of the restructured STEM Activation program is to further enable NASA science experts and content into the learning environment more effectively and efficiently with learners of all ages. The objectives are to enable STEM education, improve US scientific literacy, advance national educational goals, and leverage efforts through partnerships. This presentation will provide an overview of the NASA SMD STEM Activation landscape and its commitment to meeting user needs.

  1. Understanding primary school science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge: The case of teaching global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chordnork, Boonliang; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    This aim of this research was to investigate primary school science teachers understanding and teaching practice as well as the influence on teaching and learning a topic like global warming. The participants were four primary science teachers, who were not graduated in science education. Methodology was the case study method, which was under the qualitative research regarded from interpretive paradigm. Data were collected by openended questionnaire, semi-structure interview, and document colleting. The questionnaire examined teachers' background, teachers' understanding of problems and threats of science teaching, desiring of development their PCK, sharing the teaching approaches, and their ideas of strength and weakness. a semi-structured interview was conducted based on the approach for capturing PCK of Loughran [23] content representation (CoRe). And, the document was collected to clarify what evidence which was invented to effect on students' learning. These document included lesson plan, students' task, and painting about global warming, science projects, the picture of activities of science learning, the exercise and test. Data analysis employed multiple approach of evidence looking an issue from each primary science teachers and used triangulation method to analyze the data with aiming to make meaning of teachers' representation of teaching practice. These included descriptive statistics, CoRe interpretation, and document analysis. The results show that teachers had misunderstanding of science teaching practice and they has articulated the pedagogical content knowledge in terms of assessment, goal of teaching and linking to the context of socio cultural. In contrast, knowledge and belief of curriculum, students' understanding of content global warming, and strategies of teaching were articulated indistinct by non-graduate science teacher. Constructing opportunities for personal development, the curiosity of the student learning center, and linking context

  2. Improving Vocabulary of English Language Learners through Direct Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Meghan; Feng, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of a professional development project. The purpose of the project was to provide professional development to teachers in vocabulary instructional strategies and to examine vocabulary acquisition of English language learners. The participants were 8 second grade ELL students and 6 second grade teachers. The eight second grade…

  3. A Mixed Methods Content Analysis of the Research Literature in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Asta B.

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, more and more researchers in science education have been turning to the practice of combining qualitative and quantitative methods in the same study. This approach of using mixed methods creates possibilities to study the various issues that science educators encounter in more depth. In this content analysis, I evaluated 18 studies from science education journals as they relate to the definition, design, and overall practice of using mixed methods. I scrutinized a purposeful sample, derived from 3 journals (the International Journal of Science Education, the Journal of Research in Science Teaching, and the Research in Science Education) in terms of the type of data collected, timing, priority, design, the mixing of the 2 data strands in the studies, and the justifications authors provide for using mixed methods. Furthermore, the articles were evaluated in terms of how well they met contemporary definitions for mixed methods research. The studies varied considerably in the use and understanding of mixed methods. A systematic evaluation of the employment of mixed methods methodology was used to identify the studies that best reflected contemporary definitions. A comparison to earlier content analyses of mixed methods research indicates that researchers' knowledge of mixed methods methodology may be increasing. The use of this strategy in science education research calls, however, for an improved methodology, especially concerning the practice of mixing. Suggestions are given on how to best use this approach.

  4. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...... curriculum, in higher education, and to generate analytical categories and criteria for selection of content, which can be used for systematic didactical reflection. The larger project also concerns reflection on and clarification of the concept of content, including the relation between content at the level......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...

  5. Developing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge in pre-service science teachers: Support from blended learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alayyar, G.; Fisser, Petra; Voogt, Joke

    2012-01-01

    The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework has been used to prepare pre-service science teachers at the Public Authority of Applied Education and Training in Kuwait for ICT integration in education. Pre-service teachers worked in teams to design an ICT solution for an

  6. Developing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Pre-Service Science Teachers: Support from Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayyar, Ghaida M.; Fisser, Petra; Voogt, Joke

    2012-01-01

    The "Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge" (TPACK) framework has been used to prepare pre-service science teachers at the Public Authority of Applied Education and Training in Kuwait for ICT integration in education. Pre-service teachers worked in teams to design an ICT solution for an authentic problem they faced during in-school…

  7. Learning to Teach Computer Science: Qualitative Insights into Secondary Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Aleata Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    In this dissertation, I explored the pedagogical content knowledge of in-service high school educators recently assigned to teach computer science for the first time. Teachers were participating in a professional development program where they co-taught introductory computing classes with tech industry professionals. The study was motivated by…

  8. Developing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge in pre-service science teachers : Support from blended learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alayyar, G.; Fisser, Petra; Voogt, Joke

    2012-01-01

    The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework has been used to prepare pre-service science teachers at the Public Authority of Applied Education and Training in Kuwait for ICT integration in education. Pre-service teachers worked in teams to design an ICT solution for an

  9. Shaping Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Experienced Agriculture Teachers in the Plant Sciences: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amber H.; Kitchel, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    This grounded theory study explored the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of experienced agriculture teachers in the plant sciences. The most emergent phenomenon to surface from the data was the influence of beliefs on participants' PCK. This central phenomenon became the cornerstone for the model of what was shaping experienced agriculture…

  10. The Politics of Developing and Maintaining Mathematics and Science Curriculum Content Standards. Research Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Michael W.; Bird, Robin L.

    The movement toward math and science curriculum standards is inextricably linked with high-stakes politics. There are two major types of politics discussed in this paper: the allocation of curriculum content, and the political issues involved in systemic change. Political strategies for gaining assent to national, state, and local content…

  11. Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Educational Cases in Computer Science: an Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, Hermannus

    2008-01-01

    The concept of pedagogical content knowledge has been explored in the context of several disciplines, such as mathematics, medicine and chemistry. In this paper the concept is explored and applied to the subject matter of computer science, in particular to the sub domain of building UML class

  12. Learning about the Nature of Science Using Newspaper Articles with Scientific Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Carmona, Antonio; Acevedo Díaz, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study aiming at assessing the efficacy of reading newspaper articles with scientific content in order to incorporate nature of science (NOS) aspects in initial primary teacher education. To this aim, a short teaching intervention based on newspaper articles was planned and performed under regular class conditions. First,…

  13. Development and Nature of Preservice Chemistry Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdögen, Betül; Hanuscin, Deborah L.; Uzuntiryaki-Kondakci, Esen; Köseoglu, Fitnat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to delve into the complexities of the early development of preservice chemistry teachers' science teaching orientations, knowledge of learners, knowledge of instructional strategies, and knowledge of assessment during a two-semester intervention designed to enhance their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for…

  14. Urban fifth graders' connections-making between formal earth science content and their lived experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkich, Katie Lynn

    2014-03-01

    Earth science education, as it is traditionally taught, involves presenting concepts such as weathering, erosion, and deposition using relatively well-known examples—the Grand Canyon, beach erosion, and others. However, these examples—which resonate well with middle- and upper-class students—ill-serve students of poverty attending urban schools who may have never traveled farther from home than the corner store. In this paper, I explore the use of a place-based educational framework in teaching earth science concepts to urban fifth graders and explore the connections they make between formal earth science content and their lived experiences using participant-driven photo elicitation techniques. I argue that students are able to gain a sounder understanding of earth science concepts when they are able to make direct observations between the content and their lived experiences and that when such direct observations are impossible they make analogies of appearance, structure, and response to make sense of the content. I discuss additionally the importance of expanding earth science instruction to include man-made materials, as these materials are excluded traditionally from the curriculum yet are most immediately available to urban students for examination.

  15. Nuclear engineering vocabulary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, X.; Andrieux, C.

    2001-01-01

    The members of the CSTNIN - the Special Commission for Nuclear Engineering Terminology and Neology - have just produced a Nuclear Engineering Vocabulary, published by SFEN. A 120-page document which, to date, includes 400 nuclear engineering terms or expressions. For each term or expression, this Glossary gives: the primary and secondary subject field in which it is applied, a possible abbreviation, its definition, a synonym if appropriate, any relevant comments, any associated word(s), the English equivalent, its status on the date of publication of the Glossary. (author)

  16. The Effects of STEM PBL on Students' Mathematical and Scientific Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ali; Boedeker, Peter; Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary M.

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary is at the surface level of language usage; thus, students need to develop mathematical and scientific vocabulary to be able to explicitly communicate their mathematical and scientific reasoning with others. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) and the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) have both created…

  17. The Application of SPSS in Analyzing the Effect of English Vocabulary Strategy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoying

    2010-01-01

    The vocabulary learning is one of very important part in the college English teaching. Correct analysis of the result of vocabulary strategy instruction can offer feedbacks for English teaching, and help teachers to improve the teaching method. In this article, the issue how to use SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) to…

  18. The psychological characteristics of experiences that influence science motivation and content knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathgate, Meghan; Schunn, Christian

    2017-11-01

    While motivational changes towards science are common during adolescence, our work asks which perceived classroom experiences are most strongly related to these changes. Additionally, we examine which experiences are most strongly associated with learning classroom content. In particular, using self-reports from a sample of approximately 3000 middle school students, this study investigates the influence of perceived science classroom experiences, namely student engagement and perceived success, on motivational change (fascination, values, competency belief) and content knowledge. Controlling for demographic information, school effects, and initial levels of motivation and content knowledge, we find that dimensions of engagement (affect, behavioural/cognitive) and perceived success are differentially associated with changes in particular motivational constructs and learning. Affective engagement is positively associated with motivational outcomes and negatively associated with learning outcomes, behavioural-cognitive engagement is associated only with learning, and perceived success is related only to motivational outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  19. Learners' independent records of vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Leeke, Philip

    1999-01-01

    Handbooks recommend a variety of quite complicated procedures for learning and remembering vocabulary, but most learners only engage in very simple procedures. The aim of this project was to establish a basis for identifying optimal vocabulary recording procedures by finding out what learners...

  20. Acquiring, Teaching, and Testing Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarg, Mats

    1997-01-01

    Argues that treatment of foreign language vocabulary will vary predictably according to whether the instructional activity is based on a structural or a lexical/collocational view of language. Notes that in a structural approach, vocabulary learning is primarily a frequency- and input-based individual endeavor, while the lexical approach is more…

  1. Using VocabularySpellingCity with Adult ESOL Students in Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Tim

    2018-01-01

    Vocabulary acquisition is central to language learning, and many instructors believe that technology can facilitate this core activity. While numerous websites and apps offer language-learning activities and games, not all provide evidence that their content and techniques are effective. VocabularySpellingCity (VSC), however, commissioned a study…

  2. Translating Vocabulary Research to Social Studies Instruction: Before, during, and after Text-Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairrell, Angela; Simmons, Deborah; Swanson, Elizabeth; Edmonds, Meaghan; Vaughn, Sharon; Rupley, William H.

    2011-01-01

    In the upper elementary grades, content-area text gains increasing importance as a primary source of reading and information. This article focuses on the specialized vocabulary demands of social studies texts and presents a framework of teaching and learning strategies based on vocabulary research. Strategies are introduced before, during, and…

  3. Strategies for teaching and learning vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Teng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents an overview of current research on second language vocabulary learning and proposes eight strategies for teaching and learning vocabulary. First, to facilitate effective vocabulary teaching, choosing high-frequency words is essential. Teachers of vocabulary also need to add explicit, intentional teaching to incidental learning. In addition, vocabulary learning strategies including morphological awareness and lexical inference provides a platform by which learners can improve both receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge. This article also suggests that productive vocabulary knowledge needs more attention than receptive vocabulary knowledge, and that available textbooks seldom address vocabulary sufficiently. In summary, it is very important for all learners and teachers to acknowledge that learning vocabulary is incremental in nature, and we should develop a principled, long-term program for teaching and learning vocabulary.

  4. "Wow! Look at That!": Discourse as a Means to Improve Teachers' Science Content Learning in Informal Science Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Gary M.; Lederman, Judith S.; Lederman, Norman G.

    2014-12-01

    Currently, it is not clear whether professional development staff at Informal Science Institutions (ISIs) are considering the way exhibits contribute to the social aspects of learning as described by the contextual model of learning (CML) (Falk & Dierking in The museum experience. Whalesback, Washington, 1992; Learning from museums: visitor experiences and the making of meaning. Altamira Press, New York, 2000) and recommended in the reform documents (see Cox-Peterson et al. in Journal of Research in Science Teaching 40:200-218, 2003). In order to move beyond only preparing science teachers for field trips, while necessary, it is also important to understand the role exhibits play in influencing teachers' content-related social interactions while engaged in ISI professional development. This study looked at a life science course that was offered at and taught by education staff of a large science and technology museum located in the Midwest, USA. The course was offered to three sections of teachers throughout the school year and met six times for a full day. The courses met approximately once a month from September through the beginning of June and provided 42 contact hours overall. Elementary and middle school teachers ( n = 94) were audio- and videotaped while participating in the content courses and interacting with the museum's exhibits. When considering the two factors within the sociocultural context of CML: within-group sociocultural mediation and facilitated mediation by others, the use of exhibits during both courses generally did not fully take into account these elements. In this study, it seemed that teachers' talk always had a purpose but it is argued that it did not always have a direction or connection to the desired content or exhibit. When freely exploring the museum, teachers often purely reacted to the display itself or the novelty of it. However, when PD staff made explicit connections between exhibits, content, and activities, participants were

  5. Celebrity over science? An analysis of Lyme disease video content on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakoulias, N; Tooby, R; Sturrock, S L

    2017-10-01

    Lyme disease has been a subject of medical controversy for several decades. In this study we looked at the availability and type of content represented in a (n = 700) selection of YouTube videos on the subject of Lyme disease. We classified video content into a small number of content areas, and studied the relationship between these content areas and 1) video views and 2) video likeability. We found very little content uploaded by government or academic institutions; the vast majority of content was uploaded by independent users. The most viewed videos tend to contain celebrity content and personal stories; videos with prevention information tend to be of less interest, and videos with science and medical information tend to be less liked. Our results suggest that important public health information on YouTube is very likely to be ignored unless it is made more appealing to modern consumers of online video content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Guiding students towards sensemaking: teacher questions focused on integrating scientific practices with science content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict-Chambers, Amanda; Kademian, Sylvie M.; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan

    2017-10-01

    Science education reforms articulate a vision of ambitious science teaching where teachers engage students in sensemaking discussions and emphasise the integration of scientific practices with science content. Learning to teach in this way is complex, and there are few examples of sensemaking discussions in schools where textbook lessons and teacher-directed discussions are the norm. The purpose of this study was to characterise the questioning practices of an experienced teacher who taught a curricular unit enhanced with educative features that emphasised students' engagement in scientific practices integrated with science content. Analyses indicated the teacher asked four types of questions: explication questions, explanation questions, science concept questions, and scientific practice questions, and she used three questioning patterns including: (1) focusing students on scientific practices, which involved a sequence of questions to turn students back to the scientific practice; (2) supporting students in naming observed phenomena, which involved a sequence of questions to help students use scientific language; and (3) guiding students in sensemaking, which involved a sequence of questions to help students learn about scientific practices, describe evidence, and develop explanations. Although many of the discussions in this study were not yet student-centred, they provide an image of a teacher asking specific questions that move students towards reform-oriented instruction. Implications for classroom practice are discussed and recommendations for future research are provided.

  7. Structure and dynamics of European sports science textual contents: Analysis of ECSS abstracts (1996-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristovski, Robert; Aceski, Aleksandar; Balague, Natalia; Seifert, Ludovic; Tufekcievski, Aleksandar; Cecilia, Aguirre

    2017-02-01

    The article discusses general structure and dynamics of the sports science research content as obtained from the analysis of 21998 European College of Sport Science abstracts belonging to 12 science topics. The structural analysis showed intertwined multidisciplinary and unifying tendencies structured along horizontal (scope) and vertical (level) axes. Methodological (instrumental and mode of inquiry) integrative tendencies are dominant. Theoretical integrative tendencies are much less detectable along both horizontal and vertical axes. The dynamic analysis of written abstracts text content over the 19 years reveals the contextualizing and guiding role of thematic skeletons of each sports science topic in forming more detailed contingent research ideas and the role of the latter in stabilizing and procreating the former. This circular causality between both hierarchical levels and functioning on separate characteristic time scales is crucial for understanding how stable research traditions self-maintain and self-procreate through innovative contingencies. The structure of sports science continuously rebuilds itself through use and re-use of contingent research ideas. The thematic skeleton ensures its identity and the contingent conceptual sets its flexibility and adaptability to different research or applicative problems.

  8. Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge (TPACK): An Educational Landscape for Tertiary Science Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavadia, Linda

    Earlier studies concluded that technology's strength is in supporting student learning rather than as an instrument for content delivery (Angeli & Valanides, 2014). Current research espouses the merits of the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework as a guide for educators' reflections about technology integration within the context of content and instructional practice. Grounded by two theoretical frameworks, TPACK (Mishra & Koehler, 2006; 2008) and Rogers' (1983, 1995) theory of diffusion of innovation, the purpose of this mixed-methods research was two-fold: to explore the perceived competencies of tertiary science faculty at higher education institutions with respect to their integration of technology within the constructs of pedagogical practice and content learning and to analyze whether these perceived competencies may serve as predictive factors for technology adoption level. The literature review included past research that served as models for the Sci-TPACK instrument. Twenty-nine professors of tertiary science courses participated in an online Likert survey, and four professors provided in-depth interviews on their TPACK practices. Quantitative analysis of data consisted of descriptive and reliability statistics, calculations of means for each of the seven scales or domains of TPACK, and regression analysis. Open-ended questions on the Likert survey and individual interviews provided recurrent themes of the qualitative data. Final results revealed that the participants integrate technology into pedagogy and content through a myriad of TPACK practices. Regression analysis supported perceived TPACK competencies as predictive factors for technology adoption level.

  9. Effective Strategies for Turning Receptive Vocabulary into Productive Vocabulary in EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Avan Kamal Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary acquisition has been a main concern of EFL English teachers and learners. There have been tons of research to examine the student's level of receptive vocabulary and productive vocabulary, but no research has conducted on how turning receptive vocabulary into productive vocabulary. This study has reported the impact of the teaching…

  10. Teacher leadership in mathematics and science: Subject content knowledge and the improvement of instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manno, Christopher M.

    This study explores the role of teacher leader subject content knowledge in the promotion of professional development and instructional reform. Consistent with a distributed leadership perspective, many have asserted that the promotion of school effectiveness can be enhanced through the application of teacher leadership (Frost & Durrant, 2003; Harris, 2002a; Sherrill, 1999; Silva, Gimbert, & Nolan, 2000; York-Barr & Duke, 2004). There has been much discussion in the research about the significance of teachers' subject content knowledge in teaching and learning which has generally asserted a positive relationship with instructional practice and student achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2000; Newton & Newton, 2001; Parker & Heywood, 2000). The role of content knowledge in teacher leader work has been less researched. This study focused on deepening understanding of perceptions regarding teacher leaders' roles in improving instructional practice. Based on a framework of common teacher leader tasks, qualitative methods were used to investigate the relationship between teacher leader subject content knowledge and perceptions of effectiveness in promoting professional development and instructional reform. The study indicates that content experts behave differently than their non-expert counterparts. Content experts recognize deficiencies in colleagues' content knowledge as a primary problem in the implementation of math or science reform. Content experts view their work as advocacy for improved curriculum and instruction for all children, and work within a small set of task categories to promote discussions about teaching, learning, and content. Content experts develop trust and rapport with colleagues by demonstrating expertise, and are respected for their deep knowledge and efforts to help teachers learn the content. They also differ from non-content experts in the professional growth experiences in which they engage. The consideration of content expertise as an influence

  11. Second Language Vocabulary Growth at Advanced Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Meral

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the receptive vocabulary growth of advanced EFL learners in an English-medium degree programme. The study used the Vocabulary Size Test in a cross-sectional design to measure the vocabulary size of learners at various stages of study. The effect of word frequency on vocabulary development and the presence of an…

  12. The presence of academic health sciences libraries on Facebook: the relationship between content and library popularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Milian, Rolando; Norton, Hannah F; Tennant, Michele R

    2012-01-01

    Social networks such as Facebook allow libraries to be proactive in reaching their users. While some libraries have popular Facebook pages, it remains unclear what attracts users to these pages. This study evaluates relationships between libraries' Facebook page content and popularity. An analysis of 72 academic health sciences libraries' Facebook pages showed positive correlations between number of library fans and number of tabs, photos, events, and wall posts on Facebook. Libraries posting videos had significantly more fans than libraries without them. This study contributes to an understanding of correlations between content and popularity on Facebook, with implications for library outreach.

  13. Students’ Digital Photography Behaviors during a Multiday Environmental Science Field Trip and Their Recollections of Photographed Science Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor R. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking photographs to document the experiences of an educational field trip is becoming a common activity for teachers and students alike. Considering the regular creation of photographic artifacts, our goal in this paper is to explore students’ picture taking behavior and their recollections of science content associated with their photographs. In this study, we partnered with a class of fifth-grade students in the United States and provided each student with a digital camera to document their experiences during an environmental science field trip at a national park. We report the frequency of photography behaviors according to which activities were most often documented by the students and specifically that students tended to document more of their experiences when they were in outdoor, natural spaces rather than inside of visitor centers or museums. Also, through an analysis of students’ comments about the science content captured in their photographs we observe that students’ comments about photographs of the outdoors tended to show greater depth and complexity than those that were taken in indoor, museum-like spaces.

  14. Effects of multimedia vocabulary instruction on adolescents with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Michael J; Deshler, Donald D; Lloyd, John Wills

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of using content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), an example of instructional technology, to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school students, including 30 with LD in an area related to reading, were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions with instruction occurring at individual computer terminals over a 3-week period. Each of the four conditions contained different configurations of multimedia-based instruction and evidence-based vocabulary instruction. Dependent measures of vocabulary knowledge indicated that students with LD who received vocabulary instruction using CAPs through an explicit instructional methodology and the keyword mnemonic strategy significantly outperformed other students with LD who were taught using the same content, but with multimedia instruction that did not adhere to a specific theoretical design framework. Results for general education students mirrored those for students with LD. Students also completed a satisfaction measure following instruction with multimedia and expressed overall agreement that CAPs are useful for learning vocabulary terms. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  15. Vocabularies of happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Bratu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to explore through interviews the vocabularies of happiness that interviewees invoke in face-to-face interactions to account for their happiness or lack thereof and, especially, for the (unhappiness of others. In other words, how do respondents present their own or others’ happiness – be they close or distant acquaintances, or people in general, in an interview conversation? Also, what understanding of others do these accounts make visible? This work embraces a discursive psychological (DP perspective, focusing on how different versions of happiness are being put together by respondents presenting themselves as competent and credible individuals, while at the same time positioning themselves in a moral order of happiness.

  16. DSpace and customized controlled vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourlas, C.; Tsolakidis, A.; Kakoulidis, P.; Giannakopoulos, G.

    2015-02-01

    The open source platform of DSpace could be defined as a repository application used to provide access to digital resources. DSpace is installed and used by more than 1000 organizations worldwide. A predefined taxonomy of keyword, called the Controlled Vocabulary, can be used for describing and accessing the information items stored in the repository. In this paper, we describe how the users can create, and customize their own vocabularies. Various heterogeneous items, such as research papers, videos, articles and educational material of the repository, can be indexed in order to provide advanced search functionality using new controlled vocabularies.

  17. Using Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition to Enrich the Students Vocabulary Mastery

    OpenAIRE

    Asmayanti, St

    2015-01-01

    The research aimed to find out the improvement the students'vocabulary in terms of improving their understanding about of nouns and adjectives. To explain the increase, the researcher used a classroom action research (CAR) which was conducted in two cycles in which each cycle consisted of four meetings.The subject was the students at the eight grade of SMP Askari Pallangga Gowa. The number of samples consisted of 37 students. The research findings indicated that using Incidental Vocabulary Ac...

  18. Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK): Exploring its Usefulness for Science Lecturers in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Sharon P.

    2016-02-01

    In the past 30 years, pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) frameworks have become important constructs in educational research undertaken in the school education system and a focus for research for curriculum and teacher education researchers. As regards science, PCK research has been plentiful, but thus far, the concept of PCK (significantly enhanced since its proposal) has only been validated in the school context (Kindergarten to Grade 12). Within this environment, however, it has proven to be a very useful construct for understanding teacher practice and contributing to the improvement of teacher education courses. Knowledge about whether PCK is useful as a conceptual framework for science lecturers (teachers) working in higher education is as yet unknown and represents a gap in the research literature; the research outlined here is a first step in exploring its usefulness in this context. This paper provides an analysis of data obtained from semi-structured interviews conducted with nine Australian science university lecturers from various disciplines and levels of seniority and experience of tertiary teaching, as well as an academic developer skilled in facilitating science academics' understanding of pedagogy in higher education. The research aimed to investigate the extent to which one version of a school-based science PCK framework resonated with the pedagogical thinking of university science lecturers and the ways in which it could influence their teaching practice.

  19. Learning Science Content through Socio-Scientific Issues-Based Instruction: A Multi-Level Assessment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Romine, William L.; Topçu, Mustafa Sami

    2016-01-01

    Science educators have presented numerous conceptual and theoretical arguments in favor of teaching science through the exploration of socio-scientific issues (SSI). However, the empirical knowledge base regarding the extent to which SSI-based instruction supports student learning of science content is limited both in terms of the number of…

  20. Integrating Science Content and Pedagogy in the Earth, Life, and Physical Sciences: A K-8 Pre-Service Teacher Preparation Continuum at the University of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J.; Allen, D.; Donham, R.; Fifield, S.; Ford, D.; Shipman, H.; Dagher, Z.

    2007-12-01

    University of Delaware faculty in the geological sciences, biological sciences, and the physics and astronomy departments have partnered with faculty and researchers from the school of education to form a continuum for K- 8 pre-service teacher preparation in science. The goal of the continuum is to develop integrated understandings of content and pedagogy so that these future teachers can effectively use inquiry-based approaches in teaching science in their classrooms. Throughout the continuum where earth science content appears an earth system science approach, with emphasis on inquiry-based activities, is employed. The continuum for K-8 pre-service teachers includes a gateway content course in the earth, life, or physical sciences taken during the freshman year followed by integrated science content and methods courses taken during the sophomore year. These integrated courses, called the Science Semester, were designed and implemented with funding from the National Science Foundation. During the Science Semester, traditional content and pedagogy subject matter boundaries are crossed to stress shared themes that teachers must understand to teach standards-based science. Students work collaboratively on multidisciplinary problem-based learning (PBL) activities that place science concepts in authentic contexts and build learning skills. They also critically explore the theory and practice of elementary science teaching, drawing on their shared experiences of inquiry learning during the Science Semester. The PBL activities that are the hallmark of the Science Semester provide the backdrop through which fundamental earth system interactions can be studied. For example in a PBL investigation that focuses on kids, cancer, and the environment, the hydrologic cycle with emphasis on surface runoff and ground water contamination is studied. Those students seeking secondary certification in science will enroll, as a bridge toward their student teaching experience, in an

  1. Resources and instructional strategies effective middle school science teachers use to improve content area reading skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Melanie S.

    This study examined the resources and instructional strategies effective middle school science teachers use to improve content area reading skills. Reading instruction in the middle school years should follow the natural cognitive progression that occurs in the adolescent brain from learning to read to reading to learn. Scientific reading is a different type of reading than most middle school students are accustomed to. It is important to understand that students will continue to be expected to read non-fiction critically for success in the 21st century. Effective teachers know this, and they perceive themselves as teachers of reading regardless of the content area in which their expertise lies. This qualitative research study was conducted at a rural middle school with three science teachers who employ before, during, and after literacy strategies when reading the textbook content with their students. The methodologies used in this study were interviews, observations, and document collection. The results of this study revealed the students' reading difficulties perceived by the teacher participants, the literacy strategies used by the teacher participants, the instructional resources the teacher participants used to improve comprehension, and the need for professional development in content area literacy.

  2. Chemistry Vocabulary Attainment among Higher Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafoor, K. Abdul; Greeshma, K.

    2014-01-01

    In the context of growing empirical evidence to lack of clear understanding of the language of the science content, undesirable student outcomes including difficulty in learning science and a lack of interest with their science content area, and chemistry being particularly loaded with specialized terminology of its own, this study analyzed the…

  3. TOEFL IBT vocabulary flash review

    CERN Document Server

    Llc, Learning Express

    2014-01-01

    The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) measures the English proficiency of people whose native language isn't English. This portable guide features 600 essential TOEFL vocabulary flashcards, bound in a convenient book format, with definitions, sample sentences, synonyms, and pronunciation. The cards include the most-tested vocabulary on the exam. The perfect companion to any TOEFL study plan, this book is pocket-sized for portability and great for study anywhere, anytime!

  4. A New Coherent Science Content Storyline Astronomy Course for Pre-Service Teachers at Penn State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Christopher; Plummer, Julia; Earth and Space Science Partnership

    2016-01-01

    The Earth and Space Science Partnership (ESSP) is a collaboration among Penn State scientists, science educators and seven school districts across Pennsylvania. One of the ESSP goals has been to provide pre-service teachers with new or improved science course offerings at Penn State in the Earth and Space Science domains. In particular, we aim to provide students with opportunities to learn astronomy content knowledge through teaching methods that engage them in investigations where they experience the practices used by astronomers. We have designed a new course that builds on our research into students' ideas about Solar System astronomy (Plummer et al. 2015) and the curriculum our team created for a professional development workshop for in-service teachers (Palma et al. 2013) with this same theme. The course was offered for the first time in the spring 2015 semester. We designed the course using a coherent science content storyline approach (see, e.g., Palma et al. 2014), which requires all of the student investigations to build towards a big idea in science; in this case, we chose the model for formation of our Solar System. The course led pre-service teachers through a series of investigations that model the type of instruction we hope they will adopt in their own classrooms. They were presented with a series of research questions that all tie in to the big idea of Solar System formation, and they were responsible for collecting and interpreting their own data to draw evidence-based conclusions about one aspect of this model. Students in the course were assessed on their astronomy content knowledge, but also on their ability to construct arguments using scientific reasoning to answer astronomy questions. In this poster, we will present descriptions of the investigations, the assessments used, and our preliminary results about how the course led this group of pre-service teachers to improved understanding of astronomy content and the practices astronomers use in

  5. Study the content relationship between science and technology documents: A compression of papers and patent in Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Dominos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Zolfaghari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current research aims at studying the conceptual relationship between the science and technology documents through the comparison of vocabularies that are used within the patents and the papers in the field of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV.  The research method is descriptive. To perform the research, the patents were retrieved from Google Patents and Lens websites, and the papers from IEEE Explore database. A hybrid keyword-class method was used to conduct the search. It means that the search query was consisted of "Autonomous Underwater Vehicle" keyword and “H” class. The titles and the abstracts of the patents and the papers were automatically indexed through a semi-automatic method. This resulted in 195 keywords for patents and 114 ones for papers. Co-occurrence matrices of these two sets of keywords were created through RavarMatrix software. The hierarchical maps of keywords were drawn by SPSS. Findings show that 65 percent of papers’ keywords are those that occurred within the patents but 23 percent of patents’ keywords are similar to the papers’.  The structural comparison of patents and papers clustering’s also revealed that the structural proximity between patents and papers vocabularies is equal to zero. The other finding showed that the similarity between the members of ego networks of prominent keywords is for two cases zero and for others fewer than 15 percent except for the keyword “data”. It may be concluded that the science is affected by technology in the field of AUV.

