岡, 直樹; 今永, 久美子
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of concept map completion tasks on concept learning in the primary schoolchildren. The participants were to insert some of the suitable concepts (concept group) or link labeles (link label group) or both of them (concept/link label group) into the blanks to make up the map wholly. It was revealed that the results of the concept group and the concept/link label group were better than the link label group. These results were discussed in te...
The learning of science concepts within a traditional socio-cultural environment were investigated by looking at: 1) the nature of \\"cognitive border crossing\\" exhibited by the students from the traditional to the scientific worldview, and 2) whether or not three learning theories / hypotheses: border crossing, collaterality, and ...
Shen, Kuan-Ming; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen
In the area of science education research, studies have attempted to investigate conceptions of learning, approaches to learning, and self-efficacy, mainly focusing on science in general or on specific subjects such as biology, physics, and chemistry. However, few empirical studies have probed students' earth science learning. This study aimed to…
Park, Jiyeon; Jeon, Dongryul
The systemizing and empathizing brain type represent two contrasted students' characteristics. The present study investigated differences in the conceptions and approaches to learning science between the systemizing and empathizing brain type students. The instruments are questionnaires on the systematizing and empathizing, questionnaires on the…
Li, Mang; Zheng, Chunping; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Zhang, Yun; Tsai, Chin-Chung
This study explored the structural relationships among secondary school students' conceptions, self-regulation, and strategies of learning science in mainland China. Three questionnaires, namely conceptions of learning science (COLS), self-regulation of learning science (SROLS), and strategies of learning science (SLS) were developed for…
Alvarez, Marino C.
Much of school learning consists of rote memorization of facts with little emphasis on meaningful interpretations. Knowledge construction is reduced to factual knowledge production with little regard for critical thinking, problem solving, or clarifying misconceptions. An important role of a middle and secondary teacher when teaching science is to aid students' ability to reflect upon what they know about a given topic and make available strategies that will enhance their understanding of text and science experiments. Developing metacognition, the ability to monitor one's own knowledge about a topic of study and to activate appropriate strategies, enhances students' learning when faced with reading, writing and problem solving situations. Two instructional strategies that can involve students in developing metacognitive awareness are hierarchical concept mapping, and Vee diagrams. Concept maps enable students to organize their ideas and reveal visually these ideas to others. A Vee diagram is a structured visual means of relating the methodological aspects of an activity to its underlying conceptual aspect in ways that aid learners in meaningful understanding of scientific investigations.
Sahin, Elif Adibelli; Deniz, Hasan; Topçu, Mustafa Sami
The present study investigated to what extent Turkish preservice elementary teachers' orientations to teaching science could be explained by their epistemological beliefs, conceptions of learning, and approaches to learning science. The sample included 157 Turkish preservice elementary teachers. The four instruments used in the study were School…
Chiu, Yu-Li; Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung
Background: The sophistication of students' conceptions of science learning has been found to be positively related to their approaches to and outcomes for science learning. Little research has been conducted to particularly investigate students' conceptions of science learning by laboratory. Purpose: The purpose of this research, consisting of…
Bar, Varda; Brosh, Yaffa; Sneider, Cary
Threshold concepts are essential ideas about the natural world that present either a barrier or a gateway to a deep understanding of science. Weight, mass, and gravity are threshold concepts that underpin students' abilities to understand important ideas in all fields of science, embodied in the performance expectations in the Next Generation…
Zheng, Lanqin; Dong, Yan; Huang, Ronghuai; Chang, Chun-Yen; Bhagat, Kaushal Kumar
The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between primary school students' conceptions of, approaches to, and self-efficacy in learning science in Mainland China. A total of 1049 primary school students from Mainland China participated in this study. Three instruments were adapted to measure students' conceptions of learning science,…
Kwon, So Young
Using a quasi-experimental design, the researcher investigated the comparative effects of individually-generated and collaboratively-generated computer-based concept mapping on middle school science concept learning. Qualitative data were analyzed to explain quantitative findings. One hundred sixty-one students (74 boys and 87 girls) in eight, seventh grade science classes at a middle school in Southeast Texas completed the entire study. Using prior science performance scores to assure equivalence of student achievement across groups, the researcher assigned the teacher's classes to one of the three experimental groups. The independent variable, group, consisted of three levels: 40 students in a control group, 59 students trained to individually generate concept maps on computers, and 62 students trained to collaboratively generate concept maps on computers. The dependent variables were science concept learning as demonstrated by comprehension test scores, and quality of concept maps created by students in experimental groups as demonstrated by rubric scores. Students in the experimental groups received concept mapping training and used their newly acquired concept mapping skills to individually or collaboratively construct computer-based concept maps during study time. The control group, the individually-generated concept mapping group, and the collaboratively-generated concept mapping group had equivalent learning experiences for 50 minutes during five days, excepting that students in a control group worked independently without concept mapping activities, students in the individual group worked individually to construct concept maps, and students in the collaborative group worked collaboratively to construct concept maps during their study time. Both collaboratively and individually generated computer-based concept mapping had a positive effect on seventh grade middle school science concept learning but neither strategy was more effective than the other. However
José Antonio C. S. Valadares
Full Text Available The foundations of the Meaningful Learning Theory (MLT were laid by David Ausubel. The MLT was highly valued by the contributions of Joseph Novak and D. B. Gowin. Unlike other learning theories, the MLT has an operational component, since there are some instruments based on it and with the meaningful learning facilitation as aim. These tools were designated graphic organizers by John Trowbridge and James Wandersee (2000, pp. 100-129. One of them is the concept map created by Novak to extract meanings from an amalgam of information, having currently many applications. The other one is the Vee diagram or knowledge Vee, also called epistemological Vee or heuristic Vee. It was created by Gowin, and is an excellent organizer, for example to unpack and make transparent the unclear information from an information source. Both instruments help us in processing and becoming conceptually transparent the information, to facilitate the cognitive process of new meanings construction. In this work, after a brief introduction, it will be developed the epistemological and psychological grounds of MLT, followed by a reference to constructivist learning environments facilitators of the meaningful learning, the characterization of concept maps and exemplification of its use in various applications that have proved to be very effective from the standpoint of meaningful learning.
Few research studies in science education have looked at how stories, proverbs, and anecdotes can be used as scaffolds for learning. Stories, proverbs, and anecdotes are cultural tools used in indigenous communities to teach children about their environment. The study draws on Bruner's work and the theory of border crossing to argue that stories,…
Bos, Floor/Floris; Terlouw, C.; Pilot, Albert
In line with the cognitive theory of multimedia learning by Moreno and Mayer (2007), an interactive, multimodal learning environment was designed for the pretraining of science concepts in the joint area of physics, chemistry, biology, applied mathematics, and computer sciences. In the experimental
Hsieh, Wen-Min; Tsai, Chin-Chung
This cross-sectional study explored students' conceptions of science learning via drawing analysis. A total of 906 Taiwanese students in 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th grade were asked to use drawing to illustrate how they conceptualise science learning. Students' drawings were analysed using a coding checklist to determine the presence or absence…
Abed, Osama H.
This study investigated the effect of drama-based science teaching on students' understanding of scientific concepts and their attitudes towards science learning. The study also aimed to examine if there is an interaction between students' achievement level in science and drama-based instruction. The sample consisted of (87) of 7th grade students…
Wang, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Chin-Chung
Students' conceptions of learning science and their relations with motive for learning may vary as the education level increases. This study aimed to compare the quantitative patterns in students' conceptions of learning science (COLS) and motives for learning science (MLS) across grade levels by adopting two survey instruments. A total of 768 high school students were surveyed in Taiwan, including 204 eighth graders, 262 tenth graders, and 302 12th graders. In the current research, memorizing, testing, and calculating and practicing were categorized as reproductive conceptions of learning science, while increase of knowledge, applying, understanding and seeing-in-a-new-way were regarded as constructivist conceptions. The results of multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) revealed that conceptions of learning science are more constructivist as education level increases. Both tenth graders and 12th graders endorsed understanding, seeing-in-a-new-way, and the constructivist COLS composite more strongly than the eighth graders did. In addition, the results of multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis indicated that the positive relations between testing and reproductive COLS were stronger as the grade level increased, while the negative relations between reproductive COLS and deep motive were tighter with the increase in grade level.
In order to understand our dependency on technology and the possible loss of control that comes with it, it is necessary for people to understand the nature of technology as well as its roots in science. Learning basic science and technology concepts should be a part of primary education since it
Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Hende, Merete
Experience from science shops show that besides assisting citizen groups, science shops can also contribute to the development of university curricula and research. The paper is based on an investigation of the impact of science shops on university curricula and research through a questionnaire...... sent out to science shops and through follow-up interviews with employees from nine different university based science shops. These science shops had in the questionnaire indicated that the science shop in one way or the other has had impact on university curricula and/or research. This paper focuses...... on the impact on university curricula. The case studies have been supplemented with articles and reports. The analysis has focused on the kind of impact, which the science shops have reported, and has tried to relate the impact to the local history of the science shop. One direct impact on the curricula...
Ho, Hsin-Ning Jessie; Liang, Jyh-Chong
This study explores the relationships among Taiwanese high school students' scientific epistemic beliefs (SEBs), conceptions of learning science (COLS), and motivation of learning science. The questionnaire responses from 470 high school students in Taiwan were gathered for analysis to explain these relationships. The structural equation modeling…
Novak, Joseph D.
This paper describes the methods and outcomes of a 12-year longitudinal study into the effects of an early intervention program, while reflecting back on changes that have occurred in approaches to research, learning and instruction since the preliminary inception stages of the study in the mid 1960s. We began the study to challenge the prevailing consensus at the time that primary school children were either preoperational or concrete operational in their cognitive development and they could not learn abstract concepts. Our early research, based on Ausubelian theory, suggested otherwise. The paper describes the development and implementation of a Grade 1-2 audio tutorial science instructional sequence, and the subsequent tracing over 12 years, of the children's conceptual understandings in science compared to a matched control group. During the study the concept map was developed as a new tool to trace children's conceptual development. We found that students in the instruction group far outperformed their non-instructed counterparts, and this difference increased as they progressed through middle and high school. The data clearly support the earlier introduction of science instruction on basic science concepts, such as the particulate nature of matter, energy and energy transformations. The data suggest that national curriculum standards for science grossly underestimate the learning capabilities of primary-grade children. The study has helped to lay a foundation for guided instruction using computers and concept mapping that may help both teachers and students become more proficient in understanding science.
Ellis, Robert A.; Taylor, Charlotte E.; Drury, Helen
First-year undergraduate science students experienced a writing program as an important part of their assessment in a biology subject. The writing program was designed to help them develop both their scientific understanding as well as their written scientific expression. Open-ended questionnaires investigating the quality of the experience of…
Vlach, Haley A; Sandhofer, Catherine M
The spacing effect describes the robust finding that long-term learning is promoted when learning events are spaced out in time rather than presented in immediate succession. Studies of the spacing effect have focused on memory processes rather than for other types of learning, such as the acquisition and generalization of new concepts. In this study, early elementary school children (5- to 7-year-olds; N = 36) were presented with science lessons on 1 of 3 schedules: massed, clumped, and spaced. The results revealed that spacing lessons out in time resulted in higher generalization performance for both simple and complex concepts. Spaced learning schedules promote several types of learning, strengthening the implications of the spacing effect for educational practices and curriculum. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Weidman, Joseph; Baker, Keith
Education is the fundamental process used to develop and maintain the professional skills of physicians. Medical students, residents, and fellows are expected to learn considerable amounts of information as they progress toward board certification. Established practitioners must continue to learn in an effort to remain up-to-date in their clinical realm. Those responsible for educating these populations endeavor to teach in a manner that is effective, efficient, and durable. The study of learning and performance is a subdivision of the field of cognitive science that focuses on how people interpret and process information and how they eventually develop mastery. A deeper understanding of how individuals learn can empower both educators and learners to be more effective in their endeavors. In this article, we review a number of concepts found in the literature on learning and performance. We address both the theoretical principles and the practical applications of each concept. Cognitive load theory, constructivism, and analogical transfer are concepts particularly beneficial to educators. An understanding of goal orientation, metacognition, retrieval, spaced learning, and deliberate practice will primarily benefit the learner. When these concepts are understood and incorporated into education and study, the effectiveness of learning is significantly improved.
Tapilouw, M. C.; Firman, H.; Redjeki, S.; Chandra, D. T.
To refresh natural environmental concepts in science, science teacher have to attend a teacher training. In teacher training, all participant can have a good sharing and discussion with other science teacher. This study is the first step of science teacher training program held by education foundation in Bandung and attended by 20 science teacher from 18 Junior High School. The major aim of this study is gathering science teacher’s idea of environmental concepts. The core of questions used in this study are basic competencies linked with environmental concepts, environmental concepts that difficult to explain, the action to overcome difficulties and references in teaching environmental concepts. There are four major findings in this study. First finding, most environmental concepts are taught in 7th grade. Second finding, most difficult environmental concepts are found in 7th grade. Third finding, there are five actions to overcome difficulties. Fourth finding, science teacher use at least four references in mastering environmental concepts. After all, teacher training can be a solution to reduce difficulties in teaching environmental concepts.
Atar, Hakan Yavuz
teachers NOS conceptions. Developing desired understanding of nature of science conceptions and having an adequate experience with inquiry learning is especially important for science teachers because science education literature suggests that the development of teachers' nature of science conceptions is influenced by their experiences with inquiry science (Akerson et. al. 2000) and implementation of science lessons reflect teachers' NOS conceptions (Abd-EL-Khalick & Boujaoude, 1997; Matson & Parsons, 1998; Rosenthal, 1993; Trowbridge, Bybee & Powell, 2000; Turner & Sullenger, 1999). Furthermore, the impediments to successful integration of inquiry based science instruction from teachers' perspective are particularly important, as they are the implementers of inquiry based science education reform. The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between the teachers' NOS conceptions and their inquiry beliefs and practices in their classrooms and how this relationship impedes or contributes to the implementation of inquiry based science education reform efforts. The participants of this study were in-service teachers who were accepted into the online Masters Program in science education program at a southern university. Three online courses offered in the summer semester of 2005 constituted the research setting of this study: (1) Special Problems in the Teaching of Secondary School Science: Nature of Science & Science Teaching, (2) Curriculum in Science Education, and (3) Colloquium. Multiple data sources were used for data triangulation (Miles & Huberman, 1984; Yin, 1994) in order to understand the relationship between participants' NOS views and their conceptions and beliefs about inquiry-based science teaching. The study revealed that the relationship between the teachers' NOS conceptions and their inquiry beliefs and practices is far from being simple and linear. Data suggests that the teachers' sophistication of NOS conceptions influence their perception of
Fredriksson, Alexandra; Pelger, Susanne
The aim of this study is to explore how tertiary science students' use of metaphors in their popular science article writing may influence their understanding of subject matter. For this purpose, six popular articles written by students in physics or geology were analysed by means of a close textual analysis and a metaphor analysis. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the students. The articles showed variation regarding the occurrence of active (non-conventional) metaphors, and metaphorical concepts, i.e. metaphors relating to a common theme. In addition, the interviews indicated that students using active metaphors and metaphorical concepts reflected more actively upon their use of metaphors. These students also discussed the possible relationship between subject understanding and creation of metaphors in terms of conceptual blending. The study suggests that students' process of creating metaphorical concepts could be described and visualised through integrated networks of conceptual blending. Altogether, the study argues for using conceptual blending as a tool for monitoring and encouraging the use of adequate metaphorical concepts, thereby facilitating students' opportunities of understanding and influencing the learning of science.
Nafsiati Astuti, Rini
Argumentation skill is the ability to compose and maintain arguments consisting of claims, supports for evidence, and strengthened-reasons. Argumentation is an important skill student needs to face the challenges of globalization in the 21st century. It is not an ability that can be developed by itself along with the physical development of human, but it must be developed under nerve like process, giving stimulus so as to require a person to be able to argue. Therefore, teachers should develop students’ skill of arguing in science learning in the classroom. The purpose of this study is to obtain an innovative learning model that are valid in terms of content and construct in improving the skills of argumentation and concept understanding of junior high school students. The assessment of content validity and construct validity was done through Focus Group Discussion (FGD), using the content and construct validation sheet, book model, learning video, and a set of learning aids for one meeting. Assessment results from 3 (three) experts showed that the learning model developed in the category was valid. The validity itself shows that the developed learning model has met the content requirement, the student needs, state of the art, strong theoretical and empirical foundation and construct validity, which has a connection of syntax stages and components of learning model so that it can be applied in the classroom activities
This dissertation examined integrated learning in the domains of mathematics, science and technology based on Piaget's constructivism, Papert's constructionism, and project-based approach to education. Ten fifth grade students were involved in a two-month long after school program where they designed and built their own computer-controlled LEGO/Logo projects that required the use of gears, ratios and motion concepts. The design of this study centered on three notions of integrated learning: (1) integration in terms of what educational materials/settings provide, (2) integration in terms of students' use of those materials, and (3) integration in the psychological sense. In terms of the first notion, the results generally showed that the LEGO/Logo environment supported the integrated learning of math, science and technology concepts. Regarding the second notion, the students all completed impressive projects of their own design. They successfully combined gears, motors, and LEGO parts together to create motion and writing control commands to manipulate the motion. But contrary to my initial expectations, their successful designs did not require numerical reasoning about ratios in designing effective gear systems. When they did reason about gear relationships, they worked with "qualitative" ratios, e.g., "a larger driver gear with a smaller driven gear increases the speed." In terms of the third notion of integrated learning, there was evidence in all four case study students of the psychological processes involved in linking mathematical, scientific, and/or technological concepts together to achieve new conceptual units. The students not only made connections between ideas and experiences, but also recognized decisive patterns and relationships in their project work. The students with stronger overall project performances showed more evidence of synthesis than the students with relatively weaker performances did. The findings support the conclusion that all three
Susan M. Bridges
Full Text Available While the utility of concept mapping has been widely reported in primary and secondary educational contexts, its application in the health sciences in higher education has been less frequently noted. Two case studies of the application of concept mapping in undergraduate and postgraduate health sciences are detailed in this paper. The case in undergraduate dental education examines the role of concept mapping in supporting problem-based learning and explores how explicit induction into the principles and practices of CM has add-on benefits to learning in an inquiry-based curriculum. The case in postgraduate medical education describes the utility of concept mapping in an online inquiry-based module design. Specific attention is given to applications of CMapTools™ software to support the implementation of Novakian concept mapping in both inquiry-based curricular contexts.
Lin, Yi-Hui; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung
The purpose of this study was to investigate students' conceptions of and approaches to learning science in two different forms: internet-assisted instruction and traditional (face-to-face only) instruction. The participants who took part in the study were 79 college students enrolled in a physiology class in north Taiwan. In all, 46 of the participants were from one class and 33 were from another class. Using a quasi-experimental research approach, the class of 46 students was assigned to be the "internet-assisted instruction group," whereas the class of 33 students was assigned to be the "traditional instruction group." The treatment consisted of a series of online inquiry activities. To explore the effects of different forms of instruction on students' conceptions of and approaches to learning science, two questionnaires were administered before and after the instruction: the Conceptions of Learning Science Questionnaire and the Approaches to Learning Science Questionnaire. Analysis of covariance results revealed that the students in the internet-assisted instruction group showed less agreement than the traditional instruction group in the less advanced conceptions of learning science (such as learning as memorizing and testing). In addition, the internet-assisted instruction group displayed significantly more agreement than the traditional instruction group in more sophisticated conceptions (such as learning as seeing in a new way). Moreover, the internet-assisted instruction group expressed more orientation toward the approaches of deep motive and deep strategy than the traditional instruction group. However, the students in the internet-assisted instruction group also showed more surface motive than the traditional instruction group did.
Wegner, Claas; Issak, Nicole; Tesch, Katharina; Zehne, Carolin
The following article presents a concept of a science club which was developed by two master's students as a part of their thesis and which has been developed and improved ever since. The extra-curricular concept emphasises pupils' individuality through focusing on problem based leaning, station learning, and mixed age groups. Having joined the…
Versprille, Ashley; Zabih, Adam; Holme, Thomas A.; McKenzie, Lallie; Mahaffy, Peter; Martin, Brian; Towns, Marcy
Climate change is one of the most critical problems facing citizens today. Chemistry faculty are presented with the problem of making general chemistry content simultaneously relevant and interesting. Using climate science to teach chemistry allows faculty to help students learn chemistry content in a rich context. Concepts related to…
Ciullo, Stephen; Falcomata, Terry S; Pfannenstiel, Kathleen; Billingsley, Glenna
Concept maps have been used to help students with learning disabilities (LD) improve literacy skills and content learning, predominantly in secondary school. However, despite increased access to classroom technology, no previous studies have examined the efficacy of computer-based concept maps to improve learning from informational text for students with LD in elementary school. In this study, we used a concurrent delayed multiple probe design to evaluate the interactive use of computer-based concept maps on content acquisition with science and social studies texts for Hispanic students with LD in Grades 4 and 5. Findings from this study suggest that students improved content knowledge during intervention relative to a traditional instruction baseline condition. Learning outcomes and social validity information are considered to inform recommendations for future research and the feasibility of classroom implementation. © The Author(s) 2014.
Kiray, Seyit Ahmet
The purpose of this study is to reveal the pre-service science teachers' difficulties about the concept of atoms. The data was collected from two different sources: The Draw an Atom Test (DAAT) and face-to-face interviews. Draw an atom test (DAAT) were administered to the 142 science teacher candidates. To elaborate the results, the researcher…
Lai, Pui-Kwong; Lucas, Keith B.; Burke, Ed V.
Recent Chinese migrant students from Taiwan studying science in two Australian secondary schools were found to explain the meanings of selected science concept labels in English by translating from Chinese. The research strategy involved interviewing the students concerning their recognition and comprehension of the science concept labels firstly in Chinese and then in English. Mean recognition and comprehension scores were higher in Chinese than in English, with indications that Chinese language and science knowledge learnt in Chinese deteriorated with increasing time of residence in Australia. Rudimentary signs of the students being able to switch between Chinese and English knowledge bases in science were also found. Implications for teaching science to ESL students and suggestions for further research are discussed.
Moreton, Elliott; Pater, Joe; Pertsova, Katya
Linguistic and non-linguistic pattern learning have been studied separately, but we argue for a comparative approach. Analogous inductive problems arise in phonological and visual pattern learning. Evidence from three experiments shows that human learners can solve them in analogous ways, and that human performance in both cases can be captured by the same models. We test GMECCS (Gradual Maximum Entropy with a Conjunctive Constraint Schema), an implementation of the Configural Cue Model (Gluck & Bower, ) in a Maximum Entropy phonotactic-learning framework (Goldwater & Johnson, ; Hayes & Wilson, ) with a single free parameter, against the alternative hypothesis that learners seek featurally simple algebraic rules ("rule-seeking"). We study the full typology of patterns introduced by Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins () ("SHJ"), instantiated as both phonotactic patterns and visual analogs, using unsupervised training. Unlike SHJ, Experiments 1 and 2 found that both phonotactic and visual patterns that depended on fewer features could be more difficult than those that depended on more features, as predicted by GMECCS but not by rule-seeking. GMECCS also correctly predicted performance differences between stimulus subclasses within each pattern. A third experiment tried supervised training (which can facilitate rule-seeking in visual learning) to elicit simple rule-seeking phonotactic learning, but cue-based behavior persisted. We conclude that similar cue-based cognitive processes are available for phonological and visual concept learning, and hence that studying either kind of learning can lead to significant insights about the other. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Stender, Anthony S.; Newell, Ryan; Villarreal, Eduardo; Swearer, Dayne F.; Bianco, Elisabeth; Ringe, Emilie
Of the 6.7 million individuals in the United States who are visually impaired, 63% are unemployed, and 59% have not attained an education beyond a high school diploma. Providing a basic science education to children and adults with visual disabilities can be challenging because most scientific learning relies on visual demonstrations. Creating…
Anastopoulou, Stamatina; Sharples, Mike; Baber, Chris
This paper explores the value of employing multiple modalities to facilitate science learning with technology. In particular, it is argued that when multiple modalities are employed, learners construct strong relations between physical movement and visual representations of motion. Body interactions with visual representations, enabled by…
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between student self-concept and achievement in science in Taiwan based on the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) model using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 and 2007 databases. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the effects of the student-level and school-level science achievement on student self-concept of learning science. The results indicated that student science achievement was positively associated with individual self-concept of learning science in both TIMSS 2003 and 2007. On the contrary, while school-average science achievement was negatively related to student self-concept in TIMSS 2003, it had no statistically significant relationship with student self-concept in TIMSS 2007. The findings of this study shed light on possible explanations for the existence of BFLPE and also lead to an international discussion on the generalization of BFLPE.
Stevenson, Matt P.; Hartmeyer, Rikke; Bentsen, Peter
We systematically searched five databases to assess the potential of concept mapping-based technologies to promote self-regulated learning in science education. Our search uncovered 17 relevant studies that investigated seven different types of learning technologies. We performed a narrative....... Computer software was particularly useful for developing cognitive strategies through ease of use. Teaching agents were particularly useful for developing metacognitive strategies by coupling visualisation of knowledge patterns with performance monitoring, aided by a teaching metaphor. Finally, mobile...... devices and teaching agents were most effective in enhancing motivation. Effects on knowledge gains remain unclear due to small sample sizes....
A fundamental problem which confronts Science teachers is the difficulty many students experience in the construction, understanding and remembering of concepts. This is more likely to occur when teachers adhere to a Transmission model of teaching and learning, and fail to provide students with opportunities to construct their own learning. Social construction, followed by individual reflective writing, enables students to construct their own understanding of concepts and effectively promotes deep learning. This method of constructing knowledge in the classroom is often overlooked by teachers as they either have no knowledge of it, or do not know how to appropriate it for successful teaching in Science. This study identifies the difficulties which students often experience when writing reflectively and offers solutions which are likely to reduce these difficulties. These solutions, and the use of reflective writing itself, challenge the ideology of the Sydney Genre School, which forms the basis of the attempt to deal with literacy in the NSW Science Syllabus. The findings of this investigation support the concept of literacy as the ability to use oral and written language, reading and listening to construct meaning. The investigation demonstrates how structured discussion, role play and reflective writing can be used to this end. While the Sydney Genre School methodology focuses on the structure of genre as a prerequisite for understanding concepts in Science, the findings of this study demonstrate that students can use their own words to discuss and write reflectively as they construct scientific concepts for themselves. Social construction and reflective writing can contribute to the construction of concepts and the development of metacognition in Science. However, students often experience difficulties when writing reflectively about scientific concepts they are learning. In this investigation, students identified these difficulties as an inability to understand
Daniel Alves Escodino
Full Text Available In this work we aimed to determine the level of Molecular Biology (MB science literacy of students from two Brazilian public schools which do not consider the rogerian theory for class planning and from another institution, Cap UERJ, which favours this theory. We applied semiclosed questionnaires specific to the different groups of science literacy levels. Besides, we have asked them to perform conceptual maps with MB concepts in order to observe if they have experienced meaningful learning. Finally, we prepared MB classes for students of the three schools, considering their conceptual maps and tried to evaluate, through a second map execution, if the use of alternative didactics material, which consider meaningful learning process, would have any effect over the appropriation of new concepts. We observed that most students are placed at Functional literacy level. Nonetheless, several students from CAp were also settled at the higher Conceptual and Procedural levels. We found that most students have not experienced meaningful learning and that the employment of didactic material and implementation of proposals which consider the cognitive structure of the students had a significant effect on the appropriation of several concepts.
Veglio, E.; Graves, L. W.; Bank, C. G.
We designed various computer-based applications and videos as educational resources for undergraduate courses at the University of Toronto in the Earth Science Department. These resources were developed in effort to enhance students' self-learning of key concepts as identified by educators at the department. The interactive learning modules and videos were created using the programs MATLAB and Adobe Creative Suite 5 (Photoshop and Premiere) and range from optical mineralogy (extinction and Becke line), petrology (equilibrium melting in 2-phase systems), crystallography (crystal systems), geophysics (gravity anomaly), and geologic history (evolution of Canada). These resources will be made available for students on internal course websites as well as through the University of Toronto Earth Science's website (www.es.utoronto.ca) where appropriate; the video platform YouTube.com may be used to reach a wide audience and promote the material. Usage of the material will be monitored and feedback will be collected over the next academic year in order to gage the use of these interactive learning tools and to assess if these computer-based applications and videos foster student engagement and active learning, and thus offer an enriched learning experience.
Wang, Su; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhao, Yandong
As the breadth and depth of economic reforms increase in China, growing attention is being paid to equalities in opportunities to learn science by students of various backgrounds. In early 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technology jointly sponsored a national survey of urban eighth-grade students' science literacy along with their family and school backgrounds. The present study focused on students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles (BSCP), a subset of science literacy. The sample analyzed included 3,031 students from 109 randomly selected classes/schools. Correlation analysis, one-way analysis of variance, and two-level linear regression were conducted. The results showed that having a refrigerator, internet, more books, parents purchasing books and magazines related to school work, higher father's education level, and parents' higher expectation of the education level of their child significantly predicted higher BSCP scores; having siblings at home, owning an apartment, and frequently contacting teachers about the child significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. At the school level, the results showed that being in the first-tier or key schools, having school libraries, science popularization galleries, computer labs, adequate equipment for teaching, special budget for teacher training, special budget for science equipment, and mutual trust between teachers and students significantly predicated higher BSCP scores; and having science and technology rooms, offering science and technology interest clubs, special budget for science curriculum development, and special budget for science social practice activities significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. The implications of the above findings are discussed.
Taylor, C.; Zingaro, D.; Porter, L.; Webb, K. C.; Lee, C. B.; Clancy, M.
Concept Inventories (CIs) are assessments designed to measure student learning of core concepts. CIs have become well known for their major impact on pedagogical techniques in other sciences, especially physics. Presently, there are no widely used, validated CIs for computer science. However, considerable groundwork has been performed in the form…
Г О Дуйсеева
Full Text Available This article deals with the definition and the description of mobile learning. Ten years’ experience of the latest mobile technologies use and devices in educational process abroad is analyzed. Prospects and the possibilities of application of these technologies are considered. The basic concepts and development of mobile learning which proposed by scientists for the last years have been given.
Jannati, E. D.; Setiawan, A.; Siahaan, P.; Rochman, C.
This study aims to determine the description of virtual laboratory learning media development to improve science literacy skills of Mechanical Engineering students on the concept of basic Physics. Quasi experimental method was employed in this research. The participants of this research were first semester students of mechanical engineering in Majalengka University. The research instrument was readability test of instructional media. The results of virtual laboratory learning media readability test show that the average score is 78.5%. It indicates that virtual laboratory learning media development are feasible to be used in improving science literacy skill of Mechanical Engineering students in Majalengka University, specifically on basic Physics concepts of material measurement.
Lee, Yeung Chung; Lee, Carole Kwan-Ping; Lam, Irene Chung-Man; Kwok, Ping Wai; So, Winnie Wing-Mui
International studies of science education, such as the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), have revealed considerable national disparities in students' achievements in science education. The results have prompted many nations to compare their science education systems and practices to those of others, to gain insights for improvement. Teacher training and professional development are key educational components that have not attracted as much attention as they deserve in international comparative studies. This study compares the conceptions and attitudes of pre-service elementary teachers (PSETs) in Hong Kong and the United States with respect to inquiry science learning and teaching at the beginning of the semester before the start of the science methods course. PSETs' conceptions and attitudes in the two countries were compared by means of a questionnaire with both Likert-type and open-ended questions. Quantitative data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis and inferential statistics, while qualitative data were analyzed through the systematic categorization of PSETs' responses into broad themes and subthemes to reflect patterns in their conceptions of and attitudes toward inquiry science learning and teaching. The results revealed a complex interplay between PSETs' conceptions of and attitudes toward inquiry science learning and teaching. The results shed light on the effects of sociocultural contexts and have important implications for the design of science methods courses.
The Relationship Between the Learning Style Perceptual Preferences of Urban Fourth Grade Children and the Acquisition of Selected Physical Science Concepts Through Learning Cycle Instructional Methodology.
Adams, Kenneth Mark
The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the learning style perceptual preferences of fourth grade urban students and the attainment of selected physical science concepts for three simple machines as taught using learning cycle methodology. The sample included all fourth grade children from one urban elementary school (N = 91). The research design followed a quasi-experimental format with a single group, equivalent teacher demonstration and student investigation materials, and identical learning cycle instructional treatment. All subjects completed the Understanding Simple Machines Test (USMT) prior to instructional treatment, and at the conclusion of treatment to measure student concept attainment related to the pendulum, the lever and fulcrum, and the inclined plane. USMT pre and post-test scores, California Achievement Test (CAT-5) percentile scores, and Learning Style Inventory (LSI) standard scores for four perceptual elements for each subject were held in a double blind until completion of the USMT post-test. The hypothesis tested in this study was: Learning style perceptual preferences of fourth grade students as measured by the Dunn, Dunn, and Price Learning Style Inventory (LSI) are significant predictors of success in the acquisition of physical science concepts taught through use of the learning cycle. Analysis of pre and post USMT scores, 18.18 and 30.20 respectively, yielded a significant mean gain of +12.02. A controlled stepwise regression was employed to identify significant predictors of success on the USMT post-test from among USMT pre-test, four CAT-5 percentile scores, and four LSI perceptual standard scores. The CAT -5 Total Math and Total Reading accounted for 64.06% of the variance in the USMT post-test score. The only perceptual element to act as a significant predictor was the Kinesthetic standard score, accounting for 1.72% of the variance. The study revealed that learning cycle instruction does not appear
Mulvey, Bridget K.; Bell, Randy L.
Despite successful attempts to improve learners' nature of science (NOS) conceptions through explicit, reflective approaches, retention of improved conceptions is rarely addressed in research. The issue of context for NOS instruction has implications for this retention. Whether to contextualise has been the question occupying science educators'…
Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.
Research on conceptual change indicates that not only children, but also teachers have incomplete understanding or misconceptions on science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with in-service teachers' understanding of four earth and space science concepts taught in elementary school: reason for seasons, phases of the moon, rock…
Muhlisin, Ahmad; Susilo, Herawati; Amin, Mohamad; Rohman, Fatchur
The purposes of this study were to: 1) Examine the effect of RMS learning model towards critical thinking skills. 2) Examine the effect of different academic abilities against critical thinking skills. 3) Examine the effect of the interaction between RMS learning model and different academic abilities against critical thinking skills. The research…
Ellis, Robert A.; Taylor, Charlotte E.; Drury, Helen
Students in a large undergraduate biology course were expected to write a scientific report as a key part of their course design. This study investigates the quality of learning arising from the writing experience and how it relates to the quality of students' preconceptions of learning through writing and their perceptions of their writing…
Trexler, Cary J.; Hess, Alexander J.; Hayes, Kathryn N.
Nationally, both science and agricultural education professional organizations have identified agriculture as a fundamental technology to be studied by students, with the goal of achieving an understanding of the agri-food system necessary for democratic participation. Benchmarks representing the content that K-12 children need to understand about…
Reese, D. D.; Wood, C. A.
Selene is a videogame to promote and assess learning of lunar science concepts. As players build and modify a Moon, Selene measures learning as it occurs. Selene is a model for 21st century learning and embedded assessment.
Felipa Pacífico Ribeiro de Assis Silveira
Full Text Available The study tried to answer questions pertinent to the use of concept maps (CM as a teaching resource facilitator of meaningful learning of scientific concepts of Natural Sciences, in the classroom of elementary school. To answer the questions and insert the MC in the classroom every day, we adopted the interdependence between the process of learning, teaching and investigation. To ensure a triadic relationship, outline an intervention / investigation with theoretical and methodological support in quantitative and qualitative approach. The teaching and learning were secured from a teaching strategy, able to share and negotiate concepts relevant to the field of education, enabling students move beyond their existing knowledge, ensuring the data of research about the effects of MC in learning of the groups investigated. The MC was defined as a teaching resource potential for this level of education and principles of the Theory of Meaningful Learning that supports it. It was evident the recursive procedural character inherent in meaningful learning as using the MC as a teaching resource in the construction of scientific knowledge of Natural Sciences, the occurrence of learning of the groups using the MC and its validation in the presence of students of final grades of elementary school.
Baker, Dale R.; Lewis, Elizabeth B.; Uysal, Sibel; Purzer, Senay; Lang, Michael; Baker, Perry
This study describes the effect of embedding content in the Communication in Inquiry Science Project professional development model for science and language arts teachers. The model uses four components of successful professional development (content focus, active learning, extended duration, participation by teams of teachers from the same school…
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Bringing together a wide collection of ideas, reviews, analyses and new research on particulate and structural concepts of matter, Concepts of Matter in Science Education informs practice from pre-school through graduate school learning and teaching and aims to inspire progress in science education. The expert contributors offer a range of reviews and critical analyses of related literature and in-depth analysis of specific issues, as well as new research. Among the themes covered are learning progressions for teaching a particle model of matter, the mental models of both students and teachers of the particulate nature of matter, educational technology, chemical reactions and chemical phenomena, chemical structure and bonding, quantum chemistry and the history and philosophy of science relating to the particulate nature of matter. The book will benefit a wide audience including classroom practitioners and student teachers at every educational level, teacher educators and researchers in science education.
Wachidatul Linda Yuhanna
Full Text Available This research was a classroom action research which was conducted intwo cycles, each cycle consists of planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting. The data used was quantitative data on student observation sheet instruments. The Results of the study which were obtained from the first cycle showed about the students’ thinking skills and scientific works. They were categorized as excellent 18.18%, good 22.73%, enough 52.27%, and sufficiently less 6.82%. As for the scientific attitude with a very active category of 11.36%, 43.18% and less active 45.45%. It has not reached indicators of success, so it was necessary to cycle II. Cycle II demonstrated the excellent category 38.63%, 36.36% good, good enough18.18% and less 6.81%. While the scientific attitude in the cycle II was an active attitude 29.54%, active 54.54%, inactive 15.91%. These results show an increase from the cycle I to cycle II. The conclusion of this study were: 1 learning the basic concepts of science with scientific inquiry in students can be conducible applied.2 Learning the basic concepts of science with scientific inquiry can improve thinking ability and scientific work and students’ scientific attitude. 3 Learning the basic concepts of science with scientific inquiry be able to explore and develop student creativity in designing simple experiments which can be applied in primary schools.
Liliawati, W.; Utama, J. A.; Mursydah, L. S.
The purpose of this study is to identify gender-based concept mastery differences of junior high school students after the implementation of multiple intelligences-based integrated earth and space science learning. Pretest-posttest group design was employed to two different classes at one of junior high school on eclipse theme in Tasikmalaya West Java: one class for boys (14 students) and one class of girls (18 students). The two-class received same treatment. The instrument of concepts mastery used in this study was open-ended eight essay questions. Reliability test result of this instrument was 0.9 (category: high) while for validity test results were high and very high category. We used instruments of multiple intelligences identification and learning activity observation sheet for our analysis. The results showed that normalized N-gain of concept mastery for boys and girls were improved, respectively 0.39 and 0.65. Concept mastery for both classes differs significantly. The dominant multiple intelligences for boys were in kinesthetic while girls dominated in the rest of multiple intelligences. Therefor we concluded that the concept mastery was influenced by gender and student’s multiple intelligences. Based on this finding we suggested to considering the factor of gender and students’ multiple intelligences given in the learning activity.
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether or not conceptions of learning diverge in different science domains by identifying high school students' conceptions of learning in physics, chemistry and biology. The Conceptions of Learning Science (COLS) questionnaire was adapted for physics (Conceptions of Learning Physics, COLP), chemistry…
Mollman, Sarah; Candela, Lori
To use a concept analysis to determine a clear definition of the term "intentional learning" for use in nursing. The term intentional learning has been used for years in educational, business, and even nursing literature. It has been used to denote processes leading to higher order thinking and the ability to use knowledge in new situations; both of which are important skills to develop in nursing students. But the lack of a common, accepted definition of the term makes it difficult for nurse educators to base instruction and learning experiences on or to evaluate its overall effectiveness in educating students for diverse, fast-paced clinical practices. A concept analysis following the eight-step method developed by Walker and Avant (2011). Empirical and descriptive literature. Five defining attributes were identified: (1) self-efficacy for learning, (2) active, effortful, and engaged learning, (3) mastery of goals where learning is the goal, (4) self-directed learning, and (5) self-regulation of learning. Through this concept analysis, nursing will have a clear definition of intentional learning. This will enable nurse educators to generate, evaluate, and test learning experiences that promote further development of intentional learning in nursing students. Nurses in practice will also be able to evaluate if the stated benefits are demonstrated and how this impacts patient care and outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kim, Judy Joo-Hyun
This study explored the effectiveness of an instructional tool, elaborate analogy, in teaching the particle theory to both Grade 7 mainstream and East or South Asian ESL students. Ten Grade 7 science classes from five different schools in a large school district in the Greater Toronto area participated. Each of the ten classes were designated as either Group X or Y. Using a quasi-experimental counterbalanced design, Group X students were taught one science unit using the elaborate analogies, while Group Y students were taught by their teachers' usual methods of teaching. The instructional methods used for Group X and Y were interchanged for the subsequent science unit. Quantitative data were collected from 95 students (50 mainstream and 45 ESL) by means of a posttest and a follow-up test for each of the units. When the differences between mainstream and East or South Asian ESL students were analyzed, the results indicate that both groups scored higher on the posttests when they were instructed with elaborate analogies, and that the difference between the two groups was not significant. That is, the ESL students, as well as the mainstream students, benefited academically when they were instructed with the elaborate analogies. The students obtained higher inferential scores on the posttest when their teacher connected the features of less familiar and more abstract scientific concepts to the features of the familiar and easy-to-visualize concept of school dances. However, after two months, the students were unable to recall inferential content knowledge. This is perhaps due to the lack of opportunity for the students to represent and test their initial mental models. Rather than merely employing elaborate analogies, perhaps, science teachers can supplement the use of elaborate analogies with explicit guidance in helping students to represent and test the coherence of their mental models.