  6. Blog Citations as Indicators of the Societal Impact of Research : Content Analysis of Social Sciences Blogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R. Jamali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes motivations behind social sciences blog posts citing journal articles in order to find out whether blog citations are good indicators for the societal impact or benefits of research. A random sample of 300 social sciences blog posts (out of 1,233 blog posts from ResearchBlogging.org published between 01/01/2012 to 18/06/2014 were subjected to content analysis. The 300 blog posts had 472 references including 424 journal articles from 269 different journals. Sixty‐one (22.68% of all cited journals were from the social sciences and most of the journals with high frequency were highly cited general science journals such as PNAS and Science. Seventy‐five percent of all journals were referenced only once. The average age of articles cited at the time of citation was 5.8 years. Discussion and criticism were the two main categories of motivations. Overall, the study shows the potential of blog citations as an altmetric measure and as a proxy for assessing the research impact. A considerable number of citation motivations in blogs such as disputing a belief, suggesting policies, providing a solution to a problem, reacting to media, criticism and the like seemed to support gaining societal benefits. Societal benefits are considered as helping stimulate new approaches to social issues, or informing public debate and policymaking. Lower self‐citation (compared to some other altmetric measures such as tweets and the fact that blogging involves generating content (i.e. an intellectual process give them an advantage for altmetrics. However, limitations and contextual issues such as disciplinary differences and low uptake of altmetrics, in general, in scholarly communication should not be ignored when using blogs as a data source for altmetrics.

  7. Exploring science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge in the teaching of genetics in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mthethwa-Kunene, Khetsiwe Eunice Faith

    Recent trends show that learners' enrolment and performance in science at secondary school level is dwindling. Some science topics including genetics in biology are said to be difficult for learners to learn and thus they perform poorly in examinations. Teacher knowledge base, particularly topic-specific pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), has been identified by many researchers as an important factor that is linked with learner understanding and achievement in science. This qualitative study was an attempt to explore the PCK of four successful biology teachers and how they developed it in the context of teaching genetics. The purposive sampling technique was employed to select the participating teachers based on their schools' performance in biology public examinations and recommendations by science specialists and school principals. Pedagogical content knowledge was used as a theoretical framework for the study, which guided the inquiry in data collection, analysis and discussion of the research findings. The study adopted the case study method and various sources of evidence including concept maps, lesson plans, pre-lesson interviews, lesson observations, post-teaching teacher questionnaire, post-lesson interviews and document analysis were used to collect data on teachers' PCK as well as how PCK was assumed to have developed. The data were analysed in an attempt to determine the individual teachers' school genetics' content knowledge, related knowledge of instructional strategies and knowledge of learners' preconceptions and learning difficulties. The analysis involved an iterative process of coding data into PCK categories of content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and knowledge of learners' preconceptions and learning difficulties. The findings of the study indicate that the four successful biology teachers generally have the necessary content knowledge of school genetics, used certain topic-specific instructional strategies, but lacked knowledge of

  8. A neuromathematical model of human information processing and its application to science content acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, O. Roger

    The rate of information processing during science learning and the efficiency of the learner in mobilizing relevant information in long-term memory as an aid in transmitting newly acquired information to stable storage in long-term memory are fundamental aspects of science content acquisition. These cognitive processes, moreover, may be substantially related in tempo and quality of organization to the efficiency of higher thought processes such as divergent thinking and problem-solving ability that characterize scientific thought. As a contribution to our quantitative understanding of these fundamental information processes, a mathematical model of information acquisition is presented and empirically evaluated in comparison to evidence obtained from experimental studies of science content acquisition. Computer-based models are used to simulate variations in learning parameters and to generate the theoretical predictions to be empirically tested. The initial tests of the predictive accuracy of the model show close agreement between predicted and actual mean recall scores in short-term learning tasks. Implications of the model for human information acquisition and possible future research are discussed in the context of the unique theoretical framework of the model.

  9. A content analysis of sixth-grade, seventh-grade, and eighth-grade science textbooks with regard to the nature of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Marianne C.

    Science teachers rely heavily on their textbooks; for many, it is the only curriculum they use (Weiss, 1993). Therefore, it is important these materials convey an accurate conception of the nature of science. Science for All Americans (AAAS, 1990) and the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) call for teaching students about the nature of science. Including the nature of science throughout science textbooks will produce scientifically literate citizens (Driver and others, 1993) with an improved ability to make informed decisions (McComas, 1998). Teaching the nature of science supports the successful learning of science content and process (Driver and others, 1996), and bridges the gap between the two cultures of practicing scientists and school science (Sorsby, 2000). Do middle school science textbooks provide a balanced presentation of the nature of science throughout their text? To determine the answer, this investigation used a content analysis technique to analyze a random sample from the introduction chapter and the rest of the textbook chapters from twelve middle school science textbooks for the four aspects of the nature of science (Chiappetta, Fillman, & Sethna, 2004). Scoring procedures were used to determine interrater agreement using both Cohen's kappa (kappa) and Krippendorff's alpha (alpha). Kappa values were determined to be fair to excellent beyond chance among the three coders. The resulting values for Krippendorff's alpha ranged from acceptable (alpha > .80) to unacceptable (alpha imbalance is providing students with a rudimentary and fragmented view of how science works, despite the fact that science impacts every aspect of life (McComas, 1998). Given the impact of textbooks on learning, it is recommended that teachers be informed of these shortcomings to enable them to supplement content where it is lacking.

  10. An analysis of science content and representations in introductory college physics textbooks and multimodal learning resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Suzanne M.

    This study features a comparative descriptive analysis of the physics content and representations surrounding the first law of thermodynamics as presented in four widely used introductory college physics textbooks representing each of four physics textbook categories (calculus-based, algebra/trigonometry-based, conceptual, and technical/applied). Introducing and employing a newly developed theoretical framework, multimodal generative learning theory (MGLT), an analysis of the multimodal characteristics of textbook and multimedia representations of physics principles was conducted. The modal affordances of textbook representations were identified, characterized, and compared across the four physics textbook categories in the context of their support of problem-solving. Keywords: college science, science textbooks, multimodal learning theory, thermodynamics, representations

  11. Development and Nature of Preservice Chemistry Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdöğen, Betül; Hanuscin, Deborah L.; Uzuntiryaki-Kondakci, Esen; Köseoğlu, Fitnat

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this case study is to delve into the complexities of the early development of preservice chemistry teachers' science teaching orientations, knowledge of learners, knowledge of instructional strategies, and knowledge of assessment during a two-semester intervention designed to enhance their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching nature of science (NOS). Thirty preservice chemistry teachers enrolled in a Research in Science Education course participated in the study. Qualitative data sources included responses to an open-ended instrument, interviews, observations, and artifacts such as lesson plans and reflection papers. Through the in-depth analysis of explicit PCK and constant comparative method of analysis, we identified the influence of the intervention on participants' PCK for NOS. Analysis of data revealed four major themes related to the nature of preservice chemistry teachers' NOS teaching practices and their PCK for NOS: (1) prerequisite knowledge and beliefs are necessary to teach NOS, (2) there is a developmental progression of PCK for NOS from knowledge to application level, (3) teachers need some comfort in their NOS understanding to teach NOS, and (4) the higher integration of PCK components leads to successful NOS teaching practices. Implications for science teacher education and research are discussed.

  12. Use of Microthemes to Increase Writing Content for Introductory Science Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Lewis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Writing is a learning activity, as well as a communication skill. Many instructors recognize the value of writing as a learning tool but struggle to develop effective writing assignments. Instructors are generally pressed for time during lecture due to the necessity to deliver content and, therefore, cannot dedicate time necessary to teach science writing skills effectively. Traditional term papers assigned to a class with varying writing skills may not accomplish the desired goal of teaching both technical writing skills and critical thinking skills. Students that are already struggling with content may be at a disadvantage in terms of conveying complex ideas. An answer to this problem is the microtheme paper which we employ in an Introductory Botany laboratory setting.

  13. Interactive Multimodal Molecular Set – Designing Ludic Engaging Science Learning Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Tine Pinholt; Christiansen, Kasper Holm Bonde; Jakobsen Sillesen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory study investigating 10 primary school students’ interaction with an interactive multimodal molecular set fostering ludic engaging science learning content in primary schools (8th and 9th grade). The concept of the prototype design was to bridge the physical...... and virtual worlds with electronic tags and, through this, blend the familiarity of the computer and toys, to create a tool that provided a ludic approach to learning about atoms and molecules. The study was inspired by the participatory design and informant design methodologies and included design...

  14. INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY LEARNING THROUGH READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Warzecha, M.A. TESOL

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the following paper is to take a closer look at the benefits of incidental learning through reading, with a specific focus on vocabulary acquisition. The teaching of vocabulary has traditionally been an explicit process where the target vocabulary is taken out of context and taught separately. However, this kind of explicit teaching and learning may only take into account a form-meaning connection. Therefore, this paper explores research on incidental learning and specifically looks at what it takes to acquire new vocabulary incidentally through reading while considering the coverage rates of texts, how many words must be known already from the text, how many repetitions it takes to learn a word, types of texts that promote learning, and the effects of pairing students‘ reading with learner tasks. After reviewing many studies, it can be concluded that more reading is better. More specifically, extensive reading of chosen novels at an appropriate level and interest to the students showed important gains in vocabulary. In addition, readings that were supplemented with additional activities that focused on both form and meaning showed an even higher increase in word retention.

  15. Unlocking Academic Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    How can we teach science to English language learners (ELLs) when even our native English speakers have trouble reading the textbook? To help science teachers meet this challenge, this article presents six text-comprehension strategies used by English for Speakers of other Languages (ESOL) teachers: metalinguistic awareness development,…

  16. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  17. Examining the Extent to Which Select Teacher Preparation Experiences Inform Technology and Engineering Educators’ Teaching of Science Content and Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Love, Tyler Scott

    2015-01-01

    With the recent release of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) (NGSS Lead States, 2014b) science educators were expected to teach engineering content and practices within their curricula. However, technology and engineering (T&E) educators have been expected to teach content and practices from engineering and other disciplines since the release of the Standards for Technological Literacy (ITEA/ITEEA, 2000/2002/2007). Requisite to the preparation of globally competitive...

  18. Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge and Their Effects on L2 Vocabulary Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardakçi, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge have been studied from many different perspectives, but the related literature lacks serious studies dealing with their effects on vocabulary profiles of EFL learners. In this paper, with an aim to fill this gap, the relative effects of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge on L2 vocabulary profiles…

  19. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary breadth and depth knowledge. One hundred and fifty first-year university students in China took the Vocabulary Levels Test, a meaning recall task, and the Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge Test. The first two tests were used to elicit two types of vocabulary…

  20. Exploring vocabulary language in action

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Dee

    2013-01-01

    Routledge Introductions to Applied Linguistics is a series of introductory level textbooks covering the core topics in Applied Linguistics, primarily designed for those beginning postgraduate studies, or taking an introductory MA course as well as advanced undergraduates. Titles in the series are also ideal for language professionals returning to academic study. The books take an innovative 'practice to theory' approach, with a 'back-to-front' structure. This leads the reader from real-world problems and issues, through a discussion of intervention and how to engage with these concerns, before finally relating these practical issues to theoretical foundations. Additional features include tasks with commentaries, a glossary of key terms, and an annotated further reading section. Vocabulary is the foundation of language and language learning and as such, knowledge of how to facilitate learners’ vocabulary growth is an indispensable teaching skill and curricular component. Exploring Vocabulary is designed t...

  1. The Impact of Video Case Content on Preservice Elementary Teachers' Decision-Making and Conceptions of Effective Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Joanne K.; Bruxvoort, Crystal N.; Vande Haar, Andrea J.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how the content of a video case influences what preservice teachers learn about science teaching. This study was designed to determine the impact of two different video cases on preservice elementary teachers' conceptions of multiple aspects of effective science teaching, with one video selected to focus attention on the role…

  2. The Contribution of Vocabulary Knowledge and Semantic Orthographic Fluency to Text Quality through Elementary School in Catalan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Cristina; Tolchinsky, Liliana

    2018-01-01

    Building a text is a multidimensional endeavor. Writers must work simultaneously on the content of the text, its discursive organization, the structure of the sentences, and the individual words themselves. Knowledge of vocabulary is central to this endeavor. This study intends (1) to trace the development of writer's vocabulary depth, their…

  3. The Portrayal of Occupational Therapy and Occupational Science in Canadian Newspapers: A Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsing-Yee (Emily Chai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of occupational therapy is to enable people to participate in the activities of everyday life. The demand for occupational therapists in Canada is expected to grow sharply at an annual growth rate of 3.2%, compared to 0.7% for all occupations. At the same time, it is believed by occupational therapists in Canada that the Canadian public does not understand the role of occupational therapy. Occupational science is an emerging basic science field that supports the practice of occupational therapy. Given that newspapers are one source the public uses to obtain information and that newspapers are seen to shape public opinions, the purpose of this study is to investigate how “occupational therapy” is covered in Canadian newspapers from the term’s first appearance in 1917 until 2016 and how “occupational science” is covered from the term’s first appearance in 1989 to 2016. We interrogated the findings through the lens of three non-newspaper sources—two academic journals: Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy (CJOT and Journal of Occupational Science (JOS; and one Canadian magazine: Occupational Therapy Now (OTN. We found that medical terms were prevalent in the newspaper articles covering occupational therapy similar to the presence of medical terms in the CJOT and OTN. However, the newspapers missed contemporary shifts in occupational therapy as evident in the CJOT, OTN and JOS—such as the increased engagement with enablement, occupational justice and other occupational concepts. The newspapers also failed to portray the societal issues that occupational therapy engages with on behalf of and with their clients, and the newspapers did not cover many of the client groups of occupational therapy. Occupational science was only mentioned in n = 26 articles of the nearly 300 Canadian newspapers covered with no concrete content linked to occupational science. The scope of occupational therapy presented in Canadian

  4. A Dual Coding View of Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoski, Mark

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical perspective on acquiring sight vocabulary and developing meaningful vocabulary is presented. Dual Coding Theory assumes that cognition occurs in two independent but connected codes: a verbal code for language and a nonverbal code for mental imagery. The mixed research literature on using pictures in teaching sight vocabulary is…

  5. Development of an Openmath Content Dictionary for Mathematical Knowledge of Materials Science and Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Ashino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Many relationships between parameters and physical properties in materials science and engineering are represented as mathematical expressions, such as empirical equations and regression expressions. Some materials databases handle such information with indirect methods: as a table of sets of parameters, as a list of statements of programming languages, and other ways. There is no standardized way to represent mathematical relationships, and that makes it difficult to exchange, process, and display such information. The AIST (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology in Japan thermophysical property database manages sets of parameter values for expressions and Fortran statements that represent relationships between physical parameters, e.g., temperature, pressure, etc. and thermophysical properties. However, in this method, it is not easy to add new parameters, to process expressions, and exchange information with other software tools. In this paper, we describe the current implementation of representing mathematical knowledge in the AIST thermophysical property database, and we also discuss its problems, sample implementations, and definitions of the OpenMath content dictionary for materials science and engineering.

  6. The Role of Content in Inquiry-Based Elementary Science Lessons: An Analysis of Teacher Beliefs and Enactment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtak, Erin Marie; Alonzo, Alicia C.

    2010-05-01

    The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Video Study explored instructional practices in the United States (US) in comparison with other countries that ranked higher on the 1999 TIMSS assessment, and revealed that 8th grade science teachers in the US emphasize activities over content during lessons (Roth et al. 2006). This study applies the content framework from the TIMSS Video Study to a sample of 28 3rd grade teachers enacting an inquiry-based unit on floating and sinking, and seeks a deeper understanding of teachers’ practices through analysis of interviews with those teachers. Transcripts of observed lessons were coded according to the TIMSS framework for types of content, and transcripts of teacher interviews were coded to capture the ways in which teachers described their role in and purposes for teaching science, particularly with respect to the floating and sinking unit. Results indicate that teachers focused more on canonical, procedural and experimental knowledge during lessons than on real-world connections and the nature of science; however, none of the types of content received major emphasis in a majority of the classrooms in the sample. During interviews, teachers described their practice in ways that prioritized helping students to like science over specific content outcomes. The study suggests that elementary school teachers’ emphasis on doing and feeling during inquiry-based lessons may interfere with teaching of content.

  7. The Role of E-Vocabularies in the Description and Retrieval of Digital Educational Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Fernández-Pampillón

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vocabularies are linguistic resources that make it possible to access knowledge through words. They can constitute a mechanism to identify, describe, explore, and access all the digital resources with informational content pertaining to a specific knowledge domain. In this regard, they play a key role as systems for the representation and organization of knowledge in environments in which content is created and used in a collaborative and free manner, as is the case of social wikis and blogs on the Internet or educational content in e-learning environments. In e-learning environments, electronic vocabularies (e-vocabularies constitute a mechanism for conceptual representation of digital educational resources. They enable human and software agents either to locate and interpret resource content in large digital repositories, including the web, or to use them (vocabularies as an educational resource by itself to learn a discipline terminology. This review article describes what e-vocabularies are, what they are like, how they are used, how they work, and what they contribute to the retrieval of digital educational resources. The goal is to contribute to a clearer view of the concepts which we regard as crucial to understand e-vocabularies and their use in the field of e-learning to describe and retrieve digital educational resources.

  8. BUILDING VOCABULARY USING POP SONGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    author Rahmatika Kayyis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to find out whether there is a significant difference between the vocabulary mastery of first semester students taughtusing English pop songs and that taught without using English pop songs as a medium. This study involved 64 students of first semesterof STKIP Muhammadiyah Pringsewu Lampung in the academic year of 2012/2013 as the objects of the study. The result of the study shows there is a significant difference in the student’s vocabulary mastery between the experimental group who are taughtusing English pop songs and that taught without using English pop songs as a medium.The mean of post test score of the experimental group is 16.93 while the mean score of the control group is 14.54. The result of t-test shows that t-observed value which is higher than the t-value of the table (2.572>1.99, with a probability value of 0.008 which is lower than the significance level (0.008 < 0.05. In conclusion, the use of English pop songscould improve the students’ vocabulary mastery.Keywords: Vocabulary, English Pop Songs

  9. Organizing Vocabulary (Open to Suggestion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Dorothy J.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a technique for vocabulary instruction in which students complete a chart by providing two synonyms, an antonym, and the pronunciation of a given word. Reports that, even though the chart is easy to complete, students using it began to think both critically and creatively. (RS)

  10. Emotions in prospective secondary teachers when teaching science content, distinguishing by gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belén Borrachero, Ana; Brígido, María; Mellado, Lucía; Costillo, Emilio; Mellado, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    Background:Until recently, the affective components of education had long been undervalued. Today, one finds ever more studies on cognitive and affective interrelationships that are lending support to the idea that affect and cognition are best understood when viewed as independent and complementary mental functions. Purpose:The present work analyses the emotions of prospective secondary education teachers, distinguishing them by gender, in relation to the teaching of Biology, Geology, Physics and Chemistry in order to contribute to designing subsequent interventions targeted at improving science teachers' occupational health. Sample:The total sample consisted of 178 students (53 male and 125 female) of the post-graduate teaching certificate course at the University of Extremadura, all of whom were prospective secondary school teachers. We also worked with a sub-sample of 66 Science and Engineering graduates (33 male and 33 female). Design and methods:A questionnaire was prepared that includes items on each of the emotions that the prospective teacher might feel when teaching the science content of the proposed courses. The chi-squared test was used to determine whether a relationship exists between emotions and the variable gender when it came to their teaching Biology, Geology, Physics and Chemistry at the compulsory secondary education level. Results:The results showed that the male teachers more frequently report positive emotions than the female. The latter manifested an increase in negative emotions in teaching Geology, Physics and Chemistry content. And the study of the sub-sample showed positive emotions are more frequently reported than negative ones in all four subjects, with this being particularly so in Biology. Conclusions:The study of emotions is vital in the educational formation of prospective secondary teachers. These students will soon face day-to-day life in the classroom, and many of them, especially the women, declare themselves to be

  11. Considerations of multicultural science and curriculum reform: A content analysis of state-adopted biology textbooks in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgato, Margaret H.

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which multicultural science education, including indigenous knowledge representations, had been infused within the content of high school biology textbooks. The study evaluated the textbook as an instructional tool and framework for multicultural science education instruction by comparing the mainstream content to indigenous knowledge perspectives portrayed in the student and teacher editions of 34 textbooks adopted in Florida within the last four adoption cycles occurring from 1990 to 2006. The investigation involved a content analysis framed from a mixed methods approach. Emphasis was placed, in consideration of the research questions and practicality of interpreting text with the potential for multiple meanings, within qualitative methods. The investigation incorporated five strategies to assess the extent of multicultural content: (1) calculation of frequency of indigenous representations through the use of a tally; (2) assessment of content in the teacher editions by coding the degree of incorporation of multicultural content; (3) development of an archaeology of statements to determine the ways in which indigenous representations were incorporated into the content; (4) use of the Evaluation Coefficient Analysis (ECO) to determine extent of multicultural terminologies within content; and (5) analysis of visuals and illustrations to gauge percentages of depictions of minority groups. Results indicated no solid trend in an increase of inclusion of multicultural content over the last four adoption cycles. Efforts at most reduced the inclusion of indigenous representations and other multicultural content to the level of the teacher edition distributed among the teacher-interleafed pages or as annotations in the margins. Degree of support of multicultural content to the specific goals and objectives remained limited across all four of the adoption cycles represented in the study. Emphasis on

  12. Bridging the language gap: Exploring science teachers' dual role as teachers of content and English literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Suzanne C.

    Responsibility for educating English language learners is increasingly falling on the shoulders of content specialists at the secondary level, as students are mainstreamed into classes. Therefore, providing these students an opportunity to achieve academic success depends largely on the quality of mainstream instruction (Cornell, 1995). Most teachers receive little or no preparation in how to work with English language learners. In my study, I address the instructional issues confronting three white, monolingual English-speaking middle school science teachers who must meet the demands of an increasing English language learner population. Specifically, this study explores teacher beliefs and enactment of reform-oriented science and sheltered instructional approaches to develop English language learners scientific and English literacy skills. I also explore the relationships that exist between these two dynamics in an effort to determine the extent to which teachers take on a dual role as teachers promoting English language and science proficiency. Using a participant observation case study method and my adaptation of Schwab's commonplaces heuristic, I analyzed the relationship between teacher beliefs, milieu, subject matter, and enactment in bridging the language gap in the science classroom for English language learners. The most noteworthy finding of this study was the significant role of milieu in enacting lessons that bridge the language gap and foster the development of English language learners science and English literacy skills. The findings suggest that greater attention be given to helping teachers establish a relationship-driven classroom milieu. You can provide all kinds of courses or professional learning experiences to improve teachers' instructional practices, but they must also recognize the importance of establishing relationships with their students; the coursework they take will not supplant the need to foster a warm and safe environment for all

  13. Understanding disciplinary vocabularies using a full-text enabled domain-independent term extraction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Erjia; Williams, Jake; Chen, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Publication metadata help deliver rich analyses of scholarly communication. However, research concepts and ideas are more effectively expressed through unstructured fields such as full texts. Thus, the goals of this paper are to employ a full-text enabled method to extract terms relevant to disciplinary vocabularies, and through them, to understand the relationships between disciplines. This paper uses an efficient, domain-independent term extraction method to extract disciplinary vocabularies from a large multidisciplinary corpus of PLoS ONE publications. It finds a power-law pattern in the frequency distributions of terms present in each discipline, indicating a semantic richness potentially sufficient for further study and advanced analysis. The salient relationships amongst these vocabularies become apparent in application of a principal component analysis. For example, Mathematics and Computer and Information Sciences were found to have similar vocabulary use patterns along with Engineering and Physics; while Chemistry and the Social Sciences were found to exhibit contrasting vocabulary use patterns along with the Earth Sciences and Chemistry. These results have implications to studies of scholarly communication as scholars attempt to identify the epistemological cultures of disciplines, and as a full text-based methodology could lead to machine learning applications in the automated classification of scholarly work according to disciplinary vocabularies.

  14. How much basic science content do second-year medical students remember from their first year?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneid, Stephen D; Pashler, Hal; Armour, Chris

    2018-01-23

    While most medical students generally perform well on examinations and pass their courses during the first year, we do not know how much basic science content they retain at the start of their second year and how that relates to minimal competency set by the faculty. In the fall of 2014, before starting their second-year courses, 27 medical students volunteered to participate in a study of long-term retention of the basic sciences by taking a "retention exam" after a delay of 5-11 months. The overall mean performance when the students initially answered the 60 multiple choice questions (MCQs) was 82.8% [standard deviation (SD) = 7.4%], which fell to 50.1% (SD = 12.1%) on the retention exam. This gave a mean retention of 60.4% (SD = 12.8%) with the retention for individual students ranging from 37 to 81%. The majority of students (23/27; 85%) fell below the minimal level of competency to start their second year. Medical educators should be more aware of the significant amount of forgetting that occurs during training and make better use of instructional strategies that promote long-term learning such as retrieval practice, interleaving, and spacing.

  15. WORD ORIGIN HELPS EXPAND LEARNERS’ VOCABULARY A VOCABULARY TEACHING APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Li Jing

    2012-01-01

    Word origin (motivation) deals with the connection between name and sense, explaining how a word originated. With the knowledge of how words are originated, learners can grasp a word easier and thus expand their vocabulary more quickly. The introduction to word origin (motivation) by teachers can also help the learners gain interest in the process of learning and learn more about the cultural and historical background of the English-speaking countries. This paper tries to clarify this method ...

  16. Recommendations for recognizing video events by concept vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    represents a video in terms of low-level audiovisual features [16,38,50,35,15,19,37]. In general, these methods first extract from the video various types of...interpretable, but is also reported to outperform the state-of-the-art low-level audiovisual features in recognizing events [31,33]. Rather than training...concept detector accuracy. As a consequence, the vocabulary concepts do not necessarily have a semantic interpreta- tion needed to explain the video content

  17. Arctic Messages: Arctic Research in the Vocabulary of Poets and Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsel, F.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic Messages is a series of prints created by a multidisciplinary team designed to build understanding and encourage dialogue about the changing Arctic ecosystems and the impacts on global weather patterns. Our team comprised of Arctic researchers, a poet, a visual artist, photographers and visualization experts set out to blend the vocabularies of our disciplines in order to provide entry into the content for diverse audiences. Arctic Messages is one facet of our broader efforts experimenting with mediums of communication able to provide entry to those of us outside scientific of fields. We believe that the scientific understanding of change presented through the languages art will speak to our humanity as well as our intellect. The prints combine poetry, painting, visualization, and photographs, drawn from the Arctic field studies of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments research team at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The artistic team interviewed the scientists, read their papers and poured over their field blogs. The content and concepts are designed to portray the wonder of nature, the complexity of the science and the dedication of the researchers. Smith brings to life the intertwined connection between the research efforts, the ecosystems and the scientist's experience. Breathtaking photography of the research site is accompanied by Samsel's drawings and paintings of the ecosystem relationships and geological formations. Together they provide entry to the variety and wonder of life on the Arctic tundra and that resting quietly in the permafrost below. Our team has experimented with many means of presentation from complex interactive systems to quiet individual works. Here we are presenting a series of prints, each one based on a single thread of the research or the scientist's experience but containing intertwined relationships similar to the ecosystems they represent. Earlier interactive systems, while engaging, were not tuned to those seeking

  18. A Science for Citizenship Model: Assessing the Effects of Benefits, Risks, and Trust for Predicting Students' Interest in and Understanding of Science-Related Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Brady Michael; Lee, Ling; Yang, Kuay-Keng; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2017-10-01

    This study showcases the Science for Citizenship Model (SCM) as a new instructional methodology for presenting, to secondary students, science-related technology content related to the use of science in society not taught in the science curriculum, and a new approach for assessing the intercorrelations among three independent variables (benefits, risks, and trust) to predict the dependent variable of triggered interest in learning science. Utilizing a 50-minute instructional presentation on nanotechnology for citizenship, data were collected from 301 Taiwanese high school students. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and paired-samples t-tests were used to analyze the fitness of data to SCM and the extent to which a 50-minute class presentation of nanotechnology for citizenship affected students' awareness of benefits, risks, trust, and triggered interest in learning science. Results of SCM on pre-tests and post-tests revealed acceptable model fit to data and demonstrated that the strongest predictor of students' triggered interest in nanotechnology was their trust in science. Paired-samples t-test results on students' understanding of nanotechnology and their self-evaluated awareness of the benefits and risks of nanotechology, trust in scientists, and interest in learning science revealed low significant differences between pre-test and post-test. These results provide evidence that a short 50-minute presentation on an emerging science not normally addressed within traditional science curriculum had a significant yet limited impact on students' learning of nanotechnology in the classroom. Finally, we suggest why the results of this study may be important to science education instruction and research for understanding how the integration into classroom science education of short presentations of cutting-edge science and emerging technologies in support of the science for citizenship enterprise might be accomplished through future investigations.

  19. Developing Content Knowledge in Students through Explicit Teaching of the Nature of Science: Influences of Goal Setting and Self-Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Erin E.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about the nature of science has been advocated as an important component of science because it provides a framework on which the students can incorporate content knowledge. However, little empirical evidence has been provided that links nature of science knowledge with content knowledge. The purpose of this mixed method study was to…

  20. Desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bjork, RA; Kroll, JF

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is underst...

  1. Vocabulary Mastery by Using Storytelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sektalonir Oscarini Bhakti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:  This research investigated 80 students of Diploma III Architecture of Samarinda State Polytechnic to see their vocabularies mastery trough storytelling. Telling the stories is one of the best way to find out the students' English Mastery. Some obstacles are also found in learning English trough performing storytelling in the class such as the suitable material and text for the students, the lack of ability of the students and the teacher in conducting story as well as the readiness and the nervousness of the storytellers. As an English lecturer, the researcher also finds that how to improve vocabularies is one of the students' problems in learning English.  It is proved when the students are asked to tell a story in front of the class. In this research, the students needed telling stories before they had the English vocabulary test.  From the test, it could be concluded that the highest score was 92 got by one (1 student while the lowest score was 46 got by one (1 student.  Meanwhile, the average score was 78 that classified fair (B.  There were two (2 students who got below 50 that classified Fail. The results show that even the students' English mastery were satisfied but the students still need to practice how to tell the story in a good way so that they will master in all aspects. Keywords: Samarinda State Polytechnic, Students' Mastery, Storytelling

  2. The Journal of Earth System Science Education: Peer Review for Digital Earth and Digital Library Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.; Ruzek, M.; Weatherley, J.

    2001-05-01

    The Journal of Earth System Science Education is a new interdisciplinary electronic journal aiming to foster the study of the Earth as a system and promote the development and exchange of interdisciplinary learning resources for formal and informal education. JESSE will serve educators and students by publishing and providing ready electronic access to Earth system and global change science learning resources for the classroom and will provide authors and creators with professional recognition through publication in a peer reviewed journal. JESSE resources foster a world perspective by emphasizing interdisciplinary studies and bridging disciplines in the context of the Earth system. The Journal will publish a wide ranging variety of electronic content, with minimal constraints on format, targeting undergraduate educators and students as the principal readership, expanding to a middle and high school audience as the journal matures. JESSE aims for rapid review and turn-around of resources to be published, with a goal of 12 weeks from submission to publication for resources requiring few changes. Initial publication will be on a quarterly basis until a flow of resource submissions is established to warrant continuous electronic publication. JESSE employs an open peer review process in which authors and reviewers discuss directly the acceptability of a resource for publication using a software tool called the Digital Document Discourse Environment. Reviewer comments and attribution will be available with the resource upon acceptance for publication. JESSE will also implement a moderated peer commentary capability where readers can comment on the use of a resource or make suggestions. In the development phase, JESSE will also conduct a parallel anonymous review of content to validate and ensure credibility of the open review approach. Copyright of materials submitted remains with the author, granting JESSE the non-exclusive right to maintain a copy of the resource

  3. The Changing Role of Sound-Symbolism for Small Versus Large Vocabularies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, James; Monaghan, Padraic; Walker, Peter

    2017-12-12

    Natural language contains many examples of sound-symbolism, where the form of the word carries information about its meaning. Such systematicity is more prevalent in the words children acquire first, but arbitrariness dominates during later vocabulary development. Furthermore, systematicity appears to promote learning category distinctions, which may become more important as the vocabulary grows. In this study, we tested the relative costs and benefits of sound-symbolism for word learning as vocabulary size varies. Participants learned form-meaning mappings for words which were either congruent or incongruent with regard to sound-symbolic relations. For the smaller vocabulary, sound-symbolism facilitated learning individual words, whereas for larger vocabularies sound-symbolism supported learning category distinctions. The changing properties of form-meaning mappings according to vocabulary size may reflect the different ways in which language is learned at different stages of development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Cognitive Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Cognitive Science Society.

  4. Which Comes First--Language or Content?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargund-Joshi, Vanashri; Bautista, Nazan

    2016-01-01

    Science vocabulary can be abstract (e.g., "photosynthesis," "ecosystem") and have different meanings than in daily life (e.g., "class," "work," "power"). For this reason, understanding individual vocabulary words isn't enough for learners to be successful. The meaning is embedded in basic syntax,…

  5. Jump-Start Your Middle School Students' Background Knowledge and Vocabulary Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Elizabeth; Williams-Rossi, Dara

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in increasingly diverse classrooms is helping students develop the "knowledge and language of science to communicate scientific explanations and ideas" (NRC 1996, p. 144). In this article, the authors share one of their favorite methods for incorporating and reinforcing science vocabulary instruction in…

  6. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III: Psychometric properties and significance for application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Bucik

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the content, conceptual structure and methodological steps of the latest revision of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III, which is a highly functional and valuable vocabulary test that has been in use since 1959 in different language and cultural surroundings. On the case of the PPVT-III we are presenting the procedure of development and standardization of such vocabulary tests as well as its translation and adaptation from one language and cultural milieu to another. We also note the practical use of the PPVT-III for research purposes. In Slovenian language no vocabulary tests were developed or adapted so far; PPVT-III is presented in this context, too.

  7. Investigating the Impact of NGSS-Aligned Professional Development on PreK-3 Teachers' Science Content Knowledge and Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Nicole; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Molitor, Scott; Czerniak, Charlene M.; Johnson-Whitt, Eugenia; Bloomquist, Debra; Namatovu, Winnifred; Wilson, Grant

    2016-11-01

    This pilot study investigates the impact of a 2-week professional development Summer Institute on PK-3 teachers' knowledge and practices. This Summer Institute is a component of [program], a large-scale early-childhood science project that aims to transform PK-3 science teaching. The mixed-methods study examined concept maps, lesson plans, and classroom observations to measure possible changes in PK-3 teachers' science content knowledge and classroom practice from 11 teachers who attended the 2014 Summer Institute. Analysis of the concept maps demonstrated statistically significant growth in teachers' science content knowledge. Analysis of teachers' lesson plans demonstrated that the teachers could design high quality science inquiry lessons aligned to the Next Generation Science Standards following the professional development. Finally, examination of teachers' pre- and post-Summer Institute videotaped inquiry lessons showed evidence that teachers were incorporating new inquiry practices into their teaching, especially regarding classroom discourse. Our results suggest that an immersive inquiry experience is effective at beginning a shift towards reform-aligned science and engineering instruction but that early elementary educators require additional support for full mastery.

  8. Storytelling: Enhancing Vocabularies For Cerebral Palsy Students

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilina, Raita Gina

    2015-01-01

    This paper reported on a study concerned with teaching vocabulary using storytelling technique in one of SLBs in Bandung. This study aimed to find out the cerebral palsy students' ability in English vocabulary before and after the treatment, and to find out whether storytelling significantly improved English vocabulary of students with cerebral palsy. This study used an experimental method with single subject research with A-B-A design which involved two participants. This study revealed that...

  9. Using Song to Improve Students’ Vocabulary Mastery

    OpenAIRE

    Muflihah, Tatik

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary mastery is one of the requirements for students to be able to communicate both in spoken and written. There are many ways to improve students’ vocabulary mastery used by the language teacher. This paper aims to examine the use of English song to motivate students in learning English. In addition, this concerns on the use of English song to improve students’ vocabulary mastery. The respondents were fifteen elementary students of community groups of orphans An-nur Surabaya. The data ...

  10. Vocabulary Pruning for Improved Context Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    Language independent `bag-of-words' representations are surprisingly effective for text classification. The representation is high dimensional though, containing many non-consistent words for text categorization. These non-consistent words result in reduced generalization performance of subsequent...... of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies documents are classified using a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Reducing the bag-of-words vocabularies with 90%-98%, we find consistent classification improvement using two...

  11. The impact of a dedicated Science-Technology-Society (STS) course on student knowledge of STS content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Paul E.

    In the last half century, public awareness of issues such as population growth, environmental pollution and the threat of nuclear war has pressured science education to reform to increase student social responsibility. The emerging Science-Technology-Society (STS) movement addressed these concerns by developing numerous strategies and curricula. Considerable diagnostic research has been conducted on student knowledge of the nature of science, but not on the wider scope of STS content (e.g., the nature of science and technology and their interactions with society). However, researchers have not widely studied the impact of comprehensive STS curricula on students' knowledge of STS content nor the nature of STS teaching practice that influenced this knowledge gain. This study examined student success and teacher performance in a special STS course in Ontario, Canada. Research questions focused on the STS content knowledge gain by students completing this course and the impact of the STS teachers' teaching practices on this knowledge gain. Student data were collected using pre-course and post-course assessments of students' STS content knowledge. Teacher data were obtained using semi-structured interviews, classroom observations and videotapes. Statistical analysis indicated that, after completing the STS course, students significantly increased their STS content knowledge as measured by the Views on Science Technology Society instrument. Gender and academic achievement had no significant impact on this knowledge gain, implying that this course, as taught by these teachers, could appeal to a wide range of students as a general education course. The second part of the study indicated that detailed research is needed on the relationship between STS teaching practice and student STS content knowledge gain. The small sample size prevents generalizations but initial indications show that factors such constructivist teaching practices and strong teacher STS content knowledge

  12. Developing Content Knowledge in Students Through Explicit Teaching of the Nature of Science: Influences of Goal Setting and Self-Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Erin E.

    2012-06-01

    Knowledge about the nature of science has been advocated as an important component of science because it provides a framework on which the students can incorporate content knowledge. However, little empirical evidence has been provided that links nature of science knowledge with content knowledge. The purpose of this mixed method study was to determine if both nature of science knowledge and content knowledge could be increased with an explicit, reflective nature of science intervention utilizing self-regulation over an implicit group. Results showed that the explicit group significantly outperformed the implicit group on both nature of science and content knowledge assessments. Students in the explicit group also demonstrated a greater use of detail in their inquiry work and reported a higher respect for evidence in making conclusions than the implicit group. Implications suggest that science educators could enhance nature of science instruction using goal setting and self-monitoring of student work during inquiry lessons.

  13. Science on Stage: Engaging and teaching scientific content through performance art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Esther

    2016-04-01

    Engaging teaching material through performance art and music can improve the long-term retention of scientific content. Additionally, the development of effective performance skills are a powerful tool to communicate scientific concepts and information to a broader audience that can have many positive benefits in terms of career development and the delivery of professional presentations. While arts integration has been shown to increase student engagement and achievement, relevant artistic materials are still required for use as supplemental activities in STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) courses. I will present an original performance poem, "Tectonic Petrameter: A Journey Through Earth History," with instructions for its implementation as a play in pre-university and undergraduate geoscience classrooms. "Tectonic Petrameter" uses a dynamic combination of rhythm and rhyme to teach the geological time scale, fundamental concepts in geology and important events in Earth history. I propose that using performance arts, such as "Tectonic Petrameter" and other creative art forms, may be an avenue for breaking down barriers related to teaching students and the broader non-scientific community about Earth's long and complex history.

  14. Biomedical laboratory science education: standardising teaching content in resource-limited countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Arneson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a worldwide shortage of qualified laboratory personnel to provide adequate testing for the detection and monitoring of diseases. In an effort to increase laboratory capacity in developing countries, new skills have been introduced into laboratory services. Curriculum revision with a focus on good laboratory practice is an important aspect of supplying entry-level graduates with the competencies needed to meet the current needs. Objectives: Gaps in application and problem-solving competencies of newly graduated laboratory personnel were discovered in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya. New medical laboratory teaching content was developed in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya using national instructors, tutors, and experts and consulting medical laboratory educators from the United States of America (USA. Method: Workshops were held in Ethiopia to create standardised biomedical laboratory science (BMLS lessons based on recently-revised course objectives with an emphasis on application of skills. In Tanzania, course-module teaching guides with objectives were developed based on established competency outcomes and tasks. In Kenya, example interactive presentations and lesson plans were developed by the USA medical laboratory educators prior to the workshop to serve as resources and templates for the development of lessons within the country itself. Results: The new teaching materials were implemented and faculty, students and other stakeholders reported successful outcomes. Conclusions: These approaches to updating curricula may be helpful as biomedical laboratory schools in other countries address gaps in the competencies of entry-level graduates.

  15. Supports for Vocabulary Instruction in Early Language and Literacy Methods Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tanya S.; Peltier, Marliese R.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the extent to which the content and recommendations in recently published early language and literacy methods textbooks may support early childhood teachers in learning to provide vocabulary instruction for young children. We completed a content analysis of 9 textbooks with coding at the sentence level.…

  16. Science Teacher Educators' Engagement with Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Scientific Inquiry in Predominantly Paper-Based Distance Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, William J.

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on the dilemmas science educators face when having to introduce Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) to science student teachers in a predominantly paper-based distance learning environment. It draws on the premise that science education is bound by the Nature of Science (NOS), and by the Nature of Scientific Inquiry (NOSI).…

  17. Library and Information Science Research Areas: A Content Analysis of Articles from the Top 10 Journals 2007-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharony, Noa

    2012-01-01

    The current study seeks to describe and analyze journal research publications in the top 10 Library and Information Science journals from 2007-8. The paper presents a statistical descriptive analysis of authorship patterns (geographical distribution and affiliation) and keywords. Furthermore, it displays a thorough content analysis of keywords and…

  18. Using Biomedically Relevant Multimedia Content in an Introductory Physics Course for Life Science and Pre-Health Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylott, Elliot; Kutschera, Ellynne; Dunlap, Justin C.; Christensen, Warren; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    We will describe a one-quarter pilot algebra-based introductory physics course for pre-health and life science majors. The course features videos with biomedical experts and cogent biomedically inspired physics content. The materials were used in a flipped classroom as well as an all-online environment where students interacted with multimedia…

  19. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Beliefs about Nature of Science and Constructivist Teaching in the Content-Specific Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hye-Gyoung; Kim, Byoung Sug

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how Korean preservice elementary teachers' beliefs about nature of science (NOS) and their beliefs about constructivist teaching were structured and related and if any relation was prevalent in the content-specific contexts. As the same format, three versions of questionnaires were developed in three…

  20. Facilitating linguistically diverse parents to enhance toddler's vocabulary development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, R.C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Oostdam, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The aim is to investigate effects of a Dutch FLP on linguistically diverse children's vocabulary, specifically curriculumbased and general vocabulary. Moreover, we investigate additional effects including technology-enhanced activities in a FLP. Theoretical background Vocabulary knowledge in

  1. Recommendations for Recognizing Video Events by Concept Vocabularies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibian, A.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Representing videos using vocabularies composed of concept detectors appears promising for generic event recognition. While many have recently shown the benefits of concept vocabularies for recognition, studying the characteristics of a universal concept vocabulary suited for representing events is

  2. Linking Student Achievement and Teacher Science Content Knowledge about Climate Change: Ensuring the Nations 3 Million Teachers Understand the Science through an Electronic Professional Development System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepold, F.; Byers, A.

    2009-12-01

    The scientific complexities of global climate change, with wide-ranging economic and social significance, create an intellectual challenge that mandates greater public understanding of climate change research and the concurrent ability to make informed decisions. The critical need for an engaged, science literate public has been repeatedly emphasized by multi-disciplinary entities like the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the National Academies (Rising Above the Gathering Storm report), and the interagency group responsible for the recently updated Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science. There is a clear need for an American public that is climate literate and for K-12 teachers confident in teaching relevant science content. A key goal in the creation of a climate literate society is to enhance teachers’ knowledge of global climate change through a national, scalable, and sustainable professional development system, using compelling climate science data and resources to stimulate inquiry-based student interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). This session will explore innovative e-learning technologies to address the limitations of one-time, face-to-face workshops, thereby adding significant sustainability and scalability. The resources developed will help teachers sift through the vast volume of global climate change information and provide research-based, high-quality science content and pedagogical information to help teachers effectively teach their students about the complex issues surrounding global climate change. The Learning Center is NSTA's e-professional development portal to help the nations teachers and informal educators learn about the scientific complexities of global climate change through research-based techniques and is proven to significantly improve teacher science content knowledge.

  3. Towards a controlled vocabulary on software engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizard, Sebastián; Vallespir, Diego

    2017-11-01

    Software engineering is the discipline that develops all the aspects of the production of software. Although there are guidelines about what topics to include in a software engineering curricula, it is usually unclear which are the best methods to teach them. In any science discipline the construction of a classification schema is a common approach to understand a thematic area. This study examines previous publications in software engineering education to obtain a first controlled vocabulary (a more formal definition of a classification schema) in the field. Publications from 1988 to 2014 were collected and processed using automatic clustering techniques and the outcomes were analysed manually. The result is an initial controlled vocabulary with a taxonomy form with 43 concepts that were identified as the most used in the research publications. We present the classification of the concepts in three facets: 'what to teach', 'how to teach' and 'where to teach' and the evolution of concepts over time.

  4. WORD ORIGIN HELPS EXPAND LEARNERS’ VOCABULARY A VOCABULARY TEACHING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Word origin (motivation deals with the connection between name and sense, explaining how a word originated. With the knowledge of how words are originated, learners can grasp a word easier and thus expand their vocabulary more quickly. The introduction to word origin (motivation by teachers can also help the learners gain interest in the process of learning and learn more about the cultural and historical background of the English-speaking countries. This paper tries to clarify this method of teaching from four aspects: onomatopoeia, word formation, cultural and historical background and cognitive linguistics.

  5. How do staff members at science and technology centres consider the impact of sponsors on the scientific content of exhibitions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, Eva; Sørensen, Helene

    2009-01-01

    or historical museums. But in what ways may sponsors impact exhibition content and design at science and technology centres? This study seeks to explore how staff members consider the impact of sponsors and donors on exhibit content and design. The data collection involves a survey, interviews and a focus group...... interview with staff members, who work with planning and constructing new exhibitions at their science and technology centre. The results suggest that sponsors may interfere in exhibition construction both directly and indirectly. This means that sponsors could put explicit demands when it comes...... to the choice of scientific content and design and thereby interfere directly. Indirect impact, on the other hand, refers to implicit demands of sponsors where staff members take into account for what they believe are views of the sponsors through self-censorship....

  6. Holistic Approach to Secondary Earth Science Teacher Professional Development: the Triad of Project-based Instruction, Earth Science Content, and GIS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino-Hare, L.; Sample, J. C.; Fredrickson, K.; Claesgens, J.; Bloom, N.; Henderson-Dahms, C.; Manone, M.

    2011-12-01

    We have provided two years of professional development for secondary and middle school teachers with a focus on project-based instruction (PBI) using GIS. The EYE-POD project (funded by NSF-ITEST) involved pairs of teachers from Arizona and the surrounding region in two-week institutes during Summer, 2010, and an advanced institute in Summer, 2011. The NAz-POD project (funded by Arizona Department of Education and administered by Science Foundation Arizona) provided similar PD experiences, but the institutes occurred during weekends in the academic year. The institutes were led by a team with expertise in Earth science content, professional development and pedagogy, and GIS. The teachers developed learning modules using the project based learning instructional model. Pedagogy, content, and GIS skills were combined throughout the professional development activities. Academic year follow up by NAU personnel included classroom observations and technical support. For assessing student work we provided a rubric, but learned that teachers were not prepared to assess GIS products in order to determine the level of student understanding. In year two of the project we incorporated strategies for assessment of student products into the professional development. Teacher-participants and their students completed several pre- and post- assessments. Teacher assessments included a geospatial performance assessment, classroom observations, and content tests. Student data collection included attitude and efficacy questionnaires, content tests, and authentic assessments including products using GIS. Content tests were the same for teachers and students and included spatial reasoning, data analysis, and Earth science content. Data was also collected on teacher perception of professional development delivery and self-reported confidence in teaching with PBI and geospatial technology. Student assessments show that improvement occurred in all areas on the content test. Possible factors

  7. Teaching the content in context: Preparing "highly qualified" and "high quality" teachers for instruction in underserved secondary science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Sara E.

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation research project presents the results of a longitudinal study that investigates the knowledge, beliefs, and practices of 13 preservice secondary science teachers participating in a science teacher credentialing/Masters program designed to integrate issues of equity and diversity throughout coursework and seminars. Results are presented in the form of three papers: The first paper describes changes in preservice teacher knowledge about contextualization in science instruction, where contextualization is defined as facilitating authentic connections between science learning and relevant personal, social, cultural, ecological, and political contexts of students in diverse secondary classrooms; the second paper relates changes in the self-efficacy and content-specific beliefs about science, science teaching, diversity, and diversity in science instruction; and the final paper communicates the experiences and abilities of four "social justice advocates" learning to contextualize science instruction in underserved secondary placement classrooms. Results indicate that secondary student teachers developed more sophisticated understandings of how to contextualize science instruction with a focus on promoting community engagement and social/environmental activism in underserved classrooms and how to integrate science content and diversity instruction through student-centered inquiry activities. Although most of the science teacher candidates developed more positive beliefs about teaching science in underrepresented classrooms, many teacher candidates still attributed their minority students' underperformance and a (perceived) lack of interest in school to family and cultural values. The "social justice advocates" in this study were able to successfully contextualize science instruction to varying degrees in underserved placement classrooms, though the most significant limitations on their practice were the contextual factors of their student teaching

  8. Human simulations of vocabulary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, J; Gleitman, H; Gleitman, L; Lederer, A

    1999-12-07

    The work reported here experimentally investigates a striking generalization about vocabulary acquisition: Noun learning is superior to verb learning in the earliest moments of child language development. The dominant explanation of this phenomenon in the literature invokes differing conceptual requirements for items in these lexical categories: Verbs are cognitively more complex than nouns and so their acquisition must await certain mental developments in the infant. In the present work, we investigate an alternative hypothesis; namely, that it is the information requirements of verb learning, not the conceptual requirements, that crucially determine the acquisition order. Efficient verb learning requires access to structural features of the exposure language and thus cannot take place until a scaffolding of noun knowledge enables the acquisition of clause-level syntax. More generally, we experimentally investigate the hypothesis that vocabulary acquisition takes place via an incremental constraint-satisfaction procedure that bootstraps itself into successively more sophisticated linguistic representations which, in turn, enable new kinds of vocabulary learning. If the experimental subjects were young children, it would be difficult to distinguish between this information-centered hypothesis and the conceptual change hypothesis. Therefore the experimental "learners" are adults. The items to be "acquired" in the experiments were the 24 most frequent nouns and 24 most frequent verbs from a sample of maternal speech to 18-24-month-old infants. The various experiments ask about the kinds of information that will support identification of these words as they occur in mother-to-child discourse. Both the proportion correctly identified and the type of word that is identifiable changes significantly as a function of information type. We discuss these results as consistent with the incremental construction of a highly lexicalized grammar by cognitively and pragmatically

  9. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  10. Influence of subject matter discipline and science content knowledge on National Board Certified science teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslyn, Wayne Gene

    The present study investigated differences in the continuing development of National Board Certified Science Teachers' (NBCSTs) conceptions of inquiry across the disciplines of biology, chemistry, earth science, and physics. The central research question of the study was, "How does a NBCST's science discipline (biology, chemistry, earth science, or physics) influence their conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry-based teaching and learning?" A mixed methods approach was used that included an analysis of the National Board portfolio entry, Active Scientific Inquiry, for participants (n=48) achieving certification in the 2007 cohort. The portfolio entry provided detailed documentation of teachers' goals and enactment of an inquiry lesson taught in their classroom. Based on the results from portfolio analysis, participant interviews were conducted with science teachers (n=12) from the 2008 NBCST cohort who represented the science disciplines of biology, chemistry, earth science, and physics. The interviews provided a broader range of contexts to explore teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals of inquiry. Other factors studied were disciplinary differences in NBCSTs' views of the nature of science, the relation between their science content knowledge and use of inquiry, and changes in their conceptions of inquiry as result of the NB certification process. Findings, based on a situated cognitive framework, suggested that differences exist between biology, chemistry, and earth science teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry. Further, individuals teaching in more than one discipline often held different conceptions of inquiry depending on the discipline in which they were teaching. Implications for the research community include being aware of disciplinary differences in studies on inquiry and exercising caution in generalizing findings across disciplines. In addition, teachers who teach in more than one discipline can highlight the contextual

  11. Web-Scale Discovery Services Retrieve Relevant Results in Health Sciences Topics Including MEDLINE Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Margaret Stovold

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Hanneke, R., & O’Brien, K. K. (2016. Comparison of three web-scale discovery services for health sciences research. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 104(2, 109-117. http://dx.doi.org/10.3163/1536-5050.104.2.004 Abstract Objective – To compare the results of health sciences search queries in three web-scale discovery (WSD services for relevance, duplicate detection, and retrieval of MEDLINE content. Design – Comparative evaluation and bibliometric study. Setting – Six university libraries in the United States of America. Subjects – Three commercial WSD services: Primo, Summon, and EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS. Methods – The authors collected data at six universities, including their own. They tested each of the three WSDs at two data collection sites. However, since one of the sites was using a legacy version of Summon that was due to be upgraded, data collected for Summon at this site were considered obsolete and excluded from the analysis. The authors generated three questions for each of six major health disciplines, then designed simple keyword searches to mimic typical student search behaviours. They captured the first 20 results from each query run at each test site, to represent the first “page” of results, giving a total of 2,086 total search results. These were independently assessed for relevance to the topic. Authors resolved disagreements by discussion, and calculated a kappa inter-observer score. They retained duplicate records within the results so that the duplicate detection by the WSDs could be compared. They assessed MEDLINE coverage by the WSDs in several ways. Using precise strategies to generate a relevant set of articles, they conducted one search from each of the six disciplines in PubMed so that they could compare retrieval of MEDLINE content. These results were cross-checked against the first 20 results from the corresponding query in the WSDs. To aid investigation of overall

  12. Efficacy of Using Vocabulary Flashcards in Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaiano, Mackenzie E.; Lloyd, Blair P.; Hatton, Deborah D.

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined whether vocabulary flashcards facilitate spelling acquisition. The study was designed to evaluate whether students who are blind can learn to spell words accurately and incidentally when academic vocabulary instruction is used. Auditory information was provided prior to the introduction of a flashcard,…

  13. Predicting Contextual Informativeness for Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelner, Adam; Soterwood, Jeanine; Nessaiver, Shalev; Adlof, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is essential to educational progress. High quality vocabulary instruction requires supportive contextual examples to teach word meaning and proper usage. Identifying such contexts by hand for a large number of words can be difficult. In this work, we take a statistical learning approach to engineer a system that predicts…

  14. Intentional Vocabulary Learning Using Digital Flashcards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hsiu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    As an attempt to follow through on the claims made by proponents of intentional vocabulary learning, the present study set out to examine whether and how digital flashcards can be incorporated into a university course to promote the vocabulary learning of English language learners. The overall research findings underscore the value of learning…

  15. Hypermedia and Vocabulary Acquisition for Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of multimedia as a delivery tool for enhancing vocabulary in second-language classrooms. The mixed method design focused on specific techniques to help students acquire Spanish vocabulary and communication skills. The theoretical framework for this study consisted of second language theories…

  16. Tuning in to Vocabulary Frequency in Coursebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Richard

    2012-01-01

    For second language learners vocabulary growth is of major importance, and for many learners commercially published coursebooks will be the source of this vocabulary learning. In this preliminary study, input from three levels of the coursebook series "New English File" (Oxenden and Latham-Koenig, 2006; Oxenden, Latham-Koenig, and Seligson, 2004,…

  17. Vocabulary Growth of the Advanced EFL Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Meral

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of two studies on the vocabulary growth of advanced learners of English as a foreign language in an English-medium degree programme. Growth in learners' written receptive and productive vocabularies was investigated in one cross-sectional and one longitudinal study over three years. The effect of word frequency on…

  18. The Implementation of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK based Guided Inquiry on Science Teacher Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Tunjung Biru

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is examining the learning of Integrated Sciences through PCK based guided inquiry on prospective science teacher students. This research method was descriptive qualitative involving 33 science teacher students who taking Integrated Science 1 Subject in academic year 2016/2017. The research instrument used was the observation sheet to know the implementation PCK based guided inquiry. The results showed that the implementation of the activities of lecturer and science teacher students during the learning process using PCK based guided inquiry was very good conducted.

  19. Teacher- or Learner-Centred? Science Teacher Beliefs Related to Topic Specific Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A South African Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavhunga, Elizabeth; Rollnick, Marissa

    2016-12-01

    In science education, learner-centred classroom practices are widely accepted as desirable and are associated with responsive and reformed kinds of teacher beliefs. They are further associated with high-quality Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK). Topic-Specific Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TSPCK), a version of PCK defined at topic level, is known to enable the transformation of topic content into a form accessible to learners. However, little is known about teacher science beliefs in relation to TSPCK and therefore the nature of likely associated classroom practices. In this study, we investigated the relationship between TSPCK and underlying science teacher beliefs following an intervention targeting the improvement of TSPCK in the topic chemical equilibrium. Sixteen final year pre-service chemistry teachers were exposed to an intervention that explicitly focussed on knowledge for transforming the content of chemical equilibrium using the five knowledge components of TSPCK. A specially designed TSPCK instrument in chemical equilibrium and the Teacher Belief Instrument (TBI) were used to capture written responses in pre- and post-tests. Additional qualitative data was collected from audio-recorded discussions and written responses from an open-ended question asked before and after the intervention. Two key findings emerged from the study. Firstly, the development of TSPCK was linked to shifts in underlying science teacher beliefs in the direction of learner-centred teaching for the majority of pre-service teachers. Secondly, this shift was not evident for all, as for some there was development of TSPCK without a shift from teacher-centred beliefs about science teaching.

  20. Hearing experience and receptive vocabulary development in deaf children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Mary K; Pisoni, David B

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated receptive vocabulary delay in deaf children with cochlear implants. Participants were 23 children with profound hearing loss, ages 6-14 years, who received a cochlear implant between ages 1.4 and 6 years. Duration of cochlear implant use ranged from 3.7 to 11.8 years. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Third Edition (PPVT-III) data were analyzed first by examining children's errors for evidence of difficulty in specific lexical content areas, and second by calculating standard scores with reference to hearing age (HA) (i.e., chronological age [CA]--age at implantation) rather than CA. Participants showed evidence of vocabulary understanding across all PPVT-III content categories with no strong evidence of disproportionate numbers of errors in any specific content area despite below-average mean standard scores. However, whereas mean standard scores were below the test mean established for hearing children when based on CA, they were within the average range for hearing children when calculated based on HA. Thus, children's vocabulary knowledge was commensurate with years of cochlear implant experience, providing support for the role of spoken language experience in vocabulary acquisition.

  1. Investigating Arabic Academic Vocabulary Knowledge Among Middle School Pupils: Receptive Versus Productive Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhoul, Baha

    2017-08-01

    The current study attempted to investigate the development of Arabic academic vocabulary knowledge among middle-school Arabic native speakers, taking into account the socioeconomic status of the Arab population in Israel. For this purpose, Arabic academic word list was developed, mapping the required academic words that are needed for adequate coping with informational texts as appearing in the different content areas text-books. Six-hundred Arabic speaking middle school pupils from the different areas in Israel, representing the different Arab subgroups: general Arab community, Druze and Bedouins, have participated in the current study. Two academic vocabulary tests, including receptive and productive academic vocabulary evaluation tests, were administrated to the students across the different age groups (7th, 8th and 9th). The results pointed to no significant difference between 7th and 9th grade in academic vocabulary knowledge. In contrast, significant difference was encountered between the different Arab sub-groups where the lowest scores were noted among the Bedouin sub-group, characterized by the lowest SES. When comparing receptive and productive academic vocabulary knowledge between 7th and 9th grade, the results pointed to improvement in receptive academic knowledge towards the end of middle school but not on the productive knowledge level. In addition, within participants' comparison indicated a gap between the pupils' receptive and productive vocabulary. The results are discussed in relation to the existing scientific literature and to its implication of both research and practice in the domain of Arabic literacy development.

  2. Promoting autonomous learning in English through the implementation of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL in science and maths subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriani Putu Fika

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous learning is a concept in which the learner has the ability to take charge of their own learning. It becomes a notable aspect that should be perceived by students. The aim of this research is for finding out the strategies used by grade two teachers in Bali Kiddy Primary School to promote autonomous learning in English through the implementation of Content and Language Integrated Learning in science and maths subjects. This study was designed in the form of descriptive qualitative study. The data were collected through observation, interview, and document study. The result of the study shows that there are some strategies of promoting autonomous learning in English through the implementation of CLIL in Science and Maths subjects. Those strategies are table of content training, questioning & presenting, journal writing, choosing activities, and using online activity. Those strategies can be adopted or even adapted as the way to promote autonomous learning in English subject.

  3. Science Teacher Educators’ Engagement with Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Scientific Inquiry in Predominantly Paper-Based Distance Learning Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. FRASER

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the dilemmas science educators face when having to introduce Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK to science student teachers in a predominantly paper-based distance learning environment. It draws on the premise that science education is bound by the Nature of Science (NOS, and by the Nature of Scientific Inquiry (NOSI. Furthermore, science educators’ own PCK, and the limitations of a predominantly paper-based distance education (DE model of delivery are challenges that they have to face when introducing PCK and authentic inquiry-based learning experiences. It deprives them and their students from optimal engagement in a science-oriented community of practice, and leaves little opportunity to establish flourishing communities of inquiry. This study carried out a contextual analysis of the tutorial material to assess the PCK that the student teachers had been exposed to. This comprised the ideas of a community of inquiry, a community of science, the conceptualization of PCK, scientific inquiry, and the 5E Instructional Model of the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study. The analysis confirmed that the lecturers had a good understanding of NOS, NOSI and science process skills, but found it difficult to design interventions to optimize the PCK development of students through communities of inquiry. Paper-based tutorials are ideal to share theory, policies and practices, but fail to monitor the engagement of learners in communities of inquiry. The article concludes with a number of suggestions to address the apparent lack of impact power of the paper-based mode of delivery, specifically in relation to inquiry-based teaching and learning (IBTL.

  4. The Impact of Gloss Types on Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary Gain and Vocabulary Retention: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Elekaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The significance and impact of vocabulary learning in reading comprehension and L2 language learning are apparent to teachers, researchers and language learners. Moreover, glosses are found as one of the most effective strategies regarding vocabulary retention. Therefore, the present study attempted to investigate the effect of different types of glosses on reading comprehension, vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. To this end, 140 Iranian EFL learners learning English were selected and were divided into four groups (footnote gloss group, interlinear gloss group, marginal gloss group, and glossary group. They were required to read a text and answer four reading comprehension questions. In addition, one immediate vocabulary post-test and one delayed vocabulary post-test were taken in order to investigate learners' vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. In order to analyze the data, one one-way ANOVA and one MANOVA were run. The results of one-way ANOVA revealed that participants who received interlinear glosses significantly outperformed the other groups regarding comprehending the text. Moreover, the immediate vocabulary post-test was conducted immediately after reading test and the delayed post-test was administered after four weeks. The results of MANOVA indicated that the group which received interlinear glosses outperformed the other groups in both vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. The present study has implications for teachers and learners. Teachers can find better methods to teach new reading passages as well as vocabulary items. Also, glosses help learners to have a better comprehension of difficult passages and they facilitate learning. Moreover, learners can enhance their vocabulary knowledge with the help of glosses.