Cole, Terry Stokes
Science teachers have long noticed the fact that their students come to school with their own concepts, produced from daily experiences and interactions with the world around them. Sometimes these ideas are in agreement with accepted scientific theories, but often they are not. These "incorrect" ideas, or "misconceptions" have been the focus of many studies, which can be helpful to teachers when planning their lessons. However, there is a dearth of information that is geared specifically to students with learning disabilities. These students generally have deficits in areas of perception and learning that could conceivably influence the way they formulate concepts. The purpose of this study was to examine the concepts held by students with learning disabilities on the causes of the day/night cycle, the phases of the moon, and the seasons. An interview format was judged to be the best method of ensuring that the students' ideas were clearly documented. The subjects were five, sixth-grade students in a city school, who had been determined to have a learning disability. In examining the results, there did not seem to be any direct link between the type of misconception formed and the learning deficit of the child. It seemed more likely that students formed their concepts the way students usually do, but the various disabilities they exhibited interfered with their learning of more appropriate conceptions. The results of this study will be helpful to science teachers, curriculum planners, or anyone who works with students who have learning disabilities. It is hoped that this will begin to fill a void in the area of learning disabilities research.
This study explores five minority preservice teachers' conceptions of teaching science and identifies the sources of their strategies for helping students learn science. Perspectives from the literature on conceptions of teaching science and on the role constructs used to describe and distinguish minority preservice teachers from their mainstream…
Yoon, Sae Yeol; Peate, David W.
According to the national survey of science education, science educators in the USA currently face many challenges such as lack of qualified secondary Earth and Space Science (ESS) teachers. Less qualified teachers may have difficulty teaching ESS because of a lack of conceptual understanding, which leads to diminished confidence in content knowledge. More importantly, teachers' limited conceptual understanding of the core ideas automatically leads to a lack of pedagogical content knowledge. This mixed methods study aims to explore the ways in which current secondary schooling, especially the small numbers of highly qualified ESS teachers in the USA, might influence students' learning of the discipline. To gain a better understanding of the current conditions of ESS education in secondary schools, in the first phase, we qualitatively examined a sample middle and high school ESS textbook to explore how the big ideas of ESS, particularly geological time, are represented. In the second phase, we quantitatively analyzed the participating college students' conceptual understanding of geological time by comparing those who had said they had had secondary school ESS learning experience with those who did not. Additionally, college students' perceptions on learning and teaching ESS are discussed. Findings from both the qualitative and quantitative phases indicate participating students' ESS learning experience in their secondary schools seemed to have limited or little influence on their conceptual understandings of the discipline. We believe that these results reflect the current ESS education status, connected with the declining numbers of highly qualified ESS teachers in secondary schools.
Ogletree, Glenda Lee
This study investigated the science pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) among teachers as they taught the concept of chemical change to fifth grade students. The purpose was to identify teachers' PCK and its impact in middle grade science classrooms. A second purpose was to investigate the possible relationship of teachers' science PCK to teacher actions and student learning outcomes in the classroom. The instruments used to capture PCK were background and demographic information, Content Representations (CoRe), and Professional and Pedagogical experience Repertoire (PaP-eR). The study investigated CoRe and PaP-eR with seven classroom teachers as they planned and taught chemical change to fifth grade students. Four levels of a Pedagogical Content Knowledge rubric were used to describe varying levels of PCK. The four levels were content knowledge of chemical change; knowledge of students' thinking; knowledge of how to represent chemical change to promote student learning; and professional development, collaboration, and leadership roles in science. The Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) described and evaluated science teaching performance levels of the teachers. In this study, 176 students were assessed to determine understanding of chemical change. There was a significant correlation between teachers' PCK scores and student achievement. The study also determined that a significant correlation existed between teachers' PCK scores and their RTOP scores revealing that RTOP scores could be predictors of PCK. Through this approach, understandings of PCK emerged that are of interest to university preservice preparation programs, research in understanding effective teachers and teaching, and the planning and implementation of professional development for teachers of science with middle grade students.
Full Text Available Introduction: The basic medical sciences section requires 2.5 years in the medical education curriculum. Practical courses complement theoretical knowledge in this period to improve their appreciation. Despite spending lots of disbursement and time, this period’s efficacy is not clearly known. Methods: One hundred thirty-three General Practitioner (GP students have been included in this descriptive cross-sectional study and were asked by questionnaire about the positive impact of practical courses on learning theoretical knowledge. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Result: The agreement in “Practical Head and Neck Anatomy” was 40.91% ± 29.45, in “Practical Trunk Anatomy” was 63.62% ± 2.32 and in “Practical Anatomy of Extremities” was 56.16% ± 2.57. In “Practical Histology”, agreement was 69.50%±2.19; “Practical Biophysics” was 45.97%±2.25, “Practical Physiology” 61.75%±2.17; “Practical Biochemistry” 36.28%±2.42; “Practical Pathology” 59.80%±2.53; “Practical Immunology” 56.25%±26.40; “Practical Microbiology and Virology” 60.39%±2.27 and “Practical Mycology and Parasitology” 68.2%± 2.16.Conclusion: GP students in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences are not optimistic about the applicability of practical courses of basic medical sciences lessons.
Stewart, Phillip Michael, Jr.
Games in science education is emerging as a popular topic of scholarly inquiry. The National Research Council recently published a report detailing a research agenda for games and science education entitled Learning Science Through Computer Games and Simulations (2011). The report recommends moving beyond typical proof-of-concept studies into more exploratory and theoretically-based work to determine how best to integrate games into K-12 classrooms for learning , as well as how scaffolds from within the game and from outside the game (from peers and teachers) support the learning of applicable science. This study uses a mixed-methods, quasi-experimental design with an 8th grade class at an independent school in southern Connecticut to answer the following questions: 1. What is the nature of the supports for science content learning provided by the game, the peer, and the teacher, when the game is used in a classroom setting? 2. How do the learning gains in the peer support condition compare to the solo play condition, both qualitatively and quantitatively? The concept-integrated physics game SURGE (Scaffolding Understanding through Redesigning Games for Education) was selected for this study, as it was developed with an ear towards specific learning theories and prior work on student understandings of impulse, force, and vectors. Stimulated recall interviews and video observations served as the primary sources and major patterns emerged through the triangulation of data sources and qualitative analysis in the software QSR NVivo 9. The first pattern which emerged indicated that scaffolding from within the game and outside the game requires a pause in game action to be effective, unless that scaffolding is directly useful to the player in the moment of action. The second major pattern indicated that both amount and type of prior gaming experience has somewhat complex effects on both the uses of supports and learning outcomes. In general, a high correlation was found
Scruggs, Thomas E.; Brigham, Frederick J.; Mastropieri, Margo A.
The Common Core Science Standards represent a new effort to increase science learning for all students. These standards include a focus on English and language arts aspects of science learning, and three dimensions of science standards, including practices of science, crosscutting concepts of science, and disciplinary core ideas in the various…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Problem Solving learning model based Just in Time Teaching (JiTT on students' science process skills (SPS on structure and function of plant tissue concept. This research was conducted at State Senior High School in South Tangerang .The research conducted using the quasi-experimental with Nonequivalent pretest-Postest Control Group Design. The samples of this study were 34 students for experimental group and 34 students for the control group. Data was obtained using a process skill test instrument (essai type that has been tested for its validity and reliability. Result of data analysis by ANACOVA, show that there were significant difference of postest between experiment and control group, by controlling the pretest score (F = 4.958; p <0.05. Thus, the problem-solving learning based on JiTT proved to improve students’ SPS. The contribution of this treatment in improving the students’ SPS was 7.2%. This shows that there was effect of problem solving model based JiTT on students’ SPS on the Structure and function of plant tissue concept.
Full Text Available This study presents an ‘education for sustainability’ curricular model which promotes science learning in an elementary classroom through equity pedagogy. A total of 25 fourth-grade students from an urban, public school in Denver, Colorado participated in this mixed-methods study where concept maps were used as a tool for describing and assessing students’ understanding of ecosystem interactions. Concept maps provide a more holistic, systems-based assessment of science learning in a sustainability curriculum. The concept maps were scored and analyzed using SPSS to investigate potential differences in learning gains of English Language Acquisition (ELA and Gifted/Talented (GT students. Interviews were conducted after the concept maps were administered, then transcribed and inductively coded to generate themes related to science learning. Interviews also encouraged students to explain their drawings and provided a more accurate interpretation of the concept maps. Findings revealed the difference between pre- and post-concept map scores for ELA and GT learners were not statistically significant. Students also demonstrated an increased knowledge of ecosystem interactions during interviews. Concept maps, as part of an education for sustainability curriculum, can promote equity by providing diverse learners with different—yet equally valid—outlets to express their scientific knowledge.
Kapici, Hasan Ozgur; Akcay, Hakan; Yager, Robert E.
It is important for students to learn concepts and using them for solving problems and further learning. Within this respect, the purpose of this study is to investigate students' abilities to apply science concepts that they have learned from Science-Technology-Society based approach or textbook oriented instruction. Current study is based on…
Kontra, Carly; Lyons, Daniel J; Fischer, Susan M; Beilock, Sian L
Three laboratory experiments involving students' behavior and brain imaging and one randomized field experiment in a college physics class explored the importance of physical experience in science learning. We reasoned that students' understanding of science concepts such as torque and angular momentum is aided by activation of sensorimotor brain systems that add kinetic detail and meaning to students' thinking. We tested whether physical experience with angular momentum increases involvement of sensorimotor brain systems during students' subsequent reasoning and whether this involvement aids their understanding. The physical experience, a brief exposure to forces associated with angular momentum, significantly improved quiz scores. Moreover, improved performance was explained by activation of sensorimotor brain regions when students later reasoned about angular momentum. This finding specifies a mechanism underlying the value of physical experience in science education and leads the way for classroom practices in which experience with the physical world is an integral part of learning. © The Author(s) 2015.
Sjöström, Jesper; Frerichs, Nadja; Zuin, Vânia G.; Eilks, Ingo
"Bildung" is a complex educational concept that emerged in Germany in the mid eighteenth century. Especially in Germany and Scandinavia conceptions of "Bildung" became the general philosophical framework to guide both formal and informal education. "Bildung" concerns the whole range of education from setting…
This opinion piece paper urges teachers and teacher educators to draw careful distinctions among four basic learning goals: learning science, learning about science, doing science and learning to address socio-scientific issues. In elaboration, the author urges that careful attention is paid to the selection of teaching/learning methods that…
Marzetta, Katrina; Mason, Hillary; Wee, Bryan
This study presents an 'education for sustainability' curricular model which promotes science learning in an elementary classroom through equity pedagogy. A total of 25 fourth-grade students from an urban, public school in Denver, Colorado participated in this mixed-methods study where concept maps were used as a tool for describing and assessing…
Anderson, Steven W.; Libarkin, Julie C.
Nationwide pre- and posttesting of introductory courses with the Geoscience Concept Inventory (GCI) shows little gain for many of its questions. Analysis of more than 3,500 tests shows that 22 of the 73 GCI questions had gains of <0.03, and nearly half of these focused on basic physics and chemistry. We also discovered through an assessment of…
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between student self-concept and achievement in science in Taiwan based on the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) model using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 and 2007 databases. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the effects of the…
Leila Roshangar; Fariba Salek Ranjbarzadeh; Reza Piri; Mahdi Karimi Shoar; Leila Rasi Marzabadi
Introduction: The basic medical sciences section requires 2.5 years in the medical education curriculum. Practical courses complement theoretical knowledge in this period to improve their appreciation. Despite spending lots of disbursement and time, this period’s efficacy is not clearly known. Methods: One hundred thirty-three General Practitioner (GP) students have been included in this descriptive cross-sectional study and were asked by questionnaire about the positive impact of practical c...
Chaudhury, S. Raj
In the context of an introductory physical science course for non-science majors, I have been trying to understand how scientific visualizations of natural phenomena can constructively impact student learning. I have also necessarily been concerned with the instructional and assessment approaches that need to be considered when focusing on learning science through visually rich information sources. The overall project can be broken down into three distinct segments : (i) comparing students' abilities to demonstrate proportional reasoning competency on visual and verbal tasks (ii) decoding and deconstructing visualizations of an object falling under gravity (iii) the role of directed instruction to elicit alternate, valid scientific visualizations of the structure of the solar system. Evidence of student learning was collected in multiple forms for this project - quantitative analysis of student performance on written, graded assessments (tests and quizzes); qualitative analysis of videos of student 'think aloud' sessions. The results indicate that there are significant barriers for non-science majors to succeed in mastering the content of science courses, but with informed approaches to instruction and assessment, these barriers can be overcome.
Brown, Mark B
This essay examines five ideal-typical conceptions of politics in science and technology studies. Rather than evaluating these conceptions with reference to a single standard, the essay shows how different conceptions of politics serve distinct purposes: normative critique, two approaches to empirical description, and two views of democracy. I discuss each conception of politics with respect to how well it fulfills its apparent primary purpose, as well as its implications for the purpose of studying a key issue in contemporary democratic societies: the politicization of science. In this respect, the essay goes beyond classifying different conceptions of politics and also recommends the fifth conception as especially conducive to understanding and shaping the processes whereby science becomes a site or object of political activity. The essay also employs several analytical distinctions to help clarify the differences among conceptions of politics: between science as 'political' (adjective) and science as a site of 'politics' (noun), between spatial-conceptions and activity-conceptions of politics, between latent conflicts and actual conflicts, and between politics and power. The essay also makes the methodological argument that the politics of science and technology is best studied with concepts and methods that facilitate dialogue between actors and analysts. The main goal, however, is not to defend a particular view of politics, but to promote conversation on the conceptions of politics that animate research in social studies of science and technology.
Examines a cross-section of craft knowledge and research-based literature of science learning beyond the classroom. Describes informal science education programs, and discusses implications for science teaching, focusing on the importance of informal science learning for children and in-service and preservice teachers. Proposes a model for…
Surapaneni, Krishna M; Tekian, Ara
Teaching basic science courses is challenging in undergraduate medical education because of the ubiquitous use of didactic lectures and reward for recall of factual information during examinations. The purpose of this study is to introduce concept maps with clinical cases (the innovative program) to improve learning of biochemistry course content. Participants were first year medical students (n=150) from Saveetha Medical College and Hospital (India); they were randomly divided into two groups of 75, one group attending the traditional program, the other the innovative program. Student performance was measured using three written knowledge tests (each with a maximum score of 20). The students also evaluated the relevance of the learning process using a 12-item questionnaire. Students in the innovative program using concept mapping outperformed those in the traditional didactic program (means of 7.13-8.28 vs. 12.33-13.93, pbiochemistry to clinical practice, and to enhance their reasoning and learning skills, as well as their deeper understanding for biochemistry.
Surapaneni, KrishnaM; Tekian, Ara
Teaching basic science courses is challenging in undergraduate medical education because of the ubiquitous use of didactic lectures and reward for recall of factual information during examinations. The purpose of this study is to introduce concept maps with clinical cases (the innovative program) to improve learning of biochemistry course content. Participants were first year medical students (n=150) from Saveetha Medical College and Hospital (India); they were randomly divided into two groups of 75, one group attending the traditional program, the other the innovative program. Student performance was measured using three written knowledge tests (each with a maximum score of 20). The students also evaluated the relevance of the learning process using a 12-item questionnaire. Students in the innovative program using concept mapping outperformed those in the traditional didactic program (means of 7.13-8.28 vs. 12.33-13.93, pbiochemistry to clinical practice, and to enhance their reasoning and learning skills, as well as their deeper understanding for biochemistry.
Yoon, Sae Yeol; Peate, David W.
According to the national survey of science education, science educators in the USA currently face many challenges such as lack of qualified secondary Earth and Space Science (ESS) teachers. Less qualified teachers may have difficulty teaching ESS because of a lack of conceptual understanding, which leads to diminished confidence in content…
Cohen, B; Sammut, C
A learning program produces, as its output, a Boolean function which describes a concept. The function returns true if and only if the argument is an object which satisfies the logical expression in the body of the function. The learning program's input is a set of objects which are instances of the concept to be learnt. The paper describes an algorithm devised to learn concept descriptions in this form. 15 references.
Stoyanov, Slavi; Drachsler, Hendrik
Stoyanov, S., & Drachsler, H. (2013, 5 July). Group Concept Mapping on Learning Analytics. Presentation given at Learning Analytics Summer School Institute (LASI) to kickoff the national GCM study on LA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Full Text Available It has been critical to find a way for teachers to motivate their young children to learn science and improve science achievement. Since music has been used as a tool for educating young students, this study introduces the science song project to teacher candidates that contains science facts, concepts, laws and theories, and combines them with music for motivating their young children to learn science and improve science achievement. The purpose of the study is to determine the effect of the science song project on teacher candidates’ understanding of science processing skills and their attitudes toward science. The participants were 45 science teacher candidates who were enrolled in an EC-6 (Early Childhood through Grade 6 program in the teacher certification program at a racially diverse Texas public research university. To collect data, this study used two instruments: pre-and post-self efficacy tests before and after the science teacher candidates experienced the science song project and final reflective essay at the end of the semester. The results show that while developing their songs, the participating teacher candidates experienced a process for science practice, understood science concepts and facts, and positively improved attitudes toward science. This study suggests that the science song project is a science instruction offering rich experiences of process-based learning and positive attitudes toward science.
Hayes, Justin C; Kraemer, David J M
Characterizing the neural implementation of abstract conceptual representations has long been a contentious topic in cognitive science. At the heart of the debate is whether the "sensorimotor" machinery of the brain plays a central role in representing concepts, or whether the involvement of these perceptual and motor regions is merely peripheral or epiphenomenal. The domain of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning provides an important proving ground for sensorimotor (or grounded) theories of cognition, as concepts in science and engineering courses are often taught through laboratory-based and other hands-on methodologies. In this review of the literature, we examine evidence suggesting that sensorimotor processes strengthen learning associated with the abstract concepts central to STEM pedagogy. After considering how contemporary theories have defined abstraction in the context of semantic knowledge, we propose our own explanation for how body-centered information, as computed in sensorimotor brain regions and visuomotor association cortex, can form a useful foundation upon which to build an understanding of abstract scientific concepts, such as mechanical force. Drawing from theories in cognitive neuroscience, we then explore models elucidating the neural mechanisms involved in grounding intangible concepts, including Hebbian learning, predictive coding, and neuronal recycling. Empirical data on STEM learning through hands-on instruction are considered in light of these neural models. We conclude the review by proposing three distinct ways in which the field of cognitive neuroscience can contribute to STEM learning by bolstering our understanding of how the brain instantiates abstract concepts in an embodied fashion.
Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.
This research is concerned with preservice teacher understanding of six earth and space science concepts that are often taught in elementary school: the reason for seasons, phases of the moon, why the wind blows, the rock cycle, soil formation, and earthquakes. Specifically, this study examines the effect of readings, hands-on learning stations,…
Whilst the scientific case for current climate change is compelling, the consequences of climate change have largely failed to permeate through to individuals. This lack of public awareness of the science and the potential impacts could be considered a key obstacle to action. The possible reasons for such limited success centre on the issue that climate change is a complex subject, and that a wide ranging academic, political and social research literature on the science and wider implications of climate change has failed to communicate the key issues in an accessible way. These failures to adequately communicate both the science and the social science of climate change at a number of levels results in ';communication gaps' that act as fundamental barriers to both understanding and engagement with the issue. Meyer and Land (2003) suggest that learners can find certain ideas and concepts within a discipline difficult to understand and these act as a barrier to deeper understanding of a subject. To move beyond these threshold concepts, they suggest that the expert needs to support the learner through a range of learning experiences that allows the development of learning strategies particular to the individual. Meyer and Land's research into these threshold concepts has been situated within Economics, but has been suggested to be more widely applicable though there has been no attempt to either define or evaluate threshold concepts to climate change science. By identifying whether common threshold concepts exist specifically in climate science for cohorts of either formal or informal learners, scientists will be better able to support the public in understanding these concepts by changing how the knowledge is communicated to help overcome these barriers to learning. This paper reports on the findings of a study that examined the role of threshold concepts as barriers to understanding climate science in a UK University and considers its implications for wider
Full Text Available Background Studies show that traditional teaching methods, such as lecturing, do not lead to in-depth learning. Concept maps have been used for a long time by researchers and teachers to facilitate learning. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the effect of concept mapping on the learning levels of students in nursing care of patients with glandular diseases subject in Urmia University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods In a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test/post-test design, 28 nursing students were selected and divided into two groups: the experimental and the control groups. After administration of pre-test, the students in the experimental group participated in classes on designing concept maps. Next, lessons on glands and nursing were presented to the students in the experimental and control groups through concept maps and lectures, respectively. At the end of the semester, the learning levels of the students in both groups were evaluated by the post-test. Results The means of the scores of the students as determined by results of the pre-test revealed insignificant statistical difference between the two groups. However, the learning level of the students in the experimental group was significantly higher (P < 0.05. As a metacognitive intervention, concept mapping can contribute to in-depth learning of nursing students. Conclusions According to the findings, it is recommended that concept mapping should be used for teaching and evaluation. Further studies are needed to compare the effect of concept mapping with those of other metacognition approaches on different types of learners.
In this paper the results are given of an investigation into concepts from Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The goal of this investigation was to find out whether there is a set of concepts that may be considered to be basic to all these five social
Chamberlain, Robert P.
Concept mapping is a pedagogical technique that was developed in the 1970s and is being used in K-12 and postsecondary education. Although it has shown excellent results in other fields, it is still rare in political science. In this research note, I discuss the implementation and testing of concept mapping in my Advanced Introduction to…
Ozkan, Gulbin; Akcay, Hakan
The purpose of this study was to investigate preservice science teachers' conceptual understanding of astronomy concepts. Qualitative research methods were used. The sample consists of 118 preservice science teachers (40 freshmen, 31 sophomores, and 47 juniors). The data were collected with Astronomy Conceptual Questionnaire (ACQ) that includes 13…
Research studies conducted with typewriting students have consistently shown that concepts can be learned in typewriting classes with no appreciable loss of typewriting skill by students. This article discusses three stages of typewriting instruction and how concept learning can be incorporated into each stage. (HD)
Andrei, Stefan; Osborne, Lawrence; Smith, Zanthia
The current learning process of Deaf or Hard of Hearing (D/HH) students taking Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses needs, in general, a sign interpreter for the translation of English text into American Sign Language (ASL) signs. This method is at best impractical due to the lack of availability of a specialized sign…
Aikenhead, Glen S.
What science-related knowledge is actually used by nurses in their day-to-day clinical reasoning when attending patients? The study investigated the knowledge-in-use of six acute-care nurses in a hospital surgical unit. It was found that the nurses mainly drew upon their professional knowledge of nursing and upon their procedural understanding that included a common core of concepts of evidence (concepts implicitly applied to the evaluation of data and the evaluation of evidence - the focus of this research). This core included validity triangulation, normalcy range, accuracy, and a general predilection for direct sensual access to a phenomenon over indirect machine-managed access. A cluster of emotion-related concepts of evidence (e.g. cultural sensitivity) was also discovered. These results add to a compendium of concepts of evidence published in the literature. Only a small proportion of nurses (one of the six nurses in the study) used canonical science content in their clinical reasoning, a result consistent with other research. This study also confirms earlier research on employees in science-rich workplaces in general, and on professional development programs for nurses specifically: canonical science content found in a typical science curriculum (e.g. high school physics) does not appear relevant to many nurses' knowledge-in-use. These findings support a curriculum policy that gives emphasis to students learning how to learn science content as required by an authentic everyday or workplace context, and to students learning concepts of evidence.
Johnson, Wendy Renae
The National Research Council's "Framework for K-12 Science Education" (2011) presents a new vision for science education that calls for the integration of the three dimensions of science learning: science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas. Unlike previous conceptions of science learning that…
Pozzer-Ardenghi, Lilian; Roth, Wolff-Michael
When lecturing, teachers make use of both verbal and nonverbal communication. What is called teaching, therefore, involves not only the words and sentences a teacher utters and writes on the board during a lesson, but also all the hands/arms gestures, body movements, and facial expressions a teacher performs in the classroom. All of these communicative modalities constitute resources that are made available to students for making sense of and learning from lectures. Yet in the literature on teaching science, these other means of communication are little investigated and understood - and, correspondingly, they are undertheorized. The purpose of this position paper is to argue for a different view of concepts in lectures: they are performed simultaneously drawing on and producing multiple resources that are different expressions of the same holistic meaning unit. To support our point, we provide examples from a database of 26 lectures in a 12th-grade biology class, where the human body was the main topic of study. We analyze how different types of resources - including verbal and nonverbal discourse and various material artifacts - interact during lectures. We provide evidence for the unified production of these various sense-making resources during teaching to constitute a meaning unit, and we emphasize particularly the use of gestures and body orientations inside this meaning unit. We suggest that proper analyses of meaning units need to take into account not only language and diagrams but also a lecturer's pointing and depicting gestures, body positions, and the relationships between these different modalities. Scientific knowledge (conceptions) exists in the concurrent display of all sense-making resources, which we, following Vygotsky, understand as forming a unit (identity) of nonidentical entities.
Viappiani, P.; Zilles, S.; Hamilton, H.J.
techniques, inference methods, and query selection strategies to assist a user charged with choosing a configuration that satisfies some (partially known) concept. Our model is able to simultaneously learn the concept definition and the types of the experts. We evaluate our model with simulations, showing......We develop a Bayesian approach to concept learning for crowdsourcing applications. A probabilistic belief over possible concept definitions is maintained and updated according to (noisy) observations from experts, whose behaviors are modeled using discrete types. We propose recommendation...
Bybee, Rodger W., Ed.
This yearbook addresses critical issues in science learning and teaching. Contents are divided into four sections: (1) "How Do Students Learn Science?"; (2) "Designing Curriculum for Student Learning"; (3) "Teaching That Enhances Student Learning"; and (4) "Assessing Student Learning." Papers include: (1) "How Students Learn and How Teachers…
Qvortrup, Ane; Keiding, Tina Bering
This paper discusses and exemplifies how teaching’s concept of learning can be understood. The theoretical framework for the construction and discussion of teaching’s concept of learning is found insecond-order systems theory as described by the German sociologist Niklas Luhmann (Luhmann, 1995...... both produce and are products of the curricula, and for describing the taught curriculum as an emerging and contingent form in its own right (Keiding & Qvortrup, 2014)....
Matthews, P. S. C.
Theories of teaching and learning, including those associated with constructivism, often make no overt reference to an underlying assumption that they make; that is, human cognition depends on domain-free, general-purpose processing by the brain. This assumption is shown to be incompatible with evidence from studies of children's early learning. Rather, cognition is modular in nature, and often domain-specific. Recognition of modularity requires a re-evaluation of some aspects of current accounts of learning science. Especially, children's ideas in science are sometimes triggered rather than learned. It is in the nature of triggered conceptual structures that they are not necessarily expressible in language, and that they may not be susceptible to change by later learning.
Noble, Pat, Ed.; And Others
Papers in this publication are collected from a conference on social science concepts and classroom methods which focused on the theories of Jerome Bruner. The first article, entitled "Jerome Bruner," outlines four of Bruner's themes--structure, readiness, intuition, and interest--which relate to cognitive learning. Three…
Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Helene; Guillery-Girard, Berengere; Witkowski, Thomas; de la Sayette, Vincent; Viader, Fausto; Desgranges, Beatrice; Eustache, Francis
The goal of the present investigation was to assess semantic learning in Korsakoff patients (KS), compared with uncomplicated alcoholics (AL) and control subjects (CS), taking the nature of the information to-be-learned and the episodic memory profiles of the three groups into account. Ten new complex concepts, each illustrated by a photo and…
Sabel, Jaime L.; Forbes, Cory T.; Zangori, Laura
To support elementary students' learning of core, standards-based life science concepts highlighted in the "Next Generation Science Standards," prospective elementary teachers should develop an understanding of life science concepts and learn to apply their content knowledge in instructional practice to craft elementary science learning…
Dudukovich, Rachel; Hylton, Alan; Papachristou, Christos
This paper discusses the concept and architecture of a machine learning based router for delay tolerant space networks. The techniques of reinforcement learning and Bayesian learning are used to supplement the routing decisions of the popular Contact Graph Routing algorithm. An introduction to the concepts of Contact Graph Routing, Q-routing and Naive Bayes classification are given. The development of an architecture for a cross-layer feedback framework for DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) protocols is discussed. Finally, initial simulation setup and results are given.
Student Motivation for Science Learning questionnaire combined with items investigating family experiences. ... science achievement: inadequate school resources and weak household ..... informal interviews with the science teachers of the.
Tujuan dari penelitian ini ialah untuk menjelaskan efektifitas keterikatan ilmu sains dengan kegiatan pengajaran dan pembelajaran sains menggunakan konsep Fluida Statis berbasis inkuiri. Metode action research digunakan untuk memecahkan masalah kurangnya pelaksanaan praktik pada siswa sains. Analisis data menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif yang meliputi statistik deskriptif dan inferensial untuk menguji karakteristik dan efektifitas SBFS yang dikembangkan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ada pengaruh yang signifikan dari pembelajran dan kpengajaran inkuiri menggunakan Science in Box terhadap penguasaan konsep fluida statis siswa. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa strategi Pengajaran yang secara aktif melibatkan siswa dalam proses pembelajaran melalui penyelidikan ilmiah menggunakan kerja praktek lebih mungkin untuk meningkatkan penguasaan konseptual siswa dibandingkan strategi yang mengandalkan teknik yang lebih konvensional. Kata kunci: Science in Box, Statics Fluid, Inquiry learning.
Ratnasari, D.; Sukarmin, S.; Suparmi, S.; Aminah, N. S.
This research is aimed to analyze the effect of students’ conception toward science process skill. This is a descriptive research with subjects of the research were 10th-grade students in Surakarta from high, medium and low categorized school. The sample selection uses purposive sampling technique based on physics score in national examination four latest years. Data in this research collecting from essay test, two-tier multiple choice test, and interview. Two-tier multiple choice test consists of 30 question that contains an indicator of science process skill. Based on the result of the research and analysis, it shows that students’ conception of heat and temperature affect science process skill of students. The students’ conception that still contains the wrong concept can emerge misconception. For the future research, it is suggested to improve students’ conceptual understanding and students’ science process skill with appropriate learning method and assessment instrument because heat and temperature is one of physics material that closely related with students’ daily life.
Full Text Available Learning science is not limited to reviewing the concepts, but strengthens the identity of a nation that has a diversity of cultures. Science learning objectives that have been set in Indonesia, including the student is able to apply the science wisely, to maintain and preserve the cultural survival. The study aims to measure students' ability to relate concepts of science with local knowledge to use mind maps compiled individually. The results showed that 85% of teacher candidates are able to determine the relationship of science and local knowledge correctly. The ability to link the two domains, through the literature review, observation and interviews.
S.M.M. Loyens (Sofie)
textabstractConstructivism is currently an influential view on learning. It advocates a student-centred perspective: Students are active learners who construct their own understanding (e.g., Slavin, 2006). Different types of constructivism can be distinguished (e.g., Phillips, 1995) that all
Drawing on agential realism, this article explores how learning can be understood. An agential realist way of thinking about learning is sensitive to the complexity that characterises learning as a phenomenon. Thus, learning is seen as a dynamic and emergent phenomenon, constantly undergoing...... processes of becoming and expanding the range of components involved in such constitutive processes. With inspiration from Barad’s theorisation of spatiality, temporality and the interdependence of discourse and materiality, this article focuses on timespacemattering and material-discursivity. Concepts...
Mortensen, Jonas Egmose
This discussion paper deliberates on how the concept of social learning can be used for evaluating upstream engagement initiatives in science and technology. The paper briefly introduces to the concept of upstream engagement and a concrete case, the UK Citizen Science for Sustainability project...... (SuScit), as an outset for discussing how the concept of social learning can be used for analysing and understanding relations between citizen participation, Science and research, and sustainability. A number of relevant research questions and methodological considerations are distilled...
This article outlines how social justice theories, in combination with the concepts of infrastructure access, literacies and community acceptance, can be used to think about equity in out-of-school science learning. The author applies these ideas to out-of-school learning via television, science clubs, and maker spaces, looking at research as well…
Fürstenau, B.; Kneppers, L.; Sánchez, J.; Cañas, A.J.; Novak, J.D.
In two studies we investigated whether concept mapping or summary writing is more effective in supporting students’ learning from authentic problems in the field of business. We interpret concept mapping and summary writing as elaboration tools aiming at helping students to understand new
Wu, Yun-Wu; Weng, Kuo-Hua; Young, Li-Ming
Generally, in the foundation course of architectural design, much emphasis is placed on teaching of the basic design skills without focusing on teaching students to apply the basic design concepts in their architectural designs or promoting students' own creativity. Therefore, this study aims to propose a concept transformation learning model to…
Scalice, D.; Davis, H. B.; Leach, D.; Chambers, N.
The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) introduce a Framework for teaching and learning with three interconnected "dimensions:" Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCI's), Cross-cutting Concepts (CCC's), and Science and Engineering Practices (SEP's). This "3D" Framework outlines progressions of learning from K-12 based on the DCI's, detailing which parts of a concept should be taught at each grade band. We used these discipline-based progressions to synthesize interdisciplinary progressions for core concepts in astrobiology, such as the origins of life, what makes a world habitable, biosignatures, and searching for life on other worlds. The final product is an organizing tool for lesson plans, learning media, and other educational materials in astrobiology, as well as a fundamental resource in astrobiology education that serves both educators and scientists as they plan and carry out their programs for learners.
Edgington, Jeffrey Michael
Video and computer games have become an important area of study in the field of education. Games have been designed to teach mathematics, physics, raise social awareness, teach history and geography, and train soldiers in the military. Recent work has created computer games for teaching computer programming and understanding basic algorithms. We present an investigation where computer games are used to teach two fundamental computer science concepts: boolean expressions and recursion. The games are intended to teach the concepts and not how to implement them in a programming language. For this investigation, two computer games were created. One is designed to teach basic boolean expressions and operators and the other to teach fundamental concepts of recursion. We describe the design and implementation of both games. We evaluate the effectiveness of these games using before and after surveys. The surveys were designed to ascertain basic understanding, attitudes and beliefs regarding the concepts. The boolean game was evaluated with local high school students and students in a college level introductory computer science course. The recursion game was evaluated with students in a college level introductory computer science course. We present the analysis of the collected survey information for both games. This analysis shows a significant positive change in student attitude towards recursion and modest gains in student learning outcomes for both topics.
Kim, Sun Young; Irving, Karen E.
This study (1) explores the effectiveness of the contextualized history of science on student learning of nature of science (NOS) and genetics content knowledge (GCK), especially interrelationships among various genetics concepts, in high school biology classrooms; (2) provides an exemplar for teachers on how to utilize history of science in…
Pengaruh Pembelajaran Inkuiri Terbimbing dengan Mind Map terhadap Keterampilan Proses Sains dan Hasil Belajar IPA Abstract: Science learning in junior high school aims to enable students conducts scientific inquiry, improves knowledge, concepts, and science skills. Organization materials for students supports learning process so that needs to be explored techniques that allows students to enable it. This study aimed to determine the effect of guided inquiry learning with mind map on...
Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard; Mathiasen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Christian
The main aim of the symposium is to investigate, at both a theoretical and practical level, the quality and sustainability of a variety of models and key concepts of how communication and collaborative e-learning communities may be successfully developed, implemented and supported in higher educa...... education contexts....
Biehl, Michael; Schwarze, Holm
The learning of time-dependent concepts with a neural network is studied analytically and numerically. The linearly separable target rule is represented by an N-vector, whose time dependence is modelled by a random or deterministic drift process. A single-layer network is trained online using
The central focus of this Ph.D. research is on ‘Logic and Cognition’ and, more specifically, this research covers the quintuple (Logic and Logical Philosophy, Philosophy of Education, Educational Psychology, Cognitive Science, Computer Science). The most significant contributions of this Ph.D. di...... of ‘learning’, ‘mentoring’, and ‘knowledge’ within learning and knowledge acquisition systems. Constructivism as an epistemology and as a model of knowing and, respectively as a theoretical model of learning builds up the central framework of this research........D. dissertation are conceptual, logical, terminological, and semantic analysis of Constructivist Concept Learning (specifically, in the context of humans’ interactions with their environment and with other agents). This dissertation is concerned with the specification of the conceptualisation of the phenomena...
A recent YouGov poll indicated that almost half of eight to 18-year-olds aspire to a career in science. The latest Association of Colleges enrolment survey indicates a large increase in uptake of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) at further education (FE) colleges. These reports, along with other findings that suggest an…
Talati, Jamsheer Jehangir
To summarise the concepts critical for understanding the content and value of lifelong learning (LL). Ideas generated by personal experience were combined with those of philosophers, social scientists, educational institutions, governments and UNESCO, to facilitate an understanding of the importance of the basic concepts of LL. Autopoietic, continuous, self-determined, informal, vicarious, biographical, lifelong reflexive learning, from and for society, when supported by self-chosen formal courses, can build capacities and portable skills that allow useful responses to challenges and society's new structures of governance. The need for LL is driven by challenges. LL flows continuously in pursuit of one agenda, which could either be citizenship, as is conventional, or as this article proposes, health. LL cannot be wholly centred on vocation. Continuous medical education and continuous professional development, important in their own right, cannot supply all that is needed. LL aids society with its learning, and it requires an awareness of the environment and structures of society. It is heavily vicarious, draws on formal learning and relies for effectiveness on reflection, self-assessment and personal shaping of views of the world from different perspectives. Health is critical to rational thought and peace, and determines society's capacity to govern itself, and improve its health. LL should be reshaped to focus on health not citizenship. Therefore, embedding learning in society and environment is critical. Each urologist must develop an understanding of the numerous concepts in LL, of which 'biographicisation' is the seed that will promote innovative strategies.
Oh, Jina; Kang, Jeongae; De Gagne, Jennie C
Cinenurducation is the use of films in both didactic and clinical nursing education. Although films are already used as instructional aids in nursing education, few studies have been made that demonstrate the learning concepts that can be attributed to this particular teaching strategy. The purpose of this paper is to describe the learning concepts of cinenurducation and its conceptual metaphor based on a review of literature. The databases CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, ERIC, EBSCO, ProQuest Library Journal, and Scopus databases were searched for articles. Fifteen peer-reviewed articles were selected through title and abstract screening from "films in nursing" related articles found in internationally published articles in English from the past 20 years. Four common concepts emerged that relate to cinenurducation: (a) student-centered, (b) experiential, (c) reflective, and (d) problem-solving learning. Current literature corroborates cinenurducation as an effective teaching strategy with its learning activities in nursing education. Future studies may include instructional guides of sample films that could be practically used in various domains to teach nursing competencies, as well as in the development of evaluation criteria and standards to assess students' learning outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gerstl, S.A.; Cooke, B.J.; Henderson, B.G.; Love, S.P.; Zardecki, A.
This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The science and technology of satellite remote sensing is an emerging interdisciplinary field that is growing rapidly with many global and regional applications requiring quantitative sensing of earth`s surface features as well as its atmosphere from space. It is possible today to resolve structures on the earth`s surface as small as one meter from space. If this high spatial resolution is coupled with high spectral resolution, instant object identification can also be achieved. To interpret these spectral signatures correctly, it is necessary to perform a computational correction on the satellite imagery that removes the distorting effects of the atmosphere. This project studied such new concepts and applied innovative new approaches in remote sensing science.
In this study, the author developed a model to describe academic self-concept (ASC) in science and validated an instrument for its measurement. Unlike previous models of science ASC, which envisage science as a homogenous single global construct, this model took a multidimensional view by conceiving science self-concept as possessing distinctive…
Girod, Mark; Twyman, Todd; Wojcikiewicz, Steve
Drawing from the Deweyan theory of experience (1934, 1938), the goal of teaching and learning for transformative, aesthetic experience is contrasted against teaching and learning from a cognitive, rational framework. A quasi-experimental design was used to investigate teaching and learning of fifth grade science from each perspective across an entire school year including three major units of instruction. Detailed comparisons of teaching are given and pre and post measures of interest in learning science, science identity affiliation, and efficacy beliefs are investigated. Tests of conceptual understanding before, after, and one month after instruction reveal teaching for transformative, aesthetic experience fosters more, and more enduring, learning of science concepts. Investigations of transfer also suggest students learning for transformative, aesthetic experiences learn to see the world differently and find more interest and excitement in the world outside of school.
Ateh, Comfort M.; Charpentier, Alicia
Many students perceive science to be a difficult subject and are minimally engaged in learning it. This article describes a lesson that embedded an activity to engage students in learning science. It also identifies features of a science lesson that are likely to enhance students' engagement and learning of science and possibly reverse students'…
Family experiences, the motivation for science learning and science achievement of ... active learning and achievement goals); boys perceived family experiences ... Recommendations were made as to how schools can support families in ...
Zhang, Danhui; Tang, Xing
Informal science learning has been found to have effects on students' science learning. Through the use of secondary data from a national assessment of 7410 middle school students in China, this study explores the relationship among five types of extracurricular science activities, learning interests, academic self-concept, and science…
Pear, Joseph J.
For over a century and a quarter, the science of learning has expanded at an increasing rate and has achieved the status of a mature science. It has developed powerful methodologies and applications. The rise of this science has been so swift that other learning texts often overlook the fact that, like other mature sciences, the science of…
Marks Krpan, Catherine Anne
In order to promote science literacy in the classroom, students need opportunities in which they can personalize their understanding of the concepts they are learning. Current literature supports the use of concept maps in enabling students to make personal connections in their learning of science. Because they involve creating explicit connections between concepts, concept maps can assist students in developing metacognitive strategies and assist educators in identifying misconceptions in students' thinking. The literature also notes that concept maps can improve student achievement and recall. Much of the current literature focuses primarily on concept mapping at the secondary and university levels, with limited focus on the elementary panel. The research rarely considers teachers' thoughts and ideas about the concept mapping process. In order to effectively explore concept mapping from the perspective of elementary teachers, I felt that an action research approach would be appropriate. Action research enabled educators to debate issues about concept mapping and test out ideas in their classrooms. It also afforded the participants opportunities to explore their own thinking, reflect on their personal journeys as educators and play an active role in their professional development. In an effort to explore concept mapping from the perspective of elementary educators, an action research group of 5 educators and myself was established and met regularly from September 1999 until June 2000. All of the educators taught in the Toronto area. These teachers were interested in exploring how concept mapping could be used as a learning tool in their science classrooms. In summary, this study explores the journey of five educators and myself as we engaged in collaborative action research. This study sets out to: (1) Explore how educators believe concept mapping can facilitate teaching and student learning in the science classroom. (2) Explore how educators implement concept
Quinnell, R.; Thompson, R.; LeBard, R. J.