  5. Questionnaire for the contents of cancer professional training plan by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Ryohei; Numasaki, Hodaka; Teshima, Teruki; Nishio, Teiji; Fukuda, Haruyuki; Ashino, Yasuo; Onishi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Nagata, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    Questionnaire for the contents of cancer professional training plan by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology Japan were widely assessed and introduced in the 4th Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JASTRO) Future Planning Seminar held on March 8, 2008 in Tokyo, Japan. From the assessment, small number of instructors for medical physicists was elucidated as the most important problem for the future of fields of radiation oncology in Japan. (author)

  6. Influences on Turkish Early Childhood Teachers' Science Teaching Practices and the Science Content Covered in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgan, Refika

    2015-01-01

    The first rationale of the study was not only to determine the topics taught in Turkish early childhood settings but also to define the frequency and time allocation for teaching science (n?=?382). In the second phase, through semi-structured interview questions, the aim was to gain detailed information about Turkish early childhood teachers'…

  7. "Wow! Look at That!": Discourse as a Means to Improve Teachers' Science Content Learning in Informal Science Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Gary M.; Lederman, Judith S.; Lederman, Norman G.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, it is not clear whether professional development staff at Informal Science Institutions (ISIs) are considering the way exhibits contribute to the social aspects of learning as described by the contextual model of learning (CML) (Falk & Dierking in "The museum experience." Whalesback, Washington, 1992; "Learning from…

  8. Content Analysis of Life Exhibitions in Japanese Science Museums and Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Tomoko; Ogawa, Masakata

    2015-01-01

    Life exhibitions in Japanese science museums (SMs) face difficulties in coping with rapid progress in the life sciences owing to certain constraints around the frequency of exhibit renovations, and the Japanese indigenous understanding of the natural world (Shizen) that Japanese visitors unconsciously bring with them. To what extent do current…

  9. Deaf Children's Science Content Learning in Direct Instruction Versus Interpreted Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Kim B.; Schick, Brenda; Hauser, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    This research study compared learning of 6-9th grade deaf students under two modes of educational delivery--interpreted vs. direct instruction using science lessons. Nineteen deaf students participated in the study in which they were taught six science lessons in American Sign Language. In one condition, the lessons were taught by a hearing…

  10. History of Science in the Physics Curriculum: A Directed Content Analysis of Historical Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, Hayati; Guney, Burcu G.

    2012-01-01

    Although history of science is a potential resource for instructional materials, teachers do not have a tendency to use historical materials in their lessons. Studies showed that instructional materials should be adaptable and consistent with curriculum. This study purports to examine the alignment between history of science and the curriculum in…

  11. The Efficacy of Educative Curriculum Materials to Support Geospatial Science Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec; Peffer, Tamara; Kulo, Violet

    2012-01-01

    Teaching and learning about geospatial aspects of energy resource issues requires that science teachers apply effective science pedagogical approaches to implement geospatial technologies into classroom instruction. To address this need, we designed educative curriculum materials as an integral part of a comprehensive middle school energy…

  12. Promotion of Cultural Content Knowledge through the Use of the History and Philosophy of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galili, Igal

    2012-01-01

    Historical excurse was suggested as a beneficial form of using the history and philosophy of science in the modules of learning materials developed within the History and Philosophy in Science Teaching project. The paper briefly describes the theoretical framework of the produced modules, addressing ontological and epistemological aspects of…

  13. EDMODO AS A MEDIA TO TEACH VOCABULARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno Sadji Evenddy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at intoducing how to use Edmodo to teach vocabulary. Vocabulary is a component of English language. When we are speaking and writing, we need to master vocabulary related to certain topic. Therefore vocabulary is important thing in learning language. But, mastering English vocabularies is not easy. Teacher needs a media to make an interesting teaching-learning process. One of the most accepted trends in the field of teaching vocabulary in a foreign language teaching is Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL. CALL has several applications that can be used by the teachers in teaching vocabulary. Computer and mobile telephone internet allow immediate connection to a server. In the internet browser the teachers and students can browse Edmodo. One of media is Edmodo. Edmodo is one of social media which can be operated by students, teachers or lecturers, and parents. It is able to be used to post various assignments and students’ learning achievement, actual discussion topics, video, appointments, and to facilitate students’ polls which are related to teaching learning process.

  14. Learning vocabulary through a serious game in Primary Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heitink, Maaike Christine; Fisser, Petra; Voogt, Joke; McBride, Ron; Searson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effect of a serious game on the vocabulary of students in primary education. 206 students and 10 teachers used the game during vocabulary lessons in three conditions: (a)online game and vocabulary instruction, (b)online game only, and (c)paper game and vocabulary instruction.

  15. Effects of Individualized Word Retrieval in Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damhuis, Carmen M. P.; Segers, Eliane; Scheltinga, Femke; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of adaptive word retrieval intervention on a classroom vocabulary program on children's vocabulary acquisition in kindergarten. In the experimental condition, word retrieval was provided in a classroom vocabulary program, combining implicit and explicit vocabulary instructions. Children performed extra word retrieval…

  16. The Dimensional Approach to Vocabulary Testing: What Can We ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1999), i.e. vocabulary size, depth, and receptive-productive knowledge/skills, has influenced test design for measuring L2/FL vocabulary acquisition. This article aims to describe the major vocabulary tests along the vocabulary dimensions and ...

  17. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite poor vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of specific vocabulary teaching methods on vocabulary learning for this group. The authors compared three vocabulary instruction conditions with preschool children with hearing loss: (a) explicit, direct instruction; (b) follow-in…

  18. A Research on Vocabulary Teaching Strategies and Students’ Mastery

    OpenAIRE

    Tian Yuan; Liu Bingbing

    2013-01-01

    By means of questionnaire and quantitative research, this article aims at investigating the effects on students’ mastery of vocabulary by studying teachers’ adoption of seven kinds of common vocabulary teaching strategies and the usage of analyzing strategies in intensive English in order to improve vocabulary teaching strategies and to help enlarge students’ vocabulary.

  19. Mobile English Vocabulary Learning Based on Concept-Mapping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous researchers in education recognize that vocabulary is essential in foreign language learning. However, students often encounter vocabulary that is difficult to remember. Providing effective vocabulary learning strategies is therefore more valuable than teaching students a large amount of vocabulary. The purpose of this study was to…

  20. Content Analysis of the Science Textbooks of Iranian Junior High School Course in terms of the Components of Health Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Gilavand

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundProviding healthcare for students is one of the primary duties of the states. This study aimed to analyze the contents of the science textbooks of Junior High School course in terms of the components of health education in Iran.Materials and MethodsThis descriptive study was conducted through content analysis. To collect data, a researcher-made check list including: physical health, nutritional health, the environment, environmental health, family health, accidents and safety, mobility, physical education, mental health, prevention of risky behavior, control and prevention of diseases, disabilities, public health and school health, was used. The samples were the science textbooks of Junior High School course (7th, 8th and 9th grades. Analysis unit was all pages of the textbooks (texts, pictures and exercises. Descriptive method (frequency table, percentage, mean and standard deviation [SD] was used to analyze the data and non-parametric Chi-square test was used to investigate the probable significant differences between the components.ResultsThe results showed that the authors of sciences textbooks of Junior High School course have paid most attention to the component of control and prevention of diseases (21.10% and have paid no attention to the component of "mental health". Also, there were significant differences among the components of physical health, family health, the environment and environmental health in terms of to be addressed in the science textbooks of Junior High School (P

  1. Teaching vocabulary to elementary level students learning Russian as a foreign language: topic "My family and I"

    OpenAIRE

    Vesnina, L. E.

    2017-01-01

    The article describes a lesson "My Family and I" for elementary level students learning Russian as a foreign language. This topic is the first in the academic subject Russian Vocabulary. The article sums up the experience of teaching this subject to Chinese students learning Russian at the Ural State Pedagogical University. The content and the aims of the lesson "My Family and I", as well as the subject Russian Vocabulary, are based on the communicative approach to teaching Russian as a forei...

  2. A case study of a vocabulary strategy in a high school class of special education students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, Jill K.

    In the United States, almost 7000 students drop out of high school every day and the most common reason is academic failure. The economic, social, and emotional cost of dropping out of high school are enormous. Vocabulary knowledge is essential for students to grasp the concepts of a content area and there has been little research reported for scaffolding vocabulary learning in content classes. The purpose of this study was to investigate a vocabulary instructional strategy in a high school biology class. The research questions focused on understanding the vocabulary instructional strategy and student perception of the strategy. This was an evaluative case study using a convenience sample of a college preparatory biology class of special education students. Participants included eight males and two females who were identified as having learning, emotional or health disabilities with average to low average intelligence. Informal interviews, observations, school records, student and teacher artifacts and rich description were used for data triangulation. Analysis involved coding and grouping data by category, and identification of relationships between categories. Three themes emerged from this study: Students believed the strategy helped them to learn vocabulary, the strategy gave direction to instruction, and the strategy can be difficult to implement. The skill level of our future work force and the health of our society is linked to our nation's high school graduation rate. Development of instructional strategies that result in student academic success will improve our high school graduation rate which will result in positive social change.

  3. Anglicisms in the Romanian business and technology vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todea, L.; Demarcsek, R.

    2016-08-01

    Multinational companies in Romania have imposed the use of the predominant language, in most cases - English, in professional communication. In contexts related to workplace communication, the main motivation for foreign borrowings is the need to denote concepts and activities. The article focuses on the English language as a wide source for a great number of innovations both at the lexical and the morphological level in the Romanian vocabulary related to business and technology. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate that Romanian language displays a natural disposition towards adopting and adapting foreign words, especially borrowed English terms, in the field of computer science and business without endangering its identity.

  4. Exposing SAMOS Data and Vocabularies within the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Nkemdirim; Elya, Jocelyn; Smith, Shawn

    2014-05-01

    resources that link daily SAMOS data to descriptors such as parameters, time and location information, quality assurance reports, and cruise tracks will also be described. The data is housed on a Thematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services (THREDDS) data server, so these RDF resources will enable enhanced retrieval by any of the linked descriptors. We will showcase our collaboration with the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program to develop SPARQL endpoints that distribute SAMOS content. R2R packages and transmits data on a per cruise basis, so an immediate result of the SAMOS exposure will be the narrowing of the gap between expedition type data (e.g. R2R cruises) and SAMOS observatory type data. The authors will present the development of RDF resources that will collectively expose shipboard data, vocabularies, and quality assurance reports in an overall structure which will serve as the basis for a COAPS SPARQL endpoint, enabling easier programmatic access to SAMOS data.

  5. Analysis Science Process Skills Content in Chemistry Textbooks Grade XI at Solubility and Solubility Product Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Antrakusuma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the analysis of science process skills in textbooks of chemistry grade XI in SMA N 1 Teras, Boyolali. This research used the descriptive method. The instruments were developed based on 10 indicators of science process skills (observing, classifying, finding a conclusion, predicting, raising the question, hypothesizing, planning an experiment, manipulating materials, and equipment, Applying, and communicating. We analyzed 3 different chemistry textbooks that often used by teachers in teaching. The material analyzed in the book was solubility and solubility product concept in terms of concept explanation and student activity. The results of this research showed different science process skill criteria in 3 different chemistry textbooks. Book A appeared 50% of all aspects of science process skills, in Book B appeared 80% of all aspects of science process skills, and in Book C there was 40% of all aspects of the science process skills. The most common indicator in all books was observing (33.3%, followed by prediction (19.05%, classifying (11.90%, Applying (11.90% , planning experiments (9.52%, manipulating materials and equipment (7.14%, finding conclusion (4.76%, communicating (2.38%. Asking the question and hypothesizing did not appear in textbooks.

  6. Impact of Training Deep Vocabulary Learning Strategies on Vocabulary Retention of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Es-hagi Sardroud

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the overall tendency of foreign language learners to use mechanical strategies of rote rehearsal in vocabulary learning and their resistance towards use of 'deep' vocabulary learning strategies, namely contextual guessing, Keyword Method, metacognitive strategy, and semantic mapping, this study intended (a to explore what impact the instruction of these deep strategies, on vocabulary retention of 32 post-intermediate adult EFL Iranian learners, (b to determine how the variable of gender influences the vocabulary retention of students after receiving training in these strategies. To this end, on the basis of a strategy-based model of instruction–CALLA (Chamot & O'Malley, 1994, the experimental group received training in using 'deep' vocabulary learning strategies while the control group received only the common method of vocabulary teaching. After the treatment, following factorial design, the performance of the participants in the teacher-made vocabulary test as posttest was analyzed statistically.  The results indicated higher vocabulary retention for the experimental group, and it was revealed that female students were more receptive to strategy training. This study provides evidence for confirmation of 'depth of processing' hypothesis and the emerging theory about the impact of gender on effective strategy teaching and use, and it recommends incorporation of teaching these 'deep' strategies of vocabulary learning into EFL classrooms.

  7. Mobile-Assisted Language Learning: Student Attitudes to Using Smartphones to Learn English Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davie, Neil; Hilber, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    This project examines mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) and in particular the attitudes of undergraduate engineering students at the South Westphalia University of Applied Sciences towards the use of the smartphone app Quizlet to learn English vocabulary. Initial data on attitudes to learning languages and to the use of mobile devices to do…

  8. English-Spanish Cognates in Picture Books: Toward a Vocabulary Curriculum for Latino ELLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelongo, José A.; Durán, Richard; Hernández, Anita C.

    2013-01-01

    English-Spanish cognates are words that are spelled similarly or identically and possess the same or nearly the same meanings in both languages. Many cognates are academic vocabulary words and are very common in content area textbooks. The primary purpose of this investigation was to obtain an estimate of the number of different cognates in…

  9. Using Evidence-Based Multimedia to Improve Vocabulary Performance of Adolescents With LD: A UDL Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Michael J.; Thomas, Cathy Newman; Meyer, J. Patrick; Alves, Kat D.; Lloyd, John Wills

    2014-01-01

    Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a framework that is commonly used for guiding the construction and delivery of instruction intended to support all students. In this study, we used a related model to guide creation of a multimedia-based instructional tool called content acquisition podcasts (CAPs). CAPs delivered vocabulary instruction…

  10. A Vocabulary Analysis of the Restaurant Menus

    OpenAIRE

    MIHUT Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The present paper explores the genre of restaurant menus by analyzing existing online lists of breakfast, lunch and dinner options. It shows that a menu is a reflection of the restaurant itself and its vocabulary, whether formal, casual or playful, matches the restaurant concept, location or theme. In addition to providing the food and drink items, menus can also be used to offer other information to the customers. The restaurant menu vocabulary describes the owner/chef's philosophy about foo...

  11. Ontology Based Vocabulary Matching for Oceanographic Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Shepherd, Adam; Chandler, Cyndy; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Data integration act as the preliminary entry point as we enter the era of big data in many scientific domains. However the reusefulness of various dataset has met the hurdle due to different initial of interests of different parties, therefore different vocabularies in describing similar or semantically related concepts. In this scenario it is vital to devise an automatic or semi-supervised algorithm to facilitate the convergence of different vocabularies. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) seeks to increase data sharing across scientific domains and international boundaries by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional data systems. ODIP participants from the US include the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, whose mission is to capture, catalog, and describe the underway/environmental sensor data from US oceanographic research vessels and submit the data to public long-term archives. In an attempt to harmonize these regional data systems, especially vocabularies, R2R recognizes the value of the SeaDataNet vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) hosted at the British Oceanographic Data Centre as a trusted, authoritative source for describing many oceanographic research concepts such as instrumentation. In this work, we make use of the semantic relations in the vocabularies served by NVS to build a Bayesian network and take advantage of the idea of entropy in evaluating the correlation between different concepts and keywords. The performance of the model is evaluated against matching instruments from R2R against the SeaDataNet instrument vocabularies based on calculated confidence scores in the instrument pairings. These pairings with their scores can then be analyzed for assertion growing the interoperability of the R2R vocabulary through its links to the SeaDataNet entities.

  12. The Design and Use of Planetary Science Video Games to Teach Content while Enhancing Spatial Reasoning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziffer, Julie; Nadirli, Orkhan; Rudnick, Benjamin; Pinkham, Sunny; Montgomery, Benjamin

    2016-10-01

    Traditional teaching of Planetary Science requires students to possess well developed spatial reasoning skills (SRS). Recent research has demonstrated that SRS, long known to be crucial to math and science success, can be improved among students who lack these skills (Sorby et al., 2009). Teaching spatial reasoning is particularly valuable to women and minorities who, through societal pressure, often doubt their abilities (Hill et al., 2010). To address SRS deficiencies, our team is developing video games that embed SRS training into Planetary Science content. Our first game, on Moon Phases, addresses the two primary challenges faced by students trying to understand the Sun-Earth-Moon system: 1) visualizing the system (specifically the difference between the Sun-Earth orbital plane and the Earth-Moon orbital plane) and 2) comprehending the relationship between time and the position-phase of the Moon. In our second video game, the student varies an asteroid's rotational speed, shape, and orientation to the light source while observing how these changes effect the resulting light curve. To correctly pair objects to their light curves, students use spatial reasoning skills to imagine how light scattering off a three dimensional rotating object is imaged on a sensor plane and is then reduced to a series of points on a light curve plot. These two games represent the first of our developing suite of high-interest video games designed to teach content while increasing the student's competence in spatial reasoning.

  13. Powerful Vocabulary Acquisition through Texts Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hasannejad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if dual version reading comprehension had a positive effect on Intermediate EFL students’ general vocabulary acquisition, receptive and productive knowledge of vocabulary and students’ synonymous power of words. Two groups were selected - the experimental group and the control group. The study included: (1 four pretests (2 the dual version reading comprehension, and (3 four posttests. It was found that there was no significant difference between the two groups of students on the pretests. However there was a significant difference between the two groups of the students on the posttests. Overall, the dual version reading comprehension vocabulary-learning made the experimental group learners outperformed the control groups in terms of their performance on four types of vocabulary tests. This indicates that students following dual version reading comprehension were more successful in vocabulary acquisition, and developing their receptive knowledge of vocabulary, transferring their receptive knowledge in to the productive knowledge and enhancing the memorization of the synonymous words.

  14. Checking the effectiveness of Quizlet® as a tool for vocabulary learning

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, Blair

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the need to aid low-proficiency English users to increase their knowledgeof vocabulary, this preliminary study measures the success of digital-flashcard usersby comparing their vocabulary test scores to those of non-users in the same class.Thirty-two, low-level, first year students in Tamagawa University’s English as aLingua Franca program were asked to use Quizlet® to prepare for tests that wouldrecycle fill-in-the-blank contents from the flashcards available on this Web 2.0appli...

  15. The Content and Integrative Component of Capstone Experiences: An Analysis of Political Science Undergraduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Jill Abraham

    2014-01-01

    In 1991, the APSA Task Force on Political Science recommended elements of a curricular structure that would best promote student learning. The report stated that there should be a capstone experience at the end of the senior year and that the capstone should require students to integrate their whole learning experience in the major. This article…

  16. Using the Socioscientific Context of Climate Change to Teach Chemical Content and the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flener-Lovitt, Charity

    2014-01-01

    A thematic course called "Climate Change: Chemistry and Controversy" was developed for upper-level non-STEM students. This course used the socioscientific context of climate change to teach chemical principles and the nature of science. Students used principles of agnotology (direct study of misinformation) to debunk climate change…

  17. Elementary Teachers' Use of Content Knowledge to Evaluate Students' Thinking in the Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Jaime L.; Forbes, Cory T.; Flynn, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Science learning environments should provide opportunities for students to make sense of and enhance their understanding of disciplinary concepts. Teachers can support students' sense-making by engaging and responding to their ideas through high-leverage instructional practices such as formative assessment (FA). However, past research has shown…

  18. How Does Mechanical Weathering Change Rocks? Using Reading-to-Learn Strategies to Teach Science Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrip, Peter; Tobey, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Many teachers fall into the pattern of "assumptive teaching" (Herber 1970), assuming that other instructors will teach students the important strategies they need for learning. In this case, tools and strategies may not be taught outside of reading or language arts because a science teacher can say, "It's not my job." However, a sixth-grade team…

  19. Content Development, Presentation and Delivery for eLearning in Nuclear Science and Engineering: Experiences with Emerging Authoring Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamford, S.; Afriyie, P.; Comlan, E.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Transference of explicit knowledge starts from content development, and proceeds with packaging and delivery. A comparative study of some selected authoring tools for knowledge creation in Nuclear Sciences and Engineering education is being carried out at the School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences in Accra, Ghana. These authoring tools include commercial software (Macromedia Suite CS6, Learning 6.0) as well as freeware software (Xerte, eXe). A course, X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (NSAP 603), at the postgraduate School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences (SNAS), has been selected for migration onto an eLearning platform. Different authoring tools have been employed to create some ICT-based modules for teaching and learning. This paper therefore shares the experiences realized in moving from course syllabus to digitized modules, integrating pedagogical considerations, the strengths and weakness of the selected authoring tools, user-interactivity and usability of the modules produced. The need and the basis for the adoption of an appropriate authoring tool for creation of scientific, mathematical, and engineering documents and learning materials has also been discussed. Leveraging on ICT to produce pedagogically sound learning materials for eLearning platforms promotes interests of students in nuclear sciences, and ensures continuity in producing qualified professionals. (author

  20. A multi-instructor, team-based, active-learning exercise to integrate basic and clinical sciences content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolluru, Srikanth; Roesch, Darren M; Akhtar de la Fuente, Ayesha

    2012-03-12

    To introduce a multiple-instructor, team-based, active-learning exercise to promote the integration of basic sciences (pathophysiology, pharmacology, and medicinal chemistry) and clinical sciences in a doctor of pharmacy curriculum. A team-based learning activity that involved pre-class reading assignments, individual-and team-answered multiple-choice questions, and evaluation and discussion of a clinical case, was designed, implemented, and moderated by 3 faculty members from the pharmaceutical sciences and pharmacy practice departments. Student performance was assessed using a multiple-choice examination, an individual readiness assurance test (IRAT), a team readiness assurance test (TRAT), and a subjective, objective, assessment, and plan (SOAP) note. Student attitudes were assessed using a pre- and post-exercise survey instrument. Students' understanding of possible correct treatment strategies for depression improved. Students were appreciative of this true integration of basic sciences knowledge in a pharmacotherapy course and to have faculty members from both disciplines present to answer questions. Mean student score on the on depression module for the examination was 80.4%, indicating mastery of the content. An exercise led by multiple instructors improved student perceptions of the importance of team-based teaching. Integrated teaching and learning may be achieved when instructors from multiple disciplines work together in the classroom using proven team-based, active-learning exercises.

  1. The influence of secondary science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge, educational beliefs and perceptions of the curriculum on implementation and science reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Portia Selene

    2001-07-01

    Science education reform is one of the focal points of restructuring the educational system in the United States. However, research indicates a slow change in progression towards science literacy among secondary students. One of the factors contributing to slow change is how teachers implement the curriculum in the classroom. Three constructs are believed to be influential in curriculum implementation: educational beliefs, pedagogical knowledge and perception of the curriculum. Earlier research suggests that there is a strong correlation between teachers' educational beliefs and instructional practices. These beliefs can be predictors of preferred strategies employed in the classroom. Secondly, teachers' pedagogical knowledge, that is the ability to apply theory and appropriate strategies associated with implementing and evaluating a curriculum, contributes to implementation. Thirdly, perception or how the curriculum itself is perceived also effects implementation. Each of these constructs has been examined independently, but never the interplay of the three. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the interplay of teachers' educational beliefs, pedagogical content knowledge and perceptions of a science curriculum with respect to how these influence curriculum implementation. This was accomplished by investigating the emerging themes that evolved from classroom observations, transcripts from interview and supplementary data. Five high school biology teachers in an urban school system were observed for ten months for correspondence of teaching strategies to the curriculum. Teachers were interviewed formally and informally about their perceptions of science teaching, learning and the curriculum. Supplementary material such as lesson plans, course syllabus and notes from classroom observations were collected and analyzed. Data were transcribed and analyzed for recurring themes using a thematic matrix. A theoretical model was developed from the emerging

  2. ICT use in science and mathematics teacher education in Tanzan: Developing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kafyulilo, A.; Fisser, P.; Pieters, J.; Voogt, J.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, teacher education colleges in Tanzania are being equipped with computers to prepare teachers who can integrate technology in teaching. Despite these efforts, teachers are not embracing the use of technology in their teaching. This study adopted Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

  3. 21st Century Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Science Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slough, Scott; Chamblee, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) is a theoretical framework that has enjoyed widespread applications as it applies to the integration of technology in the teaching and learning process. This paper reviews the background for TPACK, discusses some of its limitations, and reviews and introduces a new theoretical framework, 21st…

  4. Text Genre and Science Content: Ease of Reading, Comprehension, and Reader Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervetti, Gina N.; Bravo, Marco A.; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Pearson, P. David; Jaynes, Carolyn A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined ease of reading, comprehension, and recall and preference for the same scientific content under two conditions: an informational text and a fictional narrative text. Seventy-four third and fourth graders were assessed individually around the reading of fictional narrative and informational texts that were about either snails or…

  5. Relationship between "Form" and "Content" in Science Writing among English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee; Penfield, Randall D.; Buxton, Cory A.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: While different instructional approaches have been proposed to integrate academic content and English proficiency for English language learning (ELL) students, studies examining the magnitude of the relationship are non-existent. This study examined the relationship between the "form" (i.e., conventions, organization, and…

  6. ICT Use in Science and Mathematics Teacher Education in Tanzania: Developing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kafyulilo, Ayoub; Fisser, Petra; Pieters, Julius Marie; Voogt, Joke

    2015-01-01

    Currently, teacher education colleges in Tanzania are being equipped with computers to prepare teachers who can integrate technology in teaching. Despite these efforts, teachers are not embracing the use of technology in their teaching. This study adopted Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

  7. Closing down the Conversation: Discouraging Student Talk on Unfamilar Science Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, William

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes strategies used by novice biology teachers to exert sociolinguistic control over conversations when teaching unfamiliar subject-matter content. These discourse control strategies were identified in a year-long study of teacher subject-matter knowledge and its effects on teaching, and are illustrated in three lessons taught by…

  8. Not a Stale Metaphor: The Continued Relevance of Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Science Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, H. Emily; Eades Baird, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    Recently, theorists have raised concerns that pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has become "a stale metaphor" that disregards diversity and equity, offers little to help teachers address students' misconceptions, and portrays knowledge as "in the head" versus in practice. We refute these notions using grounded theory to…

  9. Partnering and teamwork to create content for spherical display systems to enhance public literacy in earth system and ocean sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, S. E.; Patterson, K.; Joyce, K.; Silva, T.; Madin, K.; Spargo, A.; Brickley, A.; Emery, M.

    2013-12-01

    Spherical display systems, also known as digital globes, are technologies that, in person or online, can be used to help visualize global datasets and earth system processes. Using the InterRidge Global Database of Active Submarine Hydrothermal Vent Fields and imagery from deep-sea vehicles, we are creating content for spherical display systems to educate and excite the public about dynamic geophysical and biological processes and exploration in the deep ocean. The 'Global Viewport for Virtual Exploration of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents' is a collaboration between the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the Ocean Explorium at New Bedford Seaport, hosting a Magic Planet and Science On a Sphere (SOS), respectively. The main activities in the first year of our project were geared towards team building and content development. Here we will highlight the partnering and teamwork involved in creating and testing the effectiveness of our new content. Our core team is composed of a lead scientist, educators at both institutions, graphic artists, and a professional evaluator. The new content addresses key principles of Earth Science Literacy and Ocean Literacy. We will share the collaborative, iterative process by which we developed two educational pieces, 'Life without sunlight' and 'Smoke and fire underwater' - each focusing on a different set of 3 literacy principles. We will share how we conducted our front-end and formative evaluations and how we focused on 2 NSF Informal Education Impact Categories for our evaluation questionnaire for the public. Each educational piece is being produced as a stand-alone movie and as an interactive, docent-led presentation integrating a number of other datasets available from NOAA's SOS Users Network. The proximity of our two institutions enables a unique evaluation of the learning attained with a stand-alone spherical display vs. live presentations with an SOS.

  10. Vocabulary Theatre: A Peer-Teaching Approach for Academic Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Elizabeth; Sinatra, Richard; Eschenauer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods counterbalanced study compared the gain score means of two different approaches to vocabulary acquisition--Vocabulary Theater (VT) and Teacher Directed Instruction (TDI) for 8th grade students from three schools in New York. The purpose of the study was to explore the effects of a peer teaching approach on students' vocabulary…

  11. Comparing Multidimensional and Continuum Models of Vocabulary Acquisition: An Empirical Examination of the Vocabulary Knowledge Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jeffrey; Batty, Aaron Olaf; Bovee, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Second language vocabulary acquisition has been modeled both as multidimensional in nature and as a continuum wherein the learner's knowledge of a word develops along a cline from recognition through production. In order to empirically examine and compare these models, the authors assess the degree to which the Vocabulary Knowledge Scale (VKS;…

  12. COMPUTER-ASSISTED VOCABULARY LEARNING: THE POWER OF GAMING ON STUDENTS’ ENGLISH VOCABULARY ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yune Andryani Pinem

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to find out whether the power of gaming contributed to vocabulary learning and gave significant upgrading in students‘ vocabulary scores through its comparison to the dull and routine vocabulary learning. The subjects, two groups of Indonesian students, were tested in a pre-test before joining two different methods of vocabulary learning, and finally were tested in a post-test. Data were collected from the students‘ pre-test and post-test scores. From the comparison of these two groups‘ data, the output proved that the vocabulary class using ―Little Shop of Treasure‖ online games was better in boosting students‘ scores.

  13. The Rosetta Science Archive: Status and Plans for Completing and Enhancing the Archive Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, D.; Barthelemy, M.; Fraga, D.; Grotheer, E.; O'Rourke, L.; Taylor, M.

    2017-09-01

    On 30 September 2016, Rosetta's signal flat-lined, confirming that the spacecraft had completed its incredible mission by landing on the surface of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Although this marked an end to the spacecraft's active operations, intensive work is still on-going with instrument teams preparing their final science data increments for delivery and ingestion into ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA). In addition to this, ESA is establishing contracts with a number of instrument teams to enhance and improve their data and documentation in an effort to provide the best long- term archive possible for the Rosetta mission. This presentation will outline the current status of the Rosetta archive, as well as highlighting some of the 'enhanced archiving' activities planned and underway with the various instrument teams on Rosetta to ensure the scientific legacy of the mission.

  14. Targeting change: Assessing a faculty learning community focused on increasing statistics content in life science curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Loran Carleton; Gleichsner, Alyssa M; Adedokun, Omolola A; Forney, James

    2016-11-12

    Transformation of research in all biological fields necessitates the design, analysis and, interpretation of large data sets. Preparing students with the requisite skills in experimental design, statistical analysis, and interpretation, and mathematical reasoning will require both curricular reform and faculty who are willing and able to integrate mathematical and statistical concepts into their life science courses. A new Faculty Learning Community (FLC) was constituted each year for four years to assist in the transformation of the life sciences curriculum and faculty at a large, Midwestern research university. Participants were interviewed after participation and surveyed before and after participation to assess the impact of the FLC on their attitudes toward teaching, perceived pedagogical skills, and planned teaching practice. Overall, the FLC had a meaningful positive impact on participants' attitudes toward teaching, knowledge about teaching, and perceived pedagogical skills. Interestingly, confidence for viewing the classroom as a site for research about teaching declined. Implications for the creation and development of FLCs for science faculty are discussed. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(6):517-525, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  15. Science Concierge: A Fast Content-Based Recommendation System for Scientific Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achakulvisut, Titipat; Acuna, Daniel E; Ruangrong, Tulakan; Kording, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Finding relevant publications is important for scientists who have to cope with exponentially increasing numbers of scholarly material. Algorithms can help with this task as they help for music, movie, and product recommendations. However, we know little about the performance of these algorithms with scholarly material. Here, we develop an algorithm, and an accompanying Python library, that implements a recommendation system based on the content of articles. Design principles are to adapt to new content, provide near-real time suggestions, and be open source. We tested the library on 15K posters from the Society of Neuroscience Conference 2015. Human curated topics are used to cross validate parameters in the algorithm and produce a similarity metric that maximally correlates with human judgments. We show that our algorithm significantly outperformed suggestions based on keywords. The work presented here promises to make the exploration of scholarly material faster and more accurate.

  16. Science Concierge: A Fast Content-Based Recommendation System for Scientific Publications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titipat Achakulvisut

    Full Text Available Finding relevant publications is important for scientists who have to cope with exponentially increasing numbers of scholarly material. Algorithms can help with this task as they help for music, movie, and product recommendations. However, we know little about the performance of these algorithms with scholarly material. Here, we develop an algorithm, and an accompanying Python library, that implements a recommendation system based on the content of articles. Design principles are to adapt to new content, provide near-real time suggestions, and be open source. We tested the library on 15K posters from the Society of Neuroscience Conference 2015. Human curated topics are used to cross validate parameters in the algorithm and produce a similarity metric that maximally correlates with human judgments. We show that our algorithm significantly outperformed suggestions based on keywords. The work presented here promises to make the exploration of scholarly material faster and more accurate.

  17. Building a biodiversity content management system for science, education, and outreach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C S Parr

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the system architecture and data template design for the Animal Diversity Web (http://www.animaldiversity.org, an online natural history resource serving three audiences: 1 the scientific community, 2 educators and learners, and 3 the general public. Our architecture supports highly scalable, flexible resource building by combining relational and object-oriented databases. Content resources are managed separately from identifiers that relate and display them. Websites targeting different audiences from the same database handle large volumes of traffic. Content contribution and legacy data are robust to changes in data models. XML and OWL versions of our data template set the stage for making ADW data accessible to other systems.

  18. Content, format, gender and grade level differences in elementary students' ability to read science materials as measured by the cloze procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard L.; Yore, Larry D.

    Present instructional trends in science indicate a need to reexamine a traditional concern in science education: the readability of science textbooks. An area of reading research not well documented is the effect of color, visuals, and page layout on readability of science materials. Using the cloze readability method, the present study explored the relationships between page format, grade level, sex, content, and elementary school students ability to read science material. Significant relationships were found between cloze scores and both grade level and content, and there was a significant interaction effect between grade and sex in favor of older males. No significant relationships could be attributed to page format and sex. In the area of science content, biological materials were most difficult in terms of readability followed by earth science and physical science. Grade level data indicated that grade five materials were more difficult for that level than either grade four or grade six materials were for students at each respective level. In eight of nine cases, the science text materials would be classified at or near the frustration level of readability. The implications for textbook writers and publishers are that science reading materials need to be produced with greater attention to readability and known design principles regarding visual supplements. The implication for teachers is that students need direct instruction in using visual materials to increase their learning from text material. Present visual materials appear to neither help nor hinder the student to gain information from text material.

  19. [Models, methods, clinical contents in the specialized degree in nursing sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannini, Lucia

    2003-01-01

    The document presented is the result of a consensus conference where nurses involved in teaching, direct care and management discussed with professionals and experts of other disciplines on the role of the clinical teaching at specialistic level. Nursing education in fact recently underwent a re-organization therefore after the degree (first level) there is a second level (Specialistic degree and PhD) first and second level master courses. The main question of the consensus conference was if there is a role and what are the contents of clinical nursing to be taught at specialistic level. A consensus was reached on the importance of not separating the teaching of the methods from the contents of care, to allow the production of new knowledge relevant for patients' care. A nurse with a specialistic degree should be able to plan and implement innovative models of care based on scientific knowledge; to recognise unexpected and rapidly evolving problems; to plan and implement, in collaboration with other professionals, complex educational interventions; study and explore principles and theories of helping relationship. The differences in contents and methods of clinical teaching between master and specialistic degree need to be further discussed and explored.

  20. THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON VOCABULARY LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim Monica-Ariana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at investigating the impact of computer and social media in improving students’ knowledge of English language namely vocabulary acquisition (focused on Facebook with intermediate and upper intermediate first and second year ELT students in Economics at the Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Oradea. Social media technologies take on many different forms including magazines, Internet forums, weblogs, social blogs, wikis, social networks, podcasts, pictures, videos etc. Technologies cover blogging, picture-sharing, wall-posting, music-sharing just to name a few. Nowadays Facebook technology seems to play an important part for the social life of so many becoming more and more popular as a main means of communication, that it could also meet an educational need. Thus it could play a distinguished role in foreign language learning and teaching. Several studies investigate using different technologies in learning and teaching, in particular, foreign language learning. Still, rare studies were interested precisely in the role of Facebook in learning foreign languages. In this study was intended to assess the role and effectiveness of Facebook use in vocabulary learning. Particularly, the research attempts to answer the question: Can social media affect students’ development and progress in the foreign language?’ In order to discover the answer to this question of the study, a project based on Facebook for the experimental group was conceived. It was assumed that significant differences were to be found between the groups using social media for learning purposes and those who did not in developing vocabulary knowledge. The study was conducted with a number of 127 students of the Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Oradea, 1st and 2nd year students following the specializations: International Business, Management, Marketing, Finances studying in the academic year 2013-2014. The development in each group was measured

  1. The Role of Content and Context in PISA Interest Scales: A study of the embedded interest items in the PISA 2006 science assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsel, Barbara; Carstensen, Claus; Prenzel, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses interest in science as one of the attitudinal aspects of scientific literacy. Large-scale data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006 are analysed in order to describe student interest more precisely. So far the analyses have provided a general indicator of interest, aggregated over all contexts and contents in the science test. With its innovative approach PISA embeds interest items within the cognitive test unit and its contents and contexts. The main difference from conventional interest measures is that in most questionnaires, a relatively small number of interest items cover broad fields of contents and contexts. The science units represent a number of systematically differentiated scientific contexts and contents. The units' stimulus texts allow for concrete descriptions of relevant content aspects, applications, and contexts. In the analyses, multidimensional item response models are applied in order to disentangle student interest. The results indicate that multidimensional models fit the data. A two-dimensional model separating interest into two different knowledge of science dimensions described in the PISA science framework is further analysed with respect to gender, performance differences, and country. The findings give a comprehensive description of students' interest in science. The paper deals with methodological problems and describes requirements of the test construction for further assessments. The results are discussed with regard to their significance for science education.

  2. Future-saving audiovisual content for Data Science: Preservation of geoinformatics video heritage with the TIB|AV-Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Peter; Plank, Margret; Ziedorn, Frauke

    2015-04-01

    of Science and Technology. The web-based portal allows for extended search capabilities based on enhanced metadata derived by automated video analysis. By combining state-of-the-art multimedia retrieval techniques such as speech-, text-, and image recognition with semantic analysis, content-based access to videos at the segment level is provided. Further, by using the open standard Media Fragment Identifier (MFID), a citable Digital Object Identifier is displayed for each video segment. In addition to the continuously growing footprint of contemporary content, the importance of vintage audiovisual information needs to be considered: This paper showcases the successful application of the TIB|AV-Portal in the preservation and provision of a newly discovered version of a GRASS GIS promotional video produced by US Army -Corps of Enginers Laboratory (US-CERL) in 1987. The video is provides insight into the constraints of the very early days of the GRASS GIS project, which is the oldest active Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) GIS project which has been active for over thirty years. GRASS itself has turned into a collaborative scientific platform and a repository of scientific peer-reviewed code and algorithm/knowledge hub for future generation of scientists [1]. This is a reference case for future preservation activities regarding semantic-enhanced Web 2.0 content from geospatial software projects within Academia and beyond. References: [1] Chemin, Y., Petras V., Petrasova, A., Landa, M., Gebbert, S., Zambelli, P., Neteler, M., Löwe, P.: GRASS GIS: a peer-reviewed scientific platform and future research Repository, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 17, EGU2015-8314-1, 2015 (submitted)

  3. Content Analysis of Science Books for Upper Primary Stage in Jordan and Intermediate Stage in Saudi Arabia from an Islamic Perspective: Analytical Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldossari, Ali Tarad; Al Khaldi, Jamal Khalil; Altarawneh, Mohammad Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify the current situation of science books in Jordan and Saudi Arabia from an Islamic perspective. For this end, the content analysis approach has been used through the analysis of the unit concept in the science books for the seventh, eighth and ninth grades in the academic year (2015/2016) in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The…

  4. Lights, Camera, Action Research: The Effects of Didactic Digital Movie Making on Students' Twenty-First Century Learning Skills and Science Content in the Middle School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Students are moving away from content consumption to content production. Short movies are uploaded onto video social networking sites and shared around the world. Unfortunately they usually contain little to no educational value, lack a narrative and are rarely created in the science classroom. According to new Arizona Technology standards and…

  5. Acquiring Science and Social Studies Knowledge in Kindergarten through Fourth Grade: Conceptualization, Design, Implementation, and Efficacy Testing of Content-Area Literacy Instruction (CALI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Dombek, Jennifer; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Spencer, Mercedes; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Coffinger, Sean; Zargar, Elham; Wood, Taffeta; Petscher, Yaacov

    2017-01-01

    With national focus on reading and math achievement, science and social studies have received less instructional time. Yet, accumulating evidence suggests that content knowledge is an important predictor of proficient reading. Starting with a design study, we developed content-area literacy instruction (CALI) as an individualized (or personalized)…

  6. Assessing roles of vocabulary knowledge predominating in contextual clues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharawadee Promduang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the use of contextual clues and whether EFL learners who are well-equipped with reading skills are able to comprehend the text despite a low level of vocabulary knowledge. Therefore, the study focused on which vocabulary dimensions help students guess unfamiliar words. The study was carried out at Hatyai University in Thailand. The population of this study consisted of 34 undergraduates who were studying International Business English and had taken a course in reading techniques. The present study was conducted to conceptually validate the roles of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge to improve skills by contextual clue. Vocabulary Depth was specially employed to evaluate two dimensions namely Paradigmatic and Syntagmatic. The Schmitt and Clapham Vocabulary Level Test was used to test vocabulary breadth, while the vocabulary depth was implemented by Read’s Vocabulary Depth Test. Reading parts of the TOEFL were adopted for contextual clue items. There were two statistical analysis tools also implemented in this study: paired-sample t-test and bivariate correlation. First, in an attempt to find which vocabulary dimension predominates in guessing word meaning from the text, a paired-sample t-test was utilized to compare the difference of two vocabulary dimensions in reading part: vocabulary depth and contextual clues, and vocabulary breadth and contextual clues. Second, a bivariate correlation was used to find the degree of relationship between vocabulary knowledge and contextual clues. The consequences of this study identified empirical results that 1 there was a positive relationship between contextual clues and vocabulary depth, the reverse is true in vocabulary breadth. Moreover, vocabulary depth is more significantly crucial than breadth to enhance student’s ability to guess words’ meaning from the context.

  7. LEARNING VOCABULARY THROUGH COLOURFUL PUZZLE GAME

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    Risca Dwiaryanti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary plays an important role because it links to the four skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Those aspects should be integrated in teaching and learning process of English. However, the students must be able to know the meaning of each word or vocabulary of English in order to master the four skills. It is as a mean to create a sentence in daily communication to show someone’s feeling, opinion, idea, desire, etc. So that, both speakers understand what the other speaker mean. However, English as a second language in Indonesia seems very hard for the students to master vocabulary of English. It makes them not easy to be understood directly and speak fluently. The students, sometimes, get difficulties in understanding, memorizing the meaning of the vocabulary, and getting confused in using the new words. There must be an effective strategy to attract students’ interest, break the boredom, and make the class more lively. Based on the writer experience, Colourful Puzzle Game is able to make the students learn vocabulary quickly. It needs teacher’s creativity to create the materials of this game based on the class condition. The teacher just need a game board made from colourful papers, write any command and prohibition words on it. A dice is a tool to decide where the player should stop based on the number. Some pins as counter as sign of each player.

  8. Enriching Students’ Vocabulary Mastery Using Graphic Organizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaifudin Latif Darmawan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This action research is carried out to (1 identify whether graphic organizers enrich student’s vocabulary mastery; and (2 to describe the classroom situation when graphic organizers are employed in instructional process of vocabulary. The research is conducted in two cycles from March to May 2016/2017 in the eight years of SMP Muhammadiyah Sekampung, East lampung. The procedure of the research consists of identifying the problem, planning the action, implementing the action, observing the action, and reflecting the result of the research. Qualitative data are collected through interview, observation, questionnaire, and research diary. Quantitative data are collected through test. To analyze qualitative data, the researcher used constant comparative method. It consists of four steps: (1 comparing incidents applicable to each category; (2 Integrating categories and their properties; (3 delimiting the theory; (4 Writing the theory. Meanwhile, to analyze quantitative data, the researcher employed descriptive statistic.    The result of the research shows that using graphic organizers can enrich students’ vocabulary mastery and classroom situation. The improvement on students’ vocabulary included; a the students are able to speak English; b the students are able to understand the meaning of the text as they have a lot of vocabularies. The improvement of the classroom situation; (a students come on time in the class (b students are more motivated to join the class (c Students pay more attention in the instructional process (d students’ participation in responding the questions are high.

  9. Integrative activities content (aic: an auxiliary tool for the teaching of Biochemistry in the course of biological sciences at UFRN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D. Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There are constant changes in the development of science, technology, politics, culture and society; the need for change is also evident in the training of teachers. The ease of access to information makes us realize that traditional teaching needs to be updated.The increasing demotivation of students,followed by high reprobation rates, has become a real challenge to the teaching practice.The objective of this work was to awaken in students enrolled in the discipline of MOLECULAR DIVERSITY (MD, a required curricular component in the Course of Biological Sciences at UFRN, an interest in studying the chemistry and functions of biomolecules, better relating the two to each other, and the content already studied in the course, in order to improve the teaching-learning process. This work was developed in a tutoring project registered at PROGRAD/UFRN. This discipline, MD, addresses chemical and structural features of the main organic molecules.The methodology focused on applying problem integrators called INTEGRATIVE ACTIVITIES OF CONTENT. This refers specifically to the application of problems that integrate the topics taught in the discipline, and also those administered in the disciplines processed in parallel, or even in previous semesters. In this way students realize that molecules relate and interact in all bodies; this gives rise to life through metabolism. The discipline is expected to promote meaningful and inter-related learning. We obtained the following results: greater participation and involvement of students in answering the questions posed; greater interest in the discipline;positive changes regarding the number of students who dropped the class, and in reprobation;and greater integration between teachers, students, and teaching assistants. The methodology used in this work was extremely important to achieve the proposed objectives, helping to facilitate the process of teaching-learning, as also to important relate content.

  10. Analysis of chemistry textbook content and national science education standards in terms of air quality-related learning goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Wendy

    In this study's Phase One, representatives of nine municipal agencies involved in air quality education were interviewed and interview transcripts were analyzed for themes related to what citizens need to know or be able to do regarding air quality concerns. Based on these themes, eight air quality Learning Goal Sets were generated and validated via peer and member checks. In Phase Two, six college-level, liberal-arts chemistry textbooks and the National Science Education Standards (NSES) were analyzed for congruence with Phase One learning goals. Major categories of desired citizen understandings highlighted in agency interviews concerned air pollution sources, impact, detection, and transport. Identified cognitive skills focused on information-gathering and -evaluating skills, enabling informed decision-making. A content match was found between textbooks and air quality learning goals, but most textbooks fail to address learning goals that remediate citizen misconceptions and inabilities---particularly those with a "personal experience" focus. A partial match between NSES and air quality learning goals was attributed to differing foci: Researcher-derived learning goals deal specifically with air quality, while NSES focus is on "fundamental science concepts," not "many science topics." Analysis of findings within a situated cognition framework suggests implications for instruction and NSES revision.

  11. Key Vocabulary Learning Strategies in ESP And EGP Course Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Akbari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of research evidence is showing the advantages of using certain skills and behaviours called language learning strategies in general and vocabulary learning strategies (VLSs in particular in the process of L2 acquisition. University students who require reading English texts in their fields of study have to expand their vocabulary knowledge in a much more efficient way than ordinary ESL/EFL learners.  And ELT course books are a good place to incorporate learner training in this regard. The purpose of this study is to see how vocabulary learning strategies are treated in both the book designer's claims section and the exercises of English for Specific Purposes (ESP course books for students of medicine and para-medicine on the one hand and English for General Purposes (EGP course book used commonly by these students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran on the other. In other words, the specified course books were analyzed based on the insights gained from VLS research to gauge the extent to which they have incorporated VLSs and training in using them. These books were published under the supervision of the center for studying and compiling university books in humanities (SAMT. Based on the review of the relevant literature, three key strategies were identified and an analytic framework was devised. The framework was then applied to the course books. It was found that the treatments in the specified course books were deemed unlikely to improve students’ abilities with these important skills and strategies.

  12. But science is international! Finding time and space to encourage intercultural learning in a content-driven physiology unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherington, Sarah J

    2014-06-01

    Internationalization of the curriculum is central to the strategic direction of many modern universities and has widespread benefits for student learning. However, these clear aspirations for internationalization of the curriculum have not been widely translated into more internationalized course content and teaching methods in the classroom, particularly in scientific disciplines. This study addressed one major challenge to promoting intercultural competence among undergraduate science students: finding time to scaffold such learning within the context of content-heavy, time-poor units. Small changes to enhance global and intercultural awareness were incorporated into existing assessments and teaching activities within a second-year biomedical physiology unit. Interventions were designed to start a conversation about global and intercultural perspectives on physiology, to embed the development of global awareness into the assessment and to promote cultural exchanges through peer interactions. In student surveys, 40% of domestic and 60% of international student respondents articulated specific learning about interactions in cross-cultural groups resulting from unit activities. Many students also identified specific examples of how cultural beliefs would impact on the place of biomedical physiology within the global community. In addition, staff observed more widespread benefits for student engagement and learning. It is concluded that a significant development of intercultural awareness and a more global perspective on scientific understanding can be supported among undergraduates with relatively modest, easy to implement adaptations to course content.

  13. The science of ecological economics: a content analysis of Ecological Economics, 1989-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzadis, Valerie A; Castello, Leandro; Choi, Jaewon; Greenfield, Eric; Kim, Sung-kyun; Munsell, John; Nordman, Erik; Franco, Carol; Olowabi, Flavien

    2010-01-01

    The Ecological Economics journal is a primary source for inquiry on ecological economics and sustainability. To explore the scholarly pursuit of ecological economics, we conducted a content analysis of 200 randomly sampled research, survey, and methodological articles published in Ecological Economics during the 15-year period of 1989-2004. Results of the analysis were used to investigate facets of transdisciplinarity within the journal. A robust qualitative approach was used to gather and examine data to identify themes representing substantive content found within the span of sampled journal papers. The extent to which each theme was represented was counted as well as additional data, such as author discipline, year published, etc. Four main categories were revealed: (1) foundations (self-reflexive themes stemming from direct discussions about ecological economics); (2) human systems, represented by the themes of values, social indicators of well-being, intergenerational distribution, and equity; (3) biophysical systems, including themes, such as carrying capacity and scarcity, energy, and resource use, relating directly to the biophysical aspects of systems; and (4) policy and management encompassing themes of development, growth, trade, accounting, and valuation, as well as institutional structures and management. The results provide empirical evidence for discussing the future direction of ecological economic efforts.

  14. Use of standard vocabulary services in validation of water resources data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jonathan; Cox, Simon; Ratcliffe, David

    2010-05-01

    Ontology repositories are increasingly being exposed through vocabulary and concept services. Primarily this is in support of resource discovery. Thesaurus functionality and even more sophisticated reasoning offers the possibility of overcoming the limitations of simple text-matching and tagging which is the basis of most search. However, controlled vocabularies have other important roles in distributed systems: in particular in constraining content validity. A national water information system established by the Australian Bureau of Meterorology ('the Bureau') has deployed a system for ingestion of data from multiple providers. This uses a http interface onto separately maintained vocabulary services as part of the quality assurance chain. With over 200 data providers potentially transferring data to the Bureau, a standard XML-based Water Data Transfer Format (WDTF) was developed for receipt of data into an integrated national water information system. The WDTF schema was built upon standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The structure and syntax specified by a W3C XML Schema is complemented by additional constraints described using Schematron. These implement important content requirements and business rules including: • Restricted cardinality: where optional elements and attributes inherited from the base standards become mandatory in the application, or repeatable elements or attributes are limited to one or omitted. For example, the sampledFeature element from O&M is optional but is mandatory for a samplingPoint element in WDTF. • Vocabulary checking: WDTF data use seventeen vocabularies or code lists derived from Regulations under the Commonwealth Water Act 2007. Examples of codelists are the Australian Water Regulations list, observed property vocabulary, and units of measures. • Contextual constraints: in many places, the permissible value is dependent on the value of another field. For example, within observations the unit of measure

  15. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, H. Robert; Stone, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised assesses standard American English receptive vocabulary in individuals, both handicapped and nonhandicapped, ages 2 to 40. This paper describes the test's administration, summation of data, standardization, reliability, and validity. (JDD)

  16. Water Quality Vocabulary Development and Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, B. A.; Yu, J.; Cox, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Semantic descriptions of observed properties and associated units of measure are fundamental to understanding of environmental observations, including groundwater, surface water and marine water quality. Semantic descriptions can be captured in machine-readable ontologies and vocabularies, thus providing support for the annotation of observation values from the disparate data sources with appropriate and accurate metadata, which is critical for achieving semantic interoperability. However, current stand-alone water quality vocabularies provide limited support for cross-system comparisons or data fusion. To enhance semantic interoperability, the alignment of water-quality properties with definitions of chemical entities and units of measure in existing widely-used vocabularies is required. Modern ontologies and vocabularies are expressed, organized and deployed using Semantic Web technologies. We developed an ontology for observed properties (i.e. a model for expressing appropriate controlled vocabularies) which extends the NASA/TopQuadrant QUDT ontology for Unit and QuantityKind with two additional classes and two properties (see accompanying paper by Cox, Simons and Yu). We use our ontology to populate the Water Quality vocabulary with a set of individuals of each of the four key classes (and their subclasses), and add appropriate relationships between these individuals. This ontology is aligned with other relevant stand-alone Water Quality vocabularies and domain ontologies. Developing the Water Quality vocabulary involved two main steps. First, the Water Quality vocabulary was populated with individuals of the ObservedProperty class, which was determined from a census of existing datasets and services. Each ObservedProperty individual relates to other individuals of Unit and QuantityKind (taken from QUDT where possible), and to IdentifiedObject individuals. As a large fraction of observed water quality data are classified by the chemical substance involved, the

  17. Using Controlled Vocabularies and Semantics to Improve Ocean Data Discovery (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, C. L.; Groman, R. C.; Shepherd, A.; Allison, M. D.; Kinkade, D.; Rauch, S.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was created in late 2006, by combining the formerly independent data management offices for the U.S. GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics (GLOBEC) and U.S. Joint Global Ocean flux Study (JGOFS) programs. BCO-DMO staff members work with investigators to publish data from research projects funded by the NSF Geosciences Directorate (GEO) Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections and Polar Programs (PLR) Antarctic Sciences Organisms & Ecosystems Program (ANT). Since 2006, researchers have been contributing new data to the BCO-DMO data system. As the data from new research efforts have been added to the data previously shared by U.S. GLOBEC and U.S. JGOFS researchers, the BCO-DMO system has developed into a rich repository of data from ocean, coastal, and Great Lakes research programs. The metadata records for the original research program data (prior to 2006) were stored in human-readable flat files of text, translated on-demand to Web-retrievable files. Beginning in 2006, the metadata records from multiple data systems managed by BCO-DMO were ingested into a relational database (MySQL). Since that time, efforts have been made to incorporate lists of controlled vocabulary terms for key information concepts stored in the MySQL database (e.g. names of research programs, deployments, instruments and measurements). This presents a challenge for a data system that includes legacy data and is continually expanding with the addition of new contributions. Over the years, BCO-DMO has developed a series of data delivery systems driven by the supporting metadata. Improved access to research data, a primary goal of the BCO-DMO project, is achieved through geospatial and text-based data access systems that support data discovery, access, display, assessment, integration, and export of data resources. The addition of a semantically-enabled search capability improves data

  18. Learning vocabulary through a serious game in Primary Education

    OpenAIRE

    Heitink, Maaike Christine; Fisser, Petra; Voogt, Joke; McBride, Ron; Searson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effect of a serious game on the vocabulary of students in primary education. 206 students and 10 teachers used the game during vocabulary lessons in three conditions: (a)online game and vocabulary instruction, (b)online game only, and (c)paper game and vocabulary instruction. Both immediate learning and retention effects were examined. Additionally a student questionnaire and teacher interview regarding their experiences has been employed. Results show a significant le...

  19. Actual Arabic loan-words of religious content (on the material of modern foreign words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Shammari Majid Jamil Ashur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Application of thematic classification of actual vocabulary as a whole to the formation of loan words allows to see the uniqueness of seperate groups of the vocabulary. English loan words prevail relating to the sphere of economy, science and technology, loan words from Arabic dominate from the religious vocabulary. Application of field approach to the analysis of actual religious Arabisms revealed both nuclear and peripheral components of the field. At the core of the field there are such Arabisms as Allah and Islam, which can be characterized as key words. However, in unifying the features of these words vary at a number of parameters. The word Allah has zero derivation productivity and at lexicographical description (as opposed to functioning in the language of the media is free of connotations. Arabism, Islam, by contrast, has a high derivation productivity and derived words can express evaluation. Lexicographic description of the Arabism Islam is also quite diverse stylistically and in contents. The core of the field “Muslim religion” also includes a number of words fixed in most modern dictionaries of foreign words. At the periphery of the field there are Arabisms that do not have high levels of frequency, but at the same time as an indicator of dominant Arabisms of religious content among topical Arabisms.

  20. Lights, camera, action research: The effects of didactic digital movie making on students' twenty-first century learning skills and science content in the middle school classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, Karl

    Students are moving away from content consumption to content production. Short movies are uploaded onto video social networking sites and shared around the world. Unfortunately they usually contain little to no educational value, lack a narrative and are rarely created in the science classroom. According to new Arizona Technology standards and ISTE NET*S, along with the framework from the Partnership for 21st Century Learning Standards, our society demands students not only to learn curriculum, but to think critically, problem solve effectively, and become adept at communicating and collaborating. Didactic digital movie making in the science classroom may be one way that these twenty-first century learning skills may be implemented. An action research study using a mixed-methods approach to collect data was used to investigate if didactic moviemaking can help eighth grade students learn physical science content while incorporating 21st century learning skills of collaboration, communication, problem solving and critical thinking skills through their group production. Over a five week period, students researched lessons, wrote scripts, acted, video recorded and edited a didactic movie that contained a narrative plot to teach a science strand from the Arizona State Standards in physical science. A pretest/posttest science content test and KWL chart was given before and after the innovation to measure content learned by the students. Students then took a 21st Century Learning Skills Student Survey to measure how much they perceived that communication, collaboration, problem solving and critical thinking were taking place during the production. An open ended survey and a focus group of four students were used for qualitative analysis. Three science teachers used a project evaluation rubric to measure science content and production values from the movies. Triangulating the science content test, KWL chart, open ended questions and the project evaluation rubric, it

  1. Vocabulary Intervention for Adolescents with Language Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Hilary; Henry, Lucy; Müller, Lisa-Maria; Joffe, Victoria L.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Language disorder and associated vocabulary difficulties can persist into adolescence, and can impact on long-term life outcomes. Previous reviews have shown that a variety of intervention techniques can successfully enhance students' vocabulary skills; however, none has investigated vocabulary intervention specifically for adolescents…

  2. Crossword Puzzles as a Learning Tool for Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Since vocabulary is a key basis on which reading achievement depends, various vocabulary acquisition techniques have become pivotal. Among the many teaching approaches, traditional or otherwise, the use of crossword puzzles seems to offer potential and a solution for the problem of learning vocabulary. Method: This study was…

  3. Implicit and Explicit Cognitive Processes in Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ender, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Studies on vocabulary acquisition in second language learning have revealed that a large amount of vocabulary is learned without an overt intention, in other words, incidentally. This article investigates the relevance of different lexical processing strategies for vocabulary acquisition when reading a text for comprehension among 24 advanced…

  4. Vocabulary and Health Care Information Technology: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, James J.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the controlled medical vocabularies available today and some of the reasons why they have failed to meet the needs of application developers. Topics include standard vocabularies, including International Classification of Diseases and Medical Subject Headings; uses of vocabularies in medical computing; current research; and remaining…

  5. Information-seeking strategies and science content understandings of sixth-grade students using on-line learning environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Joseph Loris

    1999-11-01

    This study examined the information-seeking strategies and science content understandings learners developed as a result of using on-line resources in the University of Michigan Digital Library and on the World Wide Web. Eight pairs of sixth grade students from two teachers' classrooms were observed during inquiries for astronomy, ecology, geology, and weather, and a final transfer task assessed learners' capabilities at the end of the school year. Data included video recordings of students' screen activity and conversations, journals and completed activity sheets, final artifacts, and semi-structured interviews. Learners' information-seeking strategies included activities related to asking, planning, tool usage, searching, assessing, synthesizing, writing, and creating. Analysis of data found a majority of learners posed meaningful, openended questions, used technological tools appropriately, developed pertinent search topics, were thoughtful in queries to the digital library, browsed sites purposefully to locate information, and constructed artifacts with novel formats. Students faced challenges when planning activities, assessing resources, and synthesizing information. Possible explanations were posed linking pedagogical practices with learners' growth and use of inquiry strategies. Data from classroom-lab video and teacher interviews showed varying degrees of student scaffolding: development and critique of initial questions, utilization of search tools, use of journals for reflection on activities, and requirements for final artifacts. Science content understandings included recalling information, offering explanations, articulating relationships, and extending explanations. A majority of learners constructed partial understandings limited to information recall and simple explanations, and these occasionally contained inaccurate conceptualizations. Web site design features had some influence on the construction of learners' content understandings. Analysis of

  6. Using collaborative technology to enhance pre-service teachers' pedagogical content knowledge in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Dermot Francis; Hume, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background:Supporting pre-service teacher (PT) collaboration as a means of professional learning is a challenging but essential task for effective practice. However, teacher placements or practicums in schools, which is common practice within teacher education programmes, can often isolate PTs from sharing their experiences with each other. Further, the articulation of effective pedagogical practices by high-quality teachers is limited, restricting PTs' ability to access such professional knowledge. Purpose:This study investigates how the introduction of a collaborative technology, a wiki, may enhance existing and new opportunities for pre-service teachers' (PTs) to develop pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). Sample:Seven PT chemistry teachers of varied backgrounds participated in this study. Design and method:The PTs were learning to collaboratively formulate and document their early topic-specific teaching knowledge using a pedagogical tool known as Content Representation (CoRe) design. Once scaffolded into this process, the PTs continued and extended this collaborative work online through the introduction of a wiki. Data were collected for qualitative analysis through the CoRe artefacts, a semi-structured focus group interview, and PTs' reflective essays about their collaborative experiences representing their teaching knowledge in CoRes through the wiki. Results:Data analysis highlighted that while wiki use showed some potential for collaborative representation when participants were not face-to-face, the PTs were hesitant in critiquing each other's work. As such, the online representations remained relatively static without face-to-face interaction. However, developing artefacts online was favoured over established practice and the access to artefacts of their peers on the wiki enhanced PTs' consideration for their own PCK. Conclusion:Wikis show some potential in the hosting of CoRes, but issues in simultaneous posting and lack of chat functionality may

  7. Using a multi-user virtual simulation to promote science content: Mastery, scientific reasoning, and academic self-efficacy in fifth grade science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronelus, Wednaud J.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of using a role-playing game versus a more traditional text-based instructional method on a cohort of general education fifth grade students' science content mastery, scientific reasoning abilities, and academic self-efficacy. This is an action research study that employs an embedded mixed methods design model, involving both quantitative and qualitative data. The study is guided by the critical design ethnography theoretical lens: an ethnographic process involving participatory design work aimed at transforming a local context while producing an instructional design that can be used in multiple contexts. The impact of an immersive 3D multi-user web-based educational simulation game on a cohort of fifth-grade students was examined on multiple levels of assessments--immediate, close, proximal and distal. A survey instrument was used to assess students' self-efficacy in technology and scientific inquiry. Science content mastery was assessed at the immediate (participation in game play), close (engagement in-game reports) and proximal (understanding of targeted concepts) levels; scientific reasoning was assessed at the distal (domain general critical thinking test) level. This quasi-experimental study used a convenient sampling method. Seven regular fifth-grade classes participated in this study. Three of the classes were the control group and the other four were the intervention group. A cohort of 165 students participated in this study. The treatment group contained 38 boys and 52 girls, and the control group contained 36 boys and 39 girls. Two-tailed t-test, Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA), and Pearson Correlation were used to analyze data. The data supported the rejection of the null hypothesis for the three research questions. The correlational analyses showed strong relationship among three of the four variables. There were no correlations between gender and the three dependent variables. The findings of this

  8. The Impact of Vocabulary Enhancement Activities on Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention among Male and Female EFL Learners in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafi-Nejad, Maryam; Raftari, Shohreh; Bijami, Maryam; Khavari, Zahra; Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    In general, incidental vocabulary acquisition is represented as the "picking up" of new vocabularies when students are engaged in a variety of reading, listening, speaking, or writing activities. Research has shown when learners read extensively incidental vocabulary acquisition happens. Many EFL students cannot be involved in reading…

  9. The Effect of Vocabulary Self-Selection Strategy and Input Enhancement Strategy on the Vocabulary Knowledge of Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Golfam

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate empirically the effect of Vocabulary Self-Selection strategy and Input Enhancement strategy on the vocabulary knowledge of Iranian EFL Learners. After taking a diagnostic pretest, both experimental groups enrolled in two classes. Learners who practiced Vocabulary Self-Selection were allowed to…

  10. Semantic-JSON: a lightweight web service interface for Semantic Web contents integrating multiple life science databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Norio; Ishii, Manabu; Takahashi, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Yoshiki; Matsushima, Akihiro; Toyoda, Tetsuro

    2011-07-01

    Global cloud frameworks for bioinformatics research databases become huge and heterogeneous; solutions face various diametric challenges comprising cross-integration, retrieval, security and openness. To address this, as of March 2011 organizations including RIKEN published 192 mammalian, plant and protein life sciences databases having 8.2 million data records, integrated as Linked Open or Private Data (LOD/LPD) using SciNetS.org, the Scientists' Networking System. The huge quantity of linked data this database integration framework covers is based on the Semantic Web, where researchers collaborate by managing metadata across public and private databases in a secured data space. This outstripped the data query capacity of existing interface tools like SPARQL. Actual research also requires specialized tools for data analysis using raw original data. To solve these challenges, in December 2009 we developed the lightweight Semantic-JSON interface to access each fragment of linked and raw life sciences data securely under the control of programming languages popularly used by bioinformaticians such as Perl and Ruby. Researchers successfully used the interface across 28 million semantic relationships for biological applications including genome design, sequence processing, inference over phenotype databases, full-text search indexing and human-readable contents like ontology and LOD tree viewers. Semantic-JSON services of SciNetS.org are provided at http://semanticjson.org.