Developing quantitative skills, or being academically numerate, is part of the curriculum agenda in science teaching and learning. For many of our students, being asked to 'do maths' as part of 'doing science' leads to disengagement from learning. Notions of 'I can't do maths' speak of a rigidity of mind, a 'standoff', forming a barrier to learning in science that needs to be addressed if we, as science educators, are to offer solutions to the so-called 'maths problem' and to support students as they move from being novice to expert. Moving from novice to expert is complex and we lean on several theoretical frameworks (thinking dispositions, threshold concepts and mindfulness in learning) to characterize this pathway in science, with a focus on quantitative skills. Fluid thinking and application of numeracy skills are required to manipulate experimental data sets and are integral to our science practice; we need to stop students from seeing them as optional 'maths' or 'statistics' tasks within our discipline. Being explicit about the ways those in the discipline think, how quantitative data is processed, and allowing places for students to address their skills (including their confidence) offer some ways forward.
In this article I examine three examples of philosophical theories of scientific representation with the aim of assessing which of these is a good candidate for a philosophical theory of scientific representation in science learning. The three candidate theories are Giere's intentional approach, Suárez's inferential approach and Lynch and…
Park, Mihwa; Johnson, Joseph A.
While significant research has been conducted on students' conceptions of energy, alternative conceptions of energy have not been actively explored in the area of environmental science. The purpose of this study is to examine students' alternative conceptions in the environmental science discipline through the analysis of responses of first year…
Ichise, Ryutaro; Takeda, Hideaki; Honiden, Shinichi
With the rapid advances of information technology, we are acquiring much information than ever before. As a result, we need tools for organizing this data. Concept hierarchies such as ontologies and information categorizations are powerful and convenient methods for accomplishing this goal, which have gained wide spread acceptance. Although each concept hierarchy is useful, it is difficult to employ multiple concept hierarchies at the same time because it is hard to align their conceptual structures. This paper proposes a rule learning method that inputs information from a source concept hierarchy and finds suitable location for them in a target hierarchy. The key idea is to find the most similar categories in each hierarchy, where similarity is measured by the κ(kappa) statistic that counts instances belonging to both categories. In order to evaluate our method, we conducted experiments using two internet directories: Yahoo! and LYCOS. We map information instances from the source directory into the target directory, and show that our learned rules agree with a human-generated assignment 76% of the time.
Dosanjh, Navdeep Kaur
There is great concern over students' poor science achievement in the United States. Due to the lack of science achievement, students are not pursing science related careers resulting in an increase in outsourcing to other countries. Learning strategies such as concept mapping may ameliorate this situation by providing students with tools that encourage meaningful learning. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to measure the effects of three concept mapping learning strategies (concept identifying, proposition identifying, student generated) on urban middle school students' understanding of the circulatory system. Three intact classes of seventh-grade students were assigned to one of the three concept mapping strategies. The students were given a pretest on the circulatory system then learned and used their respective concept mapping strategies while learning about the circulatory system. At the conclusion of the study, students' science achievement was measured by performance on an achievement test and rubric scores of their respective concept identifying, proposition identifying, and student generated concept maps. The results of the study suggest that all three of the concept mapping strategies are effective in increasing students' science achievement. Additionally, the moderate significant correlations between the posttest and concept map scores of the current study established that concept maps are a useful measure of student knowledge. Lastly, the results of the current study also suggest that the concept identifying mapping strategy may be a useful scaffold in instructing students how to develop student generated concept maps.
Fisher, Douglas H; Langley, Pat
Concept Formation: Knowledge and Experience in Unsupervised Learning presents the interdisciplinary interaction between machine learning and cognitive psychology on unsupervised incremental methods. This book focuses on measures of similarity, strategies for robust incremental learning, and the psychological consistency of various approaches.Organized into three parts encompassing 15 chapters, this book begins with an overview of inductive concept learning in machine learning and psychology, with emphasis on issues that distinguish concept formation from more prevalent supervised methods and f
Shallcross, David C.
Concept maps are used to assess student and cohort learning of sustainable development. The concept maps of 732 first-year engineering students were individually analyzed to detect patterns of learning and areas that were not well understood. Students were given 20 minutes each to prepare a concept map of at least 20 concepts using paper and pen.…
Laine, Teemu H.; Nygren, Eeva; Dirin, Amir; Suk, Hae-Jung
Lack of motivation and of real-world relevance have been identified as reasons for low interest in science among children. Game-based learning and storytelling are prominent methods for generating intrinsic motivation in learning. Real-world relevance requires connecting abstract scientific concepts with the real world. This can be done by…
Hsieh, Sheng-Wen; Ho, Shu-Chun; Wu, Min-ping; Ni, Ci-Yuan
Gesture-based learning have particularities, because learners interact in the learning process through the actual way, just like they interact in the nondigital world. It also can support kinesthetic pedagogical practices to benefit learners with strong bodily-kinesthetic intelligence. But without proper assistance or guidance, learners' learning…
Silvia Lopes de Menezes
Full Text Available The use of concept maps on the teaching of sciences has been object of worldwide research with different purposes: to detect the previous knowledge of the students on certain topics or to evaluate learning, among others. Based on Ausubel´s cognitive psychology, concept maps assume that the learning is accomplished by assimilation of new concepts and propositions to the students´ cognitive structure, contributing to establish links between the previous and new knowledge. It is especially interesting on the approach of interdisciplinary issues, as many studied in Biochemistry.The relevance of the use of concept maps on biochemistry learning was evaluated on a thirty-hour undergraduation optional course, with interdisciplinary topics, which are not usually included on introductory Biochemistry courses. The course Biochemistry of Animal Venoms was structured in seven module where the biochemical action mechanisms of the venoms of Crotalus sp (south american rattlesnake, Bothrops sp (jararaca, Loxosceles sp (brown spider, Tityus sp (yellow scorpion, Phoneutria sp (armed spider, Apis mellifera (honey bee and Latrodectus sp (black widowwere discussed. The students worked in small groups and, at each module, there were (1 an oriented study, guided by questions, texts and schemes, supervised by the teachers, (2 the construction of individual concept maps, where the local and systemic effects of the venoms should be predicted by their biochemical composition and (3 the construction of a new map by the group, incorporating the information of the individual maps. The difficulty level of these tasks was gradually increased throughout the course, with lesser time to carry out the tasks, lesser assistance during the oriented study and even lesser information on the venom effects.The course assessment was given by the number, quality and correction of the concepts relationship present in the concept maps, through a questionnaire and by the
Johan, H.; Suhandi, A.; Wulan, A. R.; Widiasih; Ruyani, A.; Karyadi, B.; Sipriyadi
The purpose of this study was to embed spiritual value through science learning program especially earth planet. Various phenomena in earth planet describe a divinity of super power. This study used quasi experimental method with one group pre-test-post-test design. Convenience sampling was conducted in this study. 23 pre-service physics teacher was involved. Pre-test and post-test used a questionnaire had been conducted to collected data of spiritual attitude. Open ended question had been utilized at post-test to collected data. A fourth indicators of spiritual value related to divinity of God was used to embed spiritual value. The results show a shifted of students’ awareness to divinity of God. Before implementing the earth planet learning, 85.8% of total students strongly agree that learning activity embed spiritual value while after learning process, it increased be 93.4%. After learning earth planet, it known that students’ spiritual value was influenced by character of earth planet concept which unobservable and media visual which display each incredible phenomena process in our earth planet. It can be concluded that spiritual value can be embedded through unobservable phenomena of during learning earth planet process.
Weinstein, Yana; Madan, Christopher R; Sumeracki, Megan A
The science of learning has made a considerable contribution to our understanding of effective teaching and learning strategies. However, few instructors outside of the field are privy to this research. In this tutorial review, we focus on six specific cognitive strategies that have received robust support from decades of research: spaced practice, interleaving, retrieval practice, elaboration, concrete examples, and dual coding. We describe the basic research behind each strategy and relevant applied research, present examples of existing and suggested implementation, and make recommendations for further research that would broaden the reach of these strategies.
In response to Meyer and Crawford's article on how nature of science and authentic science inquiry strategies can be used to support the learning of science for underrepresented students, I explore the possibly of reconciliation between the cultures of school, science, school science as well as home. Such reconciliation is only possible when…
Ghirardi, Marco; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio; Regis, Alberto; Roletto, Ezio
A novel didactic sequence is proposed for the teaching of chemical equilibrium. This teaching sequence takes into account the historical and epistemological evolution of the concept, the alternative conceptions and learning difficulties highlighted by teaching science and research in education, and the need to focus on both the students'…
In the physical and natural sciences, the complexity of natural systems and their interactions is becoming better understood. With increased emphasis on learning about complex systems, students will be encountering concepts that are dynamic, ill-structured and interconnected. Concept-mapping is a method considered particularly valuable for…
Jee, Benjamin D; Uttal, David H; Gentner, Dedre; Manduca, Cathy; Shipley, Thomas F; Sageman, Bradley
A central issue in education is how to support the spatial thinking involved in learning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We investigated whether and how the cognitive process of analogical comparison supports learning of a basic spatial concept in geoscience, fault. Because of the high variability in the appearance of faults, it may be difficult for students to learn the category-relevant spatial structure. There is abundant evidence that comparing analogous examples can help students gain insight into important category-defining features (Gentner in Cogn Sci 34(5):752-775, 2010). Further, comparing high-similarity pairs can be especially effective at revealing key differences (Sagi et al. 2012). Across three experiments, we tested whether comparison of visually similar contrasting examples would help students learn the fault concept. Our main findings were that participants performed better at identifying faults when they (1) compared contrasting (fault/no fault) cases versus viewing each case separately (Experiment 1), (2) compared similar as opposed to dissimilar contrasting cases early in learning (Experiment 2), and (3) viewed a contrasting pair of schematic block diagrams as opposed to a single block diagram of a fault as part of an instructional text (Experiment 3). These results suggest that comparison of visually similar contrasting cases helped distinguish category-relevant from category-irrelevant features for participants. When such comparisons occurred early in learning, participants were more likely to form an accurate conceptual representation. Thus, analogical comparison of images may provide one powerful way to enhance spatial learning in geoscience and other STEM disciplines.
Andersen, Thomas Dyreborg; Foss, Kristian Kildemoes; Nissen, Stine Karen
During the last decade, massive investment in ICT has been made in Danish schools. There seems, however, to be a need to rethink how to better integrate ICT in education (Bundgaard et al. 2014 p. 216) Flipped learning might be a didactical approach that could contribute to finding a method to use...... research questions are “To what extent can teachers using the FL-teaching method improve Danish pupils' learning outcomes in science subject’s physics / chemistry, biology and geography in terms of the results of national tests?” And “What factors influence on whether FL-teaching improves pupils' learning...... will be addressed. Hereafter an array of different scaffolding activities will be conducted, among these are individual supervision, sharing of materials used in lessons and involving local school leaders in the program. During this 3-year period we will follow the progress of the students involved in the program...
Full Text Available Active learning is individual and group participation in effective activities such as in-class observing, writing, experimenting, discussion, solving problems, and talking about to-be-learned topics. Some instructors believe that active learning is impossible, or at least extremely difficult to achieve in large lecture sessions. Nevertheless, the truly impressive implementation results of theSCALE-UP learning environment suggest that such beliefs are false (Beichner et al., 2000. In this study, we present a design of an active learning environment with positive effect on students. The design is based on the following elements: (1 helping students to learn from interactive lecture experiment; (2 guiding students to use justified explanation and prediction after observing and exploring a phenomenon; (3 developing a conceptual question sequencedesigned for use in an interactive lecture with students answering questions in worksheets by writing and drawing; (4 evaluating students’ conceptual change and gains by questions related to light reflection, refraction, and image formation in an exam held a week after the active learning session. Data were collected from 95 science freshmen with different secondary school backgrounds. They participated in geometrical optics classes organized for collecting research results during and after only one active learning session.The results have showed that around 60% of the students changed their initial alternative conceptions of vision and of image formation. It was also found that a large group of university students is likely to be engaged in active learning, shifting from a passive role they usually play during teacher’s lectures.
Full Text Available This research is experimental, using first class learning a quantum model of learning with concept maps media and the second media using real environments by power point presentation. The population is all class XI Science, number 2 grade. The sampling technique is done by purposive random sampling. Data collection techniques to test for cognitive performance and memory capabilities, with a questionnaire for creativity. Hypothesis testing using three-way ANOVA different cells with the help of software Minitab 15.Based on the results of data processing, concluded: (1 there is no influence of the quantum model of learning with media learning concept maps and real environments for learning achievement chemistry, (2 there is a high impact memory ability and low on student achievement, (3 there is no the effect of high and low creativity in student performance, (4 there is no interaction learning model quantum media learning concept maps and real environments with memory ability on student achievement, (5 there is no interaction learning model quantum media learning concept maps and real environments with creativity of student achievement, (6 there is no interaction memory skills and creativity of student achievement, (7 there is no interaction learning model quantum media learning concept maps and real environments, memory skills, and creativity on student achievement.
Zehra Taşkın; Güleda Doğan
This study is a review of the book entitled “Science, Technology and Innovation: Concepts, Theory and Policy”. In the converging world, the book is an important contribution not only for the field of economy, but also information science which includes information-economy concepts.
Eijck, van M.W.; Czermak, Charlene M.; Duschl, Richard A.; Kyle, William C.; Sondergeld, Toni
The theory building on conceptual change has led to the paradox that, in order to address teaching-learning processes, research yields an increasingly sophisticated output which alienates the teachers. The aim of this study is to explain the origin of this paradox. Drawing on exemplary data from a
Full Text Available Mikhail Geraskov is a distinguished Bulgarian educator from the first half of the twentieth century, who developed the scientific foundations of didactics and methodology of training. His work contributed a lot to the development of the Bulgarian pedagogy. The subject of scientific research is didactical conceptions and methodological conceptions of learning. The aim of the research paper is to presents his ideas about particular methods of teaching Physics for high school. Geraskov assumes direct correlation between didactics and methodology. This paper focuses on his ideas about design, technology and methodological requirements for lessons of Physics. He believes that the appropriate methods are determined by the curriculum, set of educational goals and age characteristics, and capabilities of adolescents. In his methodical recommendations he focuses on teaching methods and forms that provoke students’ activity. Comparative analysis with publications on the issues set for development of the Bulgarian pedagogic science and the actuality in the modern education system.
Rawson, Katherine A.; Dunlosky, John
Declarative concepts (i.e., key terms and corresponding definitions for abstract concepts) represent foundational knowledge that students learn in many content domains. Thus, investigating techniques to enhance concept learning is of critical importance. Various theoretical accounts support the expectation that example generation will serve this…
This article examines the merits of WebQuests in facilitating students' in-depth understanding of science concepts using the four principles of learning gathered from the National Research Council reports "How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School" (1999) and the "How Students Learn: Science in the Classroom" (2005) as an analytic…
The article raises a problematic issue regarding an insufficient base of the conception of learning outcomes in the Bloom's taxonomy affective domain. The search for solutions introduces the conception of teaching and learning in the affective domain as well as presents validity criteria of learning outcomes in the affective domain. The…
Güven, N. Dilsad; Argün, Ziya
Teaching responsive to the needs of students with learning disabilities (LD) can be provided through understanding students' conceptions and their ways of learning. The current research, as a case study based on qualitative design, aimed to investigate the conceptions of students with learning disabilities with regard to the different…
Student Motivation for Science Learning questionnaire combined with items investigating family experiences. The findings .... decisions and formulate behavioural goals for their ..... science achievement, making interpretation diffi- cult and ...
In this study, the author developed a model to describe academic self-concept (ASC) in science and validated an instrument for its measurement. Unlike previous models of science ASC, which envisage science as a homogenous single global construct, this model took a multidimensional view by conceiving science self-concept as possessing distinctive facets including conceptual and procedural elements. In the first part of the study, data were collected from 1,483 students attending eight secondary schools in England, through the use of a newly devised Secondary Self-Concept Science Instrument, and structural equation modeling was employed to test and validate a model. In the second part of the study, the data were analysed within the new self-concept framework to examine learners' ASC profiles across the domains of science, with particular attention paid to age- and gender-related differences. The study found that the proposed science self-concept model exhibited robust measures of fit and construct validity, which were shown to be invariant across gender and age subgroups. The self-concept profiles were heterogeneous in nature with the component relating to self-concept in physics, being surprisingly positive in comparison to other aspects of science. This outcome is in stark contrast to data reported elsewhere and raises important issues about the nature of young learners' self-conceptions about science. The paper concludes with an analysis of the potential utility of the self-concept measurement instrument as a pedagogical device for science educators and learners of science.
Snow, Catherine E., Ed.; Dibner, Kenne A., Ed.
Science is a way of knowing about the world. At once a process, a product, and an institution, science enables people to both engage in the construction of new knowledge as well as use information to achieve desired ends. Access to science--whether using knowledge or creating it--necessitates some level of familiarity with the enterprise and…
Understanding of NOS (nature of science) appears as a prerequisite of a scientifically literate person. Promoting adequate understanding of NOS in pre-service physics teachers is, therefore, an important task of science educators. Before doing that, science educators must have information concerning their pre-service teachers' conceptions of NOS.…
Yung, Benny Hin Wai; Zhu, Yan; Wong, Siu Ling; Cheng, Man Wai; Lo, Fei Yin
Capitalizing on the comments made by teachers on videos of exemplary science teaching, a video-based survey instrument on the topic of "Density" was developed and used to investigate the conceptions of good science teaching held by 110 teachers and 4,024 year 7 students in Hong Kong. Six dimensions of good science teaching are identified…
Baker, Peter J.; Loe, Tom; Telling, Mark; Cottrell, Stephen P.; Hillier, Adrian D.
As part of the EU-funded project SINE2020 we are developing an online learning environment to introduce people to muon spectroscopy and how it can be applied in a variety of science areas. Currently there are short interactive courses using cosmic ray muons to teach what muons are and how their decays are measured and a guide to analyzing muon data using the Mantid software package, as well as videos from the lectures at the ISIS Muon Spectroscopy Training School 2016. Here we describe the courses that have been developed and how they have already been used.
Chiu, Thomas K. F.; Churchill, Daniel
Literature suggests using multimedia learning principles in the design of instructional material. However, these principles may not be sufficient for the design of learning objects for concept learning in mathematics. This paper reports on an experimental study that investigated the effects of an instructional approach, which includes two teaching…
Bredeweg, B.; Salles, P.; Biswas, G.; Bull, S.; Kay, J.; Mitrovic, A.
Modelling is nowadays a well-established methodology in the sciences, supporting the inquiry and understanding of complex phenomena and systems in the natural, social and artificial worlds. Hence its strong potential as pedagogical approach fostering students' learning of scientific concepts and
Klug Boonstra, S.
With the advent and widespread adoption of virtual connectivity, it is possible for scientists, engineers, and other STEM professionals to reach every place the youth of America learn! Arizona State University's School of Earth and Space Exploration, in planned collaboration with national STEM organizations, agencies, and education partners, are proposing a bold, collaborative, national model that will better enable STEM professionals of all disciplines to meet the needs of their audiences more effectively and efficiently. STEM subject matter experts (SMEs) can bring timely and authentic, real-world examples that engage and motivate learners in the conceptual learning journey presented through formal and informal curricula while also providing a personal face and story of their STEM journey and experience. With over 6.2 million scientists and engineers, 55.6 million PreK-12 students, and 6.3 million community college students in the US, the possible reach, long-term impact, and benefits of the virtual, just-in-time interactions between SMEs, teachers, and students has the potential to provide the missing links of relevancy and real-world application that will engage learners and enhance STEM understanding at a higher, deeper level while having the capacity to do this at a national scale. Providing professional development training for the SMEs will be an essential element in helping them to understand where their STEM work is relevant and appropriate within educational learning progressions. The vision for STEM Connect will be to prepare the STEM SMEs to share their expertise in a way that will show the dynamic and iterative nature of STEM research and design, helping them to bring their STEM expertise to formal and informal learners in a strategic and meaningful way. Discussions with possible STEM Connect collaborators (e.g., national STEM member-based organizations, technology providers, federal agencies, and professional educational organizations) are underway
...). It then presents some of the most widely used data and text mining techniques, including clustering and classification methods, such as nearest neighbor, relational learning models, and genetic...
Shields, Robert F.
Abstract Purpose To determine the self-concepts of chiropractic students as science students and if any personal variable affect their self-concepts. Participants Students in their first trimester and eighth trimester at the Los Angeles College of Chiropractic during the 1993 academic year (n=158). Methods Peterson-Yaakobi Q-Sort, National Assessment of Educational Progress, two-tailed T-test, one way analysis of variance and Spearman-rho correlation. Results The majority of students have positive self- concepts as science students and although there was a difference between the 2 trimesters, it was not significant. As a group they generally had less exposure to science compared to undergraduates from a selected science program. Variables of socio-economic status, undergraduate major, and highest completed level of education did not statistically affect their self-concept. Conclusion Chiropractic students had the self-concept that enables them to subscribe to the philosophical foundations of science and better engage in basic sciences and, later, science-based clinical research. Knowledge of this self- concept can be used in the development of a more rigorous basic science curricula and clinical research programs at chiropractic colleges with the ultimate goal of providing a more firm scientifically based foundation for the profession. PMID:19674649
Martins, Isabel P.; Veiga, Luisa
Argues that science education is a fundamental tool for global education and that it must be introduced in early years as a first step to a scientific culture for all. Describes testing validity of a didactic strategy for developing the learning of concepts, which was based upon an experimental work approach using everyday life contexts. (Author)
Liben, Lynn S.; Kastens, Kim A.; Christensen, Adam E.
To study the role of spatial concepts in science learning, 125 college students with high, medium, or low scores on a horizontality (water-level) spatial task were given information about geological strike and dip using existing educational materials. Participants mapped an outcrop's strike and dip, a rod's orientation, pointed to a distant…
The social situation of development (SSD) specific to each age determines regularly the whole picture of the child's life. Therefore, we need to learn about the whole context surrounding children relevant to their development. The focus of the study is to understand parent's views on infant-toddler's science concept formation in the family…
Atar, Hakan Yavuz; Gallard, Alejandro
In addition to recommending inquiry as the primary approach to teaching science, developers of recent reform efforts in science education have also strongly suggested that teachers develop a sound understanding of the nature of science. Most studies on teachers' NOS conceptions and inquiry beliefs investigated these concepts of teachers' NOS…
Cañas, Alberto J.; Novak, Joseph D.
Concept maps are graphical tools that have been used in all facets of education and training for organizing and representing knowledge. When learners build concept maps, meaningful learning is facilitated. Computer-based concept mapping software such as CmapTools have further extended the use of concept mapping and greatly enhanced the potential of the tool, facilitating the implementation of a concept map-centered learning environment. In this chapter, we briefly present concept mapping and its theoretical foundation, and illustrate how it can lead to an improved learning environment when it is combined with CmapTools and the Internet. We present the nationwide “Proyecto Conéctate al Conocimiento” in Panama as an example of how concept mapping, together with technology, can be adopted by hundreds of schools as a means to enhance meaningful learning.
Brauer, Heike; Wilde, Matthias
Learning beliefs influence learning and teaching. For this reason, teachers and teacher educators need to be aware of them. To support students' knowledge construction, teachers must develop appropriate learning and teaching beliefs. Teachers appear to have difficulties when analysing students' learning. This seems to be due to the inability to differentiate the beliefs about their students' learning from those about their own learning. Both types of beliefs seem to be intertwined. This study focuses on whether pre-service teachers' beliefs about their own learning are identical to those about their students' learning. Using a sample of pre-service teachers, we measured general beliefs about "constructivist" and "transmissive" learning and science-specific beliefs about "connectivity" and "taking pre-concepts into account". We also analysed the development of these four beliefs during teacher professionalisation by comparing beginning and advanced pre-service teachers. Our results show that although pre-service teachers make the distinction between their own learning and the learning of their students for the general tenets of constructivist and transmissive learning, there is no significant difference for science-specific beliefs. The beliefs pre-service teachers hold about their students' science learning remain closely tied to their own.
Van Breukelen, Dave; Van Meel, Adrianus; De Vries, Marc
Background: This study is the second study of a design-based research, organised around four studies, that aims to improve student learning, teaching skills and teacher training concerning the design-based learning approach called Learning by Design (LBD). Purpose: LBD uses the context of design challenges to learn, among other things, science.…
Balaji Bhaskar, M. S.; Rosenzweig, J.; Shishodia, S.
The objective of our activity is to improve the students understanding and interpretation of geospatial science and climate change concepts and its applications in the field of Environmental and Biological Sciences in the College of Science Engineering and Technology (COEST) at Texas Southern University (TSU) in Houston, TX. The courses of GIS for Environment, Ecology and Microbiology were selected for the curriculum infusion. A total of ten GIS hands-on lab modules, along with two NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research) lab modules on climate change were implemented in the "GIS for Environment" course. GIS and Google Earth Labs along with climate change lectures were infused into Microbiology and Ecology courses. Critical thinking and empirical skills of the students were assessed in all the courses. The student learning outcomes of these courses includes the ability of students to interpret the geospatial maps and the student demonstration of knowledge of the basic principles and concepts of GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and climate change. At the end of the courses, students developed a comprehensive understanding of the geospatial data, its applications in understanding climate change and its interpretation at the local and regional scales during multiple years.
Garcia, Juan O.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether mnemonic instruction could assist students in learning fifth-grade science terminology more effectively than traditional-study methods of recall currently in practice The task was to examine if fifth-grade students were able to learn a mnemonic and then use it to understand science vocabulary; subsequently, to determine if students were able to remember the science terms after a period of time. The problem is that in general, elementary school students are not being successful in science achievement at the fifth grade level. In view of this problem, if science performance is increased at the elementary level, then it is likely that students will be successful when tested at the 8th and 10th grade in science with the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) in the future. Two research questions were posited: (1) Is there a difference in recall achievement when a mnemonic such as method of loci, pegword method, or keyword method is used in learning fifth-grade science vocabulary as compared to the traditional-study method? (2) If using a mnemonic in learning fifth-grade science vocabulary was effective on recall achievement, would this achievement be maintained over a span of time? The need for this study was to assist students in learning science terms and concepts for state accountability purposes. The first assumption was that memorization techniques are not commonly applied in fifth-grade science classes in elementary schools. A second assumption was that mnemonic devices could be used successfully in learning science terms and increase long term retention. The first limitation was that the study was conducted on one campus in one school district in South Texas which limited the generalization of the study. The second limitation was that it included random assigned intact groups as opposed to random student assignment to fifth-grade classroom groups.
Shahsavari, Hooman; Zare, Zahra; Parsa-Yekta, Zohreh; Griffiths, Pauline; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba
The nursing student requires opportunities to learn within authentic contexts so as to enable safe and competent practice. One strategy to facilitate such learning is the creation of learning situations. A lack of studies on the learning situation in nursing and other health care fields has resulted in insufficient knowledge of the characteristics of the learning situation, its antecedents, and consequences. Nurse educators need to have comprehensive and practical knowledge of the definition and characteristics of the learning situation so as to enable their students to achieve enhanced learning outcomes. The aim of this study was to clarify the concept of the learning situation as it relates to the education of nurses and improve understanding of its characteristics, antecedents, and consequences. The Bonis method of concept analysis, as derived from the Rodgers' evolutionary method, provided the framework for analysis. Data collection and analysis were undertaken in two phases: "interdisciplinary" and "intra-disciplinary." The data source was a search of the literature, encompassing nursing and allied health care professions, published from 1975 to 2016. No agreement on the conceptual phenomenon was discovered in the international literature. The concept of a learning situation was used generally in two ways and thus classified into the themes of: "formal/informal learning situation" and "biologic/nonbiologic learning situation." Antecedents to the creation of a learning situation included personal and environmental factors. The characteristics of a learning situation were described in terms of being complex, dynamic, and offering potential and effective learning opportunities. Consequences of the learning situation included enhancement of the students' learning, professionalization, and socialization into the professional role. The nurse educator, when considering the application of the concept of a learning situation in their educational planning, must
One often encounters disagreements in information science (IS) (or library and information science, LIS), even disagreements about what might seem rather trivial questions. Such disagreements range from the designation of the field to questions such as whether IS is an academic discipline or not...... terminological hygiene” may account for some of the disagreements, but basically the problem is seen as a lack of sufficient strong centripetal tendencies keeping the field together....
Research on learning science in informal settings and the formal (sometimes experimental) study of learning in classrooms or psychological laboratories tend to be separate domains, even drawing on different theories and methods. These differences make it difficult to compare knowing and learning observed in one paradigm/context with those observed in the other. Even more interestingly, the scientists studying science learning rarely consider their own learning in relation to the phenomena they study. A dialectical, reflexive approach to learning, however, would theorize the movement of an educational science (its learning and development) as a special and general case—subject matter and method—of the phenomenon of learning (in/of) science. In the dialectical approach to the study of science learning, therefore, subject matter, method, and theory fall together. This allows for a perspective in which not only disparate fields of study—school science learning and learning in everyday life—are integrated but also where the progress in the science of science learning coincides with its topic. Following the articulation of a contradictory situation on comparing learning in different settings, I describe the dialectical approach. As a way of providing a concrete example, I then trace the historical movement of my own research group as it simultaneously and alternately studied science learning in formal and informal settings. I conclude by recommending cultural-historical, dialectical approaches to learning and interaction analysis as a context for fruitful interdisciplinary research on science learning within and across different settings.
DiBenedetto, Christina M.
This study is the first of its kind to explore the thoughts, beliefs, attitudes and values of secondary educators as they experience conceptual change in their understanding of the nature of science learning vis a vis the Framework for K-12 Science Education published by the National Research Council. The study takes aim at the existing gap between the vision for science learning as an active process of inquiry and current pedagogical practices in K-12 science classrooms. For students to understand and explain everyday science ideas and succeed in science studies and careers, the means by which they learn science must change. Focusing on this change, the study explores the significance of educator attitudes, beliefs and values to science learning through interpretive phenomenological analysis around the central question, "In what ways do educators understand and articulate attitudes and beliefs toward the nature of science learning?" The study further explores the questions, "How do educators experience changes in their understanding of the nature of science learning?" and "How do educators believe these changes influence their pedagogical practice?" Study findings converge on four conceptions that science learning: is the action of inquiry; is a visible process initiated by both teacher and learner; values student voice and changing conceptions is science learning. These findings have implications for the primacy of educator beliefs, attitudes and values in reform efforts, science teacher leadership and the explicit instruction of both Nature of Science and conceptual change in educator preparation programs. This study supports the understanding that the nature of science learning is cognitive and affective conceptual change. Keywords: conceptual change, educator attitudes and beliefs, framework for K-12 science education, interpretive phenomenological analysis, nature of science learning, next generation science standards, science professional development
Full Text Available Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan science mobile learning berwawasan konservasi berbasis android app inventor yang teruji baik dan mengetahui respon pengguna terhadap aplikasi science mobile learning sebagai suplemen materi pembelajaran berbasis mobile. Metodologi yang digunakan dalam pembuatan aplikasi ini ialah metodologi waterfall. Aplikasi science mobile leraning berwawasan konservasi ini diharapkan dapat membantu siswa secara khusus dan masyarakat ilmiah secara umum untuk mendapatkan kemudahan belajar konsep sains menggunakan perangkat smartphone tanpa harus mencetak mengunakan kertas (paperless. Aplikasi science mobile learning dilengkapi dengan fitur pendukung yaitu gambar, video dan quiz. Simpulan dalam penelitian ini yaitu telah dihasilkan aplikasi science mobile learning berwawasan konservasi layak digunakan untuk belajar konsep sains dan upaya pengurangan penggunaan kertas (paperless, aplikasi science mobile learning mendapatkan respon baik dari masyarakat pengguna terkait kemudahan akses, kesesuaian fitur dan konten sains, serta pemanfaatannya yang mendukung pengurangan penggunaan kertas. Abstract The purpose of this research was to develop science mobile learning conservation vission based on android app inventor well tested and find out the user response to the application of mobile learning science as a supplement materials of learning mobile based. The methodology used in the making of this application is the waterfall methodology. Science mobile learning applications conservation vission is expected to help the students in particular and the scientific community in general to get the ease of learning science concepts using a Smartphone device without having to print using paper (paperless. Applications of science mobile learning include by supporting features of images, videos and quizzes. The conclusions in this research that has generated the application of science mobile learning conservation vision
Tomazic, Iztok; Vidic, Tatjana
The concepts of diffusion and osmosis cross the disciplinary boundaries of physics, chemistry and biology. They are important for understanding how biological systems function. Since future (pre-service) science teachers in Slovenia encounter both concepts at physics, chemistry and biology courses during their studies, we assessed the first-,…
Experimentation of cooperative learning model Numbered Heads Together (NHT) type by concept maps and Teams Games Tournament (TGT) by concept maps in terms of students logical mathematics intellegences
Irawan, Adi; Mardiyana; Retno Sari Saputro, Dewi
This research is aimed to find out the effect of learning model towards learning achievement in terms of students’ logical mathematics intelligences. The learning models that were compared were NHT by Concept Maps, TGT by Concept Maps, and Direct Learning model. This research was pseudo experimental by factorial design 3×3. The population of this research was all of the students of class XI Natural Sciences of Senior High School in all regency of Karanganyar in academic year 2016/2017. The conclusions of this research were: 1) the students’ achievements with NHT learning model by Concept Maps were better than students’ achievements with TGT model by Concept Maps and Direct Learning model. The students’ achievements with TGT model by Concept Maps were better than the students’ achievements with Direct Learning model. 2) The students’ achievements that exposed high logical mathematics intelligences were better than students’ medium and low logical mathematics intelligences. The students’ achievements that exposed medium logical mathematics intelligences were better than the students’ low logical mathematics intelligences. 3) Each of student logical mathematics intelligences with NHT learning model by Concept Maps has better achievement than students with TGT learning model by Concept Maps, students with NHT learning model by Concept Maps have better achievement than students with the direct learning model, and the students with TGT by Concept Maps learning model have better achievement than students with Direct Learning model. 4) Each of learning model, students who have logical mathematics intelligences have better achievement then students who have medium logical mathematics intelligences, and students who have medium logical mathematics intelligences have better achievement than students who have low logical mathematics intelligences.
Macbeth, Thomas G.; Dery, George C.
The presentation of topics in calculus and matrix algebra to second semester freshmen along with a treatment of exponential and power functions would permit them to cope with a significant portion of the mathematical concepts that comprise the essence of several disciplines in a business school curriculum. (Author)
The integration of agricultural and science curricular content that capitalizes on natural and inherent connections represents a challenge for secondary agricultural educators. The purpose of this case study was to create information about the employment of Cooperative Learning Groups (CLG) to enhance the science integrating learning objectives…
Following Hurricane Sandy's impact on the mid-Atlantic region, President Obama established a Task Force to '...ensure that the Federal Government continues to provide appropriate resources to support affected State, local, and tribal communities to improve the region's resilience, health, and prosperity by building for the future.' The author was detailed from NOAA to the Task Force between January and June 2013. As the Task Force and others began to take stock of the region's needs and develop plans to address them, many diverse approaches emerged from different areas of expertise including: infrastructure, management and construction, housing, public health, and others. Decision making in this environment was complex with many interests and variables to consider and balance. Although often relevant, science and technical expertise was not always at the forefront of this process. This talk describes the author's experience with the Sandy Task Force focusing on organizing scientific expertise to support the work of the Task Force. This includes a description of federal activity supporting Sandy recovery efforts, the role of the Task Force, and lessons learned from developing a science support function within the Task Force.
Armoni, Michal; Gal-Ezer, Judith
Non-determinism is one of the most important, yet abstract, recurring concepts of Computer Science. It plays an important role in Computer Science areas such as formal language theory, computability theory, distributed computing, and operating systems. We conducted a series of studies on the perception of non-determinism. In the current research,…
Levy Nahum, Tami; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Taber, Keith S.
Chemical bonding is one of the key and basic concepts in chemistry. The learning of many of the concepts taught in chemistry, in both secondary schools as well as in the colleges, is dependent upon understanding fundamental ideas related to chemical bonding. Nevertheless, the concept is perceived by teachers, as well as by learners, as difficult,…
Ferreira, Sílvia; Morais, Ana M.
The article shows methods and concepts of analysis of the nature of science in science curricula through an exemplary study made in Portugal. The study analyses the extent to which the message transmitted by the Natural Science curriculum for Portuguese middle school considers the nature of science. It is epistemologically and sociologically…
Perin, Suzanne Marie
By first recognizing the valuable social and scientific practices taking place within families as they learn science together across multiple, everyday settings, this dissertation addresses questions of how to design and scaffold activities that build and expand on those practices to foster a deep understanding of science, and how the aesthetic experience of learning science builds connections across educational settings. Families were invited to visit a natural history museum, an aquarium, and a place or activity of the family's choice that they associated with science learning. Some families were asked to use a set of activities during their study visits based on the practices of science (National Research Council, 2012), which were delivered via smartphone app or on paper cards. I use design-based research, video data analysis and interaction analysis to examine how families build connections between informal science learning settings. Chapter 2 outlines the research-based design process of creating activities for families that fostered connections across multiple learning settings, regardless of the topical content of those settings. Implications of this study point to means for linking everyday family social practices such as questioning, observing, and disagreeing to the practices of science through activities that are not site-specific. The next paper delves into aesthetic experience of science learning, and I use video interaction analysis and linguistic analysis to show how notions of beauty and pleasure (and their opposites) are perfused throughout learning activity. Designing for aesthetic experience overtly -- building on the sensations of enjoyment and pleasure in the learning experience -- can motivate those who might feel alienated by the common conception of science as merely a dispassionate assembly of facts, discrete procedures or inaccessible theory. The third paper, a case study of a family who learns about salmon in each of the sites they visit
Melville, Wayne; Campbell, Todd; Jones, Doug
In this article, we have considered the role of the chair in leading the learning necessary for a department to become effective in the teaching and learning of science from a reformed perspective. We conceptualize the phrase "leading learning" to mean the chair's constitution of influence, power, and authority to intentionally impact…
Haygood, E. Langston; Iran-Nejad, Asghar
Three learning modules are described and investigated as they reflect different students' conceptions of and approaches to learning. The Schoolwork Module (SWM) focuses on task performance and involves a passive, incremental, piecemeal, and rote memory method of learning, parallel to what might be implied by the Information Processing model of…
Birmingham, Daniel J.
School science continues to fail to engage youth from non-dominant communities (Carlone, Huan-Frank & Webb, 2011). However, recent research demonstrates that informal science learning settings support both knowledge gains and increased participation in science among youth from non-dominant communities (Dierking, 2007; Falk et al., 2007; HFRP,…
M. A. Shepyelyev
Full Text Available The article discusses the main conceptual approaches to understanding the nature and patterns of functioning and development of hegemony in international relations. Analysed the contribution to the development of research hegemony in international relations, which has made the school world-system analysis. According to its founder F. Braudel, the hegemony of the world is a manifestation of inequality, the latter reveals the structural realities that are approved very slowly, very slowly disappear. The concept of a follower of Fernand Braudel, Emmanuel Wallerstein, according to which the hegemony reflects the ability of a particular state to make one part of the international system to its customers, and the second - to drive into a defensive position. The development of the «modern world-system» is defined by Wallerstein changes hegemony. Wallerstein argues that the State has the ability to create a stable geopolitical system of unequal social division of powers, which are part of the normal functioning of the capitalist world-economy. It is also noted that the pattern of ups and downs of world leaders - hegemony - are considered in the research of many scientists, including George Modelski. He develops a theory about hundred-year cycle of global leadership, using the term «selection» to describe the process of competition and the adoption of this role. Among the concepts of hegemony also highlighted the Charles Krauthammer’s conception of monopolarity, on which the present geopolitical structure of the world after the «cold war» - one pole of world power , consisting of the United States as the top of the industrial West. Analyzed the Piter Taylor’s conception of global hegemony, which distinguishes the competitive and non-competitive era, successive, and the Nail Ferguson’s conception of imperialism. The paper shows that the problem of hegemony in the 70-th years passed from the purely theoretical plane into practical politics
Development of e-learning courseware differs in many ways from conventional teaching, for example in terms of the role of tutors and students. Not all contents are suitable for e-learning; the construction of interactive graphs and complex animations is time-consuming and should be efficient and advantageous over an in-class lectures. Learning goals and tests are more important in e-learning than in conventional teaching; tests may be conditional, i.e. progression may be made dependent on successful completion of a test. Prior to production of an e-learning course, it is advised to develop a didactical concept, especially if e-learning strategies are missing in an organisation. The expectations on readily available pedagogical guidelines and didactic concepts from the point of view of science content providers are high. Here, concepts of e-pedagogy are introduced, and the highlights of a Didactical User Guide for E-Learning produced by Berne University, Switzerland and published by h.e.p. Publ. Switzerland in fall 2002 are presented. Selected didactic elements such as interactivity, communication, role of tutor and student are illustrated with an e-learning course on tropospheric ozone.
Nadolny, Larysa; Woolfrey, Joan; Pierlott, Matthew; Kahn, Seth
Learning in immersive 3D environments allows students to collaborate, build, and interact with difficult course concepts. This case study examines the design and development of the TransGen Island within the SciEthics Interactive project, a National Science Foundation-funded, 3D virtual world emphasizing learning science content in the context of…
Potkonjak, Veljko; Jovanovic, Kosta; Holland, Owen; Uhomoibhi, James
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an improved concept of software-based laboratory exercises, namely a Virtual Laboratory for Engineering Sciences (VLES). Design/methodology/approach: The implementation of distance learning and e-learning in engineering sciences (such as Mechanical and Electrical Engineering) is still far behind…
Ropohl, Mathias; Nielsen, Jan Alexis; Olley, Christopher
. In contrast to earlier ed-ucational goals that focused more on basic skills and knowledge expectations, competences are more functionally oriented. They involve the ability to solve complex problems in a particular context, e.g. in vocational or everyday situations. In science, technology, and mathematics...... education, the concept of competence is closely linked to the concept of literacy. Apart from these rather cognitive and af-fective perspectives influenced by the need to assess students’ achievement of de-sired learning goals in relation to their interest and motivation, the perspectives of the concept...
Informal Science Learning (ISL) is a policy narrative of interest in the United Kingdom and abroad. This paper explores how a group of English secondary school science teachers, enacted ISL science clubs through employing the Periodic Table of Videos. It examines how these teachers "battled" to enact ISL policy in performative conditions…
Simmons, Jerry Marvin
The ability of students to transfer concepts learned in school to future learning and employment settings is critical to their academic and career success. Concept transfer can best be studied by defining it as a process rather than an isolated event. Preparation for future learning (PFL) is a process definition of transfer which recognizes the student's ability to draw from past experiences, make assumptions, and generate potential questions and strategies for problem resolution. The purpose of this study was to use the PFL definition of concept transfer to examine whether a knowledge-rich outdoor setting better prepares students for future learning of science concepts than the classroom setting alone does. The research hypothesis was that sixth-grade students experiencing a geology-rich outdoor setting would be better prepared to learn advanced earth science concepts than students experiencing classroom learning only. A quasi-experimental research design was used for this study on two non-equivalent, self-contained sixth-grade rural public school classes. After a pretest was given on prior geology knowledge, the outdoor treatment group was taken on a geology-rich field excursion which introduced them to the concepts of mineral formation and mining. The indoor treatment group received exposure to the same concepts in the classroom setting via color slides and identification of mineral specimens. Subsequently, both groups received direct instruction on advanced concepts about mineral formation and mining. They were then given a posttest, which presented the students with a problem-solving scenario and questions related to concepts covered in the direct instruction. A t-test done on pretest data revealed that the indoor treatment group had previously learned classroom geology material significantly better than the outdoor treatment group had. Therefore an analysis of covariance was performed on posttest data which showed that the outdoor treatment group was better
Hafiz, M.; Kadir, Fatra, Maifalinda
The concept mapping learning strategy in teaching and learning mathematics has been investigated by numerous researchers. However, there are still less researchers who have scrutinized about the roles of map concept which is connected to the mathematical connection ability. Being well understood on map concept, it may help students to have ability to correlate one concept to other concept in order that the student can solve mathematical problems faced. The objective of this research was to describe the student's mathematical connection ability and to analyze the effect of using concept mapping learning strategy to the students' mathematical connection ability. This research was conducted at senior high school in Jakarta. The method used a quasi-experimental with randomized control group design with the total number was 72 students as the sample. Data obtained through using test in the post-test after giving the treatment. The results of the research are: 1) Students' mathematical connection ability has reached the good enough level category; 2) Students' mathematical connection ability who had taught with concept mapping learning strategy is higher than who had taught with conventional learning strategy. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that concept mapping learning strategycould enhance the students' mathematical connection ability, especially in trigonometry.
Balim, Ali Günay
The study aims to investigate the effects of using mind maps and concept maps on students' learning of concepts in science courses. A total of 51 students participated in this study which used a quasi-experimental research design with pre-test/post-test control groups. The constructivist-inspired study was carried out in the sixth-grade science…
von Luxburg, Ulrike; Schoelkopf, Bernhard
Statistical learning theory provides the theoretical basis for many of today's machine learning algorithms. In this article we attempt to give a gentle, non-technical overview over the key ideas and insights of statistical learning theory. We target at a broad audience, not necessarily machine learning researchers. This paper can serve as a starting point for people who want to get an overview on the field before diving into technical details.
Learning in the library should present opportunities to enrich student learning activities to address concerns of interest and cognitive complexity, but these must be tasks that call for in-depth analysis--not merely gathering facts. Library learning experiences need to demand enough of students to keep them interested and also need to be…
Chiu, Chiung-Fang; Lee, Greg C.
The current practice of traditional in-class lecture for learning computer science (CS) in the high schools of Taiwan is in need of revamping. Teachers instruct on the use of commercial software instead of teaching CS concepts to students. The lack of more suitable teaching materials and limited classroom time are the main reasons for the…
Gerstner, Sabine; Bogner, Franz X.
Our study monitored the cognitive and motivational effects within different educational instruction schemes: On the one hand, teacher-centred versus hands-on instruction; on the other hand, hands-on instruction with and without a knowledge consolidation phase (concept mapping). All the instructions dealt with the same content. For all participants, the hands-on approach as well as the concept mapping adaptation were totally new. Our hands-on approach followed instruction based on "learning at work stations". A total of 397 high-achieving fifth graders participated in our study. We used a pre-test, post-test, retention test design both to detect students' short-term learning success and long-term learning success, and to document their decrease rates of newly acquired knowledge. Additionally, we monitored intrinsic motivation. Although the teacher-centred approach provided higher short-term learning success, hands-on instruction resulted in relatively lower decrease rates. However, after six weeks, all students reached similar levels of newly acquired knowledge. Nevertheless, concept mapping as a knowledge consolidation phase positively affected short-term increase in knowledge. Regularly placed in instruction, it might increase long-term retention rates. Scores of interest, perceived competence and perceived choice were very high in all the instructional schemes.
Digital texts which are based on hypertext and hypermedia technologies are now being used to support science learning. Hypertext offers certain opportunities for learning as well as difficulties that challenge readers to become metacognitively aware of their navigation decisions in order to trade both meaning and structure while reading. The goal of this study was to investigate whether supporting sixth grade students to monitor and regulate their navigation behavior while reading from hypertext would lead to better navigation and learning. Metanavigation support in the form of prompts was provided to groups of students who used a hypertext system called CoMPASS to complete a design challenge. The metanavigation prompts aimed at encouraging students to understand the affordances of the navigational aids in CoMPASS and use them to guide their navigation. The study was conducted in a real classroom setting during the implementation of CoMPASS in sixth grade science classes. Multiple sources of group and individual data were collected and analyzed. Measures included student's individual performance in a pre-science knowledge test, the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI), a reading comprehension test and a concept map test. Process measures included log file information that captured group navigation paths during the use of CoMPASS. The results suggested that providing metanavigation support enabled the groups to make coherent transitions among the text units. Findings also revealed that reading comprehension, presence of metanavigation support and prior domain knowledge significantly predicted students' individual understanding of science. Implications for hypertext design and literacy research fields are discussed.
Olson, Joanne K.; Bruxvoort, Crystal N.; Vande Haar, Andrea J.
Little is known about how the content of a video case influences what preservice teachers learn about science teaching. This study was designed to determine the impact of two different video cases on preservice elementary teachers' conceptions of multiple aspects of effective science teaching, with one video selected to focus attention on the role…
Haug, Berit S.; Ødegaard, Marianne
This qualitative video study explores how two elementary school teachers taught for conceptual understanding throughout different phases of science inquiry. The teachers implemented teaching materials with a focus on learning science key concepts through the development of word knowledge. A framework for word knowledge was applied to examine the…
based on educational informatics. I shall draw your attention to the fact that in information sciences an ontology is described as an explicit (and formal) specification of a shared conceptualisation on the domain of interest. Ontologies of a thing/phenomenon support different researchers in providing......Learning is the reflective activity that enables the learner to draw upon her/his previous experiences and background knowledge to conceptualise, realise, understand and evaluate the present, so as to shape her/his future actions and to construct and develop new knowledge for her(him)self. Learning....... This research will conceptually focus on multiple categories through the adult learners’ developing conceptions of learning. The focus will be on different categories from the basic conceptions to excellent ones. I will take an appropriate model of students’ developing conceptions of learning into my...
Flott, Elizabeth A; Linden, Lois
The aim of this study was to report an analysis of the clinical learning environment concept. Nursing students are evaluated in clinical learning environments where skills and knowledge are applied to patient care. These environments affect achievement of learning outcomes, and have an impact on preparation for practice and student satisfaction with the nursing profession. Providing clarity of this concept for nursing education will assist in identifying antecedents, attributes and consequences affecting student transition to practice. The clinical learning environment was investigated using Walker and Avant's concept analysis method. A literature search was conducted using WorldCat, MEDLINE and CINAHL databases using the keywords clinical learning environment, clinical environment and clinical education. Articles reviewed were written in English and published in peer-reviewed journals between 1995-2014. All data were analysed for recurring themes and terms to determine possible antecedents, attributes and consequences of this concept. The clinical learning environment contains four attribute characteristics affecting student learning experiences. These include: (1) the physical space; (2) psychosocial and interaction factors; (3) the organizational culture and (4) teaching and learning components. These attributes often determine achievement of learning outcomes and student self-confidence. With better understanding of attributes comprising the clinical learning environment, nursing education programmes and healthcare agencies can collaborate to create meaningful clinical experiences and enhance student preparation for the professional nurse role. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sri Rosepda Sebayang
Full Text Available This study aims: 1 to determine whether the student learning outcomes using discovery learning is better than conventional learning 2 To determine whether the learning outcomes of students who have a high initial concept understanding better then of low initial concept understanding, and 3 to determine the effect of interaction discovery learning and understanding of the initial concept of the learning outcomes of students. The samples in this study was taken by cluster random sampling two classes where class X PIA 3 as a class experiment with applying discovery learning and class X PIA 2 as a control class by applying conventional learning. The instrument used in this study is a test of learning outcomes in the form of multiple-choice comprehension test initial concept description form. The results of research are: 1 learning outcomes of students who were taught with discovery learning is better than the learning outcomes of students who are taught by conventional learning, 2 student learning outcomes with high initial conceptual understanding better than the learning outcomes of students with low initial conceptual understanding, and 3 there was no interaction between discovery learning and understanding of initial concepts for the student learning outcomes.
Dilek Sezgin MEMNUN
Full Text Available Probability holds the first place among the subjects that both teachers and students have difficulty in handling. Although probability has an important role in many professions and a great many decisions we make for our daily lives, the understanding of the probability concepts is not an easy ability to gain for many students. Most of the students develop perception about lots of probability concepts and they have difficulty finding a reason for probability events. Thus, in the present study, the difficulties faced while learning probability concepts and the reasons why these concepts cannot be learned well are investigated, these reasons are tried to be put forward, and some suggestions for solutions regarding these concepts are presented. In this study, cross-hatching model was used. National and international studies on the subject of probability are investigated, the reasons why these concepts cannot be learned were categorized in the light of findings obtained, and the reasons why these concepts cannot be learned and taught are tried to be discovered. The categorization was displayed with Ishikawa diagram. In the diagram, the reasons why these concepts cannot be learned were noted as six categories. These categories were age, the insufficiency of advanced information, the deficiency of argumentation ability, teacher, error in concept, and students’ negative attitudes.
Fenichel, Marilyn; Schweingruber, Heidi A.
Practitioners in informal science settings--museums, after-school programs, science and technology centers, media enterprises, libraries, aquariums, zoos, and botanical gardens--are interested in finding out what learning looks like, how to measure it, and what they can do to ensure that people of all ages, from different backgrounds and cultures,…
Corin, Elysa N.; Jones, M. Gail; Andre, Thomas; Childers, Gina M.; Stevens, Vanessa
Science hobbyists engage in self-directed, free-choice science learning and many have considerable expertise in their hobby area. This study focused on astronomy and birding hobbyists and examined how they used organizations to support their hobby engagement. Interviews were conducted with 58 amateur astronomers and 49 birders from the midwestern…
Smith, Tony C; Frank, Eibe
This chapter presents an introduction to data mining with machine learning. It gives an overview of various types of machine learning, along with some examples. It explains how to download, install, and run the WEKA data mining toolkit on a simple data set, then proceeds to explain how one might approach a bioinformatics problem. Finally, it includes a brief summary of machine learning algorithms for other types of data mining problems, and provides suggestions about where to find additional information.
Glick, Marilyn Petty
This research examines the impact of classroom anchoring activities on elementary school students' science learning from a school field trip. Although there is prior research demonstrating that students can learn science from school field trips, most of this research is descriptive in nature and does not examine the conditions that enhance or facilitate such learning. The current study draws upon research in psychology and education to create an intervention that is designed to enhance what students learn from school science field trips. The intervention comprises of a set of "anchoring" activities that include: (1) Orientation to context, (2) Discussion to activate prior knowledge and generate questions, (3) Use of field notebooks during the field trip to record observations and answer questions generated prior to field trip, (4) Post-visit discussion of what was learned. The effects of the intervention are examined by comparing two groups of students: an intervention group which receives anchoring classroom activities related to their field trip and an equivalent control group which visits the same field trip site for the same duration but does not receive any anchoring classroom activities. Learning of target concepts in both groups was compared using objective pre and posttests. Additionally, a subset of students in each group were interviewed to obtain more detailed descriptive data on what children learned through their field trip.
Meltzoff, Andrew N; Kuhl, Patricia K; Movellan, Javier; Sejnowski, Terrence J
Human learning is distinguished by the range and complexity of skills that can be learned and the degree of abstraction that can be achieved compared with those of other species. Homo sapiens is also the only species that has developed formal ways to enhance learning: teachers, schools, and curricula. Human infants have an intense interest in people and their behavior and possess powerful implicit learning mechanisms that are affected by social interaction. Neuroscientists are beginning to understand the brain mechanisms underlying learning and how shared brain systems for perception and action support social learning. Machine learning algorithms are being developed that allow robots and computers to learn autonomously. New insights from many different fields are converging to create a new science of learning that may transform educational practices.
Gomes, Judith; Fleer, Marilyn
There are a growing number of studies that have examined science learning for preschool children. Some research has looked into children's home experiences and some has focused on transition, practices, routines, and traditions in preschool contexts. However, little attention has been directed to the relationship between children's learning experiences at preschool and at home, and how this relationship can assist in the development of science concepts relevant to everyday life. In drawing upon Hedegaard's (Learning and child development, 2002) cultural-historical conception of motives and Vygotsky's (The collected works of L.S. Vygotsky: problems of general psychology, 1987) theory of everyday and scientific concept formation, the study reported in this paper examines one child, Jimmy (4.2 years), and his learning experiences at home and at preschool. Data gathering featured the video recording of 4 weeks of Jimmy's learning in play at home and at preschool (38.5 h), parent questionnaire and interviews, and researcher and family gathered video observations of home play with his parents (3.5 h). Findings show how a scientific motive develops through playful everyday learning moments at home and at preschool when scientific play narratives and resources are aligned. The study contributes to a more nuanced understanding of the science learning of young children and a conception of pedagogy that takes into account the reciprocity of home and school contexts for learning science.
Full Text Available This article presents the evolution of philosophical and methodological considerations concerning empiricism in computer/computing science. In this study, we trace the most important current events in the history of reflection on computing. The forerunners of Artificial Intelligence H.A. Simon and A. Newell in their paper Computer Science As Empirical Inquiry (1975 started these considerations. Later the concept of empirical computer science was developed by S.S. Shapiro, P. Wegner, A.H. Eden and P.J. Denning. They showed various empirical aspects of computing. This led to a view of the science of computing (or science of information processing - the science of general scope. Some interesting contemporary ways towards a generalized perspective on computations were also shown (e.g. natural computing.
del Carmen Gomez, María
The current paper draws on data generated through group interviews with students who were involved in a larger ethnographic research project performed in three science classrooms. The purpose of the study from which this data was generated, was to understand science teachers' assessment practices in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. During group interviews students were asked about their conceptions of what were the assessment priority of teachers, why the students were silent during lecturing and their experiences regarding peer- and self-assessments. The research design and analysis of the findings derives from what students told us about their assessments and learning sciences experiences. Students related that besides the results of the written test, they do not know what else teachers assessed and used to determine their grades. It was also found that students did not participate in the discussion on science because of peer-pressure and a fear of disappointing their peers. Student silence is also linked with student conceptions of science learning and student experiences with methodologies of teaching and learning sciences.
Poels, Yorick; Annema, Jan Henk; Zaman, Bieke; Cornillie, Frederik
This paper will report on an ongoing project which aims to develop video games for language learning through a user-centered and evidence-based approach. Therefore, codesign sessions were held with adolescents between 14 and 16 years old, in order to gain insight into their preferences for educational games for language learning. During these sessions, 11 concepts for video games were developed. We noticed a divide between the concepts for games that were oriented towa...
Raviv, Ayala; Cohen, Sarit; Aflalo, Ester
Despite the inherent potential of cooperative learning, there has been very little research into its effectiveness in middle school laboratory classes. This study focuses on an empirical comparison between cooperative learning and individual learning in the school science laboratory, evaluating the quality of learning and the students' attitudes. The research included 67 seventh-grade students who undertook four laboratory experiments on the subject of "volume measuring skills." Each student engaged both in individual and cooperative learning in the laboratory, and the students wrote individual or group reports, accordingly. A total of 133 experiment reports were evaluated, 108 of which also underwent textual analysis. The findings show that the group reports were superior, both in terms of understanding the concept of "volume" and in terms of acquiring skills for measuring volume. The students' attitudes results were statistically significant and demonstrated that they preferred cooperative learning in the laboratory. These findings demonstrate that science teachers should be encouraged to implement cooperative learning in the laboratory. This will enable them to improve the quality and efficiency of laboratory learning while using a smaller number of experimental kits. Saving these expenditures, together with the possibility to teach a larger number of students simultaneously in the laboratory, will enable greater exposure to learning in the school science laboratory.
Alberida, H.; Lufri; Festiyed; Barlian, E.
This research aims to develop problem solving model for science learning in junior high school. The learning model was developed using the ADDIE model. An analysis phase includes curriculum analysis, analysis of students of SMP Kota Padang, analysis of SMP science teachers, learning analysis, as well as the literature review. The design phase includes product planning a science-learning problem-solving model, which consists of syntax, reaction principle, social system, support system, instructional impact and support. Implementation of problem-solving model in science learning to improve students' science process skills. The development stage consists of three steps: a) designing a prototype, b) performing a formative evaluation and c) a prototype revision. Implementation stage is done through a limited trial. A limited trial was conducted on 24 and 26 August 2015 in Class VII 2 SMPN 12 Padang. The evaluation phase was conducted in the form of experiments at SMPN 1 Padang, SMPN 12 Padang and SMP National Padang. Based on the development research done, the syntax model problem solving for science learning at junior high school consists of the introduction, observation, initial problems, data collection, data organization, data analysis/generalization, and communicating.
Full Text Available European Union has started an education & training initiative under the umbrella of lifelong learning to achieve the 2020 Agenda targets. Th is initiative has nearly half of a century time horizon, and all designed policies and measures have been consolidated under this initiative. Turkish Education authorities have been monitoring this European eff ort closely and made important legal and institutional regulations in recent couple of years. Th is study examines the primary aspects of lifelong learning in detail: conceptual and philosophical background; recognition strategies; the place of formal, non-formal and informal learning in the lifelong learning approach; financing and measurement ways of lifelong learning; and variety of perspectives of international institutions. In addition, education and training strategy of the Europe’s 2020 vision of lifelong learning is also evaluated in detail. Th e human resources vision of the Europe considers education, occupation and economic activities together to allow authorities to plan the future of the European societies. Th e updating mechanisms of this approach are designed both domestically at national and internationally at European levels. It is concluded, in this study, that the lifelong learning policy and implementation of the Europe should be taken as benchmark.
Hsieh, ChengTu; Smith, Jeremy D.; Bohne, Michael; Knudson, Duane
The purpose of this study was to replicate and expand a previous study to identify the factors that affect students' learning of biomechanical concepts. Students were recruited from three universities (N = 149) located in the central and western regions of the United States. Data from 142 students completing the Biomechanics Concept Inventory…
Maree, A.J.; Bruggen, van J.M.; Jochems, W.M.G.; Cañas, A.J.; Novak, J.D.; Vanhear, J.
Abstract. There has been significant interest among researchers in the instructional use of concept maps and collaboration scripts. Some studies focus on students' collaboration on concept mapping tasks; others focus on scripts to structure learning tasks and guide interactions. Little is known
Walsh, Lori; Straits, William
In this article the authors share advice from the viewpoints of both a formal and informal educator that will help teachers identify the right Informal Science Institutions (ISIs)--institutions that specialize in learning that occurs outside of the school setting--to maximize their students' learning and use informal education to their…
Rowe, Elizabeth; Baker, Ryan S.; Asbell-Clarke, Jodi
Educational games have the potential to be innovative forms of learning assessment, by allowing us to not just study their knowledge but the process that takes students to that knowledge. This paper examines the mediating role of players' moves in digital games on changes in their pre-post classroom measures of implicit science learning. We…
Full Text Available There are many reasons for students of Sport Science to use English. Yet, knowing the importance of learning English is sometimes not enough to encourage them to learn English well. Based on the experience in teaching them, erroneous belief seems to be held by many of them. It arouses curiosity about the beliefs which might be revealed to help the students to be successful in language learning. By investigating sport science students‘ beliefs about language learning, it is expected that types of the beliefs which they hold can be revealed. Understanding students‘ beliefs about language learning is essential because these beliefs can have possible consequences for second language learning and instruction. This study is expected to provide empirical evidence. The subjects of this study were 1st semester students majoring in Sport Science of Sport Science Faculty. There were 4 classes with 38 students in each class. There were approximately 152 students as the population of the study. The sample was taken by using random sampling. All members of the population received the questionnaire. The questionnaire which was later handed back to the researcher is considered as the sample. The instrument in this study is the newest version of Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI, version 2.0, developed by Horwitz to asses the beliefs about learning a foreign language.
Kaufman, Barry A
Describes five aspects of learning as applied to science instruction. Learning readiness, meaningfulness of material, activity and passivity, motivation, and transfer of training are presented in relation to psychological views stated by Ausubel, Bruner, Gagne, Hendrix, Karplus, Piaget, and Suchman. Views given by Gagne and Karplus are considered…
The focus of the study has been on students' conceptions of learning in three South African Technikons amidst the changing circumstances of teaching and learning from subject-based to outcomes-based education. First-year students face a particular measure of unpreparedness as they graduate from a conventional high ...
Peters, Pam; Smith, Adam; Middledorp, Jenny; Karpin, Anne; Sin, Samantha; Kilgore, Alan
This paper describes a terminological approach to the teaching and learning of fundamental concepts in foundation tertiary units in Statistics and Accounting, using an online dictionary-style resource (TermFinder) with customised "termbanks" for each discipline. Designed for independent learning, the termbanks support inquiring students…
Sicilia, Miguel-Angel, Ed.
"Competencies in Organizational E-Learning: Concepts and Tools" provides a comprehensive view of the way competencies can be used to drive organizational e-learning, including the main conceptual elements, competency gap analysis, advanced related computing topics, the application of semantic Web technologies, and the integration of competencies…
Charungkaittikul, Suwithida; Henschke, John A.
Today, the world is changing, re-establishing the role of education to have a developed society. This article aims to explore the practical application of Andragogy as a key element for creating a sustainable lifelong learning society, to propose strategies for developing a lifelong learning society using andragogical concepts, to enhance…
Leithwood, Kenneth; Patten, Sarah; Jantzi, Doris
Purpose: This article describes and reports the results of testing a new conception of how leadership influences student learning ("The Four Paths"). Framework: Leadership influence is conceptualized as flowing along four paths (Rational, Emotions, Organizational, and Family) toward student learning. Each path is populated by multiple…
Schmitz, Birgit; Czauderna, André; Klemke, Roland; Specht, Marcus
Schmitz, B., Czauderna, A., Klemke, R., & Specht, M. (2011). Game based learning for computer science education. In G. van der Veer, P. B. Sloep, & M. van Eekelen (Eds.), Computer Science Education Research Conference (CSERC '11) (pp. 81-86). Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit.
This article features recent research in science teaching and learning. It presents three current articles of interest in life sciences education, as well as more general and noteworthy publications in education research. URLs are provided for the abstracts or full text of articles. For articles listed as "Abstract available," full text may be…
Singer, Susan Rundell
This special issue of "Journal of Research in Science Teaching" reflects conclusions and recommendations in the "Discipline-Based Education Research" (DBER) report and makes a substantial contribution to advancing the field. Research on undergraduate science learning is currently a loose affiliation of related fields. The…
Bobick, Sandra Burin
This study investigated the influence of learning style on concept acquisition within a sample of community college students in a general biology course. There are two subproblems within the larger problem: (1) the influence of demographic variables (age, gender, number of college credits, prior exposure to scientific information) on learning style, and (2) the correlations between prior scientific knowledge, learning style and student understanding of the concept of the gene. The sample included all students enrolled in an introductory general biology course during two consecutive semesters at an urban community college. Initial data was gathered during the first week of the semester, at which time students filled in a short questionnaire (age, gender, number of college credits, prior exposure to science information either through reading/visual sources or a prior biology course). Subjects were then given the Inventory of Learning Processes-Revised (ILP-R) which measures general preferences in five learning styles; Deep Learning; Elaborative Learning, Agentic Learning, Methodical Learning and Literal Memorization. Subjects were then given the Gene Conceptual Knowledge pretest: a 15 question objective section and an essay section. Subjects were exposed to specific concepts during lecture and laboratory exercises. At the last lab, students were given the Genetics Conceptual Knowledge Posttest. Pretest/posttest gains were correlated with demographic variables and learning styles were analyzed for significant correlations. Learning styles, as the independent variable in a simultaneous multiple regression, were significant predictors of results on the gene assessment tests, including pretest, posttest and gain. Of the learning styles, Deep Learning accounted for the greatest positive predictive value of pretest essay and pretest objective results. Literal Memorization was a significant negative predictor for posttest essay, essay gain and objective gain. Simultaneous
Halversen, C.; Simms, E.; McDonnell, J. D.; Strang, C.
As the relationship between science and society evolves, the need for scientists to engage and effectively communicate with the public about scientific issues has become increasingly urgent. Leaders in the scientific community argue that research training programs need to also give future scientists the knowledge and skills to communicate. To address this, the Communicating Ocean Sciences (COS) series was developed to teach postsecondary science students how to communicate their scientific knowledge more effectively, and to build the capacity of science faculty to apply education research to their teaching and communicate more effectively with the public. Courses are co-facilitated by a faculty scientist and either a K-12 or informal science educator. Scientists contribute their science content knowledge and their teaching experience, and educators bring their knowledge of learning theory regarding how students and the public make meaning from, and understand, science. The series comprises two university courses for science undergraduate and graduate students that are taught by ocean and climate scientists at approximately 25 universities. One course, COS K-12, is team-taught by a scientist and a formal educator, and provides college students with experience communicating science in K-12 classrooms. In the other course, COSIA (Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences), a scientist and informal educator team-teach, and the practicum takes place in a science center or aquarium. The courses incorporate current learning theory and provide an opportunity for future scientists to apply that theory through a practicum. COS addresses the following goals: 1) introduce postsecondary students-future scientists-to the importance of education, outreach, and broader impacts; 2) improve the ability of scientists to communicate science concepts and research to their students; 3) create a culture recognizing the importance of communicating science; 4) provide students and
The study investigated the relationship between students self-concept andtheir academic performance in Basic Science. It further examines genderdifference in students performance. The study adopted ex-post factorresearch design and made use of 300 students all from Public Schools. Theadapted Version of ...
Danielson, Kathryn I.; Tanner, Kimberly D.
Scientific research exploring ocean acidification has grown significantly in past decades. However, little science education research has investigated the extent to which undergraduate science students understand this topic. Of all undergraduate students, one might predict science students to be best able to understand ocean acidification. What conceptions and misconceptions of ocean acidification do these students hold? How does their awareness and knowledge compare across disciplines? Undergraduate biology, chemistry/biochemistry, and environmental studies students, and science faculty for comparison, were assessed on their awareness and understanding. Results revealed low awareness and understanding of ocean acidification among students compared with faculty. Compared with biology or chemistry/biochemistry students, more environmental studies students demonstrated awareness of ocean acidification and identified the key role of carbon dioxide. Novel misconceptions were also identified. These findings raise the question of whether undergraduate science students are prepared to navigate socioenvironmental issues such as ocean acidification. PMID:26163563
Palmer, Sarah E; Schibeci, Renato A
We examine the conceptions of science communication, especially in relation to "public engagement with science" (PES), evident in the literature and websites of science research funding bodies in Europe, North America, South America, Asia and Oceania, and Africa. The analysis uses a fourfold classification of science communication to situate these conceptions: professional, deficit, consultative and deliberative. We find that all bodies engage in professional communication (within the research community); however, engagement with the broader community is variable. Deficit (information dissemination) models still prevail but there is evidence of movement towards more deliberative, participatory models.
Griner, C. S.; Johnston, M. H.; Whitaker, A.
The concept Verification Testing (CVT) project at the Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama, is a developmental activity that supports Shuttle Payload Projects such as Spacelab. It provides an operational 1-g environment for testing NASA and other agency experiment and support systems concepts that may be used in shuttle. A dedicated Materials Science Payload was tested in the General Purpose Laboratory to assess the requirements of a space processing payload on a Spacelab type facility. Physical and functional integration of the experiments into the facility was studied, and the impact of the experiments on the facility (and vice versa) was evaluated. A follow-up test designated CVT Test IVA was also held. The purpose of this test was to repeat Test IV experiments with a crew composed of selected and trained scientists. These personnel were not required to have prior knowledge of the materials science disciplines, but were required to have a basic knowledge of science and the scientific method.
Wang, S.; Englebienne, G.; Schlobach, S.
Finding mappings between compatible ontologies is an important but difficult open problem. Instance-based methods for solving this problem have the advantage of focusing on the most active parts of the ontologies and reflect concept semantics as they are actually being used. However such methods
The framework that characterizes this work is that of elementary teachers' learning and development. Specifically, the ways in which prospective and beginning teachers' develop pedagogical content knowledge for teaching science in light of current recommendations for reform emphasizing teaching and learning science as inquiry are explored. Within this theme, the focus is on three core areas: (a) the use of technology tools (i.e., web-based portfolios) in support of learning to teach science at the elementary level; (b) beginning teachers' specialized knowledge for giving priority to evidence in science teaching; and (c) the applications of perspectives associated with elementary teachers' learning to teach science in Cyprus, where I was born and raised. The first manuscript describes a study aimed at exploring the influence of web-based portfolios and a specific task in support of learning to teach science within the context of a Professional Development School program. The task required prospective teachers to articulate their personal philosophies about teaching and learning science in the form of claims, evidence and justifications in a web-based forum. The findings of this qualitative case study revealed the participants' developing understandings about learning and teaching science, which included emphasizing a student-centered approach, connecting physical engagement of children with conceptual aspects of learning, becoming attentive to what teachers can do to support children's learning, and focusing on teaching science as inquiry. The way the task was organized and the fact that the web-based forum provided the ability to keep multiple versions of their philosophies gave prospective teachers the advantage of examining how their philosophies were changing over time, which supported a continuous engagement in metacognition, self-reflection and self-evaluation. The purpose of the study reported in the second manuscript was to examine the nature of a first
Full Text Available Different significance of collaborative concept mapping and collaborative argumentation in Case Based Learning are discussed and compared in the different perspectives of answering focus questions, of fostering reflective thinking skills and in managing uncertainty in problem solving in a scaffolded environment. Marked differences are pointed out between the way concepts are used in constructing concept maps and the way meanings are adopted in case based learning through guided argumentation activities. Shared concept maps should be given different scopes, as for example a as an advance organizer in preparing a background system of concepts that will undergo transformation while accompanying the inquiry activities on case studies or problems; b together with narratives, to enhance awareness of the situated epistemologies that are being entailed in choosing certain concepts during more complex case studies, and c after-learning construction of a holistic vision of the whole domain by means of the most inclusive concepts, while scaffoldedcollaborative writing of narratives and arguments in describing-treating cases could better serve as a source of situated-inspired tools to create-refine meanings for particular concepts.
Hunziker, Stefan; Giesche, Alena; Jacques-Coper, Martín; Brönnimann, Stefan
Over the past three years, members of the Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR) and the Climatology group at the Institute of Geography at the University of Bern, have developed a new climate science e-learning course as part of the CLIMANDES project. This project is a collaboration between Peruvian and Swiss government, research, and education institutions. The aim of this e-learning material is to strengthen education in climate sciences at the higher education and professional level. The course was recently published in 2015 by Geographica Bernensia, and is hosted online by the Peruvian Servicio Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología (SENAMHI): http://surmx.com/chamilo/climandes/e-learning/. The course is furthermore available for offline use through USB sticks, and a number of these are currently being distributed to regional training centers around the world by the WMO (World Meteorological Organization). There are eight individual modules of the course that each offer approximately 2 hours of individual learning material, featuring several additional learning activities, such as the online game "The Great Climate Poker" (http://www.climatepoker.unibe.ch/). Overall, over 50 hours of learning material are provided by this course. The modules can be integrated into university lectures, used as single units in workshops, or be combined to serve as a full course. This e-learning course presents a broad spectrum of topics in climate science, including an introduction to climatology, atmospheric and ocean circulation, climate forcings, climate observations and data, working with data products, and climate models. This e-learning course offers a novel approach to teaching climate science to students around the world, particularly through three important features. Firstly, the course is unique in its diverse range of learning strategies, which include individual reading material, video lectures, interactive graphics, responsive quizzes, as well as group
Zhao, Xiaowei; Ma, Zhigang; Li, Zhi; Li, Zhihui
In recent years, multilabel classification has attracted significant attention in multimedia annotation. However, most of the multilabel classification methods focus only on the inherent correlations existing among multiple labels and concepts and ignore the relevance between features and the target concepts. To obtain more robust multilabel classification results, we propose a new multilabel classification method aiming to capture the correlations among multiple concepts by leveraging hypergraph that is proved to be beneficial for relational learning. Moreover, we consider mining feature-concept relevance, which is often overlooked by many multilabel learning algorithms. To better show the feature-concept relevance, we impose a sparsity constraint on the proposed method. We compare the proposed method with several other multilabel classification methods and evaluate the classification performance by mean average precision on several data sets. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.
Robelen, Erik W.; Sparks, Sarah D.; Cavanagh, Sean; Ash, Katie; Deily, Mary-Ellen Phelps; Adams, Caralee
As concern mounts that U.S. students lack sufficient understanding of science and related fields, it has become increasingly clear that schools can't tackle the challenge alone. This special report explores the field often called "informal science education," which is gaining broader recognition for its role in helping young people…
Elwell, Ryan; Polikar, Robi
We introduce an ensemble of classifiers-based approach for incremental learning of concept drift, characterized by nonstationary environments (NSEs), where the underlying data distributions change over time. The proposed algorithm, named Learn(++). NSE, learns from consecutive batches of data without making any assumptions on the nature or rate of drift; it can learn from such environments that experience constant or variable rate of drift, addition or deletion of concept classes, as well as cyclical drift. The algorithm learns incrementally, as other members of the Learn(++) family of algorithms, that is, without requiring access to previously seen data. Learn(++). NSE trains one new classifier for each batch of data it receives, and combines these classifiers using a dynamically weighted majority voting. The novelty of the approach is in determining the voting weights, based on each classifier's time-adjusted accuracy on current and past environments. This approach allows the algorithm to recognize, and act accordingly, to the changes in underlying data distributions, as well as to a possible reoccurrence of an earlier distribution. We evaluate the algorithm on several synthetic datasets designed to simulate a variety of nonstationary environments, as well as a real-world weather prediction dataset. Comparisons with several other approaches are also included. Results indicate that Learn(++). NSE can track the changing environments very closely, regardless of the type of concept drift. To allow future use, comparison and benchmarking by interested researchers, we also release our data used in this paper. © 2011 IEEE
Full Text Available Pengaruh Pembelajaran Inkuiri Terbimbing dengan Mind Map terhadap Keterampilan Proses Sains dan Hasil Belajar IPA Abstract: Science learning in junior high school aims to enable students conducts scientific inquiry, improves knowledge, concepts, and science skills. Organization materials for students supports learning process so that needs to be explored techniques that allows students to enable it. This study aimed to determine the effect of guided inquiry learning with mind map on science process skills and cognitive learning outcomes. This experimental quasi studey used pretest-posttest control group design and consisted eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 1 Papalang Mamuju of West Sulawesi. The results showed there where significant positive effect of guided inquiry learning with mind map on process science skills and cognitive learning outcomes. Key Words: guided inquiry, mind map, science process skills, cognitive learning outcomes Abstrak: Pembelajaran Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam (IPA di SMP bertujuan agar siswa dapat melakukan inkuiri ilmiah, meningkatkan pengetahuan, konsep, dan keterampilan IPA. Dalam pembelajaran, organisasi materi berperan penting dalam memudahkan anak belajar sehingga perlu ditelaah teknik yang memudahkan siswa membuat organisasi materi. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh pembelajaran inkuiri terbimbing dengan mind map terhadap keterampilan proses sains dan hasil belajar kognitif. Penelitian kuasi eksperimen ini menggunakan rancangan pre test-post test control group design dengan subjek penelitian siswa kelas VIII SMP Negeri 1 Papalang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ada pengaruh positif yang signifikan pembelajaran inkuiri terbimbing dengan mind map terhadap kemampuan keterampilan proses sains dan hasil belajar kognitif siswa. Kata kunci: inkuiri terbimbing, mind map, keterampilan proses sains, hasil belajar kognitif
Kholghi, Mahnoosh; Sitbon, Laurianne; Zuccon, Guido; Nguyen, Anthony
This paper presents an automatic, active learning-based system for the extraction of medical concepts from clinical free-text reports. Specifically, (1) the contribution of active learning in reducing the annotation effort and (2) the robustness of incremental active learning framework across different selection criteria and data sets are determined. The comparative performance of an active learning framework and a fully supervised approach were investigated to study how active learning reduces the annotation effort while achieving the same effectiveness as a supervised approach. Conditional random fields as the supervised method, and least confidence and information density as 2 selection criteria for active learning framework were used. The effect of incremental learning vs standard learning on the robustness of the models within the active learning framework with different selection criteria was also investigated. The following 2 clinical data sets were used for evaluation: the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside/Veteran Affairs (i2b2/VA) 2010 natural language processing challenge and the Shared Annotated Resources/Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum (ShARe/CLEF) 2013 eHealth Evaluation Lab. The annotation effort saved by active learning to achieve the same effectiveness as supervised learning is up to 77%, 57%, and 46% of the total number of sequences, tokens, and concepts, respectively. Compared with the random sampling baseline, the saving is at least doubled. Incremental active learning is a promising approach for building effective and robust medical concept extraction models while significantly reducing the burden of manual annotation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Khoiru Rakhman Abidin
Full Text Available The aims of the study are (1 the concepts of language learning in behaviorism perspective, (2 the relation between language and learning in behaviorism perspective, (3 the influence of behaviorism in language learning. This is a descriptive qualitative study. The results showed that (1 behaviorism theories of languages also give good contribution in language learning process that describes a child can learn language from their environments, (2 behaviorism perspective defines as change of behavior through experience, it means human learn something from their environments, (3 human uses language for communication in the world and he also spreads his culture with his language so human gets knowledge of language through learning.
Kholghi, Mahnoosh; Sitbon, Laurianne; Zuccon, Guido; Nguyen, Anthony
To investigate: (1) the annotation time savings by various active learning query strategies compared to supervised learning and a random sampling baseline, and (2) the benefits of active learning-assisted pre-annotations in accelerating the manual annotation process compared to de novo annotation. There are 73 and 120 discharge summary reports provided by Beth Israel institute in the train and test sets of the concept extraction task in the i2b2/VA 2010 challenge, respectively. The 73 reports were used in user study experiments for manual annotation. First, all sequences within the 73 reports were manually annotated from scratch. Next, active learning models were built to generate pre-annotations for the sequences selected by a query strategy. The annotation/reviewing time per sequence was recorded. The 120 test reports were used to measure the effectiveness of the active learning models. When annotating from scratch, active learning reduced the annotation time up to 35% and 28% compared to a fully supervised approach and a random sampling baseline, respectively. Reviewing active learning-assisted pre-annotations resulted in 20% further reduction of the annotation time when compared to de novo annotation. The number of concepts that require manual annotation is a good indicator of the annotation time for various active learning approaches as demonstrated by high correlation between time rate and concept annotation rate. Active learning has a key role in reducing the time required to manually annotate domain concepts from clinical free text, either when annotating from scratch or reviewing active learning-assisted pre-annotations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Although at the international school competitions, Romanian students are in the top, but few students decide to learn science in school. The major problem is "how to motivate students to study science?" In cooperation with Meridian Zero Astroclub, Oradea, we provide students non-formal space where non-formal activities can approach them to the work of a researcher. Five days in September, ten to fifteen students are invited in a journey through the science world. • Formation of the Moon's craters • Solar radiation • Solar cycles • Constellations • Solar System • Eratosthenes experiment These topics are examples from our activities. Working with students from 4 years old to 18 years old, all activities are developed in the form of games, combining mathematical skills with physics or astronomy. Older students are put in the position of teachers for younger students. Results: A better understanding of physical processes, a higher interest in science, a better application of mathematical concepts in class.
-historical activity (play) theory, the author deduces four generally accepted play criteria that form the basis for the construction of a dynamic and play-based learning concept that has the three following cornerstones as focal points: (1) learning happens in activities where the child is an active participant...... and interacts and communicates with other people; (2) meaningful activities pave the way for children’s learning; these are activities where the child’s motive aligns with the goal of the activity; and (3) learning is seen as a productive and creative activity characterised by imagination....