  11. Spirometry training courses: Content, delivery and assessment - a position statement from the Australian and New Zealand Society of Respiratory Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanney, Maureen P; O'Dea, Christopher A; Ingram, Emily R; Rodwell, Leanne T; Borg, Brigitte M

    2017-10-01

    Spirometry training courses are provided by health services and training organizations to enable widespread use of spirometry testing for patient care or for monitoring health. The primary outcome of spirometry training courses should be to enable participants to perform spirometry to international best practice, including testing of subjects, quality assurance and interpretation of results. Where valid results are not achieved or quality assurance programmes identify errors in devices, participants need to be able to adequately manage these issues in accordance with best practice. It is important that potential participants are confident in the integrity of the course they attend and that the course meets their expectations in terms of training. This position statement lists the content that the Australian and New Zealand Society of Respiratory Science (ANZSRS) has identified as required in a spirometry training course to adequately meet the primary outcomes mentioned above. The content requirements outlined in this position statement are based on the current international spirometry standards set out by the American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society. Furthermore, recommendations around course delivery for theoretical and practical elements of spirometry testing and post-course assessment are outlined in this statement. © 2017 The Authors. Respirology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  12. Word Lists for Vocabulary Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard-Clouston, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Within the communicative approach, often the assumption has been that with the right exposure, students will simply "pick up" the vocabulary required for learning and using English, and thus there is no need to focus on or teach it. Yet, as many teachers can attest, this is frequently not the case, and there have been recent efforts to…

  13. Shared Reading to Build Vocabulary and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Ted

    2010-01-01

    The author presents four approaches to shared reading that he used with first through third graders in a high-needs, urban elementary school with a large population of students from immigrant homes. Using sociocultural and cognitive constructivist principles, the author shows how these approaches built students' academic vocabulary and…

  14. Enhanced Context Recognition by Sensitivity Pruned Vocabularies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Pruning the vocabularies to approximately 20% of the original size, we find consistent context recognition enhancement for two mid size data-sets for a range of training set sizes. We also study the applicability...

  15. Vocabulary of CPH Theory and Modern Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Daei Kasmaei, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Wherefore CPH theory was presented? There are various theories in physics, but nature is unique. This is not nature's problem that we have various theories; nature obeys simple and unique law. So, we should improve our understanding of physical phenomena and unify theories. There is a compare brief...... of CPH Theory (Creative Particles of Higgs Theory) and modern physics in this vocabulary....

  16. Working Memory and Distributed Vocabulary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Paul W. B.; Baddeley, Alan D.

    1998-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that individual differences in immediate-verbal-memory span predict success in second-language vocabulary acquisition. In the two-session study, adult subjects learned 56 English-Finnish translations. Tested one week later, subjects were less likely to remember those words they had difficulty learning, even though they had…

  17. Pictures Improve Memory of SAT Vocabulary Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Melva; Finkelstein, Arleen

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that students can improve their memory of Scholastic Aptitude Test vocabulary words by associating the words with corresponding pictures taken from magazines. Finds that long-term recall of words associated with pictures was higher than recall of words not associated with pictures. (RS)

  18. Semantic Boggle: A Game for Vocabulary Acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toma, Irina; Alexandru, Cristina-Elena; Dascalu, Mihai; Dessus, Philippe; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Learning a new language is a difficult endeavor, the main encountered problem being vocabulary acquisition. The learning process can be improved through visual representations of coherent contexts, best represented in serious games. The game described in this paper, Semantic Boggle, is a serious

  19. Flooding Vocabulary Gaps to Accelerate Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabham, Edna; Buskist, Connie; Henderson, Shannon Coman; Paleologos, Timon; Baugh, Nikki

    2012-01-01

    Students entering school with limited vocabularies are at a disadvantage compared to classmates with robust knowledge of words and meanings. Teaching a few unrelated words at a time is insufficient for catching these students up with peers and preparing them to comprehend texts they will encounter across the grades. This article presents…

  20. Personalization of Reading Passages Improves Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Michael; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn; Callan, Jamie; Eskenazi, Maxine; Juffs, Alan; Wilson, Lois

    2010-01-01

    The REAP tutoring system provides individualized and adaptive English as a Second Language vocabulary practice. REAP can automatically personalize instruction by providing practice readings about topics that match interests as well as domain-based, cognitive objectives. While most previous research on motivation in intelligent tutoring…

  1. Towards a Southern African English Defining Vocabulary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    of parameters, such as avoiding synonyms and antonyms, to determine which words are necessary to write definitions in a concise and simple way. It has been found that existing defining vocabularies lack certain words that would make definitions more accessible to southern African learners, and therefore there is a need ...

  2. Four Practical Principles for Enhancing Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyak, Patrick C.; Von Gunten, Heather; Autenrieth, David; Gillis, Carolyn; Mastre-O'Farrell, Julie; Irvine-McDermott, Elizabeth; Baumann, James F.; Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents four practical principles that lead to enhanced word-meaning instruction in the elementary grades. The authors, a collaborative team of researchers and classroom teachers, identified and developed these principles and related instructional activities during a three-year vocabulary instruction research project. The principles…

  3. Teaching Vocabulary to English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Sharilyn Fox

    2009-01-01

    This study determined if the vocabulary gap for English Language Learners (ELLs) and their peers could be bridged through providing home interventions with multiple exposures to words, definitions, model sentences and context. Ninety-one first grade students from a public school in Southern California with a 95% ELL population were researched. ELL…

  4. THE EFFECT OF USING FLASH CARD AND PICTURE STORY IN VOCABULARY MASTERY TO THE SEVENTH GRADER OF SMP PGRI 1 MARGATIGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoirul Hidayat -

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the content standard, junior high school students are hoped to master vocabulary about 1000 words, so they can understand the conversation. But it fact, most of the students in junior high school do not master vocabulary well. So, the teacher should be able to choose a good media to help students to increase their vocabulary. In this case, flash card with picture story is two of media that can be used to transfer vocabulary material for the students.   The objective of this research is to find the significant differences of using flash card with picture story in vocabulary, and to find which medium is more effective to use as media in vocabulary. This research was true experiment design. Pre test and post test were use to collect the data. There are two problems of the study, (1 are there any significant differences between flash card with picture story in vocabulary mastery for the seventh grade students in SMP PGRI 2 Margatiga academic years 2013/2014?, (2 which one is more effective media in vocabulary learning process, is it flash card or picture story at seventh grade of SMP PGRI 2 Margatiga, academic years 2013/2014?. As a source of data, the researcher utilized flash card with picture story to teach vocabulary for the students. The media help students to learn vocabulary easier and more interesting to understand the subject, so their vocabulary would increase.   The result of the research, it was found that the mean score of picture story in pre test is 53,86, in treatment is 81, and in post test 85,33. Meanwhile the mean score of the flash card media in pre test 59,33, in treatment is 73,5, and in post test is 80,66. It means that the student’s vocabulary has increased, and there is significant difference of using picture story and flash card in vocabulary instruction, and picture story was more effective to use in vocabulary instruction.

  5. Linking Disparate Datasets of the Earth Sciences with the SemantEco Annotator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed, P.; Chastain, K.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Use of Semantic Web technologies for data management in the Earth sciences (and beyond) has great potential but is still in its early stages, since the challenges of translating data into a more explicit or semantic form for immediate use within applications has not been fully addressed. In this abstract we help address this challenge by introducing the SemantEco Annotator, which enables anyone, regardless of expertise, to semantically annotate tabular Earth Science data and translate it into linked data format, while applying the logic inherent in community-standard vocabularies to guide the process. The Annotator was conceived under a desire to unify dataset content from a variety of sources under common vocabularies, for use in semantically-enabled web applications. Our current use case employs linked data generated by the Annotator for use in the SemantEco environment, which utilizes semantics to help users explore, search, and visualize water or air quality measurement and species occurrence data through a map-based interface. The generated data can also be used immediately to facilitate discovery and search capabilities within 'big data' environments. The Annotator provides a method for taking information about a dataset, that may only be known to its maintainers, and making it explicit, in a uniform and machine-readable fashion, such that a person or information system can more easily interpret the underlying structure and meaning. Its primary mechanism is to enable a user to formally describe how columns of a tabular dataset relate and/or describe entities. For example, if a user identifies columns for latitude and longitude coordinates, we can infer the data refers to a point that can be plotted on a map. Further, it can be made explicit that measurements of 'nitrate' and 'NO3-' are of the same entity through vocabulary assignments, thus more easily utilizing data sets that use different nomenclatures. The Annotator provides an extensive and searchable

  6. GLOBE Atmosphere and AMS Diversity Program Content to Foster Weather and Climate Science Awareness at HBCUs: A Curriculum Enhancement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, D.

    2017-12-01

    Tennessee State University (TSU) is a member of the "Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Mission Earth" project. The World Regional Geography (GEOG 1010/1020) courses are required for Education majors. Pre-service teachers must complete several exercises to be certified in the GLOBE Atmosphere Protocols. The pre-service teachers are required to develop GLOBE-based lessons to high school students. The exercise theme is "Exploring the Impacts of Urban Heat Islands (UHI) using Geospatial Technology." Surface temperature, ambient air temperature, and cloud cover data are collected. Sample point locations are logged using Garmin GPS receivers and then mapped using ArcGIS Online (http://arcg.is/1oiD379). The service learning outreach associated with this experience requires collegians to thoroughly understand the physical, social, and health science content associated with UHIs and then impart the information to younger learners. The precollegiate students are motivated due to their closeness in age and social context to the college students. All of the students have the advantage of engaging in hands-on problem-based learning of complex meteorology, climate science, and geospatial technology concepts. The optimal result is to have pre-service teachers enroll in the Weather and Climate (GEOG 3500) course, which is supported by the American Meteorological Society (AMS) Weather and Climate Studies Curriculum. Tennessee State University faculty have completed training to deliver the curriculum through the AMS Diversity Program. The AMS Weather Studies and Climate Studies programs have been institutionalized at Tennessee State University (TSU) since fall 2005. Approximately 250 undergraduate students have been exposed to the interactive AMS learning materials over the past 10-plus years. Non-STEM, and education majors are stimulated by the real-time course content and are encouraged to think critically about atmospheric systems science, and

  7. The development of pedagogical content knowledge in science teachers: New opportunities through technology-mediated reflection and peer-exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, M. Cheryl-Ann

    This design-based research study investigates the development of pedagogical content knowledge among nine teacher-participants (N = 9) in three design phases. PCK is a particular type of teacher knowledge that addresses not only the teacher's understanding of the content to be instructed, but also ways of how to teach that content effectively. This knowledge has been well documented over several decades, and is seen as central to teacher expertise. However, its actual development has been difficult for researchers to investigate. This study offers a detailed perspective on how teachers developed PCK with their engagement in lesson planning and enactment of a project-based technology-enhanced lesson. The study includes two specific interventions designed to enhance teachers' development of PCK: (1) scaffolded reflection that occurs throughout the practices; and (2) peer-exchange of lesson plans, enactment ideas, and completed reflections. The findings demonstrate that teachers improve their planning and enactment of project-based technology-enhanced lessons with scaffolded reflection and peer exchange. Positive correlations were seen between teachers' engagement in the reflections and the quality of their lesson planning. Teachers who participated more deeply in the scaffolded reflections were able to understand how their lesson plans and enactment patterns fostered student understanding of relevant science concepts. Positive correlations were also seen between community influence and teacher lesson plans and enactment. Additionally, positive correlations were confirmed between teachers' level of participation in the peer exchange activities and the quality of their lesson planning and enactments. Teachers who contributed more deeply within the online and face-to-face peer community meetings benefited from the different perspectives of their peers about student learning and the best ways to succeed with project-based instruction. This study allowed some insight into

  8. Journal Article: Using Scientists and Real-World Scenarios in Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Judith A.; Estes, Jeffrey C.

    2007-04-01

    Middle school science teachers were involved in a problem-solving experience presented and guided by research scientists. Data on the teachers’ perspectives about this professional development and any impact it may have had on their teaching practices were collected through interviews, surveys, and classroom observations. The findings show that the professional development experience was positive, although one concern expressed by teachers was their lack of understanding of the scientists’ vocabulary. Using scientists and real-world scenarios was shown to be an effective strategy for encouraging middle school teachers to teach science as a process and help them strengthen their science content understanding.

  9. A comparative study on the effectiveness of still pictures and moving pictures as aids in vocabulary instruction to Turkish EFL students

    OpenAIRE

    Kumbaroğlu, Didem

    1998-01-01

    Ankara : The Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent Univ., 1998. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1998. Includes bibliographical refences. Vocabulary instruction is an important aspect of language teaching, whose difficulty is acknowledged by researchers as well as teachers and students. Still pictures and moving pictures (video) are often used as aids in EFL vocabulary instruction. However, few studies have been conducted to examine the role of ...

  10. The Impact of Vocabulary Knowledge Level on EFL Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Kameli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the impact of vocabulary knowledge level on reading comprehension performance among EFL language learners. The ultimate intention was to determine the association between levels of vocabulary knowledge and to clarify the relationship among vocabulary knowledge on reading comprehension performance of EFL Iranian students on subtest of VLT and IELTS. Quantitative data were collected from 220 EFL Iranian adult students at the beginning of second semester of 2011 in private English language institute (BAHAR, Shiraz, Iran. The Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT and Reading Comprehension Test (IELTS were performed in one session as research instruments. The findings indicated that there were positive relationships among different levels of vocabulary test and also test scores on vocabulary size/breadth of vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension.

  11. Synthesizing research and education: Ecology and genetics of independent fern gametophytes and teaching science inquiry and content through simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Aaron M.

    Two of the main areas of focus in university academics are research and education. The mission statements of Utah State University and the Department of Biology emphasize both areas, as do the requirements of funding agencies. I attempted to integrate research and education by using tools that I developed to support and inform my biological research projects to teach science. Ferns have a life cycle with alternating haploid and diploid life stages, both of which are free-living and potentially long-lived. The haploid gametophytes of some ferns reproduce asexually and may have different environmental requirements than the diploid sporophytes, so it is possible for populations of gametophytes to exist without sporophytes. This dissertation includes a description of surveys for Hymenophyllum wrightii, a fern with independent gametophytes in the Pacific Northwest, and improves our understanding of the range, distribution, and habitat requirements of these plants which were previously assumed to be rare. It also describes an attempt to explore the population genetics of gametophytes of Crepidomanes intricatum, a widespread fern in the Appalachian Mountains for which no sporophytes have ever been found. To help visualize evolutionary processes in independent gametophyte populations I developed the Virtual Population Genetics Simulator (VPGsim) to simulate populations of ferns in a 3-dimensional environment. This dissertation includes a description of VPGsim, a learning module using it to teach undergraduate genetics, and a study demonstrating its effectiveness at improving students' understanding of science content and confidence in their ability to perform science inquiry. That simulation tool led to a collaboration to find other ways to teach science with simulations, and to the development of a Virtual Plant Community simulator (VPCsim) for teaching middle school students about the effects of the environment and human impacts on living organisms. This dissertation

  12. Vocabulary Acquisition for Future Nursing Staff: authenticity in the classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Hempkin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that many ESL teachers either modify or supplement the set textbooks they use in class, or develop their own materials for classroom use. Indeed, in recent years, the internet in particular has opened up a rich and at times perhaps baffling array of resources for those ESL practitioners who wish to incorporate authentic materials into their teaching. While the benefits of authentic materials are well-documented, their use is, however, not entirely unproblematic, and as research into the field of material (authentic or otherwise development grows, this raises a number of issues as to the form these materials should take and how they can best be employed. This article presents a set of vocabulary building activities for future nursing staff; these activities are in use at the Faculty of Health Sciences in Maribor. The article explains the rationale behind them in light of the theoretical framework of language acquisition that underpins them.

  13. Random drift versus selection in academic vocabulary: an evolutionary analysis of published keywords.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Alexander Bentley

    Full Text Available The evolution of vocabulary in academic publishing is characterized via keyword frequencies recorded in the ISI Web of Science citations database. In four distinct case-studies, evolutionary analysis of keyword frequency change through time is compared to a model of random copying used as the null hypothesis, such that selection may be identified against it. The case studies from the physical sciences indicate greater selection in keyword choice than in the social sciences. Similar evolutionary analyses can be applied to a wide range of phenomena; wherever the popularity of multiple items through time has been recorded, as with web searches, or sales of popular music and books, for example.

  14. Random drift versus selection in academic vocabulary: an evolutionary analysis of published keywords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander

    2008-08-27

    The evolution of vocabulary in academic publishing is characterized via keyword frequencies recorded in the ISI Web of Science citations database. In four distinct case-studies, evolutionary analysis of keyword frequency change through time is compared to a model of random copying used as the null hypothesis, such that selection may be identified against it. The case studies from the physical sciences indicate greater selection in keyword choice than in the social sciences. Similar evolutionary analyses can be applied to a wide range of phenomena; wherever the popularity of multiple items through time has been recorded, as with web searches, or sales of popular music and books, for example.

  15. The effects of dictionary training on Turkish EFL students' reading comprehension and vocabulary learning

    OpenAIRE

    Altun, Arif

    1995-01-01

    Ankara : The Institute of Economic and Social Sciences of Bilkent Univ., 1995. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1995. Includes bibliographical references leaves 55-59 The present study investigated the effects of monolingual dictionary training on Turkish EFL students' reading comprehension and vocabulary learning. Thirty-seven intermediate-level Turkish EFL preparatory students in the Department of English Language Teaching at Mustafa Kemal University participated in this st...

  16. The relationship between students' perceptual learning style preferences, language learning strategies and English language vocabulary size

    OpenAIRE

    Gorevanova, Anna

    2000-01-01

    Ankara : The Institute of Economic and Social Sciences Bilkent Univ., 2000. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2000. Includes bibliographical references leaves 54-58 This study investigated the relationship between students’ perceptual learning style preferences, language learning strategies and English language vocabulary size. It is very important for teachers to be aware of students’ preferences in learning to help them be more successful and to avoid conflicts when...

  17. Intelligent Agent for Acquisition of the Mother Tongue Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigor Moldovan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the following: firstly, the basic ideas of a system that simulate how we consider that a child acquires the mother tongue vocabulary and makes the correspondences between objects, words and senses; secondly: the mechanism for a system that can learn the mother tongue vocabulary using observations and, thirdly, how to make an intelligent agent that can behave like a little child, in the process of mother tongue acquisition.

  18. Effect of Soil Moisture Content on Growth, Crude Drug "Cho-to-ko" Yield and Oxindole Alkaloid Content of Uncaria rhynchophylla (B. LIVING SCIENCE)

    OpenAIRE

    川添, 禎浩; 小林, 茂樹; 水上, 元; 大橋, 裕; SADAHIRO, KAWAZOE; SHIGEKI, KOBAYASHI; HAJIME, MIZUKAMI; HIROMU, OHASHI; Laboratory of Environmetal Health and Toxicology, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Kyoto Prefectural University; Department of Medicinal Plant Research, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University; Department of Medicinal Plant Research, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University; Department of Medicinal Plant Research, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University

    1992-01-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla was cultivated by using soil with various moisture contents (20,40,60,80 or 100% of the maximum moisture content retained by soil). Both growth and crude drug "Cho-to-ko" (dried stem with hooks of U. rhynchophylla) yield of the plant were in the following order : 60%> 80%> 40%> 100%> 20%, while oxindole alkaloid content of the stem was in the following order : 20%> 60%> 100%> 40%> 80%. It is concluded that moderately wet soil is suitable for cultivation of U. rhynchophyl...

  19. Research Trends in Science Education from 2008 to 2012: A Systematic Content Analysis of Publications in Selected Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Chiang; Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the third study of research trends in science education. In this review, a total of 990 papers published in the "International Journal of Science Education," the "Journal of Research in Science Teaching," and "Science Education" from 2008 to 2012 were analyzed. The results indicate that in the…

  20. The Content Analysis, Material Presentation, and Readability of Curriculum 2013 Science Textbook for 1st Semester of Junior High School 7th Grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endik Deni Nugroho

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the early observation by researchers of the two Science textbooks 7thGrade about biological material, 1stand 2ndsemester of curriculum 2013, there were errors in the material presentation and legibility. This study aimed to compare and find the contents suitability of the book based on standard of competence and basic competences, readability, materials presentation and supporting material in the science textbook VII grade, 1st and 2nd semester and measured student legibility. This study used a qualitative descriptive approach by using document analysis. The data resources were obtained by using purposive, the data collection was triangulation, data analysis was inductive/qualitative and the results emphasized the meaning. This research results showed that the Integrated Sciences and Sciences textbook 1st and 2nd semester meet the standards of the core competencies and basic competence on the syllabus curriculum 2013 and also meet the books standart. The results of the analysis conducted in misstatement concept and principles and material llustration in the Integrated Science textbook 1st semester were found 5 misstatement concept, for the presentation of the principles and material illustration was found no error. In the book Integrated Sciences there was no delivery errors concept, principle, and material illustration. Science textbook 1st semester found 8 concepts misstatements and 8 illustration material misstatements. In general, Integrated Sciences and Sciences textbooks 1st and 2nd semester are illegibility so not appropriate for students.

  1. The relationship between Iranian EFL learners’ self-regulatory vocabulary strategy use and their vocabulary size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Reza Amirian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulation is referred to as learners’ self-generated ideas and actions which are systematically directed towards achieving educational goals and require learners’ active participation in the learning process (Zimmerman & Bandura, 1994. The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL students’ self-regulation capacity for vocabulary learning and their vocabulary size. For this purpose, the researchers made use of two main instruments: the self-regulation capacity in vocabulary learning scale developed by Tseng et al. (2006 consisting of five subscales of commitment, metacognitive, emotion, satiation and environment control, and a bilingual vocabulary size test developed and validated by Karami (2012. The results of the data analysis revealed no significant relationship between the two variables measured by these instruments. However, the results of the multiple regressions indicated that the metacognitive control compared to the other subscales made a better contribution to the prediction of learners’ vocabulary size. In addition, based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA, which examined and compared the self-regulatory strategy use of learners in different experience groups, the first year students had a higher mean score in their self-regulation capacity, which can possibly be attributed to the strategies they have learnt in their Study Skills courses. Finally, it was suggested that teachers must try to develop self-regulatory power in the learners because their creative effort and informed decisions in trying to improve their own learning are highly important.

  2. Atomic Energy Control Board vocabulary - preliminary edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolet, D.

    1995-09-01

    This preliminary edition was prepared at the Board's request to help it establish a standardized terminology. It was produced by scanning the 99 French and English documents listed at the end of this Vocabulary. The documents include legislation concerning atomic energy and the transportation of radioactive materials, as well as the Board's publications, such as the Consultative Documents, Regulatory Documents and Notices. The terms included from the following areas are: radiation protection, reactor technology, nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive material packaging and transportation, radioactive waste management, uranium mines, and medical and industrial applications of radioelements. Also included are the titles of publications and the names of organizations and units. The vocabulary contains 2,589 concepts, sometimes accompanied by definitions, contexts or usage examples. Where terms have been standardized by the Canadian Committee for the Standardization of Nuclear Terminology, this has been indicated. Where possible, we have verified the terms using the TERMIUM, the Government of Canada Linguistic Data Bank. (author)

  3. Self-efficacy on Technological, Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK of Biological Science Pre-Service Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anania B. Aquino

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The teachers are the focal figure in education and play vital roles in learning. These roles have served as key point in designing the curriculum and preparing pre-service teachers. Turning students into competent teachers is an interplay of varied factors, one of which is technology. This impact necessitates the utilization of technology in teaching, described as technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK. The study aimed to investigate TPACK self-efficacies of pre - service biological science teachers who were enrolled in two academic years at the College of Teacher Education in a state university in the Philippines. It also examined whether the responses of the two groups of respondents on TPACK self – efficacy differ and whether these self-efficacies relate to sex, electronic gadget owned and access to internet. It used the descriptive survey method of research employing a questionnaire on TPACK to collect data. The study found out that there is more female than male. Majority have electronic gadgets but have limited access to internet. Findings showed that respondents have good TPACK self – efficacy. The findings showed that the responses of the two groups of participants on TPACK self – efficacies are statistically different . Further, their self – efficacies is very slightly affected by their sex, electronic gadgets owned and access to internet. The study recommends reviewing and improving instructional practices and curriculum of the college to enhance TPACK of respondents.

  4. Some Techniques for Teaching Vocabulary. ERIC Focus Reports on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Number 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Joseph; Patin, Paul

    Discussion of techniques for teaching vocabulary in language programs centers on five major areas: (1) "knowing" the word, (2) selection of vocabulary, (3) grading vocabulary for presentation, (4) teaching methods, and (5) vocabulary expansion in advanced levels. Theory of vocabulary instruction is largely supported by writings of Nelson Brooks,…

  5. The Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Teaching Turkish as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Sami; Iscan, Adem; Karagoz, Beytullah; Birol, Gülnur

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is the basis of the language learning process in teaching Turkish as a second language. Vocabulary learning strategies need to be used in order for vocabulary learning to take place effectively. The use of vocabulary learning strategies facilitates vocabulary learning and increases student achievement. Each student uses a…

  6. The Nature of Relationships among the Components of Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Preservice Science Teachers: "Ozone Layer Depletion" as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Osman N.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among the components of preservice science teachers' (PSTs) pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) involving the topic "ozone layer depletion". An open-ended survey was first administered to 216 PSTs in their final year at the Faculty of Education to determine their subject matter…

  7. Pre-Service Teachers' Development of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) in the Context of a Secondary Science Teacher Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habowski, Thomas; Mouza, Chrystalla

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates pre-service teachers' TPACK development in a secondary science teacher education program that combined a content-specific technology integration course with extensive field experience. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. Quantitative data were collected through a pre-post administration of the…

  8. High School Student Perceptions of the Utility of the Engineering Design Process: Creating Opportunities to Engage in Engineering Practices and Apply Math and Science Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berland, Leema; Steingut, Rebecca; Ko, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Research and policy documents increasingly advocate for incorporating engineering design into K-12 classrooms in order to accomplish two goals: (1) provide an opportunity to engage with science content in a motivating real-world context; and (2) introduce students to the field of engineering. The present study uses multiple qualitative data…

  9. The Impact of a Racing Feature on Middle School Science Students' Performance in an Educational Game: The Effect of Content-Free Game-Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Marilyn; Craig-Hare, Jana; Frey, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Reason Racer is an online, rate-based, multiplayer game designed to engage middle school students in the knowledge and skills related to scientific argumentation. Several game features are included as design considerations unrelated to science content or argumentation. One specific feature, a competitive racing component that occurs in between…

  10. Data Science Programs in U.S. Higher Education: An Exploratory Content Analysis of Program Description, Curriculum Structure, and Course Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rong; Sae-Lim, Watinee

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an exploratory content analysis of 30 randomly selected Data Science (DS) programs from eight disciplines revealed significant gaps in current DS education in the United States. The analysis centers on linguistic patterns of program descriptions, curriculum requirements, and DS course focus as pertaining to key skills and domain…

  11. A Case Study of Beginning Science Teachers' Subject Matter (SMK) and Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of Teaching Chemical Reaction in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usak, Muhammet; Ozden, Mustafa; Eilks, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a case study focusing on the subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and beliefs about science teaching of student teachers in Turkey at the start of their university education. The topic of interest was that of teaching chemical reactions in secondary chemistry education. A written test was developed which…

  12. Modality of Input and Vocabulary Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Sydorenko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of input modality (video, audio, and captions, i.e., on-screen text in the same language as audio on (a the learning of written and aural word forms, (b overall vocabulary gains, (c attention to input, and (d vocabulary learning strategies of beginning L2 learners. Twenty-six second-semester learners of Russian participated in this study. Group one (N = 8 saw video with audio and captions (VAC; group two (N = 9 saw video with audio (VA; group three (N = 9 saw video with captions (VC. All participants completed written and aural vocabulary tests and a final questionnaire.The results indicate that groups with captions (VAC and VC scored higher on written than on aural recognition of word forms, while the reverse applied to the VA group. The VAC group learned more word meanings than the VA group. Results from the questionnaire suggest that learners paid most attention to captions, followed by video and audio, and acquired most words by associating them with visual images. Pedagogical implications of this study are that captioned video tends to aid recognition of written word forms and the learning of word meaning, while non-captioned video tends to improve listening comprehension as it facilitates recognition of aural word forms.