Harlow, Danielle Boyd
As educational researchers and teacher educators, we have the responsibility to help teachers gain the skills and knowledge necessary to provide meaningful learning activities for their students. For elementary school science, this means helping teachers create situations in which children can participate in the practices associated with scientific inquiry. Through the framework of transfer I investigated how a professional development course based on an inquiry-based physics curriculum influenced five elementary teachers teaching practices and identified the factors that led to or hindered this transfer. In this study, evidence of transfer consisted of episodes where the teachers used the ideas learned in the physics course to solve new problems such as transforming activities to be appropriate for their students and responding to unexpected students' ideas. The findings of this study highlight the many different ways that teachers use what they learn in content courses to teach science to elementary children. While some teachers transferred pedagogical practices along with the content, others transformed the content to be useful in already existing pedagogical frameworks, and still others show little or no evidence of transfer. What the teachers transferred depended upon their existing teaching context as well as their prior ideas about teaching science and physics content. Specifically, the findings of this study suggest that the teachers transferred only what they sought from the course. One implication of this study is that the sort of science training we provide teachers can affect far more than just the teachers' conceptual understanding of science and performance on written conceptual exams. Science courses have the potential to impact the sort of science education that K-5 children receive in elementary classrooms in terms of the topics taught but the way that science is represented. An additional implication is that teaching science to teachers in ways
Marsili, Antonella; D'Addezio, Giuliana; Todaro, Riccardo; Scipilliti, Francesca
The Laboratorio Divulgazione Scientifica e Attività Museali of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV's Laboratory for Outreach and Museum Activities) in Rome, organizes every year intense educational and outreach activities to convey scientific knowledge and to promote research on Earth Science, focusing on volcanic and seismic hazard. Focusing on kids, we designed and implemented the "greedy laboratory for children curious on science (Laboratorio goloso per bambini curiosi di scienza)", to intrigue children from primary schools and to attract their interest by addressing in a fun and unusual way topics regarding the Earth, seismicity and seismic risk. We performed the "greedy laboratory" using experiential teaching, an innovative method envisaging the use and handling commonly used substances. In particular, in the "greedy laboratory" we proposed the use of everyday life's elements, such as food, to engage, entertain and convey in a simple and interesting communication approach notions concerning Earth processes. We proposed the initiative to public during the "European Researchers Night" in Rome, on September 26, 2014. Children attending the "greedy laboratory", guided by researchers and technicians, had the opportunity to become familiar with scientific concepts, such as the composition of the Earth, the Plate tectonics, the earthquake generation, the propagation of seismic waves and their shaking effects on the anthropogenic environment. During the hand-on laboratory, each child used not harmful substances such as honey, chocolate, flour, barley, boiled eggs and biscuits. At the end, we administered a questionnaire rating the proposed activities, first evaluating the level of general satisfaction of the laboratory and then the various activities in which it was divided. This survey supplied our team with feedbacks, revealing some precious hints on appreciation and margins of improvement. We provided a semi-quantitative assessment with a
with social, religious, philosophical, ethical, and political ... they may even feel disconnected from the science carried out in their own ... “networking” is an effective tool in fostering communication for .... less-developed places. And mentors ...
Concept-based learning is used increasingly in nursing education to support the organization, transfer, and retention of knowledge. Concept-based learning activities (CBLAs) have been used in clinical education to explore key aspects of the patient situation and principles of nursing care, without responsibility for total patient care. The nature of best practices in teaching and the resultant learning are not well understood. The purpose of this multiple-case study research was to explore and describe concept-based learning in the context of clinical education in inpatient settings. Four clinical groups (each a case) were observed while they used CBLAs in the clinical setting. Major findings include that concept-based learning fosters deep learning, connection of theory with practice, and clinical judgment. Strategies used to support learning, major teaching-learning foci, and preconditions for concept-based teaching and learning will be described. Concept-based learning is promising to support integration of theory with practice and clinical judgment through application experiences with patients. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(7):365-371.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Sulisworo, Dwi; Sutadi, Novitasari
There have been many studies related to the implementation of cooperative learning. However, there are still many problems in school related to the learning outcomes on science lesson, especially in physics. The aim of this study is to observe the application of science learning cycle (SLC) model on improving scientific literacy for secondary…
Sickel, Aaron J.; Lee, Michele H.; Pareja, Enrique M.
How can a teacher simultaneously teach science concepts through inquiry while helping students learn about the nature of science? After pondering this question in their own teaching, the authors developed a 5E learning cycle lesson (Bybee et al. 2006) that concurrently embeds opportunities for fourth-grade students to (a) learn a science concept,…
Caixinha, Miguel; Nunes, Sandrina
This review presents and discusses the contribution of machine learning techniques for diagnosis and disease monitoring in the context of clinical vision science. Many ocular diseases leading to blindness can be halted or delayed when detected and treated at its earliest stages. With the recent developments in diagnostic devices, imaging and genomics, new sources of data for early disease detection and patients' management are now available. Machine learning techniques emerged in the biomedical sciences as clinical decision-support techniques to improve sensitivity and specificity of disease detection and monitoring, increasing objectively the clinical decision-making process. This manuscript presents a review in multimodal ocular disease diagnosis and monitoring based on machine learning approaches. In the first section, the technical issues related to the different machine learning approaches will be present. Machine learning techniques are used to automatically recognize complex patterns in a given dataset. These techniques allows creating homogeneous groups (unsupervised learning), or creating a classifier predicting group membership of new cases (supervised learning), when a group label is available for each case. To ensure a good performance of the machine learning techniques in a given dataset, all possible sources of bias should be removed or minimized. For that, the representativeness of the input dataset for the true population should be confirmed, the noise should be removed, the missing data should be treated and the data dimensionally (i.e., the number of parameters/features and the number of cases in the dataset) should be adjusted. The application of machine learning techniques in ocular disease diagnosis and monitoring will be presented and discussed in the second section of this manuscript. To show the clinical benefits of machine learning in clinical vision sciences, several examples will be presented in glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration
Koomen, Michele Hollingsworth
This case study reports on a student with special education needs in an inclusive seventh grade life science classroom using a framework of disability studies in education. Classroom data collected over 13 weeks consisted of qualitative (student and classroom observations, interviews, student work samples and video-taped classroom teaching and learning record using CETP-COP) methods. Three key findings emerged in the analysis and synthesis of the data: (1) The learning experiences in science for Wizard are marked by a dichotomy straddled between autonomy ["Sometimes I do" (get it)] and dependence ["Sometimes I don't (get it)], (2) the process of learning is fragmented for Wizard because it is underscored by an emerging disciplinary literacy, (3) the nature of the inclusion is fragile and functional. Implications for classroom practices that support students with learning disabilities include focusing on student strengths, intentional use of disciplinary literacy strategies, and opportunities for eliciting student voice in decision making.
Yates, Jennifer L
Radiologic science is a complex health profession, requiring the competent use of technology as well as the ability to function as part of a team, think critically, exercise independent judgment, solve problems creatively and communicate effectively. This article presents a review of literature in support of the relevance of collaborative learning to radiologic science education. In addition, strategies for effective design, facilitation and authentic assessment of activities are provided for educators wishing to incorporate collaborative techniques into their program curriculum. The connection between the benefits of collaborative learning and necessary workplace skills, particularly in the areas of critical thinking, creative problem solving and communication skills, suggests that collaborative learning techniques may be particularly useful in the education of future radiologic technologists. This article summarizes research identifying the benefits of collaborative learning for adult education and identifying the link between these benefits and the necessary characteristics of medical imaging technologists.
Burden, Kevin; Kearney, Matthew
This paper adopts scenario planning as a methodological approach and tool to help science educators reconceptualise their use of mobile technologies across various different futures. These `futures' are set out neither as predictions nor prognoses but rather as stimuli to encourage greater discussion and reflection around the use of mobile technologies in science education. Informed by the literature and our empirical data, we consider four alternative futures for science education in a mobile world, with a particular focus on networked collaboration and student agency. We conclude that `seamless learning', whereby students are empowered to use their mobile technologies to negotiate across physical and virtual boundaries (e.g. between school and out-of-school activities), may be the most significant factor in encouraging educators to rethink their existing pedagogical patterns, thereby realizing some of the promises of contextualised participatory science learning.
Khosa, Deep K; Volet, Simone E; Bolton, John R
The value of collaborative concept mapping in assisting students to develop an understanding of complex concepts across a broad range of basic and applied science subjects is well documented. Less is known about students' learning processes that occur during the construction of a concept map, especially in the context of clinical cases in veterinary medicine. This study investigated the unfolding collaborative learning processes that took place in real-time concept mapping of a clinical case by veterinary medical students and explored students' and their teacher's reflections on the value of this activity. This study had two parts. The first part investigated the cognitive and metacognitive learning processes of two groups of students who displayed divergent learning outcomes in a concept mapping task. Meaningful group differences were found in their level of learning engagement in terms of the extent to which they spent time understanding and co-constructing knowledge along with completing the task at hand. The second part explored students' and their teacher's views on the value of concept mapping as a learning and teaching tool. The students' and their teacher's perceptions revealed congruent and contrasting notions about the usefulness of concept mapping. The relevance of concept mapping to clinical case-based learning in veterinary medicine is discussed, along with directions for future research.
Leo J. FAHEY
Full Text Available Children are natural learners each with distinct interests, abilities and rates of cognitive, emotional and social growth. Democratic Education institutionalizes five key concepts to free these natural instincts and individual differences to drive community self-governance and individual self-directed learning within a formal schooling environment. This paper summarizes the five concepts fundamental to Democratic Education and suggests how they can be applied within a school setting.
Nenden Octavarulia Shanty
Full Text Available This research aimed at investigating students’ development of learning integer concept and integer addition. The investigation was based on analyzing students’ works in solving the given mathematical problems in each instructional activity designed based on Realistic Mathematics Education (RME levels. Design research was chosen to achieve and to contribute in developing a local instruction theory for teaching and learning of integer concept and integer addition. In design research, the Hypothetical Learning Trajectory (HLT plays important role as a design and research instrument. It was designed in the phase of preliminary design and tested to three students of grade six OASIS International School, Ankara – Turkey. The result of the experiments showed that temperature in the thermometer context could stimulate students’ informal knowledge of integer concept. Furthermore, strategies and tools used by the students in comparing and relating two temperatures were gradually be developed into a more formal mathematics. The representation of line inside thermometer which then called the number line could bring the students to the last activity levels, namely rules for adding integer, and became the model for more formal reasoning. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that students’ learning integer concept and integer addition developed through RME levels.Keywords: integer concept, integer addition, Realistic Mathematics Education DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.7.2.3538.57-72
and understandings over their mental structures in the framework of constructivism, and I will clarify my logical [and semantic] conceptions of humans’ concept understandings. This research focuses on philosophy of education and on logics of human learning. It connects with the topics ‘Cognition in Education......, through this constructivism to a pedagogical theory of learning. I will mainly focus on conceptual and epistemological analysis of humans’ conceptualisations based on their own mental objects (schemata). Subsequently, I will propose an analytical specification of humans’ conceptualisations...
This life history study is based on in-depth interviews of five science teachers and explores themes of science teachers' experiences as science learners and how these experiences frame what I have come to call "the subjective aspects of teaching." These themes seem to imply that through such individual experiences individuals develop a personally unique lens through which they view and interpret science, science meanings, and science teaching and learning. Emerging themes created new questions to pursue and they in turn produced new themes. These were further investigated in an attempt to connect science learning and science teachers to broader issues in society. These themes include that of a dynamic, dialectical learning and understanding of science by the participants, developed and influenced through a combination of their families, their schools, and their professional experiences, and in which morals and passion play major roles. The theme of the "organic link" is also introduced and developed in this research. It includes these individuals' views of science and the scientific enterprise, their path to learning, their morals, passions, and choices, and their way of constructing knowledge and the transmission of such a process. As organic links, they are seen as a direct and necessary social connection between science and the science learner, and they foster educational experiences grounded in the social lives of their students. Not only are they seen as "transmitters" of science knowledge and the process of constructing knowledge, but they are also seen as correcting and adjusting perceived diversions of the students' thinking from that of their own. It is in this context that the concept of capital (human and cultural capital, as well as capital exchange) is also explored. These themes are seen as having immense impact on how these science teachers teach, where they teach, what is communicated to their students, and whether they become or remain science
Mok, On Nei Annie
The concept of non-formal learning, which falls outside the categories of informal and formal learning, has not been as widely discussed, especially in the music education literature. In order to bridge this gap and to provide supplementary framework to the discussion of informal and formal learning, therefore, this paper will first summarize…
Full Text Available “Reusable learning objects” oriented towards increasing their potential reusability are required to satisfy concerns about their granularity and their independence of concrete contexts of use. Such requirements also entail that the definition of learning object “usability,” and the techniques required to carry out their “usability evaluation” must be substantially different from those commonly used to characterize and evaluate the usability of conventional educational applications. In this article, a specific characterization of the concept of learning object usability is discussed, which places emphasis on “reusability,” the key property of learning objects residing in repositories. The concept of learning object reusability is described as the possibility and adequacy for the object to be usable in prospective educational settings, so that usability and reusability are considered two interrelated – and in many cases conflicting – properties of learning objects. Following the proposed characterization of two characteristics or properties of learning objects, a method to evaluate usability of specific learning objects will be presented.
Johnson-Glenberg, Mina C.; Birchfield, David A.; Tolentino, Lisa; Koziupa, Tatyana
These 2 studies investigate the extent to which an Embodied Mixed Reality Learning Environment (EMRELE) can enhance science learning compared to regular classroom instruction. Mixed reality means that physical tangible and digital components were present. The content for the EMRELE required that students map abstract concepts and relations onto…
McConnell, Tom J.; Parker, Joyce; Eberhardt, Janet
"Problem-Based Learning in the Physical Science Classroom, K-12" will help your students truly understand concepts such as motion, energy, and magnetism in true-to-life contexts. The book offers a comprehensive description of why, how, and when to implement problem-based learning (PBL) in your curriculum. Its 14 developmentally…
Full Text Available Learning visual concepts from images is an important yet challenging problem in computer vision and multimedia research areas. Multiple kernel learning (MKL methods have shown great advantages in visual concept learning. As a visual concept often exhibits great appearance variance, a canonical MKL approach may not generate satisfactory results when a uniform kernel combination is applied over the input space. In this paper, we propose a per-sample multiple kernel learning (PS-MKL approach to take into account intraclass diversity for improving discrimination. PS-MKL determines sample-wise kernel weights according to kernel functions and training samples. Kernel weights as well as kernel-based classifiers are jointly learned. For efficient learning, PS-MKL employs a sample selection strategy. Extensive experiments are carried out over three benchmarking datasets of different characteristics including Caltech101, WikipediaMM, and Pascal VOC'07. PS-MKL has achieved encouraging performance, comparable to the state of the art, which has outperformed a canonical MKL.
Full Text Available Abstract Learning visual concepts from images is an important yet challenging problem in computer vision and multimedia research areas. Multiple kernel learning (MKL methods have shown great advantages in visual concept learning. As a visual concept often exhibits great appearance variance, a canonical MKL approach may not generate satisfactory results when a uniform kernel combination is applied over the input space. In this paper, we propose a per-sample multiple kernel learning (PS-MKL approach to take into account intraclass diversity for improving discrimination. PS-MKL determines sample-wise kernel weights according to kernel functions and training samples. Kernel weights as well as kernel-based classifiers are jointly learned. For efficient learning, PS-MKL employs a sample selection strategy. Extensive experiments are carried out over three benchmarking datasets of different characteristics including Caltech101, WikipediaMM, and Pascal VOC'07. PS-MKL has achieved encouraging performance, comparable to the state of the art, which has outperformed a canonical MKL.
This artist's conception of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory portrays use of the rover's ChemCam instrument to identify the chemical composition of a rock sample on the surface of Mars. ChemCam is innovative for planetary exploration in using a technique referred to as laser breakdown spectroscopy to determine the chemical composition of samples from distances of up to about 8 meters (25 feet) away. ChemCam is led by a team at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements in Toulouse, France. Mars Science Laboratory, a mobile robot for investigating Mars' past or present ability to sustain microbial life, is in development at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory for a launch opportunity in 2009. The mission is managed by JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.
Greenspan, Yvette Frank
Girls are marked by low self-confidence manifested through gender discrimination during the early years of socialization and culturalization (AAUW, 1998). The nature of gender bias affects all girls in their studies of science and mathematics, particularly in minority groups, during their school years. It has been found that girls generally do not aspire in either mathematical or science-oriented careers because of such issues as overt and subtle stereotyping, inadequate confidence in ability, and discouragement in scientific competence. Grounded on constructivism, a theoretical framework, this inquiry employs fourth generation evaluation, a twelve-step evaluative process (Guba & Lincoln, 1989). The focus is to discover through qualitative research how fifth grade girls learn science in a co-sexual collaborative learning group, as they engage in hands-on, minds-on experiments. The emphasis is centered on one Hispanic girl in an effort to understand her beliefs, attitudes, and behavior as she becomes a stakeholder with other members of her six person collaborative learning group. The intent is to determine if cultural and social factors impact the learning of scientific concepts based on observations from videotapes, interviews, and student opinion questionnaires. QSR NUD*IST 4, a computer software program is utilized to help categorize and index data. Among the findings, there is evidence that clearly indicates girls' attitudes toward science are altered as they interact with other girls and boys in a collaborative learning group. Observations also indicate that cultural and social factors affect girls' performance as they explore and discover scientific concepts with other girls and boys. Based upon what I have uncovered utilizing qualitative research and confirmed according to current literature, there seems to be an appreciable impact on the way girls appear to learn science. Rooted in the data, the results mirror the conclusions of previous studies, which
Parra, Alfredo; Ordenes, Jorge; de la Fuente, Milton
Science learning for undergraduate students requires grasping a great number of theoretical concepts in a rather short time. In our experience, this is especially difficult when students are required to simultaneously use abstract concepts, mathematical reasoning, and graphical analysis, such as occurs when learning about RC circuits. We present a simple experimental model in this work that allows students to easily design, build, and analyze RC circuits, thus providing an opportunity to test personal ideas, build graphical descriptions, and explore the meaning of the respective mathematical models, ultimately gaining a better grasp of the concepts involved. The result suggests that the simple setup indeed helps untrained students to visualize the essential points of this kind of circuit.
Machemy, Jacques; Bousquet, Bruno
Optics' teaching is commonly based on the use of lessons including several mathematical tools. For example, ray tracing can be described through matrix algebra, and interference and polarization can be supported by the use of complex numbers. Thus, the numerous mathematical descriptions included in the optics' lessons represent a real difficulty for students having insufficient skills in mathematics. Moreover, despite of very impressive optical effects one can observe in real life, e.g. rainbows, their description in optics' courses is often considered as too academic and boring, and finally not really exciting. In this context, we have invented a new type of comics dedicated to optics' learning. Based on a dialogue between two imaginary characters, one considered as the young student and the other one as the old teacher, we have chosen to reduce the role of mathematics and to mix realistic and unrealistic elements in the drawing to complete the explanations faster. Starting from reflection and refraction, the Snell's laws then allow for describing natural phenomena such as mirage and rainbow as well as technical points such as light propagation into an optical fiber and the measurement of the refraction index. The first volume presented here will be evaluated during the fall semester 2015 in different high schools and at university through a linked survey and the students will also get access to an online version while the following parts are in preparation.
Pea, Roy D.; Gomez, Louis M.
Project-enhanced science learning (PESL) provides students with opportunities for `cognitive apprenticeships' in authentic scientific inquiry using computers for data-collection and analysis. Student teams work on projects with teacher guidance to develop and apply their understanding of science concepts and skills. We are applying advanced computing and communications technologies to augment and transform PESL at-a-distance (beyond the boundaries of the individual school), which is limited today to asynchronous, text-only networking and unsuitable for collaborative science learning involving shared access to multimedia resources such as data, graphs, tables, pictures, and audio-video communication. Our work creates user technology (a Collaborative Science Workbench providing PESL design support and shared synchronous document views, program, and data access; a Science Learning Resource Directory for easy access to resources including two-way video links to collaborators, mentors, museum exhibits, media-rich resources such as scientific visualization graphics), and refine enabling technologies (audiovisual and shared-data telephony, networking) for this PESL niche. We characterize participation scenarios for using these resources and we discuss national networked access to science education expertise.
Breslyn, Wayne Gene
The present study investigated differences in the continuing development of National Board Certified Science Teachers' (NBCSTs) conceptions of inquiry across the disciplines of biology, chemistry, earth science, and physics. The central research question of the study was, "How does a NBCST's science discipline (biology, chemistry, earth science, or physics) influence their conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry-based teaching and learning?" A mixed methods approach was used that included an analysis of the National Board portfolio entry, Active Scientific Inquiry, for participants (n=48) achieving certification in the 2007 cohort. The portfolio entry provided detailed documentation of teachers' goals and enactment of an inquiry lesson taught in their classroom. Based on the results from portfolio analysis, participant interviews were conducted with science teachers (n=12) from the 2008 NBCST cohort who represented the science disciplines of biology, chemistry, earth science, and physics. The interviews provided a broader range of contexts to explore teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals of inquiry. Other factors studied were disciplinary differences in NBCSTs' views of the nature of science, the relation between their science content knowledge and use of inquiry, and changes in their conceptions of inquiry as result of the NB certification process. Findings, based on a situated cognitive framework, suggested that differences exist between biology, chemistry, and earth science teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry. Further, individuals teaching in more than one discipline often held different conceptions of inquiry depending on the discipline in which they were teaching. Implications for the research community include being aware of disciplinary differences in studies on inquiry and exercising caution in generalizing findings across disciplines. In addition, teachers who teach in more than one discipline can highlight the contextual
Research on learning science in informal settings and the formal (sometimes experimental) study of learning in classrooms or psychological laboratories tend to be separate domains, even drawing on different theories and methods. These differences make it difficult to compare knowing and learning observed in one paradigm/context with those observed…
Fornaguera, Cristina Carulla
The study looks at assessment for learning and Inquiry Based Science Education —IBSE— as concepts established in a diversity of geographical areas, where the traditional summative assessment shapes what most individuals share as being experienced as assessment. Based on Leontiev and Radford...... the analytical process. The main contribution was the analysis and the results of researcher movement from a view of assessment considering learning as a psychological process in the mind, independent of the everyday life of individuals, towards one considering the inseparability of collective and individual...... as identifying and differentiating forms of researching assessment, changing the researcher’s perspective on research, and imagining a new theoretical approach to assessment for learning....
This article makes the case for a new framing of liberal education based on several decades of research emerging from the learning and developmental sciences. This work suggests that general knowledge stems from acquiring both the habits of mind and repertoires of practice that develop from participation in knowledge-building communities. Such…
Bower, Paula Rogovin
Article presents suggestions for motivating elementary students to learn by combining science and writing. The strategies include planning the right environment; teaching the scientific method; establishing a link to literature; and making time for students to observe, experiment, and write. (SM)
Walsh, Bridget A.; Sanchez, Claudia; Lee, Angela M.; Casillas, Nicole; Hansen, Caitlynn
This exploratory study investigated the use of concepts related to families, parents, and the home in 51 state-level early learning and development standards documents. Guidelines from six national family involvement, engagement, and school-partnership models were used to create the Family Involvement Models Analysis Chart (FIMAC), which served as…
This paper reports on a study of twelve 10th grade students using Cognitive Tutor, a math software program, to learn linear algebra word concept. The study's purpose was to examine whether students' mathematics performance as it is related to using Cognitive Tutor provided evidence to support Koedlinger's (2002) four instructional principles used…
Daniel, Ben; Kumar, Vijay; Omar, Noritah
This qualitative inquiry investigates postgraduate students' conceptions of research methodology and how it contributes to their learning. It explores factors likely to motivate student choice of research methodology and challenges in understanding research methods. The research was carried out at research-intensive universities in New Zealand and…
Margalit, Malka; Zak, Itai
One hundred learning disabled (LD) and 118 nondisabled children (six-13 years old) participated in the study which demonstrated significantly higher anxiety and lower self-concept in the first group. The differences emphasized the self-dissatisfaction of the LD group and their pawning related anxiety. (Author/CL)
Turner, Philip M.
This study investigated the relationship of two anxiety measures (the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Form and the S-R Inventory of Anxiousness-Exam Form) to performance on a visual concept-learning task with embedded criterial information. The effect on anxiety reduction of cueing criterial information was also examined, and two levels of…
Yamin, Y.; Permanasari, A.; Redjeki, S.; Sopandi, W.
The function of this research was to analyze the influence model Project Based Learning (PjBl) on integrated science about the concept mastery for junior high school students. Method used for this research constitutes the quasi of experiment method. Population and sample for this research are the students junior high school in Bandung as many as two classes to be experiment and control class. The instrument that used for this research is the test concept mastery, assessment questionnaire of product and the questionnaire responses of the student about learning integrated science. Based on the result of this research get some data that with accomplishment the model of PjBl. Learning authority of integrated science can increase the concept mastery for junior high school students. The highest increase in the theme of pollution water is in the concept of mixtures and the separation method. The students give a positive response in learning of integrated science for the theme of pollution of the water used model PjBL with questionnaire of the opinion aspect in amount of 83.5%, the anxiety of the students in amount of 95.5%, the profit learning model of PjBL in amount of 96.25% and profit learning of integrated science in amount of 95.75%.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between students' cognitive learning strategies and conceptions of learning biology. The two scales, "Cognitive Learning Strategies" and "Conceptions of Learning Biology", were revised and adapted to biology in order to measure the students' learning strategies and…
Teaching methods used in the calculus-based mechanics course for engineers and scientists (P150) at the University of Michigan-Dearborn were markedly changed in September, 1996. Lectures emphasize active learning with Mazur's ConcepTests, Sokoloff's Interactive Demonstrations, and Van Heuvelen's ALPS Kit worksheets. Students solve context-rich problems using Van Heuvelen's multiple representation format in cooperative groups in discussion sections. Labs were changed to use MBL emphasizing concepts and Experiment Problems to learn lab-based problem solving. Pre- and post-testing of 400 students with the Force Concept Inventory has demonstrated considerable success. The average increase in score has been 35-45methods as defined by Hake. The methods and results will be discussed. Detailed analyses of the FCI results will look at success in teaching specific concepts and the effect of student preparation in mathematics and high school physics.
Keske, Kristina Palmer
The purpose of this interpretive case study was to elucidate the conceptions of the nature of science held by seven elementary science teachers. The constructivist paradigm provided the philosophical and methodological foundation for the study. Interviews were employed to collect data from the participants about their formal and informal experiences with science. In addition, the participants contributed their perspectives on four aspects of the nature of science: what is science; who is a scientist; what are the methods of science; and how is scientific knowledge constructed. Data analysis not only revealed these teachers' views of science, but also provided insights into how they viewed science teaching. Four themes emerged from the data. The first theme developed around the participants' portrayals of the content of science, with participant views falling on a continuum of limited to universal application of science as procedure. The second theme dealt with the participants' views of the absolute nature of scientific knowledge. Participants' perceptions of the tentative nature of science teaching provided the basis for the third theme concerning the need for absolutes in practice. The fourth theme drew parallels between participants' views of science and science teaching, with two participants demonstrating a consistency in beliefs about knowledge construction across contexts. This study revealed both personal and contextual factors which impacted how the participants saw science and science teaching. Many of the participants' memories of formal science revolved around the memorization of content and were viewed negatively. All the participants had limited formal training in science. Of the seven participants, only two had chosen to be science teachers at the beginning of their careers. The participants' limited formal experiences with science provided little time for exploration into historical, philosophical, and sociological studies of science, a necessary
Shope, Richard Edwin, III
Science instruction aims to ensure that students properly construct scientific knowledge so that each individual may play a role as a science literate citizen or as part of the science workforce (National Research Council, 1996, 2000). Students enter the classroom with a wide range of personal conceptions regarding science phenomena, often at variance with prevailing scientific views (Duschl, Hamilton, & Grandy, 1992; Hewson, 1992). The extensive misconceptions research literature emphasizes the importance of diagnosing students' initial understandings in order to gauge the accuracy and depth of what each student knows prior to instruction and then to use that information to adapt the teaching to address student needs. (Ausubel, 1968; Carey, 2000; Driver et al., 1985; Karplus & Thier, 1967; Mintzes, Wandersee, & Novak, 1998; Osborne & Freyberg, 1985; Project 2061, 1993; Strike & Posner, 1982, 1992; Vygotsky, 1934/1987). To gain such insight, teachers diagnose not only the content of the students' personal conceptions but also the thinking processes that produced them (Strike and Posner, 1992). Indeed, when teachers design opportunities for students to express their understanding, there is strong evidence that such diagnostic assessment also enhances science teaching and learning (Black & William, 1998). The functional knowledge of effective science teaching practice resides in the professional practitioners at the front lines---the science teachers in the classroom. Nevertheless, how teachers actually engage in the practice of diagnosis is not well documented. To help fill this gap, the researcher conducted a study of 16 sixth grade science classrooms in four Los Angeles area middle schools. Diagnostic teaching strategies were observed in action and then followed up by interviews with each teacher. Results showed that teachers use strategies that vary by the complexity of active student involvement, including pretests, strategic questions, interactive discussion
Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat
To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes--although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms.
Svitlana G. Lytvynova
Full Text Available The article deals with the basic concepts and characteristics of cloud oriented learning environment (COLE of secondary school. It is examined the concept of "cloud oriented learning environment", "mobility training", the requirements for COLE, the goal of creating, the structural components, model deployment, maintenance. Four cloud storages are compared; the subjects and objects of COLE are described; the meaning of spatial and semantic, content and methodical, communication and organizational components are clarified; the benefits and features of cloud computing are defined. It is found that COLE creates conditions for active cooperation, provides mobility of learning process participants, and objects’ virtualization. It is available anywhere and at any time, ensures the development of creativity and innovation, critical thinking, ability to solve problems, to develop communicative, cooperative, life and career skills, to work with data, media, to develop ICT competence either of students and teachers.
Salvador, Pétala Tuani Candido de Oliveira; Bezerril, Manacés Dos Santos; Mariz, Camila Maria Santos; Fernandes, Maria Isabel Domingues; Martins, José Carlos Amado; Santos, Viviane Euzébia Pereira
To analyze the concept of virtual learning object and environment according to Rodgers' evolutionary perspective. Descriptive study with a mixed approach, based on the stages proposed by Rodgers in his concept analysis method. Data collection occurred in August 2015 with the search of dissertations and theses in the Bank of Theses of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel. Quantitative data were analyzed based on simple descriptive statistics and the concepts through lexicographic analysis with support of the IRAMUTEQ software. The sample was made up of 161 studies. The concept of "virtual learning environment" was presented in 99 (61.5%) studies, whereas the concept of "virtual learning object" was presented in only 15 (9.3%) studies. A virtual learning environment includes several and different types of virtual learning objects in a common pedagogical context. Analisar o conceito de objeto e de ambiente virtual de aprendizagem na perspectiva evolucionária de Rodgers. Estudo descritivo, de abordagem mista, realizado a partir das etapas propostas por Rodgers em seu modelo de análise conceitual. A coleta de dados ocorreu em agosto de 2015 com a busca de dissertações e teses no Banco de Teses e Dissertações da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior. Os dados quantitativos foram analisados a partir de estatística descritiva simples e os conceitos pela análise lexicográfica com suporte do IRAMUTEQ. A amostra é constituída de 161 estudos. O conceito de "ambiente virtual de aprendizagem" foi apresentado em 99 (61,5%) estudos, enquanto o de "objeto virtual de aprendizagem" em apenas 15 (9,3%). Concluiu-se que um ambiente virtual de aprendizagem reúne vários e diferentes tipos de objetos virtuais de aprendizagem em um contexto pedagógico comum.
Most scientists today recognise that science communication is an important part of the scientific process. Despite this recognition, science writing and communication are generally taught outside the normal academic schedule. If universities offer such courses, they are generally short-term and intensive. On the positive side, such courses rarely fail to motivate. At no fault of their own, the problem with such courses lies in their ephemeral nature. The participants rarely complete a science communication course with an immediate and pressing need to apply these skills. And so the skills fade. We believe that this stalls real progress in the improvement of science communication across the board. Continuity is one of the keys to success! Whilst we wait for the academic system to truly integrate science communication, we can test and develop other approaches. We suggest a new approach that aims to motivate scientists to continue nurturing their communication skills. This approach adopts a collaborative learning framework where scientists form writing groups that meet regularly at different institutes around the world. The members of the groups learn, discuss and improve together. The participants produce short posts, which are published online. In this way, the participants learn and cement basic writing skills. These skills are transferrable, and can be applied to scientific articles as well as other science communication media. In this presentation we reflect on an ongoing project, which applies a collaborative learning framework to help young and early career scientists improve their writing skills. We see that this type of project could be extended to other media such as podcasts, or video shorts.
Full Text Available The notion of objective sense is commonly used in various contexts, and is also frequently misused. It has been often criticised in the context of natural sciences during the last 200 years - the period of positivistically oriented science. In the ancient Greek philosophy the problem of Nature possessing its own sense was stressed, and from the problem the first germs of science started in the Ionic and Pythagorean schools. Contrary to that, Aristotelean approach initiated the positivist tradition which banned from science the question of Nature as possessing an internal sense, and the scholastics introduced a concept of Nature's sense being not intrinsic but granted to it by the divine action. The mathematisation of physics caused that the the divine action started to be interpreted as "mathematical", and in consequence, the sense of Nature was seen as expressed by mathematics. Later on, this mathematically expressed sense of Nature, as seen in physical theories, started to be perceived as independent from God and having not much to as supernatural: inside the mathematical science there was no place for any anthropomorphic Creators.Recently, however when in the newest physics the mathematical structures have already been perceived not only as a language but also as a kind of ultimate reality, a place for quasi-religious feeling of mystery hidden in these structures has been welcome. It means that within the field of modern physical theories there is no place for the traditional religious concepts, but there is a place for a kind of mystics of objective mathematics in the Pythagorean style, related to the modern "new spirituality" mysticism.The situation is completely different in the area of less mathematised branches like biology. The tensions between science and religion are strong there, and the alternative is as follows: traditional religiousness versus traditional atheism, but not a neutral science separated from religion versus a non
Many concepts of information have been proposed and discussed in library and information science. These concepts of information can be broadly categorized as empirical and situational information. Unlike nomenclatures in many sciences, however, the concept of information in library and information science does not bear a generally accepted…
Full Text Available Purpose – The synthetic application and interaction of/between the internet, Internet of Things, cloud computing, big data, Industry 4.0 and other new patterns and new technologies shall breed future Web-based industrial operation system and social operation management patterns, manifesting as a crowd cyber eco-system composed of multiple interconnected intelligent agents (enterprises, individuals and governmental agencies and its dynamic behaviors. This paper aims to explore the basic principles and laws of such a system and its behavior. Design/methodology/approach – The authors propose the concepts of crowd science and engineering (CSE and expound its main content, thus forming a research framework of theories and methodologies of crowd science. Findings – CSE is expected to substantially promote the formation and development of crowd science and thus lay a foundation for the advancement of Web-based industrial operation system and social operation management patterns. Originality/value – This paper is the first one to propose the concepts of CSE, which lights the beacon for the future research in this area.
Parlić-Božović Jasna Lj.
Full Text Available Learning and education gradually occupy an important place in human life. Therefore, continuing socio-political and economic changes, rapid scientific and technological development, the expansion of knowledge, formed the phenomenon of the learning society. Its theoretical basis can be found in the concept of learning in the course of a lifetime, example: permanent learning and education in the aging process. On the other hand, the rapid changes taking place in the world, seeking to know the day is increasing. In the center of a thriving economy and a developed society are knowledge and ability, and education and learning become the instrument that. key socio-economic progress. Nevertheless, shorter working hours and longer life expectancy retirement also increases the amount of time available for other activities. In all areas, there are more opportunities for learning outside the school, and qualifications, in the traditional sense of getting out in front of new trends competence and adaptability. Adults who are constantly in the process of aging, the process of continuing education and learning are significantly different quality in relation to children, therefore it is necessary and a different approach to the children, and a different approach to teaching adults in the era of change, due to life and work experience, educational level, psychological and physical characteristics but also because of their social status. This paper will be an attempt, which will show the theoretical analysis of many aspects of learning, types, shapes, possibilities and limits of learning, the basic needs of adults in the aging process, as well as provide answers to the question why a grown man in the aging process learns who the person in the learning process and learning how to function in a process of aging.
Hartmeyer, Rikke; Stevenson, Matt P.; Bentsen, Peter
assessment: firstly, concept mapping should be constructed in teaching, preferably on repeated occasions. Secondly, concept mapping should be carried out individually if personal understanding is to be elicited; however, collaborative concept mapping might foster discussions valuable for developing students......’ understanding and for activating them as instructional resources and owners of their own learning. Thirdly, low-directed mapping seems most suitable for formative assessment. Fourthly, technology-based or peer assessments are useful strategies likely to reduce the load of interpretation for the educator......In this paper, we present and discuss the results of a systematic review of concept mapping-based interventions in primary and secondary science education. We identified the following recommendations for science educators on how to successfully apply concept mapping as a method for formative...
This essential publication is for all research and academic libraries, especially those institutions with online and distance education courses available in their science education programs. This book will also benefit audiences within the science education community of practice and others interested in STEM education, virtual schools, e-learning, m-learning, natural sciences, physical sciences, biological sciences, geosciences, online learning models, virtual laboratories, virtual field trip...
DeWitt, Jennifer; Archer, Louise
Informal science learning (ISL) experiences have been found to provide valuable opportunities to engage with and learn about science and, as such, form a key part of the STEM learning ecosystem. However, concerns remain around issues of equity and access. The Enterprising Science study builds upon previous research in this area and uses the…
Gronemann, Sigurd Trolle
Despite the increasing use of portable tablets in learning, their impact has received little attention in research. In five different projects, this media-ethnographic and design-based analysis of the use of portable tablets as a learning resource in science museums investigates how young people...... is identified. It is argued that, paradoxically, museums’ decisions to innovate by introducing new technologies, such as portable tablets, and new pedagogies to support them conflict with many young people’s traditional ideas of museums and learning. The assessment of the implications of museums’ integration...... of portable tablets indicates that in making pedagogical transformations to accommodate new technologies, museums risk opposing didactic intention if pedagogies do not sufficiently attend to young learners’ systemic expectations to learning and to their expectations to the digital experience influenced...
Andersson, Olle; Rollenhagen, Carl
The term 'MTO' (Man-Technology-Organisation) has been widely used by Swedish utilities and regulators to describe knowledge and analytical techniques that focus on human and organisational factors and their relationship with nuclear safety. MTO was introduced in Sweden after the TMI accident as a concept similar to the 'Human Factors' (HF) concept developed in the USA. It was the intent that the explicit mention of the three interrelated elements in the concept - Man, Technology and Organisation - would stimulate a comprehensive 'system view' on nuclear safety. This view should go beyond a strict technological perspective to recognise and highlight human and organisational factors as important moderators of risk. In retrospect, the MTO concept has been successful in stimulating a socio-technological view of nuclear safety in Sweden - a general trend supported by international developments. A further step along this path has been taken with the LearnSafe project. (author)
Full Text Available How, when and what kind of learning takes place are key questions in all educational environments. School graduates are expected to have reached a development level whereby they have, among many fundamental skills, the ability to think critically, to plan their studies and their future, and to integrate knowledge across disciplines. However, it is challenging to develop these skills in schools. Following existing curricula, disciplines are often taught separately and by different teachers, making it difficult for students to connect knowledge studied and learned from one discipline to that of another discipline. The Next Generation Science Standards on teaching and learning natural science in the United States point out important crosscutting concepts in science education (NGSS, 2013. In Estonia, similar trends are leading to an emphasis on the need to further develop scientific literacy skills and interdisciplinary learning in students. The changing environment around us must be reflected in changes in our school system. In this paper, we report on research that intends to answer the questions: (a “How much do Estonian students develop an interdisciplinary understanding of science throughout their high school education?”, and (b “Is their thinking more interdisciplinary after two years of studies in an Estonian high school?” Additionally, we analyzed the results based on the type of school the students attended, and we examined the use concept mapping to assess interdisciplinary learning. This research is part of an overall study that involved students from 44 Estonian high schools taking a science test similar to the three-dimensional Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA test (hereafter called PISA-like multidimensional test as well as constructing concept maps, while in 10th and 12th grade. In this paper, we report on the analysis of the results for 182 of the students, concentrating on the analysis of the concept maps
Reuter, Jamie M.
The recent decades have seen an increased focus on improving early science education. Goals include helping young children learn about pertinent concepts in science, and fostering early scientific reasoning and inquiry skills (e.g., NRC 2007, 2012, 2015). However, there is still much to learn about what constitutes appropriate frameworks that blend science education with developmentally appropriate learning environments. An important goal for the construction of early science is a better understanding of appropriate learning experiences and expectations for preschool children. This dissertation examines some of these concerns by focusing on three dimensions of science learning in the preschool classroom: (1) the learner; (2) instructional tools and pedagogy; and (3) the social context of learning with peers. In terms of the learner, the dissertation examines some dimensions of preschool children's scientific reasoning skills in the context of potentially relevant, developing general reasoning abilities. As young children undergo rapid cognitive changes during the preschool years, it is important to explore how these may influence scientific thinking. Two features of cognitive functioning have been carefully studied: (1) the demonstration of an epistemic awareness through an emerging theory of mind, and (2) the rapid improvement in executive functioning capacity. Both continue to develop through childhood and adolescence, but changes in early childhood are especially striking and have been neglected as regards their potential role in scientific thinking. The question is whether such skills relate to young children's capacity for scientific thinking. Another goal was to determine whether simple physics diagrams serve as effective instructional tools in supporting preschool children's scientific thinking. Specifically, in activities involving predicting and checking in scientific contexts, the question is whether such diagrams facilitate children's ability to
Zhang, Danhui; Tang, Xing
Informal science learning has been found to have effects on students' science learning. Through the use of secondary data from a national assessment of 7410 middle school students in China, this study explores the relationship among five types of extracurricular science activities, learning interests, academic self-concept, and science achievement. Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the influence of students' self-chosen and school-organised extracurricular activities on science achievement through mediating interests and the academic self-concept. Chi-square tests were used to determine whether there was an opportunity gap in the student's engagement in extracurricular activities. The students' volunteer and school-organised participation in extracurricular science activities had a positive and indirect influence on their science achievement through the mediating variables of their learning interests and academic self-concept. However, there were opportunity gaps between different groups of students in terms of school location, family background, and especially the mother's education level. Students from urban areas with better-educated mothers or higher socioeconomic status are more likely to access diverse science-related extracurricular activities.