  13. Possibilities and Implications of Using the ICF and Other Vocabulary Standards in Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeman, Daniel J; Richoz, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    There is now widespread recognition of the powerful potential of electronic health record (EHR) systems to improve the health-care delivery system. The benefits of EHRs grow even larger when the health data within their purview are seamlessly shared, aggregated and processed across different providers, settings and institutions. Yet, the plethora of idiosyncratic conventions for identifying the same clinical content in different information systems is a fundamental barrier to fully leveraging the potential of EHRs. Only by adopting vocabulary standards that provide the lingua franca across these local dialects can computers efficiently move, aggregate and use health data for decision support, outcomes management, quality reporting, research and many other purposes. In this regard, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) is an important standard for physiotherapists because it provides a framework and standard language for describing health and health-related states. However, physiotherapists and other health-care professionals capture a wide range of data such as patient histories, clinical findings, tests and measurements, procedures, and so on, for which other vocabulary standards such as Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes and Systematized Nomenclature Of Medicine Clinical Terms are crucial for interoperable communication between different electronic systems. In this paper, we describe how the ICF and other internationally accepted vocabulary standards could advance physiotherapy practise and research by enabling data sharing and reuse by EHRs. We highlight how these different vocabulary standards fit together within a comprehensive record system, and how EHRs can make use of them, with a particular focus on enhancing decision-making. By incorporating the ICF and other internationally accepted vocabulary standards into our clinical information systems, physiotherapists will be able to leverage the potent

  14. MMI's Metadata and Vocabulary Solutions: 10 Years and Growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybeal, J.; Gayanilo, F.; Rueda-Velasquez, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Marine Metadata Interoperability project (http://marinemetadata.org) held its public opening at AGU's 2004 Fall Meeting. For 10 years since that debut, the MMI guidance and vocabulary sites have served over 100,000 visitors, with 525 community members and continuous Steering Committee leadership. Originally funded by the National Science Foundation, over the years multiple organizations have supported the MMI mission: "Our goal is to support collaborative research in the marine science domain, by simplifying the incredibly complex world of metadata into specific, straightforward guidance. MMI encourages scientists and data managers at all levels to apply good metadata practices from the start of a project, by providing the best guidance and resources for data management, and developing advanced metadata tools and services needed by the community." Now hosted by the Harte Research Institute at Texas A&M University at Corpus Christi, MMI continues to provide guidance and services to the community, and is planning for marine science and technology needs for the next 10 years. In this presentation we will highlight our major accomplishments, describe our recent achievements and imminent goals, and propose a vision for improving marine data interoperability for the next 10 years, including Ontology Registry and Repository (http://mmisw.org/orr) advancements and applications (http://mmisw.org/cfsn).

  15. Incidental Vocabulary Learning in Second Language Acquisition: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcon Dario Restrepo Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This literature review aims to analyze previous studies that address the incidental learning of vocabulary in second language acquisition. The articles included in this literature review look into the understanding of vocabulary learning through incidental means, the relationship of reading and incidental vocabulary learning, and the strategies and tasks that promote the incidental learning of vocabulary. The findings show that L2 learners develop much of their vocabulary by incidental means through exposure to words in informative contexts. Moreover, this exposure is promoted by reading, and enhanced through multimodal glosses. Further research may focus on listening for higher lexical retention rates, the circumstances that allow incidental learning of multi-word phrases and collocations, and the use of technology-based methods for incidental vocabulary acquisition.

  16. The Effects of Teacher Efficacy, Teacher Certification Route, Content Hours in the Sciences, Field-Based Experiences and Class Size on Middle School Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Robina

    No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) was signed into law in 2002 with the idea that all students, no matter the circumstances can learn and that highly qualified teachers should be present in every classrooms (United Stated Department of Education, 2011). The mandates of NCLB also forced states to begin measuring the progress of science proficiency beginning in 2007. The study determined the effects of teacher efficacy, the type of certification route taken by individuals, the number of content hours taken in the sciences, field-based experience and class size on middle school student achievement as measured by the 8th grade STAAR in a region located in South Texas. This data provides knowledge into the effect different teacher training methods have on secondary school science teacher efficacy in Texas and how it impacts student achievement. Additionally, the results of the study determined if traditional and alternative certification programs are equally effective in properly preparing science teachers for the classroom. The study described was a survey design comparing nonequivalent groups. The study utilized the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI). A 25-item efficacy scale made up of two subscales, Personal Science Teaching Efficacy Belief (PSTE) and Science Teaching Outcome Expectancy (STOE) (Bayraktar, 2011). Once the survey was completed a 3-Way ANOVA, MANOVA, and Multiple Linear Regression were performed in SPSS to calculate the results. The results from the study indicated no significant difference between route of certification on student achievement, but a large effect size was reported, 17% of the variances in student achievement can be accounted for by route of certification. A MANOVA was conducted to assess the differences between number of science content hours on a linear combination of personal science teacher efficacy, science teaching outcome expectancy and total science teacher efficacy as measured by the STEBI. No significant

  17. The effect of fifth grade science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge on their decision making and student learning outcomes on the concept of chemical change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogletree, Glenda Lee

    This study investigated the science pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) among teachers as they taught the concept of chemical change to fifth grade students. The purpose was to identify teachers' PCK and its impact in middle grade science classrooms. A second purpose was to investigate the possible relationship of teachers' science PCK to teacher actions and student learning outcomes in the classroom. The instruments used to capture PCK were background and demographic information, Content Representations (CoRe), and Professional and Pedagogical experience Repertoire (PaP-eR). The study investigated CoRe and PaP-eR with seven classroom teachers as they planned and taught chemical change to fifth grade students. Four levels of a Pedagogical Content Knowledge rubric were used to describe varying levels of PCK. The four levels were content knowledge of chemical change; knowledge of students' thinking; knowledge of how to represent chemical change to promote student learning; and professional development, collaboration, and leadership roles in science. The Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) described and evaluated science teaching performance levels of the teachers. In this study, 176 students were assessed to determine understanding of chemical change. There was a significant correlation between teachers' PCK scores and student achievement. The study also determined that a significant correlation existed between teachers' PCK scores and their RTOP scores revealing that RTOP scores could be predictors of PCK. Through this approach, understandings of PCK emerged that are of interest to university preservice preparation programs, research in understanding effective teachers and teaching, and the planning and implementation of professional development for teachers of science with middle grade students.

  18. The Impact of Sexual Media on Second Language Vocabulary Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Yakup

    2015-12-01

    Both Islam and Christianity warn their adherents not to view or to display obscene matter. Aside from religious consequences in the afterlife for such behavior, this study was conducted to determine if viewing sexual media has a detrimental effect in earthly life. Adolescents (n = 64) 17-22 years were exposed to two types of visual stimuli containing sexual or neutral content for 30 min. The participants, seated in rooms with comfortable chairs and provided with snacks, were shown a selection of 18 German words via a PowerPoint slideshow, which included a picture, an audio recording, and the written form of each word. The experimental group, which was exposed to arousing visual stimuli with mild sexual content (movie trailers, music video clips, and TV commercials), remembered significantly fewer words than the control group, which viewed a nature documentary without sexual content. T-test scores revealed that exposure to sexually arousing media impaired memory for second language (L2) vocabulary. Apart from leading to dire consequences in the hereafter, the results of the study demonstrate that viewing obscene material also causes harm in this life.

  19. Vocabulary test Strategies used by the Students to answer Vocabulary Test the Reading Comprehension of TOEFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyatman Suyatman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Test of English as a foreign Language or TOEFL is a standardized test of English for non-native speaker. It consists of three parts or three sections of tests. In Reading Comprehension test, it consists of vocabulary test. To get better result of score, it needs strategies. The purposes of this study are to know the strategies used by the students to answer the vocabulary test on reading section of TOEFL, to know the most strategy used by the students, to know the least strategy used by the students and to know the distribution of strategies used by the students to answer the Vocabulary test of Reading Comprehension of the TOEFL. The researcher used descriptive qualitative research. The subject was twelve students. The instrument was questionnaire that consisted of thirty questions. Data analyzes technique was by using mean score. The result of the research showed that; (1 students used all strategies to answer the vocabulary test of reading comprehension of TOEFL. (2 the most strategies used by the students was ‘Looking for contextual clues to the meaning of unknown words.(3 the least strategy used by the students to answer vocabulary test was ‘Developing a new vocabulary study system, and (4 the distribution of the strategy number 1 was 3.88,strategy number 2 was 3.61, number 3 was 2.94, number four was 2.91, strategy number 5 was3.88, strategy number six was 3.47, strategy number seven was 3.69, strategy number eight was 3.02, strategy number nine was 3.00 and the last strategy was 3.13.

  20. The Use of Hypermedia in Implicit Vocabulary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Nora de Souza

    2011-01-01

    The present work is aimed at investigating the role of hypermedia in implicit vocabulary acquisition in foreign language. On theoretical grounds, the work presents a reflection which contextualizes the discussion on implicit approaches to vocabulary teaching. Besides, a review and a discussion of the literature is carried out, with regard to the advantages of hypermedia in English Language Teaching. Following that, the selection of hypermedia material for implicit vocabulary teaching is prese...

  1. Exploring elementary school teachers' perception of their role in teaching content literacy in the elementary science and social studies classrooms: A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Moore, Lisa Michelle

    2011-12-01

    This mixed-methods study explored third, fourth, and fifth grade teachers' perceptions of their role in teaching content literacy in the elementary science and social studies classroom. The rationale for this study was the growing number of studies questioning the reliance on the inoculation theory for content area literacy comprehension. The study was a mixed methods study so as to provide insight into the participants' thought processes in decision making and instructional planning. Data sources included timed instructional observations, tiered checklist to identify strategy instruction, and prompted critical reflections. The three-tiered observation instrument categorized strategies used by teachers in tiers according to the focus of the strategy. Tier I strategies were those identified as strategies good readers use, typically taught with narrative text. The inoculation theory posits these skills transfer to reading informational and expository text. Tier II strategies were those identified as strategies appropriate for informational or expository text. Use of these strategies acknowledged that narrative and informational/expository text require different strategies, but does not differentiate between expository text drawn from particular content area. Tier III strategies were those identified as strategies particularly suited to informational or expository text drawn from specific content areas. These strategies embody cognitive processes used to comprehend text drawn from specific content areas. The findings showed the participating teachers used a preferential Tier of strategy instruction. Some participants felt that reading comprehension was more important than content. They viewed reading as a subject instead of an integral part of science and social studies instruction.

  2. Academic vocabulary in learner writing from extraction to analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Paquot, Magali

    2010-01-01

    Academic vocabulary is in fashion, as witnessed by the increasing number of books published on the topic. In the first part of this book, Magali Paquot scrutinizes the concept of academic vocabulary and proposes a corpus-driven procedure based on the criteria of keyness, range and evenness of distribution to select academic words that could be part of a common-core academic vocabulary syllabus. In the second part, the author offers a thorough analysis of academic vocabulary in the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE) and describes the factors that account for learners difficulties in

  3. The Use of Hypermedia in Implicit Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Nora de Souza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work is aimed at investigating the role of hypermedia in implicit vocabulary acquisition in foreign language. On theoretical grounds, the work presents a reflection which contextualizes the discussion on implicit approaches to vocabulary teaching. Besides, a review and a discussion of the literature is carried out, with regard to the advantages of hypermedia in English Language Teaching. Following that, the selection of hypermedia material for implicit vocabulary teaching is presented. This material was used in the data collecting which comprised 75 students. The material was evaluated by the students through a questionnaire. The results show that the use of hypermedia can significantly contribute to implicit vocabulary acquisition.

  4. Social validation of vocabulary selection: ensuring stakeholder relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornman, Juan; Bryen, Diane Nelson

    2013-06-01

    The vocabulary needs of individuals who are unable to spell their messages continue to be of concern in the field of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Social validation of vocabulary selection has been suggested as one way to improve the effectiveness and relevance of service delivery in AAC. Despite increased emphasis on stakeholder accountability, social validation is not frequently used in AAC research. This paper describes an investigation of the social validity of a vocabulary set identified in earlier research. A previous study used stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary that could be used by South African adults who use AAC to disclose their experiences as victims of crime or abuse. Another study used this vocabulary to create communication boards for use by adults with complex communication needs. In this current project, 12 South African adults with complex communication needs who use AAC systems used a 5-point Likert scale to score the importance of each of the previously identified 57 vocabulary items. This two-step process of first using stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary, and then having literate persons who use AAC provide information on social validity of the vocabulary on behalf of their peers who are illiterate, appears to hold promise as a culturally relevant vocabulary selection approach for sensitive topics such as crime and abuse.

  5. VOCABULARY PROBLEMS OF THE LIGHTLY MENTALLY RETARDED SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna KOSTIC

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The main research objectives are the problems in the vocabulary of school aged, lightly mentally retarded children. Results of the research indicate which are the most important factors that have impact of the vocabulary and language competence of these persons. The research variables are: sex, IQ, chronological age and school age. Comics-like stories were used as an examination instrument in this research. Their interpretation is helpful in determining the vocabulary level of every single examine. At the end of the research some suggestions are presented, whose goal is to enrich children's vocabulary.

  6. A study of the effects of English language proficiency and scientific reasoning skills on the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners and native English language-speaking students participating in grade 10 science classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Hector Neftali, Sr.

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of English language proficiency and levels of scientific reasoning skills of Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students on their acquisition of science content knowledge as measured by a state-wide standardized science test. The researcher studied a group of high school Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students participating in Grade 10 science classes. The language proficiency of the students was to be measured through the use of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) instrument. A Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning developed by Lawson (1978) was administered in either English or Spanish to the group of Hispanic English language learners and in English to the group of native English language-speaking students in order to determine their levels of scientific reasoning skills. The students' acquisition of science content knowledge was measured through the use of statewide-standardized science test developed by the State's Department of Education. This study suggests that the levels of English language proficiency appear to influence the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners in the study. The results of the study also suggest that with regards to scientific reasoning skills, students that showed high levels or reflective reasoning skills for the most part performed better on the statewide-standardized science test than students with intuitive or transitional reasoning skills. This assertion was supported by the studies conducted by Lawson and his colleagues, which showed that high levels of reasoning or reflective reasoning skills are prerequisite for most high school science courses. The findings in this study imply that high order English language proficiency combined with high levels of reasoning skills enhances students' abilities to learn science content subject matter. This

  7. Vocabulary knowledge predicts lexical processing: Evidence from a group of participants with diverse educational backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mainz, N.; Shao, Z.; Brysbaert, M.; Meyer, A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is central to a speaker's command of their language. In previous research, greater vocabulary knowledge has been associated with advantages in language processing. In this study, we examined the relationship between individual differences in vocabulary and language processing

  8. Students' Attitudes toward Science as Predictors of Gains on Student Content Knowledge: Benefits of an After-School Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Alana D.; Zientek, Linda R.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Vogt, Gregory L.; Moreno, Nancy P.

    2015-01-01

    High-quality after-school programs devoted to science have the potential to enhance students' science knowledge and attitudes, which may impact their decisions about pursuing science-related careers. Because of the unique nature of these informal learning environments, an understanding of the relationships among aspects of students' content…

  9. Controlled Vocabulary Service Application for Environmental Data Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, P.; Piasecki, M.; Lovell, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present a controlled vocabulary service application for Environmental Data Store (EDS). The purpose for such application is to help researchers and investigators to archive, manage, share, search, and retrieve data efficiently in EDS. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is used in the application for the representation of the controlled vocabularies coming from EDS. The controlled vocabularies of EDS are created by collecting, comparing, choosing and merging controlled vocabularies, taxonomies and ontologies widely used and recognized in geoscience/environmental informatics community, such as Environment ontology (EnvO), Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontology, CUAHSI Hydrologic Ontology and ODM Controlled Vocabulary, National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), National Water Information System (NWIS) codes, EPSG Geodetic Parameter Data Set, WQX domain value etc. TemaTres, an open-source, web -based thesaurus management package is employed and extended to create and manage controlled vocabularies of EDS in the application. TemaTresView and VisualVocabulary that work well with TemaTres, are also integrated in the application to provide tree view and graphical view of the structure of vocabularies. The Open Source Edition of Virtuoso Universal Server is set up to provide a Web interface to make SPARQL queries against controlled vocabularies hosted on the Environmental Data Store. The replicas of some of the key vocabularies commonly used in the community, are also maintained as part of the application, such as General Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus (GEMET), NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) Standard Names, etc.. The application has now been deployed as an elementary and experimental prototype that provides management, search and download controlled vocabularies of EDS under SKOS framework.

  10. Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by Medical Students: Croatian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Rogulj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to be able to fully develop their academic and professional competencies, medical doctors (MDs need to be highly proficient in English, which, among other things, implies the acquisition of vocabulary as an essential part of language knowledge. The current study aims at exploring vocabulary learning strategies (VLS employed by freshman and sophomore medical students at the University of Split School of Medicine, Croatia. In particular, it focuses on (a most and least frequently used VLS; (b relationship between VLS subscales and different types of vocabulary knowledge; (c differences in the mean strategy use between male and female students, and among low-, middle- and high-scoring students. The instruments used in the research were adapted version of the VLS Questionnaire (Pavičić Takač, 2008, p.152 and a vocabulary test designed by the author. The results indicate that medical students use a core inventory of VLS, whereby showing preference for the category of self-initiated vocabulary learning (SI-IVL strategies and some individual formal vocabulary learning (FVL and spontaneous vocabulary learning (SVL strategies. Although students were not in favour of FVL at the level of the category as a whole, the results showed that the more frequently they employed FVL strategies, the better they scored on vocabulary tasks measuring controlled-productive type of vocabulary knowledge. Correlations revealed that female students used SI-IVL and FVL strategies significantly more often than their male counterparts. Results also suggest that there are no statistically significant differences in the mean VLS use among low-, middle- and high-scoring students. In conclusion, the results of this study provide a preliminary insight into the VLS used by medical students and their effect on students' vocabulary learning outcomes as well as into differences by gender and vocabulary proficiency. Since findings have proved rather inconclusive, these

  11. Groundwork for a Better Vocabulary. Second Edition. Instructor's Edition. Townsend Press Vocabulary Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Kent; Johnson, Beth; Mohr, Carole

    This instructor's edition of a vocabulary textbook for college students, who read at the fifth to eighth grade level, features 25 chapters and teaches 250 basic words. The first and third chapters in each unit contain word-part practices. The second and fourth chapters in each unit contain synonym-antonym practices. The book's last chapter in each…

  12. Analyses of Receptive and Productive Korean EFL Vocabulary: Computer-Based Vocabulary Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Scott Sungki

    2013-01-01

    The present research study investigated the effects of 8 versions of a computer-based vocabulary learning program on receptive and productive knowledge levels of college students. The participants were 106 male and 103 female Korean EFL students from Kyungsung University and Kwandong University in Korea. Students who participated in versions of…

  13. Developing a Vocabulary Size Test Measuring Two Aspects of Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge: Visual versus Aural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Kazumi; Iso, Tatsuo; Nadasdy, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Testing learners' English proficiency is central to university English classes in Japan. This study developed and implemented a set of parallel online receptive aural and visual vocabulary tests that would predict learners' English proficiency. The tests shared the same target words and choices--the main difference was the presentation of the…

  14. Active object recognition using vocabulary trees

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available . Using this quantity, a feature’s uniqueness may be cal- culated. This is done in the following way. The feature’s Figure 3. Viewpoint weightings for a spice bottle object in the database. path through the vocabulary tree is determined by evaluat- ing... on the background will not negatively effect the weighting since all images were captured using the same background and their uniqueness weighting will be extremely low. Figure 3 is an example polar plot of viewpoint weightings for a spice bottle object...

  15. English vocabulary set #1 interactive flashcards book

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2013-01-01

    REA's Interactive Flashcard books represent a novel approach which combines the merits of flash cards with the ease of using a book. One side of each page includes questions to be answered, with space for writing in one's answers - a feature not usually found on flash cards. The flip side of the same page contains the correct answers, much as flash cards do. English Vocabulary (Set #1) is fully indexed making it easy to locate topics for study. Thanks to the book form, there is no need to look for and fish out appropriate questions from a box and put them back in the proper order, and the

  16. English vocabulary set #2 interactive flashcards book

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2013-01-01

    REA's Interactive Flashcard books represent a novel approach which combines the merits of flash cards with the ease of using a book. One side of each page includes questions to be answered, with space for writing in one's answers - a feature not usually found on flash cards. The flip side of the same page contains the correct answers, much as flash cards do. English Vocabulary (Set #2) is fully indexed making it easy to locate topics for study. Thanks to the book form, there is no need to look for and fish out appropriate questions from a box and put them back in the proper order, and ther

  17. Exploring Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by UPM TESL Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safian, Nur Hanisah; Malakar, Sharmila; Kalajahi, Seyed Ali Rezvani

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is one of the most challenging factors that learners will face during the process of second language learning. The main pursuit of the present study was to investigate the vocabulary language strategies among Malaysian ESL students majoring in Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) at University Putra Malaysia. There are…

  18. Shyness, Vocabulary and Children's Reticence in Saudi Arabian Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, W. Ray; Badawood, Asma

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present study are to examine whether preschool children's scores on a standardized test of vocabulary mediate or moderate the relation between shyness and reticence and to test whether any influence of vocabulary would be found for both teacher and parent assessments of shyness. Participants were 108 children (50 males), mean age,…

  19. Information and documentation - Thesauri and interoperability with other vocabularies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Dalbin, Sylvie; Smedt, Johan De

    ISO 25964-2:2013 is applicable to thesauri and other types of vocabulary that are commonly used for information retrieval. It describes, compares and contrasts the elements and features of these vocabularies that are implicated when interoperability is needed. It gives recommendations for the est...

  20. Contextual Clues Vocabulary Strategies Choice among Business Management Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Siti Nurshafezan; Muhammad, Ahmad Mazli; Kasim, Aini Mohd

    2018-01-01

    New trends in vocabulary learning focus on strategic vocabulary learning to create more active and independent language learners. Utilising suitable contextual clues strategies is seen as vital in enabling and equipping language learners with the skill to guess word meaning accurately, moving away from dependency on a dictionary to improve their…

  1. The Effect of Vocabulary on Introductory Microbiology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Emily

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effect of the translation of traditional scientific vocabulary into plain English, a process referred to as Anglicization, on student learning in the context of introductory microbiology instruction. Data from Anglicized and Classical-vocabulary lab sections were collected. Data included exam scores as well as pre and…

  2. Vocabulary Acquisition in L2: Does CALL Really Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averianova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Language competence in various communicative activities in L2 largely depends on the learners' size of vocabulary. The target vocabulary of adult L2 learners should be between 2,000 high frequency words (a critical threshold) and 10,000 word families (for comprehension of university texts). For a TOEIC test, the threshold is estimated to be…

  3. Is Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition Feasible to EFL Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian-ping

    2013-01-01

    For learning English as a foreign language, the efficiency of the approach of incidental vocabulary acquisition depends on the word frequency and text coverage. However, the statistics of English corpus reveals that English is a language that has a large vocabulary size but a low word frequency as well as text coverage, which is obviously not in…

  4. Vocabulary Acquisition through Direct and Indirect Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Maki; Foo, Thomas Chow Voon

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary learning has long been considered as one of the essential components for developing language learning. However, language learners are required to not just concern about memorizing definitions but also integrating vocabulary meaning into their present knowledge. Many strategies such as direct or indirect ones may be integrated to enhance…

  5. Japanese Vocabulary Acquisition by Learners in Three Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Dan P.

    2008-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the development of vocabulary knowledge during study abroad (SA), intensive domestic immersion (IM) and academic-year formal classroom (AY) learning. Its focus was the growth of vocabulary knowledge in Japanese--a language where little SA research has been conducted to date. Unlike most studies addressing…

  6. EFL Vocabulary Acquisition through Word Cards: Student Perceptions and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Darrell

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge plays an important role in second language proficiency, and learners need to acquire thousands of words in order to become proficient in the target language. As numerous studies have shown that incidental vocabulary acquisition is not sufficient on its own, it is clear that learners must devote considerable time and effort to…

  7. Memorization versus Semantic Mapping in L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoii, Roya; Sharififar, Samira

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two cognitive strategies, rote memorization and semantic mapping, on L2 vocabulary acquisition. Thirty-eight intermediate female EFL learners divided into two experimental groups participated in this study. Each experimental group used one of the strategies for vocabulary acquisition. After the four-month…

  8. Impacts of Vocabulary Acquisition Techniques Instruction on Students' Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine how the selected vocabulary acquisition techniques affected the vocabulary ability of 35 students who took EN 111 and investigate their attitudes towards the techniques instruction. The research study was one-group pretest and post-test design. The instruments employed were in-class exercises…

  9. A Comparative Study of Televised and Non-televised Vocabulary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    Vocabulary Teaching: the Case of Grade Ten in Focus. ... words were taken from Units 2 and 3 (English for Ethiopia, student text for ... On the other hand, even if it was below average, the study indicated that the ..... Table 1: How frequently the teachers use visual aids to teach vocabulary items .... This is a great disadvantage.

  10. Improving Vocabulary Skills through Assistive Technology: Rick's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey-Glenn, Pam F.; Gentry, James E.

    2008-01-01

    This case study examines the use of two assistive technologies, the Franklin Language Master 6000b and Microsoft PowerPoint 2003, as visual support systems to aid in the vocabulary acquisition skills of a student with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The intervention used children's literature and best practices in teaching vocabulary skills in…

  11. Core vocabulary of young children with Down syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckers, S.R.J.M.; Zaalen, Y. van; Balkom, L.J.M. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a core vocabulary list for young children with intellectual disabilities between 2 and 7 years of age because data from this population are lacking in core vocabulary literature. Children with Down syndrome are considered one of the most valid reference groups

  12. Early Home Language Use and Later Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between early patterns of home language use (age 4.5 years) and vocabulary growth (ages 4.5 to 12 years) in English and Spanish for 180 Spanish-speaking language minority learners followed from ages 4.5 to 12 years. Standardized measures of vocabulary were administered to children from ages 4.5 to…

  13. Service Learning: Flooding Students with Vocabulary through Read Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Kerry; Thompson, Judith

    2014-01-01

    In the spirit of the Steven Stahl 600 Book Kid Challenge, 90 preservice teachers engaged children in 36 read-aloud sessions for a vocabulary improvement service learning project. This article describes how the preservice teachers used narrative and informational books as a vehicle for rare-word vocabulary exposure for children ages 8-12.

  14. Implementing Controlled Composition to Improve Vocabulary Mastery of EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juriah

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study was to know how (1) Controlled composition teaching techniques implemented by the English teacher at SDN 027 Samarinda to improve vocabulary mastery, and (2) Controlled composition teaching techniques improves vocabulary mastery of the sixth grade students of SDN 027 Samarinda. This research used a Classroom Action…

  15. Studies and Suggestions on English Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao

    2012-01-01

    To improve vocabulary learning and teaching in ELT settings, two questionnaires are designed and directed to more than 100 students and teachers in one of China's key universities. The findings suggest that an enhanced awareness of cultural difference, metaphorical competence, and learners' autonomy in vocabulary acquisition will effectively…

  16. Teaching Vocabulary through Games--A Sanguine Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Beena

    2011-01-01

    Vocabulary is predominant in improving one's communicative skill. Language is more powerful when it is being used perfectly. Teachers should consider the background of learners and aid them to learn and develop their vocabulary in many interesting ways especially through games. This paper deals with a productive and a logical study, done on a set…

  17. Teaching Academic Vocabulary to Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Kristen D.; Sanchez, Victoria; Flynn, Lindsay J.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the efforts of a U.S. History teacher to directly teach word meanings using the "robust vocabulary instruction" (RVI) approach, because research supports this method as a way to improve vocabulary knowledge for a range of students, including adolescents reading below grade level (i.e., struggling readers) and…

  18. Self-reported reading as a predictor of vocabulary knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheeba, N; Krashen, S

    2013-10-01

    25 engineering students in India, who were highly motivated to improve their English, filled out a questionnaire about their reading habits in English and took a demanding vocabulary test based on words taken from preparation books for the Graduate Records Examination. The correlation between reading habits and vocabulary was substantial (r = .78).

  19. The Key to Enhancing Students' Mathematical Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccomini, Paul J.; Sanders, Sharon; Jones, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The importance of learning mathematical vocabulary is vital for the development of proficiency in mathematics. In an effort to improve students' mathematical performance, educators must use research-validated instructional methods to teach important mathematical vocabulary. Mnemonic instruction is a set of evidenced-based strategies used to…

  20. Lexical Coverage of TED Talks: Implications for Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmukhamedov, Ulugbek

    2017-01-01

    Teachers of English are often in search of authentic audio and video materials that promote learners' listening comprehension and vocabulary development. TED Talks, a set of freely available web presentations, could be a useful resource to promote vocabulary instruction. The present replication study examines the lexical coverage of TED Talks by…

  1. Measuring Teachers' Knowledge of Vocabulary Development and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguay, Annie; Kenyon, Dorry; Haynes, Erin; August, Diane; Yanosky, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development of an instrument to measure teachers' knowledge of vocabulary development and instruction, the Teacher Knowledge of Vocabulary Survey (TKVS). This type of knowledge has become increasingly important as all classroom teachers are expected to help students meet language and literacy standards that include…

  2. Neural Correlates of High Performance in Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedonia, Manuela; Muller, Karsten; Friederici, Angela D.

    2010-01-01

    Learning vocabulary in a foreign language is a laborious task which people perform with varying levels of success. Here, we investigated the neural underpinning of high performance on this task. In a within-subjects paradigm, participants learned 92 vocabulary items under two multimodal conditions: one condition paired novel words with iconic…

  3. Narrow Viewing: The Vocabulary in Related Television Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Michael P. H.; Webb, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the scripts of 288 television episodes were analyzed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in related and unrelated television programs, and the potential for incidental vocabulary learning through watching one season (approximately 24 episodes) of television programs. The scripts consisted of 1,330,268 running words…

  4. Video Games Promote Saudi Children's English Vocabulary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShaiji, Ohoud Abdullatif

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of Video Games and their role on promoting Saudi Kids' English vocabulary retention. The study attempted to answer whether there was a statistically significant difference (a = 0.05) between the Saudi children's subjects' mean score on the English vocabulary test due to using Video Games…

  5. Applying Integrated Computer Assisted Media (ICAM in Teaching Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opick Dwi Indah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to find out whether the use of integrated computer assisted media (ICAM is effective to improve the vocabulary achievement of the second semester students of Cokroaminoto Palopo University. The population of this research was the second semester students of English department of Cokroaminoto Palopo University in academic year 2013/2014. The samples of this research were 60 students and they were placed into two groups: experimental and control group where each group consisted of 30 students. This research used cluster random sampling technique. The research data was collected by applying vocabulary test and it was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result of this research was integrated computer assisted media (ICAM can improve vocabulary achievement of the students of English department of Cokroaminoto Palopo University. It can be concluded that the use of ICAM in the teaching vocabulary is effective to be implemented in improving the students’ vocabulary achievement.

  6. A Community College Instructor's Reflective Journey Toward Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Nature of Science in a Non-majors Undergraduate Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, Sarah J.; Schwartz, Renee

    2014-08-01

    Research supports an explicit-reflective approach to teaching about nature of science (NOS), but little is reported on teachers' journeys as they attempt to integrate NOS into everyday lessons. This participatory action research paper reports the challenges and successes encountered by an in-service teacher, Sarah, implementing NOS for the first time throughout four units of a community college biology course (genetics, molecular biology, evolution, and ecology). Through the action research cycles of planning, implementing, and reflecting, Sarah identified areas of challenge and success. This paper reports emergent themes that assisted her in successfully embedding NOS within the science content. Data include weekly lesson plans and pre/post reflective journaling before and after each lesson of this lecture/lab combination class that met twice a week. This course was taught back to back semesters, and this study is based on the results of a year-long process. Developing pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for NOS involves coming to understand the overlaps and connections between NOS, other science subject matter, pedagogical strategies, and student learning. Sarah found that through action research she was able to grow and assimilate her understanding of NOS within the biology content she was teaching. A shift in orientation toward teaching products of science to teaching science processes was a necessary shift for NOS pedagogical success. This process enabled Sarah's development of PCK for NOS. As a practical example of putting research-based instructional recommendations into practice, this study may be very useful for other teachers who are learning to teach NOS.