Maria Lúcia Vital dos Santos Abib
Full Text Available Recognizing the urgent need of a scientific education thet would provide for citizen participation in decision making regarding problems that affect our survival, this paper reports teachers perceptions about problems that affect the future of human kind and life in our planet. Taking as reference recent studies which approach this issue globally, we analyse science teachers conceptions concerning the present world situation. Results show a fragmentary character and an insufficient conscientization of the extent and serioussness of the problems. This finding points at the need of formative actions that would provide teachers with a more adequate perspection of those problems and of possible solutions.
Marriott, Rita De Cássia Veiga; Torres, Patrícia Lupion
This chapter aims to investigate new ways of foreign-language teaching/learning via a study of how concept mapping can help develop a student's reading, writing and oral skills as part of a blended methodology for language teaching known as LAPLI (Laboratorio de Aprendizagem de LInguas: The Language Learning Lab). LAPLI is a student-centred and collaborative methodology which encourages students to challenge their limitations and expand their current knowledge whilst developing their linguistic and interpersonal skills. We explore the theories that underpin LAPLI and detail the 12 activities comprising its programme with specify reference to the use of "concept mapping". An innovative table enabling a formative and summative assessment of the concept maps is formulated. Also presented are some of the qualitative and quantitative results achieved when this methodology was first implemented with a group of pre-service students studying for a degree in English and Portuguese languages at the Catholic University of Parana (PUCPR) in Brazil. The contribution of concept mapping and LAPLI to an under standing of language learning along with a consideration of the difficulties encountered in its implementation with student groups is discussed and suggestions made for future research.
Koballa, Thomas R.; Glynn, Shawn M.; Upson, Leslie
Case studies to investigate the conceptions of teaching science held by three novice teachers participating in an alternative secondary science teacher certification program were conducted, along with the relationships between their conceptions of science teaching and their science teaching practice. Data used to build the cases included the…
O'Kelly, James B.
This study examined the effects of picture books belonging to different literary genres on the learning of science by primary grade students. These genres included modern fantasy, fiction, and nonfiction. The students were exposed to two topics through books, butterflies and snails. The study focused on the effects of those books on children's expressions of (a) knowledge, (b) erroneous information, (c) creative ideas, and (d) the support required to elicit information and ideas from the children. Sixty-one children from three kindergarten and three second grade participated. Children were designated by their teachers as being high or low with respect to academic achievement. These categories allowed measurement of interactions between literary genres, grade levels, and academic achievement levels. Children first learned about butterflies, and then about snails. For each topic, children were interviewed about their knowledge and questions of the topic. Teachers engaged their classes with a book about the topic. The children were re-interviewed about their knowledge and questions about the topic. No class encountered the same genre of book twice. Comparisons of the children's prior knowledge of butterflies and snails indicated that the children possessed significantly more knowledge about butterflies than about snails. Literary genre had one significant effect on children's learning about snails. Contrary to expectations, children who encountered nonfiction produced significantly more creative expressions about snails than children who encountered faction or modern fantasy. No significant effects for literary genre were demonstrated with respect to children's learning about butterflies. The outcomes of the study indicated that nonfiction had its strongest impact on the learning of science when children have a relatively small fund of knowledge about a topic. This study has implications for future research. The inclusion of a larger number of students, classes, and
Zhai, Junqing; Tan, Aik-Ling
This study delves into the different roles that elementary science teachers play in the classroom to orchestrate science learning opportunities for students. Examining the classroom practices of three elementary science teachers in Singapore, we found that teachers shuttle between four key roles in enabling student learning in science. Teachers…
National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2010
Research on science teaching and learning plays an important role in improving science literacy, a goal called for in the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996) and supported by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA 2003). NSTA promotes a research agenda that is focused on the goal of enhancing student learning through effective…
Sato, Mistilina; Bartiromo, Margo; Elko, Susan
The authors report on their work with the Academy for Leadership in Science Instruction, a program targeted to help science teachers promote a science teaching and learning culture in their own schools.
Inouye, Caron Y; Bae, Christine L; Hayes, Kathryn N
Research underscores the importance of retrieval-based practice and application of knowledge for meaningful learning. However, the didactic lecture format continues to persist in traditional university physiology courses. A strategy called whiteboarding, where students use handheld dry erase boards and work in small groups to actively retrieve, discuss, and apply concepts presented in the lecture, has the potential to address challenges associated with actively engaging students in science courses for greater learning. The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the potential benefits of whiteboarding for increasing students' understanding of animal physiology concepts. Student performance on physiology questions assessing concepts taught using lecture only vs. concepts taught using lecture and whiteboarding were compared within the term that whiteboarding was used, as well as across whiteboard and lecture-only terms taught by the same instructor. Results showed that when whiteboarding was incorporated in the course, student performance on items that assessed concepts corresponding to the whiteboarding activities were significantly higher compared with performance on items that assessed concepts taught through lecture only. These patterns in student performance were found within and across terms. Taken together, findings point to whiteboarding as an effective tool that can be integrated in traditional lecture courses to promote students' understanding of physiology. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Full Text Available The following contribution makes an effort to place the concept-cartoon-method into the context of social science education. Concept-cartoons (CCs enable teachers to use the everyday life experiences and individual thoughts of the pupils as a positive enrichment tool within the learning processes. In this context, CCs are very suitable to function as a method to gain information about both the existing mental conceptions and the individual political judgment strategies. Through this, it is possible to put everyday life concepts and scientific knowledge in a constructive relationship, which finally enhances new learning objectives. First the article highlights the relevance of pupils’ and teachers` concepts for judgment processes. On this basis the method of CCs is introduced and evaluated.Der folgende Artikel beschäftigt sich mit den Möglichkeiten des methodischen Einsatzes von Concept-Cartoons im Rahmen sozialwissenschaftlichen Unterrichts. Als Instrumentarium zur Diagnose von Schülervorstellungen und individuellen Urteilsstrategien, bieten Comic-Cartoons den Lehrkräften die Möglichkeit, den Unterricht entlang dieser lernrelevanten Perspektiven zu gestalten. Durch die konstruktive Verknüpfung von Alltagskonzepten und Fachkonzepten können auf diese Weise neue Chancen für nachhaltige Lehr- und Lernprozesse erschlossen werden. Innerhalb dieses Beitrags wird zunächst die Bedeutung von Schülervorstellungen und vorfachlichen Urteilsstrategien für wirksamen sozialwissenschaftlichen Unterricht geklärt. Im Anschluss erfolgt eine Einführung in die Methode „Concept-Cartoons“. Abschließend werden exemplarisch drei von den Autoren gestaltete Cartoons vorgestellt.
Fürstenau, B.; Kneppers, L.; Dekker, R.; Cañas, A.J.; Novak, J.D.; Vanhaer, J.
In two studies we investigated whether concept mapping or summary writing better support students while learning from authentic problems in the field of business. We interpret concept mapping and summary writing as elaboration tools aiming at helping students to understand new information, and to
Full Text Available The paper presents the effect of a free word association test, content analysis and concept mapping on students’ achievements in human biology. The free word association test was used for revealing the scientific conceptual structures of 8th grade and 12th grade students, around a stimulus word – human being – and for motivating them to study human biology. The stimulus word retrieved a cluster of associations most of which were based on science education and experience. Associations with the stimulus word were analyzed and classified according to predetermined criteria and structured by means of a concept map. The stimulus word ‘human being’ was quantitatively assessed in order to find out the balance between the associations with its different aspects. On the basis of the results some connections between biology and other sciences studying the human being, were worked out. Each new topic in human biology was studied by using content analysis of the textbook and concept mapping as study tools and thus maintaining students’ motivation. Achievements of students were assessed by means of tests, observation and concept maps evaluation. The obtained data was also valuable in clarifying the complex nature of the human being, and confirming the statement that biology cannot answer all questions, concerning human nature. Inferences were made about the word association test combined with content analysis and concept map construction as an educational strategy.
Marcucci, Emma; Slivinski, Carolyn; Lawton, Brandon L.; Smith, Denise A.; Squires, Gordon K.; Biferno, Anya A.; Lestition, Kathleen; Cominsky, Lynn R.; Lee, Janice C.; Rivera, Thalia; Walker, Allyson; Spisak, Marilyn
NASA's Universe of Learning creates and delivers science-driven, audience-driven resources and experiences designed to engage and immerse learners of all ages and backgrounds in exploring the universe for themselves. The project is a unique partnership between the Space Telescope Science Institute, Caltech/IPAC, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, and Sonoma State University and is part of the NASA SMD Science Activation Collective. The NASA’s Universe of Learning projects pull on the expertise of subject matter experts (scientist and engineers) from across the broad range of NASA Astrophysics themes and missions. One such project, which draws strongly on the expertise of the community, is the NASA’s Universe of Learning Science Briefings, which is done in collaboration with the NASA Museum Alliance. This collaboration presents a monthly hour-long discussion on relevant NASA astrophysics topics or events to an audience composed largely of informal educators from informal learning environments. These professional learning opportunities use experts and resources within the astronomical community to support increased interest and engagement of the informal learning community in NASA Astrophysics-related concepts and events. Briefings are designed to create a foundation for this audience using (1) broad science themes, (2) special events, or (3) breaking science news. The NASA’s Universe of Learning team engages subject matter experts to be speakers and present their science at these briefings to provide a direct connection to NASA Astrophysics science and provide the audience an opportunity to interact directly with scientists and engineers involved in NASA missions. To maximize the usefulness of the Museum Alliance Science Briefings, each briefing highlights resources related to the science theme to support informal educators in incorporating science content into their venues and/or interactions with the public. During this
Andriani Putu Fika
Full Text Available Autonomous learning is a concept in which the learner has the ability to take charge of their own learning. It becomes a notable aspect that should be perceived by students. The aim of this research is for finding out the strategies used by grade two teachers in Bali Kiddy Primary School to promote autonomous learning in English through the implementation of Content and Language Integrated Learning in science and maths subjects. This study was designed in the form of descriptive qualitative study. The data were collected through observation, interview, and document study. The result of the study shows that there are some strategies of promoting autonomous learning in English through the implementation of CLIL in Science and Maths subjects. Those strategies are table of content training, questioning & presenting, journal writing, choosing activities, and using online activity. Those strategies can be adopted or even adapted as the way to promote autonomous learning in English subject.
Becker, B. J.
Recent research has shown that children, like scientists, can tolerate a wide range of observations that do not match their expectations, or that even directly conflict with them, without abandoning their personally constructed system of beliefs about the natural world. Traditional approaches -- even laboratory experiences that support textbook presentations of theories -- do not guarantee students will alter their convictions concerning how things "ought" to work. In contrast, a history-grounded approach to presenting scientific concepts has the potential for doing precisely that. In this paper, the author argues that embedding science learning in a historical context engages students in thinking about science in a way that complements and enriches a "hands-on" approach to inquiry learning. It conveys the creative and very human character of scientific explanation -- its tentative, probabilistic, and serendipitous nature. By integrating well-chosen historical images and ideas into traditional content-centered science units, educators can stimulate productive classroom discussion and establish a classroom atmosphere that nurtures students to think critically about the meaning of scientific activity in different cultures and times More importantly, the use of historic episodes in teaching science opens up opportunities for students to identify their own untutored beliefs about the workings of the natural world, to examine them critically in the light of considered historical debate, and to confront these beliefs in a way that results in positive, long-lasting conceptual change.
Garwood, Janet K
The current longitudinal, descriptive, and correlational study explored which traditional teaching strategies can engage Millennial students and adequately prepare them for the ultimate test of nursing competence: the National Council Licensure Examination. The study comprised a convenience sample of 40 baccalaureate nursing students enrolled in a psychiatric nursing course. The students were exposed to a variety of traditional (e.g., PowerPoint(®)-guided lectures) and nontraditional (e.g., concept maps, group activities) teaching and learning strategies, and rated their effectiveness. The students' scores on the final examination demonstrated that student learning outcomes met or exceeded national benchmarks. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
Hsieh, Wen-Min; Tsai, Chin-Chung
Using the draw-a-picture technique, the authors explored the learning conceptions held by students across grade levels. A total of 1,067 Taiwanese students in Grades 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 participated in this study. Participants were asked to use drawing to illustrate how they conceptualize learning. A coding checklist was developed to analyze…
Cooper, Katelyn M; Ashley, Michael; Brownell, Sara E
There has been a national movement to transition college science courses from passive lectures to active learning environments. Active learning has been shown to be a more effective way for students to learn, yet there is concern that some students are resistant to active learning approaches. Although there is much discussion about student resistance to active learning, few studies have explored this topic. Furthermore, a limited number of studies have applied theoretical frameworks to student engagement in active learning. We propose using a theoretical lens of expectancy value theory to understand student resistance to active learning. In this study, we examined student perceptions of active learning after participating in 40 hours of active learning. We used the principal components of expectancy value theory to probe student experience in active learning: student perceived self-efficacy in active learning, value of active learning, and potential cost of participating in active learning. We found that students showed positive changes in the components of expectancy value theory and reported high levels of engagement in active learning, which provide proof of concept that expectancy value theory can be used to boost student perceptions of active learning and their engagement in active learning classrooms. From these findings, we have built a theoretical framework of expectancy value theory applied to active learning.
Several recently developed philosophical approaches to the self promise to enhance the exchange of ideas between the philosophy of the mind and the other cognitive sciences. This review examines two important concepts of self: the 'minimal self', a self devoid of temporal extension, and the 'narrative self', which involves personal identity and continuity across time. The notion of a minimal self is first clarified by drawing a distinction between the sense of self-agency and the sense of self-ownership for actions. This distinction is then explored within the neurological domain with specific reference to schizophrenia, in which the sense of self-agency may be disrupted. The convergence between the philosophical debate and empirical study is extended in a discussion of more primitive aspects of self and how these relate to neonatal experience and robotics. The second concept of self, the narrative self, is discussed in the light of Gazzaniga's left-hemisphere 'interpreter' and episodic memory. Extensions of the idea of a narrative self that are consistent with neurological models are then considered. The review illustrates how the philosophical approach can inform cognitive science and suggests that a two-way collaboration may lead to a more fully developed account of the self.
Aulia, E. V.; Poedjiastoeti, S.; Agustini, R.
The purpose of this research is to describe the effectiveness of guided inquiry-based learning material to improve students’ science literacy skills on solubility and solubility product concepts. This study used Research and Development (R&D) design and was implemented to the 11th graders of Muhammadiyah 4 Senior High School Surabaya in 2016/2017 academic year with one group pre-test and post-test design. The data collection techniques used were validation, observation, test, and questionnaire. The results of this research showed that the students’ science literacy skills are different after implementation of guided inquiry-based learning material. The guided inquiry-based learning material is effective to improve students’ science literacy skills on solubility and solubility product concepts by getting N-gain score with medium and high category. This improvement caused by the developed learning material such as lesson plan, student worksheet, and science literacy skill tests were categorized as valid and very valid. In addition, each of the learning phases in lesson plan has been well implemented. Therefore, it can be concluded that the guided inquiry-based learning material are effective to improve students’ science literacy skills on solubility and solubility product concepts in senior high school.
Foshee Reed, Lynn
The Joint Science Education Project (JSEP) is a successful summer science and culture opportunity in which students and teachers from the United States, Denmark, and Greenland come together to learn about the research conducted in Greenland and the logistics involved in supporting the research. They conduct experiments first-hand and participate in inquiry-based educational activities alongside scientists and graduate students at a variety of locations in and around Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, and on the top of the ice sheet at Summit Station. The Joint Committee, a high-level forum involving the Greenlandic, Danish and U.S. governments, established the Joint Science Education Project in 2007, as a collaborative diplomatic effort during the International Polar Year to: • Educate and inspire the next generation of polar scientists; • Build strong networks of students and teachers among the three countries; and • Provide an opportunity to practice language and communication skills Since its inception, JSEP has had 82 student and 22 teacher participants and has involved numerous scientists and field researchers. The JSEP format has evolved over the years into its current state, which consists of two field-based subprograms on site in Greenland: the Greenland-led Kangerlussuaq Science Field School and the U.S.-led Arctic Science Education Week. All travel, transportation, accommodations, and meals are provided to the participants at no cost. During the 2013 Kangerlussuaq Science Field School, students and teachers gathered data in a biodiversity study, created and set geo- and EarthCaches, calculated glacial discharge at a melt-water stream and river, examined microbes and tested for chemical differences in a variety of lakes, measured ablation at the edge of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and learned about fossils, plants, animals, minerals and rocks of Greenland. In addition, the students planned and led cultural nights, sharing food, games, stories, and traditions of
Tobin, Kenneth; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Zimmermann, Andrea
Teaching in urban schools, with their problems of violence, lack of resources, and inadequate funding, is difficult. It is even more difficult to learn to teach in urban schools. Yet learning in those locations where one will subsequently be working has been shown to be the best preparation for teaching. In this article we propose coteaching as a viable model for teacher preparation and the professional development of urban science teachers. Coteaching - working at the elbow of someone else - allows new teachers to experience appropriate and timely action by providing them with shared experiences that become the topic of their professional conversations with other coteachers (including peers, the cooperating teacher, university supervisors, and high school students). This article also includes an ethnography describing the experiences of a new teacher who had been assigned to an urban high school as field experience, during which she enacted a curriculum that was culturally relevant to her African American students, acknowledged their minority status with respect to science, and enabled them to pursue the school district standards. Even though coteaching enables learning to teach and curricula reform, we raise doubts about whether our approaches to teacher education and enacting science curricula are hegemonic and oppressive to the students we seek to emancipate through education.
Seatter, Carol Eunice Scarff
The problem for this thesis arises directly from several years of observation of science classrooms in British Columbia. The troubling phenomenon seen within numerous classrooms, taught by teachers claiming to be constructivist teachers, involved teachers fostering the idea that children can think about science in terms of their own ideas, that is, that children can think about science in common-sense terms. In the many cases I have observed, teachers justify this practice on the grounds of constructivist theory. However, this kind of "constructivist teaching" does not, in my opinion, lead to scientific reasoning. My argument begins with the premise that the development of scientific reasoning in children is necessary for science education. I will argue that the currently popular "constructivist" movement has significant potential to fail in producing scientific reasoning in children, as did its predecessor, the "discovery learning" movement of the 1960s. The incommensurable differences between scientific and common-sense reasoning are presented and discussed. This thesis examines constructivist theory in terms of its potential to hinder the development of scientific reasoning in children. Two features of the constructivist writings are examined: those which pertain to the nature of science, and those relating to the concept of teaching. A chapter on the logic of scientific inquiry is central to the thesis, as it describes and explains the concepts, forms of explanation and truth criteria unique to the discipline of science. The epistemological foundations of science education are discussed in terms of the realist/instrumentalist debate. The thesis argues in favor of a sophisticated realist view of knowledge, such as those offered by Hacking and Matthews who take into account Hanson's "theory-laden" observation without falling prey to a naive realist view. Reasoning in science is compared with children's common-sense reasoning in an attempt to further understand
Sabel, Jaime L.; Forbes, Cory T.; Zangori, Laura
To support elementary students' learning of core, standards-based life science concepts highlighted in the Next Generation Science Standards, prospective elementary teachers should develop an understanding of life science concepts and learn to apply their content knowledge in instructional practice to craft elementary science learning environments grounded in students' thinking. To do so, teachers must learn to use high-leverage instructional practices, such as formative assessment, to engage students in scientific practices and connect instruction to students' ideas. However, teachers may not understand formative assessment or possess sufficient science content knowledge to effectively engage in related instructional practices. To address these needs, we developed and conducted research within an innovative course for preservice elementary teachers built upon two pillars—life science concepts and formative assessment. An embedded mixed methods study was used to evaluate the effect of the intervention on preservice teachers' (n = 49) content knowledge and ability to engage in formative assessment practices for science. Findings showed that increased life content knowledge over the semester helped preservice teachers engage more productively in anticipating and evaluating students' ideas, but not in identifying effective instructional strategies to respond to those ideas.
Huang, Kuo-Liang; Chen, Kuo-Hsiang; Ho, Chun-Heng
It is possible that e-textbook readers and tablet PC's will become mainstream reading devices in the future. However, knowledge about instructional design in this field of learning sciences is inadequate. This study aimed to analyse how two factors, that is, presentation methods and concept maps, interact with cognitive load and learning…
Valdir de Sousa Cavalcanti
Full Text Available The circumference study, as its importance, it is one of the most relevant contents in the Analytical Geometry curriculum. However, the complexity of related concepts to this theme linked to the content fragmentation, it difficulties the students thinking of transforming geometrical problems into equations solution, systems or inequations. Within, in this article we present a partial report of a master research work, of qualitative mode, which aimed to develop and to evaluate an alternative methodology by using musical parody composition to the teaching of Mathematics in trying to contribute to the circumference concepts learning process. For that, we carried out a case study with 36 third year high school students of a public school from the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba. The research work was based and discussed on Brousseau Didactical Situation Theory. It was chosen triangulation technique for the data analyses, collected from interviews, questionnaires and a list of mathematical exercises. We concluded that the parody composition resource allowed the students better understand the concepts of center, ratio, cord and the definition of the general circumference equation, as they were capable to identify the relative positions which a circumference assumes in relation to an equation of a straight line and between two circumferences in the various concepts that differentiated them. Thus, we can state that the musical parody composition as a didactical resource can contribute to the learning of mathematical contents.
Sularso Sularso; Widha Sunarno; Sarwanto Sarwanto
This study provides information on understanding students' concepts in guided inquiry learning groups and in free modified inquiry learning groups. Understanding of student concept is reviewed on the concept of static fluid case. The number of samples tested were 67 students. The sample is divided into 2 groups of students: the group is given guided inquiry learning and the group given the modified free inquiry learning. Understanding the concept of students is measured through 23 tests of it...
Hagemans, Mieke G.; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Ton
Students often need support to optimize their learning in inquiry learning environments. In 2 studies, we investigated the effects of adding concept-map-based support to a simulation-based inquiry environment on kinematics. The concept map displayed the main domain concepts and their relations, while dynamic color coding of the concepts displayed…
Calixto Gutiérrez Braojos
Full Text Available The aim of this exploratory study was to analyze the relationship between conceptions and self-regulation learning in the cooperative learning. The participants were 71 students enrolled in higher education. We used a survey method and transversal design to analyze the relationship between the study variables. We use two questionnaires: a questionnaire about self-regulation learning in group cooperative learning; b questionnaire about interdependence social conceptions. Thus, we have followed classic validation procedures accepted by the scientific community (expert point of view and stadistical tests. The results showed on one hand a relationship between conceptions, self-regulation learning, and other hand, two type of student´s profiles respect to conceptions: a cooperative learners and individualist learners. Solely, cooperative learners obtained benefits of the didactic strategy to facilitate cooperative learning. Thus, results were significantly higher in the cooperative students than individualist students respect to use of selfregulation strategies and communicative skills to generate shared knowledge.
Full Text Available This essential publication is for all research and academic libraries, especially those institutions with online and distance education courses available in their science education programs. This book will also benefit audiences within the science education community of practice and others interested in STEM education, virtual schools, e-learning, m-learning, natural sciences, physical sciences, biological sciences, geosciences, online learning models, virtual laboratories, virtual field trips, cyberinfrastructure, neurological learning and the neuro-cognitive model. The continued growth in general studies and liberal arts and science programs online has led to a rise in the number of students whose science learning experiences are partially or exclusively online. character and quality of online science instruction.
Wei, Wei; Yue, Kwok-Bun
Concept map (CM) is a theoretically sound yet easy to learn tool and can be effectively used to represent knowledge. Even though many disciplines have adopted CM as a teaching and learning tool to improve learning effectiveness, its application in IS curriculum is sparse. Meaningful learning happens when one iteratively integrates new concepts and…
I have been involved in research on collaborative activities for improving the quality of teaching and learning high school science. Initially the collaborative activities we researched involved the uses of coteaching and cogenerative dialogue in urban middle and high schools in Philadelphia and New York (currently I have active research sites in New York and Brisbane, Australia). The research not only transformed practices but also produced theories that informed the development of additional collaborative activities and served as interventions for research and creation of heuristics for professional development programs and teacher certification courses. The presentation describes a collage of collaborative approaches to teaching and learning science, including coteaching, cogenerative dialogue, radical listening, critical reflection, and mindful action. For each activity in the collage I provide theoretical frameworks and empirical support, ongoing research, and priorities for the road ahead. I also address methodologies used in the research, illustrating how teachers and students collaborated as researchers in multilevel investigations of teaching and learning and learning to teach that included ethnography, video analysis, and sophisticated analyses of the voice, facial expression of emotion, eye gaze, and movement of the body during classroom interactions. I trace the evolution of studies of face-to-face interactions in science classes to the current focus on emotions and physiological aspects of teaching and learning (e.g., pulse rate, pulse strength, breathing patterns) that relate to science participation and achievement.
Etherington, Matthew B.
This study reports on the success of using a problem-based learning approach (PBL) as a pedagogical mode of learning open inquiry science within a traditional four-year undergraduate elementary teacher education program. In 2010, a problem-based learning approach to teaching primary science replaced the traditional content driven syllabus. During…
Owens, David C.; Sadler, Troy D.; Barlow, Angela T.; Smith-Walters, Cindi
Several studies have found active learning to enhance students' motivation and attitudes. Yet, faculty indicate that students resist active learning and censure them on evaluations after incorporating active learning into their instruction, resulting in an apparent paradox. We argue that the disparity in findings across previous studies is the result of variation in the active learning instruction that was implemented. The purpose of this study was to illuminate sources of motivation from and resistance to active learning that resulted from a novel, exemplary active-learning approach rooted in essential science practices and supported by science education literature. This approach was enacted over the course of 4 weeks in eight sections of an introductory undergraduate biology laboratory course. A plant concept inventory, administered to students as a pre-, post-, and delayed-posttest indicated significant proximal and distal learning gains. Qualitative analysis of open-response questionnaires and interviews elucidated sources of motivation and resistance that resulted from this active-learning approach. Several participants indicated this approach enhanced interest, creativity, and motivation to prepare, and resulted in a challenging learning environment that facilitated the sharing of diverse perspectives and the development of a community of learners. Sources of resistance to active learning included participants' unfamiliarity with essential science practices, having to struggle with uncertainty in the absence of authoritative information, and the extra effort required to actively construct knowledge as compared to learning via traditional, teacher-centered instruction. Implications for implementation, including tips for reducing student resistance to active learning, are discussed.
Libao, Nhorvien Jay P.; Sagun, Jessie John B.; Tamangan, Elvira A.; Pattalitan, Agaton P., Jr.; Dupa, Maria Elena D.; Bautista, Romiro G.
This study was designed to analyze the relationship of students' learning motivation and their academic performances in science. The study made use of 21 junior and senior Biological Science students to conclude on the formulated research problems. The respondents had a good to very good motivation in learning science. In general, the extent of…
Chapman, Georgina; Langley, Mark; Skilling, Gus; Walker, John
The national network of Science Learning Centres is a co-ordinating partner in the Getting Practical--Improving Practical Work in Science programme. The principle of training provision for the "Getting Practical" programme is a cascade model. Regional trainers employed by the national network of Science Learning Centres trained the cohort of local…
Gerasimos T. SOLDATOS
Full Text Available Proportionate Reciprocity, Modesty, and Democracy, are the key concepts in Aristotle’s economics of exchange. The following correspondence of these concepts with modern social science may be contemplated: (a Ideally, reciprocal justice in bilateral bargaining to minimize expenditure given utility levels results in Pareto-efficient, envy-free, equitable outcomes. (b Practically, bargaining under the threat or actual recontracting may act as a surrogate of reciprocal justice, leading to an N-person contract topology. (c But, recontracting is subject to practical limitations too, in which case near-reciprocal justice/general equilibrium outcomes may be fostered if, as a surrogate of recontracting, modesty in interaction is exhibited in an evolutionarily-stable-strategy fashion. (d That is, incomplete recontracting amounts to asymmetric agent-type information, which in turn lays the ground for injustices; the same lack of information prevents rectificatory justice from being efficient and hence, modesty can be efficient only if it operates as a social norm and hence, only in a modest polity, which can be no other than democracy.
The use of the concept of `ideology' in interpretation of science education curricula, textbooks and various practises is reviewed, and examples are given by referring to Norwegian curricula and textbooks. The term is proposed to be used in a broad sense about any kind of action-oriented theory based on a system of ideas, or any attempt to approach politics in the light of a system of ideas. Politics in this context is about shaping of education, and is related to forces (i.e., hypothetical impacts of idea systems) which may legitimise, change, or criticise social practices. The focus is (although not in every case) on the hidden, unconscious and critical aspects. The notion ideological aspects is proposed to be related to metaphysical-ontological, epistemological and axiological claims and connotations. Examples of educational issues concerning e.g., aims, compartmentalisation, integration, and fundamentally different ideas about truth, learning and man are mentioned. Searching for a single and unifying concept for the discussing of all of science education's fundamental questions seems however in vain. Therefore a wide range of concepts seems necessary to deepen our understanding of ``the fundamental questions''.
Akhnif, E; Macq, J; Idrissi Fakhreddine, M O; Meessen, B
ᅟ: There is growing interest in the use of the management concept of a 'learning organisation'. The objective of this review is to explore work undertaken towards the application of this concept to the health sector in general and to reach the goal of universal health coverage in particular. Of interest are the exploration of evaluation frameworks and their application in health. We used a scoping literature review based on the York methodology. We conducted an online search using selected keywords on some of the main databases on health science, selected websites and main reference books on learning organisations. We restricted the focus of our search on sources in the English language only. Inclusive and exclusive criteria were applied to arrive at a final list of articles, from which information was extracted and then selected and inserted in a chart. We identified 263 articles and other documents from our search. From these, 50 articles were selected for a full analysis and 27 articles were used for the summary. The majority of the articles concerned hospital settings (15 articles, 55%). Seven articles (25%) were related to the application of the concept to the health centre setting. Four articles discussed the application of the concept to the health system (14%). Most of the applications involved high-income countries (21 articles, 78%), with only one article being related to a low-income country. We found 13 different frameworks that were applied to different health organisations. The scoping review allowed us to assess applications of the learning organisation concept to the health sector to date. Such applications are still rare, but are increasingly being used. There is no uniform framework thus far, but convergence as for the dimensions that matter is increasing. Many methodological questions remain unanswered. We also identified a gap in terms of the use of this concept in low- and middle-income countries and to the health system as a whole.
Today, it takes only a few months for the amount of knowledge to double. The volume of information available has grown so much that it cannot be fully encompassed by the human mind. For this reason, science, learning, and education have to change in the third millennium. The question is thus: what is it that needs to be done? The answer may be found through three basic stages. The first stage is persuading scientists of the necessity to change science education. The second stage is more difficult, in that scientists must be told that they should not place an exaggerated importance on their own academic field and that they should see their field as being on an equal basis with other fields. In the last stage, scientists need to condense the bulk of information on their hands to a manageable size. "Change" is the magic word of our time. Change brings about new rules, and this process happens very quickly in a global world. If we scientists do not rapidly change our scientific learning and education, we will find our students and ourselves caught up in an irreversibly destructive and fatal change that sets its own rules, just like the Arab spring.
Full Text Available Today, it takes only a few months for the amount of knowledge to double. The volume of information available has grown so much that it cannot be fully encompassed by the human mind. For this reason, science, learning, and education have to change in the third millennium. The question is thus: what is it that needs to be done? The answer may be found through three basic stages. The first stage is persuading scientists of the necessity to change science education. The second stage is more difficult, in that scientists must be told that they should not place an exaggerated importance on their own academic field and that they should see their field as being on an equal basis with other fields. In the last stage, scientists need to condense the bulk of information on their hands to a manageable size. “Change” is the magic word of our time. Change brings about new rules, and this process happens very quickly in a global world. If we scientists do not rapidly change our scientific learning and education, we will find our students and ourselves caught up in an irreversibly destructive and fatal change that sets its own rules, just like the Arab spring.
McCaughey, J.; Dewi, P. R.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Sieh, K. E.
Science communication often falls short when it is based on the blank-slate assumption that if we can just get the message right, then the information will be received and understood as intended. In contrast, constructivist learning theory and practice suggest that we all actively construct our knowledge from a variety of information sources and through particular, novel associations with our prior knowledge. This constructed knowledge can be quite different from any of its original sources, such as a particular science communication. Successful communication requires carefully examining how people construct their knowledge of the topic of interest. Examples from our outreach work to connect hazard-science research with disaster-risk reduction practice in West Sumatra illustrate the mismatch between expert and stakeholder/public mental models of the characteristics of tsunamigenic earthquakes. There are incorrect conceptions that seawater always withdraws before a tsunami, and that a tsunami can be produced by an earthquake only if the epicenter is located at the ocean trench. These incorrect conceptions arise from generalizations based on recent, local earthquake experiences, as well as from unintended consequences of science outreach, science education, and, in one case, the way that tsunami modelling is graphically presented in scientific journals. We directly address these incorrect conceptions in our discussions with government officials and others; as a result, the local disaster-management agency has changed its policies to reflect an increased understanding of the hazard. This outreach success would not have been possible without eliciting the prior knowledge of our audiences through dialogue.
Chandrasena, Wanasinghe Durayalage
This research comprises three inter-related synergistic studies. Study 1 aims to develop a psychometrically sound tool to measure secondary students' science self-concepts, motivation, and aspirations in biology, chemistry, earth and environmental methodology to explicate students' and teachers' views, practices, and personal experiences, to identify the barriers to undertaking science for secondary students and to provide rich insights into the relations of secondary students' science self-concepts and motivation with their aspirations and achievement. Study 3 will detect additional issues that may not necessarily be identifiable from the quantitative findings of Study 2. The psychometric properties of the newly developed instrument demonstrated that students' science self-concepts were domain specific, while science motivation and science aspirations were not. Students' self-concepts in general science, chemistry, and physics were stronger for males than females. Students' self-concepts in general science and biology became stronger for students in higher years of secondary schooling. Students' science motivation did not vary across gender and year levels. Though students' science aspirations did not vary across gender, they became stronger with age. In general, students' science self-concepts and science motivation were positively related to science aspirations and science achievement. Specifically, students' year level, biology self-concept, and physics self concept predicted their science and career aspirations. Biology self-concept predicted teacher ratings of students' achievement, and students' general science self-concepts predicted their achievement according to students' ratings. Students' year level and intrinsic motivation in science were predictors of their science aspirations, and intrinsic motivation was a greater significant predictor of students' achievement, according to student ratings. Based upon students' and teachers' perceptions, the
Paper shows that Wittgenstein, in discussing ostensive definition, understanding, and the private language argument, attacks Saint Augustine's notion of learning. Recently, the Augustinian conception has been resurrected in cognitive theories postulating an innate language of thought, making Wittgenstein's claims that this conception of learning…
ÁLVARO ENRÍQUEZ MARTÍNEZ
Full Text Available Based on three key psychological concepts: learning, culture and meaning, the present essay proposes a conceptualbase frame, oriented toward the understanding of development in organizations into current milieu ofcompetitiveness and temporality, of the relationships among people working into them. The organizations whichare typically embedded in a context of values, needs and symbols that made up their cultures, must evolve in orderto face the demands for new developments and change, to which they are forced to. The concept of “meaning of theculture”, is presented as the base over which is build and rooted the organizational learning - in a technical and socialsense. The different types of learning are the ways in which the organizations satisfy the requirements coming fromtheir environments, in front of which must generate knowledge and consequently, new products and services,based on the people that form such organizations. The people that belong and constitutes the organization, incircumstances of temporal cohesion and within temporary working networks, must achieve results and to beadjusted to these new working and organizational facts, developing self-management and autonomy, in order tosignify and get adapted into the cultural tissue.
Somerville, R. C.
Communicating climate science is a form of education. A scientist giving a television interview or testifying before Congress is engaged in an educational activity, though one not identical to teaching graduate students. Knowledge, including knowledge about climate science, should never be communicated as a mere catalogue of facts. Science is a process, a way of regarding the natural world, and a fascinating human activity. A great deal is already known about how to do a better job of science communication, but implementing change is not easy. I am confident that improving climate science communication will involve the paradigm of constructivist learning theory, which traces its roots to the 20th-century Swiss epistemologist Jean Piaget, among others. This theory emphasizes the role of the teacher as supportive facilitator rather than didactic lecturer, "a guide on the side, not a sage on the stage." It also stresses the importance of the teacher making a serious effort to understand and appreciate the prior knowledge and viewpoint of the student, recognizing that students' minds are not empty vessels to be filled or blank slates to be written on. Instead, students come to class with a background of life experiences and a body of existing knowledge, of varying degrees of correctness or accuracy, about almost any topic. Effective communication is also usually a conversation rather than a monologue. We know too that for many audiences, the most trusted messengers are those who share the worldview and cultural values of those with whom they are communicating. Constructivist teaching methods stress making use of the parallels between learning and scientific research, such as the analogies between assessing prior knowledge of the audience and surveying scientific literature for a research project. Meanwhile, a well-funded and effective professional disinformation campaign has been successful in sowing confusion, and as a result, many people mistakenly think climate
Diana Paola Martínez-Salcedo
Full Text Available This article discloses an experimental strategy that aims to contribute to science education in Colombia, through a proposal focusing on learning the concept of force. For this experimental teaching sequence for teaching and learning the concept of "Force" was developed from the perspective of meaningful learning of Ausubel; and applied to students from fifth grade of School Lucrecio Jaramillo Vélez, headquarters "Agrupación Colombia". Initially an investigation of prior knowledge about the concept of force, according to the results was performed was developed and applied a proposal that included questionnaires, field work, observations in science classes, surveys, experiments, socialization of work laboratory and representations contained in the notebooks, the results of these activities were analyzed qualitatively, obtaining an evaluation and interpretation of the acquired learning observed in students an appropriation of the concept, possibly because it is a proposal of an experimental nature, focusing on the student, in which the exploration of phenomena by experimental means is favorable, the approach of hypotheses and troubleshooting, besides favoring an approach to enjoyment and joy by science.
Tan, Sema; Erdimez, Omer; Zimmerman, Robert
Concept maps measured a student's understanding of the complexity of concepts, and interrelationships. Novak and Gowin (1984) claimed that the continuous use of concept maps increased the complexity and interconnectedness of students' understanding of relationships between concepts in a particular science domain. This study has two purposes; the…
student study habit and self-concept combined together and singularly predicted science ... Study skills are fundamental to academic success. A student who ... Motivation to engage or not in a task is significantly determined by self- concept or ...
Gubrud, Allan R.; Novak, Joseph D.
Empirical data relate to Bruner's and Ausubel's theories of learning concepts at different age levels. The concept of vector addition was taught to eighth, ninth, and tenth grade students. The concept was learned and retained by high ability ninth and all tenth grade students. (PS)
Tippett, Christine D.
The move from learning science from representations to learning science with representations has many potential and undocumented complexities. This thematic analysis partially explores the trends of representational uses in science instruction, examining 80 research studies on diagram use in science. These studies, published during 2000-2014, were located through searches of journal databases and books. Open coding of the studies identified 13 themes, 6 of which were identified in at least 10% of the studies: eliciting mental models, classroom-based research, multimedia principles, teaching and learning strategies, representational competence, and student agency. A shift in emphasis on learning with rather than learning from representations was evident across the three 5-year intervals considered, mirroring a pedagogical shift from science instruction as transmission of information to constructivist approaches in which learners actively negotiate understanding and construct knowledge. The themes and topics in recent research highlight areas of active interest and reveal gaps that may prove fruitful for further research, including classroom-based studies, the role of prior knowledge, and the use of eye-tracking. The results of the research included in this thematic review of the 2000-2014 literature suggest that both interpreting and constructing representations can lead to better understanding of science concepts.
Simon, Gregory L.; Wee, Bryan Shao-Chang; Chin, Anne; Tindle, Amy Depierre; Guth, Dan; Mason, Hillary
As our understanding of complex environmental issues increases, institutions of higher education are evolving to develop new learning models that emphasize synthesis across disciplines, concepts, data, and methodologies. To this end, we argue for the implementation of environmental science education at the intersection of systems theory and…
Berlin, Donna F.; White, Arthur L.
This monograph presents a summary of the results of the Wingspread Conference in April, 1991 concerning the viability and future of the concept of integration of mathematics and science teaching and learning. The conference focused on three critical issues: (1) development of definitions of integration and a rationale for integrated teaching and…
Wegner, Claas; Homann, Wiebke; Strehlke, Friederike
The German science project "NAWI-Interaktiv" is an example of innovative use of E-Learning and new media education. Since 2009, the learning platform provides learners and teachers with high-quality learning tools, teaching material, useful information and E-learning programs for free. This is to raise the pupils' motivation to learn…
Celikten, Oksan; Ipekcioglu, Sevgi; Ertepinar, Hamide; Geban, Omer
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the conceptual change oriented instruction through cooperative learning (CCICL) and traditional science instruction (TI) on 4th grade students' understanding of earth and sky concepts and their attitudes toward earth and sky concepts. In this study, 56 fourth grade students from the…
Vigliocco, Gabriella; Ponari, Marta; Norbury, Courtenay
The paper describes two plausible hypotheses concerning the learning of abstract words and concepts. According to a first hypothesis, children would learn abstract words by extracting co-occurrences among words in linguistic input, using, for example, mechanisms as described by models of Distributional Semantics. According to a second hypothesis, children would exploit the fact that abstract words tend to have more emotional associations than concrete words to infer that they refer to internal/mental states. Each hypothesis makes specific predictions with regards to when and which abstract words are more likely to be learned; also they make different predictions concerning the impact of developmental disorders. We start by providing a review of work characterizing how abstract words and concepts are learned in development, especially between the ages of 6 and 12. Second, we review some work from our group that tests the two hypotheses above. This work investigates typically developing (TD) children and children with atypical development (developmental language disorders [DLD] and autism spectrum disorder [ASD] with and without language deficits). We conclude that the use of strategies based on emotional information, or on co-occurrences in language, may play a role at different developmental stages. © 2018 Cognitive Science Society Inc.
Mitchener, Carole P.; Jackson, Wendy M.
In this article, we present a case study of a beginning science teacher's year-long action research project, during which she developed a meaningful grasp of learning from practice. Wendy was a participant in the middle grade science program designed for career changers from science professions who had moved to teaching middle grade science. An…
Libao, Nhorvien Jay P.; Sagun, Jessie John B.; Tamangan, Elvira A.; Pattalitan, Agaton P.; Dupa, Maria Elena D.; Bautista, Romiro Gordo
This study was designed to analyze the relationship of students’ learning motivation and their academic performances in science. The study made use of 21 junior and senior Biological Science students to conclude on the formulated research problems. The respondents had a good to very good motivation in learning science. In general, the extent of their motivation do not vary across their sex, age, and curriculum year. Moreover, the respondents had good academic performances in science. Aptly, e...
Guzey, S. Selcen; Moore, Tamara J.; Harwell, Michael; Moreno, Mario
In many countries around the world, there has been an increasing emphasis on improving science education. Recent reform efforts in the USA call for teachers to integrate scientific and engineering practices into science teaching; for example, science teachers are asked to provide learning experiences for students that apply crosscutting concepts (e.g., patterns, scale) and increase understanding of disciplinary core ideas (e.g., physical science, earth science). Engineering practices and engineering design are essential elements of this new vision of science teaching and learning. This paper presents a research study that evaluates the effects of an engineering design-based science curriculum on student learning and attitudes. Three middle school life science teachers and 275 seventh grade students participated in the study. Content assessments and attitude surveys were administered before and after the implementation of the curriculum unit. Statewide mathematics test proficiency scores were included in the data analysis as well. Results provide evidence of the positive effects of implementing the engineering design-based science unit on student attitudes and learning.
Zender, J.; Grayzeck, E.
The need for scientific archiving of past, current, and future planetary scientific missions, laboratory data, and modeling efforts is indisputable. To quote from a message by G. Santayama carved over the entrance of the US Archive in Washington DC “Those who can not remember the past are doomed to repeat it.” The design, implementation, maintenance, and validation of planetary science archives are however disputed by the involved parties. The inclusion of the archives into the scientific heritage is problematic. For example, there is the imbalance between space agency requirements and institutional and national interests. The disparity of long-term archive requirements and immediate data analysis requests are significant. The discrepancy between the space missions archive budget and the effort required to design and build the data archive is large. An imbalance exists between new instrument development and existing, well-proven archive standards. The authors present their view on the problems and risk areas in the archiving concepts based on their experience acquired within NASA’s Planetary Data System (PDS) and ESA’s Planetary Science Archive (PSA). Individual risks and potential problem areas are discussed based on a model derived from a system analysis done upfront. The major risk for a planetary mission science archive is seen in the combination of minimal involvement by Mission Scientists and inadequate funding. The authors outline how the risks can be reduced. The paper ends with the authors view on future planetary archive implementations including the archive interoperability aspect.
Anderson, Janice L.; Barnett, Mike
The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with middle school students. To this end, we explored the impact of using a game called Supercharged! on middle school students' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who conducted a more traditional inquiry-oriented investigation of the same concepts. This study was a part of a larger design experiment examining the pedagogical potential of Supercharged! The control group learned through a series of guided inquiry methods while the experimental group played Supercharged! during the laboratory sections of the science course. There was significant difference, F(2,91) = 3.6, p hands-on activities are integrated, with each activity informing the other, could be a very powerful technique for supporting student scientific understanding. Further, our findings suggest that game designers should embed meta-cognitive activities such as reflective opportunities into educational video games in order to provide scaffolds for students and to reinforce that they are engaged in an educational learning experience.
Full Text Available Blended learning combines face-to-face class based and online teaching and learning delivery in order to increase flexibility in how, when, and where students study and learn. The development, integration, and promotion of blended learning in frameworks of curriculum design can optimize the opportunities afforded by information and communication technologies and, concomitantly, accommodate a broad range of student learning styles. This study critically reviews the potential benefits of blended learning as a progressive educative paradigm for the teaching of biomedical science and evaluates the opportunities that blended learning offers for the delivery of accessible, flexible and sustainable teaching and learning experiences. A central tenet of biomedical science education at the tertiary level is the development of comprehensive hands-on practical competencies and technical skills (many of which require laboratory-based learning environments, and it is advanced that a blended learning model, which combines face-to-face synchronous teaching and learning activities with asynchronous online teaching and learning activities, effectively creates an authentic, enriching, and student-centred learning environment for biomedical science. Lastly, a blending learning design for introductory biochemistry will be described as an effective example of integrating face-to-face and online teaching, learning and assessment activities within the teaching domain of biomedical science. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v3i4.169
Higashi, Taishi; Iohara, Daisuke; Motoyama, Keiichi; Arima, Hidetoshi
Supramolecular chemistry is an extremely useful and important domain for understanding pharmaceutical sciences because various physiological reactions and drug activities are based on supramolecular chemistry. However, it is not a major domain in the pharmaceutical field. In this review, we propose a new concept in pharmaceutical sciences termed "supramolecular pharmaceutical sciences," which combines pharmaceutical sciences and supramolecular chemistry. This concept could be useful for developing new ideas, methods, hypotheses, strategies, materials, and mechanisms in pharmaceutical sciences. Herein, we focus on cyclodextrin (CyD)-based supermolecules, because CyDs have been used not only as pharmaceutical excipients or active pharmaceutical ingredients but also as components of supermolecules.
Hechter, Richard P.; Guy, Mark
This article reports the phases of design and use of video editing technology as a medium for creatively expressing science content knowledge in an elementary science methods course. Teacher candidates communicated their understanding of standards-based core science concepts through the creation of original digital movies. The movies were assigned…
Maherally, Uzma Nooreen
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a science assessment tool termed the Life Sciences Assessment (LSA) in order to assess preschool children's conceptions of basic life sciences. The hypothesis was that the four sub-constructs, each of which can be measured through a series of questions on the LSA, will make a significant…
Choirunnisa, N. L.; Prabowo, P.; Suryanti, S.
The main objective of this study is to describe the effectiveness of 5E instructional model-based learning to improve primary school students’ science process skills. The science process skills is important for students as it is the foundation for enhancing the mastery of concepts and thinking skills needed in the 21st century. The design of this study was experimental involving one group pre-test and post-test design. The result of this study shows that (1) the implementation of learning in both of classes, IVA and IVB, show that the percentage of learning implementation increased which indicates a better quality of learning and (2) the percentage of students’ science process skills test results on the aspects of observing, formulating hypotheses, determining variable, interpreting data and communicating increased as well.
Lovelace, Matthew; Brickman, Peggy
Science educators often characterize the degree to which tests measure different facets of college students' learning, such as knowing, applying, and problem solving. A casual survey of scholarship of teaching and learning research studies reveals that many educators also measure how students' attitudes influence their learning. Students' science attitudes refer to their positive or negative feelings and predispositions to learn science. Science educators use attitude measures, in conjunction with learning measures, to inform the conclusions they draw about the efficacy of their instructional interventions. The measurement of students' attitudes poses similar but distinct challenges as compared with measurement of learning, such as determining validity and reliability of instruments and selecting appropriate methods for conducting statistical analyses. In this review, we will describe techniques commonly used to quantify students' attitudes toward science. We will also discuss best practices for the analysis and interpretation of attitude data.
Musiol, S.; Rosenberg, H.; Rohwer, G.; Balthasar, H.; van Gasselt, S.
the Martian surface and presented their results in the end. Extensive handouts and high-quality print material supplemented face-to-face exercises. For the future we plan to expand our workshop concepts, to give students the possibility of conducting a week-long internship with our Planetary Sciences research group.
Thomas Barbosa Fejolo
Full Text Available This paper presents a research on informal Science learning in the context of the Institutional Scholarship Program Initiation to Teaching (PIBID. We take as reference the strands of informal Science learning (FAC, representing six dimensions of learning, they are: 1 Development of interest in Science; 2 Understanding of scientific knowledge; 3 Engaging in scientific reasoning; 4 Reflection on Science; 5 Engagement in scientific practice; 6 Identification with Science. For the lifting data, it was used the filming record of the interactions and dialogues of undergraduate students while performing activities of Optical Spectroscopy in the laboratory. Based on the procedures of content analysis and interpretations through communication, we investigate which of the six strands were present during the action of the students in activities. As a result we have drawn a learning profile for each student by distributing communications in different strands of informal Science learning.
Johnston, Adam Thomas
This research used theories of conceptual change to analyze learners' understandings of the nature of science (NOS). Ideas regarding the NOS have been advocated as vital aspects of science literacy, yet learners at many levels (students and teachers) have difficulty in understanding these aspects in the way that science literacy reforms advocate. Although previous research has shown the inadequacies in learners' NOS understandings and have documented ways by which to improve some of these understandings, little has been done to show how these ideas develop and why learners' preexisting conceptions of NOS are so resistant to conceptual change. The premise of this study, then, was to describe the nature of NOS conceptions and of the conceptual change process itself by deeply analyzing the conceptions of individual learners. Toward this end, 4 individuals enrolled in a physical science course designed for preservice elementary teachers were selected to participate in a qualitative research study. These individuals answered questionnaires, surveys, direct interview questions, and a variety of interview probes (e.g., critical incidents, responses to readings/videos, reflections on coursework, card sorting tasks, etc.) which were administered throughout the duration of a semester. By utilizing these in-depth, qualitative probes, learners' conceptions were not only assessed but also described in great detail, revealing the source of their conceptions as well as identifying many instances in which a learner's directly stated conception was contradictory to that which was reflected by more indirect probes. As a result of this research, implications regarding NOS conceptions and their development have been described. In addition, various descriptions of conceptual change have been further refined and informed. Especially notable, the influence of a learner's conceptual ecology and its extrarational influences on conceptual change have been highlighted. It is argued that
Cary, Tawnya; Branchaw, Janet
The Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: Call to Action report has inspired and supported a nationwide movement to restructure undergraduate biology curricula to address overarching disciplinary concepts and competencies. The report outlines the concepts and competencies generally but does not provide a detailed framework to guide the development of the learning outcomes, instructional materials, and assessment instruments needed to create a reformed biology curriculum. In this essay, we present a detailed Vision and Change core concept framework that articulates key components that transcend subdisciplines and scales for each overarching biological concept, the Conceptual Elements (CE) Framework. The CE Framework was developed using a grassroots approach of iterative revision and incorporates feedback from more than 60 biologists and undergraduate biology educators from across the United States. The final validation step resulted in strong national consensus, with greater than 92% of responders agreeing that each core concept list was ready for use by the biological sciences community, as determined by scientific accuracy and completeness. In addition, we describe in detail how educators and departments can use the CE Framework to guide and document reformation of individual courses as well as entire curricula. PMID:28450444
This article examines Canadian immigrant and intercultural learning as an insightful context for examining transformative learning. Theories of intercultural communication are explored, particularly the concept of transculturality and Bhabha's concept of "Third Space". Various concepts of the self are also compared, particularly two…
Hagemans, M.G.; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.
Students often need support to optimize their learning in inquiry learning environments. In 2 studies, we investigated the effects of adding concept-map-based support to a simulation-based inquiry environment on kinematics. The concept map displayed the main domain concepts and their relations,
Prøitz, Tine Sophie
Learning outcomes can be considered to be a key concept in a changing education policy landscape, enhancing aspects such as benchmarking and competition. Issues relating to concepts of performance have a long history of debate within the field of education. Today, the concept of learning outcomes has become central in education policy development,…
Rueda, U.; Arruarte, A.; Elorriaga, J. A.; Herran, E.
This paper presents a study carried out at the University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU with the aim of evaluating the CM-ED (concept map editor) with social education students. Concept mapping is a widely accepted technique that promotes meaningful learning. Graphically representing concepts of the learning domain and relationships between them…
Novak, Elena; Wisdom, Sonya
3D printing technology is a powerful educational tool that can promote integrative STEM education by connecting engineering, technology, and applications of science concepts. Yet, research on the integration of 3D printing technology in formal educational contexts is extremely limited. This study engaged preservice elementary teachers (N = 42) in a 3D Printing Science Project that modeled a science experiment in the elementary classroom on why things float or sink using 3D printed boats. The goal was to explore how collaborative 3D printing inquiry-based learning experiences affected preservice teachers' science teaching self-efficacy beliefs, anxiety toward teaching science, interest in science, perceived competence in K-3 technology and engineering science standards, and science content knowledge. The 3D printing project intervention significantly decreased participants' science teaching anxiety and improved their science teaching efficacy, science interest, and perceived competence in K-3 technological and engineering design science standards. Moreover, an analysis of students' project reflections and boat designs provided an insight into their collaborative 3D modeling design experiences. The study makes a contribution to the scarce body of knowledge on how teacher preparation programs can utilize 3D printing technology as a means of preparing prospective teachers to implement the recently adopted engineering and technology standards in K-12 science education.
Dillon, Deborah R.; O'Brien, David G.; Moje, Elizabeth B.; Stewart, Roger A.
The purpose of this cross-case analysis is to illustrate how and why literacy was incorporated into science teaching and learning in three secondary classrooms. Research questions guiding the analysis include: (a) How were literacy events shaped by the teachers' philosophies about teaching science content and teaching students? and (b) How was literacy (reading, writing, and oral language) structured by the teachers and manifested in science lessons? The methodology of ethnography and the theoretical framework of symbolic interactionism were employed in the three studies on which the cross-case analysis was based. The researchers assumed the role of participant observers, collecting data over the period of 1 year in each of the three classrooms. Data, in the form of fieldnotes, interviews, and artifacts, were collected. In each study, data were analyzed using the constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) to determine patterns in the teachers' beliefs about learning and how these influenced their choice of literacy activities. The cross-case analysis was conducted to determine patterns across the three teachers and their classrooms. The findings from this analysis are used to compare how the teachers' philosophies of teaching science and their beliefs about how students learn influenced their use of literacy practices during lessons. Specifically, each teacher's use of literacy activities varied based on his or her beliefs about teaching science concepts. Furthermore, reading, writing, and oral language were important vehicles to learning science concepts within daily classroom activities in the three classrooms.Received: 1 April 1993; Revised: 30 August 1993;
Mustard, John F.
In the fall of 1998, MacMillan Hall opened at Brown University to students. In MacMillan Hall was the new Computer Learning Center, since named the EarthLab which was outfitted with high-end workstations and peripherals primarily focused on the use of remotely sensed and other spatial data in the environmental sciences. The NASA grant we received as part of the "Centers of Excellence in Applications of Remote Sensing to Regional and Global Integrated Environmental Assessments" was the primary source of funds to outfit this learning and research center. Since opening, we have expanded the range of learning and research opportunities and integrated a cross-campus network of disciplines who have come together to learn and use spatial data of all kinds. The EarthLab also forms a core of undergraduate, graduate, and faculty research on environmental problems that draw upon the unique perspective of remotely sensed data. Over the last two years, the Earthlab has been a center for research on the environmental impact of water resource use in and regions, impact of the green revolution on forest cover in India, the design of forest preserves in Vietnam, and detailed assessments of the utility of thermal and hyperspectral data for water quality analysis. It has also been used extensively for local environmental activities, in particular studies on the impact of lead on the health of urban children in Rhode Island. Finally, the EarthLab has also served as a key educational and analysis center for activities related to the Brown University Affiliated Research Center that is devoted to transferring university research to the private sector.
Fleer, Marilyn; March, Sue
The international literature on science learning in inclusive settings has a long history, but it is generally very limited in scope. Few studies have been undertaken that draw upon a cultural-historical reading of inclusive pedagogy, and even less in the area of science education. In addition, we know next to nothing about the science learning of preschool children with visual impairment using cultural-historical theory. This paper seeks to fill this gap by presenting a study of one child with Albinism who participated in a unit of early childhood science where fairy tales were used for learning about the concepts of sound and growth. This paper reports upon the social and material conditions that were created to support learning in the preschool, whilst also examining how the learning of growth and sound were supported at home. The study found three new pedagogical features for inclusion: Imagination in science; Ongoing scientific narrative; and Scientific mirroring. It was found that when a dialectical reading of home and centre practices feature, greater insights into inclusive pedagogy for science learning are afforded, and a view of science as a collective enterprise emerges. It is argued that a cultural-historical conception of inclusion demands that the social conditions, rather than the biology of the child, is foregrounded, and through this greater insights into how science learning for children with visual impairment is gained.
Rice, Joshua E.; Rugg, Bradley; Davis, Sharon
Youth involved in 4-H projects have been engaged in science-related endeavors for years. Since 2006, 4-H has invested considerable resources in the advancement of science learning. The new Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge program challenges 4-H youth to work together to identify agriculture-related issues in their communities and to…
Spelt, Elisabeth Jacoba Hendrika; Luning, Pieternelleke Arianne; van Boekel, Martinus A. J. S.; Mulder, Martin
Preparing science and engineering students to work in interdisciplinary teams necessitates research on teaching and learning of interdisciplinary thinking. A multidimensional approach was taken to examine student interdisciplinary learning in a master course on food quality management. The collected 615 student experiences were analysed for the cognitive, emotional, and social learning dimensions using the learning theory of Illeris. Of these 615 experiences, the analysis showed that students reported 214, 194, and 207 times on, respectively, the emotional, the cognitive, and the social dimension. Per learning dimension, key learning experiences featuring interdisciplinary learning were identified such as 'frustrations in selecting and matching disciplinary knowledge to complex problems' (emotional), 'understanding how to apply theoretical models or concepts to real-world situations' (cognitive), and 'socially engaging with peers to recognise similarities in perceptions and experiences' (social). Furthermore, the results showed that students appreciated the cognitive dimension relatively more than the emotional and social dimensions.
Gurney, Bruce F.
Black (1979) writes about the inextricable interrelationships among language, perception, knowledge, experience and metaphor. An extension of this, grounded in Wittgenstein's (1953) notion of the symbolic, experiential basis of first language, is the view that metaphors are windows into this primitive, personal framework. The purpose of this paper is to take an exploratory look at preservice teachers' metaphors of teaching and learning and to examine some components of student teachers' own intuitions in this area. In this study, a questionnaire was administered to one hundred and fifty-one science education students at the beginning of their preservice training on which they were challenged to generate a personal metaphor for teaching and learning. Descriptive elements within the responses were differentiated and applied to the development of a classification scheme. Both the technique and the categorization are seen as useful devices for the identification of common conceptions about the teaching and learning process. The metaphors have been seen to communicate a richness of meaning which convey elements of mood, control, roles, attitudes and beliefs as they apply to teaching and learning and which, it is argued here, are grounded on more deeply rooted symbols than literal language. In the light of constructivist pedagogy, the elicitation of students' preconceptions is seen to be germane to the organization of learning experiences.Received: 27 June 1993; Revised: 2 August 1994;
Robert L. Mayes
Full Text Available Quantitative reasoning is a complex concept with many definitions and a diverse account in the literature. The purpose of this article is to establish a working definition of quantitative reasoning within the context of science, construct a quantitative reasoning framework, and summarize research on key components in that framework. Context underlies all quantitative reasoning; for this review, environmental science serves as the context.In the framework, we identify four components of quantitative reasoning: the quantification act, quantitative literacy, quantitative interpretation of a model, and quantitative modeling. Within each of these components, the framework provides elements that comprise the four components. The quantification act includes the elements of variable identification, communication, context, and variation. Quantitative literacy includes the elements of numeracy, measurement, proportional reasoning, and basic probability/statistics. Quantitative interpretation includes the elements of representations, science diagrams, statistics and probability, and logarithmic scales. Quantitative modeling includes the elements of logic, problem solving, modeling, and inference. A brief comparison of the quantitative reasoning framework with the AAC&U Quantitative Literacy VALUE rubric is presented, demonstrating a mapping of the components and illustrating differences in structure. The framework serves as a precursor for a quantitative reasoning learning progression which is currently under development.
Marzocchi, Alison S.
This article suggests that logic puzzles, such as the well-known Tower of Hanoi puzzle, can be used to introduce computer science concepts to mathematics students of all ages. Mathematics teachers introduce their students to computer science concepts that are enacted spontaneously and subconsciously throughout the solution to the Tower of Hanoi…
Gale, Jessica; Wind, Stefanie; Koval, Jayma; Dagosta, Joseph; Ryan, Mike; Usselman, Marion
This paper illustrates the use of simulation-based performance assessment (PA) methodology in a recent study of eighth-grade students' understanding of physical science concepts. A set of four simulation-based PA tasks were iteratively developed to assess student understanding of an array of physical science concepts, including net force,…
McMaster, Kirby; Rague, Brian; Wolthuis, Stuart L.; Sambasivam, Samuel
This research study provides an examination of the relatively new fields of Data Analytics and Data Science. We compare word rates in Data Analytics and Data Science documents to determine which concepts are mentioned most often. The most frequent concept in both fields is "data." The word rate for "data" is more than twice the…
This study was designed to identify the roles that drawing played in the process of children's acquisition of science concepts. Seventy pre-service teachers through four semesters from a Midwest University in the USA developed lesson plans on science concepts and then taught them to 70 young children ages 4-7, respectively. This experience was…
Meyer, Helen; Tabachnick, B. Robert; Hewson, Peter W.; Lemberger, John; Park, Hyun-Ju
Discusses three prospective elementary teachers' conceptions of teaching science and selected portions of their knowledge base in life science. Explores how these teachers' conceptions, along with their teaching actions, developed during the course of a teacher-education program. Contains 21 references. (Author/WRM)
Governor, Donna; Hall, Jori; Jackson, David
This qualitative, multi-case study explored the use of science-content music for teaching and learning in six middle school science classrooms. The researcher sought to understand how teachers made use of content-rich songs for teaching science, how they impacted student engagement and learning, and what the experiences of these teachers and students suggested about using songs for middle school classroom science instruction. Data gathered included three teacher interviews, one classroom observation and a student focus-group discussion from each of six cases. The data from each unit of analysis were examined independently and then synthesized in a multi-case analysis, resulting in a number of merged findings, or assertions, about the experience. The results of this study indicated that teachers used content-rich music to enhance student understanding of concepts in science by developing content-based vocabulary, providing students with alternative examples and explanations of concepts, and as a sense-making experience to help build conceptual understanding. The use of science-content songs engaged students by providing both situational and personal interest, and provided a mnemonic device for remembering key concepts in science. The use of songs has relevance from a constructivist approach as they were used to help students build meaning; from a socio-cultural perspective in terms of student engagement; and from a cognitive viewpoint in that in these cases they helped students make connections in learning. The results of this research have implications for science teachers and the science education community in developing new instructional strategies for the middle school science classroom.
This study documents the development of an educational art-science kit about natural fractals, whose aim is to unite artistic and scientific inquiry in the informal learning of science and math. Throughout this research, I argue that having an arts-integrated approach can enhance the learner of science and math concepts. A guiding metaphor in this thesis is the Enlightenment-era cabinet of curiosities that represents a time when art and science were unified in the process of inquiry about the natural world. Over time, increased specialization in the practice of arts and science led to a growing divergence between the disciplines in the educational system. Recently, initiatives like STEAM are underway at the national level to integrate "Arts and Design" into the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) formal education agenda. Learning artifacts like science kits present an opportunity to unite artistic and scientific inquiry in informal settings. Although science kits have been introduced to promote informal learning, presently, many science kits have a gap in their design, whereby the activities consist of recipe-like instructions that do not encourage further inquiry-based learning. In the spirit of the cabinet of curiosities, this study seeks to unify visual arts and science in the process of inquiry. Drawing from educational theories of Dewey, Piaget, and Papert, I developed a novel, prototype "art-science kit" that promotes experiential, hands-on, and active learning, and encourages inquiry, exploration, creativity, and reflection through a series of art-based activities to help users learn science and math concepts. In this study, I provide an overview of the design and development process of the arts-based educational activities. Furthermore, I present the results of a pilot usability study (n=10) conducted to receive user feedback on the designed materials for use in improving future iterations of the art-science fractal kit. The fractal kit
Edelmann, Hans G.; Martius, Thilo; Hahn, Achim; Schlüter, Kirsten; Nessler, Stefan H.
Enquiry learning and teaching about the nature of science (NoS) is a key element of science education. We have designed an experimental setting for students aged 12-14 years to exercise enquiry-learning skills and to introduce students to the NoS aspects of creativity and imagination. It also illustrates the impact of carbon dioxide on the growth…
Konecki, Loretta R.; Schiller, Ellen
This paper explains how brain-based learning has become an area of interest to elementary school science teachers, focusing on the possible relationships between, and implications of, research on brain-based learning to the teaching of science education standards. After describing research on the brain, the paper looks at three implications from…
Bidarra, José; Rusman, Ellen
This paper proposes a framework to support science education through blended learning, based on a participatory and interactive approach supported by ICT-based tools, called Science Learning Activities Model (SLAM). The study constitutes a work in progress and started as a response to complex
Albrecht, Tim; Slabaugh, Gregory; Alonso, Eduardo; Al-Arif, SM Masudur R.
Exploring and making predictions based on single-molecule data can be challenging, not only due to the sheer size of the datasets, but also because a priori knowledge about the signal characteristics is typically limited and poor signal-to-noise ratio. For example, hypothesis-driven data exploration, informed by an expectation of the signal characteristics, can lead to interpretation bias or loss of information. Equally, even when the different data categories are known, e.g., the four bases in DNA sequencing, it is often difficult to know how to make best use of the available information content. The latest developments in machine learning (ML), so-called deep learning (DL) offer interesting, new avenues to address such challenges. In some applications, such as speech and image recognition, DL has been able to outperform conventional ML strategies and even human performance. However, to date DL has not been applied much in single-molecule science, presumably in part because relatively little is known about the ‘internal workings’ of such DL tools within single-molecule science as a field. In this Tutorial, we make an attempt to illustrate in a step-by-step guide how one of those, a convolutional neural network (CNN), may be used for base calling in DNA sequencing applications. We compare it with a SVM as a more conventional ML method, and discuss some of the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. In particular, a ‘deep’ neural network has many features of a ‘black box’, which has important implications on how we look at and interpret data.
This study involved 458 ninth-grade students from two different Arab middle schools in Israel. Half of the students learned science using project-based learning strategies and the other half learned using traditional methods (non-project-based). The classes were heterogeneous regarding their achievements in the sciences. The adapted questionnaire…
Jenkins, Jon M.
The experience acquired through development, implementation and operation of the KeplerK2 science pipelines can provide lessons learned for the development of science pipelines for other missions such as NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, and ESA's PLATO mission.
Djukanovic, M [Electrical Engineering Inst. ' Nikola Tesla' , Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Babic, B [Electrical Power Industry of Serbia, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Sobajic, D J; Pao, Y -H [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
An application of artificial neural networks in short-term load forecasting is described. An algorithm using an unsupervised/supervised learning concept and historical relationship between the load and temperature for a given season, day type and hour of the day to forecast hourly electric load with a lead time of 24 hours is proposed. An additional approach using functional link net, temperature variables, average load and last one-hour load of previous day is introduced and compared with the ANN model with one hidden layer load forecast. In spite of limited available weather variables (maximum, minimum and average temperature for the day) quite acceptable results have been achieved. The 24-hour-ahead forecast errors (absolute average) ranged from 2.78% for Saturdays and 3.12% for working days to 3.54% for Sundays. (Author)
Tolmie, Andrew K; Ghazali, Zayba; Morris, Suzanne
Research has identified the core skills that predict success during primary school in reading and arithmetic, and this knowledge increasingly informs teaching. However, there has been no comparable work that pinpoints the core skills that underlie success in science. The present paper attempts to redress this by examining candidate skills and considering what is known about the way in which they emerge, how they relate to each other and to other abilities, how they change with age, and how their growth may vary between topic areas. There is growing evidence that early-emerging tacit awareness of causal associations is initially separated from language-based causal knowledge, which is acquired in part from everyday conversation and shows inaccuracies not evident in tacit knowledge. Mapping of descriptive and explanatory language onto causal awareness appears therefore to be a key development, which promotes unified conceptual and procedural understanding. This account suggests that the core components of initial science learning are (1) accurate observation, (2) the ability to extract and reason explicitly about causal connections, and (3) knowledge of mechanisms that explain these connections. Observational ability is educationally inaccessible until integrated with verbal description and explanation, for instance, via collaborative group work tasks that require explicit reasoning with respect to joint observations. Descriptive ability and explanatory ability are further promoted by managed exposure to scientific vocabulary and use of scientific language. Scientific reasoning and hypothesis testing are later acquisitions that depend on this integration of systems and improved executive control. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Martinez-Canas, Ricardo; Ruiz-Palomino, Pablo
Concept mapping is a technique to represent relationships between concepts that can help students to improve their meaningful learning. Using the cognitive theories proposed by Ausubel (1968), concept maps can help instructors and students to enhance their logical thinking and study skills by revealing connections among concepts that can simplify…
Bryan, Lynn Ann
This study examines how preservice elementary teacher beliefs and experiences within the context of reflective science teacher education influence the development of professional knowledge. From a cognitive constructivist theoretical perspective, I conducted a case analysis to investigate the beliefs about science teaching and learning held by a preservice teacher (Barbara), identify the tensions she encountered in learning to teach elementary science, understand the frames from which she identified problems of practice, and discern how her experiences influenced the process of reflecting on her own science teaching. From an analysis of interviews, observation, and written documents, I constructed a profile of Barbara's beliefs that consisted of three foundational and three dualistic beliefs about science teaching and learning. Her foundational beliefs concerned: (a) the value of science and science teaching, (b) the nature of scientific concepts and goals of science instruction, and (c) control in the science classroom. Barbara held dualistic beliefs about: (a) how children learn science, (b) the science students' role, and (c) the science teacher's role. The dualistic beliefs formed two contradictory nests of beliefs. One nest, grounded in life-long science learner experiences, reflected a didactic teaching orientation and predominantly guided her practice. The second nest, not well-grounded in experience, embraced a hands-on approach and predominantly guided her vision of practice. Barbara encountered tensions in thinking about science teaching and learning as a result of inconsistencies between her vision of science teaching and her actual practice. Confronting these tensions prompted Barbara to rethink the connections between her classroom actions and students' learning, create new perspectives for viewing her practice, and consider alternative practices more resonant with her visionary beliefs. However, the self-reinforcing belief system created by her
Binder, Alexander; Nakajima, Shinichi; Kloft, Marius; Müller, Christina; Samek, Wojciech; Brefeld, Ulf; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Kawanabe, Motoaki
Combining information from various image features has become a standard technique in concept recognition tasks. However, the optimal way of fusing the resulting kernel functions is usually unknown in practical applications. Multiple kernel learning (MKL) techniques allow to determine an optimal linear combination of such similarity matrices. Classical approaches to MKL promote sparse mixtures. Unfortunately, 1-norm regularized MKL variants are often observed to be outperformed by an unweighted sum kernel. The main contributions of this paper are the following: we apply a recently developed non-sparse MKL variant to state-of-the-art concept recognition tasks from the application domain of computer vision. We provide insights on benefits and limits of non-sparse MKL and compare it against its direct competitors, the sum-kernel SVM and sparse MKL. We report empirical results for the PASCAL VOC 2009 Classification and ImageCLEF2010 Photo Annotation challenge data sets. Data sets (kernel matrices) as well as further information are available at http://doc.ml.tu-berlin.de/image_mkl/(Accessed 2012 Jun 25). PMID:22936970
Gronemann, Sigurd Trolle
Despite the increasing use of portable tablets in learning, their impact has received little attention in research. In five different projects, this media-ethnographic and design-based analysis of the use of portable tablets as a learning resource in science museums investigates how young people's learning with portable tablets matches the…
Crompton, Helen; Burke, Diane; Gregory, Kristen H.; Gräbe, Catharina
The use of mobile learning in education is growing at an exponential rate. To best understand how mobile learning is being used, it is crucial to gain a collective understanding of the research that has taken place. This systematic review reveals the trends in mobile learning in science with a comprehensive analysis and synthesis of studies from…
Pupils ask STEM subject teachers about jobs and careers in science, but where else do they learn about work? This article outlines career-related learning within schools in England alongside other factors that influence pupils' career decisions. The effect of the Education Act 2011 will be to change career learning in schools. The impact on…
American middle school student science scores have been stagnating for several years, demonstrating a need for better learning strategies to aid teachers in instruction and students in content learning. It has also been suggested by researchers that music can be used to aid students in their learning and memory. Employing the theoretical framework…
; Optimal Learning for Material Discovery & Design Data Science and Optimal Learning for Material inference and optimization methods that can constrain predictions using insights and results from theory directions in the application of information theoretic tools to materials problems related to learning from
Girod, Mark; Twyman, Todd; Wojcikiewicz, Steve
Drawing from the Deweyan theory of experience (1934, 1938), the goal of teaching and learning for transformative, aesthetic experience is contrasted against teaching and learning from a cognitive, rational framework. A quasi-experimental design was used to investigate teaching and learning of fifth grade science from each perspective across an…
Full Text Available Fostering Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI is the next big step in the methodological teaching of Science. This is the solution towards an open classroom and innovation system of learning. The school science teaching needs to become more engaging. Science education should be an essential component of a learning continuum not only in classroom, but also for all, from pre- school to active engaged citizenship. "The Learning Science Through Theatre" Initiative creates a network of knowledge and collaboration between different communities by learning about science through other disciplines and learning about other disciplines through science. Forty Three (43 theatrical performances during the school years 2014-2016 were organized by secondary school students (2000 subjects which embed both scientific concepts and cultural/ social elements which are expressed by embodied, verbal interaction and analogies. The methodology constitutes a merging of qualitative, quantitative and grounded theory analysis. The data were classified into categories and they were cross- checked by registrations forms, filled by the teachers. Results show that the acquisition of knowledge is successful with the co- existence of multiple semiotic systems and the theatrical performances are compatible with the principles of RRI.
The central focus of this article is the epistemological assumption that knowledge could be generated based on human beings' experiences and over their conceptions of the world. Logical characterisation of human inductive learning over their produced conceptions within terminological systems and ...... and analysis of actual human inductive reasoning (and learning). This research connects with the topics 'logic & learning', 'cognitive modelling' and 'terminological knowledge representation'.......The central focus of this article is the epistemological assumption that knowledge could be generated based on human beings' experiences and over their conceptions of the world. Logical characterisation of human inductive learning over their produced conceptions within terminological systems...
Danielson, Kathryn I.; Tanner, Kimberly D.
Scientific research exploring ocean acidification has grown significantly in past decades. However, little science education research has investigated the extent to which undergraduate science students understand this topic. Of all undergraduate students, one might predict science students to be best able to understand ocean acidification. What…
Hoban, Garry; Nielsen, Wendy
Many preservice primary teachers have inadequate science knowledge, which often limits their confidence in implementing the subject. This paper proposes a new way for preservice teachers to learn science by designing and making a narrated stop-motion animation as an instructional resource to explain a science concept. In this paper, a simplified way for preservice teachers to design and make an animation called 'slowmation' (abbreviated from 'slow animation') is exemplified. A case study of three preservice primary teachers creating one from start to finish over 2 h was conducted to address the following research question: How do the preservice primary teachers create a slowmation and how does this process influence their science learning? The method of inquiry used a case study design involving pre- and post-individual interviews in conjunction with a discourse analysis of video and audio data recorded as they created a slowmation. The data illustrate how the preservice teachers' science learning was related to their prior knowledge and how they iteratively revisited the content through the construction of five representations as a cumulative semiotic progression: (i) research notes; (ii) storyboard; (iii) models; (iv) digital photographs; culminating in (v) the narrated animation. This progression enabled the preservice teachers to revisit the content in each representation and make decisions about which modes to use and promoted social interaction. Creating a slowmation facilitated the preservice teachers' learning about the life cycle of a ladybird beetle and revised their alternative conceptions.
Full Text Available By following the example proposed by Corrêa (2011 in the investigation of texts produced by undergraduate and pre-undergraduate students in two different assessment, this work aims to approach “hidden” aspects in the teaching of writing at the university (Street, 2009, to reflections produced in the language field, in particular the ones referred as “socially assumed”, proposed by Voloshinov/Bakhtin (s/d: 1926. It is particularly important to investigate the conception of text in digital context, by means of the study of updated semiotic resources in the production of undergraduate students using a computer with internet access in the process of semi-present Distance Learning (DL. The collected material comprises 29 (twenty nine texts which were produced by students of the semi-present Pedagogy Course from Univesp (Universidade Virtual do Estado de São Paulo – Virtual University from the state of São Paulo, who were studying “Education and Language”, in 2010. This qualitative analysis aims to show that regarding the institution there is a prevalence of structural and procedural aspects for the accomplishment of the proposed activity and, regarding the undergraduate student it is noticed that the production is characterized by a traditional conception of text, mainly recognized by written verbal text, although the proposal prioritized the relation between verbal and non verbal language. Regarding discursive-linguistic studies, it is important to reflect about a text conception that privileges the integration of multiple semiosis by taking into account the socio-historical interlocution character established within utterances of others.
Mungin, Rochelle E.
This quantitative study examined science interest and achievement of middle school minority females in both traditional science classes and Problem-based Learning (PBL) science classes. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a significant difference between traditional teaching and the PBL teaching method. The researcher also looked for a significant relationship between interest in science and achievement in science. This study used survey data from parents of female middle school science students to measure student interest in science concepts. The population of interest for this study was 13--15 year old eighth grade females from various racial make-ups such as, African American, Hispanic, Bi-racial, Asian, and Other Pacific Islander. Student achievement data was retrieved from the 8th grade science fall common assessed benchmark exam of both test groups. The results of the survey along with the benchmark data was to shed light on the way adolescent females learn and come to embrace science. The findings may provide guidance for science educators seeking to reach their minority female students and guide their achievement levels higher than before. From the results of the t-test and Pearson correlation test of this study, it can be concluded that while this study did not show a significant difference in academic achievement or interest between the two teaching styles, it revealed that interest in science has a positive role to play in the academic success of minority girls in science. The practical implications for examining these issues are to further the research on solutions for closing the minority and gender achievement gaps. The results of this study have implications for researchers as well as practitioners in the field of education.
Laverty, James T; Underwood, Sonia M; Matz, Rebecca L; Posey, Lynmarie A; Carmel, Justin H; Caballero, Marcos D; Fata-Hartley, Cori L; Ebert-May, Diane; Jardeleza, Sarah E; Cooper, Melanie M
Many calls to improve science education in college and university settings have focused on improving instructor pedagogy. Meanwhile, science education at the K-12 level is undergoing significant changes as a result of the emphasis on scientific and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas. This framework of "three-dimensional learning" is based on the literature about how people learn science and how we can help students put their knowledge to use. Recently, similar changes are underway in higher education by incorporating three-dimensional learning into college science courses. As these transformations move forward, it will become important to assess three-dimensional learning both to align assessments with the learning environment, and to assess the extent of the transformations. In this paper we introduce the Three-Dimensional Learning Assessment Protocol (3D-LAP), which is designed to characterize and support the development of assessment tasks in biology, chemistry, and physics that align with transformation efforts. We describe the development process used by our interdisciplinary team, discuss the validity and reliability of the protocol, and provide evidence that the protocol can distinguish between assessments that have the potential to elicit evidence of three-dimensional learning and those that do not.
Jones, M. Gail; Corin, Elysa Nicole; Andre, Thomas; Childers, Gina M.; Stevens, Vanessa
This research examined lifelong science learning reported by amateur astronomers and birders. One hundred seven adults who reported engaging in an informal (out-of-school) science interest were interviewed as part of an ongoing series of studies of lifelong science learners. The goal of the study was to gain insight into how and why amateur…
Haworth, Claire M. A.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert
Previous studies have shown that environmental influences on school science performance increase in importance from primary to secondary school. Here we assess for the first time the relationship between the science-learning environment and science performance using a genetically sensitive approach to investigate the aetiology of this link. 3000…
Smith, Kathy; Lindsay, Simon
In 2013, as part of a process to renew an overall sector vision for science education, Catholic Education Melbourne (CEM) undertook a review of its existing teacher in-service professional development programs in science. This review led to some data analysis being conducted in relation to two of these programs where participant teachers were positioned as active learners undertaking critical reflection in relation to their science teaching practice. The conditions in these programs encouraged teachers to notice critical aspects of their teaching practice. The analysis illustrates that as teachers worked in this way, their understandings about effective science pedagogy began to shift, in particular, teachers recognised how their thinking not only influenced their professional practice but also ultimately shaped the quality of their students' learning. The data from these programs delivers compelling evidence of the learning experience from a teacher perspective. This article explores the impact of this experience on teacher thinking about the relationship between pedagogical choices and quality learning in science. The findings highlight that purposeful, teacher-centred in-service professional learning can significantly contribute to enabling teachers to think differently about science teaching and learning and ultimately become confident pedagogical leaders in science. The future of quality school-based science education therefore relies on a new vision for teacher professional learning, where practice explicitly recognises, values and attends to teachers as professionals and supports them to articulate and share the professional knowledge they have about effective science teaching practice.
Full Text Available Digital publishing resources contain a lot of useful and authoritative knowledge. It may be necessary to reorganize the resources by concepts and recommend the related concepts for e-learning. A recommender system is presented in this paper based on the semantic relatedness of concepts computed by texts from digital publishing resources. Firstly, concepts are extracted from encyclopedias. Information in digital publishing resources is then reorganized by concepts. Secondly, concept vectors are generated by skip-gram model and semantic relatedness between concepts is measured according to the concept vectors. As a result, the related concepts and associated information can be recommended to users by the semantic relatedness for learning or reading. History data or users’ preferences data are not needed for recommendation in a specific domain. The technique may not be language-specific. The method shows potential usability for e-learning in a specific domain.