  7. An ODIP effort to map R2R ocean data terms to international vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Renata; Stocks, Karen; Arko, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The heterogeneity of terminology used in describing data creates a barrier to the efficient discovery and re-use of data, particularly across institutional, programmatic, and disciplinary boundaries. Here we explore the outcomes of a student project to crosswalk terms between the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program and other international systems, as part of the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP). R2R is a US program developing and implementing an information management system to preserve and provide access to routine underway data collected by U.S academic research vessels. R2R participates in ODIP, an international forum for improving the interoperability and effective sharing of marine data resources through technical workshops and joint prototypes. The vocabulary mapping effort lays a foundation for future ocean data portals through which users search and access international ocean data using familiar terms. R2R describes its data with a suite of controlled vocabularies (http://www.rvdata.us/voc) some of which were developed locally or are specific to the US. The goal of this student project is to crosswalk local/national vocabularies to authoritative international vocabularies, where they exist, or to vocabularies widely used by ODIP partners. Specifically, R2R developed the following crosswalks: R2R science party names to ORCID person identifiers, UNOLS ports to SeaDataNet Ports Gazetteer, R2R Device Models to NVS SeaVoX Device Catalog, and R2R Organizations to the European Directory of Marine Organizations (EDMO). Mappings were done in simple spreadsheets using synonymy relationships only, and will be published as part of the R2R Linked Data resources. The level of success in crosswalking was variable. The majority of ports were successfully mapped. Differences in the character sets (i.e. whether diacritic marks were used) caused automated matching to fail occasionally, but the number of ports was small enough that these could be manually

  8. Investigating the Impact of NGSS-Aligned Professional Development on PreK-3 Teachers' Science Content Knowledge and Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Nicole; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Molitor, Scott; Czerniak, Charlene M.; Johnson-Whitt, Eugenia; Bloomquist, Debra; Namatovu, Winnifred; Wilson, Grant

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study investigates the impact of a 2-week professional development Summer Institute on PK-3 teachers' knowledge and practices. This Summer Institute is a component of [program], a large-scale early-childhood science project that aims to transform PK-3 science teaching. The mixed-methods study examined concept maps, lesson plans, and…

  9. Exploring the Use of Lesson Study to Develop Elementary Preservice Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teaching Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Pongsanon, Khemmawadee; Park Rogers, Meredith A.; Carter, Ingrid; Galindo, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    This study explored a modified version of Japanese Lesson Study to determine whether and how it influenced preservice elementary teachers in their abilities to deliver science lessons that included nature of science (NOS) to their own students. We used a case study approach that focused on one subset of a cohort of preservice elementary teachers…

  10. Speeding up Vocabulary Acquisition through Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameerchund (Ashraf Maharaj

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gaining a wider vocabulary is fundamental to language learning. It follows then that the faster students engage and learn new words, the faster will be their proficiency with the target language. Multi-Dimensional Vocabulary Acquisition (or MDVA means approaching new terms / concepts from a variety of perspectives so that the target word is thoroughly analysed, giving students access to all dimensions of the word. There are many dimensions or elements that will help elucidate and unlock meaning, but for the purposes of this chapter new words will be looked at in terms of their antonyms, synonyms and associated words, rhyming counterparts, idiomatic usage, gender considerations, diminutive implications, proverbial usage and likely confusion with other words. In this study the author employs an Action Research methodology where practical classroom exercises involving students’ writing efforts pre- and post MDVA are closely examined. Using the familiar “spiral of cycles” approach, it becomes clear that “unpacking” the target word means that the meaning of many other words associated with the target word becomes explicit. A workshop with faculty is included as part of the practical application of MDVA.

  11. Atomic Energy Control Board vocabulary - preliminary edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolet, D [Public Works and Government Services Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Terminology and Documentation Directorate

    1995-09-01

    This preliminary edition was prepared at the Board`s request to help it establish a standardized terminology. It was produced by scanning the 99 French and English documents listed at the end of this Vocabulary. The documents include legislation concerning atomic energy and the transportation of radioactive materials, as well as the Board`s publications, such as the Consultative Documents, Regulatory Documents and Notices. The terms included from the following areas are: radiation protection, reactor technology, nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive material packaging and transportation, radioactive waste management, uranium mines, and medical and industrial applications of radioelements. Also included are the titles of publications and the names of organizations and units. The vocabulary contains 2,589 concepts, sometimes accompanied by definitions, contexts or usage examples. Where terms have been standardized by the Canadian Committee for the Standardization of Nuclear Terminology, this has been indicated. Where possible, we have verified the terms using the TERMIUM, the Government of Canada Linguistic Data Bank. (author).

  12. Gradient phonological inconsistency affects vocabulary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Kristin L; Creel, Sarah C

    2013-09-01

    Learners frequently experience phonologically inconsistent input, such as exposure to multiple accents. Yet, little is known about the consequences of phonological inconsistency for language learning. The current study examines vocabulary acquisition with different degrees of phonological inconsistency, ranging from no inconsistency (e.g., both talkers call a picture /vig/) to mild but detectable inconsistency (e.g., one talker calls a picture a /vig/, and the other calls it a /vIg/), up to extreme inconsistency (e.g., the same picture is both a /vig/ and a /dIdʒ/). Previous studies suggest that learners readily extract consistent phonological patterns, given variable input. However, in Experiment 1, adults acquired phonologically inconsistent vocabularies more slowly than phonologically consistent ones. Experiment 2 examined whether word-form inconsistency alone, without phonological competition, was a source of learning difficulty. Even without phonological competition, listeners learned faster in 1 accent than in 2 accents, but they also learned faster in 2 accents (/vig/ = /vIg/) than with completely different labels (/vig/ = /dIdʒ/). Overall, results suggest that learners exposed to multiple accents may experience difficulty learning when 2 forms mismatch by more than 1 phonological feature, plus increased phonological competition due to a greater number of word forms. Implications for learning from variable input are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. The Exploring Nature of Vocabulary Acquisition and Common Main Gaps in the Current Studies of Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary can be a key factor for success, central to a language, and paramount to a language learner. In such situation, the lexicon may be the most important component for learners (Grass and Selinker, 1994), and mastering of vocabulary is an essential component of second/foreign language teaching and learning that has been repeatedly…

  14. THE EFFECTS OF ELECTIVE COURSE DESIGNED WITH DIFFERENT CONTENTS ON PRE-SERVICE SCIENCE TEACHERS’ SELF-EFFICACY BELIEFS AND KNOWLEDGE ABOUT ORGANIZING CURRICULUM BASED FIELD TRIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Emre Bozdoğan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This research examined the effect of a course designed with different content on pre-service science teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs and knowledge about organizing curriculum-based trips. A pre-test post-test quasi experimental design was used in the research. One-hundred and thirty pre-service science teachers participated in the research. The research was carried out within the context of an elective course called “Informal Learning Environments in Science Education” and was conducted over 14 weeks in total for two hours per week. The research data were obtained by means of a questionnaire, self–efficacy scale for designing curriculum-based field trips (CFTSES and semi-structured focus-group interviews. As a result of the research, it was found that the course content which included in-class and out-of-school setting practices in the 3rd group was the most effective. This was followed by the 2nd group which included only in-class implementations. The first group which was supported with visuals and theoretical related presented information was the group which was the least effected. The results of the research revealed that pre-service science teachers had mainly different concerns about safety, but that this did not deter them, as they still continued to design curriculum-based field trips for learners.

  15. Use of Content Based Instruction and Socratic Discussion for ESL Undergraduate Biomedical Science Students to Develop Critical Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burder, Ronan L.; Tangalaki, Kathy; Hryciw, Deanne H.

    2014-01-01

    Content based language instruction can assist English as a second language (ESL) students to achieve better learning and teaching outcomes, however, it is primarily used to understand content, and may not help to develop critical analysis skills. Here we describe a pilot study that used a "Socratic" small-group discussion in addition to…

  16. The aurora, Mars, and more! Increasing science content in elementary grades through art and literacy programs in earth and space science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfrow, S.; Wood, E. L.

    2011-12-01

    Although reading, writing, and math examinations are often conducted early in elementary school, science is not typically tested until 4th or 5th grade. The result is a refocus on the tested topics at the expense of the untested ones, despite that standards exist for each topic at all grades. On a national level, science instruction is relegated to a matter of a few hours per week. A 2007 Education Policy study states that elementary school students spend an average of 178 minutes a week on science while spending 500 minutes on literacy. A recent NSTA report in July of elementary and middle school teachers confirms that teachers feel pressured to teach math and literacy at the expense of other programs. One unintended result is that teachers in grades where science is tested must play catch-up with students for them to be successful on the assessment. A unique way to combat the lack of science instruction at elementary grades is to combine literacy, social studies, and math into an integrated science program, thereby increasing the number of science contact hours. The Dancing Lights program, developed at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, is a science, art, and literacy program about the aurora designed to easily fit into a typical 3rd-5th grade instructional day. It mirrors other successful literacy programs and will provide a basis for the literacy program being developed for the upcoming MAVEN mission to Mars. We will present early findings, as well as "lessons learned" during our development and implementation of the Dancing Lights program and will highlight our goals for the MAVEN mission literacy program.

  17. Sensory description of marine oils through development of a sensory wheel and vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larssen, W E; Monteleone, E; Hersleth, M

    2018-04-01

    The Omega-3 industry lacks a defined methodology and a vocabulary for evaluating the sensory quality of marine oils. This study was conducted to identify the sensory descriptors of marine oils and organize them in a sensory wheel for use as a tool in quality assessment. Samples of marine oils were collected from six of the largest producers of omega-3 products in Norway. The oils were selected to cover as much variation in sensory characteristics as possible, i.e. oils with different fatty acid content originating from different species. Oils were evaluated by six industry expert panels and one trained sensory panel to build up a vocabulary through a series of language sessions. A total of 184 aroma (odor by nose), flavor, taste and mouthfeel descriptors were generated. A sensory wheel based on 60 selected descriptors grouped together in 21 defined categories was created to form a graphical presentation of the sensory vocabulary. A selection of the oil samples was also evaluated by a trained sensory panel using descriptive analysis. Chemical analysis showed a positive correlation between primary and secondary oxidation products and sensory properties such as rancidity, chemical flavor and process flavor and a negative correlation between primary oxidation products and acidic. This research is a first step towards the broader objective of standardizing the sensory terminology related to marine oils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lexical-semantic Mapping between Chinese and English Controlled Vocabularies in the Domain of Chinese Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Jiun Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study conducts a lexical-semantic mapping between the Chinese controlled vocabulary developed by the National Palace Museum (NPM-CV in Taiwan and an English controlled vocabulary, the Art & Architecture Thesaurus (AAT developed by the Getty Research Institute in the U.S. that is primarily based on Western art. The research question is: In mapping a Chinese controlled vocabulary in Chinese art to a Western-centered art thesaurus, what types of relationships can be identified and what are the issues in mapping? The study’s main findings reveal that only one-third of the NPM-CV terms can be mapped as “exact equivalence” to AAT terms and three-fifths of the NPMCV terms have hierarchical relationships (narrower to broader with some AAT terms. Clearly, using AAT alone to index Chinese art collections will lead to insufficient indexing specificity. The study then proposes solutions to improve Chinese-English semantic interoperability for multilingual knowledge organization systems in the domain of Chinese art. [Article content in Chinese

  19. Dictionary of Regional Vocabulary and Informal Toponymes of Novosibirsk: Principles of Arrangement and Stages of Composing

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    Irina Vladimirovna Livinskaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at presenting scientific experience of the author in composing a "Dictionary of the regional vocabulary and informal toponymes of Novosibirsk" with an anthropocentrically based lexicographical approach (offered in the works by V.V . Morkovkin as a model "from dictionary to a person" viewed as the way to overcome key challenges in building a dictionary of regional vocabulary, that is subjectivity of the authors in formation of the glossary. The four stages of the dictionary creation are characterised: 1 collecting regionally limited words in the Internet (Online Dictionary "Languages of Russian cities", forums; 2 making a survey of residents from other cities to discover regional status of the tentative entries; 3organizing a survey of Novosibirsk residents with the aim to state regional status of the words and present their meaning; 4 database analysis (about 800 units of the regionalism and informal toponymes that helped to verify the regionally limited status of the words and present contexts of their usage. The novelty of the dictionary consists in its content structure: regional vocabulary is presented as regional words (regionalism and informal toponyms. The word entries are presented in two parts – "Regional words" and "Falk toponyms". The author gives samples of the dictionary entries that illustrate the way information is presented in every part.

  20. [Public health competencies and contents in Spanish university degree programs of physical therapy, occupational therapy, environmental science, dentistry and veterinary science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davó-Blanes, M Carmen; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Segura-Benedicto A, Andreu; Bosch Llonch, Fèlix; G Benavides, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    To identify the basic competencies and contents related to public health to be included in degree programs according to the perspective of lecturers from various Spanish universities. In the context of the Second Workshop on Public Health Contents in Degree Programs (Mahon, 19 to 20 September 2012), 20 lecturers from different Spanish universities were distributed in five working groups. The lecturers had been selected from the instructional guides on public health and epidemiology published on the web sites of the Rectors' Conference of Spanish Universities. Each group worked on a degree program and the results were discussed in plenary sessions. The activities and competencies related to the three basic functions of public health were identified in all degree programs. Most of the professional competencies identified were related to the function of «assessment of population health needs». The contents proposed by the working groups related to epidemiology, basic concepts in public health, public health intervention, health management, and health policy. The main common topics among the degrees concerned the first three contents. Public health professional competencies and contents were identified in the degree programs examined. These results may serve as a starting point for a more detailed review of public health programs across degree levels and the search for a consensus on the common content that should be included in each of them. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. A content analysis of dissemination and implementation science resource initiatives: what types of resources do they offer to advance the field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Doyanne; Dorsey, Caitlin N; Melvin, Abigail; Chi, Jonathan; Lyon, Aaron R; Lewis, Cara C

    2017-11-21

    The recent growth in organized efforts to advance dissemination and implementation (D & I) science suggests a rapidly expanding community focused on the adoption and sustainment of evidence-based practices (EBPs). Although promising for the D & I of EBPs, the proliferation of initiatives is difficult for any one individual to navigate and summarize. Such proliferation may also result in redundant efforts or missed opportunities for participation and advancement. A review of existing D & I science resource initiatives and their unique merits would be a significant step for the field. The present study aimed to describe the global landscape of these organized efforts to advance D & I science. We conducted a content analysis between October 2015 and March 2016 to examine resources and characteristics of D & I science resource initiatives using public, web-based information. Included resource initiatives must have engaged in multiple efforts to advance D & I science beyond conferences, offered D & I science resources, and provided content in English. The sampling method included an Internet search using D & I terms and inquiry among internationally representative D & I science experts. Using a coding scheme based on a priori and grounded approaches, two authors consensus coded website information including interactive and non-interactive resources and information regarding accessibility (membership, cost, competitive application, and location). The vast majority (83%) of resource initiatives offered at least one of seven interactive resources (consultation/technical assistance, mentorship, workshops, workgroups, networking, conferences, and social media) and one of six non-interactive resources (resource library, news and updates from the field, archived talks or slides, links pages, grant writing resources, and funding opportunities). Non-interactive resources were most common, with some appearing frequently across resource initiatives (e.g., news and updates from the

  2. A content analysis of dissemination and implementation science resource initiatives: what types of resources do they offer to advance the field?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doyanne Darnell

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent growth in organized efforts to advance dissemination and implementation (D & I science suggests a rapidly expanding community focused on the adoption and sustainment of evidence-based practices (EBPs. Although promising for the D & I of EBPs, the proliferation of initiatives is difficult for any one individual to navigate and summarize. Such proliferation may also result in redundant efforts or missed opportunities for participation and advancement. A review of existing D & I science resource initiatives and their unique merits would be a significant step for the field. The present study aimed to describe the global landscape of these organized efforts to advance D & I science. Methods We conducted a content analysis between October 2015 and March 2016 to examine resources and characteristics of D & I science resource initiatives using public, web-based information. Included resource initiatives must have engaged in multiple efforts to advance D & I science beyond conferences, offered D & I science resources, and provided content in English. The sampling method included an Internet search using D & I terms and inquiry among internationally representative D & I science experts. Using a coding scheme based on a priori and grounded approaches, two authors consensus coded website information including interactive and non-interactive resources and information regarding accessibility (membership, cost, competitive application, and location. Results The vast majority (83% of resource initiatives offered at least one of seven interactive resources (consultation/technical assistance, mentorship, workshops, workgroups, networking, conferences, and social media and one of six non-interactive resources (resource library, news and updates from the field, archived talks or slides, links pages, grant writing resources, and funding opportunities. Non-interactive resources were most common, with some appearing frequently across

  3. An atom is known by the company it keeps: Content, representation and pedagogy within the epistemic revolution of the complexity sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blikstein, Paulo

    The goal of this dissertation is to explore relations between content, representation, and pedagogy, so as to understand the impact of the nascent field of complexity sciences on science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) learning. Wilensky & Papert coined the term "structurations" to express the relationship between knowledge and its representational infrastructure. A change from one representational infrastructure to another they call a "restructuration." The complexity sciences have introduced a novel and powerful structuration: agent-based modeling. In contradistinction to traditional mathematical modeling, which relies on equational descriptions of macroscopic properties of systems, agent-based modeling focuses on a few archetypical micro-behaviors of "agents" to explain emergent macro-behaviors of the agent collective. Specifically, this dissertation is about a series of studies of undergraduate students' learning of materials science, in which two structurations are compared (equational and agent-based), consisting of both design research and empirical evaluation. I have designed MaterialSim, a constructionist suite of computer models, supporting materials and learning activities designed within the approach of agent-based modeling, and over four years conducted an empirical inves3 tigation of an undergraduate materials science course. The dissertation is comprised of three studies: Study 1 - diagnosis . I investigate current representational and pedagogical practices in engineering classrooms. Study 2 - laboratory studies. I investigate the cognition of students engaging in scientific inquiry through programming their own scientific models. Study 3 - classroom implementation. I investigate the characteristics, advantages, and trajectories of scientific content knowledge that is articulated in epistemic forms and representational infrastructures unique to complexity sciences, as well as the feasibility of the integration of constructionist

  4. Elementary Students' Retention of Environmental Science Knowledge: Connected Science Instruction versus Direct Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Bhaskar; DeFranco, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    This study compares 3rd-grade elementary students' gain and retention of science vocabulary over time in two different classes--"connected science instruction" versus "direct instruction." Data analysis yielded that students who received connected science instruction showed less gain in science knowledge in the short term compared to students who…

  5. Teacher Education that Works: Preparing Secondary-Level Math and Science Teachers for Success with English Language Learners Through Content-Based Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margo Elisabeth DelliCarpini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Little research exists on effective ways to prepare secondary mathematics and science teachers to work with English language learners (ELLs in mainstream mathematics and science (subsequently referred to as STEM classrooms. Given the achievement gap that exists between ELLs and their native-speaking counterparts in STEM subjects, as well as the growing numbers of ELLs in US schools, this becomes a critical issue, as academic success for these students depends on the effectiveness of instruction they receive not only in English as a second language classes (ESL, but in mainstream classrooms as well. This article reports on the effects of a program restructuring that implemented coursework specifically designed to prepare pre-service and in-service mathematics, science, and ESL teachers to work with ELLs in their content and ESL classrooms through collaboration between mainstream STEM and ESL teachers, as well as effective content and language integration. We present findings on teachers’ attitudes and current practices related to the inclusion of ELLs in the secondary-level content classroom and their current level of knowledge and skills in collaborative practice. We further describe the rationale behind the development of the course, provide a description of the course and its requirements as they changed throughout its implementation during two semesters, and present findings from the participants enrolled. Additionally, we discuss the lessons learned; researchers’ innovative approaches to implementation of content-based instruction (CBI and teacher collaboration, which we term two-way CBI (DelliCarpini & Alonso, 2013; and implications for teacher education programs.

  6. Facilitating vocabulary acquisition of young English language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Neris, Mirza J; Jackson, Carla Wood; Goldstein, Howard

    2010-07-01

    This study examined whether English-only vocabulary instruction or English vocabulary instruction enhanced with Spanish bridging produced greater word learning in young Spanish-speaking children learning English during a storybook reading intervention while considering individual language characteristics. Twenty-two Spanish-speaking children learning English (ages 4-6) who participated in a summer education program for migrant families were randomly assigned to receive 2 weeks of each instruction: (a) word expansions in English or (b) English readings with word expansions in Spanish. Researcher-created measures of target vocabulary were administered, as were English and Spanish standardized measures of language proficiency and vocabulary. Results revealed significant improvement in naming, receptive knowledge, and expressive definitions for those children who received Spanish bridging. Spanish expansions produced the greatest gains in the children's use of expressive definitions. Initial language proficiency in both languages was found to affect participants' gains from intervention, as those with limited skills in both languages showed significantly less vocabulary growth than those with strong skills in Spanish. Additional benefits to using Spanish expansions in vocabulary instruction were observed. Future research should explore additional ways of enhancing the vocabulary growth of children with limited skills in both languages in order to support and strengthen the child's first language and promote second language acquisition.

  7. The Effects of Vocabulary Knowledge and Dictionary Use on EFL Reading Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhifa

    2013-01-01

    The present study mainly investigated the effects of vocabulary knowledge and dictionary use on EFL reading performance. The results show that scores on vocabulary size, specific vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension are highly and positively correlated. Scores on specific vocabulary knowledge are more closely correlated with reading…

  8. Vocabulary Growth in College-Level Students’ Narrative Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham ZYAD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The nature and size of vocabulary significantly determine quality in a given piece of writing. It therefore follows that an extensive vocabulary repertoire is a key factor to success in academic life. Most certainly, this explains the vast amount of scholarly attention that has been invested in this line of research. In this regard, a wide array of studies have provided evidence suggesting that human assessors of writing quality are substantially influenced by the range and sophistication of the vocabulary used by L2 learners. The studies that offered such evidence used different measurement tools to evaluate the nature and/or size of L2 learners’ vocabulary. However, very few studies have attempted to chart vocabulary knowledge across different college-level proficiency levels in narrative writing productions in the Moroccan context. To contribute to this debate, the present study aims to investigate university L2 learners’ vocabulary knowledge across three proficiency levels from two post-secondary institutions. More specifically, this cross-sectional study operationalized vocabulary knowledge in terms of diversity and sophistication in order to chart growth in the lexical repertoire of 90 participants. Data analysis showed that the participants displayed different levels of vocabulary knowledge. In terms of lexical diversity, second-year students’ vocabulary was as diverse as third-year students but it was not as sophisticated. Nonetheless, sophistication did not differentiate first- and second-year students but it did differentiate between second- and third-year students. Additionally, diversity and sophistication were both good markers of difference between first- and second-year students. The implications of the findings will be discussed.

  9. Trilingual vocabulary of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, H.

    1996-01-01

    This reference document is produced in cooperation with partners in the Union Latine, an international organization dedicated to promoting the Romance languages. In 1992 acting on a request submitted by the Montreal Environment Section of the Translation Bureau, the Terminology and Standardization Directorate published an in-house glossary containing 2500 entries on nuclear waste management. The glossary was produced by scanning bilingual terms in the reports submitted to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited by the Siting Process Task Force on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal. Because the scale of the nuclear waste management problem has grown considerably since then, the glossary needed to be expanded and revised. The Vocabulary contains some 1000 concepts for a total of approximately 3000 terms in each of the three languages, english, french and spanish. Special attention has been given to defining basic physical concepts, waste classifications and disposal methods

  10. Enterprise vocabulary management; A lexicographic view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Voskuil

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The central theme in this paper is the problem of shifting from natural language descriptions, as in traditional dictionaries and thesauri, to working IT (Information Technology systems that support people carrying out their administrative tasks. An explicit description of the specific language used in an organization is necessary to guarantee properly working IT systems and a healthy flow of information. Traditionally, there are different ways of capturing such a vocabulary. Different options are considered, arguing that the general form of a thesaurus offers the optimal solution for a broad range of cases. Various requirements for such a thesaurus are examined. A real world example is discussed in some detail. Finally, the paper examines how modern Web technology can help optimizing the creation, management and use of enterprise thesauri. Using these technologies, the enterprise thesaurus can take up new roles in managing the information household of an organization.

  11. Orthographic facilitation in oral vocabulary acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Jessie; Bishop, Dorothy V M; Nation, Kate

    2009-10-01

    An experiment investigated whether exposure to orthography facilitates oral vocabulary learning. A total of 58 typically developing children aged 8-9 years were taught 12 nonwords. Children were trained to associate novel phonological forms with pictures of novel objects. Pictures were used as referents to represent novel word meanings. For half of the nonwords children were additionally exposed to orthography, although they were not alerted to its presence, nor were they instructed to use it. After this training phase a nonword-picture matching posttest was used to assess learning of nonword meaning, and a spelling posttest was used to assess learning of nonword orthography. Children showed robust learning for novel spelling patterns after incidental exposure to orthography. Further, we observed stronger learning for nonword-referent pairings trained with orthography. The degree of orthographic facilitation observed in posttests was related to children's reading levels, with more advanced readers showing more benefit from the presence of orthography.

  12. Trilingual vocabulary of nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, H

    1997-12-31

    This reference document is produced in cooperation with partners in the Union Latine, an international organization dedicated to promoting the Romance languages. In 1992 acting on a request submitted by the Montreal Environment Section of the Translation Bureau, the Terminology and Standardization Directorate published an in-house glossary containing 2500 entries on nuclear waste management. The glossary was produced by scanning bilingual terms in the reports submitted to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited by the Siting Process Task Force on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal. Because the scale of the nuclear waste management problem has grown considerably since then, the glossary needed to be expanded and revised. The Vocabulary contains some 1000 concepts for a total of approximately 3000 terms in each of the three languages, english, french and spanish. Special attention has been given to defining basic physical concepts, waste classifications and disposal methods.

  13. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES AS PREDICTORS OF READING COMPREHENSION AND VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Zarei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate types of Multiple Intelligences as predictors of reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge. To meet this objective, a 60-item TOEFL test and a 90-item multiple intelligences questionnaire were distributed among 240 male and female Iranians studying English at Qazali and Parsian Universities in Qazvin. Data were analyzed using a multiple regression procedure. The result of the data analysis indicated that musical, interpersonal, kinesthetic, and logical intelligences were predicators of reading comprehension. Moreover, musical, verbal, visual, kinesthetic and natural intelligences made significant contributions to predicting vocabulary knowledge.   Key words: Multiple intelligences, reading comprehension, vocabulary knowledge.

  14. A Content Analysis of Published Articles in Montenegrin Journal of Sports Science and Medicine from 2012 to 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miomir Maros

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Montenegrin Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (MJSSM is a scientific journal that exists for five years and has so far released 65 scientific papers in 11 editions. The papers are from various fields of sports science - biomechanics, physiology, sports medicine, anthropology, methodology and other areas of sports. In this paper, we classified works by fields, method of address analysis and found that the most numerous works from the physiology of sports, which are the most cited and best quoted in scientific databases. We have also established that the published works had themes - the most up-to-date tendencies in sports science. These research can be useful for further theoretical research, as well as for theoreticians. The authors of the works are researchers from all over the world, as well as the editorial board. The MJSSM includes works from exact disciplines, primarily physiology of sports, as well as from social sciences, thus achieving a synergistic effect. The highly cited topics in the field of physiology of sports are raised by the work of social sciences. These topics when they find themselves in the magazine with a social label increase their own visibility.

  15. USING ENGLISH SONGS TO INCREASE EARLY STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Fachraini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood is a child in the age of 0-6 years. In this age, the development and growth of physical and mental of children develop rapidly. Meanwhile, the aspects developed in early childhood education are: religious and moral values, physical (consisting of gross motor, fine motor and physical health, cognitive (consisting of general knowledge and science, concepts, shapes, colors, sizes and patterns, number concepts, symbols of numbers and letters, language (consisting of accepting language, expressing language and script and emotional social. Language skills are one of the aspects which are developed at this age. Therefore, researchers intend to examine the level of mastery of the language of children through the song. This study aims to improve the vocabulary of early childhood, where this result affects the children’s ability to speak a foreign language in the future. This study is a Classroom Action Research, which aims to improve the ability of children English by using songs on the student group B TK Takrimah Tungkob Aceh Besar. This classroom action research is conducted in three cycles; each cycle consists of four stages: planning, action, observation, and reflection. Moreover, in analyzing the data, the researcher used descriptive method, that is analyzed data implemented since learning and developed during the process of reflection until process of report preparation. Data collection techniques used in this study include: interview, and observation of teaching and learning activities. Data analysis techniques consisted of three activities, namely data reduction, data presentation and conclusion drawing. The results showed that 64% of students can mentioned correctly alphabet in English in the first cycle. Furthermore, 80% of students have known and can properly name a few nouns in English in the second cycle. Furthermore, in the third cycle, 88% of students have been able to use the noun in the form of a simple sentence. Based

  16. Astronomy and Geology Vocabulary, I.e. "NASA Words" in Native American Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrum, A.; Alexander, C. J.; Martin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The US Rosetta Project has developed a program in Native American communities in which contemporary STEM vocabulary is taught alongside the same vocabulary in Navajo. NASA images and science are used and described in the native language, alongside both lay English, and scientific English. Additionally, science curriculum (geology/chemistry/botany/physics) elements drawn from the reservation environment, including geomorphology, geochemistry, soil physics, are included and discussed in the native language as much as possible — with their analogs in other planetary environments (such as Mars). The program began with a student defining 30 Navajo words to describe what he called 'NASA' words, such as: cell phone, astronaut, space suit, computer, and planets not visible to the naked eye. The use of NASA material and imagery have a positive impact on the accessibility of the overall STEM material but community involvement, and buy-in, is criti! cal to the success of the program. The US Rosetta Project modified its goals, and curriculum, to accommodate the programmatic desires of teachers in the district, and the capabilities of the medicine men that agreed to participate. In this presentation we will report on lessons learned, as well as metrics and successes associated with our most recent Summer Science Academy [2014].

  17. Effects of a Research-Infused Botanical Curriculum on Undergraduates' Content Knowledge, STEM Competencies, and Attitudes toward Plant Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jennifer Rhode; Clarke, H. David; Horton, Jonathan L.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the American Association for the Advancement of Science's Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education initiative, we infused authentic, plant-based research into majors' courses at a public liberal arts university. Faculty members designed a financially sustainable pedagogical approach, utilizing vertically integrated…

  18. Exploring the Reasons for Using Electric Books and Technologic Pedagogical and Content Knowledge of Taiwanese Elementary Mathematics and Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ho-Yuan; Jang, Syh-Jong

    2013-01-01

    This study highlights trends and features of E-books and their versatility of this tool in elementary educational settings. There has been little quantitative research employed to examine teachers' reasons for using or not using E-books. The purpose of this study was to examine elementary school mathematics and science teachers' reasons for using…

  19. Enhancing Primary Science Teaching: Interconnections of Content, Policy and Practice in a New Zealand Professional Learning and Development Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Steven S.

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports on an ongoing professional learning and development (PLD) initiative in New Zealand. The Academy is designed to provide primary and intermediate classroom teachers with the knowledge, materials and support needed for effective delivery of "The New Zealand Curriculum's" science subject area. Specifically, this paper…

  20. Urban Fifth Graders' Connections-Making between Formal Earth Science Content and Their Lived Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkich, Katie Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Earth science education, as it is traditionally taught, involves presenting concepts such as weathering, erosion, and deposition using relatively well-known examples--the Grand Canyon, beach erosion, and others. However, these examples--which resonate well with middle- and upper-class students--ill-serve students of poverty attending urban schools…