Li, Ming-Chaun; Tsai, Chin-Chung
The purpose of this study is to review empirical research articles regarding game-based science learning (GBSL) published from 2000 to 2011. Thirty-one articles were identified through the Web of Science and SCOPUS databases. A qualitative content analysis technique was adopted to analyze the research purposes and designs, game design and implementation, theoretical backgrounds and learning foci of these reviewed studies. The theories and models employed by these studies were classified into four theoretical foundations including cognitivism, constructivism, the socio-cultural perspective, and enactivism. The results indicate that cognitivism and constructivism were the major theoretical foundations employed by the GBSL researchers and that the socio-cultural perspective and enactivism are two emerging theoretical paradigms that have started to draw attention from GBSL researchers in recent years. The analysis of the learning foci showed that most of the digital games were utilized to promote scientific knowledge/concept learning, while less than one-third were implemented to facilitate the students' problem-solving skills. Only a few studies explored the GBSL outcomes from the aspects of scientific processes, affect, engagement, and socio-contextual learning. Suggestions are made to extend the current GBSL research to address the affective and socio-contextual aspects of science learning. The roles of digital games as tutor, tool, and tutee for science education are discussed, while the potentials of digital games to bridge science learning between real and virtual worlds, to promote collaborative problem-solving, to provide affective learning environments, and to facilitate science learning for younger students are also addressed.
Horn, Savannah; Hernick, Marcy
Test-enhanced learning has successfully been used as a means to enhance learning and promote knowledge retention in students. We have examined whether this approach could be used in a biochemistry course to enhance student learning about lipids-related concepts. Students were provided access to two optional learning modules with questions related…
Bhagat, Kaushal Kumar; Chang, Cheng-Nan; Chang, Chun-Yen
The present study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the flipped classroom learning environment on learner's learning achievement and motivation, as well as to investigate the effects of flipped classrooms on learners with different achievement levels in learning mathematics concepts. The learning achievement and motivation were measured by the…
In the article is presented the conception of the history of science in the interpretation of Bogdan Suchodolski. Having described the conception of the history of science created by George Sarton (1884-1956), whose thought was influenced by positivistic philosophy of August Comte, the idea of the history of science of Johan Nordstr6m (1891-1967), who was inspired by the system of Wilhelm Dilthey, and the materialistic conception of the history of science, which was represented, among others, by John Desmond Bernal (1901-1971), the author is making an attempt at revealing to what extent Bogdan Suchodolski was inspired by the above-mentioned visions of the history of science. Having defined the history of science as the history of scientific activity of people and their consciousness formed by the activity, Bogdan Suchodolski applied in the field of his own conception of the history of science the ideas that were put forward by German thinkers and philosophers, and were connected with a way of understanding culture as the constant development of national awareness, which can be exemplified with different dimensions of culture. Undoubtedly, identifying the history of Polish science with constitutive element of the history of national culture and paying attention to the conceptions tending not only to explaining, but also understanding phenomena, B. Suchodolski was influenced by Alfred Vierkandt's and Wilhelm Dilthey's thought. The present article includes several reflections on the conception of the history of science, which was created by B. Suchodolski. Among others, we can find here detailed information on how B. Suchodolski understood: the history of science, its subject, aim and methodology; its status in modern social consciousness and as the history of truth; relations between history of science and theory of science and scientific policy, history of science and the problem of unity and diversity of scientific thinking, history of science and ideas, history of
Luis Fernando Gómez-Echeverri
Full Text Available A systematic review was conducted with the objective of determining the key concepts that are currently used in theoretical work in agroecology. They were obtained from titles and keywords of theoretical articles and books that included the term agroecology in the title. Fifteen terms with occurrences higher than three were obtained. They show that agroecology revolves around the concept of integral sustainability, and that there is agreement on neither its object of study nor goal. As a result, most key concepts concern the object of study or the goal of agroecology. Other key concepts are food sovereignty, agriculture, ecofeminism, climate change, family farming, and social movements.
Courtney, A. R.
Students today process information very differently than those of previous generations. They are used to getting their news from 140-character tweets, being entertained by You-Tube videos, and Googling everything. Thus, traditional passive methods of content delivery do not work well for many of these millennials. All students, regardless of career goals, need to become scientifically literate to be able to function in a world where scientific issues are of increasing importance. Those who have had experience applying scientific reasoning to real-world problems in the classroom will be better equipped to make informed decisions in the future. The problem to be solved is how to present scientific content in a manner that fosters student learning in today's world. This presentation will describe how the appeal of technology and social communication via creation of documentary-style videos has been used to engage students to learn scientific concepts in a university non-science major course focused on energy and the environment. These video projects place control of the learning experience into the hands of the learner and provide an opportunity to develop critical thinking skills. Students discover how to locate scientifically reliable information by limiting searches to respected sources and synthesize the information through collaborative content creation to generate a "story". Video projects have a number of advantages over research paper writing. They allow students to develop collaboration skills and be creative in how they deliver the scientific content. Research projects are more effective when the audience is larger than just a teacher. Although our videos are used as peer-teaching tools in the classroom, they also are shown to a larger audience in a public forum to increase the challenge. Video will be the professional communication tool of the future. This presentation will cover the components of the video production process and instructional lessons
Granger, E M; Bevis, T H; Saka, Y; Southerland, S A; Sampson, V; Tate, R L
Transforming science learning through student-centered instruction that engages students in a variety of scientific practices is central to national science-teaching reform efforts. Our study employed a large-scale, randomized-cluster experimental design to compare the effects of student-centered and teacher-centered approaches on elementary school students' understanding of space-science concepts. Data included measures of student characteristics and learning and teacher characteristics and fidelity to the instructional approach. Results reveal that learning outcomes were higher for students enrolled in classrooms engaging in scientific practices through a student-centered approach; two moderators were identified. A statistical search for potential causal mechanisms for the observed outcomes uncovered two potential mediators: students' understanding of models and evidence and the self-efficacy of teachers.
Yoo, Jin Soung; Cho, Moon-Heum
Concept maps, visual representations of knowledge, are used in an educational context as a way to represent students' knowledge, and identify mental models of students; however there is a limitation of using concept mapping due to its difficulty to evaluate the concept maps. A concept map has a complex structure which is composed of concepts and…
Herpratiwi; Darsono; Sasmiati; Pujiyatli
Purpose: The research objective was to compare students' learning achievement for sociable learning motivation students in social science (IPS) using cooperative learning. Research Methods: This research used a quasi-experimental method with a pre-test/post-test design involving 35 fifth-grade students. The learning process was conducted four…
Haefner, Leigh Ann; Zembal-Saul, Carla
This study examined prospective elementary teachers' learning about scientific inquiry in the context of an innovative life science course. Research questions included: (1) What do prospective elementary teachers learn about scientific inquiry within the context of the course? and (2) In what ways do their experiences engaging in science investigations and teaching inquiry-oriented science influence prospective elementary teachers' understanding of science and science learning and teaching? Eleven prospective elementary teachers participated in this qualitative, multi-participant case study. Constant comparative analysis strategies attempted to build abstractions and explanations across participants around the constructs of the study. Findings suggest that engaging in scientific inquiry supported the development more appropriate understandings of science and scientific inquiry, and that prospective teachers became more accepting of approaches to teaching science that encourage children's questions about science phenomena. Implications include careful consideration of learning experiences crafted for prospective elementary teachers to support the development of robust subject matter knowledge.
Science teaching and learning require knowledge about how learning takes place (cognition) and how learners interact with their surroundings (affective and sociocultural factors). The study reported on focussed on learning for understanding of Newton's second law of motion from a cognitive perspective that takes social factors into account. A…
Webb, Angela W.; Bunch, J. C.; Wallace, Maria F. G.
In today's technological age, visions for technology integration in the classroom continue to be explored and examined. Digital game-based learning is one way to purposefully integrate technology while maintaining a focus on learning objectives. This case study sought to understand agriscience teachers' experiences implementing digital game-based learning in an introductory animal science course. From interviews with agriscience teachers on their experiences with the game, three themes emerged: (1) the constraints of inadequate and inappropriate technologies, and time to game implementation; (2) the shift in teacher and student roles necessitated by implementing the game; and (3) the inherent competitive nature of learning through the game. Based on these findings, we recommend that pre-service and in-service professional development opportunities be developed for teachers to learn how to implement digital game-based learning effectively. Additionally, with the potential for simulations that address cross-cutting concepts in the next generation science standards, digital game-based learning should be explored in various science teaching and learning contexts.
In the context of schooling, resiliency refers to the ability to thrive academically despite adverse circumstances. In this study the relationship between academic resilience and student's collateral learning is explored in 20 students of Cree ancestry. The individual resilience of each student was examined by identifying protective factors for school leaving within the microsystem of each student's ecological framework. Student responses to questions related to motivation and engagement were ranked. In addition, students' perception of the influence of family and peers on individual attributes toward schooling was ranked.To gain insight into the collateral learning aspects of science learning in Cree students, the participants in this study were asked to reflect on their learning strategies through the use of critical incidents. The relationship between collateral learning and resiliency was also explored.This study found that students possessing a greater number of protective factors were more likely to learn science in a way described by Jegede's collateral learning theory. Responses to critical incidents indicate some Cree students hold at least two sources of knowledge to explain some science concepts and therefore may adopt a collateral learning strategy. The importance these students place on earned or experiential knowledge is evident in the interviews. Some suggestions for classroom instruction are offered in conclusion.
Monet, Julie A.; Etkina, Eugenia
This paper describes the analysis of teachers’ journal reflections during an inquiry-based professional development program. As a part of their learning experience, participants reflected on what they learned and how they learned. Progress of subject matter and pedagogical content knowledge was assessed though surveys and pre- and posttests. We found that teachers have difficulties reflecting on their learning and posing meaningful questions. The teachers who could describe how they reasoned from evidence to understand a concept had the highest learning gains. In contrast those teachers who seldom or never described learning a concept by reasoning from evidence showed the smallest learning gains. This analysis suggests that learning to reflect on one’s learning should be an integral part of teachers’ professional development experiences.
Full Text Available The aimed of this sudy are: (1 investigate the effectiveness of E-Lab to improve generic science skills and understanding the concepts oh physics; and (2 investigate the effect of generic science skills towards understanding the concept of students after learning by using the E-Lab. The method used in this study is a pre-experimental design with one group pretest-posttest. Subjects were students of Physics Education in University PGRI Semarang with methode random sampling. The results showed that: (1 learning to use E-Lab effective to increase generic science skills of students; and (2 Generic science skills give positive effect on student conceptual understanding on the material of the photoelectric effect, compton effect, and electron diffraction. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu: (1 menyelidiki efektifitas E-Lab untuk meningkatkan keterampilan generik sains dan pemahaman konsep mahasiswa; dan (2 menyelidiki pengaruh keterampilan generik sains terhadap pemahaman konsep mahasiswa setelah dilakukan pembelajaran dengan menggunakan E-Lab. Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah pre-experimental dengan desain one group pretest-posttest. Subjek penelitian adalah mahasiswa Program Studi Pendidikan Fisika Universitas PGRI Semarang, dengan metode pengambilan sampel penelitian secara random. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa bahwa: (1 pembelajaran menggunakan E-Lab efektif untuk meningkatkan keterampilan generik sains mahasiswa; dan (2 Keterampilan generik sains berpengaruh positif terhadap pemahaman konsep mahasiswa pada materi efek fotolistrik, efek compton, dan difraksi elektron.
Fradika, H. D.; Surjono, H. D.
The purpose of this article described about ME Science (Mobile Education Science) as mobile learning application learning of Fisika Inti. ME Science is a product of research and development (R&D) that was using Alessi and Trollip model. Alessi and Trollip model consists three stages that are: (a) planning include analysis of problems, goals, need, and idea of development product, (b) designing includes collecting of materials, designing of material content, creating of story board, evaluating and review product, (c) developing includes development of product, alpha testing, revision of product, validation of product, beta testing, and evaluation of product. The article describes ME Science only to development of product which include development stages. The result of development product has been generates mobile learning application based on virtual reality that can be run on android-based smartphone. These application consist a brief description of learning material, quizzes, video of material summery, and learning material based on virtual reality.
Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Karr, Charles L.; Smith, Coralee; Sunal, Dennis W.
Describes an interdisciplinary course focusing on modeling scientific systems. Investigates elementary education majors' applications of three artificial intelligence concepts used in modeling scientific systems before and after the course. Reveals a great increase in understanding of concepts presented but inconsistent application. (Author/KHR)
Although hailed as a powerful form of instruction, in most teaching and learning contexts, inquiry-based instruction is fraught with ambiguous and conflicting definitions and descriptions. Yet little has been written about the experiences preservice science teacher have regarding their learning to teach science through inquiry. This project sought to understand how select preservice secondary science teachers enrolled in three UTeach programs in Arkansas conceptualize inquiry instruction and how they rationalize its value in a teaching and learning context. The three teacher education programs investigated in this study are adoption sites aligned with the UTeach Program in Austin, TX that distinguishes itself in part by its inquiry emphasis. Using a mixed method investigation design, this study utilized two sources of data to explore the preservice science teachers' thinking. In the first phase, a modified version of the Pedagogy of Science teaching Tests (POSTT) was used to identify select program participants who indicated preferences for inquiry instruction over other instructional strategies. Secondly, the study used an open-ended questionnaire to explore the selected subjects' beliefs and conceptions of teaching and learning science in an inquiry context. The study also focused on identifying particular junctures in the prospective science teachers' education preparation that might impact their understanding about inquiry. Using a constant comparative approach, this study explored 19 preservice science teachers' conceptions about inquiry. The results indicate that across all levels of instruction, the prospective teachers tended to have strong student-centered teaching orientations. Except subjects in for the earliest courses, subjects' definitions and descriptions of inquiry tended toward a few of the science practices. More advanced subjects, however, expressed more in-depth descriptions. Excluding the subjects who have completed the program, multiple
Chang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Pei-Ling
This study investigated the relationship between gifted students' academic self-concept (ASC) and academic achievement (AC) in earth science with internationally representative high-school students from the third International Earth Science Olympiad (IESO) held in Taiwan in 2009. The results of regression analysis indicated that IESO students' ASC…
Mesci, Gunkut; Schwartz, Renee' S.
The purpose of this study was to assess preservice teachers' views of Nature of Science (NOS), identify aspects that were challenging for conceptual change, and explore reasons why. This study particularly focused on why and how some concepts of NOS may be more easily altered than others. Fourteen preservice science teachers enrolled in a NOS and…
Zoghi, Maryam; Brown, Ted; Williams, Brett; Roller, Louis; Jaberzadeh, Shapour; Palermo, Claire; McKenna, Lisa; Wright, Caroline; Baird, Marilyn; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal; Hewitt, Lesley; Sim, Jenny; Holt, Tangerine-Ann
It has been identified that health science student groups may have distinctive learning needs. By university educators' and professional fieldwork supervisors' being aware of the unique learning style preferences of health science students, they have the capacity to adjust their teaching approaches to best fit with their students' learning preferences. The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning style preferences of a group of Australian health science students enrolled in 10 different disciplines. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory was distributed to 2,885 students enrolled in dietetics and nutrition, midwifery, nursing, occupational therapy, paramedics, pharmacy, physiotherapy, radiation therapy, radiography, and social work at one Australian university. A total of 752 usable survey forms were returned (response rate 26%). The results indicated the converger learning style to be most frequently preferred by health science students and that the diverger and accommodator learning styles were the least preferred. It is recommended that educators take learning style preferences of health science students into consideration when planning, implementing, and evaluating teaching activities, such as including more problem-solving activities that fit within the converger learning style.
Coba, Filis; Burgin, Stephen; De Paor, Declan; Georgen, Jennifer
The popularity of animations and interactive visualizations in undergraduate science education might lead one to assume that these teaching aids enhance student learning. We tested this assumption for the case of the Google Earth virtual globe with a comparison of control and treatment student groups in a general education class of over 370 students at a large public university. Earth and Planetary Science course content was developed in two formats: using Keyhole Markup Language (KML) to create interactive tours in Google Earth (the treatment group) and Portable Document Format (PDF) for on-screen reading (the control group). The PDF documents contained identical text and images to the placemark balloons or "tour stops" in the Google Earth version. Some significant differences were noted between the two groups based on the immediate post-questionnaire with the KML students out-performing the PDF students, but not on the delayed measure. In a separate but related project, we undertake preliminary investigations into methods of teaching basic concepts in planetary mantle convection using numerical simulations. The goal of this project is to develop an interface with a two-dimensional finite element model that will allow students to vary parameters such as the temperatures assigned to the boundaries of the model domain, to help them actively explore important variables that control convection.
Anggraini, Agita Dzulhajh; Fadiawati, Noor; Diawati, Chansyanah
Accuracy educators in selecting and implementing learning models influence students' science process skills. Models of learning that can be applied to improve science process skills and tend constructivist among athers learning model of problem solving. This research was conducted to describe the effectiveness of the learning model of problem solving in improving communication skills and prediction skills. Subjects in this research were students of high school YP Unila Bandar Lampung Even ...
Wade, P.; Courtney, A. R.
In science, the use of digital video to document phenomena, experiments and demonstrations has rapidly increased during the last decade. The use of digital video for science education also has become common with the wide availability of video over the internet. However, as with using any technology as a teaching tool, some questions should be asked: What science is being learned from watching a YouTube clip of a volcanic eruption or an informational video on hydroelectric power generation? What are student preferences (e.g. multimedia versus traditional mode of delivery) with regard to their learning? This study describes 1) the efficacy of watching digital video in the science classroom to enhance student learning, 2) student preferences of instruction with regard to multimedia versus traditional delivery modes, and 3) the use of creating digital video as a project-based educational strategy to enhance learning. Undergraduate non-science majors were the primary focus group in this study. Students were asked to view video segments and respond to a survey focused on what they learned from the segments. Additionally, they were asked about their preference for instruction (e.g. text only, lecture-PowerPoint style delivery, or multimedia-video). A majority of students indicated that well-made video, accompanied with scientific explanations or demonstration of the phenomena was most useful and preferred over text-only or lecture instruction for learning scientific information while video-only delivery with little or no explanation was deemed not very useful in learning science concepts. The use of student generated video projects as learning vehicles for the creators and other class members as viewers also will be discussed.
Chamnanwong, Pornpaka; Thathong, Kongsak
In preparing a science lesson plan, teachers may deal with numerous difficulties. Having a deep understanding of their problems and their demands is extremely essential for the teachers in preparing themselves for the job. Moreover, it is also crucial for the stakeholders in planning suitable and in-need teachers' professional development programs, in school management, and in teaching aid. This study aimed to investigate the primary school science teachers' opinion toward practice of teaching and learning activities in science learning area. Target group was 292 primary science teachers who teach Grade 4 - 6 students in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand in the academic year of 2014. Data were collected using Questionnaire about Investigation the opinions of the primary science teachers toward practice of teaching and learning activities in science learning area. The questionnaires were consisted of closed questions scored on Likert scale and open-ended questions that invite a sentence response to cover from LS Process Ideas. Research findings were as follow. The primary science teachers' level of opinion toward teaching and learning science subject ranged from 3.19 - 3.93 (mean = 3.43) as "Moderate" level of practice. The primary school science teachers' needs to participate in a training workshop based on LS ranged from 3.66 - 4.22 (mean = 3.90) as "High" level. The result indicated that they were interested in attending a training course under the guidance of the Lesson Study by training on planning of management of science learning to solve teaching problems in science contents with the highest mean score 4.22. Open-ended questions questionnaire showed the needs of the implementation of the lesson plans to be actual classrooms, and supporting for learning Medias, innovations, and equipment for science experimentation.
Chiou, Guo-Li; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung
Background and purpose: Knowing how students learn physics is a central goal of physics education. The major purpose of this study is to examine the strength of the predictive power of students' epistemic views and conceptions of learning in terms of their approaches to learning in physics. Sample, design and method: A total of 279 Taiwanese high…
This dictionary defines information science, computer science, systems theory, and cybernetic terms in English and provides the Swedish translation of each term. An index of Swedish terms refers the user to the page where the English equivalent and definition appear. Most of the 38 references listed are in English. (RAA)
Kimmel, Howard; Hirsch, Linda S.; Simon, Laurent; Burr-Alexander, Levelle; Dave, Rajesh
The Research Experience for Teachers was designed to help high school science teachers develop skills and knowledge in research, science and engineering with a focus on the area of pharmaceutical particulate and composite systems. The experience included time for the development of instructional modules for classroom teaching. Results of the…
Science Camp for Chemistry Concepts was the project which designed to provide local students with opportunities to apply chemistry concepts and thereby developing their 21st century skills. The three study purposes were 1) to construct and develop chemistry stations for encouraging students' understandings in chemistry concepts based on constructivist-informed laboratory, 2) to compare students' understandings in chemistry concepts before and after using chemistry learning stations, and 3) to study students' satisfactions of using their 21st century skills in science camp activities. The research samples were 67 students who attended the 1-day science camp. They were levels 10 to 11 students in SumsaoPittayakarn School, UdonThani Province, Thailand. Four constructivist-informed laboratory stations of chemistry concepts were designed for each group. Each station consisted of a chemistry scenario, a question, answers in tier 1 and supporting reasons in tier 2, and 4 sets of experimental instruments. Four to five-member subgroups of four student groups parallel participated in laboratory station for an hour in each station. Student activities in each station concluded of individual pretest, group prediction, experimental design, testing out and collection data, interpreting the results, group conclusion, and individual post-test. Data collection was done by station mentors using two-tier multiple choice questions, students' written work and interviews. Data triangulation was used for interpreting and confirming students' understandings of chemistry concepts which divided into five levels, Sound Understanding (SU), Partial Understanding (PU), Specific Misconception (SM), No Understanding (NU) and No Response (NR), before and after collaborating at each station. The study results found the following: 1) four constructivist-laboratory stations were successfully designed and used to investigate student' understandings in chemistry concepts via collaborative workshop of
Bland, G.; Henry, A.; Bydlowski, D.
NASA Science Objectives include capturing the global view of Earth from space. This unique perspective is often augmented by instrumented research aircraft, to provide in-situ and remote sensing observations in support of the world picture. Our "Advancing Earth Research Observations with Kites and Atmospheric /Terrestrial Sensors" (AEROKATS) project aims to bring this novel and exciting perspective into the hands of learners young and old. The practice of using instrumented kites as surrogate satellites and aircraft is gaining momentum, as our team undertakes the technical, operational, and scientific challenges in preparations to bring new and easy-to-field tools to broad audiences. The third dimension in spatial perception ("up") has previously been difficult to effectively incorporate in learning and local-scale research activities. AEROKATS brings simple to use instrumented aerial systems into the hands of students, educators, and scientists, with the tangible benefits of detailed, high resolution measurements and observations directly applicable to real-world studies of the environments around us.
Van Breukelen, Dave; Van Meel, Adrianus; De Vries, Marc
Background: This study is the second study of a design-based research, organised around four studies, that aims to improve student learning, teaching skills and teacher training concerning the design-based learning approach called Learning by Design (LBD).
Underwood, Sonia M.; Matz, Rebecca L.; Posey, Lynmarie A.; Carmel, Justin H.; Caballero, Marcos D.; Fata-Hartley, Cori L.; Ebert-May, Diane; Jardeleza, Sarah E.; Cooper, Melanie M.
Many calls to improve science education in college and university settings have focused on improving instructor pedagogy. Meanwhile, science education at the K-12 level is undergoing significant changes as a result of the emphasis on scientific and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas. This framework of “three-dimensional learning” is based on the literature about how people learn science and how we can help students put their knowledge to use. Recently, similar changes are underway in higher education by incorporating three-dimensional learning into college science courses. As these transformations move forward, it will become important to assess three-dimensional learning both to align assessments with the learning environment, and to assess the extent of the transformations. In this paper we introduce the Three-Dimensional Learning Assessment Protocol (3D-LAP), which is designed to characterize and support the development of assessment tasks in biology, chemistry, and physics that align with transformation efforts. We describe the development process used by our interdisciplinary team, discuss the validity and reliability of the protocol, and provide evidence that the protocol can distinguish between assessments that have the potential to elicit evidence of three-dimensional learning and those that do not. PMID:27606671
Patrick, Jennifer Drake
The highly specialized language of science is both challenging and alienating to adolescent readers. This study investigated how secondary science teachers learn to teach the specialized language of science in their classrooms. Three research questions guided this study: (a) what do science teachers know about teaching reading in science? (b) what understanding about the unique language demands of science reading do they construct through professional development? and (c) how do they integrate what they have learned about these specialized features of science language into their teaching practices? This study investigated the experience of seven secondary science teachers as they participated in a professional development program designed to teach them about the specialized language of science. Data sources included participant interviews, audio-taped professional development sessions, field notes from classroom observations, and a prior knowledge survey. Results from this study suggest that science teachers (a) were excited to learn about disciplinary reading practices, (b) developed an emergent awareness of the specialized features of science language and the various genres of science writing, and (c) recognized that the challenges of science reading goes beyond vocabulary. These teachers' efforts to understand and address the language of science in their teaching practices were undermined by their lack of basic knowledge of grammar, availability of time and resources, their prior knowledge and experiences, existing curriculum, and school structure. This study contributes to our understanding of how secondary science teachers learn about disciplinary literacy and apply that knowledge in their classroom instruction. It has important implications for literacy educators and science educators who are interested in using language and literacy practices in the service of science teaching and learning. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University
Mauri Kalervo Åhlberg
Full Text Available Results and underpinning of over twenty years of research and development program of concept mapping is presented. Different graphical knowledge presentation tools, especially concept mapping and mind mapping, are compared. There are two main dimensions that differentiate graphical knowledge presentation methods: The first dimension is conceptual explicitness: from mere concepts to flexibly named links and clear propositions in concept maps. The second dimension in the classification system I am suggesting is whether there are pictures or not. Åhlbergʼs and his research groupʼs applications and developments of Novakian concept maps are compared to traditional Novakian concept maps. The main innovations include always using arrowheads to show direction of reading the concept map. Centrality of each concept is estimated from number of links to other concepts. In our empirical research over two decades, number of relevant concepts, and number of relevant propositions in studentsʼ concept maps, have been found to be the best indicators and predictors of meaningful learning. This is used in assessment of learning. Improved concept mapping is presented as a tool to analyze texts. The main innovation is numbering the links to show order of reading the concept map and to make it possible to transform concept map back to the original prose text as closely as possible. In Åhlberg and his research groupʼs research, concept mapping has been tested in all main phases of research, teaching and learning.
Marzouk, Zahia; Rakovic, Mladen; Liaqat, Amna; Vytasek, Jovita; Samadi, Donya; Stewart-Alonso, Jason; Ram, Ilana; Woloshen, Sonya; Winne, Philip H.; Nesbit, John C.
Learning analytics are often formatted as visualisations developed from traced data collected as students study in online learning environments. Optimal analytics inform and motivate students' decisions about adaptations that improve their learning. We observe that designs for learning often neglect theories and empirical findings in learning…
Li, Wei-Ting; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung
The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between conceptions of learning and approaches to learning in chemistry. Two questionnaires, conceptions of learning chemistry (COLC) and approaches to learning chemistry (ALC), were developed to identify 369 college chemistry-major students' (220 males and 149 females) conceptions of…
Zerihun, Z.; Beishuizen, J.J.; van Os, W
This study was conducted in two public universities in Ethiopia to assess the impact of conceptions of teaching and learning on the evaluation of teaching quality. Students' and teachers' approaches to teaching and learning and their conceptions of the meaning of teaching have been examined. Results
Connolly, Heather; Spiller, Dorothy
This paper reports on and evaluates the use of concept mapping as a learning tool in a large first year Management course. The goal was to help students make personal sense of course learning and to build their understanding of links and relationships between key course ideas. Concept mapping was used for three summative assessment pieces,…
Parker, Woodroe M.; And Others
Presents an eight-session seminar designed to increase participants' study skills and to redefine participants' self-concepts from those characterized by feelings of inadequacy and frustration to concepts of selves as competent and capable. Learning strategies, two-way communication, learning styles, note making, test taking, vocational planning,…
Jacobs, J.C.; Luijk, S.J. van; Galindo-Garre, F.; Muijtjens, A.M.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Croiset, G.; Scheele, F.
BACKGROUND: Teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching are partly unconscious. However, they are critical for the delivery of education and affect students' learning outcomes. Lasting changes in teaching behaviour can only be realized if conceptions of teachers have been changed accordingly.
Jacobs, J.C.G.; van Luijk, S.J.; Galindo Garre, F.; Muijtjens, A.M.M.; van der Vleuten, C.P.M.; Croiset, G.; Scheele, F.
Background: Teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching are partly unconscious. However, they are critical for the delivery of education and affect students' learning outcomes. Lasting changes in teaching behaviour can only be realized if conceptions of teachers have been changed accordingly.
Koponen, Ismo T.; Huttunen, Laura
In learning conceptual knowledge in physics, a common problem is the development and differentiation of concepts in the learning process. An important part of this development process is the re-organisation or re-structuring process in which students' conceptual knowledge and concepts change. This study proposes a new view of concept…
The aims of this study are: (1) to develop iPad-based computer simulations called iSimPhysics that can help people learn Newtonian physics concepts; and (2) to assess its educational benefits and pedagogical usefulness. To facilitate learning, iSimPhysics visualizes abstract physics concepts, and allows for conducting a series of computer…
Lock, Robert E.; Ludwinski, Jan M.; Petropoulos, Anastassios E.; Clark, Karla B.; Pappalardo, Robert T.
Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), the proposed NASA element of the proposed joint NASA-ESA Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), could launch in February 2020 and conceivably arrive at Jupiter in December of 2025. The concept is to perform a multi-year study of Europa and the Jupiter system, including 30 months of Jupiter system science and a comprehensive Europa orbit phase of 9 months. This paper provides an overview of the JEO concept and describes the Europa Science phase orbit design and the related science priorities, model pay-load and operations scenarios needed to conduct the Europa Science phase. This overview is for planning and discussion purposes only.
Scaife, Thomas M.
Instructors of physics often use examples to illustrate new or complex physical concepts to students. For any particular concept, there are an infinite number of examples, thus presenting instructors with a difficult question whenever they wish to use one in their teaching: which example will most effectively illustrate the concept so that student learning is maximized? The choice is typically made by an intuitive assumption about which exact example will result in the most lucid illustration and the greatest student improvement. By questioning 583 students in four experiments, I examined a more principled approach to example selection. By controlling the manner in which physical dimensions vary, the parameter space of each concept can be divided into a discrete number of example categories. The effects of training with members of each of category was explored in two different physical contexts: projectile motion and torque. In the first context, students were shown two trajectories and asked to determine which represented the longer time of flight. Height, range, and time of flight were the physical dimensions that were used to categorize the examples. In the second context, students were shown a balance-scale with loads of differing masses placed at differing positions along either side of the balance-arm. Mass, lever-arm length, and torque were the physical dimensions used to categorize these examples. For both contexts, examples were chosen so that one or two independent dimensions were varied. After receiving training with examples from specific categories, students were tested with questions from all question categories. Successful training or instruction can be measured either as producing correct, expert-like behavior (as observed through answers to the questions) or as explicitly instilling an understanding of the underlying rule that governs a physical phenomenon. A student's behavior might not be consistent with their explicit rule, so following the
Full Text Available This study focuses on attitudes toward (teaching science and the learning of science for primary school among pre-service teachers at the Open University of Indonesia. A three-year longitudinal survey was conducted, involving 379 students as pre-service teachers (PSTs from the Open University in Surabaya regional office. Attitudes toward (teaching science’ (ATS instrument was used to portray PSTs’ preparation for becoming primary school teachers. Data analyses were used, including descriptive analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The model fit of the attitudes toward (teaching science can be described from seven dimensions: self-efficacy for teaching science, the relevance of teaching science, gender-stereotypical beliefs, anxiety in teaching science, the difficulty of teaching science, perceived dependency on contextual factors, and enjoyment in teaching science. The results of the research also described science learning at the Open University of Indonesia looks like. Implications for primary teacher education are discussed.
Crompton, Helen; Burke, Diane; Gregory, Kristen H.; Gräbe, Catharina
The use of mobile learning in education is growing at an exponential rate. To best understand how mobile learning is being used, it is crucial to gain a collective understanding of the research that has taken place. This systematic review reveals the trends in mobile learning in science with a comprehensive analysis and synthesis of studies from the year 2000 onward. Major findings include that most of the studies focused on designing systems for mobile learning, followed by a combination of evaluating the effects of mobile learning and investigating the affective domain during mobile learning. The majority of the studies were conducted in the area of life sciences in informal, elementary (5-11 years) settings. Mobile devices were used in this strand of science easily within informal environments with real-world connections. A variety of research methods were employed, providing a rich research perspective. As the use of mobile learning continues to grow, further research regarding the use of mobile technologies in all areas and levels of science learning will help science educators to expand their ability to embrace these technologies.
Pan, Hui-Ching; Hsieh, Suh-Ing; Hsu, Li-Ling
The multiple levels of knowledge related to the neurological system deter many students from pursuing studies on this topic. Thus, in facing complicated and uncertain medical circumstances, nursing students have diffi-culty adjusting and using basic neurological-nursing knowledge and skills. Scenario-based concept-mapping teaching has been shown to promote the integration of complicated data, clarify related concepts, and increase the effectiveness of cognitive learning. To investigate the effect on the neurological-nursing cognition and learning attitude of nursing students of a scenario-based concept-mapping strategy that was integrated into the neurological nursing unit of a medical and surgical nursing course. This quasi-experimental study used experimental and control groups and a pre-test / post-test design. Sopho-more (2nd year) students in a four-year program at a university of science and technology in Taiwan were convenience sampled using cluster randomization that was run under SPSS 17.0. Concept-mapping lessons were used as the intervention for the experimental group. The control group followed traditional lesson plans only. The cognitive learning outcome was measured using the neurological nursing-learning examination. Both concept-mapping and traditional lessons significantly improved post-test neurological nursing learning scores (p learning attitude with regard to the teaching material. Furthermore, a significant number in the experimental group expressed the desire to add more lessons on anatomy, physiology, and pathology. These results indicate that this intervention strategy may help change the widespread fear and refusal of nursing students with regard to neurological lessons and may facilitate interest and positively affect learning in this important subject area. Integrating the concept-mapping strategy and traditional clinical-case lessons into neurological nursing lessons holds the potential to increase post-test scores significantly
V I Konnov
Full Text Available The authors analyze the organizational structure of the U.S. scientific community, examining the V. Bush report Science: the Endless Frontier (1945 as its conceptual basis, which remains the cornerstone of the American science policy. The authors point out decentralization as the key trait of this structure, which reveals itself in the absence of a unitary centre with a mission to formulate and implement science policy and high level of dissemination of self-government practices supported by a wide range of government agencies. This configuration determines the special position, occupied by the universities as universal research establishments possessing flexibility in cooperation with state agencies and private sector.
Campbell, Ralph Ian
This analytic paper asks one question: How does Basil Bernstein's concept of the structure of pedagogic discourse (SPD) contribute to our understanding of the role of teacher-student interactions in science learning in the classroom? Applying Bernstein's theory of the SPD to an analysis of current research in science education explores the structure of Bernstein's theory as a tool for understanding the challenges and questions related to current concerns about classroom science learning. This analysis applies Bernstein's theory of the SPD as a heuristic through a secondary reading of selected research from the past fifteen years and prompts further consideration of Bernstein's ideas. This leads to a reevaluation of the categories of regulative discourse (RD) and instructional discourse (ID) as structures that frame learning environments and the dynamics of student-teacher interactions, which determine learning outcomes. The SPD becomes a simple but flexible heuristic, offering a useful deconstruction of teaching and learning dynamics in three different classroom environments. Understanding the framing interactions of RD and ID provides perspectives on the balance of agency and expectation, suggesting some causal explanations for the student learning outcomes described by the authors. On one hand, forms of open inquiry and student-driven instruction may lack the structure to ensure the appropriation of desired forms of scientific thinking. On the other hand, well-designed pathways towards the understanding of fundamental concepts in science may lack the forms of more open-ended inquiry that develop transferable understanding. Important ideas emerge about the complex dynamics of learning communities, the materials of learning, and the dynamic role of the teacher as facilitator and expert. Simultaneously, the SPD as a flexible heuristic proves ambiguous, prompting a reevaluation of Bernstein's organization of RD and ID. The hierarchical structure of pedagogic
This study sought to compare a data-rich learning (DRL) environment that utilized online data as a tool for teaching about renewable energy technologies (RET) to a lecture-based learning environment to determine the impact of the learning environment on students' knowledge of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) concepts related…
Vann-Hamilton, Joy J.
conducted. The reliability results prompted exploratory factory analyses, which resulted in two of the three subscale factors, cognitive and behavioral, being retained. One-within one-between subjects ANOVAs, independent samples t-test, and multiple linear regressions were also used to examine the impact of a multicultural science education, multimedia, and individual characteristics on students' engagement in science learning. Results. There were main effects found within subjects on posttest scores for the cognitive and behavioral subscales of student engagement. Both groups, using their respective versions of the multimedia science curriculum, reported increased engagement in science learning. There was also a statistical difference found for the experimental group at posttest on the measure of "online science was more interesting than school science." All five items unique to the posttest related to the multimedia variable were found to be significant predictors of cognitive and/or behavioral engagement. Conclusions. Engagement in science learning increased for both groups of participants; this finding is aligned with other significant research findings that more embracive and relevant pedagogies can potentially benefit all students. The significant difference found for the experimental group in relation to the multimedia usage was moderate and also may have reflected positive responses to other questions about the use of technology in science learning. As all five measures of multimedia usage were found to be significant predictors of student engagement in science learning, the indications were that: (a) technical difficulties did not impede engagement; (b) participants were better able to understand and visualize the physics concepts as they were presented in a variety of ways; (c) participants' abilities to use computers supported engagement; (d) participants in both groups found the online science curriculum more interesting compared to school science learning; and
Schulze, Salomé; Lemmer, Eleanor
Science education is particularly important for both developed and developing countries to promote technological development, global economic competition and economic growth. This study explored the relationship between family experiences, the motivation for science learning, and the science achievement of a group of Grade Nine learners in South…
Cyntia Vilasboas Calixto
Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze the concept of learning in the internationalization studies. Considering the relationship between learning and internationalization had its groundwork at the Uppsala University, we believe its relevant outlining the path from the main publications regarding the Uppsala School as well as the internationalization process model developed by them in order to comprehend the evolution of the concept of learning from this perspective. In addition, owing to the extension of the relationship between learning and internationalization, this paper analyzes some relevant organizational learning studies and their contributions in order to construe the internationalization process development. Therefore, the contribution of this study is the critical review on the concept of learning from the Uppsala School and also indicating contributions of this concept from the latest developments of this idea.
Elliott, Kevin C; Cheruvelil, Kendra S; Montgomery, Georgina M; Soranno, Patricia A
Scientists have been debating for centuries the nature of proper scientific methods. Currently, criticisms being thrown at data-intensive science are reinvigorating these debates. However, many of these criticisms represent long-standing conflicts over the role of hypothesis testing in science and not just a dispute about the amount of data used. Here, we show that an iterative account of scientific methods developed by historians and philosophers of science can help make sense of data-intensive scientific practices and suggest more effective ways to evaluate this research. We use case studies of Darwin's research on evolution by natural selection and modern-day research on macrosystems ecology to illustrate this account of scientific methods and the innovative approaches to scientific evaluation that it encourages. We point out recent changes in the spheres of science funding, publishing, and education that reflect this richer account of scientific practice, and we propose additional reforms.
Today as never before, America needs its citizens to be literate in science and technology. Not only must we only inspire a new generation of scientists and engineers and technologists, we must foster a society capable of meeting complex, 21st-century challenges. Unfortunately, the need for creative, flexible thinkers is growing at a time when our young students are lagging in science interest and performance. Over the past 17 years, the JASON Project has worked to link real science and scientists to the classroom. This link provide viable pipeline to creating the next generation scientists and researchers. Ultimately, JASON's mission is to improve the way science is taught by enabling students to learn directly from leading scientists. Through partnerships with agencies such as NOAA and NASA, JASON creates multimedia classroom products based on current scientific research. Broadcasts of science expeditions, hosted by leading researchers, are coupled with classroom materials that include interactive computer-based simulations, video- on-demand, inquiry-based experiments and activities, and print materials for students and teachers. A "gated" Web site hosts online resources and provides a secure platform to network with scientists and other classrooms in a nationwide community of learners. Each curriculum is organized around a specific theme for a comprehensive learning experience. It may be taught as a complete package, or individual components can be selected to teach specific, standards-based concepts. Such thematic units include: Disappearing Wetlands, Mysteries of Earth and Mars, and Monster Storms. All JASON curriculum units are grounded in "inquiry-based learning." The highly interactive curriculum will enable students to access current, real-world scientific research and employ the scientific method through reflection, investigation, identification of problems, sharing of data, and forming and testing hypotheses. JASON specializes in effectively applying
Zamary, Amanda; Rawson, Katherine A.
Students in many courses are commonly expected to learn declarative concepts, which are abstract concepts denoted by key terms with short definitions that can be applied to a variety of scenarios as reported by Rawson et al. ("Educational Psychology Review" 27:483-504, 2015). Given that declarative concepts are common and foundational in…
A concept map (CM) is a hierarchically arranged, graphic representation of the relationships among concepts. Concept mapping (CMING) is the process of constructing a CM. This paper examines whether a CMING strategy can be useful in helping students to improve their learning performance in a business and economics statistics course. A single…
Dieckmann, Gerhard Peter; Glavin, Ronnie; Jepsen, Rikke Malene Hartvigsen Grønholm
Acquiring the concepts of non-technical skills (NTS) beyond a superficial level is a challenge for healthcare professionals and simulation faculty. Current simulation-based approaches to teach NTS are challenged when learners have to master NTS concepts, clinically challenging situations, and sim....... NTS Bingo is based on theoretical considerations on concept learning, which we describe to support the rationale for its conduct....